WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychotropic phenylalkylamine derivatives

  1. Efficacy of anipamil, a phenylalkylamine calcium antagonist, in treatment of angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørum, C; Larsen, C T; Rasmussen, Verner

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of anipamil, a phenylalkylamine calcium antagonist, in treatment of stable angina pectoris, we performed a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Inclusion criteria were (a) stable angina pectoris for at least 2 months, (b) an exercise test...... with > or = 0.1-mV horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression limited by angina, and (c) at least 10 attacks of angina pectoris in a single-blind 3-week run-in period. Nineteen patients were randomized to enter the study. In 3-week periods, they received either anipamil 80 mg once daily (o.d.), anipamil...... 160 mg o.d., or placebo. At the end of each period, an exercise test was performed. The number of angina pectoris attacks was significantly reduced during treatment with anipamil 80 mg (p

  2. Photoionization mass spectrometry of ω -phenylalkylamines: Role of radical cation-π interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinti, Davide; Catone, Daniele; Turchini, Stefano; Rondino, Flaminia; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta

    2018-04-01

    Linear ω-phenylalkylamines of increasing alkyl chain length have been investigated employing synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range from 7 to 15 eV. These molecules have received considerable interest because they bear the skeleton of biologically relevant compounds including neurotransmitters and because of the possible interaction between the amino moiety and the phenyl ring. Recently, the contribution of this interaction has been assayed in both neutral and protonated species, pointing to a role of the polymethylene chain length. In this work, the ionization energy (IE) values of benzylamine (BA), 2-phenylethylamine (2-PEA), 3-phenylpropylamine (3-PPA), and 4-phenylbutylamine (4-PBA) were investigated in order to ascertain the impact of the different alkyl chain lengths and to verify an amino radical cation-π interaction. The IEs obtained experimentally, 8.54, 8.37, 8.29, and 8.31 eV for BA, 2-PEA, 3-PPA and 4-PBA, respectively, show a decreasing trend that is discussed employing calculations at the CBS-QB3 level. Moreover, the appearance energy values for major fragments produced by the photofragmentation process are reported.

  3. Protein binding of psychotropic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon fluorescence measurements, protein binding of some psychotropic agents (chlorpromazine, promethazine, and trifluoperazine) to human IgG and HSA was studied in aqueous cacodylate buffer, PH7. The interaction parameters determined from emission quenching of the proteins. The interaction parameters determined include the equilibrium constant (K), calculated from equations derived by Borazan and coworkers, the number of binding sites (n) available to the monomer molecules on a single protein molecule. The results revealed a high level of affinity, as reflected by high values of K, and the existence of specific binding sites, since a limited number of n values are obtained. 39 tabs.; 37 figs.; 83 refs

  4. Pharmacogenetics of psychotropic drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lerer, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    ... of pharmacogenetics with substance dependence and brain imaging, and consider the impact of pharmacogenetics on the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. This book defines the young field of pharmacogenetics as it applies to psychotropic drugs and is, therefore, an essential reference for all clinicians and researchers working in this findings field. Bernard ...

  5. Hyponatremia and psychotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnajeet Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic-induced hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities seen in routine psychiatric practice and is especially common in elderly subjects. Recent evidence suggests that even mild hyponatremia is associated with several detrimental effects in elderly. However, practicing clinicians often overlook hyponatremia due to lack of awareness about the incidence, presentation, and risk factors of psychotropic-induced hyponatremia. Available evidence suggests that all classes of psychotropics, i.e., antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and sedative/hypnotics can lead to hyponatremia. Maximum evidence is available for antidepressant-associated hyponatremia. Various risk factors for hyponatremia include increasing age, female gender, low body weight, history of hyponatremia, low baseline sodium levels, summer season, initial phase of antidepressant use, early-onset psychiatric illnesses, longer duration of psychiatric disorder, prolonged admission, presence of comorbid medical conditions, concomitant use of diuretics, antihypertensives, and cytochrome P450 inhibitors. Awareness about this potentially life-threatening side effect and taking appropriate, timely steps can help in prevention of psychotropic-associated hyponatremia.

  6. [Psychotropic drugs in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovet, Thomas; Amad, Ali; Adins, Catherine; Thomas, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Respect for guidelines and recommendations is the rule for prescribing psychotropic drugs in prison. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders and suicide in prison is higher than in general population. In France, 50 % of prisoners are treated with a psychotropic medication. Insomnia is a common complaint. It should not be trivialized and clinical psychiatric examination should be complete particularly in search of an underlying depressive syndrome. The lifestyle and dietary rules should not be neglected despite the difficulties associated with living conditions in prison and expectations of immediate results from both patients and sometimes the prison administration or justice. Given the prevalence of addictions in the prison population, vigilance is required in preventing withdrawal, especially at the beginning of incarceration. Indications for initiation and the prescription of opioid substitution treatment are the same as free environment. Individualization of delivery and confidentiality must be applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychotropic drugs and bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falisi, Giovanni; Rastelli, Claudio; Panti, Fabrizio; Maglione, Horacio; Quezada Arcega, Raul

    2014-10-01

    Sleep and awake bruxism is defined as 'a parafunctional activity including clenching, bracing, gnashing, and grinding of the teeth'. Some evidence suggests that bruxism may be caused by, or associated with, alterations in the CNS neurotransmission. Several classes of psychotropic drugs interfering with CNS activity may potentially contribute to bruxism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine relevant peer-reviewed papers to identify and describe the various classes of psychotropic substances that may cause, exacerbate or reduce bruxism as the result of their pharmacological action in CNS neurons. A literature search from 1980 to the present was performed using PubMed database. The term 'bruxism' was used in association with 'psychotropic', 'dopamine (DA)', 'serotonin', 'histamine', 'antipsychotics', 'antidepressants', 'antihistaminergics' and 'stimulants'. Studies on the effects of DA agonists (Levo-DOPA, psychostimulants) and antagonists (antipsychotics) identified a central role of DA in the pathogenesis of pharmacologically induced bruxism. Important information from studies on drugs acting on serotonin neurotransmission (antidepressants) was recognized. Other mechanisms involving different neurotransmitters are emerging. This is the case of antihistaminergic drugs which may induce bruxism as a consequence of their disinhibitory effect on the serotonergic system.

  8. Cytotoxic effects of psychotropic benzofuran derivatives, N-methyl-5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran and its N-demethylated derivative, on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshio; Suzuki, Toshinari; Tada, Yukie; Inomata, Akiko

    2017-03-01

    The novel psychoactive compounds derived from amphetamine have been illegally abused as recreational drugs, some of which are known to be hepatotoxic in humans and experimental animals. The cytotoxic effects and mechanisms of 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-APB) and N-methyl-5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-MAPB), both of which are benzofuran analogues of amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. 5-MAPB caused not only concentration-dependent (0-4.0 mm) and time-dependent (0-3 h) cell death accompanied by the depletion of cellular ATP and reduced glutathione and protein thiol levels, but also accumulation of oxidized glutathione. Of the other analogues examined at a concentration of 4 mm, 5-MAPB/5-APB-induced cytotoxicity with the production of reactive oxygen species and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was greater than that induced by MDMA. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, the benzofurans resulted in a greater increase in the rate of state 4 oxygen consumption than did MDMA, with a decrease in the rate of state 3 oxygen consumption. Furthermore, the benzofurans caused more of a rapid mitochondrial swelling dependent on the mitochondrial permeability transition than MDMA. 5-MAPB at a weakly toxic level (1 mm) was metabolized slowly: levels of 5-MAPB and 5-APB were approximately 0.9 mm and 50 μm, respectively, after 3 h incubation. Taken collectively, these results indicate that mitochondria are target organelles for the benzofuran analogues and MDMA, which elicit cytotoxicity through mitochondrial failure, and the onset of cytotoxicity may depend on the initial and/or residual concentrations of 5-MAPB rather than on those of its metabolite 5-APB. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cardiotoxicité des psychotropes

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIRI, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Même à dose thérapeutique, les médicaments psychotropes sont susceptibles d'engendrer des troubles du rythme cardiaque graves avec risque létal concourant à expliquer la pré valence de la mort subite dans la population psychiatrique. Les situations cliniques à risque telles que poly médication (des psychotropes entre eux ou d'un psychotrope avec un non psychotrope allongeur de QTc), interactions médicamenteuses aussi bien pharmacodynamiques que pharmacocinétiques, traitement pa...

  10. The Effects of Psychotropic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnardeaux, Jef-Louis

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on psychotropic drugs for individuals who are not specialists in pharmacology. Discusses: alcohol and barbituates; dependence and withdrawal; central nervous system depressors (anaesthetics, narcotic analgesics, sedatives and hypnotic drugs, tranquilizers), central nervous stimulants (amphetamines, cocaine, tobacco, caffeine),…

  11. Psychotropic substances in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia; Patriarca, Claudia; Balducci, Catia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of drugs in outdoor air has been established, but few investigations have been conducted indoors. This study focused on psychotropic substances (PSs) at three schools, four homes and one office in Rome, Italy. The indoor drug concentrations and the relationships with the outdoor atmosphere were investigated. The optimised monitoring procedure allowed for the determination of cocaine, cannabinoids and particulate fractions of nicotine and caffeine. In-field experiments were performed during the winter, spring and summer seasons. Psychotropic substances were observed in all indoor locations. The indoor concentrations often exceeded those recorded both outdoors at the same sites and at the atmospheric pollution control network stations, indicating that the drugs were released into the air at the inside sites or were more persistent. During winter, the relative concentrations of cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol depended on site and indoor/outdoor location at the site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  13. Psychotropic medications and the developing brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solleveld, M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children and adolescents are treated with psychotropic medications for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although these psychotropic medications have been well studied in the adult population, much less is known on their

  14. A qualitative study exploring visible components of organizational culture: what influences the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna J; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Fois, Romano J; Chen, Timothy F

    2016-10-01

    The influence of organizational culture on how psychotropic medicines are used in nursing homes has not been extensively studied. Schein's theory provides a framework for examining organizational culture which begins with the exploration of visible components of an organization such as behaviors, structures, and processes. This study aimed to identify key visible components related to the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes. A qualitative study was conducted in eight nursing homes in Sydney, Australia. Purposive sampling was used to conduct semi-structured interviews with 40 participants representing a broad range of health disciplines. Thematic analysis was used to derive concepts. Three visible components were related to psychotropic medicine use. These were drugs and therapeutics committee meetings, pharmacist led medication management reviews and formal and informal meetings with residents and their families. We found that only a few nursing homes utilized drugs and therapeutics committee meetings to address the overuse of psychotropic medicines. Pharmacist led medication management reviews provided a lever to minimize inappropriate psychotropic prescribing for a number of nursing homes; however, in others it was used as a box-ticking exercise. We also found that some nursing homes used meetings with residents and their families to review the use of psychotropic medicines. This study was the first to illustrate that visible components of organizational culture do influence the use of psychotropic medicines and explains in detail what of the culture needs to be addressed to reduce inappropriate psychotropic prescribing.

  15. Psychotropic drug use among Icelandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Baldursson, Gísli; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. METHODS: A nationwide population-based drug use study covering the total pediatric population (ages 0-17) in Iceland. Information was obtained from the National Medicines Reg...... extensive psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. Further scrutiny is needed to assess the rationale behind this widespread use....

  16. Psychotropic Polypharmacy in Patients with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Ane; Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Gasse, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    classes (psychotropic polypharmacy) may also pose a risk for patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with use of psychotropic polypharmacy in patients with dementia. METHODS: A population-based study using nationwide registers. Patients with dementia were identified...... to evaluate factors independently associated with the prescription of other psychotropic drug classes among patients already using antipsychotics. RESULTS: Among all patients registered with dementia (34,553), 25.3% (8,728) used ≥2 psychotropic drugs. Among patients treated with antipsychotics 75.8% (5...... of psychotropic drugs was antipsychotics and antidepressants. CONCLUSION: Concomitant use of psychotropic drugs was frequent in dementia patients. Patients living in nursing homes had the highest risk of receiving a combination of antipsychotics and other psychotropic drugs. Concomitant use of psychotropics may...

  17. an appraisal of psychotropic drugs and their consequences among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... workers are familiar with the legal and addiction aspect of psychotropic drugs, many ... Psychotropic drugs revolutionized the treatment of psychological disorders. .... Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of.

  18. A reliable and valid index was developed to measure appropriate psychotropic drug use in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, K.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Smalbrugge, M.; Nelissen-Vrancken, M.H.J.M.; Wetzels, R.B.; Smeets, C.H.W.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop an index derived from the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) items that is suited for clinical studies evaluating appropriateness of psychotropic drug use (PDU) for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in patients with dementia in nursing homes and to

  19. Exploring the link between organizational climate and the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Fois, Romano A; Chen, Timothy F

    Research concerning the overprescribing of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes suggests that organizational climate plays a significant role in the use of psychotropic medicines. Organizational climate refers to how members of the organization perceive their work environment as well as interactions with each other or outsiders. This study aimed to explore the key dimensions of organizational climate and their subsequent influence on the use of psychotropic medicines. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 on-site and visiting staff from eight nursing homes in Sydney, Australia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants representing a broad range of health disciplines and roles. Transcripts were content coded for participants' perceptions related to the work environment and descriptions of psychotropic medicines use. Thematic analysis was used to derive key concepts. Three salient dimensions of organizational climate were linked to the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: staffing, managerial expectations and teamwork among visiting and on-site staff. Inadequate staffing levels were perceived to influence on-site staff requests for initiation of psychotropic medicines to cope with high workload. Participants reported managers that prioritized the non-pharmacological management of behavioral disturbances led other on-site staff to have a reduced preference for psychotropic medicines. In addition, trust and open communication among on-site and visiting staff facilitated the cessation of psychotropic medicines. This study illustrates that organizational climate is an important factor influencing the use of psychotropic medicines. Furthermore, the study highlights what aspects of organizational climate need to be addressed to reduce the inappropriate prescribing of psychotropic medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk of arrhythmia induced by psychotropic medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanoe, Søren; Kristensen, Diana; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    with psychotropic medications. The algorithm integrates the risk categories of the individual drugs and pre-disposing risk factors and suggests a prudent follow-up for patients with an increased risk. We believe this clinically manageable guideline might improve safety in the many and rapidly increasing number...... of the major mental disorders are associated with a large risk of suicide if untreated. The observed risk of malignant arrhythmia associated with treatment with psychotropic drugs calls for clinical guidelines integrating the risk of the individual drug and other potentially interacting risk factors......Several drugs used in the treatment of mental diseases are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). A general cause-relationship between the intake of these drugs and SCD is unattainable, but numerous case reports of drug-induced malignant arrhythmia and epidemiological...

  1. Determinants for the use of psychotropics among nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Uhrskov; Foldspang, A; Gulmann, N C

    2001-01-01

    's Activities of Daily Living (ADL), behavioural problems (Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale), orientation, communication skills and if the resident had any psychiatric disorder. Multiple logistic regression was used to select the items that determined the use of psychotropics. Results Fifty-six percent......Purpose To characterise the prescription pattern of psychotropics in Danish nursing homes and to identify diagnostic, behavioural, cognitive and performance characteristics associated with prevalent psychotropic drug use. Methods Prescribed daily medication was recorded from nurses' files. Based...

  2. Affect Expression and Self-Regulation Capacities of Infants Exposed In Utero to Psychotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha N Reebye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the affect expression and self-regulation capacities of eight month old infants exposed in utero to psychotropic medications. This is a continuation of our previous study conducted on the same cohort when infants were three months old. Psychotropics implicated are antidepressant medications: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, and a benzodiazepine derivative anxiolytic (clonazepam. The three comparison groups were: control (n=23 (infants gestationally non-exposed to psychotropics, SSRI-alone (n=22 (infants exposed to SSRIs only and having mothers who had a primary diagnosis of depressive disorder without having comorbid anxiety disorder, and SSRI+ group (n=15 (infants gestationally exposed to SSRIs and Clonazepam and having mothers that had both clinical depression and anxiety disorder. Thirty-seven participants from the initial cohort were recruited. Using the Parent Child Early Relational Assessment Scale (PCERA, infants were assessed in a dyadic context during free play and a structured task. There were clear significant differences in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed dyads regarding infant negative affect management. Notable findings were that the SSRI+ group mothers showed significant associations with only one infant affect: i.e. infant negative affect. This group of mothers also showed significant associations with infant’s averting and avoiding behaviors. These associations were seen in both free play and structured task situations signifying probable established pattern. SSRI-alone group was similar to control mothers and showed variable associations with infant’s positive, negative and sober moods unlike SSRI+ group. There were no differences in infants’ capacity for self–regulation in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed groups. Increased awareness of these vulnerable subgroups (SSRI-alone and SSRI+ is needed, in order to safeguard these dyads through better support systems and improved

  3. Psychotropic medication in children : A study from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, E; Tobi, H; Zito, JM; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    Objective. Although there is a global concern about the increased use of psychotropic agents in children, most research literature originates in the United States and is based on figures from the first half of the 1990s. Also, few studies document the use of various types of psychotropic agents. The

  4. Allergy to tartrazine in psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S

    2000-07-01

    High psychiatric morbidity has been reported among those who complain of food intolerance or allergy. Many cases of food allergy or intolerance to drugs are not due to allergy to the food or drugs themselves, but to the additives used for coloring, flavoring, preserving, thickening, emulsifying, or stabilizing the product. Of various coloring dyes used, tartrazine (FD & C yellow no. 5) is the color most frequently incriminated in producing allergic reactions. The exact epidemiology and pattern of allergic reactions to tartrazine in psychotropic drugs have not been frequently studied and reported. The present study included consecutive outpatients (May 1996 to April 1998) who developed allergic reactions or intolerance to tartrazine in psychotropic drugs. Total patients exposed to tartrazine-containing drugs were also recorded. The subjects showing allergic reactions to tartrazine were then exposed to non-tartrazine-containing brands. Of 2210 patients exposed to tartrazine-containing drugs, 83 (3.8%) developed allergic reactions. The symptoms subsided within 24 to 48 hours of stopping the drug. None of the patients showed allergy to non-tartrazine-containing brands. History of allergy to tartrazine was present in 13.2%, and 15.7% of patients had a history of aspirin sensitivity. Tartrazine allergy should be considered in patients developing drug allergy, because it would require changing the brand rather than stopping treatment with that drug.

  5. Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Julie M; Safer, Daniel J; Sai, Devadatta; Gardner, James F; Thomas, Diane; Coombes, Phyllis; Dubowski, Melissa; Mendez-Lewis, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Studies have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate > 3 times that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income. Systematic data on patterns of medication treatment, particularly concomitant drugs, for youth in foster care are limited. The purpose of this work was to describe and quantify patterns of psychotropic monotherapy and concomitant therapy prescribed to a randomly selected, 1-month sample of youth in foster care who had been receiving psychotropic medication. METHODS. Medicaid data were accessed for a July 2004 random sample of 472 medicated youth in foster care aged 0 through 19 years from a southwestern US state. Psychotropic medication treatment data were identified by concomitant pattern, frequency, medication class, subclass, and drug entity and were analyzed in relation to age group; gender; race or ethnicity; International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, psychiatric diagnosis; and physician specialty. Of the foster children who had been dispensed psychotropic medication, 41.3% received > or = 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004, and 15.9% received > or = 4 different classes. The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56.8%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55.9%), and antipsychotic agents (53.2%). The use of specific psychotropic medication classes varied little by diagnostic grouping. Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication dispensed to youth in foster care. The use of > or = 2 drugs within the same psychotropic medication class was noted in 22.2% of those who were given prescribed drugs concomitantly. Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety.

  6. Psychotropic medicine prescriptions in Italian youths: a multiregional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovani, Daniele; Clavenna, Antonio; Cartabia, Massimo; Bonati, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trend of paediatric psychotropic drug prescriptions in Italy. Data sources were regional, outpatient prescription databases. Seven Italian regions, covering 50 % of the Italian population, provided data from 2006 to 2011. Prevalence and incidence of prescriptions by age and gender were evaluated for psychotropic, antidepressant, antipsychotic, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) medications. The hospital admission rate for psychiatric conditions was calculated, also at the local health unit (LHU) level. The presence of trends in prescription prevalence and incidence during the 6 year period was assessed. Finally, the correlation between prevalence, prescription, hospital admission rates, latitude, longitude, and average annual income at the LHU level was also investigated. In 2011, 8834 youths received at least one psychotropic drug prescription, with a prevalence of 1.76 ‰ (95 % CI 1.72-1.80). The incidence of new psychotropic drug users was 1.03 ‰ (1.00-1.06). The prevalence of antidepressants was 1.02 ‰ (0.99-1.04), while that of antipsychotics was 0.70 ‰ (0.68-0.72), and that of ADHD medications 0.19 ‰ (0.18-0.21). The psychotropic drug prevalence increased with increasing age. Males were more exposed to psychotropic drugs than females (AUC0-17 male/female = 1.23). Antipsychotics were the most prescribed psychotropic drugs in males, while antidepressants were in females. Between-region prevalence ranged from 1.56 to 2.17 ‰. The overall prevalence of psychotropic drug from 2006 to 2011 was stable (χ(t)2 ≤ 0.001, p = 0.97). No correlation was found between prevalence and the variables investigated. Psychotropic drug prescription was very limited and stable. No geographical patterns were found.

  7. Filiation et consommation de medicaments psychotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Ducousso-Lacaze

    Full Text Available A partir de deux entretiens semi-directifs l’auteur présente certains aspects des résultats d’une recherche clinique réalisée avec des patients de l’hôpital général consommant des médicaments psychotropes. Il s’agit de mette en évidence comment, pour certains patients, la consommation et la prescription prennent un sens par rapport aux enjeux de la filiation narcissique. Les analyses cliniques portent essentiellement sur la fonction de support imaginaire de la transmission que peuvent revêtir les médicaments ainsi que leur rôle dans les conflits entre appartenance et différenciation à l’égard du groupe familial.

  8. Variation in psychotropic drug use in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, N G

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies of health service use reveal considerable variation in the degree of services provided. In this article the variation in psychotropic drug use in nursing homes is examined. First, a descriptive analysis of nursing homes with and without high levels of psychotropic drug use is provided. Second, an analysis of the determinants of high levels of psychotropic drug use in nursing homes is provided. Factors such as ownership, staffing levels, having special care units, case-mix intensity, competitiveness of the nursing home market, and the state Medicaid reimbursement rate structure are examined. The results of these analyses are discussed in terms of their policy issues.

  9. ECG Changes In Patients On Chronic Psychotropic medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... The use of psychotropic drugs is associated with. ECG changes in ... impact, while the secondary tricyclic antidepressants (nortriptyline, desipramine) ... Human Research Ethics Committee approved the study. Procedures.

  10. Development and validation of the Psychotropic Education and Knowledge (PEAK) test on psychotropic drugs for nurses in an acute geriatric care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauters, Maartin; Azermai, Majda; Perehudoff, Sammi-Jo; Versluys, Karen; Steeman, Els; Petrovic, Mirko

    Introduction: In Belgium, psychotropic drug use is high among older people. With low proven long-term effectiveness and possible severe side effects, psychotropic drugs in geriatric patients should be prescribed with utmost caution. Nursing staff’s knowledge on psychotropic drugs can be crucial in

  11. PROPER I: frequency and appropriateness of psychotropic drugs use in nursing home patients and its associations: a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, K.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Smalbrugge, M.; Nelissen-Vrancken, M.H.; Wetzels, R.B.; Smeets, C.H.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nursing home patients with dementia use psychotropic drugs longer and more frequently than recommended by guidelines implying psychotropic drugs are not always prescribed appropriately. These drugs can have many side effects and effectiveness is limited. Psychotropic drug use between

  12. PROPER I : Frequency and appropriateness of psychotropic drugs use in nursing home patients and its associations: a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Klaas; Gerritsen, Debby L.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Nelissen-Vrancken, Marjorie H. J. M. G.; Wetzels, Roland B.; Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nursing home patients with dementia use psychotropic drugs longer and more frequently than recommended by guidelines implying psychotropic drugs are not always prescribed appropriately. These drugs can have many side effects and effectiveness is limited. Psychotropic drug use between

  13. Psychotropic medication use among patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylberberg, Haley M; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin

    2018-03-27

    Celiac disease is a multi-system disorder with manifestations that may result in psychiatric disorders. We assessed the prevalence of medication use to treat psychiatric disorders in celiac disease patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy over 9-years at a celiac disease referral center. We compared the prevalence of psychotropic medication use among celiac disease patients (n = 1293) to a control group (n = 1401) with abdominal pain or reflux. Among all patients the mean age was 48.4 years, most were female (69.5%), and 22.7% used any psychotropic medication. There was no difference between overall psychotropic medication use among celiac disease patients and controls (23.9% vs 21.8%, OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.96-1.39, p = 0.12). However, those with celiac disease were more likely to use antidepressants on univariate (16.4% vs 13.4%, p = 0.03) and multivariate analysis (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.03-1.59; p = 0.03). Use of psychotropic medications was not associated with disease duration or mode of presentation of celiac disease. Celiac disease patients use psychotropic medications at similar rates as those with other gastrointestinal diseases, though subgroup analysis suggests they may use more antidepressants. Future studies should investigate whether celiac disease is associated with mood disorders that are not treated with medications.

  14. Prescription patterns for psychotropic drugs in cancer patients; a large population study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, N.C.; Boks, M.P.; Smeets, H.M.; Zainal, N.Z.; Wit, N.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychotropic drugs are commonly prescribed for various psychological complaints in cancer patients. We aim to examine the prescription pattern in cancer patients of three common psychotropic drugs: benzodiazepine, antidepressant and antipsychotic. Methods: This is a retrospective

  15. Adverse drug reactions from psychotropic medicines in the paediatric population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba H

    2010-01-01

    of these products in childhood. Little evidence has been reported about the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of these medicines in practice. As spontaneous reports are the main source for information about previously unknown ADRs, we analysed data submitted to a national ADR database. The objective was to characterise...... ADRs reported for psychotropic medicines in the Danish paediatric population over a decade. FINDINGS: All spontaneous ADR reports from 1998 to 2007 for children from birth to 17 years of age were included. The unit of analysis was one ADR. We analysed the distribution of ADRs per year, seriousness, age...... and gender of the child, suspected medicine and type of reported ADR. A total of 429 ADRs were reported for psychotropic medicines and 56% of these were classified as serious. Almost 20% of psychotropic ADRs were reported for children from birth up to 2 years of age and one half of ADRs were reported...

  16. Prescribing psychotropic drugs to adults with an intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian N; Salomon, Carmela; Franklin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Mental illness is common in people with intellectual disability. They may also have physical health problems which can affect their mental state. Difficulties in communication can contribute to mental health problems being overlooked. These may present with changes in behaviour. Psychological management is usually preferable to prescribing psychotropic drugs. Behavioural approaches are the most appropriate way to manage challenging behaviour. If a drug is considered, prescribers should complete a thorough diagnostic assessment, exclude physical and environmental contributions to symptoms, and consider medical comorbidities before prescribing. Where possible avoid psychotropics with the highest cardiometabolic burden. Prescribe the minimum effective dose and treatment length, and regularly monitor drug efficacy and adverse effects. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychotropics for challenging behaviour. They should be avoided unless the behaviour is severe and non-responsive to other treatments. PMID:27756975

  17. Epigenetic developmental programs and adipogenesis: implications for psychotropic induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Kayla; Sharma, Rajiv P

    2013-11-01

    Psychotropic agents are notorious for their ability to increase fat mass in psychiatric patients. The two determinants of fat mass are the production of newly differentiated adipocytes (adipogenesis), and the volume of lipid accumulation. Epigenetic programs have a prominent role in cell fate commitments and differentiation required for adipogenesis. In parallel, epigenetic effects on energy metabolism are well supported by several genetic models. Consequently, a variety of psychotropics, often prescribed in combinations and for long periods, may utilize a common epigenetic effector path causing an increase in adipogenesis or reduction in energy metabolism. In particular, the recent discovery that G protein coupled signaling cascades can directly modify epigenetic regulatory enzymes implicates surface receptor activity by psychotropic medications. The potential therapeutic implications are also suggested by the effects of the clinically approved antidepressant tranylcypromine, also a histone demethylase inhibitor, which has impressive therapeutic effects on metabolism in the obese phenotype.

  18. Psychotropic drugs in opioid addicts on methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, G N

    1976-07-01

    Psychotropic drug treatment of persons on methadone maintenance is discussed. Patients with clear target symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, or psychosis responded just as non-opioid addicts would to the major psychotropic agents. The minor tranquilizers are felt to be of doubtful value, and subject to abuse. Sleep disturbances cannot be treated by the usual means, as the drugs needed again are abused. However, chlorpromazine shows some promise here. Methods of drug delivery and goals of treatment must be adapted to the realities of this patient-group's characteristics, particularly anti-social traits, poor motivation and unreliability. Psychotropic drugs are unlikely to be of aid in multiple drug abusers, personality and character disorders, and opioid withdrawal. Four case histories are presented.

  19. Mortality and use of psychotropic medication in patients with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Iversen, Helle K

    2016-01-01

    with a diagnosis of stroke and either no drug use or preindex use of psychotropic medication (n=49,968) and compared with control subjects (n=86,100) matched on age, gender, marital status and community location. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: All-cause mortality. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was higher in patients...... about psychotropic medication use was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality in relation to the use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antipsychotics in patients with stroke and matched controls. PARTICIPANTS: Patients...

  20. [Rational use of psychotropic drugs and social communication role].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, F

    1994-06-01

    Extra-clinical factors about the influences affecting the prescription and use of drugs are reviewed. Special attention is given to regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and mass media. The problems and public health consequences of the irrational use of drugs are rarely documented in Latin America. Analysis of these factors, information sources, and rational use of psychotropic drugs will require multiple strategies such as social communication and policy formulation to define goals and objectives related to population information, doctors' and individual citizens' decision making processes, and participation of consumers in improving the use of psychotropic drugs.

  1. Risk of impaired cognition after prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, M A; Mathiasen, R; Pagsberg, A K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs may affect the trajectories of brain development. In a register study, we investigated whether such exposure is associated with long-term impaired cognitive abilities. METHOD: Individuals born in Denmark in 1995-2008 were included. As proxies...... of a neurological/mental disorder after prenatal exposure to psychoanaleptics (primarily antidepressants) (OR: 1.86[1.24-2.78). CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs affects proxy outcomes of cognitive disabilities at school age. Exposure to psycholeptics carries the largest risk. The role...

  2. Prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing-home patients with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijk, Renate M; Zuidema, Sytse U; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients are common and are often treated with psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing home patients with dementia. METHODS: Psychotropic drug use of 1322

  3. Psychotropic Medication Adherence among Community-Based Individuals with Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xi; Marshall, Vincent D.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Patel, Isha; Chang, Jongwha; Erickson, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are a common treatment for mental illness in people with developmental disabilities. Medication adherence is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, but psychotropic medication adherence research specific to this population remains limited. This retrospective study analyzed Marketscan®…

  4. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  5. Adverse Cutaneous Reactions to Psychotropic Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Novais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychotropic drugs are often implicated in cutaneous adverse drug reactions. While most of these reactions have a benign character, it is still important, however, to consider its role in the increasing stigma and treatment adherence. A small number of the cutaneous adverse drug reactions can develop into serious and potentially fatal conditions. Objectives: This article aims to review the most common cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients taking psychotropic drugs. Methods: In this study, a search was carried out in the MEDLINE database for English language articles published , from 1999 to 2014, using as keywords: psychiatric, psychotropic, cutaneous, adverse reaction, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsant, dementia. Information available from the Portuguese regulatory and supervising agency (Infarmed was also included.Results: 121 articles were found with reference to cutaneous adverse drug reactions associated with psychotropic drugs. The drugs most frequently reported as associated with such adverse effects were anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers, followed by the antipsychotics . The antidementia drugs were rarely associated with serious cutaneous adverse reactions. Discussion and Conclusion: Cutaneous drug adverse reactions are common in psychiatric clinical practice and typically are minor in severity. The most severe reactions are most often associated with the use of mood stabilizing medications. Some of these side effects can be solved with reduction or drug discontinuation. More severe cases should be referred to a specialist in dermatology.

  6. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H

    2015-01-01

    and carbamazepin are contraindicated. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and clozapine can be used for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how...

  7. Consommation des psychotropes en milieu scolaire, au Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consommation des psychotropes en milieu scolaire, au Burkina Faso : Prévalences et facteurs de risque. L Nikiéma, S Kouanda, I Seck, S Tiendrebéogo, HG Ouédraogo, M Yaméogo, B Méda, B Doulogou, I Guissou, B Sondo ...

  8. Forum: Psychotropic prescribing in HIV | Reid | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We provide a brief guide to the diagnosis and treatment of common mental disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS, including: prescribing psychotropics in HIV; neuropsychiatric side-effects of ARVs and other medications commonly prescribed in HIV; and the diagnosis and treatment of depression, anxiety, psychosis, ...

  9. Psychotropic Medication Use during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Flora M.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Shea, Timothy; Seel, Ronald T.; McAlister, Thomas W.; Kaelin, Darryl; Ryser, David; Corrigan, John D.; Cullen, Nora; Horn, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe psychotropic medication administration patterns during inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their relationship to patient pre-injury and injury characteristics. Design Prospective observational cohort. Setting multiple acute inpatient rehabilitation units or hospitals. Participants 2,130 individuals with TBI (complicated mild, moderate, or severe) admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. Interventions NA Main Outcome Measure(s) NA Results Most frequently administered was narcotic analgesics (72% of sample) followed by antidepressants (67%), anticonvulsants (47%), antianxiolytics (33%), hypnotics (30%), stimulants (28%), antipsychotics (25%), antiparkinson agents (25%), and miscellaneous psychotropics (18%). The psychotropic agents studied were administered to 95% of the sample with 8.5% receiving only 1 and 31.8% receiving 6 or more. Degree of psychotropic medication administration varied widely between sites. Univariate analyses indicated younger patients were more likely to receive anxiolytics, antidepressants, antiparkinson agents, stimulants, antipsychotics, and narcotic analgesics, while those older were more likely to receive anticonvulsants and miscellaneous psychotropics. Men were more likely to receive antipsychotics. All medication classes were less likely administered to Asians, and more likely to those with more severe functional impairment. Use of anticonvulsants was associated with having seizures at some point during acute care or rehabilitation stays. Narcotic analgesics were more likely for those with history of drug abuse, history of anxiety and depression (premorbid or during acute care), and severe pain during rehabilitation. Psychotropic medication administration increased rather than decreased during the course of inpatient rehabilitation in each of the medication categories except for narcotics. This observation was also true for medication administration within admission functional levels (defined

  10. Consistency of psychotropic drug-drug interactions listed in drug monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Hatton, Randy C; Zhu, Yanmin; Hincapie-Castillo, Juan M; Bussing, Regina; Barnicoat, Marie; Winterstein, Almut G

    With an increasing prevalence of psychotropic polypharmacy, clinicians depend on drug-drug interaction (DDI) references to ensure safe regimens, but the consistency of such information is frequently questioned. To evaluate the consistency of psychotropic DDIs documented in Clinical Pharmacology (CP), Micromedex (MM), and Lexicomp (LC) and summarize consistent psychotropic DDIs. In May 2016, we extracted severe or major psychotropic DDIs for 102 psychotropic drugs, including central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, antidepressants, an antimanic agent (lithium), antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics-sedatives-hypnotics from CP, MM, and LC. We then summarized the psychotropic DDIs that were included in all 3 references and with evidence quality of "excellent" or "good" based on MM. We identified 1496, 938, and 1006 unique severe or major psychotropic DDIs from CP, MM, and LC, respectively. Common adverse effects related to psychotropic DDIs include increased or decreased effectiveness, CNS depression, neurotoxicity, QT prolongation, serotonin syndrome, and multiple adverse effects. Among these interactions, only 371 psychotropic DDIs were documented in all 3 references, 59 of which had "excellent" or "good" quality of evidence based on MM. The consistency of psychotropic DDI documentation across CP, MM, and LC is poor. DDI documentations need standards that would encourage consistency among drug information references. The list of the 59 DDIs may be useful in the assessment of psychotropic polypharmacy and highlighting DDI alerts in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Staff and patient perspectives on the purpose of psychotropic prescribing in prisons: care or control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lamiece; Edge, Dawn; Senior, Jane; Shaw, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to explore perspectives on reasons for psychotropic medication use in prisons. We recruited a purposive sample of healthcare staff and patients prescribed psychotropic medicines from four East of England prisons. Participants took part in qualitative, semistructured interviews, which were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically. While patients and healthcare staff viewed psychotropic medicines primarily as a treatment for reducing symptoms of mental illness, they were also used as a coping strategy and to reduce insomnia. Appropriate psychotropic prescribing was also thought to contribute towards the rehabilitation agenda and helped to maintain order in prisons. Staff voiced concerns regarding possible overreliance on psychotropic medicines. However, patients perceived insufficient access to alternative, nonpharmacological forms of treatment and support in prison. Psychotropic medicines are used for multiple purposes in prisons and are generally considered a useful resource. Nonetheless, further work may be needed to find the right balance between psychotropic medicines and alternative, nonpharmacological therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines...... whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self......-reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender...

  13. Psychotropic medication use in French children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess, Viviane; Choppin, Sabine; Gao, Fei; Pivette, Mathilde; Husky, Mathilde; Leray, Emmanuelle

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of psychotropic drug use in a large representative population of children and adolescents drawn from the French National Health Insurance databank. Data were drawn from a sample of 1% of the beneficiaries of the French national health insurance, selecting those 0-17 years old in 2010 (n=128,298). In addition to age and gender, data included the identification number of each drug allowing a European Pharmaceutical Marketing Research Association (EphMRA) classification, as well as the type of the prescriber. Overall, 2.5% of children and adolescents had been prescribed psychotropic medication. A majority were prescribed anxiolytics (1.9%), followed by antidepressants (0.3%), antipsychotics (0.3%), and stimulants (0.2%). Between the ages of 15 and 17, 6.1% of girls were prescribed anxiolytics and 1.1% were prescribed antidepressants. For boys, the anxiolytics remained the most prescribed psychotropic medication; however, between the ages of 11 and 14, and between the ages of 15 and 17 they received more antipsychotics (0.7% and 0.8%) and between the ages of 6 and 10, and between the ages of 11 and 14 (0.7% and 0.6%), they were prescribed more stimulants than were girls. Among those who received a prescription, a majority of youth (84.6%) received only one class of drugs, and general practitioners were found to be prescribing most of these prescriptions (81.7%). The prevalence of psychotropic drug use in France is similar to that of the Netherlands and much lower than what is observed in the United States. Stimulants are less frequently prescribed in France than in other European countries, but anxiolytics are prescribed considerably more in France than in any other country.

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Huntington’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Lauterbach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropics (antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, anxiolytics, etc. are commonly prescribed to treat Huntington’s disease (HD. In HD preclinical models, while no psychotropic has convincingly affected huntingtin gene, HD modifying gene, or huntingtin protein expression, psychotropic neuroprotective effects include upregulated huntingtin autophagy (lithium, histone acetylation (lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, miR-222 (lithium-plus-valproate, mitochondrial protection (haloperidol, trifluoperazine, imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine, melatonin, neurogenesis (lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, sertraline, and BDNF (lithium, valproate, sertraline and downregulated AP-1 DNA binding (lithium, p53 (lithium, huntingtin aggregation (antipsychotics, lithium, and apoptosis (trifluoperazine, loxapine, lithium, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, cyproheptadine, melatonin. In HD live mouse models, delayed disease onset (nortriptyline, melatonin, striatal preservation (haloperidol, tetrabenazine, lithium, sertraline, memory preservation (imipramine, trazodone, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, motor improvement (tetrabenazine, lithium, valproate, imipramine, nortriptyline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine, and extended survival (lithium, valproate, sertraline, melatonin have been documented. Upregulated CREB binding protein (CBP; valproate, dextromethorphan and downregulated histone deacetylase (HDAC; valproate await demonstration in HD models. Most preclinical findings await replication and their limitations are reviewed. The most promising findings involve replicated striatal neuroprotection and phenotypic disease modification in transgenic mice for tetrabenazine and for sertraline. Clinical data consist of an uncontrolled lithium case series (n = 3 suggesting non-progression and a primarily negative double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of lamotrigine.

  15. Psychotropic drugs in Nepal: perceptions on use and supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Gurung, Dristy; Pokhrel, Ruja; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Komproe, Ivan H

    2018-01-24

    Psychotropic drugs play an important role in the treatment of mental, neurological and substance use disorders. Despite the advancement of the use of psycho-pharmaceuticals in the developed countries, the psychotropic drug production and supply chain management in low- and middle- income countries are still poorly developed. This study aims to explore the perceptions of stakeholders involved in all stages of the psychotropic drug supply chain about the need, quality, availability and effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, as well as barriers to their supply chain management. The study was conducted among 65 respondents from the Kathmandu, Chitwan and Pyuthan districts, grouped into four categories: producers, promoters and distributors (N = 22), policy makers and government actors (N = 8), service providers (N = 21) and service users/family members (N = 14). The respondents reported that psychotropic drugs, despite having side effects, are 1) needed, 2) available in major regional centers and 3) are effective for treating mental health problems. The stigma associated with mental illness, however, forces patients and family members to hide their use of psychotropic drugs. The study found that the process of psychotropic drug supply chain management is similar to other general drugs, with the exceptions of strict pre-approval process, quantity restriction (for production and import), and mandatory record keeping. Despite these regulatory provisions, respondents believed that the misuse of psychotropic drugs is widespread and companies are providing incentives to prescribers and retailers to retain their brand in the market. The production and supply chain management of psychotropic drugs is influenced by the vested interests of pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and pharmacists. In the context of the government of Nepal's policy of integrating mental health into primary health care and increased consumption of psychotropic drugs in Nepal, there is a

  16. Effects of maternal psychotropic drug dosage on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michielsen LA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Michielsen,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,1 Paddy KC Janssen,2 Harold JH Kuijpers11Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacy, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, the NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes.Methods: A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes.Results: Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01. There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low–intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic.Conclusion: This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes.Keywords: pregnancy, psychotropic medication, dosage, birth outcomes

  17. Improving psychotropic drug prescription in nursing home patients with dementia : design of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Gerritsen, Debby L.; Nelissen-Vrancken, Marjorie H. J. M. G.; Wetzels, Roland B.; van der Spek, Klaas; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are highly prevalent in nursing home patients with dementia. Despite modest effectiveness and considerable side effects, psychotropic drugs are frequently prescribed for these neuropsychiatric symptoms. This raises questions whether psychotropic drugs are

  18. [Psychotropic medication use by French active self-employed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha-Vinh, Philippe; Régnard, Pierre; Sauze, Laurent

    2011-04-01

    INTERESTS OF THE STUDY: In the self-employed workers population (shop keepers, craft men, industrialists and liberal professions), psychotropic medications use and discrepancies between occupational situations have never been evaluated before. It is nevertheless a prerequisite in preventive actions against addictions, stress and injuries caused by disorders of attentiveness at work. The French Self Employed Workers Health Care Insurance Fund affiliate members data base was analysed for active workers from 18 to 60 years of age living in the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur Region. From this population the cases were defined as having refunded ambulatory prescription of behind the counter psychotropic treatment during the year 2009 (anxiolytic, antidepressant, hypnotic, neuroleptic, lithium, alcoholic or opioid dependance therapy) and the randomised control sample was constituted by drawing the key of the social security number. A case-control multivariate logistic regression adjusted for gender, age and place of abode was used for searching discrepancy between occupational situations. Anxiolytic, antidepressant or hypnotic consumers are the most numerous (906; 557 and 446 consumers per 10 000 persons-year respectively). Antidepressant, neuroleptic and opioid dependance therapy are the three main posts of expense for the health insurance (584 505; 169 947 and 151 201 € per year respectively). When compared to workers of the construction sector, workers of retail trade of clothes had an Odd Ratio of 2,04 [95%CI 1,46-2,85] for anxiolytics consumption and 2,29 [95%CI 1,67-3,14] for antidepressants consumption, workers in the sector of the hotel and catering had an Odd Ratio of 1,62 [95%CI 1,19-2,22] for alcoholic dependance therapy medicines consumption, workers in the accountant, legal and financial sector had an Odd Ratio of 0,05 [95%CI 0,01-0,32] for opioid dependence therapy medicines consumption. Occupations associated with increased psychotropic medicines

  19. Psychotropic drugs and the perioperative period : A proposal for a guideline in elective surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyse, FJ; Touw, DJ; Van Schijndel, RS; De Lange, JJ; Slaets, JPJ

    Evidence-based guidelines for the perioperative management of psychotropic drugs are lacking. The level of evidence is low and is based on case reports, open trials, and non-systematic reviews. However, the interactions and effects mentioned indicate that patients who use psychotropics and require

  20. An Outline on Psychotropic Drug Use in the Developmentally Disabled Patient. Monograph #102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Jeanne A.

    This introduction to basic principles of psychotropic drug use in developmentally disabled patients is intended to provide personnel working in the field with information on appropriate clinical use as well as potential risks. Presented in outline form, information is provided on five classes of psychotropic drugs: antipsychotics; antidepressants;…

  1. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Leufkens, H G M; van Dijk, L

    2017-01-01

    In the last 20-30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older) psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the

  2. Change in psychotropic drug use in Norwegian nursing homes between 2004 and 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selbæk, G; Janus, S I M; Bergh, S; Engedal, K; Ruths, S; Helvik, A S; Šaltyte Benth, J; Zuidema, S U

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess whether there were any changes in the use of psychotropic drugs in Norwegian nursing homes between 2004 and 2011. Also, we investigated whether the predictors of use of specific psychotropic drug groups have changed. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of two

  3. Parental attitudes toward the prescription of psychotropic medications for their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A Al-Haidar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore parental attitudes towards the prescription of psychotropic medication for their children. Method: A questionnaire built to collect socio-demographic data of parents and their attitudes was distributed among parents. Results: One thousand and ten questionnaires were filled by parents. Fathers who completed the questionnaire were double the number of mothers. Eight hundred and eighteen parents (84.3% agreed to the dispensing psychotropic medication to their children if necessary. About 83.5% preferred to start with psychotherapy before trying medication. Fathers are more than twice likely than mothers to agree to the use of psychotropic drugs. Older parents more easily agreed to give their children psychotropic drugs. Parents who used psychotropic drug themselves were more likely to agree to the use of psychotropic drug by their children. Having a child with a psychiatric illness is the most significant factor in making parents accede to giving children psychotropic medication. Other factors such as pressure from schools and the side effects of drugs could also modify decision of parents. Conclusion: Although most parents agreed to give their children psychotropic drugs if necessary, they preferred to start with psychotherapy sessions before giving them the drugs. Fear and worries about such issues as side effects of drugs or addiction should be considered. Pressure from school should also be considered when deciding on drug therapy.

  4. Psychotropic Drug Use among College Students: Patterns of Use, Misuse, and Medical Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleitner, Lindsay M. S.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Zumberg, Kathryn M.; Grekin, Emily R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether college students who use psychotropic drugs are (1) aware of potential side effects, (2) appropriately monitored by prescribing physicians, and (3) taking medications as prescribed. Participants: Fifty-five college students, currently taking psychotropic medications, were recruited between Summer 2008 and Fall 2009.…

  5. The psychotropic education and knowledge test for nurses in nursing homes : Striving for PEAK performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Azermai, Majda; Wauters, Maarten; Van Acker, Sandra; Versluys, Karen; Steeman, Els; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The psychotropic education and knowledge test for nurses in acute geriatric care (PEAK-AC) measures knowledge of psychotropic indications, doses and adverse drug reactions in older inpatients. Given the low internal consistency and poor discrimination of certain items, this study aims to

  6. Associations Between Magnitude of Child Maltreatment and Medicaid Expenditures for Psychotropic Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Brown, Derek S; Allaire, Benjamin T; Ross, Raven E; Landsverk, John

    2016-08-01

    This study examined relationships between various measures of the severity of child maltreatment and expenditures on psychotropic drugs among children in the welfare system. Child participants (N=4,453) in the first National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) were linked to their Medicaid claims from 36 states. Three specifications for severity of maltreatment were developed. A two-part regression of logistic and generalized linear models of expenditures on psychotropic medications was estimated for each specification. Physically abused children had higher odds (odds ratio [OR]=1.34) and neglected children had lower odds (OR=.76) of incurring psychotropic drug expenditures. Children who experienced the most severe level of harm had higher odds (OR=1.33) of medication use, compared with children without appreciable harm. No maltreatment specifications were associated with increased expenditures on psychotropic drugs. The magnitude of maltreatment affected odds of use of psychotropic drugs but had no effect on Medicaid expenditures for these drugs.

  7. Psychotropic Medication Use Among Adults With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, T Scott; Gerhard, Tobias; Crystal, Stephen; Huang, Cecilia; Tan, Zhiqiang; Wall, Melanie M; Mathai, Chacku M; Olfson, Mark

    2018-05-01

    The authors examined the use of different classes of psychotropic medication in outpatient treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Data from the United States Medicaid program were used to examine psychotropic medication use in a cohort of patients who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in the calendar year 2010. The cohort of Medicaid recipients who filled one or more prescriptions for a psychotropic medication in 2010 included 116,249 patients classified as having schizophrenia and 84,537 classified as having schizoaffective disorder. During 2010, 86.1% of patients with schizoaffective disorder and 70.1% with schizophrenia were treated with two or more different classes of psychotropic. Psychotropic medications other than antipsychotics were commonly prescribed for individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Their widespread use and uncertainty about their net benefits signal a need for research on their efficacy, safety, and appropriate use in these conditions.

  8. Rhabdomyolysis Syndrome in Alcohol, Psychotropic Drugs, and Illicit Substance Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the major complications of poisoning causedby alcohol, narcotics, and psychotropic substances acute toxicity, which might lead toacute renal failure and even death. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratoryfindings of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in poisoning patients who were admitted topoisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute toxicity by alcohol, narcotics,or psychotropic drugs who were admitted in poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital ofHamadan were investigated during a 6-month period in 2012. Clinical and laboratorydata were collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS softwareversion 16.Results: Eighty-two patients aged between 14 to 81 years were investigated. Twentytwocases developed rhabdomyolysis and narcotics related toxicity was the mostcommon cause. The most common clinical symptom in all patients was muscle pain(51cases, Laboratory studies showed some significant differences between serumcreatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum creatinine, andaminotransferases (AST,ALT levels in rhabdomyolysis cases as compared to theothers (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the incidence of rhabdomyolysissyndrome in acute intoxication with alcohol and narcotics is significant and withoutproper treatment might cause serious complications such as acute renal failure andeven death. Classic clinical signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are usually notpresent simultaneously, thus strong clinical suspicion and proper laboratory tests haveimportant role in early diagnosis and suitable treatment. Laboratory studies have animportant role in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  9. Electroconvulsive therapy in the elderly: Anesthetic considerations and Psychotropic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Garekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT has been found to be a rapid and effective treatment strategy for psychiatric and neurological conditions in the elderly, but the administration of ECT in the elderly can be challenging due to a high risk of adverse events. The increased risk can be attributed to a declined physiological reserve, the presence of physical comorbidities, and the use of multiple drugs, which interact with the electrical stimulus and the anesthetic medications used during the ECT procedure. The selection of appropriate induction agents and muscle relaxants should be guided by patient's clinical status and the psychotropic drugs being used. Modifications in the doses of psychotropic drugs also need to be carried out before ECT to reduce cardiovascular and neurological side effects. Modification in the conduct of anesthesia can also aid in augmenting seizures and in preventing common side effects of ECT. A vital step in preventing adverse events in the elderly is carrying out a thorough pre.ECT evaluation. Despite these challenges, ECT can be carried out safely in elderly patients with severe comorbidities, provided clinical ECT, and anesthetic parameters are adequately optimized.

  10. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H; Fenger-Gron, J; Mikkelsen, R L; Nielsen, R E; Linde, V J; Knudsen, H E D; Skaarup, L; Videbech, P

    2015-01-01

    To write clinical guidelines for the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding for daily practice in psychiatry, obstetrics and paediatrics. As we wanted a guideline with a high degree of consensus among health professionals treating pregnant women with a psychiatric disease, we asked the Danish Psychiatric Society, the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Danish Paediatric Society and the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology to appoint members for the working group. A comprehensive review of the literature was hereafter conducted. Sertraline and citalopram are first-line treatment among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for depression. It is recommended to use lithium for bipolar disorders if an overall assessment finds an indication for mood-stabilizing treatment during pregnancy. Lamotrigine can be used. Valproate and carbamazepin are contraindicated. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and clozapine can be used for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how it has to be administered. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of psychotropic drugs prescription on body weight increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4

  12. Environmental Factors Associated with Psychotropic Drug Use in Brazilian Nightclubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Claudia; Andreoni, Solange; Sanchez, Zila M

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify environmental factors associated with patterns of psychotropic drug use in nightclubs. Mixed methods were used to investigate psychotropic drugs consumption among patrons of 31 nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1822 patrons at the entrance and exit of the venues and 30 staff members of the nightclubs were interviewed. The observational data were collected through 307 h of observational research using a structured guide to register environmental measures. Psychotropic drug use in nightclubs was classified into three categories (1: no drugs; 2: legal drugs [e.g., alcohol and tobacco]; or 3: illicit drugs regardless of alcohol and tobacco use). Illicit drugs used were self-reported by patrons, and alcohol use was measured using a breathalyzer. The data were analyzed in clusters using correlated multinomial logistic regression models. The following environmental variables were associated with illicit drug use in nightclubs: all-you-can-drink service (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 11.84, 95%CI [4.06;34.57]) and light effects, such as laser and "disco lights" (aOR = 24.49, 95%CI [8.48;70.77]). The number of bouncers per capita × 100 and the presence of two or more dance floors were inversely associated with the use of illicit drugs (aOR = 0.26, 95%CI [0.11;0.65], and aOR = 0.13, 95%CI [0.06;0.29], respectively). Legal drug use was associated with all-you-can-drink service (aOR = 2.17, 95%CI [1.43;5.04]), the presence of two or more dance floors (aOR = 2.06, 95%CI [1.40;3.05]), and the number of bouncers per capita × 100 (aOR = 1.39, 95%CI [1.22;1.59]). These findings suggest that this is a multivariate phenomenon that would require an integrated approach involving the venue owners, staff members, patrons, local governments, and law enforcement agencies.

  13. Shaping the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: A qualitative study on organisational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Chen, Timothy F

    2018-04-01

    Psychotropic medicines have limited efficacy in the management of behavioural and psychological disturbances, yet they are commonly used in nursing homes. Organisational culture is an important consideration influencing use of psychotropic medicines. Schein's theory elucidates that organisational culture is underpinned by basic assumptions, which are the taken for granted beliefs driving organisational members' behaviour and practices. By exploring the basic assumptions of culture we are able to find explanations for why psychotropic medicines are prescribed contrary to standards. A qualitative study guided by Schein's theory was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 40 staff representing a broad range of roles from eight nursing homes. Findings from the study suggest two basic assumptions influenced the use of psychotropic medicines: locus of control and necessity for efficiency or comprehensiveness. Locus of control pertained to whether staff believed they could control decisions when facing negative work experiences. Necessity for efficiency or comprehensiveness concerned how much time and effort was spent on a given task. Participants' arrived at decisions to use psychotropic medicines that were inconsistent with ideal standards when they believed they were helpless to do the right thing by the resident and it was necessary to restrict time on a given task. Basic assumptions tended to provide the rationale for staff to use psychotropic medicines when it was not compatible with standards. Organisational culture is an important factor that should be addressed to optimise psychotropic medicine use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use: the mediating role of physical and mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stéphanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre; Acquarone, D; Aicardi, F; André-Mazeaud, P; Arsento, M; Astier, R; Baille, H; Bajon-Thery, F; Barre, E; Basire, C; Battu, J L; Baudry, S; Beatini, C; Beaud'huin, N; Becker, C; Bellezza, D; Beque, C; Bernstein, O; Beyssier, C; Blanc-Cascio, F; Blanchet, N; Blondel, C; Boisselot, R; Bordes-Dupuy, G; Borrelly, N; Bouhnik, D; Boulanger, M F; Boulard, J; Bourreau, P; Bourret, D; Boustière, A M; Breton, C; Bugeon, G; Buono-Michel, M; Canonne, J F; Capella, D; Cavin-Rey, M; Cervoni, C; Charreton, D; Charrier, D; Chauvin, M A; Chazal, B; Cougnot, C; Cuvelier, G; Dalivoust, G; Daumas, R; Debaille, A; De Bretteville, L; Delaforge, G; Delchambre, A; Domeny, L; Donati, Y; Ducord-Chapelet, J; Duran, C; Durand-Bruguerolle, D; Fabre, D; Faivre, A; Falleri, R; Ferrando, G; Ferrari-Galano, J; Flutet, M; Fouché, J P; Fournier, F; Freyder, E; Galy, M; Garcia, A; Gazazian, G; Gérard, C; Girard, F; Giuge, M; Goyer, C; Gravier, C; Guyomard, A; Hacquin, M C; Halimi, E; Ibagnes, T; Icart, P; Jacquin, M C; Jaubert, B; Joret, J P; Julien, J P; Kacel, M; Kesmedjian, E; Lacroix, P; Lafon-Borelli, M; Lallai, S; Laudicina, J; Leclercq, X; Ledieu, S; Leroy, J; Leroyer, L; Loesche, F; Londi, D; Longueville, J M; Lotte, M C; Louvain, S; Lozé, M; Maculet-Simon, M; Magallon, G; Marcelot, V; Mareel, M C; Martin, P; Masse, A M; Méric, M; Milliet, C; Mokhtari, R; Monville, A M; Muller, B; Obadia, G; Pelser, M; Peres, L; Perez, E; Peyron, M; Peyronnin, F; Postel, S; Presseq, P; Pyronnet, E; Quinsat, C; Raulot-Lapointe, H; Rigaud, P; Robert, F; Robert, O; Roger, K; Roussel, A; Roux, J P; Rubini-Remigy, D; Sabaté, N; Saccomano-Pertus, C; Salengro, B; Salengro-Trouillez, P; Samsom, E; Sendra-Gille, L; Seyrig, C; Stoll, G; Tarpinian, N; Tavernier, M; Tempesta, S; Terracol, H; Torresani, F; Triglia, M F; Vandomme, V; Vieillard, F; Vilmot, K; Vital, N

    2011-03-01

    The association between workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use is not well established. This study was aimed at exploring the association between workplace bullying, and its characteristics, and psychotropic drug use and studying the mediating role of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the south-east of France. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument elaborated by Leymann, and psychotropic drug use, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physico-chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. Workplace bullying was strongly associated with psychotropic drug use. Past exposure to bullying increased the risk for this use. The more frequent and the longer the exposure to bullying, the stronger the association with psychotropic drug use. Observing bullying on someone else at the workplace was associated with psychotropic drug use. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms reduced the magnitude of the associations, especially for men. The association between bullying and psychotropic drug use was found to be significant and strong and was partially mediated by physical and mental health.

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of psychotropic drug use in institutionalized children and adolescents with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifes, Arlette; de Jong, Daniël; Stolker, Joost Jan; Nijman, Henk L I; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2013-10-01

    Psychotropic drugs are a cornerstone in the treatment of psychopathology and/or behavioral problems in children with intellectual disability (ID), despite concerns about efficacy and safety. Studies on the prevalence of psychotropic drug use have mainly been focused on adults with ID or children without ID. Therefore the aim of this cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of psychotropic drug use in children with mild ID who were institutionalized in specialized inpatient treatment facilities in The Netherlands. Demographic data, psychiatric diagnoses, the nature of the behavioral problems, level of intellectual functioning, and medication data were extracted from medical records using a standardized data collection form. Adjusted relative risks (ARR) for the association between patient characteristics and psychotropic drug use were estimated with Cox regression analysis. Of the 472 included children, 29.4% (n=139) used any psychotropic drug, of which 15.3% (n=72) used antipsychotics (mainly risperidone), and 14.8% (n=70) used psychostimulants (mainly methylphenidate). Age, sex, and behavioral problems were associated with psychotropic drug use. Boys had a 1.7 (95%CI 1.1-2.4) higher probability of using psychotropic drugs, compared to girls adjusted for age and behavioral problems. Having any behavioral problem was associated with psychotropic drug use with an ARR of 2.1 (95%CI 1.3-3.3), adjusted for sex and age. The high prevalence of psychotropic drug use in children with ID is worrisome because of the lack of evidence of effectiveness (especially for behavioral problems) at this young age, and the potential of adverse drug reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychotropic drug effects contributing to psychiatric hospitalization of children: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, M J; Hasley, S

    1984-12-01

    Over an 11-month period on a Children's Psychiatric Unit 5% of 60 first admissions for hospitalization were apparently associated with adverse effects of psychotropic medication. Forty (66%) of the first admissions had used, prior to hospitalization, a wide variety of drugs including stimulants, major and minor tranquilizers, anticonvulsants, antidepressants and over-the-counter drugs containing antihistamines and analgesics. It is suggested that inappropriate and injudicious use of psychotropic medications may be associated with unanticipated adverse behavioral effects, which can result in deterioration of a child's functioning to the point of necessitating psychiatric hospitalization. Early identification of these unwanted psychotropic effects has diagnostic, prognostic, economic, and legal implications.

  17. Accounting for psychotropic medication changes in prisons: patient and doctor perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lamiece; Edge, Dawn; Senior, Jane; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-07-01

    Psychotropic medicines are widely used to treat mental illness; however, people entering prison commonly report that prescribed psychotropic medicines are changed or withdrawn, adding to their distress in difficult times. Drawing on three extracts from a larger qualitative dataset in which patients and doctors were interviewed about psychotropic medication use in English prisons, we combined discursive psychological and Foucauldian discourse analysis techniques to examine how individuals accounted for medication changes. Patients used four discursive strategies to organize descriptions of medication changes: they established entitlement to psychotropic medication, questioned the clinical judgment of prison doctors; highlighted communication problems; and attributed negative health outcomes to medication regime changes. In contrast, we examined an effective defense by a general practitioner, which showed how clinical needs were prioritized over previously held prescriptions when making prescribing decisions. Wider implications for continuity and equivalence of care between prisons and the wider community are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, de A.; Mulder, E.J.; Scheers, T.; Minderaa, R.B.; Tobi, H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmacotherapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 to

  19. Pediatric psychotropic medication initiation and adherence: a literature review based on social exchange theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Vanya; McCarthy, Erin M; Tyson, Veda

    2010-08-01

    Psychotropic medication initiation and adherence is an identified problem. This literature review explores factors that determine families' decisions to initiate, sustain, or discontinue use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents. Social exchange theory is used as a framework to explore decisions to initiate and adhere to psychotropic medications. Contributing factors related to psychotropic medication initiation, adherence, and discontinuation are explored. Themes in the literature encompassing costs and benefits of psychotropic medication adherence include family experiences with adverse effects, previous psychotropic medication experience, medication psychoeducation, stigma, societal views about psychotropic medication, particular diagnosis, the effect of comorbid diagnosis on adherence, attitudes and beliefs about medication by both children and parents, and relationships with the provider. The impact of family demographics including parent gender, age of the child, ethnicity, and parent educational level on psychotropic medication adherence is evaluated. International and U.S. studies from Medline, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsychInfo evaluating medication initiation and adherence in the pediatric psychiatric population and social exchange theory was incorporated from relevant textbook resources. Rewards experienced from medication treatment include improvement in symptoms, school performance and family relationships, and reduced level of parenting stress. Identified costs include impact of adverse side effects, social stigma, lack of response, fears of addiction, and changing the child's personality. Acceptance of the diagnosis influences adherence while medication education has varying effects. Families' attitudes, beliefs and perceptions about psychiatric illness and treatment play a large role in medication treatment decisions. A trusting provider relationship has a positive effect on adherence

  20. The integrity of the social hierarchy in mice following administration of psychotropic drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Poshivalov, V. P.

    1980-01-01

    1 Mice in small groups develop a despotic type of social hierarchy, a feature of which is to resist alteration through the medium of psychotropic drugs. This makes a rapid pharmacologically induced change in the social hierarchy impossible. 2 Patrolling the territory and a certain level of social interaction are both critical factors in maintaining the phenomenon of inertia in the social hierarchy. Psychotropic drugs (diazepam, droperidol and mescaline) altered both these factors to a varying...

  1. Psychotropics without borders: ethics and legal implications of internet-based access to psychiatric medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolina A

    2011-01-01

    Medical practitioners are revisiting many of the ethics and the legal implications surrounding the clinical frameworks within which we operate. In today's world, distinguishing between virtual and physical reality continues to be increasingly difficult. The physician may be found grappling with the decision of whether to continue to treat a patient who may be obtaining psychotropic medications through the Internet. This article approaches some of the clinical and legal implications and the ethics regarding the availability of prescription psychotropics over the Internet.

  2. Workplace bullying and subsequent psychotropic medication: a cohort study with register linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Haukka, Jari; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine longitudinally whether workplace bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication among women and men. Design A cohort study. Setting Helsinki, Finland. Participants Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=6606, 80% women), 40–60 years at baseline in 2000–2002, and a register-based follow-up on medication. Primary and secondary outcome measures Workplace bullying comprised questions about current and earlier bullying as well as observing bullying. The Finnish Social Insurance Institution's register data on purchases of prescribed reimbursed psychotropic medication were linked with the survey data. All psychotropic medication 3 years prior to and 5 years after the baseline survey was included. Covariates included age, prior psychotropic medication, childhood bullying, occupational class, and body mass index. Cox proportional hazard models (HR, 95% CI) were fitted and days until the first purchase of prescribed psychotropic medication after baseline were used as the time axis. Results Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication after adjusting for age and prior medication among both women (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.93) and men (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.41). Also observing bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication among women (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.88) and men (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.99). The associations only modestly attenuated after full adjustment. Conclusions Our findings highlight the significance of workplace bullying to subsequent psychotropic medication reflecting medically confirmed mental problems. Tackling workplace bullying likely helps prevent mental problems among employees. PMID:23242240

  3. PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PRESCRIPTION OF PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICATIONS FOR THEIR CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Haidar, Fatima A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore parental attitudes towards the prescription of psychotropic medication for their children. Method: A questionnaire built to collect socio-demographic data of parents and their attitudes was distributed among parents. Results: One thousand and ten questionnaires were filled by parents. Fathers who completed the questionnaire were double the number of mothers. Eight hundred and eighteen parents (84.3%) agreed to the dispensing psychotropic medication to their child...

  4. [Counselling customers with psychotropic vs. cardiovascular prescriptions: a survey among Austrian community pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmair, Gisela; Amering, Michaela; Kaiser, Gerda; Katschnig, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs in general and their share of all prescriptions have substantially risen over the last decades. Thus, also counselling by pharmacists becomes more important in this area. This study focuses on how community pharmacists see their own role when counselling persons with prescriptions for psychotropic medication and how this differs from counselling persons with other types of prescriptions. Based on the Toronto Community Pharmacists' Questionnaire an online questionnaire was developed with the assistance of the Austrian Pharmacists Association. This instrument elicits pharmacists' attitudes toward and professional interactions with users of psychotropic drugs on the one hand and of cardiovascular medication on the other. After a pilot study the questionnaire - which was to be filled in anonymously - was put on a web portal for six months and Austrian community pharmacists were invited to answer it. 125 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Overall it was reported, that new customers with psychotropic prescriptions were less often counselled than those with prescriptions for cardiovascular medication. The main reasons for this difference seem to be the lack of privacy in public pharmacies, the fear of stigmatising customers with psychotropic medication and a perceived lack of training concerning the treatment of mental disorders. In addition to improving such training, it was suggested that seminars and workshops for communication skills should be organised. The reduced frequency in counselling new customers with psychotropic medication is related to a lack of privacy in public pharmacies, fear of stigmatising customers and a perceived need for improving the training on the treatment of mental disorders.

  5. Psychomotor developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Damase-Michel, Christine; Finotto, Laurent; Guitard, Claudine; Vayssière, Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Montastruc, François; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about neurodevelopment of children exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs on psychomotor development in children. This observational study used the EFEMERIS database. The database records the drugs prescribed and delivered during pregnancy and the resulting outcomes. Neurodevelopment at nine and 24 months of children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics) during the second and/or third trimesters of pregnancy was compared to children who were not exposed to these drugs. Psychomotor development of 493 children (1.5%) exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was compared to 32 303 unexposed children. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of abnormal motor development at 9 months (OR = 1.3 [1.1-2.2]) and abnormal motor and mental development at 24 months (OR = 4.8 [2.1-11.0] and OR = 2.3 [1.05-4.9]). Increased risk was observed in children born to women exposed to anti-epileptic drugs, neuroleptics or antidepressants during pregnancy. This study found a higher rate of deviation from the normal developmental milestones in children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and more particularly antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. [Pharmacists' interventions conducted by hospital pharmacists on psychotropic drugs pharmacotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, G; Rose, F-X; Bedouch, P; Conort, O; Charpiat, B; Juste, M; Roubille, R; Allenet, B

    2015-09-01

    The French Society of Clinical Pharmacy (SFPC) through the special interest group "standardization and optimization of clinical pharmacy activities" stated that the study of pharmacists' interventions (PIs) conducted during prescription analysis was a priority. The SFPC developed an internet website named Act-IP(®) (http://www.sfpc.eu/fr/) where French speaking pharmacists were able to document PIs using a normalized codification. The objective of this study was to analyze medication-related problems linked to psychotropic drugs in hospital and to investigate PIs performed during prescription analysis. This is a multicenter, retrospective, observational study using PIs involving psychotropic medications recorded between September 2006 and February 2009 on the Act-IP(®) website. Four thousand six hundred and twenty PIs recorded by 165 pharmacists in 57 hospitals were related to psychotropic drugs. Patients concerned by these drug-related problems were 64 years old on average. Seven categories of medication-related problems represented more than 69% of PIs (1.1-Non Conformity of the drug choice compared to the formulary; 4.1 Supratherapeutic dose; 5.3 Therapeutic redundancy; 6.2 Drug interaction (all levels of severity); 7.0 Adverse drug reaction; 8.3 Inappropriate drug form; 8.5 Inappropriate timing of administration). The PIs related to 9.2 Patient's non compliance, 2.0 Untreated indication and 3.2 Length of the treatment too short were infrequent (less than 1%). The most common type of intervention was the dose adjustment. Almost 45% of these PIs involved Zopiclone or Zolpidem prescription in elderly patients. Seven hundred and nine drug interactions were identified by pharmacists. The most common type of drug interaction considered the risk of cardiac arrhythmias due to antipsychotic medications. One hundred and thirty-three PIs concerned adverse drug reaction. The most frequent adverse drug reactions were a fall (36 PIs), hemorrhage/bleeding (32 PIs

  7. Prevalence of psychotropic drug use in military police units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Yonamine, Maurício; Ramos, Andrea Luciana Martins; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Rodrigues, Caroline Rego; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to verify the prevalence of psychoactive drug use (amphetamines, methamphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opioids and benzodiazepines) among military police officers in the state of Goiás. Data were obtained from urine samples voluntarily provided by the officers participating in the study, who were informed of the study methods and signed a free and informed consent form. The samples were subject to screening analysis by immunochromatography (Multi-DrugOneStep Test®), with positive tests confirmed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data analyzed by descriptive statistics. The results indicated the presence of the following drugs: amphetamines (0.33%), cannabinoids (0.67%) and benzodiazepines (1.34%); 97.66% showed negative results. The positive cases were distributed as follows: benzodiazepines (57.1%); cannabinoids (28.6%) and amphetamines (14.3%). In conclusion, the detection of psychoactive substances in voluntary sampling of military police officers indicates the need to implement drug testing among active military officers and preventive public policies aimed at eliminating the abusive consumption of psychotropic drugs.

  8. Pulmonary fibrosis associated with psychotropic drug therapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Clare

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sertraline and Risperidone are commonly used psychotropic drugs. Sertraline has previously been associated with eosinopilic pneumonia. Neither drug is recognised as a cause of diffuse fibrotic lung disease. Our report represents the first such case. Case Presentation We describe the case of a 33 year old Asian male with chronic schizophrenia who had been treated for three years with sertraline and risperidone. He presented to hospital in respiratory failure following a six month history of progressive breathlessness. High resolution CT scan demonstrated diffuse pulmonary fibrosis admixed with patchy areas of consolidation. Because the aetiology of this man's diffuse parenchymal lung disease remained unclear a surgical lung biopsy was undertaken. Histological assessment disclosed widespread fibrosis with marked eosinophillic infiltration and associated organising pneumonia - features all highly suggestive of drug induced lung disease. Following withdrawal of both sertraline and risperidone and initiation of corticosteroid therapy the patient's respiratory failure resolved and three years later he remains well albeit limited by breathlessness on heavy exertion. Conclusion Drug induced lung disease can be rapidly progressive and if drug exposure continues may result in respiratory failure and death. Prompt recognition is critical as drug withdrawal may result in marked resolution of disease. This case highlights sertraline and risperidone as drugs that may, in susceptible individuals, cause diffuse pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. Joint association of physical activity and overweight with subsequent psychotropic medication: a register-linked follow-up study among employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponen, Tiina; Lallukka, Tea; Holstila, Ansku; Lahti, Jouni

    2015-10-03

    Physical activity level and overweight have shown associations with mental health problems but it is not known whether the risk of mental health problems due to overweight varies by physical activity. We examined joint association of physical activity and overweight with subsequent psychotropic medication among 40-60-year-old employees. The questionnaire survey data were derived from Helsinki Health Study baseline postal questionnaires in 2000-02 among employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60 years (n = 8960, response rate 67%). Baseline survey data were linked with prospective register data on prescribed psychotropic medication (ATC-codes N05 and N06, except N06D) among those with written consent (74%) for such linkage. The analyses included 6169 responders (78% women, corresponding to the target population). We divided participants into six groups according to their baseline self-reported body mass index and leisure-time physical activity using physically highly active normal-weight participants as a reference group. We used Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, psychotropic medication prior to baseline, and socioeconomic position, marital status, working conditions, limiting long-standing illness, alcohol use, and smoking. At baseline, 49% were overweight and 23% were physically inactive. After adjusting for age and gender, inactive normal-weight (hazard ratio (HR) 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5), moderately active overweight (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5) and inactive overweight (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6) had higher risk for any psychotropic medication compared with group of highly active normal-weight. After adjusting for prior medication, only the inactive overweight group had higher risk (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6). Other covariates made but a minor contribution to the examined associations. For antidepressants the associations were somewhat stronger than for sedatives. Both normal-weight and physical activity help prevent psychotropic medication but physical

  10. Is psychotropic medication use related to organisational and treatment culture in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Kathryn; Kerse, Ngaire; Moyes, Simon; Scahill, Shane; Chen, Charlotte; Hong, Jae Beom; Hughes, Carmel M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between organisational culture and psychotropic medication use in residential care. Cross-sectional analyses of staff and resident's record survey in residential aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). The competing values framework categorised organisational culture as clan, hierarchical, market driven or adhocracy and was completed by all staff. The treatment culture tool categorised facilities as having resident centred or traditional culture and was completed by registered nursing staff and general practitioners (GP). Functional and behavioural characteristics of residents were established by staff report and health characteristics and medications used were ascertained from the health record. Multiple regression was used to test for associations between measures of culture with psychotropic medication use (anxiolytics, sedatives, major tranquillisers). In total 199 staff, 27 GP and 527 residents participated from 14 facilities. On average 8.5 medications per resident were prescribed and 42 per cent of residents received psychotropic medication. Having a diagnosis of anxiety or depression (odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 1.71, 5.91), followed by persistent wandering (OR 2.53, 95 per cent CI 1.59, 4.01) and being in a dementia unit (OR 2.45, 95 per cent CI 1.17, 5.12) were most strongly associated with psychotropic use. Controlling for resident- and facility-level factors, health care assistants' assignation of hierarchical organisational culture type was independently associated with psychotropic medication use, (OR 1.29, CI 1.08, 1.53) and a higher treatment culture score from the GP was associated with lower use of psychotropic medication (OR 0.95, CI 0.92, 0.98). Psychotropic medication use remains prevalent in residential care facilities in NZ. Interventions aimed at changing organisational culture towards a less hierarchical and more resident-centred culture

  11. Epidemiology of psychotropic drug use in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gaps in mental illness treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Quintana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drugs use in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and establish its relationship with the presence of mental disorders. METHODS: A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals, from the general population of Rio de Janeiro (n = 1208;turn out:81%, 15 years or older, who were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections, and asked about their psychotropic use during a 12 and one-month period before the interview. Data were collected between June/2007-February/2008.The prevalence was estimated with a confidence interval of 95%. The associations between psychotropics use and mental disorders were analyzed through a logistic regression model (Odds Ration - OR. RESULTS: The one-month prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 6.55%, 3.19% for men and 9.13% for women. Antidepressants were the most frequently used drug (2.78%, followed by anorectics (1.65%, tranquilizers (1.61% and mood stabilizers (1.23%. General practitioners issued the highest number of prescriptions (46.3%, followed by psychiatrists (29.3%; 86.6% of the psychotropic drugs used were paid for by the patient himself. Individuals with increased likelihood of using psychotropic drugs were those that had received a psychiatric diagnosis during a one-month period before the study (OR:3.93, females (OR:1.82, separated/divorced (OR:2.23, of increased age (OR:1.03, with higher income (OR:2.96, and family history of mental disorder (OR:2.59; only 16% of the individuals with a current DSM IV diagnosis were using a psychotropic drug; 17% among individuals with a depression-related diagnosis and 8% with Phobic Anxiety Disorders-related diagnosis used psychotropics. CONCLUSION: Approximately 84% of individuals displaying some mental disorder did not use psychotropic drugs, which indicates an important gap between demand and access to treatment. A

  12. No Difference in Psychotropic Medication Use in Cosmetic and General Dermatology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heather K; Lilly, Evelyn; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2016-07-01

    Patients presenting for appearance-related concerns are often perceived as being more difficult (ie, more needy, more difficult to satisfy) than patients presenting for medical dermatologic problems. While the reasons for this perception are many, some hypothesize that this may be related to a higher rate of anxiety, depression, or body image issues among these patients. To determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication use in cosmetic dermatology patients compared to the prevalence of such medication use in general dermatology patients. METHODS & The study was a retrospective chart review of female patients, 18 or older, new to a private practice. Exclusion criteria included dermatologic disorders with known psychosocial comorbidity. Psychotropic medication use was recorded. The percentage of subjects in the medical group (n=156) who reported using psychotropic medications was 22.2% compared to 26.8% in the cosmetic group (n=154; P=0.09). The prevalence of psychotropic medication use among all dermatology patients in our practice was relatively high, but there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of psychotropic medication use in cosmetic dermatology patients compared to general dermatology patients. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):858-861.

  13. A comparison of psychotropic medication prescribing patterns in East of England prisons and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lamiece; Senior, Jane; Frisher, Martin; Edge, Dawn; Shaw, Jenny

    2014-04-01

    While the prevalence of mental illness is higher in prisons than in the community, less is known about comparative rates of psychotropic medicine prescribing. This is the first study in a decade to determine the prevalence and patterns of psychotropic medication prescribing in prisons. It is also the first study to comprehensively adjust for age when making comparisons with the general population. Four East of England prisons, housing a total of 2222 men and 341 women were recruited to the study. On census days, clinical records were used to identify and collect data on all prisoners with current, valid prescriptions for hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antimanic, antidepressant and/or stimulant medication, as listed in chapters 4.1 to 4.4 of the British National Formulary. Data on 280,168 patients were obtained for comparison purposes from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. After adjusting for age, rates of psychotropic prescribing in prison were 5.5 and 5.9 times higher than in community-based men and women, respectively. We also found marked differences in the individual psychotropic drugs prescribed in prison and community settings. Further work is necessary to determine whether psychotropic prescribing patterns in prison reflect an appropriate balance between managing mental illness, physical health risks and medication misuse.

  14. [An analysis of advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch Journal of Psychiatry ('Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereycken, W; Kuyken, K

    2009-01-01

    Through the marketing of psychotropics the pharmaceutical industry is able to influence the way in which psychiatrists practise their profession. To look at the image of psychiatry as reflected in advertisements for psychotropics. method Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the advertisements for psychotropics in the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie between 1999 and 2006. On average 6 per cent of the total number of pages was given over annually to advertisements of psychotropics. The number of pages used for these advertisements changed over the years, with a sharp decline between 2002 and 2004. Before 2002 the majority of advertisements was for antidepressants, but later most of them were for antipsychotics. Three-quarters of the illustrations for antidepressants featured women whereas three-quarters of the illustrations for antipsychotics featured men. In general, the advertisements were of an 'emotional' nature and surprisingly few of them contained any scientific information. The advertisements for psychotropics portrayed a stereotyped image implying that it is mainly women who are depressed and mainly men who are psychotic. In its advertisements the pharmaceutical industry seeks primarily emotional reactions and uses hardly any scientific arguments. We wonder if the editorial boards of scientific journals should perhaps adopt a more critical attitude to these kinds of advertisements.

  15. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  16. Benefits of adherence to psychotropic medications on depressive symptoms and antiretroviral medication adherence among men and women living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Dean G; Kalichman, Seth C; Amaral, Christine; Swetzes, Connie; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O

    2012-04-01

    Psychotropic medications are commonly used for depressive symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS. We examined the relationships between adherence to psychotropic medications, depressive symptoms, and antiretroviral adherence. We assessed depressive symptoms among 324 people living with HIV/AIDS across a 3-month period (70% men; mean age 45 years; 90% African-American). Psychotropic and antiretroviral adherence was assessed using monthly, unannounced telephone pill counts. Multiple-regression and mediation analyses were utilized to examine associations under investigation. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with lower antiretroviral and psychotropic medication adherence. Greater adherence to psychotropic medications regardless of medication class was positively related to higher antiretroviral adherence. Greater adherence to psychotropic medications also significantly mediated the association between depressive symptoms and antiretroviral adherence. This study demonstrates the benefits of adherence to psychotropic medications on both depressive symptoms and antiretroviral adherence. Future work examining psychotropic medication adherence on disease outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS is warranted.

  17. Utilization of psychotropic drugs prescribed to persons with and without HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L. D.; Obel, D; Kronborg, G

    2014-01-01

    on redeemed prescription of psychotropic drugs during 1995-2009. We primarily focused our analyses on HIV-infected individuals with no history of injecting drug use (IDU) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Drug utilization was expressed as defined daily doses per 1000 person-days (DDD/1000PD...... with exposure to HAART or efavirenz was found. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected individuals had a higher utilization of psychotropic drugs than the background population, which was not confined to individuals with a history of IDU or HCV infection. This emphasizes the need to focus on diagnosis of, and appropriate......OBJECTIVES: The objective was to estimate the utilization of psychotropic drugs in HIV-infected individuals compared with that in the background population. METHODS: Using data obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish National Prescription Registry, we analysed aggregated data...

  18. Increased all-cause mortality with psychotropic medication in Parkinson's disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Baandrup, Lone; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Use of medication and polypharmacy is common as the population ages and its disease burden increases. We evaluated the association of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and combinations of psychotropic drugs with all-cause mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD...... of psychotropic medication in PD patients and controls. Hazard ratios were as follows for the medication types: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, PD HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04-1.36; Control HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.64-1.91; benzodiazepines, PD HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.......20-1.76; Control HR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.66-2.43; and combinations of these drugs compared with non-medicated PD patients and controls. Discontinuation of medication was associated with decreased mortality in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of psychotropic medication in the elderly is associated with increased...

  19. Bidirectional longitudinal relationship between leisure-time physical activity and psychotropic medication usage: A register linked follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Mänty, Minna; Svärd, Anna; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahti, Jouni

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the bidirectional relationship between psychotropic medication use and changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among a population cohort study. Phase 1 data were collected by mail surveys in 2000-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, and phase 2 follow up survey was conducted in 2007. Based on self-report, the respondents were classified as inactive and active (≥14.75 MET-hours/week) at the phases 1 and 2. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for subsequent (2007-10) psychotropic medication purchasing according to changes in physical activity (phases 1-2). Odds ratios (OR) for physical inactivity at phase 2 were calculated according to the amount of psychotropic medication between phases 1-2. Overall, 5361 respondents were included (mean age 50 years, 80% women). Compared with the persistently active, the persistently inactive, those decreasing and adopting LTPA had an increased risk for psychotropic medication. Only the persistently inactive remained at increased risk for psychotropic medication use, following the adjustment for prior psychotropic medication use. Compared with those having no medication, the risk for physical inactivity increased as the psychotropic medication increased. Our data suggest that physical activity has an important role in maintaining wellbeing and reducing psychotropic medication usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of psychotropic prescribing and polypharmacy in older hospitalized patients in Ireland: the influence of dementia on prescribing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Kieran Anthony

    2016-08-16

    Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (NPS) are ubiquitous in dementia and are often treated pharmacologically. The objectives of this study were to describe the use of psychotropic, anti-cholinergic, and deliriogenic medications and to identify the prevalence of polypharmacy and psychotropic polypharmacy, among older hospitalized patients in Ireland, with and without dementia.

  1. Factors influencing psychotropic prescription by non-psychiatrist physicians in a nursing home for the elderly in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo Stella

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Although psychotropics are one of the classes of medications most prescribed in nursing homes for the elderly, studies examining prescribing patterns are limited in both number and scope. The present study was undertaken to investigate factors associated with general psychotropic use in a nursing home in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective observational study at the Nursing Home for the Elderly, Institute of Biosciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista. METHODS: Information on prescriptions was retrieved from the medical records of 108 elderly residents in a nursing home. Sixty-five of these patients, with mean age 74.5 years (± standard deviation 9.4 years, who were taking medications on a regular basis, comprised the sample. The effects of demographic and clinical variables on the psychotropic prescription pattern were examined. RESULTS: Females were more likely to receive psychotropics (p = 0.038. Individuals on medicines for cardiovascular diseases received psychotropics less frequently (p = 0.001. The number of prescribed psychotropics correlated negatively with both age (p = 0.009 and number of non-psychotropic drugs (p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: Although preliminary, the present results indicated that cardiovascular disease was the clinical variable that most influenced psychotropic prescription. Physicians' overconcern regarding drug interactions might at least partially explain this result. Further investigations involving larger sample sizes from different regions are warranted to confirm these findings.

  2. Psychotropic drug use in people with intellectual disability: patterns of use and critical evaluation : patterns of use and critical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheifes, A.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with psychotropic drugs is highly prevalent in people with intellectual disability, especially in those with behavioural problems. The high rates of psychotropic drug use in this population is contrasted by the limited evidence on their effectiveness and the high risk of adverse events.

  3. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors anre closely related to number of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    used data from various sources to establish the sales curves of psychotropic drugs in the period 1970 to 2007, based on the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification system and Defined Daily Doses. RESULTS: Fluctuations in sales of psychotropic drugs that cannot be explained by disease prevalence were caused...

  4. Differences in psychotropic drug prescriptions among ethnic groups in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkampf, Laura Christina; Smeets, Hugo M; Knol, Mirjam J; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Braam, Arjan W; De Wit, Niek J

    2010-08-01

    Psychotropic drug use in Europe and the USA has increased in the past 20 years. The rise in mental health-care use instigated a debate about possible differences in prevalence rates between different ethnic groups in the Netherlands, although the exact differences were unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether these minority groups were more or less likely than the native population to receive psychotropic drugs. A descriptive population study was conducted using the Agis Health Database, containing demographic and health-care consumption data of approximately 1.5 million inhabitants of the Netherlands. Rates of prescriptions of psychotropic drugs from 2001 to 2006 and adjusted odds ratios for psychotropic drug prescriptions among native Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan ethnic groups were calculated. These data were analysed using logistic regression, after being adjusted for age, gender and socioeconomic status. The mean year prevalence of psychotropic drug prescriptions from 2001 to 2006 was 14.0%. Except for a decrease in anxiolytic drugs, the prescriptions of psychotropic drugs increased from 2001 to 2006. These trends were the same for all of the ethnic groups considered. Among both the Moroccan and Turkish populations, there was a higher risk of antidepressant and antipsychotic drug prescriptions, and a pronounced lower risk of ADHD medication and lithium prescriptions compared to the native population. Among the Turkish population, the risk of anxiolytic drug prescriptions was greater than in the native population. Compared to the native population in the Netherlands, first- and second-generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants had an increased risk of antidepressant and antipsychotic drug prescriptions and a decreased risk of ADHD medication and Lithium prescriptions. Further research is needed to clarify whether patients of different ethnic backgrounds with the same symptoms receive similar diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  5. Erectile dysfunction in patients taking psychotropic drugs and treated with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Mazzilli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of patients with Erectile Dysfunction (ED receiving psychotropic drugs, the impact of these drugs on hormonal profile, and the efficacy of PDE5-i in these patients. Materials and methods: We recruited 1872 patients referring for ED to our Andrology Unit. Assessment included serum testosterone, gonadotropins, TSH, prolactin, and PSA, and the IIEF-5 questionnaire for ED diagnosis. Inclusion criteria were age 21-75 years and IIEF-5 total score ≤ 21; exclusion criteria included hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, previous prostatectomy, other medication intake, and ED diagnosis prior to psychotropic drug treatment. Efficacy was rated with the IIEF-5 (remission: total score ≥ 22. Results: The prevalence of ED patients treated with psychotropic drugs since ≥ 3 months was 9.5% (178/1872, subdivided according to the drugs used into: Group A, 16 patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (9.0%; Group B, 55 patients with benzodiazepines (30.9%; Group C, 33 patients with antidepressant drugs (18.5%; and Group D, 74 patients with multiple psychotropic drugs (41.6%. Patients in Group A were significantly younger than other groups (p < 0.05. The hormonal profile presented only higher prolactin level in patients treated with antipsychotics, alone or in combination (p < 0.05. Overall, 146 patients received PDE5-i. Remission rate, after three months of treatment, was significantly higher in Group B compared to C and D groups (p < 0.05. Conclusions: A substantial portion of patients receiving psychotropic drugs show ED. Sexual performance in these patients benefits from PDE5-i. Age, effects of psychiatric disorders, psychotropic drugs, and PDE5-i treatment modality accounted for variability of response in this sample.

  6. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J.; Scheers, Tom; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmaco-therapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4

  7. Dealing with sadness, madness and hostility. New psychotropic drug remedies for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present an overview of new forms of psychotropic drug therapy that may be expected to play a role in psychiatric practice in the 1990s. In predicting these future developments, three lines of approach have been followed. Firstly, progress in elucidating basic

  8. Sexual Dysfunction among Females Receiving Psychotropic Medication: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetageri, Veda N.; Bhogale, Govind S.; Patil, N. M.; Nayak, R. B.; Chate, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a known adverse effect of psychotropic medications. Even though sexual difficulties are common among women; very few studies have been carried out in India. Objective: To study the prevalence and nature of SD among females receiving psychotropic medications and to compare the SD among female patients receiving antipsychotics and antidepressants. Materials and Methods: Female investigator conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study on female patients visiting the psychiatry outpatient department. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for SD disorder as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Text Revision. SD severity was measured using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scale. Results: The prevalence of SD in this study was 68.32%. There was more than one SD in 48 (47.52%). FSFI score was significantly low in patients with SD as compared to patients not having SD (P = 0.001). SD was more common in patients who were on combination of antidepressants and benzodiazepines than antidepressant alone or antipsychotic alone. Conclusion: SD was prevalent in more than 50% of female patients on psychotropic drugs. Number of patients on individual psychotropic drugs was so small that a definite conclusion could not be drawn. Study emphasizes the need to carry out similar study on larger number of patients to get better insight into this problem. PMID:27833229

  9. Psychotropic Medication Trends among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Medicaid Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Jane R.; Camacho, Fabian; Leslie, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized psychotropic medication use among Medicaid-enrolled children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders by examining trends over time, including length of treatment and polypharmacy using 4 years of administrative claims data from 41 state Medicaid programs (2000-2003). The data set included nearly 3 million children…

  10. JUVENILE CRIMES CONNECTED WITH NARCOTICS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES TRAFFICKING: CRIMINOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Irina V. Tseveleva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with criminological aspects of juvenile crime in the narcotics and psychotropic substances trafficking. The authors analyzed the main reasons of committing these crimes by teenagers. The proposals for the prevention of minors’ criminal behavior in drug trafficking are drafted.

  11. Off-label use of psychotropic drugs beyond officially approved indications in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marcela Fletscher-Covaleda

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Psychotropic drugs in Bogotá are used, to a great extent, as off-label in indications other than those officially approved. Thus, it is important to strengthen education and control to achieve a rational, effective and safe use of drugs.

  12. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A; Schouw, Marieke L J; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G H; Schrantee, Anouk G M; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Boer, Frits; Ruhé, Henricus G; Denys, D.; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J L; Reitsma, Hans B; Geurts, Hilde M; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  13. The effects of psychotropic drugs on developing brain (ePOD) study: methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, M.A.; Schouw, M.L.J.; Klomp, A.; Tamminga, G.H.; Schrantee, A.G.M.; Bouziane, C.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Boer, F.; Ruhé, H.G.; Denys, D.; Rijsman, R.; Lindauer, R.J.L.; Reitsma, H.B.; Geurts, H.M.; Reneman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  14. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  15. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study: methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhé, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of different

  16. Synthèse, étude toxicologique et activité psychotrope de nouvelles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hilaire

    Pharmacology. Synthèse, étude toxicologique et activité psychotrope de nouvelles arylidènpyridazin-. 3-ones N-substituées. Adnane BENMOUSSA1*, Pascal Manuele KANYONGA2,3, M'Hammed ANSAR1, Amina ZELLOU2, J EL. HARTI1, Jamal LAMSAOURI1, My Abbes FAOUZI2 , Ahmed ZAHIDI1, Hamid BENZIANE1, ...

  17. EFFECTS OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AS BACTERIAL EFFLUX PUMP INHIBITORS ON QUORUM SENSING REGULATED BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Aybey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic drugs are known to have antimicrobial activity against several groups of microorganisms. The antidepressant agents such as duloxetine, paroxetine, hydroxyzine and venlafaxine are shown to act as efflux pump inhibitors in bacterial cells. In order to the investigation of the effects of psychotropic drugs were determined for clinically significant pathogens by using standart broth microdillusion method. The anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS activity of psychotropic drugs was tested against four test pathogens using the agar well diffusion method. All drugs showed strong inhibitory effect on the growth of S. typhimurium. Additionally, quorum sensing-regulated behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production were investigated. Most effective drugs on swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production, respectively, were paroxetine and duloxetine; duloxetine; hydroxyzine and venlafaxine; paroxetine and venlafaxine; venlafaxine. Accordingly, psychotropic drugs were shown strongly anti-QS activity by acting as bacterial efflux pump inhibitors and effection on motility and alkaline protease production of P. aeruginosa.

  18. Increased all-cause mortality with use of psychotropic medication in dementia patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Ibsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    compared with 44,286 control subjects with a minimum follow-up of four years and matched on age, gender, marital status, and community location. Information about psychotropic medication use (benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics) was obtained from the Danish Medicinal Product Statistics. All...

  19. CAN MELATONIN BE EFFECTIVELY USED TO DIMINISH SIDE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AND ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Aleksandrovich Bekker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study and summarize the existing evidence base for the use of melatonin as a mean to counteract or diminish the side effects of various psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, and to provide the reader with relevant conclusions. Methodology. The authors have searched for the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin as a mean to counteract or diminish the side effects of various psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, using the PubMed and Google Scholar as a search tool. Then the authors thoroughly reviewed the data they found. The resulting review is presented in this article. Results. The data we have obtained from this review of the literature indicate that melatonin can be effectively used both in monotherapy and in combination with other therapeutic means in order to reduce several different side effects of psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy. Melatonin also deserves further study in this regard. The evidence base for its use in this manner is very variable in quality for different side effects. For now, the greatest evidence base exists regarding the potential effectiveness of melatonin in the prevention and treatment of drug-induced insomnia, memory and cognitive impairment, akathisia, tardive dyskinesias, and metabolic syndrome. Practical implications. The results we have obtained can be widely applied in psychiatry, neurology and addiction medicine, as well as in all those areas of general medicine, which make use of psychotropic drugs.

  20. Factors Related to Psychotropic Drug Prescription for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Derksen, Els; de Vries, Erica; van der Spek, Klaas; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Gerritsen, Debby L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. Design: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Setting: Twelve NHs in The

  1. Working conditions and psychotropic drug use: cross-sectional and prospective results from the French national SIP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Marion; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Prospective studies exploring the associations between a large range of occupational factors and psychotropic drug use among national samples of workers are seldom. This study investigates the cross-sectional and prospective associations between occupational factors, including a large set of psychosocial work factors, and psychotropic drug use in the national French working population. The study sample comprised 7542 workers for the cross-sectional analysis and 4213 workers followed up for a 4-year period for the prospective analysis. Psychotropic drug use was measured within the last 12 months and defined by the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics or hypnotics. Three groups of occupational factors were explored: classical and emergent psychosocial work factors, working time/hours and physical work exposures. Weighted Poisson regression analyses were performed to adjust for covariates. In the cross-sectional analysis, psychological demands, low social support and hiding emotions were associated with psychotropic drug use. Job insecurity for men and night work for women were associated with psychotropic drug use. In the prospective analysis, hiding emotions and physical exposure were predictive of psychotropic drug use. Dose-response associations were observed for the frequency/intensity of exposure and repeated exposure to occupational factors. This study underlines the role of psychosocial work factors, including emergent factors, in psychotropic drug use. Prevention policies oriented toward psychosocial work factors comprehensively may be useful to reduce this use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of Psychotropic Medication Prescriptions by Psychiatrists for Private Clinic Outpatients in Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Sabahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern and utilisation of psychotropic drug prescriptions by psychiatrists in Kerman Province, Iran. Methods: The prescriptions of 27 psychiatrists were randomly selected from two Iranian public insurance organisations and were analysed for the mean number of drugs/prescriptions, drug category and the most frequently prescribed drug in each category as well as overall. Results: A total of 6,414 prescriptions were analysed. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 2.9. Antidepressants (61.0% were the most frequently prescribed category of psychotropic medications, followed by antipsychotics (29.5%, sedative/hypnotics or anti-anxiety drugs (27.5% and mood stabilisers (18.5%. The combination of antidepressants with antipsychotics was the most commonly prescribed combination (18.8%. Fluoxetine (16.5% and trifluoperazine (13.5% were among the most frequently prescribed antidepressants and antipsychotics, respectively. Clonazepam (10.5% was the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepine agent, followed by alprazolam (8.5%. In terms of total drug utilisation, sertraline (12.4% was the most commonly used psychotropic medication followed by fluoxetine (9.7%, trifluoperazine (6.6%, propranolol (4.5% and clonazepam (3.7%. Conclusion: A high proportion of psychotropic prescriptions in Kerman Province were for antidepressants, followed by antipsychotics and the benzodiazepines. Further research is needed to determine the underlying correlation between prescription practice and the diagnosis and patient characteristics, as well as to investigate the use of different psychotropic medications.

  3. Airborne psychotropic substances in eight Italian big cities: Burdens and behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Psychotropic substances were monitored in eight big cities of Italy over one year, starting in May 2010, in the frame of the Ariadrugs Project. Yearly average concentrations ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.26 ± 0.11 ng/m 3 for cocaine, from 0.05 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 1.37 ng/m 3 for cannabinoids, from 16 ± 6 to 61 ± 28 ng/m 3 for nicotine, and from 1.0 ± 0.8 to 8 ± 7 ng/m 3 for caffeine. Palermo and Turin were the cities suffering the lowest and the highest psychotropic substance concentrations, respectively. Nicotine and cocaine exhibited trends less seasonally modulated than common air toxicants. Caffeine and cannabinoids peaked in winter dropping close to zero from May to August. In Rome, where various anthropic contours were investigated in February 2011, differences were observed both in net concentrations and ratios of psychotropic substances vs. regulated toxicants. Ambient drugs look as a consequence of addiction and their burdens give insights about the corresponding consumes. - Highlights: ► Psychotropic substances (PSs) were monitored in eight big Italian cities over one year. ► The site-to-site and year time modulations of PSs were investigated. ► The PSs contents in the air were plotted vs. air toxicants (O 3 , NO 2 , PM 10 , PAHs). ► The relationships among drug modulations and meteo-climatic variables were studied. ► The results were compared to those of previous investigations. - Both licit and illicit psychotropic substances modulate in space and time along Italy, resulting influenced by both the environmental and human contours.

  4. Psychotropic Drug Prescription in Adolescents: A Retrospective Study in a Swiss Psychiatric University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermot, Nicolas; Jordanov, Véronique; Smogur, Michal; Holzer, Laurent; Eap, Chin B

    2018-04-01

    This retrospective study aims to evaluate off-label prescriptions and administrations of psychotropic medications in adolescents in a university psychiatric hospital in Switzerland. Data were collected during the entire stays from the electronic database for 76 inpatients in 2008 and 76 inpatients in 2014. Data collected included gender, age, psychiatric diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and psychotropic drug prescriptions and administrations. A total of 224 psychotropic drugs (mean 2.9 drugs/patient) were prescribed in 2008 and 268 (mean 3.5 drugs/patient) in 2014. Due to the prescriptions of some drugs as required, only 76% of the prescriptions were actually administered in 2008 (mean 2.3 drugs/patient) and 55% in 2014 (mean 1.9 drugs/patient). Antipsychotics were the most frequently prescribed drugs in 2008 (74% of patients) and 2014 (86% of patients). Anxiolytics were also highly prescribed in 2008 (54% of patients) and 2014 (66% of patients), as well as antidepressants in 2008 (30% of patients), but less in 2014 (13% of patients). Overall, 69% of prescriptions were found to be off label in 2008 and 68% in 2014, according to age, diagnosis, dose, or formulation as approved by Swissmedic. The medication classes with the highest rate of off-label prescriptions were antidepressants (100% for both years), antipsychotics (94% in 2008 and 92% in 2014), and hypnotics (67% in 2008 and 100% in 2014). For both study periods, at least one off-label psychotropic drug prescription and administration was recorded in 96% and 79% of the patients, respectively. The high rate of off-label psychotropic drug use strengthens the need for clinical trials to better evaluate the efficacy and safety of these treatments in adolescents.

  5. Long working hours and use of psychotropic medicine: a follow-up study with register linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, Harald; Albertsen, Karen

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possibility of a prospective association between long working hours and use of psychotropic medicine. Survey data drawn from random samples of the general working population of Denmark in the time period 1995-2010 were linked to national registers covering all inhabitants. The participants were followed for first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. The primary analysis included 25,959 observations (19,259 persons) and yielded a total of 2914 new cases of psychotropic drug use in 99,018 person-years at risk. Poisson regression was used to model incidence rates of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine as a function of working hours (32-40, 41-48, >48 hours/week). The analysis was controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. A likelihood ratio test was used to test the null hypothesis, which stated that the incidence rates were independent of weekly working hours. The likelihood ratio test did not reject the null hypothesis (P=0.085). The rate ratio (RR) was 1.04 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.94-1.15] for the contrast 41-48 versus 32-40 work hours/week and 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.30) for >48 versus 32-40 hours/week. None of the rate ratios that were estimated in the present study were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple testing. However, stratified analyses, in which 30 RR were estimated, generated the hypothesis that overtime work (>48 hours/week) might be associated with an increased risk among night or shift workers (RR=1.51, 95% CI 1.15-1.98). The present study did not find a statistically significant association between long working hours and incidence of psychotropic drug usage among Danish employees.

  6. Psychotropic Drug Use in Physically Restrained, Critically Ill Adults Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Melanie; Burry, Lisa; Cheung, Alexandra; Farquharson, Tara; Traille, Marlene; Mantas, Ioanna; Mehta, Sangeeta; Rose, Louise

    2017-09-01

    Restraining therapies (physical or pharmacological) are used to promote the safety of both patients and health care workers. Some guidelines recommend nonpharmacological or pharmacological interventions be used before physical restraints in critically ill patients. To characterize psychotropic drug interventions before and after use of physical restraints in critically ill adults receiving mechanical ventilation. A single-center, prospective, observational study documenting psychotropic drug use and Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) scores in the 2 hours before and the 6 hours after application of physical restraints. Ninety-three patients were restrained for a median of 21 hours (interquartile range, 9-70 hours). Thirty percent of patients did not receive a psychotropic drug or had a drug stopped or decreased before physical restraints were applied. More patients received a psychotropic drug intervention after use of physical restraints than before (86% vs 56%, P = .001). Administration of opioids was more common after the use of physical restraints (54% vs 20% of patients, P = .001) and accounted for more drug interventions (45% vs 29%, P = .001). Fifty patients had SAS scores from both time periods; 16% remained oversedated, 24% were appropriately sedated, and 16% remained agitated in both time periods. Patients became oversedated (20%), more agitated (10%), less agitated (8%), and less sedated (6%) after restraint use. Psychotropic drug interventions (mostly using opioids) were more common after use of physical restraints. Some patients may be physically restrained for anticipated treatment interference without consideration of pharmacological options and without documented agitation. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  7. Ethnicity, self reported psychiatric illness, and intake of psychotropic drugs in five ethnic groups in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard-Burfield, L; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S E

    2001-09-01

    This study hypothesises that the presumed increased risk of self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and intake of psychotropic drugs among Iranian, Chilean, Turkish, and Kurdish adults, when these groups are compared with Polish adults, can be explained by living alone, poor acculturation, unemployment, and low sense of coherence. Data from a national sample of immigrants/refugees, who were between the ages of 20-44 years old, upon their arrival in Sweden between 1980 and 1989. Unconditional logistic regression was used in the statistical modelling. Sweden. 1059 female and 921 male migrants from Iran, Chile, Turkey, Kurdistan and Poland and a random sample of 3001 Swedes, all between the ages of 27-60 years, were interviewed in 1996 by Statistics Sweden. Compared with Swedes, all immigrants had an increased risk of self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and for intake of psychotropic drugs, with results for the Kurds being non-significant. Compared with Poles, Iranian and Chilean migrants had an increased risk of psychiatric illness, when seen in relation to a model in which adjustment was made for sex and age. The difference became non-significant for Chileans when marital status was taken into account. After including civil status and knowledge of the Swedish language, the increased risks for intake of psychotropic drugs for Chileans and Iranians disappeared. Living alone, poor knowledge of the Swedish language, non-employment, and low sense of coherence were strong risk factors for self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and for intake of psychotropic drugs. Iranian, Chilean, Turkish and Kurdish immigrants more frequently reported living in segregated neighbourhoods and having a greater desire to leave Sweden than their Polish counterparts. Evidence substantiates a strong association between ethnicity and self reported longstanding psychiatric illness, as well as intake of psychotropic drugs. This association is weakened by marital status

  8. Regional changes in psychotropic use among Finnish persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease in 2005-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maija Tolppanen

    Full Text Available To describe and compare temporal changes in prevalence and incidence of psychotropic use (antipsychotics, antidepressants and benzodiazepines and related drugs; BZDRs in persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD between university hospital districts of Finland during 2005-2011.The MEDALZ study includes all community-dwellers of Finland who received a clinically verified AD diagnosis in 2005-2011 (N = 70,718. Prevalent and incident use of psychotropics among those who had received AD diagnosis less than one year ago were compared in 2005-2011.Regional differences in psychotropic use between university hospital districts were more evident in 2005 than 2011 for prevalent use of any psychotropic, antipsychotic and BZDRs and incident use of any psychotropic and antipsychotics. Regional differences in prevalent antidepressant use and incident BZDR use remained similar during the follow-up, while differences in incident antidepressant use increased during the follow-up. The prevalence of any psychotropic use in 2005 varied between 44.7-50.7% and between 45.0-47.9% in 2011. Incidence of any psychotropic use in 2005 was between 8.6-12.1% and 6.2-8.2% in 2011. In 2005, the distribution of incident psychotropic use followed a large scale spatial variation that, however, did not correspond to university hospital districts. During the study period from 2005 to 2011 the cyclic spatial variation disappeared. No sign of adjacent hospital districts being more or less closely related to each other compared to hospital districts in general was detected.Except for antidepressants, regional differences in psychotropic use have mainly diminished between 2005 and 2011. Our findings highlight the importance of acknowledging regional differences in a country with relatively homogeneous healthcare system and conducting future studies assessing the reasons behind these differences.

  9. Relationship between Organizational Culture and the Use of Psychotropic Medicines in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Chen, Timothy F

    2018-03-01

    Psychotropic medicines are commonly used in nursing homes, despite marginal clinical benefits and association with harm in the elderly. Organizational culture is proposed as a factor explaining the high-level use of psychotropic medicines. Schein describes three levels of culture: artifacts, espoused values, and basic assumptions. This integrative review aimed to investigate the facets and role of organizational culture in the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes. Five databases were searched for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method empirical studies up to 13 February 2017. Articles were included if they examined an aspect of organizational culture according to Schein's theory and the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes for the management of behavioral and sleep disturbances in residents. Article screening and data extraction were performed independently by one reviewer and checked by the research team. The integrative review method, an approach similar to the method of constant comparison analysis was utilized for data analysis. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria: 13 used quantitative methods, 9 used qualitative methods, 1 was quasi-qualitative, and 1 used mixed methods. Included studies were found to only address two aspects of organizational culture in relation to the use of psychotropic medicines: artifacts and espoused values. No studies addressed the basic assumptions, the unsaid taken-for-granted beliefs, which provide explanations for in/consistencies between the ideal use of psychotropic medicines and the actual use of psychotropic medicines. Previous studies suggest that organizational culture influences the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes; however, what is known is descriptive of culture only at the surface level, that is the artifacts and espoused values. Hence, future research that explains the impact of the basic assumptions of culture on the use of psychotropic medicines is important.

  10. Association between prescribing of cardiovascular and psychotropic medications and hospital admission for falls or fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Rupert A; Abel, Gary A; Simpson, Colin R; Maxwell, Simon R J

    2013-04-01

    Falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This study examined the frequency of hospital admission for falls or fractures, and the association with a recent change in the use of cardiovascular and psychotropic medications. We conducted a retrospective case-cohort study of 39,813 patients aged >65 years from 40 Scottish general practices. Data on current prescriptions, dates of drug changes (defined as increases in dose or starting new drugs), diagnoses and clinical measurements were extracted from primary care electronic records, linked to national hospital admissions data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the association of change in prescribing of cardiovascular or psychotropic medication with admission to hospital for falls or fractures in the following 60 days. A total of 838 patients (2.1 %) were admitted in the 1-year study period. Following adjustment for factors including age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, co-morbidity and current prescribing, changes in both cardiovascular and psychotropic medications were associated with subsequent admission for falls or fractures (odds ratio [OR] 1.54 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.03] and 1.68 [95 % CI 1.28-2.22], respectively). There was no evidence for a difference in the effect of change in medication for different cardiovascular drug types (p = 0.86), but there was evidence (p = 0.003) for variation in the association between change in different psychotropic medications and admission; the strongest associations were observed for changes in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 1.99 [95 % CI 1.29-3.08]), non-SSRI/tricyclic antidepressants (OR 4.39 [95 % CI 2.21-8.71]) and combination psychotropic medication (OR 3.05 [95 % CI 1.66-5.63]). Recent changes in psychotropic and cardiovascular medications are associated with a substantial increase in risk of hospital admission for falls and fractures. Caution should thus be taken when

  11. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  12. Psychiatric disorders, psychotropic medication use and falls among women: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A; Stuart, Amanda L; Jacka, Felice N; Brennan, Sharon L; Dobbins, Amelia G; Honkanen, Risto; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Rauma, Päivi H; Berk, Michael

    2015-04-08

    Psychotropic agents known to cause sedation are associated with an increased risk of falls, but the role of psychiatric illness as an independent risk factor for falls is not clear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders, psychotropic medication use and falls risk. This study examined data collected from 1062 women aged 20-93 yr (median 50 yr) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, a large, ongoing, population-based study. Depressive and anxiety disorders for the preceding 12-month period were ascertained by clinical interview. Current medication use and falls history were self-reported. Participants were classified as fallers if they had fallen to the ground at least twice during the same 12-month period. Anthropometry, demographic, medical and lifestyle factors were determined. Logistic regression was used to test the associations, after adjusting for potential confounders. Fifty-six women (5.3%) were classified as fallers. Those meeting criteria for depression within the past 12 months had a 2.4-fold increased odds of falling (unadjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5). Adjustment for age and mobility strengthened the relationship (adjusted OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.2) between depression and falling, with results remaining unchanged following further adjustment for psychotropic medication use (adjusted OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.6). In contrast, past (prior to 12-month) depression were not associated with falls. No association was observed between anxiety and falls risk. Falling was associated with psychotropic medication use (unadjusted OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.2), as well as antidepressant (unadjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8) and benzodiazepine use (unadjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-7.3); associations remained unchanged following adjustment for potential confounders. The likelihood of falls was increased among those with depression within the past 12 months, independent of psychotropic medication

  13. Public health nurses' perception of their roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents: a phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenak, Anne Kjersti Myhrene; Nordström, Gun; Hartz, Ingeborg; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the paper was to describe the perceptions of public health nurses' roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents. Mental health problems among adolescents are documented with studies indicating an increased use of psychotropic drugs. In Norway, care for such adolescents may fall naturally into the remit of public health nurses. A phenomenographic approach was used to analyse the data. A qualitative interview study was made of 20 Norwegian public health nurses, strategically chosen using phenomenographic methodology. The public health nurses described three categories: discovering public health nurses who become aware of psychotropic drug use in the health dialogue with adolescents and choose to either act or not act in relation to psychotropic drug use. Those public health nurses who take action are cooperating public health nurses, who cooperate with adolescents, their families, schools and others. If cooperation has been established, supporting public health nurses teach and support the adolescent in relation to psychotropic drug use. The public health nurses who do not act can hinder or delay further treatment. Public health nurses need to acquire knowledge about psychotropic drugs, to fulfil their role in nursing mental health problems among adolescents and the increasing use of psychotropic drugs. The results demonstrated that public health nurses, working in health centres and schools, have the responsibility and the opportunity to identify young people struggling with mental health problems and psychotropic drug use as well as teach and support significant others, e.g. parents and siblings. Intervention studies are needed with regard to health promotion programmes aimed at fortifying young people's mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Public health nurses’ perception of their roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents: a phenomenographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenak, Anne Kjersti Myhrene; Nordström, Gun; Hartz, Ingeborg; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives The purpose of the paper was to describe the perceptions of public health nurses’ roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents. Background Mental health problems among adolescents are documented with studies indicating an increased use of psychotropic drugs. In Norway, care for such adolescents may fall naturally into the remit of public health nurses. Design A phenomenographic approach was used to analyse the data. Method A qualitative interview study was made of 20 Norwegian public health nurses, strategically chosen using phenomenographic methodology. Results The public health nurses described three categories: discovering public health nurses who become aware of psychotropic drug use in the health dialogue with adolescents and choose to either act or not act in relation to psychotropic drug use. Those public health nurses who take action are cooperating public health nurses, who cooperate with adolescents, their families, schools and others. If cooperation has been established, supporting public health nurses teach and support the adolescent in relation to psychotropic drug use. Conclusion The public health nurses who do not act can hinder or delay further treatment. Public health nurses need to acquire knowledge about psychotropic drugs, to fulfil their role in nursing mental health problems among adolescents and the increasing use of psychotropic drugs. Relevance to clinical practice The results demonstrated that public health nurses, working in health centres and schools, have the responsibility and the opportunity to identify young people struggling with mental health problems and psychotropic drug use as well as teach and support significant others, e.g. parents and siblings. Intervention studies are needed with regard to health promotion programmes aimed at fortifying young people's mental health. PMID:25639291

  15. Successful Management of Psychotropics Induced Stuttering Priapism with Pseudoephedrine in a Patient with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippaiah, Srinagesh Mannekote; Nagaraja, Soumya; Birur, Badari; Pandurangi, Ananda

    2018-02-05

    Stuttering Priapism is a recurrent, persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual desire due to altered genital hemodynamics, affecting the arterial component (high flow, non-ischemic) or the veno-occlusive mechanism (low flow, ischemic). Both typical and atypical antipsychotics increase the risk for priapism with greater implications in typicals than atypicals. Prompt recognition and treatment are important as 40% to 50% of patients with stuttering priapism may develop an erectile dysfunction if left untreated. There are several case reports in the literature about the association between psychotropic agents and priapism. However, there are no reports of successfully treating stuttering priapism using pseudoephedrine (sudafed) in the adult population. Here we present successful management of psychotropics induced stuttering priapism with pseudoephedrine in a male patient with schizophrenia.

  16. Effects of psychotropic drugs and psychiatric illness on vocational aptitude and interest assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, E; Fekken, G C

    1986-07-01

    This study examined the vocational aptitude and interest scores of 326 inpatients at a large urban psychiatric hospital. The inpatient group performed significantly below the adult normative mean on eight of nine General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) aptitude measures; the single exception was Verbal Aptitude. Further, GATB aptitude scores (adjusted for age and education) were significantly lower for patients who were receiving (N = 210) psychotropic medication than for patients who were not receiving (N = 114) psychotropic medication, again with the exception of Verbal Aptitude. Differentiation of patients into subsamples who were receiving particular drugs or drug combinations indicated that phenothiazines in combination with Anti-Parkinsonians were associated with the poorest GATB performances. Interestingly, self-reported vocational interests were not related in any systematic fashion to receiving medication. A variety of explanations that may account for these findings, including drug side-effects and severity or type of psychiatric disorder, were investigated. Implications for vocational counselors were discussed.

  17. Number and type of psychotropic drugs on the Scandinavian market in 1950-1977

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemminki, E; Pesonen, T; Hansen, E H

    1981-01-01

    This article describes the number and types of psychotropic drugs on the market in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from 1950-1977. The total number of drugs on the market in each country depended greatly on how psychotropic drugs were defined, but trends with time and differences between...... the countries were less affected by this definition. The number of drugs was highest in Finland and lowest in Norway. In all countries, the number of drugs increased from 1950 to the mid-1960s, most abruptly in Finland. They then quickly decreased in Finland and Sweden, but remained fairly constant in Denmark...... numbers of combination drugs contributed greatly to the wide differences in the number of drugs. From the medical point of view, far too many drugs were on the market in that period....

  18. [Effect of psychotropic drugs on activity of anticonvulsants in maximal electroshock test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikina, N A; Tregubov, A L; Kotegov, V P

    2010-08-01

    The effect ofpsychotropic drugs on the pharmacological properties of anticonvulsants was studied on white mice under maximal electroshock (ME) test conditions. Changes in the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital, diphenin, carbamazepine, hexamidine were traced upon their joint administration with psychotropic drugs, including piracetam, aminalon, amitriptyline, imizine, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate. An important result of research is the fact, that in no one of combinations the basic pharmacological effect of anticonvulsants was decreased. Based on the results of experiments, the most rational combinations of anticonvulsants with psychotropic preparations were revealed as manifested in the ME test. As criterion of rational combination was the increase in the activity of anticonvulsants and reduction of their toxicity in combination or at least invariance of this parameter. Rational combinations include (i) phenobarbital with piracetam, amitriptyline, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate; (ii) carbamazepine with piracetam; and (iii) hexamidine with amitriptyline, levomepromazine and imizine.

  19. Identification of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and beta-carbolines in psychotropic ayahuasca beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Aroni, Kyriaki; Rossi, Riccardo; Moretti, Luca; Bacci, Mauro

    2008-10-01

    Recently many people have shown great interest in traditional indigenous practices and popular medicine, involving the ingestion of natural psychotropic drugs. We received a request to analyze and determine the nature of a dark green liquid with a dark brown plant sediment, which the police had seized at an airport and inside the home of a person belonging to the 'Santo Daime' religious movement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the extract identified N,N-dimethyltryptamine, a potent hallucinogen, and the beta-carboline alkaloids harmine and harmaline, revealing monoamine oxidase A-inhibiting properties. These substances are typical components of Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic beverage obtained by boiling the bark of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi together with the leaves of various admixture plants, principally Psychotria viridis.

  20. Oral health in patients taking psychotropic medications: Results from a pharmacy-based pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Lisa J; Swigart, Kimberly; McNelis, Gavin; Milgrom, Peter; Downing, Donald F

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with mental illness face an increased risk of oral disease compared with those without mental illness. The goals of this study were to examine the self-reported oral health and dental access of individuals filling psychotropic medication prescriptions and to determine whether pharmacy patients would choose to speak with a pharmacist about their oral health if given the option to do so. Pharmacists across 6 community pharmacies within a local chain identified and surveyed adult patients filling prescriptions for psychotropic medications. Surveys included questions about oral health, dry mouth, and dental care utilization. Six community pharmacy locations. Adults (≥18 years of age) filling prescriptions for psychotropic medications. Not applicable. Self-reported oral health, dental utilization, desire to discuss oral health with a pharmacist. Participants (N = 178) filling prescriptions were mostly (65.9%) female with a mean age of 48.2 years (SD 14.3, range 19-82 years). One in 4 (24.9%) said their mouths "always" or "frequently" felt dry; these individuals were significantly more likely to have last seen a dentist for emergency (rather than routine) treatment (P oral health as significantly worse (P oral health; they reported poorer oral health than those who opted not to speak with a pharmacist (P oral health than patients without dry mouth. Although dry mouth and poor oral health were common in this sample of individuals taking psychotropic medications, this did not consistently translate into seeking information regarding oral health. Future research will focus on pharmacist-initiated oral health interventions with high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Educational gradients in psychotropic medication use among older adults in Costa Rica and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Dow, William H; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The relationship of education, psychiatric diagnoses, and use of psychotropic medication has been explored in the United States, but little is known about this relationship in poorer countries, despite the high burden of mental illness in these countries. This study estimated educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic drug use in the United States and Costa Rica, a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Analyses were conducted by using data of older adults (≥60) from the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=4,788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (N=2,827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of education level (low, medium, or high) and urban residence on the rates of self-reported mental health diagnoses, screening diagnosis, and psychotropic medication use with and without an associated psychiatric diagnosis. Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the United States (12%) than in Costa Rica (20%), possibly reflecting differences in survey wording. In both countries, the odds of having depression were significantly lower among persons with high education. In Costa Rica, use of psychotropic medication among persons with self-reported diagnoses increased by education level. The educational gradients in medication use were different in the United States and Costa Rica, and stigma and access to care in these countries may play an important role in these differences, although type of insurance did not affect educational gradients in the United States. These analyses increase the evidence of the role of education in use of the health care system.

  2. Psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in old age: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Piirtola, Maarit; Vahlberg, Tero; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2010-07-06

    There is evidence that the use of any psychotropic and the concomitant use of two or more benzodiazepines are related to an increased risk of fractures in old age. However, also controversial results exist. The aim was to describe associations between the use of a psychotropic drug, or the concomitant use of two or more of these drugs and the risk of fractures in a population aged 65 years or over. This study was a part of a prospective longitudinal population-based study carried out in the municipality of Lieto, South-Western Finland. The objective was to describe gender-specific associations between the use of one psychotropic drug [benzodiazepine (BZD), antipsychotic (AP) or antidepressant (AD)] or the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in a population 65 years or over. Subjects were participants in the first wave of the Lieto study in 1990-1991, and they were followed up until the end of 1996. Information about fractures confirmed with radiology reports in 1,177 subjects (482 men and 695 women) during the follow-up was collected from medical records. Two follow-up periods (three and six years) were used, and previously found risk factors of fractures were adjusted as confounding factors separately for men and women. The Poisson regression model was used in the analyses. The concomitant use of two or more BZDs and the concomitant use of two or more APs were related to an increased risk of fractures during both follow-up periods after adjusting for confounding factors in men. No similar associations were found in women. The concomitant use of several BZDs and that of several APs are associated with an increase in the risk of fractures in older men. Our findings show only risk relations. We cannot draw the conclusion that these drug combinations are causes of fractures.

  3. Adverse drug reactions monitoring of psychotropic drugs: a tertiary care centre study

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    Hemendra Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many new psychotropic drugs/ agents have been developed and found to be effective in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, these drugs also exhibit adverse drug reactions (ADRs which may affect compliance in psychiatric patients. Hence the present study was aimed at monitoring and assessing ADRs caused by psychotropic drugs. Methods: A hospital based prospective observational study was carried out in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital for the duration of six months. Two hundred and two patients were included in the study and ADRs were documented using a predesigned data collection form. The causality assessment was carried out as per the criteria of both the World Health Organization- Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC and Naranjo scale. Severity and predictability assessment of ADRs were also performed. Results: A total of 106 ADRs were observed during the study period with majority of them occurring in 25-35 years of age group (40.56%. Weight gain (18.86% followed by sedation (16.03% and insomnia (11.32% were found to be the commonest ADRs. Risperidone (19.8% and escitalopram (12.3% were the drugs responsible for majority of the ADRs. Causality assessment showed that most of ADRs were possible and probable. 94.33% of ADRs were found to be mild and 89% of them were predictable. Conclusion: A wide range of ADRs affecting central nervous and metabolic systems were reported with psychotropic drugs. The study findings necessitate the need for an active pharmacovigilance programme for the safe and effective use of psychotropics.

  4. Pattern of Psychotropic Drug Prescription in the Elderly with Chronic Schizophrenia

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    Mohamad Reza Khodaei Ardakani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Psychotropic drug use in the elderly with chronic schizophrenia is an important issue in the field of psychiatry. The main goal of this study was to clarify the pattern of such drug use in these patients, in order to consider such therapy plan and focus on its cost attributing measures, for a more reasonable quality of care program. Methods: In this descriptive study, participants included 52 elderly patients at Tehran’s Razi Mental Hospital who had chronic schizophrenia in the residual phase. Selected patients were taking at least two psychotropic drugs equivalent to 500mg Chlorpromazine. We prepared the list of the drugs used by completing the pre-designed questionnaire charts. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17. Results: In one case (1.92% the entries were Risperidone, Chlorpromazine, Fluphenazine Decanoate, & Thiothixene. In 11 cases (21.2% there were three entries and in 40 cases (76.8% there were two. The Chlorpromazine equivalent dose in each group ranged from the lowest dose (750 mg to the highest (5600 mg. The highest Chlorpromazine dose (5600 mg equivalent per milligram belonged to the four entries of (Risperidone, Chlorpromazine, Fluphenazine Decanoate & Thiothixene. The lowest Chlorpromazine dose (750 mg was seen in 3 entries of Risperidone, Chlorpromazine & Fluphenazine Decanoate. Discussion: There was a high prevalence of using more than two psychotropic medications from the first atypical antipsychotic category. Less frequently, the second and the third typical antipsychotics were used. We recommend further research into more feasible patterns of psychotropic prescriptions, lowering the amount of medication use and considering their cost-benefits in the elderly with chronic schizophrenia.

  5. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Background/Aim. Pneumonia is the most frequent complication in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning, which results in substantial morbidity and mortality, but which also increases the costs of treatment. Risk factors for pneumonia are numerous: age, sex, place of the appearance of pneumonia, severity of underlying disease, airway instrumentation (intubation, reintubation, etc). The incidence of pneumonia varies in poisoning caused by the various groups of drugs. The aim of this study was to det...

  6. Non-adherence to Psychotropic Medication Among Adolescents - A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häge, Alexander; Weymann, Lisa; Bliznak, Lucia; Märker, Viktoria; Mechler, Konstantin; Dittmann, Ralf W

    2018-01-01

    Whether patients take their medication as prescribed is of increasing importance in adolescent psychiatry since both the number of efficacious pharmaceutical treatments and the rate of prescriptions of psychotropic compounds are on the rise. Previous research showed high rates of medication nonadherence among both adolescents with medical disorders and adult patients with psychiatric disorders. The present review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines and evaluates existing scientific literature concerning adherence to psychotropic medication among adolescents. The goal was to determine rates of nonadherence in this age group as well as the factors associated with it. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive literature search of PubMed from its inception until 15 September 2015 using the keywords "adherence," "compliance," "adolescent," and "psychotropic medication." A total of 607 pertinent articles were collected and screened; 15 publications were selected for detailed review. The studies differed, among other things, regarding sample characteristics, medication type, and indications. Furthermore, the definitions of what constitutes nonadherence and the methods used to assess it varied widely. Nonadherence rates ranged from 6 % to 62 % (median 33 %). Nonadherence to psychotropic medication is a clinically relevant problem among adolescents. Because of the methodological heterogeneity across studies and partially contradictory results, no conclusions could be drawn concerning the influence of factors such as psychopathology, medication type, side effects, the effectiveness of treatment, or family-related factors. Well-designed long-term studies of large patient samples and a consensus regarding definitions are therefore warranted. Such research would facilitate the design of tailored strategies to improve adherence in these patients.

  7. Parental psychosocial attitudes and opinions on the use of psychotropic medication in mental disorders of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Aadil, M.; Hamdani, S.U.

    2018-01-01

    To assess parental practices and attitude regarding administration of psychotropic agents in their children suffering from psychiatric disorders. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Psychiatry Out-Patient Department (OPD) Mayo Hospital conducted over a span of 6 months, from 15 Apr to 15 Oct 2017. Material and Methods: Ninety three individuals were included in the study through non-probability purposive sampling. Informed consent was taken from the parents. A closed ended questionnaire was designed to carry out a targeted survey which was focused on the knowledge and practices followed by parents during their first contact in an outpatient department. Parents were asked whether they believe that psychotropic drugs are effective in the treatment of mental disorders. Results: Results are based on ninety three responders who participated in answering the questionnaire. Eighty turned out and submitted the questionnaire for result compilation and analysis. Participants ranged from 19 to 65 years. Males outnumbered female's patients during the study period by approx, 20%. The study indicated that two third of the patients had family history of mental illness. Common diagnosis included epilepsy, behavioral/ conversion disorders and mental retardation. One thought-provoking finding among parents was that psychotropic drugs lead to certain side effects and somehow effects which may causes biological abnormalities resulting into several medical diseases. Others had a belief that these drugs are addictive and may cause vital organs failure. Conclusion: Mostly parents were of the opinion that are of psychotropic drugs lead to certain side effects and somehow effects brain which may cause biological abnormalities resulting into several medical diseases. (author)

  8. Age-related trends in psychotropic medication use among very young children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dosReis, Susan; Tai, Ming-Hui; Goffman, David; Lynch, Sean E; Reeves, Gloria; Shaw, Terry

    2014-12-01

    The specific objectives were to investigate changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use for each year increase in age from three to six years old among children in foster care and to examine time-varying odds of longer duration of use by each year of age. A retrospective analysis of data on mental health and pharmacy services was conducted for 1,491 children age six and younger who were in foster care in 2010 and had at least 365 days in foster care during 2009-2011. A total of 178 children received at least one psychotropic medication from 2009 through 2011. Psychotropic prevalence and average days of use were calculated for each therapeutic class. Longitudinal regression models assessed the time-varying relationship between year of age and duration of use, controlling for demographic and clinical covariates. Approximately 12% of children age six and younger in foster care for 365 days or more received at least one psychotropic medication over the three-year study period. Prevalence of ADHD medication and antipsychotic medication and duration increased with each year of age (p<.001). In adjusted longitudinal models, each year increase in age was associated with a nearly twofold higher likelihood of longer duration of antipsychotic and ADHD medication use. Young children who initiated antipsychotic and ADHD medications before the age of six continued to receive them for longer periods of time. There is a critical need for long-term studies to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure on children's health and well-being.

  9. The monitoring of trade in and control of psychotropic substances to guard against their diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, I

    1983-01-01

    The establishment of international control of opiates has been an important achievement of the international community; this is substantiated by the fact that, at the beginning of this century, legally manufactured morphine and heroin were the principal sources of illicit supply, whereas at present the illicit traffic in these drugs is supplied from illicit sources. The poppy straw process has helped to promote measures to control opium poppy cultivation in a number of European countries; Turkey has been a successful example of such control. The present large-scale illicit traffic in cannabis resin and cocaine is the consequence of the lack of the implementation of provisions of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, to control the cannabis plant and the coca bush at the national level. The provisions of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, being largely a result of international compromise, are not designed in the best possible way to prevent the diversion of psychotropic substances from legal sources to illicit channels. There are no appropriate provisions for the control and monitoring of international transactions. There is a discrepancy between the rather limited scope of international control of substances listed in schedules III and IV of the 1971 Convention and the much larger scope of control of hypnotics, sedatives and tranquillizers at national levels. The provisions of the 1971 Convention, however, constitute a legal basis for bilateral and multilateral actions for the detection of suspected diversion cases, and offer possibilities of promoting the prevention of diversion of psychotropic substances. At present, the relationship between the control of psychotropic drugs, including the prevention of diversion and the organization of the national drug supply system, as well as the efficacy of national control over pharmaceutical products, has not been fully recognized by the international community.

  10. Relationship between xerostomia and psychotropic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: evaluation using an oral moisture meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, A; Miyachi, H; Tanaka, K; Chikazu, D; Miyaoka, H

    2016-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are most commonly treated with antipsychotic medications, often with the addition of anxiolytics. This study used an oral moisture meter to evaluate xerostomia in patients with schizophrenia taking typical and atypical antipsychotics, anxiolytics and non-psychotropic medications. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria in the Department of Psychiatry, Kitasato University East, and affiliated hospitals were studied. All patients were on psychotropic medications. Patients with diseases associated with xerostomia, such as Sjögren's syndrome I, were excluded. A total of 127 patients were enrolled. Mean oral moisture was 27·81 ± 2·27% (normal, ≥30·0%). A significant association was observed between objective oral moisture and the subjective sense of dry mouth. Multivariate analysis revealed a negative correlation between the number of antipsychotics and, especially, anxiolytics, and the degree of oral moisture. Drug dosages themselves were not significantly correlated with dry mouth. These findings suggest that objective oral moisture measurements show decreased moisture in patients on these medications and that the degree of moisture shows a greater negative correlation with the number, as opposed to the dosages, of psychotropic drugs administered. When patients with schizophrenia visit a dental clinic, it is important for the dentist to accurately assess the degree of oral moisture and to determine the medications being taken. Based on these findings of the association of polypharmacy with xerostomia, dentists are encouraged to inform the psychiatrist of the need to actively manage patients' xerostomia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. On cannabis, chloral hydrate, and career cycles of psychotropic drugs in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelders, Stephen; Kaplan, Charles; Pieters, Toine

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the careers of two psychotropic drugs in Western psychiatry, with a focus on the nineteenth century: Cannabis indica and chloral hydrate. They were used by doctors for similar indications, such as mania, delirium tremens, and what we would now call drug dependence. The two show similar career paths consisting of three phases: initial enthusiasm and therapeutic optimism; subsequent negative appraisal; and finally, limited use. These cycles, which we term "Seige cycles," are generally typical of the careers of psychotropic drugs in modern medicine. However, differences in the careers of both drugs are also established. The phases of chloral show relatively higher peaks and lower valleys than those of cannabis. Chloral is the first typically "modern" psychotropic drug; a synthetic, it was introduced in 1869 at a time of growing asylum populations, pharmaceutical interests, and high cultural expectations of scientific medicine. Cannabis indica, introduced in the 1840s, is typically a "premodern" drug steeped in the climate of cultural Romanticism. We conclude that the analytical concept of the Seige cycle is a useful tool for future research into drug careers in medicine.

  12. Experience of Psychotropic Medication -An Interview Study of Persons with Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülow, Per; Andersson, Gunnel; Denhov, Anne; Topor, Alain

    2016-11-01

    Psychotropic drugs, particularly antipsychotic types, are a cornerstone of the treatment of people with psychosis. Despite numerous studies showing that drug treatment with psychotropic drugs initially alleviates psychiatric symptoms, the proportion of people with mental health problems and symptoms that do not follow doctors' prescriptions, thus exhibiting so-called non-adherence, is considerable. Non-adherence is predominantly seen as a clinical feature and as a patient characteristic that is especially due to patients' poor understanding that they are ill. There is also a widespread notion that non-adherence is of great disadvantage to the patient. This article is based on interviews with 19 persons diagnosed with psychosis. It challenges the notion of patients being either adherent or non-adherent to the doctor's orders. The findings show that persons with psychosis are active agents when it comes to adjusting medication. The interviewees created their own strategies to gain power over treatment with psychotropic drugs. The most common strategies were to adjust the doses or take breaks of varying lengths from the medication. These deviations from prescriptions were important to conceal, not only from their own psychiatrists, but from all psychiatric staff.

  13. Patients with Korsakoff syndrome in nursing homes: characteristics, comorbidity, and use of psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerridzen, Ineke J; Goossensen, M Anne

    2014-01-01

    Very limited literature exists on the care and course of patients with Korsakoff syndrome (KS) living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Even less literature can be found on the pharmacological treatment of behavioral symptoms of KS. The purpose of the present study was to describe baseline characteristics, comorbidity, and the use of psychotropic drugs in institutionalized patients with KS. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 556 patients were included living in ten specialized care units in Dutch nursing homes. Data were collected by means of a retrospective chart review. The majority of patients were men (75%) and single (78%) with a mean age on admission of 56.7 years (SD 8.9, range 29.8-85.3). Mean length of stay was 6.0 years (SD 5.4, range 0.2-33.3). Sixty-eight percent of patients suffered from at least one somatic disease and 66% from at least one extra psychiatric disorder. One or more psychotropic drugs were prescribed to 71% of patients with a great variation in prescription patterns between the different nursing homes. Patients with KS depending on long-term care usually have comorbidity in more than one domain (somatic and psychiatric). The indications for prescribing psychotropic drugs are in many cases unclear and it seems probable that they are often given to manage challenging behavior. Longitudinal studies on the evidence for this prescription behavior and possible alternatives are recommended.

  14. Assessing Potential Vulnerability and Response of Fish to Simulated Avian Predation after Exposure to Psychotropic Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie L. Hedgespeth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic pharmaceuticals present in the environment may impact organisms both directly and via interaction strengths with other organisms, including predators; therefore, this study examined the potential effects of pharmaceuticals on behavioral responses of fish to avian predators. Wild-caught juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis were assayed using a striking bird model after a seven-day exposure to psychotropic pharmaceuticals (the antidepressants fluoxetine or sertraline, or the β-blocker propranolol under the hypotheses that exposure would increase vulnerability to avian predation via increasing the probability of predator encounter as well as degrading evasive behaviors upon encounter. None of the substances significantly affected swimming activity of the fish, nor did they increase vulnerability by affecting encounter probability or evasive endpoints compared to control treatments. Counter to our expectations, fish exposed to 100 μg/L fluoxetine (but no other concentrations or pharmaceuticals were less likely to enter the open area of the arena, i.e., less likely to engage in risky behavior that could lead to predator encounters. Additionally, all fish exposed to environmentally relevant, low concentrations of sertraline (0.12 μg/L and propranolol (0.1 μg/L sought refuge after the simulated attack. Our unexpected results warrant further research as they have interesting implications on how these psychotropic pharmaceuticals may affect predator-prey interactions spanning the terrestrial-aquatic interface.

  15. Prescribing of psychotropic medication for nursing home residents with dementia: a general practitioner survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousins JM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Justin M Cousins, Luke RE Bereznicki, Nick B Cooling, Gregory M Peterson School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing the prescribing of psychotropic medication by general practitioners (GPs to nursing home residents with dementia.Subjects and methods: GPs with experience in nursing homes were recruited through professional body newsletter advertising, while 1,000 randomly selected GPs from south-eastern Australia were invited to participate, along with a targeted group of GPs in Tasmania. An anonymous survey was used to collect GPs’ opinions.Results: A lack of nursing staff and resources was cited as the major barrier to GPs recommending non-pharmacological techniques for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD; cited by 55%; 78/141, and increasing staff levels at the nursing home ranked as the most important factor to reduce the usage of psychotropic agents (cited by 60%; 76/126.Conclusion: According to GPs, strategies to reduce the reliance on psychotropic medication by nursing home residents should be directed toward improved staffing and resources at the facilities. Keywords: dementia, nursing homes, general practitioners, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines

  16. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pneumonia is the most frequent complication in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning, which results in substantial morbidity and mortality, but which also increases the costs of treatment. Risk factors for pneumonia are numerous: age, sex, place of the appearance of pneumonia, severity of underlying disease, airway instrumentation (intubation, reintubation, etc. The incidence of pneumonia varies in poisoning caused by the various groups of drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia in the patients with acute psychotropic drugs poisoning. Methods. A group of 782 patients, out of which 614 (78.5% with psychotropic and 168 (21.5% nonpsychotropic drug poisoning were analyzed prospectively during a two-year period. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made according to: clinical presentation, new and persistent pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography, positive nonspecific parameters of inflammation, and the microbiological confirmation of causative microorganisms. To analyze predisposing risk factors for pneumonia, the following variables were recorded: sex, age, underlying diseases, endotracheal intubation, coma, severity of poisoning with different drugs, histamine H2 blockers, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheter. The univariate analysis for pneumonia risk factors in all patients, and for each group separately was done. The multivariate analysis was performed using the logistic regression technique. Results. Pneumonia was found in 94 (12.02% of the patients, 86 of which (91.5% in psychotropic and 8 (8.5% in nonpsychotropic drug poisoning. In the psychotropic drug group, pneumonia was the most frequent in antidepressant (47%, and the rarest in benzodiazepine poisoning (3.8%. A statistically significant incidence of pneumonia was found in the patients with acute antidpressant poisoning (p < 0.001. Univariate analysis showed statistical significance for the

  17. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hallqvist, Johan; Ljung, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression analysis. Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5) and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2). The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  18. Adverse events and the relation with quality of life in adults with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour using psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifes, Arlette; Walraven, Sanne; Stolker, Joost Jan; Nijman, Henk L I; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2016-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs are prescribed to approximately 30-40% of adults with intellectual disability (ID) and challenging behaviour, despite the limited evidence of effectiveness and the potential of adverse events. To assess the prevalence of adverse events in association with psychotropic drug use in adults with ID and challenging behaviour and to examine the relation of these adverse events with the person's quality of life. The presence of adverse events was measured with a questionnaire that had to be filled in by the physicians of the participants. Movement disorders were measured separately with a standardised protocol. The strength of the association between adverse events and Intellectual Disability Quality of Life-16 (IDQOL-16), and daily functioning was investigated using linear regression analyses, taking into account the severity of disease (CGI-S) as potential confounder. Virtually all of 103 adults with ID and challenging behaviour had at least one adverse event (84.4%) and almost half had ≥3 adverse events (45.6%) across different subclasses. Using psychotropic drugs increased the prevalence of adverse events significantly. Respectively 13% of the patients without psychotropic drugs and 61% of the patients with ≥2 psychotropic drugs had ≥3 adverse events. Having adverse events had a significantly negative influence on the quality of life. A large majority of all patients had at least one adverse event associated with psychotropic drug use. More attention is needed for these adverse events and their negative influence on the quality of life of these patients, taking into account the lack of evidence of effectiveness of psychotropic drugs for challenging behaviour. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Björkenstam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. METHODS: This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5 and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2. The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  20. The prevalence of alcohol and psychotropic drugs in fatalities of road-traffic accidents in Jordan during 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallat, Imad M; Al Ali, Rayyan; Hudaib, Arwa A; Salameh, Ghada A M; Salameh, Rakiz J M; Idhair, Ahmed K F

    2016-04-01

    Several studies confirmed alcohol and psychotropic drug consumption as important risk factors underlying fatal accidents. This paper presents updated toxicological findings in the fatalities of road traffic accidents of Amman district, in order to have an overall picture of the occurrence of these substances in these victims in Jordan. Over a seven-year period (2008-2014), 2743, autopsies were conducted at Jordan University Hospital in which the sum of n = 311 (11.38%) were victims of road traffic accidents. Blood samples from these victims were collected. Toxicology screening for psychotropic drugs and alcohol was conducted on these samples, and the results were analyzed according to age, sex and victim's status. This study revealed that Alcohol and psychotropic drugs were positive in 36.5%, (n = 58) of the cases, and for alcohol alone (n = 13, 37.1%). The majority of the victims were pedestrians (n = 155, 49.8%). Additionally, 29.6% (n = 92) of the cases were of ages 19-29. Detected psychotropic drugs were benzodiazepines, barbiturates. None of the collected specimens were positive for illicit cocaine, amphetamines or cannabis. The results from this study proved the existence of alcohol and psychotropic drugs in the victims of road traffic accidents; Indicating an association between the uses of these substances in accident involvement. Though having some limitations, other conclusions require further data collection, cooperation with related parties in Jordan, and utilizing simple extended toxicological screens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations of traffic noise with self-rated health and psychotropic medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic noise is a common environmental nuisance, which has been thought to increase the risk of many types of health problems. However, population-level evidence often remains scarce. This study examined whether road traffic noise is associated with self-rated health and use of psychotropic medication in a cohort of public sector employees. Data are from the Finnish Public Sector Study cohort. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to link modeled outdoor road traffic noise levels (L den) to residential addresses of 15 611 men and women with cross-sectional survey responses on self-rated health and register-based information on the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics. High trait anxiety scores were used to identify potentially vulnerable individuals. The analyses were run with logistic regression models adjusting for individual and area-level variables. All participants were blind to the aim of the study. Mean level of road traffic noise at participants' home addresses was 52 decibels (dB) (standard deviation 8.1). Noise level >60 dB versus ≤45 dB was associated with poor self-rated health in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14-2.21]. Further stratification revealed that the association was evident only among men with high trait anxiety scores (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). No association was found with psychotropic medication use or among women. Exposure to road traffic noise was not associated with increased use of psychotropic medication, although it was associated with weakened self-rated health among men.

  2. Psychotropic medication in a randomly selected group of citizens receiving residential or home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Schultz, Hanne; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with one or more psychotropic medications (PMs), especially in the elderly, is associated with risk, and the effects of treatment are poorly validated. The aim of this article was to describe the use of PM in a population of citizens receiving either residential care or home...... care with focus on the prevalence of drug use, the combination of different PMs and doses in relation to current recommendations. METHODS: The medication lists of 214 citizens receiving residential care (122) and home care (92) were collected together with information on age, gender and residential...

  3. Motor reactivity of animals exposed to ionizing radiation and treated with psychotropic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwaja, S.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on motor reactivity of animals and the influence of selected psychotropic drugs (fenactil, haloperidol, relanium) on the changes invoked by ionizing radiation were studied experimentally in rats whose motor reactivity was assessed on the basis of conditional reflexes. In unirradiated rats, fenactil and haloperidol, but not relanium, disordered positive conditional reactions. Roentgen irradiation of the rats with a single dose on the whole body caused a drop in positive conditional reactions. Relanium and fenactil enhanced psychomotor activity of rats after exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  4. Motor reactivity of animals exposed to ionizing radiation and treated with psychotropic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szwaja, S [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Krakow (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on motor reactivity of animals and the influence of selected psychotropic drugs (fenactil, haloperidol, relanium) on the changes invoked by ionizing radiation were studied experimentally in rats whose motor reactivity was assessed on the basis of conditional reflexes. In unirradiated rats, fenactil and haloperidol, but not relanium, disordered positive conditional reactions. Roentgen irradiation of the rats with a single dose on the whole body caused a drop in positive conditional reactions. Relanium and fenactil enhanced psychomotor activity of rats after exposure to ionizing radiation.

  5. Combined cannabis/methaqualone withdrawal treated with psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Mark A; Harker, Nadine; Lichtigfeld, Frederick J

    2006-07-01

    This article reports the first single-blind study using psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide (PAN) for treating acute withdrawal states following the abuse of methaqualone combined and smoked with cannabis. Smoked methaqualone combined with cannabis is called "white pipe" (WP). South Africa is the only country in the world where WP is a major form of substance abuse. This article demonstrates in 101 consecutively treated patients given placebo (100% oxygen) followed by PAN that this therapy produced a measurable therapeutic effect (more than 50% improvement) in 87 patients. This study confirms that WP is a form of substance abuse confined mainly to young adult male subjects.

  6. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoebert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 20–30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the effects of cultural diversity on the use of new medications entering the market. As national cultures relate deeply to held values regarding, for example, what is seen as effective versus ineffective or safe versus dangerous, (cultural diversity in decision making around the role of new medications in clinical practice may already be expected from the first day after market authorization. Methods This study examined the relation between cultural diversity, described in Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Indulgence and Long-Term Orientation and utilization of three new psychotropic medications, namely aripiprazole, duloxetine and pregabalin in Europe. Country level sales data of the case study medications were correlated to country-specific scores of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. IMS Health’s MIDAS database has been used for sales data (converted to Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants/day for the case study medications from the market authorization date in 2004 until December 2009 for 23 EU member states. Results Consumption of the case study medications was seen in all countries. In general, pregabalin was used more often than aripiprazole and duloxetine. In 2 years after market authorization, approximately 80% of all countries have reported use of all three molecules. Correlations between Hofstede dimensions individualism, long-term orientation and indulgence and total use of the case study medications tended to become stronger over time, but they were only statistically significant for indulgence at two years after market authorization (rho

  7. Adverse Side Effects of Psychotropic Medication and Challenging Behavior: Pilot Work Assessing Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G; Schieber, Elizabeth; McMahon, Meara; Beard, Lisa; Wilkinson, Alyssa; Carpenter, Jaimie

    2017-12-01

    Psychotropic medications are often prescribed to reduce challenging behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Functional analyses (FAs) have demonstrated utility in assessing medication impact on behavior; however, the impact of adverse side effects (ASE) on challenging behavior is under-assessed. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology, similar to FAs, to explore potential medication ASE impact on challenging behavior in seven individuals with IDD. Results revealed response rate differences in designed ASE conditions for most participants. Outcomes support further development and use of this methodology to assess the presence and impact of ASEs.

  8. Acute liver failure following recreational use of psychotropic "head shop" compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, S; Lambe, E; O'Dea, J

    2011-03-01

    The recreational use of the so-called "legal-highs" has been in both the medical and political arena over the last year as a result of the appearance of "head shops" in many towns in Ireland. These shops specialized in selling new psychotropic compounds that circumvented established drug legislation. Little is known about the potentially harmful effects of these substances but case reports suggest a plethora of harmful psychological and physical effects. Our case describes for the first time acute liver failure associated with the ingestion of two of these amphetamine type compounds.

  9. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebert, J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Leufkens, H G M; van Dijk, L

    2017-11-06

    In the last 20-30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older) psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the effects of cultural diversity on the use of new medications entering the market. As national cultures relate deeply to held values regarding, for example, what is seen as effective versus ineffective or safe versus dangerous, (cultural) diversity in decision making around the role of new medications in clinical practice may already be expected from the first day after market authorization. This study examined the relation between cultural diversity, described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Indulgence and Long-Term Orientation) and utilization of three new psychotropic medications, namely aripiprazole, duloxetine and pregabalin in Europe. Country level sales data of the case study medications were correlated to country-specific scores of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. IMS Health's MIDAS database has been used for sales data (converted to Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants/day) for the case study medications from the market authorization date in 2004 until December 2009 for 23 EU member states. Consumption of the case study medications was seen in all countries. In general, pregabalin was used more often than aripiprazole and duloxetine. In 2 years after market authorization, approximately 80% of all countries have reported use of all three molecules. Correlations between Hofstede dimensions individualism, long-term orientation and indulgence and total use of the case study medications tended to become stronger over time, but they were only statistically significant for indulgence at two years after market authorization (rho = 0.51, p = 0.014) and three years after market

  10. Motivational interviewing: a tool for increasing psychotropic medication adherence for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Vanya; McGuinness, Teena M

    2013-06-01

    There are serious outcomes to nonadherence to psychotropic medications in children and adolescents, including poor school performance, prolonged duration of illness, increased psychopathology, poor interpersonal relationships, increased psychiatric episodes, and suicide attempts. Medication treatment has demonstrated improved psychiatric functioning and a 50% reduction in suicidal behavior. more than 50% of youth with mental health problems are nonadherent with psychiatric medications. A review of literature examining motivational interviewing (MI) for the problem of treatment adherence in children and adolescents is discussed. MI has great potential to improve psychiatric medication adherence in adolescents. An example of how to implement MI with youth is provided.

  11. A three-country comparison of psychotropic medication prevalence in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner James F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to compare cross-national prevalence of psychotropic medication use in youth. Methods A population-based analysis of psychotropic medication use based on administrative claims data for the year 2000 was undertaken for insured enrollees from 3 countries in relation to age group (0–4, 5–9, 10–14, and 15–19, gender, drug subclass pattern and concomitant use. The data include insured youth aged 0–19 in the year 2000 from the Netherlands (n = 110,944, Germany (n = 356,520 and the United States (n = 127,157. Results The annual prevalence of any psychotropic medication in youth was significantly greater in the US (6.7% than in the Netherlands (2.9% and in Germany (2.0%. Antidepressant and stimulant prevalence were 3 or more times greater in the US than in the Netherlands and Germany, while antipsychotic prevalence was 1.5–2.2 times greater. The atypical antipsychotic subclass represented only 5% of antipsychotic use in Germany, but 48% in the Netherlands and 66% in the US. The less commonly used drugs e.g. alpha agonists, lithium and antiparkinsonian agents generally followed the ranking of US>Dutch>German youth with very rare (less than 0.05% use in Dutch and German youth. Though rarely used, anxiolytics were twice as common in Dutch as in US and German youth. Prescription hypnotics were half as common as anxiolytics in Dutch and US youth and were very uncommon in German youth. Concomitant drug use applied to 19.2% of US youth which was more than double the Dutch use and three times that of German youth. Conclusion Prominent differences in psychotropic medication treatment patterns exist between youth in the US and Western Europe and within Western Europe. Differences in policies regarding direct to consumer drug advertising, government regulatory restrictions, reimbursement policies, diagnostic classification systems, and cultural beliefs regarding the role of medication for emotional and behavioral

  12. A computerized stroop test for the evaluation of psychotropic drugs in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, Mur; Pingali, Usha Rani; Shobha, J C; Reddy, A Praveen

    2013-04-01

    The Stroop paradigm evaluates susceptibility to interference and is sensitive to dysfunction in frontal lobes and drug effects. The aim of the present study was to establish a simple and reliable computerized version of Stroop color-word test, which can be used for screening of various psychotropic drugs. The standardized method was followed in all cases, by recording the reaction time (RT) in msec in 24 healthy participants using computerized version of Stroop color-word test. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the RTs by a single experimenter on two sessions (interday reproducibility). Validity of the model was further tested by evaluating the psychotropic effect of Zolpidem 5 mg, Caffeine 500 mg, or Placebo on 24 healthy subjects in a randomized, double blind three-way crossover design. The method was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 10%. Interday reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland-Altman plot with most of the values within ±2SD. There was a significant increase in RTs in Stroop performance with Zolpidem at 1 hr and 2 hrs; in contrast, caffeine significantly decreased RTs in Stroop performance at 1 hr only compared to placebo. The Stroop color-word recording and analysis system is simple, sensitive to centrally acting drug effects, and has potential for future experimental psychomotor assessment studies.

  13. The Neuroprotective Disease-Modifying Potential of Psychotropics in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Lauterbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotective treatments in Parkinson's disease (PD have remained elusive. Psychotropics are commonly prescribed in PD without regard to their pathobiological effects. The authors investigated the effects of psychotropics on pathobiological proteins, proteasomal activity, mitochondrial functions, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, trophic factors, stem cells, and neurogenesis. Only findings replicated in at least 2 studies were considered for these actions. Additionally, PD-related gene transcription, animal model, and human neuroprotective clinical trial data were reviewed. Results indicate that, from a PD pathobiology perspective, the safest drugs (i.e., drugs least likely to promote cellular neurodegenerative mechanisms balanced against their likelihood of promoting neuroprotective mechanisms include pramipexole, valproate, lithium, desipramine, escitalopram, and dextromethorphan. Fluoxetine favorably affects transcription of multiple genes (e.g., MAPT, GBA, CCDC62, HIP1R, although it and desipramine reduced MPTP mouse survival. Haloperidol is best avoided. The most promising neuroprotective investigative priorities will involve disease-modifying trials of the safest agents alone or in combination to capture salutary effects on H3 histone deacetylase, gene transcription, glycogen synthase kinase-3, α-synuclein, reactive oxygen species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS, apoptosis, inflammation, and trophic factors including GDNF and BDNF.

  14. [The different point of view about the sanitary control of importation of psychotropic substances in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Patrícia Cristina Antunes; Lucchese, Geraldo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of importation, that is a part of the sanitary control of psychotropic substances, made by Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency's ports, airports and borders. For this work, psychotropic substances are defined as active pharmaceutical raw materials present in the list B1 of Portaria nº 344/98; which need Anvisa's permission to be imported. For this purpose we used semistructured interviews with key informers and participant observation. The information were collected and systematized through the content analysis, thematic modality. The results show a very complex control which involves an intense bureaucratic process. The main identified critical points of the process were: the information system precariousness; the absence of human resources; deficiency of laboratorial support and infra-structure at customs. Anvisa's web page and the specific law are strong points of the process, but still needing improvements. We understood that despite of the progress made, there are many things to do for giving the country an efficient health control system to the importation of these substances.

  15. Patterns of psychotropic medication use in inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alosaimi FD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Abdulhadi Alhabbad,2 Mohammed F Abalhassan,3 Ebtihaj O Fallata,4 Nasser M Alzain,5 Mohammad Zayed Alassiry,6 Bander Abdullah Haddad71Department of Psychiatry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Prince Mohammed Medical City, Aljouf, 3Department of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 4Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Hospital, Jeddah, 5Department of Psychiatry, Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, 6Medical Services Department, Abha Psychiatric Hospital, Abha, 7Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To study the pattern of psychotropic medication use and compare this pattern between inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia.Method: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between July 2012 and June 2014 on patients seeking psychiatric advice at major hospitals in five main regions of Saudi Arabia. Male (n=651 and female (n=594 patients who signed the informed consent form and were currently or had been previously using psychotropic medications, irrespective of the patient’s type of psychiatric diagnosis and duration of the disease, were included. A total of 1,246 patients were found to be suitable in the inclusion criteria of whom 464 were inpatients while 782 were outpatients.Results: Several studied demographic factors have shown that compared with outpatients, inpatients were more likely to be male (P=0.004, unmarried (P<0.001, have less number of children (1–3; P=0.002, unemployed (P=0.001, have a lower family income (<3,000 SR; P<0.001, live in rural communities (P<0.001, have a lower body mass index (P=0.001, and are smokers (P<0.001; however, there were no differences with regard to age or educational levels. The current frequency of use of psychotropic medications in overall patients was antipsychotics (76.6%, antidepressants (41.4%, mood stabilizers

  16. Genotoxic and immunotoxic potential effects of selected psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, Emilie; Pédelucq, Julie; Fortier, Marlène; Brousseau, Pauline; Auffret, Michel; Budzinski, Hélène; Fournier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The potential toxicity of pharmaceuticals towards aquatic invertebrates is still poorly understood and sometimes controversial. This study aims to document the in vitro genotoxicity and immunotoxicity of psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on Mytilus edulis. Mussel hemocytes were exposed to fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin, at concentrations ranging from μg/L to mg/L. Paroxetine at 1.5 μg/L led to DNA damage while the same concentration of venlafaxine caused immunomodulation. Fluoxetine exposure resulted in genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and cytotoxicity. In the case of antibiotics, trimethoprim was genotoxic at 200 μg/L and immunotoxic at 20 mg/L whereas erythromycin elicited same detrimental effects at higher concentrations. DNA metabolism seems to be a highly sensitive target for psychotropic drugs and antibiotics. Furthermore, these compounds affect the immune system of bivalves, with varying intensity. This attests the relevance of these endpoints to assess the toxic mode of action of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. - Highlights: • Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics affect the immune system of Mytilus edulis. • Genotoxic and immunotoxic endpoints were relevant to assess pharmaceuticals toxicity. • DNA metabolism is a highly sensitive target for pharmaceuticals. • Fluoxetine and paroxetine were the most toxic compounds on mussel hemocytes. - Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics have the potential to cause immune toxicity and genotoxicity on Mytilus edulis hemocytes

  17. Duration of residence and psychotropic drug use in recently settled refugees in Sweden - a register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Hjern, Anders

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently settled refugee populations have consistently been reported to have high rates of mental health problems, particularly Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among young adult refugee...

  18. Racial and ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use among community-dwelling persons with dementia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Elsie L; Allen, Rebecca S; Ivey, Keisha; Knapp, Shannon M; Burgio, Louis D

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about the patterns of psychotropic medication use in community-dwelling minority persons with dementia (PWD). The purpose of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use across a diverse population of community-dwelling PWD and to examine the extent to which caregiver characteristics influence this use. Data were drawn from the baseline assessment of the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health II trial. Generalized linear models were used to identify racial/ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection was used to evaluate possible explanations for observed differences across racial/ethnic group. Differences in anxiolytic and antipsychotic medication use were observed across racial/ethnic groups; however, race/ethnicity alone was not sufficient to explain those differences. Perceptions of caregiving and caregiver socioeconomic status were important predictors of anxiolytic use while PWD characteristics, including cognitive impairment, functional impairment, problem behavior frequency, pain, relationship to the caregiver, sex, and age were important for antipsychotic use. Racial/ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use among community-dwelling PWD cannot be explained by race/ethnicity alone. The importance of caregiver characteristics in predicting anxiolytic medication use suggest that interventions aimed at caregivers may hold promise as an effective alternative to pharmacotherapy.

  19. Exposure to reactive intermediate-inducing drugs during pregnancy and the incident use of psychotropic medications among children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Yen-Hao; Groen, Henk; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Hak, Eelko; Wilffert, Bob

    Purpose Our study aimed to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to reactive intermediate (RI)-inducing drugs and the initiation of psychotropic medications among children. Methods We designed a cohort study using a pharmacy prescription database. Pregnant women were considered

  20. [Autonomy attitudes in the treatment compliance of a cohort of subjects with continuous psychotropic drug administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, M; Trincard, M

    2002-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs are part of a general practitioner's daily routine. As with all drugs, they need to be controlled by a phenomenon of observance. Respecting prescriptions is in fact a major public health concern. Our problematic is centred on the analysis of the association between observance and autonomy in order to gain a better understanding of the links between the drug, how it is to be taken, and how the patients adapt and control it. Identifying and comparing autonomous practices psychotrope users associated with attitudes put into play by those who claim to observe or not to observe their treatment is the aim of this project. The qualitative analysis of the speech is based on the categorial analysis of the contents of 46 transcriptions of 23 women et 23 men continuous (regular monthly intake for at least 5 years), aged between 50 and 65. The majority live in couples, have professional activities, and are executives. The psychotropes with the largest consumption are: anxiolytics and antidepressors. The average duration of their consumption is more than 17 years. Two types of attitude can be distinguished through the qualitative analyse. The attitudes of non-observers towards the psychotropic drug and dependence show controlled, autonomous acts. Autonomy is an influencing factor in their observation of the prescribed treatment, it is a major component of their non-observance regarding psychotropes; thus our hypothesis is confirmed. The strategy adopted around the medication arises from autonomy of action. Organising the treatment is seen as a sign of autonomy, as taking an initiative in relation to the medical prescription, and not as rebellious, or carefree behaviour, or as a sign of inconsistency. Non-observers seem more to be involved in a step towards self-regulation. Active taking verbs such as stop, diminish, increase , and success verbs succeed the I is greatly used, reinforced in some cases by myself ; this vocabulary situates the

  1. Period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication usage among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Keith A; Sikirica, Vanja; Hodgkins, Paul; Zhou, Zhou; Xie, Jipan; DeLeon, Anthony; Erder, M Haim; Wu, Eric Q

    2014-06-01

    Stimulants are recommended as a first-line treatment for attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, a subset of the patient population augments their stimulant treatment with other medications. The objective of this study was to estimate the 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use among children and adolescents with ADHD during 2009. Patients 6-17 years of age with one or more primary ADHD diagnoses between July 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 and one or more stimulant prescription fills during 2009 were identified from a large United States commercial claims database. Concomitant psychotropic medication use, defined as 30 days of continuous medication supply overlap between the augmenting agent and stimulant, was evaluated for 14 distinct psychotropic medication categories (6 with a United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indication for ADHD, 8 without an indication for ADHD). The 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use (both overall and within each medication category) was calculated and compared between patients with and without psychiatric or neurologic comorbidities. Children (6-12 years) and adolescents (13-17 years) were evaluated separately. A total of 71,201 children and 49,959 adolescents met the inclusion criteria. The 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use among children and adolescents was 20.3% and 23.4%, with 5.7% and 6.7% augmenting with two or more medication categories, respectively. The most common concomitant medication categories were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (children: 6.2%; adolescents: 11.4%), atypical antipsychotics (5.8%; 6.8%) and clonidine immediate release (5.4%; 2.9%). Children and adolescents with psychiatric or neurologic comorbidities had higher rates of augmentation than did those without comorbidities (all p<0.001). This epidemiologic study found that the prevalence of concomitant psychotropic

  2. Long Working Hours and Subsequent Use of Psychotropic Medicine: A Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only “very much overtime”, but also “moderate overtime” (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. Objective The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. Methods People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. Results The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015

  3. Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: II. Psychotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppala, Lotta J; Wermelink, Anne M A T; de Vries, Max; Ploegmakers, Kimberley J; van de Glind, Esther M M; Daams, Joost G; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2018-04-01

    Falls are a major public health problem in older adults. Earlier studies showed that psychotropic medication use increases the risk of falls. The aim of this study is to update the current knowledge by providing a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on psychotropic medication use and falls in older adults. This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis. A search was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and Embase. Key search concepts were "falls," "aged," "medication," and "causality." Studies were included that investigated psychotropics (antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics) as risk factors for falls in participants ≥60 years of age or participants with a mean age of ≥70 years. Meta-analyses were performed using generic inverse variance method pooling unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates separately. In total, 248 studies met the inclusion criteria for qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses using adjusted data showed the following pooled ORs: antipsychotics 1.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-1.85], antidepressants 1.57 (95% Cl 1.43-1.74), tricyclic antidepressants 1.41 (95% CI 1.07-1.86), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 2.02 (95% CI 1.85-2.20), benzodiazepines 1.42 (95%, CI 1.22-1.65), long-acting benzodiazepines 1.81 (95%, CI 1.05-3.16), and short-acting benzodiazepines 1.27 (95%, CI 1.04-1.56) Most of the meta-analyses resulted in substantial heterogeneity that did not disappear after stratification for population and healthcare setting. Antipsychotics, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines are consistently associated with a higher risk of falls. It is unclear whether specific subgroups such as short-acting benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are safer in terms of fall risk. Prescription bias could not be accounted for. Future studies need to address pharmacologic subgroups as fall risk may differ depending on specific medication properties. Precise and uniform

  4. Long working hours and subsequent use of psychotropic medicine: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, Harald; Albertsen, Karen

    2014-09-19

    Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only "very much overtime", but also "moderate overtime" (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015. The proposed project will be free from hindsight bias

  5. Questioning the causal link between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring use of psychotropic medication: a sibling design analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Söderström

    Full Text Available A recent population-based, longitudinal study from Finland observed a dose-response association between smoking during pregnancy (SDP and use of psychotropic medications in exposed children and young adults. However, this association may be confounded by unmeasured familial characteristics related to both SDP and offspring mental health. Consequently, we aim to investigate the effect of SDP by means of a sibling design that to some extent allows controlling for unknown environmental and genetic confounders. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register (1987-1993, which was linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drugs Register (July 2005-December 2008, we investigated 579,543 children and among them 39, 007 were discordant for use of psychotropic medication and 4,021 siblings discordant for both use of psychotropic medication and for smoking exposure. Replicating the Finnish study using traditional logistic regression methods we found an association between exposure to ≥10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy and psychotropic drug use (odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.56, 1.66. Similar in size to the association reported from Finland (odds ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval 1.53, 1.74. However, in the adjusted sibling analysis using conditional logistic regression, the association was considerably reduced (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 1.38. Preventing smoking is of major public health importance. However, SDP per se appears to have less influence on offspring psychotropic drug use than previously suggested.

  6. [Treatment with psychotropic agents in patients with dementia and delirium : Gap between guideline recommendations and treatment practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Walter; Thomas, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Psychiatric symptoms in dementia and delirium are associated with a substantially reduced quality of life of patients and their families and often challenging for professionals. Pharmacoepidemiological surveys have shown that, in particular, patients living in nursing homes receive prescriptions of psychotropic agents in significant higher frequency than recommended by current guidelines. This article focuses on a critical appraisal of this gap from the point of view of German healthcare services. Narrative review with special reference to the German dementia guideline from 2016 and recently published practice guidelines for delirium in old age in German and English language. The indications for use of psychotropic agents, especially antipsychotics, are defined narrowly in the German dementia guideline. According to this guideline for several psychopathological symptoms evidence based recommendations cannot be given, currently. For delirium several practice guidelines related to different treatment settings have been published recently. Comparable to the German dementia guideline they recommend general medical interventions and nonpharmacological treatment as first line measures and the use of psychotropic agents only under certain conditions. These guidelines differ to some extent regarding the strength of recommendation for psychopharmacological treatment. The guidelines discussed here advocate well-founded a cautious prescription of psychotropic agents in patients with dementia and delirium. This contrasts to everyday practice which is characterized by significantly higher prescription rates. This gap may explained partially by a lack of evidence-based recommendations regarding certain psychopathological symptoms. Most notably, however, epidemiological data disclose an unacceptable rate of hazardous overtreatment with psychotropic agents, especially in long-term care of persons with dementia. In this situation counteractive measures by consequent implementation

  7. "Psychiatry is not a science like others" - a focus group study on psychotropic prescribing in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenrud, Tove M; Svensson, Staffan A; Wallerstedt, Susanna M

    2013-08-12

    Psychotropic drug prescribing is problematic and knowledge of factors affecting the initiation and maintenance of such prescribing is incomplete. Such knowledge could provide a basis for the design of interventions to change prescribing patterns for psychotropics. The aim of this study was to explore the views of general practitioners (GPs), GP interns, and heads of primary care units on factors affecting the prescribing of psychotropic drugs in primary care. We performed four focus group discussions in Gothenburg, Sweden, with a total of 21 participants (GPs, GP interns, and heads of primary care units). The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using manifest content analysis. Three different themes emerged from the focus group discussions. The first theme Seeking care for symptoms, reflects the participants' understanding of why patients approach primary care and comprised categories such as knowledge, attitudes, and society and the media. The second theme, Lacking a framework, resources, and treatment alternatives, which reflects the conditions for the physician-patient interaction, comprised categories such as economy and resources, technology, and organizational aspects. The third theme, Restricting or maintaining prescriptions, with the subthemes Individual factors and External influences, reflects the physicians' internal decision making and comprised categories such as emotions, knowledge, and pharmaceutical industry. The results of the present study indicate that a variety of factors may affect the prescribing of psychotropic medications in primary care. Many factors were related to characteristics of the patient, the physician or their interaction, rather than the patients' medical needs per se. The results may be useful for interventions to improve psychotropic prescribing in primary care.

  8. Music therapy for reducing agitation and psychotropic medication in nursing home residents with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a neurocognitive disease with a high risk of social isolation and agitation due to loss of cognitive functions. In nursing home residents with dementia, agitation is the most significant symptom causing patient distress and care- giver burden. Agitation is described as abuse or aggres......Dementia is a neurocognitive disease with a high risk of social isolation and agitation due to loss of cognitive functions. In nursing home residents with dementia, agitation is the most significant symptom causing patient distress and care- giver burden. Agitation is described as abuse...... or aggressive or inappropriate behaviour. According to a psychosocial model of care, agitation is understood as attempts to communicate psychosocial needs. The prevalence of agitation is predicted by the psychosocial culture of care, and too often symptoms of agitation are treated with psychotropic medication...

  9. Robust optimization of psychotropic drug mixture separation in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Tijana; Jovanović, Marko; Dumić, Aleksandra; Pekić, Marina; Ribić, Sanja; Stojanović, Biljana Jancić

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents multiobjective optimization of complex mixtures separation in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). The selected model mixture consisted of five psychotropic drugs: clozapine, thioridazine, sulpiride, pheniramine and lamotrigine. Three factors related to the mobile phase composition (acetonitrile content, pH of the water phase and concentration of ammonium acetate) were optimized in order to achieve the following goals: maximal separation quality, minimal total analysis duration and robustness of an optimum. The consideration of robustness in early phases of the method development provides reliable methods with low risk for failure in validation phase. The simultaneous optimization of all goals was achieved by multiple threshold approach combined with grid point search. The identified optimal separation conditions (acetonitrile content 83%, pH of the water phase 3.5 and ammonium acetate content in water phase 14 mM) were experimentally verified.

  10. Psychotropic drug use among persons with mental distress symptoms: a population-based study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Anne M; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Rosvold, Elin O; Bramness, Jørgen G; Furu, Kari

    2007-01-01

    To explore psychotropic drug use in the general population and in particular among non-institutionalized persons with mental distress symptoms. A total of 14,139 women and 11,665 men participating in the Oslo Health Study or the Oppland/Hedmark Study 2000-2001 submitted a self-administered questionnaire on health status and drug use, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Respondents using antidepressants, hypnotics, and/or anxiolytics during the last four weeks were defined as users. A high Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-10 score indicated mental distress. The 15% with the highest score in each gender and age group (adults: 30/40/45 years; elderly: 60 years) were studied. The prevalence of antidepressant use among those with mental distress was, for women: adults 21%; elderly 30%; and for men, adults 15%; elderly 15%. These figures were nearly four times higher than in the general population. Not participating in the labour market was the main factor associated with use of antidepressants for subjects with mental distress: adult women (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-5.0); elderly women (OR 5.2; CI 2.7-10.2); adult men (OR 4.7; CI 3.0-7.3); and elderly men (OR 2.9; CI 1.4-6.0). Use of analgesics was the main factor associated with use of anxiolytics/hypnotics: adult women (OR 2.4; CI 1.7-3.4); elderly women (OR 2.3; CI 1.4-3.8); adult men (OR 2.1; CI 1.3-3.3); and elderly men (OR 3.4; CI 1.9-6.0). Among individuals with mental distress, not participating in the labour market and regular use of analgesics were the main factors associated with use of psychotropics in both genders regardless of age.

  11. Off-label psychotropic prescribing for young persons in medium security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, C; Stubbs, J

    2010-10-01

    Psychotropic drug prescribing for children and adolescents is frequently off-label and has increased over time and can be controversial. Psychotropic prescribing in two large UK medium secure units for young people has been studied. A total of 89 patients were included, 64% being aged less than 18 years. A total of 137 of 202 (67.8%) of prescriptions were off-label. The most common reasons for a prescription being off-label were the indication (N = 103) and the patient's age (N = 41). The main classes of drugs involved were antipsychotics (N = 59), antiepileptics as mood stabilisers (N = 22), anticholinergics and hyoscine (N = 15) and antidepressants (N = 11). Aggression (N = 48) and post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 30) were the most common off-label indications. Some antidepressant prescriptions were contrary to advice of the Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM). Meta-analyses or randomised controlled trials supported 27% of off-label prescriptions, with lesser quality studies supporting a further 29.2% and expert opinion 38.7%, whereas for 5.1% no evidence could be found. Prescribers tended to over-estimate the level of evidence from clinical trials or extrapolated from findings in adults. They often quoted their own experience rather than expert sources to justify their prescribing practice. It is important that prescribers are fully aware of the quality of experimental data and the risk-benefit ratio when prescribing off-label for young persons. If the evidence base is limited, it is particularly important to provide information about the risks and benefits of the treatment to the patient/relatives. A second opinion may be helpful. Both target symptoms and side effects should be monitored and regularly reviewed.

  12. Psychotropic Pharmacotherapy Associated With QT Prolongation Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Eileen M; Zeber, John E; McNeal, Catherine J; Banchs, Javier E; Copeland, Laurel A

    2018-04-01

    In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration issued Drug Safety Communications on several drugs associated with QT prolongation and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Among these was citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) approved for depression and commonly used for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Evaluation of the risk for QT prolongation among other psychotropic drugs for individuals with PTSD remains limited. Explore psychotropic drugs associated with QT prolongation among veterans with PTSD. Patients in the Veterans Health Administration in 2006-2009 with PTSD and QT prolongation (176 cases) were matched 1:4 on age, gender, visit date and setting, and physical comorbidity. Classification trees assessed QT prolongation risk among prescribed medications (n=880). Receipt of any drug with known risk of QT prolongation varied by group (23% QT cases vs 15% control, prisks included ziprasidone (3% vs 1%, p=0.02) and buspirone (6% vs 2%, p=0.01). Increased risk was not observed for the SSRIs, citalopram and fluoxetine. Classification trees found that sotalol and amitriptyline carried greater risk among cardiac patients and methadone, especially if prescribed with quetiapine, among noncardiac patients. Per adjusted survival model, patients with QT prolongation were at increased risk for death (hazard ratio=1.60; 95% CI=1.04-2.44). Decision models are particularly advantageous when exploring nonlinear relationships or nonadditive interactions. These findings may potentially affect clinical decision-making concerning treatment for PTSD. For patients at higher risk of QT prolongation, antidepressants other than amitriptyline should be considered. Medications for comorbid conditions should also be closely monitored for heightened QT prolongation risk.

  13. Psychotropic treatments in Prader-Willi syndrome: a critical review of published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, O; Cohen, D; Thuilleaux, D; Consoli, A; Cabal, S; Tauber, M

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic syndrome. The phenotype includes moderate to intellectual disability, dysmorphia, obesity, and behavioral disturbances (e.g., hetero and self-injurious behaviors, hyperphagia, psychosis). Psychotropic medications are widely prescribed in PWS for symptomatic control. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to examine psychotropic medications used in PWS. MEDLINE was searched to identify articles published between January 1967 and December 2014 using key words related to pharmacological treatments and PWS. Articles with original data were included based on a standardized four-step selection process. The identification of studies led to 241 records. All selected articles were evaluated for case descriptions (PWS and behavioral signs) and treatment (type, titration, efficiency, and side effects). Overall, 102 patients were included in these studies. Treatment involved risperidone (three reports, n = 11 patients), fluoxetine (five/n = 6), naltrexone (two/n = 2), topiramate (two/n = 16), fluvoxamine (one/n = 1), mazindol (one/n = 2), N-acetyl cysteine (one/n = 35), rimonabant (one/n = 15), and fenfluramine (one/n = 15). We identified promising treatment effects with topiramate for self-injury and impulsive/aggressive behaviors, risperidone for psychotic symptoms associated with uniparental disomy (UPD), and N-acetyl cysteine for skin picking. The pharmacological approach of behavioral impairment in PWS has been poorly investigated to date. Further randomized controlled studies are warranted. Behavioral disturbances in Prader-Willi syndrome including aggressive reactions, skin picking, and hyperphagia might be very difficult to manage. Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed, but weight gain and increased appetite are their major side effects. Topiramate might be efficient for self-injury and impulsive/aggressive behaviors, N-acetyl cysteine is apromising treatment for

  14. Prevalence of mind and body exercises (MBE in relation to demographics, self-rated health, and purchases of prescribed psychotropic drugs and analgesics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rådmark

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify any differences regarding gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES, self-rated health, perceived stress and the purchase of prescribed drugs among people who practice mind and body exercises (MBE extensively compared to people who do not.The study includes 3,913 men and 4,803 women aged 20-72 who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. The respondents were divided into three groups depending on frequency of MBE practice (never/seldom/often. Measures regarding MBE practice, health behaviors, self-rated health, and illnesses were drawn from the SLOSH questionnaire, while more objective measures of socioeconomic status and education were derived from registry data. In addition, data on purchases of prescription drugs for all respondents were included in the study. These data were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, which contains information about prescription drugs dispensed at Swedish pharmacies. Separate analyses were performed for mental MBE (mindfulness, meditation, relaxation techniques and physical MBE (yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, respectively.A high intensity MBE practice is cross-sectionally related to poor self-assessed health (sleeping problems, pain, depressive symptoms, mental disorders, high levels of stress, and high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics. These cross-sectional relationships are generally stronger for mental MBE than for bodily-directed MBE. More women than men are practicing MBE on a regular basis, and physically active people participate to a greater extent in MBE compared with the physically inactive.Overall, the study shows that frequent participation in mind and body exercises is associated with high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics as well as with poor self-assessed health and high levels of stress. However, since this is a cross-sectional study, it is impossible to establish cause and effect

  15. Exposure to reactive intermediate-inducing drugs during pregnancy and the incident use of psychotropic medications among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Yen-Hao; Groen, Henk; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Hak, Eelko; Wilffert, Bob

    2017-03-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to reactive intermediate (RI)-inducing drugs and the initiation of psychotropic medications among children. We designed a cohort study using a pharmacy prescription database. Pregnant women were considered exposed when they received a prescription of RI-inducing drugs. These drugs could be either used alone (RI+/FAA-) or combined with drugs exhibiting folic acid antagonism (FAA, RI+/FAA+). The reference group included pregnant women who did not receive any RI-inducing drugs or FAA drugs. We analyzed 4116 exposed and 30 422 reference pregnancies. The hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was 1.27 (95%CI 1.15-1.41) for pregnancies exposed to RI-inducing drugs as a whole. Considering subgroups of RI-inducing drugs, prenatal exposure to both RI+/FAA+ and RI+/FAA- was associated with the children's initiation of psychotropic medications, HRs being 1.35 (95%CI 1.10-1.66) and 1.26 (1.13-1.41), respectively. The HRs were increased with prolonged exposure to RI-inducing drugs, especially in the first and second trimesters. In a detailed examination of the psychotropics, the incidences of receiving antimigraine preparations and psychostimulants were significantly increased for the exposed children, compared with the reference children. The incidences of receiving antipsychotics and hypnotics were also higher for the exposed children; however, the HRs did not reach significance after adjustment. We found a significantly increased incident use of psychotropic medications among children prenatally exposed to RI-inducing drugs, especially during the first and second trimesters. This suggests a detrimental effect during critical periods of brain development. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy: how about the newborn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieviet N

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Noera Kieviet,1 Koert M Dolman,1 Adriaan Honig2 1Department of Paediatrics, 2Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatry Obstetrics Paediatrics Expert Center, Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Abstract: Infants are at risk of developing symptoms of Poor Neonatal Adaptation (PNA after exposure to psychotropic drugs in utero. Such symptoms are largely similar after exposure to antidepressants, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines and consist of mostly mild neurologic, autonomic, respirator and gastro-intestinal abnormalities. Most symptoms develop within 48 hours after birth and last for 2–6 days. After exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs, mirtazapine or venlafaxine in utero, breastfeeding is presumably protective for development of PNA. The dosage of antidepressants does not seem to be related to the risk of PNA. In order to objectify possible symptoms of PNA, observation of mother and child at the maternity ward is advisable. If PNA symptoms do not occur, an observation period of 48–72 hours is sufficient. This applies to all types of psychotropic drugs. When PNA symptoms are present it is advisable to observe the infant until the symptoms are fully resolved. Observation can be performed by trained nurses using the Finnegan scoring list. This observation list should be administered every 8 hours. Interpretation of the scores should be carried out by a paediatrician. In most cases symptoms are non-specific. Therefore other diagnoses, such as infection or neurologic problems, have to be excluded. When there is any doubt on possible intoxications during pregnancy, toxicological urine screening is indicated. Most cases of PNA are mild, of short duration and self-limiting without need for treatment. Supporting measures such as frequent small feedings, swaddling and increase of skin to skin contact with the mother is usually sufficient. In case of severe PNA it is advised to admit the infant to the Neonatal Care

  17. Drug-drug interactions as a result of co-administering Δ9-THC and CBD with other psychotropic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Carola; Carmona, Nicole E; Lee, Yena L; Ragguett, Renee-Marie; Pan, Zihang; Rosenblat, Joshua D; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Shekotikhina, Margarita; Almatham, Fahad; Alageel, Asem; Mansur, Rodrigo; Ho, Roger C; McIntyre, Roger S

    2018-01-01

    To determine, via narrative, non-systematic review of pre-clinical and clinical studies, whether the effect of cannabis on hepatic biotransformation pathways would be predicted to result in clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with commonly prescribed psychotropic agents. Areas covered: A non-systematic literature search was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception to January 2017. The search term cannabis was cross-referenced with the terms drug interactions, cytochrome, cannabinoids, cannabidiol, and medical marijuana. Pharmacological, molecular, and physiologic studies evaluating the pharmacokinetics of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), both in vitro and in vivo, were included. Bibliographies were also manually searched for additional citations that were relevant to the overarching aim of this paper. Expert opinion: Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD are substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymatic pathways relevant to the biotransformation of commonly prescribed psychotropic agents. The high frequency and increasing use of cannabis invites the need for healthcare providers to familiarize themselves with potential DDIs in persons receiving select psychotropic agents, and additionally consuming medical marijuana and/or recreational marijuana.

  18. Use of a computerized medication shared decision making tool in community mental health settings: impact on psychotropic medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Bradley D; Kogan, Jane N; Mihalyo, Mark J; Schuster, James; Deegan, Patricia E; Sorbero, Mark J; Drake, Robert E

    2013-04-01

    Healthcare reform emphasizes patient-centered care and shared decision-making. This study examined the impact on psychotropic adherence of a decision support center and computerized tool designed to empower and activate consumers prior to an outpatient medication management visit. Administrative data were used to identify 1,122 Medicaid-enrolled adults receiving psychotropic medication from community mental health centers over a two-year period from community mental health centers. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine if tool users had higher rates of 180-day medication adherence than non-users. Older clients, Caucasian clients, those without recent hospitalizations, and those who were Medicaid-eligible due to disability had higher rates of 180-day medication adherence. After controlling for sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, baseline adherence, and secular changes over time, using the computerized tool did not affect adherence to psychotropic medications. The computerized decision tool did not affect medication adherence among clients in outpatient mental health clinics. Additional research should clarify the impact of decision-making tools on other important outcomes such as engagement, patient-prescriber communication, quality of care, self-management, and long-term clinical and functional outcomes.

  19. Use of psychotropic medications by caregivers of elderly patients with dementia: is this a sign of caregiver burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einstein Francisco Camargos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the consumption of psychotropic medications by caregivers of elderly patients with or without dementia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at all geriatric units in Brasília, Brazil, during a two-month period. Structured interviews were performed with 311 caregivers of people with or without dementia and they completed questionnaires. Among the caregivers, 196 (63% were caregivers of patients with dementia and 115 (37% were caregivers of patients without dementia. Forty-four caregivers (14.1% were taking psychotropic drugs (benzodiazepines or antidepressants, and this usage was more frequent among caregivers of patients with dementia (p<0.01. Twenty-two caregivers of patients with dementia (11.4% had used sleeping pills after beginning care, compared with only five (4.3% caregivers of patients without dementia (p<0.01. In conclusion, this study found that caregivers of patients with dementia took psychotropic drugs (benzodiazepines and antidepressants more frequently than the ones of patients without dementia.

  20. Social inequalities and correlates of psychotropic drug use among young adults: a population-based questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of psychotropic drugs is widespread in Europe, and is markedly more common in France than elsewhere. Young adults often fare less well than adolescents on health indicators (injury, homicide, and substance use. This population-based study assessed disparities in psychotropic drug use among people aged 18–29 from different socio-occupational groups and determined whether they were mediated by educational level, health status, income, health-related behaviours, family support, personality traits, or disability. Methods A total of 1,257 people aged 18–29, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering sex, date of birth, height, weight, educational level, occupation, smoking habit, alcohol abuse, income, health-status, diseases, reported disabilities, self-reported personality traits, family support, and frequent psychotropic medication for tiredness, nervousness/anxiety or insomnia. The data were analyzed using the adjusted odds ratios (ORa computed with logistic models. Results Use of psychotropic drugs was common (33.2%. Compared with upper/intermediate professionals, markedly high odds ratios adjusted for sex were found for manual workers (2.57, 95% CI 1.02–6.44, employees (2.58, 1.11–5.98, farmers/craftsmen/tradesmen (4.97, 1.13–21.8, students (2.40, 1.06–5.40, and housewives (3.82, 1.39–10.5. Adjusting for all the confounders considered reduced the estimates to a pronounced degree for manual workers (adjusted OR 1.49, non-significant but only slightly for the other socio-occupational groups. The odds ratio for unemployed people did not reach statistical significance. The significant confounders were: sex, not-good health status, musculoskeletal disorders and other diseases, being worried, nervous or sad, and lack of family support (adjusted odds ratios between 1.60 and 2.50. Conclusion There were marked disparities among young adults from different socio

  1. Associations of social and material deprivation with tobacco, alcohol, and psychotropic drug use, and gender: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, Elisabeth; Guillemin, Francis; Ravaud, Jean-François; Choquet, Marie; Falissard, Bruno; Chau, Nearkasen

    2007-11-09

    The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge concerning these issues may help public health policy-makers design more effective means of preventing substance abuse. The sample comprised 6,216 people aged > or 15 years randomly selected from the population in north-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, employment, income, smoking habit, alcohol abuse and "psychotropic" drug intake (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia). A deprivation score (D) was defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployed, living alone, nationality other than western European, low income, and non-home-ownership. Data were analysed using adjusted odds ratios (ORa) computed with logistic models. Deprivation was common: 37.4% of respondents fell into category D = 1, 21.2% into D = 2, and 10.0% into D > or 3a re men than women reported tobacco use (30.2% vs. 21.9%) and alcohol abuse (12.5% vs. 3.3%), whereas psychotropic drug use was more common among women (23.8% vs. 41.0%). Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use (ORa vs. D = 0: 1.16 in D = 1, 1.49 in D = 2, and 1.93 in D > or = 3), alcohol abuse (1.19 in D = 1, 1.32 in D = 2, and 1.80 in D > or = 3) and frequent psychotropic drug intake (1.26 in D = 1, 1.51 in D = 2, and 1.91 in D > or = 3). These patterns were observed in working/other non-retired men and women (except for alcohol abuse in women). Among retired people, deprivation was associated with tobacco and psychotropic drug use only in men. Preventive measures should be designed to improve work conditions, reduce deprivation, and help deprived populations to be more aware of risk and to find remedial measures.

  2. Associations of social and material deprivation with tobacco, alcohol, and psychotropic drug use, and gender: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravaud Jean-François

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge concerning these issues may help public health policy-makers design more effective means of preventing substance abuse. Methods The sample comprised 6,216 people aged ≥ 15 years randomly selected from the population in north-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, employment, income, smoking habit, alcohol abuse and "psychotropic" drug intake (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia. A deprivation score (D was defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployed, living alone, nationality other than western European, low income, and non-home-ownership. Data were analysed using adjusted odds ratios (ORa computed with logistic models. Results Deprivation was common: 37.4% of respondents fell into category D = 1, 21.2% into D = 2, and 10.0% into D ≥ 3. More men than women reported tobacco use (30.2% vs. 21.9% and alcohol abuse (12.5% vs. 3.3%, whereas psychotropic drug use was more common among women (23.8% vs. 41.0%. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use (ORa vs. D = 0: 1.16 in D = 1, 1.49 in D = 2, and 1.93 in D ≥ 3, alcohol abuse (1.19 in D = 1, 1.32 in D = 2, and 1.80 in D ≥ 3 and frequent psychotropic drug intake (1.26 in D = 1, 1.51 in D = 2, and 1.91 in D ≥ 3. These patterns were observed in working/other non-retired men and women (except for alcohol abuse in women. Among retired people, deprivation was associated with tobacco and psychotropic drug use only in men. Conclusion Preventive measures should be designed to improve work conditions, reduce deprivation, and help deprived populations to be more aware of risk and to find remedial

  3. Cases of Adverse Reaction to Psychotropic Drugs and Possible Association with Pharmacogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Piatkov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of samples for pharmacogenetic tests have been analysed in our laboratory since its establishment. In this article we describe some of the most interesting cases of CYP poor metabolisers associated with adverse reactions to psychotropic drugs. Prevention of disease/illness, including Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR, is an aim of modern medicine. Scientific data supports the fact that evaluation of drug toxicology includes several factors, one of which is genetic variations in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drug pathways. These variations are only a part of toxicity evaluation, however, even if it would help to prevent only a small percentage of patients from suffering adverse drug reactions, especially life threatening ADRs, pharmacogenetic testing should play a significant role in any modern psychopharmacologic practice. Medical practitioners should also consider the use of other medications or alternative dosing strategies for drugs in patients identified as altered metabolisers. This will promise not only better and safer treatments for patients, but also potentially lowering overall healthcare costs.

  4. Six psychotropics for pre-symptomatic & early Alzheimer's (MCI, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Lauterbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quest for neuroprotective drugs to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD, and Huntington's disease (HD, has been largely unrewarding. Preclinical evidence suggests that repurposing quetiapine, lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine for early and pre-symptomatic disease-modification in NDDs may be promising and can spare regulatory barriers. The literature of these psychotropics in early stage and pre-symptomatic AD, PD, and HD is reviewed and propitious findings follow. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI phase of AD: salutary human randomized controlled trial findings for low-dose lithium and, in selected patients, donepezil await replication. Pre-symptomatic AD: human epidemiological data indicate that lithium reduces AD risk. Animal model studies (AMS reveal encouraging results for quetiapine, lithium, donepezil, and memantine. Early PD: valproate AMS findings show promise. Pre-symptomatic PD: lithium and valproate AMS findings are encouraging. Early HD: uncontrolled clinical data indicate non-progression with lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine. Pre-symptomatic HD: lithium and valproate are auspicious in AMS. Many other promising findings awaiting replication (valproate in MCI; lithium, valproate, fluoxetine in pre-symptomatic AD; lithium in early PD; lithium, valproate, fluoxetine in pre-symptomatic PD; donepezil in early HD; lithium, fluoxetine, memantine in pre-symptomatic HD are reviewed. Dose- and stage-dependent effects are considered. Suggestions for signal-enhancement in human trials are provided for each NDD stage.

  5. The effects of becoming an entrepreneur on the use of psychotropics among entrepreneurs and their spouses.

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    Dahl, Michael S; Nielsen, Jimmi; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2010-12-01

    Entering entrepreneurship (i.e. becoming an entrepreneur) is known to be a demanding activity with increased workload, financial uncertainty and increased levels of stress. However, there are no systematic studies on how entering entrepreneurship affects the people involved. The authors investigated prescriptions of psychotropics for 6,221 first-time entrepreneurs from 2001-2004 and their 2,381 spouses in the first two years after becoming entrepreneurs in a matched case-control study using linked data from three Danish national registries: The Danish database for Labor Market Research, the Danish Entrepreneurship database and the Danish Prescription database. Entrepreneurs were more likely to fill prescriptions at pharmacies for sedatives/hypnotics (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.45 [95% CI: 1.26-1.66], p entrepreneurs were also more likely to fill prescriptions for sedatives/hypnotics (AOR: 1.36 [95% CI: 1.10-1.67], p = 0.005). No difference in prescription of antidepressants was found for spouses. This study showed that there was a significant relation between entering entrepreneurship and receiving prescriptions for sedative/ hypnotics both among the entrepreneurs themselves and their spouses, suggesting that entering entrepreneurship may be associated with increased stress for both the entrepreneurs and their families.

  6. A narrative review of studies of refusal of psychotropic medication in acute inpatient psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, J A; Bowers, L

    2011-09-01

    This paper offers a narrative review of the 22 studies of medication refusal in acute psychiatry. Because of varied definitions of medication refusal, diverse methodologies and few rigorous studies, it has not been possible to draw firm conclusions on the average rate of refusal of psychotropic medications in acute psychiatry. However, it is clear that medication refusal is common and leads to poor outcomes characterized by higher rates of seclusion, restraint, threats of, and actual, assaults and longer hospitalizations. There are no statistically significant differences between refusers and acceptors in gender, marital status and preadmission living arrangements. Although no firm conclusions on the influence of ethnicity, status at admission and diagnosis on refusal, the refusers are more likely to have higher number of previous hospitalizations and history of prior refusal. The review indicates that staff factors such as the use of temporary staff, lack of confidence in ward staff and ineffective ward structure are associated with higher rates of medication refusal. Comprehensive knowledge of why, and how, patients refuse medication is lacking. Research on medication refusal is still fragmented, of variable methodological quality and lacks an integrating model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  7. Gifts and influence: Conflict of interest policies and prescribing of psychotropic medications in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marissa; Bearman, Peter S

    2017-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends roughly 15 billion dollars annually on detailing - providing gifts, information, samples, trips, honoraria and other inducements - to physicians in order to encourage them to prescribe their drugs. In response, several states in the United States adopted policies that restrict detailing. Some states banned gifts from pharmaceutical companies to doctors, other states simply required physicians to disclose the gifts they receive, while most states allowed unrestricted detailing. We exploit this geographic variation to examine the relationship between gift regulation and the diffusion of four newly marketed medications. Using a dataset that captures 189 million psychotropic prescriptions written between 2005 and 2009, we find that uptake of new costly medications was significantly lower in states with marketing regulation than in areas that allowed unrestricted pharmaceutical marketing. In states with gift bans, we observed reductions in market shares ranging from 39% to 83%. Policies banning or restricting gifts were associated with the largest reductions in uptake. Disclosure policies were associated with a significantly smaller reduction in prescribing than gift bans and gift restrictions. In states that ban gift-giving, peer influence substituted for pharmaceutical detailing when a relatively beneficial drug came to market and provided a less biased channel for physicians to learn about new medications. Our work suggests that policies banning or limiting gifts from pharmaceutical representatives to doctors are likely to be more effective than disclosure policies alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inappropriate Use of Psychotropic Drugs in People Aged 60 and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Magdalena Caro Mantilla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: indiscriminate use of psychoactive medication can provoke multiple disorders to the elderly system. Furthermore, it can also result in drug abuse. Objective: to characterize the inappropriate use of psychotropic drugs in people aged 60 and over. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective study was conducted in two consultations of Health Area # II in the municipality of Cienfuegos from June to December 2006. The sample consisted of 93 adults aged over 60. The variables analyzed were age, sex, educational level, prescribed medication and its application, symptoms leading to the indication, duration of the treatment according to the prescription, follow-up, therapeutic alternatives, tolerance and abstinence. We applied a functional assessment scale: the Lawton and Brody Scale. For the statistical processing, descriptive statistics tests were performed. For computational processing, a database was created in the SPSS 11.0 program for Windows. Results: it is mostly women who consume these types of drugs. The most consumed psychoactive drugs were benzodiazepines and mainly through self-medication. Elderly presented tolerance and abstinence. There was a misuse of these drugs in relation to the time of consumption, prescription, follow-up and treatment options such as natural and traditional medicine. Conclusions: high rates of medical prescription, failures in patient’s follow-up, self-medication and non-use of therapeutic alternatives are some of the many causes of the indiscriminate use of psychoactive drugs in people aged over 60.

  9. Cannabis and its derivatives: review of medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Use of cannabis is often an under-reported activity in our society. Despite legal restriction, cannabis is often used to relieve chronic and neuropathic pain, and it carries psychotropic and physical adverse effects with a propensity for addiction. This article aims to update the current knowledge and evidence of using cannabis and its derivatives with a view to the sociolegal context and perspectives for future research. Cannabis use can be traced back to ancient cultures and still continues in our present society despite legal curtailment. The active ingredient, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, accounts for both the physical and psychotropic effects of cannabis. Though clinical trials demonstrate benefits in alleviating chronic and neuropathic pain, there is also significant potential physical and psychotropic side-effects of cannabis. Recent laboratory data highlight synergistic interactions between cannabinoid and opioid receptors, with potential reduction of drug-seeking behavior and opiate sparing effects. Legal rulings also have changed in certain American states, which may lead to wider use of cannabis among eligible persons. Family physicians need to be cognizant of such changing landscapes with a practical knowledge on the pros and cons of medical marijuana, the legal implications of its use, and possible developments in the future.

  10. [Adaptations of psychotropic drugs in patients aged 75 years and older in a departement of geriatric internal medecine: report of 100 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, Anne-Laure; Bailly-Agaledes, Cindy; Camalet, Joëlle; Capriz-Ribière, Françoise; Gary, André; Robert, Philippe; Brocker, Patrice; Guérin, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    The elderly often with multiple diseases are particularly at risk from adverse drug reactions. Nearly half of iatrogenic drug in the elderly are preventable. Some medications such as psychotropic drugs are particularly involved in iatrogenic accidents. We wanted to know if the tools of the comprehensive geriatric assessment or other factors could influence the changes of psychotropic drugs in a geriatric departement. Our prospective study of four months in 100 patients aged 75 years and older hospitalized in the Geriatric Internal Medecine Departement of University Hospital of Nice investigated what were the clinical or biological reasons and tools used during changes of psychotropic drugs. We compared these changes according to the comprehensive geriatric assessment tools and we analyzed the changes based on lists of potentially inappropriate medications by Laroche et al. and from the instrument STOPP/START. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was the tool that has most influenced the changes in psychotropic including a tendency to increase and the introduction of anxiolytics when MMSE < 20 (p = 0.007) while neuroleptics instead arrested and decreased (p = 0.012). The comprehensive geriatric assessment has its place in decision support during the potentially iatrogenic prescriptions of drugs such as psychotropic and new tools such as STOPP/START can also be a help to the prescriber informed.

  11. Comparison of Psychotropic Drug Prescribing Quality between Zagreb, Croatia and Sarajevo, B&H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polić-Vižintin, Marina; Štimac, Danijela; Čatić, Tarik; Šostar, Zvonimir; Zelić, Ana; Živković, Krešimir; Draganić, Pero

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare outpatient consumption and quality of psychotropic drug prescribing between Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina 2006-2010. Data on drug utilization from Zagreb Municipal Pharmacy and Sarajevo Public Pharmacy were used to calculate the number of defined daily doses (DDD) and DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) using the WHO Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical methodology. Total utilization of psychopharmaceuticals increased in both cities; however, it was higher in Zagreb than in Sarajevo throughout the study period. The utilization of psycholeptics increased in Zagreb by 2.4% (from 74.5 to 76.3 DDD/TID) and in Sarajevo by 3.8% (from 62.4 to 64.8 DDD/TID). The utilization of anxiolytics decreased in Zagreb by 2.1% and in Sarajevo by even 18.7%. The utilization of antidepressants increased in both cities with predominance of SSRI over TCA utilization, greater in Sarajevo (96.6%) than in Zagreb (10.2%). The anxiolytic/antidepressant ratio decreased by 11.1% in Zagreb (from 2.87 to 2.55) and by 58.7% in Sarajevo (from 5.66 to 2.34). Outpatient utilization of antipsychotics increased significantly in Sarajevo, predominated by typical ones, whereas in Zagreb the utilization of antipsychotics was stable, predominated by atypical ones. In Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina, there was an obvious tendency to follow western trends in drug prescribing, as demonstrated by the increased use of antidepressants and reduced use of anxiolytics. Despite some improvement observed in the prescribing quality, high use of antipsychotics with dominance of typical antipsychotics in Sarajevo points to the need of prescribing guidelines for antipsychotics.

  12. Simultaneous determination of psychotropic drugs in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection

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    Li Jianguo [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Education Ministry of China), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zhao Fengjuan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Education Ministry of China), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ju Huangxian [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Education Ministry of China), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: hxju@nju.edu.cn

    2006-08-04

    Amitriptyline, doxepin and chlorpromazine are often used as psychotropic drugs in treatment of the various mental diseases, and are also partly excreted by kidney. This work developed a simple, selective and sensitive method for their simultaneous monitoring in human urine using capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection based on end-column ECL reaction of tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) with aliphatic tertiary amino moieties. Acetone was used as an additive to the running buffer to obtain their absolute separation. Under optimized conditions the proposed method displayed a linear range from 5.0 to 800 ng mL{sup -1} for the three drugs with the correlation coefficients more than 0.995 (n = 8). Their limits of detection were 0.8 ng mL{sup -1} (3.6 fg), 1.0 ng mL{sup -1} (4.5 fg) and 1.5 ng mL{sup -1} (6.8 fg) at a signal to noise ratio of 3, respectively. The relative standard deviations for five determinations of 20 ng mL{sup -1} amitriptyline, doxepin and chlorpromazine were 1.7%, 4.2% and 3.6%, respectively. For practical application an extract step with 90:10 heptane/ethyl acetate (v/v) was performed to eliminate the influence of ionic strength in sample. The recoveries of amitriptyline, doxepin and chlorpromazine at different levels in human urine were between 83% and 93%, which showed that the method was valuable in clinical and biochemical laboratories for monitoring amitriptyline, doxepin and chlorpromazine.

  13. Association between psychotropic medications and presence of sleep bruxism: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Gilberto; Dutra, Kamile Leonardi; Rodrigues Filho, Rubens; de Oliveira Lira Ortega, Adriana; Porporatti, André Luís; Dick, Bruce; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2018-04-16

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for studies that investigated the association between use of psychotropic medications and presence of sleep bruxism (SB). Observational studies were selected in a two-phase process. Searches were performed on six electronic databases and a grey literature search was conducted on three databases. SB diagnosis was based on questionnaires or clinical examinations; no polysomnography exams were performed. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross-Sectional Studies. Overall quality of evidence was evaluated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria. Five analytical cross-sectional studies were included, evaluating antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and psychostimulants. One study was judged as low risk of bias, three as moderate risk, and one high risk. Antidepressants were evaluated in adult populations only; duloxetine (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.16; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.12-4.17), paroxetine (OR=3.63; 95%CI=2.15-6.13) and venlafaxine (OR=2.28; 95%CI=1.34-3.86) were positively associated with SB risk. No increased odds of SB were observed considering use of citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, mirtazapine, and sertraline. With regard to anticonvulsants, only barbiturates were associated with SB in children (OR=14.70; 95%CI =1.85-116.90), while no increased odds were observed for benzodiazepine, carbamazepine, and valproate. The only psychostimulant evaluated was methylphenidate and an association with SB was observed in adolescents (OR=1.67; 95%CI=1.03-2.68). Findings from this SR suggested that medications such as duloxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, barbiturates, and methylphenidate might be associated with SB; however, overall quality of evidence was considered very low and, therefore, caution is recommended. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This

  14. Endocrine and Metabolic Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much as an increase in the use of psychotropic drugs is observed in children and adolescents over the last decade, the endocrine and metabolic side effects of these drugs can limit their use. Atypical antipsychotics can cause many side effects, which are not suitable for the developmental periods of children and adolescents, such as those related with thyroid, blood sugar, level of sex hormones, growth rate and bone metabolism. Children are under a more serious risk regarding the weight increasing effects of atypical antipsychotics and weight gain that is not proportionate with age is especially important due to the association between glucose or lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular mortality. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone are the least risky antipsychotic drugs when it comes to metabolic side affects. The antipsychotic drug that is associated with weight increase and diabetes in children and adolescents most is olanzapine. Even though there are no comparative long-term data concerning children, it is suggested by the currently available information that metabolic side effects including dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance are at an alarming level when it comes to long-term treatment with antipsychotics. The most risky agents in terms of hyperglycemia and glucosuria development are olanzapine and clozapine. Use of risperidone and haloperidol should be undertaken with caution since it may bring about the risk of hyperprolactinemia. Among the antidepressants associated with weight loss and suppression of appetite are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, bupropion and venlafaxine. Thyroid functions can be affected by lithium, carbamazepine and valproate treatments. It is reported that the side effect most frequently associated with valproate is weight increase. The relationship between valproate treatment and the development of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in young women should also be kept in mind. [TAF Prev

  15. Impulsive aggression, delay discounting, and adolescent suicide attempts: effects of current psychotropic medication use and family history of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Sheftall, Arielle H; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V; Brent, David A

    2015-03-01

    Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13-18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=-0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are affected by impulsive aggression.

  16. Frequency of Pathological Changes in Lungs of Bodies with Positive Postmortem Toxicology Results for Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mostafazadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of drug abuse in Iran has dramatically changed in recent years, turning from the traditional opioids [opium, opium dross, and refined opium dross (Shireh] into drugs with newer forms. The present study is aimed at investigating the frequency of pathological changes in the lungs of bodies with positive postmortem toxicology results for narcotics and psychotropic substances autopsied in the forensic dissection hall of Tehran, Iran [the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO]. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 153 bodies, which had been referred to the LMO with positive results in postmortem toxicology for narcotics and psychotropic substances. Results: We found that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were used more in men than women. Moreover, the average age of death due to drug use was 36 years old. In addition, methamphetamine was the mostly-used type of substances, and smoking was the most widely used method to use the drugs. Besides, the dominant consistency and color of the lungs of half of the bodies investigated were elastic brown-gray. Moreover, the most common pathologic changes observed in the lungs of the bodies investigated were congestion and edema. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of pathological changes in the lungs of the examined bodies and congestion, edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage, the results of the present study can be particularly effective in determining the drug use and the resultant death in the absence of any previous records and/or a negative result of toxicology.

  17. Factors associated with psychotropic drug use among community-dwelling older persons: A review of empirical studies

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    Lauzon Sylvie

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the many descriptive studies on prescribed psychotropic drug use by community-dwelling older persons, several sociodemographic and other factors associated with drug use receive inconsistent support. Method Empirical reports with data on at least benzodiazepine or antidepressant drug use in samples of older persons published between 1990 and 2001 (n = 32 were identified from major databases and analyzed to determine which factors are most frequently associated with psychotropic drug use in multivariate analyses. Methodological aspects were also examined. Results Most reports used probability samples of users and non-users and employed cross-sectional designs. Among variables considered in 5 or more reports, race, proximity to health centers, medical consultations, sleep complaints, and health perception were virtually always associated to drug use. Gender, mental health, and physical health status were associated in about two-thirds of reports. Associations with age, marital status, medication coverage, socioeconomic status, and social support were usually not observed. Conclusions The large variety of methods to operationalize drug use, mental health status, and social support probably affected the magnitude of observed relationships. Employing longitudinal designs and distinguishing short-term from long-term use, focusing on samples of drug users exclusively, defining drug use and drug classes more uniformly, and utilizing measures of psychological well-being rather than only of distress, might clarify the nature of observed associations and the direction of causality. Few studies tested specific hypotheses. Most studies focused on individual characteristics of respondents, neglecting the potential contribution of health care professionals to the phenomenon of psychotropic drug use among seniors.

  18. Complex psychotropic polypharmacy in bipolar disorder across varying mood polarities: A prospective cohort study of 2712 inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Julia C; Goethe, John W; Woolley, Stephen B

    2017-10-15

    It is common for patients with bipolar disorder (BP) to receive multiple psychotropics, but few studies have assessed demographic and clinical features associated with risk for receiving complex psychotropic polypharmacy. This longitudinal cohort study examined 2712 inpatients with a DSM-IV clinical diagnosis of BP to assess associations between complex polypharmacy (defined as ≥4 psychotropics) and demographic and clinical features; associations with risk of rehospitalization were also examined. Logistic regressions were performed with the sample as a whole and with each of four DSM-IV BP subtypes individually. Complex polypharmacy was present in 21.0%. BP-I depressed patients were more likely to receive complex regimens than BP-I manic, BP-I mixed or BP-II patients. In the sample as a whole, variables significantly associated with complex polypharmacy included female, white, psychotic features and a co-diagnosis of borderline personality, post-traumatic stress or another anxiety disorder. The only examined medication not significantly associated with complex polypharmacy was lithium, although only in BP-I depressed and BP-I mixed. Complex polypharmacy was associated with rehospitalization in BP-I mania within 15 and 30days post index hospitalization. All data were from one clinical facility; results may not generalize to other settings and patient populations. BP-I depression may pose a greater treatment challenge than the other BP subtypes. Lithium may confer an overall advantage compared to other medications in BP-I depressed and BP-I mixed. Further research is needed to guide pharmacotherapy decisions in BP patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder Require a Higher Dose of Psychotropic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Hiromi; Oe, Misari; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with stressful life events and with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD and MDD comorbidity was also reported to be associated with greater symptom severity and lower levels of functioning. However, the characteristics of pharmacotherapy for PTSD with MDD are not fully understood. To understand this relationship, we conducted a retrospective review using medical charts at the Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kurume University Hospital. Information from 55 patients with PTSD was analyzed. Five cases were excluded after re-evaluation of the PTSD diagnosis. A higher rate of type II trauma was observed in the PTSD with MDD group (50.0%) than in the PTSD-only group [13.6%; χ(2) (1, n =50) = 7.26, p<0.01]. Patients with comorbid MDD were significantly older, had more severe PTSD symptomatology, and a longer duration of treatment. They also received higher doses of psychotropic drugs, regardless of the type (antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines), than the PTSD-only group. Our results showed that comorbid MDD is associated with higher doses of psychotropic drugs, suggesting difficulties in treatment.

  20. Clinical and sociodemographic correlates of severe insomnia in psychotropic drug-free, Asian outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Chua, Hong Choon; Udomratn, Pichet; Chang, Sungman; Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchaluk; Chen, Chia-Hui; Shih-Yen Chan, Edwin; Bautista, Dianne; Bin Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim

    2015-11-01

    Little has been known regarding the correlates of severe insomnia in major depressive disorder (MDD). This post-hoc analysis aimed to examine the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of severe insomnia in psychotropic drug-free, Asian adult outpatients with MDD. Participants were psychotropic drug-free patients with MDD, aged 18-65 years. By using the Symptom Checklist-90 Items, Revised (SCL-90-R), a score of 4 (severe distress) on any one of three insomnia items was defined as severe insomnia. Other measures included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the nine psychopathology subscales of SCL-90-R, the Physical and Mental Component Summaries of Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 PCS and SF-36 MCS), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Of 528 participants, their mean age being 39.5 (SD=13.26) years, 64.2% were females, and 239 (45.3%) had severe insomnia. The logistic regression model revealed that low educational qualifications (less than secondary school completion), high SCL-90-R Depression scores, high SCL-90-R Anxiety scores, and low SF-36 PCS scores were independently correlated with severe insomnia (p'sdepression and anxiety severity, and poor physical health. These findings may implicate the treatment of comorbid MDD and severe insomnia, for example, sleep hygiene education, pharmacological treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are closely related to number of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Gøtzsche, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has increased dramatically. To compare the sales of benzodiazepines and SSRIs within the primary care sector in Denmark and relate changes in usage to number of indications and products on the market. We used data from various sources to establish the sales curves of psychotropic drugs in the period 1970 to 2007, based on the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification system and Defined Daily Doses. Fluctuations in sales of psychotropic drugs that cannot be explained by disease prevalence were caused by changes in sales of the benzodiazepines and SSRIs. We found a decline in the sales of benzodiazepines after a peak in 1986, likely due to the recognition that they cause dependence. From a low level in 1992, we found that the sales of SSRIs increased almost linearly by a factor of 18, up to 44 DDD per 1000 inhabitants, which was closely related to the number of products on the market that increased by a factor of 16. Sales of antidepressant drugs are mainly determined by market availability of products indicating that marketing pressures are playing an important role. Thus the current level of use of SSRIs may not be evidence-based, which is supported by studies showing that the effect of SSRIs has been overestimated.

  2. PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINE PRESCRIPTIONS IN A PRIMARY CARE UNIT IN A BIG CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oliveira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming toknowthe consumptionprofileof psychotropic drugs inpopulation ofperipheral region of abig cityof São Paulo State, 800 prescriptionsfromaPrimary CareUnitareassessedaccordingto344/98-SVS/MS.In that timethecontrolof these drugs were mademanually.The results showed1371 drugsdispensedandamong those1134were psychotropic.Thetotal was64,513pillunits, an average of 107 units with 1.7 drugs per prescription, while82.1% came from public services. The total number of drugs prescribed per prescription had themajority (60.0% onedrug, 20.3%, two drugs, three drugs 11.6%, 6.6% four or moremedications, including those not controlled (14% . Twenty drugswerenot on the standard list.Of controlled, 78.4% belonged to theclassC1 and21.6% toB1.There is a large consumption ofpsychotropic medications for thispoorpopulation, with a prevalence of antidepressants. Thesubsequent implementation of the computerized system significantly reduced the units dispensed,indicating that forms of management are factors to be considered in the rational use of drugs,such as the use of technologies and also the wide range of approaches to health education, such astraining of health professionals, including prescribers

  3. The Use of Psychotropic Medication for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviours That Challenge in the Context of a Community Multidisciplinary Team Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Abigail; Goodey, Rebecca; Webb, Alison; Shankar, Rohit

    2018-01-01

    Background: The use of psychotropic medication to manage challenging behaviours of people with intellectual disabilities is a contentious issue which NHS England has now focused on. This paper looks to evaluate this within the multidisciplinary context. Method: Records of clients (n = 106) open to a Community Intellectual Disabilities team for…

  4. Evidence for involvement of the insula in the psychotropic effects of THC in humans: a double-blind, randomized pharmacological MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, van H.H.; Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Kristo, G.; Osch, M.J.P.; Zelaya, F.; Kahn, R.S.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    The main reason for recreational use of cannabis is the ‘high’, the primary psychotropic effect of ¿9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This psychoactive compound of cannabis induces a range of subjective, physical and mental reactions. The effect on heart rate is pronounced and complicates

  5. Psychotropic and Anticonvulsant Drug Usage in Early Childhood Special Education Programs I. Phase One: A Preliminary Report: Prevalence, Attitude, Training, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    As part of a three phase study designed to survey the teachers and parents of children receiving psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs, 208 teachers of preschool special education children on medication were mailed questionnaires. The Early Childhood Medication Questionnaire used in the survey included items relating to teacher, program, and…

  6. Is an unhealthy work environment in nursing home care for people with dementia associated with the prescription of psychotropic drugs and physical restraints?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, B.M.; De Jonge, J.; Smit, D.; Dasselaar, W.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Pot, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research showed that long-term care facilities differ widely in the use of psychotropic drugs and physical restraints. The aim of this study is to investigate whether characteristics of an unhealthy work environment in facilities for people with dementia are associated with more

  7. Prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic medication prescribing in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of male and female prisoners in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiece Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illness is highly prevalent among prisoners. Although psychotropic medicines can ameliorate symptoms of mental illness, prescribers in prisons must balance clinical needs against risks to safety and security. Concerns have been raised at the large number of prisoners reportedly receiving psychotropic medicines in England. Nonetheless, unlike for the wider community, robust prescribing data are not routinely available for prisons. We investigated gender-specific patterns in the prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic prescribing in English prisons. Methods We studied 6052 men and 785 women in 11 prisons throughout England. This represented 7.9 % of male and 20.5 % of female prisoners nationally. Using a cross-sectional design, demographic and prescription data were collected from clinical records of all prisoners prescribed psychotropic medicines, including hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-manic, antidepressant and Central Nervous System stimulant medications. Percentages and 95 % CIs were used to estimate the prevalence of prescribing. The Prescribing Appropriate Indicators tool was used to determine appropriateness. Prevalence Ratios (PR were generated to make age-adjusted comparisons between prisoners and the general population using a dataset supplied by the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Results Overall, 47.9 % (CI 44.4–51.4 of women and 16.9 % (CI 16.0–17.9 of men in prison were prescribed one or more psychotropic medicines. Compared with the general population, age-adjusted prescribing prevalence was six times higher among women (PR 5.95 CI 5.36–6.61 and four times higher among men (PR 4.02 CI 3.75–4.30. Undocumented or unapproved indications for prescriptions, not listed in the British National Formulary, were recorded in a third (34.7 %, CI 32.5–37.0 of cases, most commonly low mood and personality disorder. Conclusions Psychotropic medicines were prescribed frequently in

  8. Impact of HSD11B1 polymorphisms on BMI and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving psychotropic treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Quteineh, Lina; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Saigi Morgui, Nuria; Delacré taz, Auré lie; Choong, Eva; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Bondolfi, Guido; Von Gunten, Armin; Preisig, Martin A.; Castelao, Enrique; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gé rard; Bochud, Murielle; Kutalik, Zoltá n; Conus, Philippe O.; Eap, Chin Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic treatments represents a major health issue. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes tissue regeneration of active cortisol from cortisone. Elevated enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD1 may lead to the development of MetS. Methods We investigated the association between seven HSD11B1 gene (encoding 11β-HSD1) polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in a psychiatric sample treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (n=478). The polymorphisms that survived Bonferroni correction were analyzed in two independent psychiatric samples (n R1 =168, n R2 =188) and in several large population-based samples (n 1 =5338; n 2 =123 865; n 3 >100 000). Results HSD11B1 rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers were found to be associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure compared with the reference genotype (P corrected <0.05). These associations were exclusively detected in women (n=257) with more than 3.1 kg/m 2, 7.5 cm, and 4.2 mmHg lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, in rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers compared with noncarriers (P corrected <0.05). Conversely, carriers of the rs846906-T allele had significantly higher waist circumference and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol exclusively in men (P corrected =0.028). The rs846906-T allele was also associated with a higher risk of MetS at 3 months of follow-up (odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.17, P corrected =0.014). No association was observed between HSD11B1 polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in the population-based samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that HSD11B1 polymorphisms may contribute toward the development of MetS in psychiatric patients treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, but do not

  9. Use of psychotropic drugs before pregnancy and the risk for induced abortion: population-based register-data from Finland 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Artama, Miia; Ritvanen, Annukka; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2010-06-30

    Some, though not all studies have reported an increased risk for mental health problems after an induced abortion. Problems with design and data have compromised these studies and the generalisation of their results. The Finnish Medication and Pregnancy database (N = 622 671 births and 114 518 induced abortions for other than fetal reasons) in 1996-2006 was utilised to study the use of psychotropic drugs in the three months before a pregnancy ending in a birth or an induced abortion. In total 2.1% of women with a birth and 5.1% of women with an induced abortion had used a psychotropic medicine 0-3 months before pregnancy. Psychotropic drug users terminated their pregnancies (30.9%) more often than other pregnant women (15.5%). Adjustment for background characteristics explained one third of this elevated risk, but the risk remained significantly increased among users of psychotropic medicine (OR 1.94, 95% confidence intervals 1.87-2.02). A similar risk was found for first pregnancies (30.1% vs. 18.9%; adjusted OR 1.53, 95% confidence intervals 1.42-1.65). The rate for terminating pregnancy was the highest for women using hypnotics and sedatives (35.6% for all pregnancies and 29.1% for first pregnancies), followed by antipsychotics (33.9% and 36.0%) and antidepressants (32.0% and 32.1%). The observed increased risk for induced abortion among women with psychotropic medication highlights the importance to acknowledge the mental health needs of women seeking an induced abortion. Further studies are needed to establish the impact of pre-existing differences in mental health on mental health outcomes of induced abortions compared to outcomes of pregnancies ending in a birth.

  10. Use of psychotropic drugs before pregnancy and the risk for induced abortion: population-based register-data from Finland 1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritvanen Annukka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some, though not all studies have reported an increased risk for mental health problems after an induced abortion. Problems with design and data have compromised these studies and the generalisation of their results. Methods The Finnish Medication and Pregnancy database (N = 622 671 births and 114 518 induced abortions for other than fetal reasons in 1996-2006 was utilised to study the use of psychotropic drugs in the three months before a pregnancy ending in a birth or an induced abortion. Results In total 2.1% of women with a birth and 5.1% of women with an induced abortion had used a psychotropic medicine 0-3 months before pregnancy. Psychotropic drug users terminated their pregnancies (30.9% more often than other pregnant women (15.5%. Adjustment for background characteristics explained one third of this elevated risk, but the risk remained significantly increased among users of psychotropic medicine (OR 1.94, 95% confidence intervals 1.87-2.02. A similar risk was found for first pregnancies (30.1% vs. 18.9%; adjusted OR 1.53, 95% confidence intervals 1.42-1.65. The rate for terminating pregnancy was the highest for women using hypnotics and sedatives (35.6% for all pregnancies and 29.1% for first pregnancies, followed by antipsychotics (33.9% and 36.0% and antidepressants (32.0% and 32.1%. Conclusions The observed increased risk for induced abortion among women with psychotropic medication highlighs the importance to acknowledge the mental health needs of women seeking an induced abortion. Further studies are needed to establish the impact of pre-existing differences in mental health on mental health outcomes of induced abortions compared to outcomes of pregnancies ending in a birth.

  11. Rise in psychotropic drug prescribing in children and adolescents during 1992-2001: a population-based study in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsia Yingfen; Maclennan, Karyn

    2009-01-01

    Background The trend towards increased psychotropic drug prescribing in children and adolescents is well recognised in North America and continental Europe. However, it is unclear to what extent these studies are applicable to clinical practice in the United Kingdom (UK). This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drug prescribing in children and adolescents aged <19 years in general practice in the UK from January 1992 to December 2001. Methods Data were obtained from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Annual age- and sex-specific prevalence of psychotropic drug prescribing was calculated. Results A total of 143,079 prescriptions were issued to 34,398 study subjects. Stimulant prescriptions rose significantly from 0.03 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval 0.02-0.04) in 1992 to 2.9 per 1,000 (2.52-3.32) in 2001; a 96-fold increase. Methylphenidate accounted for the majority of stimulant prescriptions; 2.4% (349/14,370) of stimulant prescriptions were prescribed to children aged <6 years. Increased prescribing was also noted for antidepressants (1.6-fold), hypnotics/anxiolytics (1.3-fold), antipsychotics (1.3-fold) and anticonvulsants (1.3-fold), whilst the prevalence of clonidine and lithium prescribing remained fairly stable throughout the study period. The use of antidepressant, hypnotic/anxiolytic and anticonvulsant increased with increasing age. A high proportion of boys received stimulants, whereas antidepressants and hypnotics/anxiolytics were more likely prescribed to girls. Conclusion There is an increased trend of psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents in the UK practice. Since most psychotropic drugs are not licensed for use in children at this time, research is needed to investigate the efficacy and long-term safety in this population

  12. Hormonal contraception increases the risk of psychotropic drug use in adolescent girls but not in adults: A pharmacoepidemiological study on 800 000 Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettermark, Sofia; Perez Vicente, Raquel; Merlo, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The burden of depression and anxiety disorders is greater in women, and female sex hormones have been shown to affect mood. Psychological side effects of hormonal contraception (HC) are also a common complaint in the clinic, but few previous studies have investigated this subject. We therefore wanted to investigate whether use of HC was associated with adverse psychological health outcomes, and whether this association was modified by age. All women aged 12-30 years on 31 December 2010, residing in Sweden for at least four years and with no previous psychiatric morbidity (n = 815 662), were included. We followed the women from their first HC use (or 31 December 2010, if they were non-users) at baseline, until a prescription fill of psychotropic drugs or the end of the one-year follow-up. We performed age-stratified logistic regression models and estimated odds ratios (OR) to measure the association between different HC methods and psychotropic drug use, as well as the area under the receiver operating curve to estimate discriminatory accuracy of HC in relation to psychotropic drugs. Overall, we found an association between HC and psychotropic drugs (adjusted OR 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.37). In the age-stratified analysis, the strongest association was found in adolescent girls (adjusted OR 3.46, 95% CI 3.04-4.94 for age 12 to 14 years), while it was non-existent for adult women. We conclude that hormonal contraception is associated with psychotropic drug use among adolescent girls, suggesting an adverse effect of HC on psychological health in this population.

  13. Changes in psychosocial and physical working conditions and psychotropic medication in ageing public sector employees: a record-linkage follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Mänty, Minna; Lallukka, Tea; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-07-12

    To investigate whether changes in psychosocial and physical working conditions are associated with subsequent psychotropic medication in ageing employees. Data were from the Helsinki Health Study, a cohort study of Finnish municipal employees, aged 40-60 years at phase 1 (2000-2002). Changes in psychosocial and physical working conditions were measured between phase 1 and phase 2 (2007). Survey data were longitudinally linked to data on prescribed, reimbursed psychotropic medication purchases (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical) obtained from the registers of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland between the phase 2 survey and December 2013 (N=3587; 80% women). Outcomes were any psychotropic medication; antidepressants (N06A); anxiolytics (N05B); and sedatives and hypnotics (N05C). Cox regression analyses were performed. During the follow-up, 28% of the participants were prescribed psychotropic medication. Repeated exposures to low job control, high job demands and high physical work load were associated with an increased risk of subsequent antidepressant and anxiolytic medication. Increased and repeated exposure to high physical work load, increased job control and repeated high job demands were associated with subsequent sedative and hypnotic medication. Age and sex-adjusted HR varied from 1.18 to 1.66. Improvement in job control was associated with a lower risk of anxiolytic, but with a higher risk of sedatives and hypnotic medication. Decreased physical work load was associated with a lower risk of antidepressant and anxiolytic medications. Improvement in working conditions could lower the risk of mental ill-health indicated by psychotropic medication. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. ANALYSIS OF BASIC PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS AND TISSUES BY REVERSED-PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, Anna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The review of the RP HPLC analysis of basic psychotropic drugs is presented. It contains sample preparation methods with centrifugation, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and RP-HPLC analysis. Chromatographic behavior of basic drugs in aqueous media - eluents used in reversed phase systems is discussed. Methods of blocking of residue surface silanols' interaction are mentioned. Analytical methods used for the analysis are divided into parts according with the above methods: the use of low-pH eluents, the use of high-pH eluents, the use of silanol blockers, special stationary phases for basic analytes. Literature connected with the sample preparation methods and analytical systems for the drug analysis are cited in details and presented also in Table 1.

  15. The use of psychotropic medication in patients with emotionally unstable personality disorder under the care of UK mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Carol; Crawford, Michael J; Bhatti, Sumera F; Patel, Maxine X; Barnes, Thomas R E

    2015-04-01

    Guideline recommendations for the pharmacologic treatment of personality disorder lack consensus, particularly for emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), and there is limited information on current prescribing practice in the United Kingdom. To characterize the nature and quality of current prescribing practice for personality disorder across the United Kingdom, as part of a quality improvement program. A cross-sectional survey of self-selected psychiatric services providing care for adults with personality disorder (ICD-10 criteria) was conducted. Data were collected during May 2012. Of 2,600 patients with a diagnosis of personality disorder, more than two-thirds (68%) had a diagnosis of EUPD. Almost all (92%) patients in the EUPD subgroup were prescribed psychotropic medication, most commonly an antidepressant or antipsychotic, principally for symptoms and behaviors that characterize EUPD, particularly affective dysregulation. Prescribing patterns were similar between those who had a diagnosed comorbid mental illness and those who had EUPD alone, but the latter group was less likely to have had their medication reviewed over the previous year, particularly with respect to tolerability (53% vs 43%). The use of psychotropic medication in EUPD in the United Kingdom is largely outside the licensed indications. Whether the treatment target is identified as intrinsic symptoms of EUPD or comorbid mental illness may depend on the diagnostic threshold of individual clinicians. Compared with prescribing for EUPD where there is judged to be a comorbid mental illness, the use of off-label medication for EUPD alone is less systematically reviewed and monitored, so opportunities for learning may be lost. Treatment may be continued long term by default. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Treatment of agitation in the acute psychiatric setting. An observational study of the effectiveness of intramuscular psychotropic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeanett Østerby; Stenborg, Dina; Lodahl, Tue; Mønsted, Mik Mathias

    2016-11-01

    Agitation is frequent in the acute psychiatric setting. The observation and treatment of agitation is important to avoid harm to patients or staff, to reduce distress of the patient, and to reduce the risk of coercion, especially physical restraint. To evaluate the effect of intramuscular treatment with psychotropics on agitation in a non-selected acute psychiatric population. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excitement Component (PANSS-EC) was implemented in the acute psychiatric ward at Psychiatric Center Copenhagen to improve assessment and treatment of agitation. During a period of almost ~2 years the staff was requested to assess agitation before and after administration of intramuscular injections. PANSS-EC was obtained at baseline and within 2 hours after injection for 135 injections with antipsychotics or benzodiazepines administered to 101 acute, non-selected psychiatric patients with high occurrence of co-morbid substance abuse. Mean PANSS-EC at baseline was 26.53 ± 4.87, and mean reduction in PANSS-EC was 14.99 ± 8.48 (p patients were subjected to physical restraint. Patients subjected to restraint had a significantly higher PANSS-EC score. Patients who received a subsequent injection had a significantly lower decline in PANSS-EC score. Besides two cases of acute dystonia following haloperidol injections, no serious side-effects were observed. Treatment of agitation with intramuscular injections of psychotropics was in general effective in this non-selected, highly agitated psychiatric population, and injections were well tolerated.

  17. Effects of psychotropic agents on extinction of lever-press avoidance in a rat model of anxiety vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilu eJiao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance and its perseveration represent key features of anxiety disorders. Both pharmacological and behavioral approaches (i.e. anxiolytics and extinction therapy have been utilized to modulate avoidance behavior in patients. However, the outcome has not always been desirable. Part of the reason is attributed to the diverse neuropathology of anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of psychotropic drugs that target various monoamine systems on extinction of avoidance behavior using lever-press avoidance task. Here we used the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat, a unique rat model that exhibits facilitated avoidance and extinction resistance along with malfunction of the dopamine (DA system. Sprague Dawley (SD and WKY rats were trained to acquire lever-press avoidance. WKY rats acquired avoidance faster and to a higher level compared to SD rats. During pharmacological treatment, bupropion, and desipramine significantly reduced avoidance response selectively in WKY rats. However, after the discontinuation of drug treatment, only those WKY rats that were previously treated with desipramine exhibited lower avoidance response compared to the control group. In contrast, none of the psychotropic drugs facilitated avoidance extinction in SD rats. Instead, desipramine impaired avoidance extinction and increased non-reinforced response in SD rats. Interestingly, paroxetine, a widely used antidepressant and anxiolytic, exhibited the weakest effect in WKY rats and no effects at all in SD rats. Thus, our data suggest that malfunctions in brain catecholamine system could be one of the underlying etiologies of anxiety-like behavior, particularly avoidance perseveration. Pharmacological manipulation targeting DA and norepinephrine is more effective to facilitate extinction learning in this strain. The data from the present study may shed light on new pharmacological approaches to treat patients with anxiety disorders who are not responding to serotonin re

  18. Purified Cannabidiol, the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, alone, counteracts neuronal apoptosis in experimental multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoppo, S; Soundara Rajan, T; Galuppo, M; Pollastro, F; Grassi, G; Bramanti, P; Mazzon, E

    2015-12-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a global concern disease leading to a progressive, chronic and demyelinating condition, affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The pathology has an inflammatory/autoimmune origin; nevertheless, neuronal cell death mechanisms are not to be underestimated. The present study was designed to test the effects of intraperitoneal administration of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic cannabinoid of Cannabis sativa (CS), in an experimental model of MS. The aim is to evaluate the capability of CBD administration to thwart the cascade of mediators involved in MS-induced apoptosis. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide in mice. After immunization, mice were observed daily for signs of EAE and weight loss. Disease signs were evaluated using a standardized scoring system. Immunohistochemical and Western blot assessments of key apoptotic markers reveal that CBD treatment is able to avoid Fas pathway activation, phospho-ERK p42/44 and cleaved caspase-3 triggering as well as alterations in mitochondrial permeability due to Bax/Bcl-2 unbalance. Moreover, CBD interferes with p53-p21 axis activation. As results, the absence of tissue apobody formation in spinal cord tissues of EAE-mice treated with CBD was established. Most of therapeutic properties of CS are currently ascribed to the psychotropic effects of phenylterpenoid delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol. We have demonstrated that, alone, purified CBD possesses an anti-apoptotic power against the neurodegenerative processes underlying MS development. This represents an interesting new profile of CBD that could lead to its introduction in the clinical management of MS.

  19. Medical school gift restriction policies and physician prescribing of newly marketed psychotropic medications: difference-in-differences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marissa; Essick, Connor; Bearman, Peter; Ross, Joseph S

    2013-01-30

    To examine the effect of attending a medical school with an active policy on restricting gifts from representatives of pharmaceutical and device industries on subsequent prescribing behavior. Difference-in-differences approach. 14 US medical schools with an active gift restriction policy in place by 2004. Prescribing patterns in 2008 and 2009 of physicians attending one of the schools compared with physicians graduating from the same schools before the implementation of the policy, as well as a set of contemporary matched controls. Probability that a physician would prescribe a newly marketed medication over existing alternatives of three psychotropic classes: lisdexamfetamine among stimulants, paliperidone among antipsychotics, and desvenlafaxine among antidepressants. None of these medications represented radical breakthroughs in their respective classes. For two of the three medications examined, attending a medical school with an active gift restriction policy was associated with reduced prescribing of the newly marketed drug. Physicians who attended a medical school with an active conflict of interest policy were less likely to prescribe lisdexamfetamine over older stimulants (adjusted odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.88; P=0.02) and paliperidone over older antipsychotics (0.25, 0.07 to 0.85; P=0.03). A significant effect was not observed for desvenlafaxine (1.54, 0.79 to 3.03; P=0.20). Among cohorts of students who had a longer exposure to the policy or were exposed to more stringent policies, prescribing rates were further reduced. Exposure to a gift restriction policy during medical school was associated with reduced prescribing of two out of three newly introduced psychotropic medications.

  20. Divorce and changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use: a register-based longitudinal study among middle-aged Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2013-10-01

    The annual prevalence of psychotropic medication use exceeds 10 percent in Europe and the United States, the prevalence being higher among the divorced than the married. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to divorce, sex, medication type and socio-demographic characteristics, using register-data on 304,111 Finns between 25 and 64 years of age, of whom 23,956 divorced between 1995 and 2003 and 142,093 were continuously married from 1995 to 2004. Five years before divorce, men and women already displayed about one percentage point higher prevalence of psychotropic medication use than those who continued their marriage. The excess prevalence increased with approaching divorce and peaked six to nine months before divorce, reaching 7.3 percent (95% CI 6.8-8.0) among divorcing men and 8.1 percent (95% CI 7.5-8.8) among divorcing women. The peak was followed by an 18-month decline, after which the excess compared to the continuously married settled at nearly three percentage points. The excess was not due to being socio-economically disadvantaged, and socio-demographic factors also seemed to have few modifying effects. The changes in prevalence were largest for antidepressants and almost non-existent for antipsychotics. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use among the divorced results both from selective factors already present five years before divorce and the acute and long-term causal effects of becoming and being divorced. Counselling is needed for individuals in the process of divorce, rather than economic support for divorced individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of psychotropic drugs before pregnancy and the risk for induced abortion: population-based register-data from Finland 1996-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ritvanen Annukka; Artama Miia; Gissler Mika; Wahlbeck Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Some, though not all studies have reported an increased risk for mental health problems after an induced abortion. Problems with design and data have compromised these studies and the generalisation of their results. Methods The Finnish Medication and Pregnancy database (N = 622 671 births and 114 518 induced abortions for other than fetal reasons) in 1996-2006 was utilised to study the use of psychotropic drugs in the three months before a pregnancy ending in a birth or a...

  2. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Maria A.; Coll-Negre, Montserrat; Coll-de-Tuero, Gabriel; Saez, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis. Methods In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012) was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined ‘selection on observables’ as (propensity scoring) matching and ‘selection on unobservables’ as (random coefficient) the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework. Results In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009), there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD), with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis. Conclusions Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis. PMID:26872210

  3. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Scalese, Marco; Curzio, Olivia; Cutrupi, Valentina; Bastiani, Luca; Gori, Mercedes; Denoth, Francesca; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a) investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b) explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logi...

  4. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Barceló

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis.In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012 was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined 'selection on observables' as (propensity scoring matching and 'selection on unobservables' as (random coefficient the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework.In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009, there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD, with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis.Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis.

  5. Association of variants in SH2B1 and RABEP1 with worsening of low-density lipoprotein and glucose parameters in patients treated with psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacrétaz, Aurélie; Zdralovic, Adna; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Saigi-Morgui, Nuria; Glatard, Anaïs; Quteineh, Lina; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Raffoul, Wassim; Applegate, Lee Ann; Jafari, Paris; Gamma, Franziska; von Gunten, Armin; Conus, Philippe; Eap, Chin B

    2017-09-10

    Genetic factors associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) have been widely studied over the last decade. We examined whether genetic variants previously associated with BMI in the general population are associated with cardiometabolic parameter worsening in the psychiatric population receiving psychotropic drugs, a high-risk group for metabolic disturbances. Classification And Regression Trees (CARTs) were used as a tool capable of describing hierarchical associations, to pinpoint genetic variants best predicting worsening of cardiometabolic parameters (i.e total, HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting glucose, and blood pressure) following prescription of psychotropic drugs inducing weight gain in a discovery sample of 357 Caucasian patients. Significant findings were tested for replication in a second Caucasian psychiatric sample (n=140). SH2B1 rs3888190C>A was significantly associated with LDL levels in the discovery and in the replication sample, with A-allele carriers having 0.2mmol/l (p=0.005) and 0.36mmol/l (p=0.007) higher LDL levels compared to others, respectively. G-allele carriers of RABEP1 rs1000940A>G had lower fasting glucose levels compared to others in both samples (-0.16mmol/l; p<0.001 and -0.77mmol/l; p=0.03 respectively). The present study is the first to observe such associations in human subjects, which may in part be explained by a high risk towards dyslipidemia and diabetes in psychiatric patients receiving psychotropic treatments compared to population-based individuals. These results may therefore give new insight into the etiology of LDL-cholesterol and glucose regulation in psychiatric patients under psychotropic drug therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of psychological supportive care services and psychotropic drugs in patients with early-stage breast cancer: a comparison between two institutions on two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Meattini, Icro; Deal, Allison M; Francolini, Giulio; Carta, Giulio; Terzo, Lauren; Camporeale, Jayne; Muss, Hyman; Marks, Lawrence B; Livi, Lorenzo; Mayer, Deborah K; Zagar, Timothy M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health consumption among patients with early-stage breast cancer in two radiation oncology departments in two countries (USA and Italy). Data were extracted from the medical records of consecutive patients treated between 2014 and 2015 in two centers. Extracted data included patient's demographics, treatment, referral to psychological supportive care programs, and prescribed psychotropic drugs. Data from the two centers were compared using Student's t, Wilcoxon, Fisher's exact, and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests. Adjusted relative risks (RR) were estimated using Poisson regression. A total of 231 (Italy = 110, USA = 121) patients were included, with a mean age of 60 years. The crude rate of psychological supportive care visits was similar in the US versus the Italian cohort (28.9 vs. 21.8%, p = 0.23). The crude rate of prescribed psychotropic drug was higher in the US cohort versus Italian cohort (43.8 vs. 18.2%, p < 0.0001). These differences remained significant after adjusting for breast cancer subtype, stage, and treatment (RR 1.8, 95 CI 1.17-2.76). Between 20 and 30% of patients receive psychological supportive care during treatment for breast cancer. The use of psychotropic medication was higher in the US cohort than the cohort from Italy. The reasons for these differences might be related to social and cultural differences and the method of prescribing medication.

  7. The impact of a good practice manual on professional practice associated with psychotropic PRN in acute mental health wards: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J A; Lovell, K; Harris, N

    2008-10-01

    As required or pro re nata (PRN) psychotropic medicines are frequently used in acute mental health wards. PRN is known to contribute to polypharmacy and high doses of antipsychotic medication. Few studies have attempted to improve clinician's use of these potentially harmful drugs. The objectives of the study were to determine the impact and acceptability of a good practice manual on prescribing and administration practices of PRN psychotropic medication in acute mental health wards. The study used a pre-post exploratory design with two acute mental health wards in the NW of England. Over the total trial period of 10 weeks, 28 of 35 patients received 484 doses of PRN. Patients had a mean of 3.6 prescriptions of 14 different PRN medications in 34 different dose combinations prescribed. Medication errors beyond poor quality of prescribing occurred in 23 of the 35 patients (65.7%). Prescription quality improved following the introduction of the intervention but quality of nursing notes reduced. Acceptability of the manual to both nursing and medical staff was high. The introduction of the manual appeared to influence some of the practices associated with the prescribing and administration of PRN psychotropic medications. Further, larger, more robust studies are required in this area. In particular research is required to identify the reasons why professionals continue to rely so heavily on using PRN medication.

  8. Serum concentrations of psychotropic drugs in neonates as a PROgnOstic Factor for admission to the neonatology ward and withdrawal symptoms: PROOF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparla, Shirley C A; Coppens, Hans; Evers, Inge M; Stramrood, Claire A I; Pasker-de Jong, Pieternel C M; van der Westerlaken, Monique M L; Hogeman, Paul H G; Malingré, Mirte M

    2017-05-01

    The aim is to determine whether serum drug concentrations obtained from the neonate's umbilical cord can be used as a prognostic factor for admission to the neonatology ward and the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms. A retrospective observational monocenter cohort study was carried out among pregnant women using psychotropic drugs and their baby. Binary logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis. Of the 186 neonates included, 22.6% (n=42) were admitted to the neonatology ward, 6.5% (n=12) because of withdrawal. Among women with therapeutic concentrations of psychotropic medication, 22.0% (n=5) of the neonates had withdrawal symptoms. When comparing neonates with therapeutic versus undetectable drug concentrations, an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.1-8.6) was found for admission to the neonatology ward and an odds ratio of 20.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.2-186.1) for the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms. Therapeutic concentrations of psychotropic drugs in neonates' umbilical cord blood correspond with higher odds for admission to the neonatology ward and the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms compared with neonates with undetectable drug concentrations. The measurement of drug concentrations in the neonate may contribute toward the general clinical assessment of the physician to predict the necessity of admission to the neonatology ward and the risk of withdrawal symptoms.

  9. Prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications and clinical features in patients with major depressive disorder with and without comorbid dysthymia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Sha, Sha; Hu, Chen; Wang, Gang; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Ng, Chee H; Si, Tian-Mei; Chen, Da-Fang; Fang, Yi-Ru; Lu, Zheng; Yang, Hai-Chen; Hu, Jian; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Huang, Yi; Sun, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Li, Hui-Chun; Zhang, Jin-Bei; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-03-01

    Little has been reported about the demographic and clinical features of major depressive disorder (MDD) with comorbid dysthymia in Chinese patients. This study examined the frequency of comorbid dysthymia in Chinese MDD patients together with the demographic and clinical correlates and prescribing patterns of psychotropic drugs. Consecutively collected sample of 1178 patients with MDD were examined in 13 major psychiatric hospitals in China. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and psychotropic drugs prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The diagnosis of dysthymia was established using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Medications ascertained included antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and mood stabilizers. One hundred and three (8.7%) patients fulfilled criteria for dysthymia. In multiple logistic regression analyses, compared to non-dysthymia counterparts, MDD patients with dysthymia had more depressive episodes with atypical features including increased appetite, sleep, and weight gain, more frequent lifetime depressive episodes, and less likelihood of family history of psychiatric disorders. There was no significant difference in the pattern of psychotropic prescription between the 2 groups. There are important differences in the demographic and clinical features of comorbid dysthymia in Chinese MDD patients compared with previous reports. The clinical profile found in this study has implications for treatment decisions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. How complete is the information on preadmission psychotropic medications in inpatients with dementia? A comparison of hospital medical records with dispensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, Federica Edith; Palese, Francesca; Romanese, Federico; Barbone, Fabio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Riedel, Oliver

    2018-06-05

    Reliable information on preadmission medications is essential for inpatients with dementia, but its quality has hardly been evaluated. We assessed the completeness of information and factors associated with incomplete recording. We compared preadmission medications recorded in hospital electronic medical records (EMRs) with community-pharmacy dispensations in hospitalizations with discharge code for dementia at the University Hospital of Udine, Italy, 2012-2014. We calculated: (a) prevalence of omissions (dispensed medication not recorded in EMRs), additions (medication recorded in EMRs not dispensed), and discrepancies (any omission or addition); (b) multivariable logistic regression odds ratio, with 95% confidence interval (95% CI), of ≥1 omission. Among 2,777 hospitalizations, 86.1% had ≥1 discrepancy for any medication (Kappa 0.10) and 33.4% for psychotropics. When psychotropics were recorded in EMR, antipsychotics were added in 71.9% (antidepressants: 29.2%, antidementia agents: 48.2%); when dispensed, antipsychotics were omitted in 54.4% (antidepressants: 52.7%, antidementia agents: 41.5%). Omissions were 92% and twice more likely in patients taking 5 to 9 and ≥10 medications (vs. 0 to 4), 17% in patients with psychiatric disturbances (vs. none), and 41% with emergency admission (vs. planned). Psychotropics, commonly used in dementia, were often incompletely recorded. To enhance information completeness, both EMRs and dispensations should be used. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Rapid determination of some psychotropic drugs in complex matrices by tandem dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Alireza; Fahimi, Ebrahim; Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Boutorabi, Leila

    2017-05-01

    Simple and rapid determinations of some psychotropic drugs in some pharmaceutical wastewater and human plasma samples were successfully accomplished via the tandem dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (TDLLME-HPLC-UV). TDLLME of the three psychotropic drugs clozapine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine was easily performed through two consecutive dispersive liquid-liquid microextractions. By performing this convenient method, proper sample preconcentrations and clean-ups were achieved in just about 7min. In order to achieve the best extraction efficiency, the effective parameters involved were optimized. The optimal experimental conditions consisted of 100μL of CCl 4 (as the extraction organic solvent), and the pH values of 13 and 2 for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively. Under these optimum experimental conditions, the proposed TDLLME-HPLC-UV technique provided a good linearity in the range of 5-3000ngmL -1 for the three psychotropic drugs with the correlation of determinations (R 2 s) higher than 0.996. The limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) obtained were 5.0ngmL -1 and 1.0-1.5ngmL -1 , respectively. Also the proper enrichment factors (EFs) of 96, 99, and 88 for clozapine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine, respectively, and good extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations below 9.3%, n=5) were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Psychosocial Interventions for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia on the Prescription of Psychotropic Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhäger-Gillesse, Elizabeth G; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Achterberg, Wilco P; Boersma, Froukje; Jongman, Lydia; Zuidema, Sytse U

    2018-03-01

    Dementia is often accompanied by neuropsychiatric symptoms. Psychotropic drugs for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequently used to manage these problems, but they are of limited effectiveness and can have serious side effects. Psychosocial interventions are advocated as first line treatment and may help to reduce psychotropic drug use. To assess the effect of multidisciplinary psychosocial interventions in nursing homes on the psychotropic drug prescription rate. Literature obtained from searches in 9 electronic databases was systematically reviewed. In addition, the pooled effects of specific psychosocial interventions in homogenous subgroups were analyzed (meta-analysis). Eleven randomized controlled studies that investigated multiple psychotropic drugs interventions (psychotropic drugs in 3, antipsychotics in 9, and antidepressants in 5 studies) as well as different types of psychosocial interventions were included. We separately analyzed interventions directed at the care staff level (educational programs in 3, in-reach services or consultation in 1, cultural or process change in 6 studies) and the individual resident level in 1 study. In 7 out of 9 studies reporting on antipsychotic drug use, the physician was actively involved. Nine studies in which antipsychotic drug use was specified reported a significant decrease in prescription rate as a result of psychosocial interventions [relative risk (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.88], whereas meta-analysis of 5 studies investigating antidepressant drug use failed to show a significant effect (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.64-1.02). Pooled effect sizes of 6 studies investigating cultural change, showed a significant decrease in antipsychotic drug use (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.73). Effect sizes of 2 studies on educational programs on antipsychotic use were nonsignificant (RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.49-4.64). Sensitivity analysis of 7 studies reporting on antipsychotic drug use involving prescribing

  13. Determination of some psychotropic drugs in serum and saliva samples by HPLC-DAD and HPLC MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, A; Wróblewski, K; Szultka-Młyńska, M; Buszewski, B; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, H; Gajewski, J; Morylowska-Topolska, J; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M

    2016-08-05

    A simple, rapid and sensitive HPLC-DAD method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven psychotropic drugs (risperidone, citalopram, clozapine,quetiapine, levomepromazine, perazine and aripiprazole) in human serum or saliva samples. The chromatographic analyses were performed on a XSELECT CSH Phenyl-Hexyl column with a mobile phase containing methanol, acetate buffer at pH 3.5 and 0.025mL(-1) diethylamine. The influence of concentration of methanol in injection samples and injection volume on peak symmetry and system efficiency was examined.The full separation of all investigated drugs, good peaks' symmetry and simultaneously high systems efficiency were obtained in applied chromatographic system. The method is suitable for the analysis of investigated drugs in human plasma or saliva for psychiatric patients for control of pharmacotherapy, particularly in combination therapy. HPLC-MS was applied for verification of the presence of drugs and their metabolites in serum and saliva samples from patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Country variations in depressive symptoms profile in Asian countries: Findings of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Kok-Yoon; Tripathi, Adarsh; Avasthi, Ajit; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Sim, Kang; Si, Tian-Mei; Kanba, Shigenobu; He, Yan-Ling; Lee, Min-Soo; Fung-Kum Chiu, Helen; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuga, Hironori; Udormatn, Pichet; Kallivayalil, Roy A; Tanra, Andi J; Maramis, Margarita; Grover, Sandeep; Chin, Loi-Fei; Dahlan, Rahima; Mohamad Isa, Mohd Fadzli; Ebenezer, Esther Gunaseli M; Nordin, Norhayati; Shen, Winston W; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Sartorius, Norman

    2015-09-01

    This study was to assess differences in the symptom profile of depressive illness across various countries/territories in Asia. The study was a part of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription project. The participating countries/territories include China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. The pattern of depressive symptoms in 1,400 subjects with depressive disorder from 42 psychiatric centers in 10 Asian countries/territories was assessed. We collected information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics with a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The most common presentations of depressive symptoms were persistent sadness, loss of interest, and insomnia. Similar findings were found regardless of the region, country, or its income level. Patients with depressive disorder from high-income countries presented significantly more with vegetative symptom cluster (P countries had significantly more with both mood (P countries, patients with depressive symptoms had significantly less mood symptom cluster (P countries/territories, core depressive symptoms remain the same. Variations have been found in presentation of depressive symptoms with regards to the level of income of countries. Physical or vegetative symptoms were reported more by centers in higher income countries, while depressive cognition and suicidal thoughts/acts were more frequently reported from lower income countries. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. The impact of severe mental disorders and psychotropic medications on sexual health and its implications for clinical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo, Angel L.; Montejo, Laura; Baldwin, David S.

    2018-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction often accompanies severe psychiatric illness and can be due to both the mental disorder itself and the use of psychotropic treatments. Many sexual symptoms resolve as the mental state improves, but treatment‐related sexual adverse events tend to persist over time, and are unfortunately under‐recognized by clinicians and scarcely investigated in clinical trials. Treatment‐emergent sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life and may contribute to reduce treatment adherence. There are important differences between the various compounds in the incidence of adverse sexual effects, associated with differences in mechanisms of action. Antidepressants with a predominantly serotonergic activity, antipsychotics likely to induce hyperprolactinaemia, and mood stabilizers with hormonal effects are often linked to moderate or severe sexual dysfunction, including decreased libido, delayed orgasm, anorgasmia, and sexual arousal difficulties. Severe mental disorders can interfere with sexual function and satisfaction, while patients wish to preserve a previously satisfactory sexual activity. In many patients, a lack of intimate relationships and chronic deterioration in mental and physical health can be accompanied by either a poor sexual life or a more frequent risky sexual behaviour than in the general population. Here we describe the influence of psychosis and antipsychotic medications, of depression and antidepressant drugs, and of bipolar disorder and mood stabilizers on sexual health, and the optimal management of patients with severe psychiatric illness and sexual dysfunction. PMID:29352532

  16. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  17. Use of psychotropic medications in São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil: pattern of healthcare provision to general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanha, Angela Maria; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Milhorança, Igor André; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-11-01

    We estimate the proportion of psychotropic medication use (PMU) among adults in São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. We investigated whether socio-demographic factors, comorbidity, and disease severity influence PMU among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Data are from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional, population-based study, the Brazilian branch of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Trained lay interviewers face-to-face assessed psychiatric disorders and PMU through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Respondents were asked about use of healthcare service and prescribed medications for mental disorders in the previous year. Information on PMU was collected for 2935 adult residents in the area and among those with disorders who received treatment. Around 6% of respondents reported PMU in the past year: hypnotics or sedatives were used by 3.7% and antidepressants by 3.5%. Among individuals with 12-month disorders, only 14% reported past year PMU. Gender, age, education, income, occupational status, comorbidity, and severity were significant predictors for PMU. Among those with 12-month DSM-IV disorders who obtained treatment in healthcare settings, almost 40% received medication only. Among those treated in specialty mental health service, around 23% received combination of medication and psychotherapy. Our study has pointed out that the recent trend of access to mental healthcare in Brazil depicts unmet needs, characterized by a low prevalence of PMU among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Policies that improve appropriate access to prescribed drugs for those most in need are urgent public health priority. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Timing and risk of mood disorders requiring psychotropics in long-term survivors of adult cancers: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Kuan; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Chung, Chia-Chi; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, John Wen-Cheng; Lin, Yung-Chang; Wang, Hung-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Chen, Jen-Shi; Tsai, Chieh-Sheng; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Kuo, Chang-Fu; See, Lai-Chu

    2018-08-15

    The increasing number of long-term cancer survivors over the past few decades poses the challenge of mental health care needs. However, little is known about risks of mood disorders in long-term cancer survivors. Long-term survivors (≥5 years) of adult cancers (LSAC) (n = 190,748) newly diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007 were matched with one control. The primary outcome was diagnosis of mood disorders requiring psychotropics. Cumulative incidences and sub-hazard ratios (SHR) were calculated and multivariate analyses were conducted after accounting for mortality. The mood disorder risk was significantly higher in the LSAC cohort than in the control cohort (adjusted SHR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-1.18, P < 0.001). Patients with certain cancer types were at increased risk, particularly in the first 2 years after diagnosis. However, patients with head and neck cancers or esophageal cancers had a higher risk after the 5-year follow-up period. Multivariate analysis indicated that being female, aged 40-59 years, with more than two primary cancers, receiving two or more treatment modalities, having CCI scores higher than 3, a higher urbanization level, and lower monthly income were independently associated with an increased risk of mood disorders. Some potential confounders such as lifestyle factors were not available in the study. These findings call for increased mental health awareness not only in the early years after the cancer diagnosis, but also during long-term follow-up for certain cancer subtypes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Is cocoa a psychotropic drug? Psychopathologic study of a population of subjects self-identified as chocolate addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallard, I; Cathebras, P; Sauron, C; Massoubre, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to search for eating disorders, DSM III-R Axis I mental disorders, personality disorders, and addictive behavior, in self-labeled "chocolate addicts". Subjects were recruited through advertisements placed in a university and a hospital. Fifteen subjects were included, 3 men and 12 women aged between 18 and 49. Most of them were not overweight, although 7 thought they had a weight problem. They consumed an average of 50 g per day of pure cacao and, for 13 subjects, this consumption was lasting since childhood or adolescence. The psychological effects of chocolate, as indicated by the subjects, consisted in feelings of increased energy or increased concentration ability, and in an anxiolytic effect during stress. Seven subjects described minor withdrawal symptoms. None of the subjects reached the thresholds for eating disorders on the EAT and BULIT scales. The structured interview (MINI) identified an important ratio of subjects with a history of major depressive episode (13/15), and one woman was currently experiencing a major depressive episode. Four people suffered, or had suffered from anxiety disorders. Although only one subject satisfied all criteria for a personality disorder on the DIP-Q, seven displayed some pathological personality features. The self-labeled "chocoholics" do not seem to suffer from eating disorders, but may represent a population of psychologically vulnerable and depression--or anxiety--prone people. They seem to use chocolate as a light psychotropic drug able to relieve some of their distress. The amount of cacao consumed, although very chronically, remains moderate, and they rarely display other addictive behaviors.

  20. [Sleep disorders and impaired sleep as adverse drug reactions of psychotropic drugs: an evaluation of data of summaries of product characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Connemann, Bernhard J; Zeiss, René; Fröhlich, Albrecht

    2018-03-02

     Psychopharmacotherapy is essential in the treatment of many mental disorders. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) have impact on compliance and tolerability. Sleep disorders or impaired sleep may occur as ADRs of psychopharmacotherapy. Sleep disorders are associated with an increased risk for physical and mental illness and may impair cognition, impulse control, emotion regulation and mood. Objective of the following study was the systematic presentation of type and risk of sleep disorders/impairments of sleep of frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs.  Psychotropic agents that are most frequently prescribed in Germany were identified by using the Arzneiverordnungs-Report 2016. Summaries of product characteristics (SmPC) of corresponding original products were analyzed regarding presence and frequency of sleep disorders/impairments of sleep according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders 3 (ICSD-3).  N = 64 SmPCs were analyzed. In most of the analyzed SmPCs, at least one sleep disorder (50/64; 78 %) was listed. At least one SmPC with a corresponding ADR was found in the categories insomnia (52 %), parasomnias (33 %), and sleep-related movement disorders (20 %); sleep-related breathing disorders (6 %) and central disorders of hypersomnolence (5 %) were rarely listed; circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder was not found. The SmPCs of the four most frequently prescribed agents (citalopram > venlafaxine > mirtazapine > sertraline) listed insomnia as an ADR. Nearly all analysed hypnotics (except chloral hydrate) were associated with nightmares.  Most of the psychotropic agents frequently prescribed in Germany may induce sleep disorders/impairments of sleep. The four most frequently prescribed agents were antidepressants and all of the corresponding SmPCs listed insomnia as a possible ADR. Sleep disorders should be taken seriously as possible ADRs of psychopharmacotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Selective potentiation of noradrenaline in the guinea-pig vas deferens by 2-(4-methylaminobutoxy) diphenylmethane hydrochloride (MCI-2016), a new psychotropic drug.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohizumi, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Tobe, A.

    1982-01-01

    In the isolated vas deferens of the guinea-pig, the effects of 2-(4-methylaminobutoxy) diphenylmethane hydrochloride (MCI-2016), a new psychotropic drug, on the contractile response to various agonists or transmural electrical stimulation and on the release of noradrenaline (NA) from the tissue were examined and compared with cocaine. MCI-2016 (3 X 10(-6)M) and cocaine (3 X 10(-5)M) produced a leftward shift (15 and 20 times, respectively) of the dose-response curves for the contractile effec...

  2. The prescribing of psychotropic drugs in mental health services in Trinidad Prescripción de psicotrópicos en los servicios de salud mental de Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Moore

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe, analyze, and interpret patterns of psychotropic drug prescribing in new psychiatric patients attending psychiatric outpatient clinics in the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Design and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of psychotropic drug prescribing by psychiatrists for 132 new psychiatric outpatients who were seen at the outpatient clinics surveyed and who were entering the mental health system during the period of research, November 1998 through February 1999. Results. A single patient could be prescribed more than one psychotropic drug. Antidepressant drugs were the class of psychotropic drugs most prescribed (79 of 132 patients, 59.8%, followed by antipsychotic drugs (67 of 132 patients, 50.8%. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs were the antidepressants most prescribed (58 of the 79 patients, mainly amitriptyline (53 of the 58. Fluoxetine was the only selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI prescribed (21 of the 79 patients prescribed antidepressants. Of the 67 patients receiving antipsychotic drugs, phenothiazines accounted for 41 of those 67, including trifluoperazine (14 of the 41 and thioridazine (13 of the 41. The individual antipsychotic most prescribed was sulpiride (21 of the 67 patients. Anticholinergic drugs were prescribed to 20 of the 132 patients (15.1%. Eighty-three of the patients were prescribed more than one drug concomitantly (either more than one psychotropic or a combination of psychotropic(s and nonpsychotropic(s. Prescription by ethnicity, age, and gender coincided with the morbidity rates encountered in these patients. The prescribing of SSRIs to persons of African or East Indian ethnicity was significantly lower than it was for persons of mixed heritage. Conclusions. The prescription patterns of psychotropic drugs in Trinidad revealed the psychiatrists' preferences for traditional psychotropic drugs, the moderate use of anticholinergic drugs, and polypharmacy in some cases, with

  3. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  4. Financial Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Janečková, Alena

    2011-01-01

    1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...

  5. Demographic and clinical features and prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications in patients with the melancholic subtype of major depressive disorder in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tao Xiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little has been known about the demographic and clinical features of the melancholic subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD in Chinese patients. This study examined the frequency of melancholia in Chinese MDD patients and explored its demographic and clinical correlates and prescribing patterns of psychotropic drugs. METHODS: A consecutively collected sample of 1,178 patients with MDD were examined in 13 psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric units of general hospitals in China nationwide. The cross-sectional data of patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and prescriptions of psychotropic drugs were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The diagnosis of the melancholic subtype was established using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Medications ascertained included antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. RESULTS: Six hundred and twenty nine (53.4% of the 1,178 patients fulfilled criteria for melancholia. In multiple logistic regression analyses, compared to non-melancholic counterparts, melancholic MDD patients were more likely to be male and receive benzodiazepines, had more frequent suicide ideations and attempts and seasonal depressive episodes, while they were less likely to be employed and receive antidepressants and had less family history of psychiatric disorders and lifetime depressive episodes. CONCLUSIONS: The demographic and clinical features of melancholic MDD in Chinese patients were not entirely consistent with those found in Western populations. Compared to non-melancholic MDD patients, melancholic patients presented with different demographic and clinical features, which have implications for treatment decisions.

  6. Psychotropic drug use as indicator of mental health in adolescents affected by a plexus injury at birth: A large population-based study in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Psouni

    Full Text Available Chronic handicap in early life may have a long-term impact on children's psychosocial well-being. Here, we investigated whether Brachialis Plexus Birth Injury (BPBI-an unpredictable injury at birth-is associated with worse mental health later on, as indicated by prescription and use of psychotropic drugs in adolescence. We explored further whether this association is different depending on socioeconomic characteristics of the child's family, as well as sex. Of the 641 151 children born to native parents in Sweden 1987-1993 (alive and still living in Sweden at the end of 2008, identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, 1587 had suffered a BPBI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of socioeconomic characteristics and associations with later psychosocial health. Results show that beyond the known increased risks for females as compared to males, BPBI, but also lower family income, further increased the risk of burdened mental health requiring psychotropic drug use in adolescence. The effects were additive. Thus, compared to unaffected peers, teenagers who suffered a BPBI at birth are at higher risk of suffering poor mental health during adolescence, independently of surgical intervention and its outcome. Girls growing up in families with lower socioeconomic status have this risk added to their already increased risk of poor mental health during adolescence.

  7. Sampling and analytical methods for assessing the levels of organic pollutants in the atmosphere: PAH, phthalates and psychotropic substances: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Mastroianni, Daniele; Perilli, Mattia

    2012-07-01

    This short review presents the procedures used to monitor PAHs, phthalates and psychotropic substances in the air, and the results of some measurements made in Italy and abroad. Organic contaminants are characterized by a variety of physical and chemical properties, including aggregation phase, concentration level, and life time. This variety widens the spectrum of procedures developed to assess their occurrence in the environment and biota, but prevents the complete speciation of the "organic fraction" of air, waters and particulates, and attention is paid to a few substances. The progress in health sciences stimulates the concern on contaminants and the development of new instrumental apparatuses and methods; new chemicals are continuously identified or recognized as capable of injuring the environment and organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and persistent biologically active toxicants are subject to regulation and extensively measured by means of standard procedures. For instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorobiphenyls and polychlorodibenzodioxins are recovered from air through phase partition, thermal desorption or solvent extraction, then separated and detected through GC-MS or HPLC-MS procedures. By contrast, dedicated methods must be still optimized to monitor candidates or possible candidates as emerging organic pollutants, e.g. phthalates, flame retardants and perfluoroalkanes. Also, psychotropic substances appear of potential concern. Legal and illicit substances are commonly detected in the urban air besides waste and surface waters. If nicotine, caffeine and cocaine will result to enough persistence in the air, their monitoring will become an important issue of global chemical watching in the next future.

  8. Derivative chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂ μ φ∂ μ φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂ μ φ∂ μ φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type

  9. Derivative chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.noller08@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  10. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  11. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE SYSTEM OF AVAILABILITY NARCOTIC AND PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS FOR PATIENTS WHO NEED THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kaminskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances still remain indispensable in medicine. One of the top priorities of health care is to ensure the required availability of this group of drugs. The development of an effective system which can ensure crucially important availability of narcotic and psychotropic agents to people who need them for medical purposes must rely on the identification and analysis of the nature and specificity of the problems related to them as well as the ways of solving these problems. ThePurpose of the Study was to explore the constituents of the system ensuring medicinal availability of narcotic and psychotropic agents and to identify the factors hindering the availability of this group of medicinal agents.Materials and Methods. The study involved the systematic review analysis of the scientific publications and guidance  documents regulating various aspects of activities involving the turnover of controlled drugs, and the results of surveys and interviews in which medical and pharmaceutical professionals were engaged. The study employed the methods of content analysis, logical and functional analysis, etc.Results and Discussion. The system of narcotic and psychotropic drug (NPD availability for patients who need them is currently going through reforms which have been conditioned by low accessibilty of these drugs when used for medical purposes. Those engaged in the drug supply system including medical and pharmaceutical professionals point out that excessive bureaucratization of the system of NPD supply and availability, complexity of documentation and paperwork reporting thedrug flow, costliness of these activities, and strict liability account for low availability of such drugs. To ensure the rights of the citizens to relieve pain due to diseases or medical interventions, a number of changes in the laws and regulations have been made. They have simplified the requirements for NPD

  12. Inhibitory effects of psychotropic drugs on the acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium current (IK.ACh) in guinea-pig atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Muneyoshi; Watanabe, Shinya; Matada, Takashi; Asao, Yoko; Hamatani, Ramu; Yamawaki, Hideyuki; Hara, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Influences of psychotropic drugs, six antipsychotics and three antidepressants, on acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium current (IK.ACh) were examined by a whole-cell patch clamp method in freshly isolated guinea-pig atrial myocyte. IK.ACh was induced by a superfusion of carbachol (CCh) or by an intracellular application of guanosine 5'-[thio] triphosphate (GTPγS). To elucidate mechanism for anticholinergic action, IC50 ratio, the ratio of IC50 for GTPγS-activated IK.ACh to CCh-induced IK.ACh, was calculated. Antipsychotics and antidepressants inhibited CCh-induced IK.ACh in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values were as follows; chlorpromazine 0.53 μM, clozapine 0.06 μM, fluphenazine 2.69 μM, haloperidol 2.66 μM, sulpiride 42.3 μM, thioridazine 0.07 μM, amitriptyline 0.03 μM, imipramine 0.22 μM and maprotiline 1.81 μM. The drugs, except for sulpiride, inhibited GTPγS-activated IK.ACh with following IC50 values; chlorpromazine 1.71 μM, clozapine 14.9 μM, fluphenazine 3.55 μM, haloperidol 2.73 μM, thioridazine 1.90 μM, amitriptyline 7.55 μM, imipramine 7.09 μM and maprotiline 5.93 μM. The IC50 ratio for fluphenazine and haloperidol was close to unity. The IC50 ratio for chlorpromazine, clozapine, thioridazine, amitriptyline, imipramine and maprotiline was much higher than unity. The present findings suggest that the psychotropics studied suppress IK.ACh. Chlorpromazine, clozapine, thioridazine, amitriptyline, imipramine, maprotiline and sulpiride are preferentially acting on muscarinic receptor. Fluphenazine and haloperidol may act on G protein and/or potassium channel.

  13. Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Attila; Markovics, Arnold; Szabó-Papp, Judit; Szabó, Pálma Tímea; Stott, Colin; Zouboulis, Christos C; Bíró, Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Acne is a common skin disease characterized by elevated sebum production and inflammation of the sebaceous glands. We have previously shown that a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid ((-)-cannabidiol [CBD]) exerted complex anti-acne effects by normalizing 'pro-acne agents'-induced excessive sebaceous lipid production, reducing proliferation and alleviating inflammation in human SZ95 sebocytes. Therefore, in this study we aimed to explore the putative anti-acne effects of further non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids ((-)-cannabichromene [CBC], (-)-cannabidivarin [CBDV], (-)-cannabigerol [CBG], (-)-cannabigerovarin [CBGV] and (-)-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin [THCV]). Viability and proliferation of human SZ95 sebocytes were investigated by MTT and CyQUANT assays; cell death and lipid synthesis were monitored by DilC1 (5)-SYTOX Green labelling and Nile Red staining, respectively. Inflammatory responses were investigated by monitoring expressions of selected cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide treatment (RT-qPCR, ELISA). Up to 10 μm, the phytocannabinoids only negligibly altered the viability of the sebocytes, whereas high doses (≥50 μm) induced apoptosis. Interestingly, basal sebaceous lipid synthesis was differentially modulated by the substances: CBC and THCV suppressed it, and CBDV had only minor effects, whereas CBG and CBGV increased it. Importantly, CBC, CBDV and THCV significantly reduced arachidonic acid (AA)-induced 'acne-like' lipogenesis. Moreover, THCV suppressed proliferation, and all phytocannabinoids exerted remarkable anti-inflammatory actions. Our data suggest that CBG and CBGV may have potential in the treatment of dry-skin syndrome, whereas CBC, CBDV and especially THCV show promise to become highly efficient, novel anti-acne agents. Moreover, based on their remarkable anti-inflammatory actions, phytocannabinoids could be efficient, yet safe novel tools in the management of cutaneous inflammations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  14. Influence of polygenic risk scores on lipid levels and dyslipidemia in a psychiatric population receiving weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacrétaz, Aurélie; Lagares Santos, Patricia; Saigi Morgui, Nuria; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Glatard, Anaïs; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; von Gunten, Armin; Conus, Philippe; Eap, Chin B

    2017-12-01

    Dyslipidemia represents a major health issue in psychiatry. We determined whether weighted polygenic risk scores (wPRSs) combining multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lipid levels in the general population are associated with lipid levels [high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides] and/or dyslipidemia in patients receiving weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs. We also determined whether genetics improve the predictive power of dyslipidemia. The influence of wPRS on lipid levels was firstly assessed in a discovery psychiatric sample (n=332) and was then tested for replication in an independent psychiatric sample (n=140). The contribution of genetic markers to predict dyslipidemia was evaluated in the combined psychiatric sample. wPRSs were significantly associated with the four lipid traits in the discovery (P≤0.02) and in the replication sample (P≤0.03). Patients whose wPRS was higher than the median wPRS had significantly higher LDL, TC, and triglyceride levels (0.20, 0.32 and 0.26 mmol/l, respectively; P≤0.004) and significantly lower HDL levels (0.13 mmol/l; Pdyslipidemia prediction of HDL (P=0.03) and a trend for improvement was observed for the prediction of TC dyslipidemia (P=0.08). Population-based wPRSs have thus significant effects on lipid levels in the psychiatric population. As genetics improved the predictive power of dyslipidemia development, only 24 patients need to be genotyped to prevent the development of one case of HDL hypocholesterolemia. If confirmed by further prospective investigations, the present results could be used for individualizing psychotropic treatment.

  15. Clinical Use of Mood Stabilizers With Antidepressants in Asia: Report From the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) Projects in 2004 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Kamini; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Tripathi, Adarsh; Chiu, Helen F K; Si, Tian-Mei; Chee, Kok-Yoon; Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Kuga, Hironori; Kanba, Shigenobu; He, Yan-Ling; Lee, Min-Soo; Yang, Shu-Yu; Udomratn, Pichet; Kallivayalil, Roy A; Tanra, Andi J; Maramis, Margarita M; Shen, Winston W; Sartorius, Norman; Kua, Ee-Heok; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Mahendran, Rathi; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Sum, Min Yi; Baldessarini, Ross J; Sim, Kang

    2017-04-01

    As most reports concerning treatment with combinations of mood stabilizer (MS) with antidepressant (AD) drugs are based in the West, we surveyed characteristics of such cotreatment in 42 sites caring for the mentally ill in 10 Asian countries. This cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiologic study used 2004 and 2013 data from the REAP-AD (Research Study on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants) to evaluate the rates and doses of MSs given with ADs and associated factors in 4164 psychiatric patients, using standard bivariate methods followed by multivariable logistic regression modeling. Use of MS + AD increased by 104% (5.5% to 11.2%) between 2004 and 2013 and was much more associated with diagnosis of bipolar disorder than major depression or anxiety disorder, as well as with hospitalization > outpatient care, psychiatric > general-medical programs, and young age (all P contemporary use of MSs with ADs in Asia, support predictions that such treatment increased in recent years, and was associated with diagnosis of bipolar disorder, treatment in inpatient and psychiatric settings, and younger age.

  16. Use of psychotropic drugs in Lombardy in time of economic crisis (2007-2011): a population-based study of adult employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittadini, Giorgio; Beghi, Massimiliano; Mezzanzanica, Mario; Ronzoni, Gloria; Cornaggia, Cesare Maria

    2014-12-15

    Over years, there has been an increase in the prescription of psychotropic drugs (PDs), particularly antidepressants (ADs). The aim of the study was to evaluate the consumption of PDs in adult employees in a productive area of Italy and the possible changes induced by the "economic crisis". The study is a retrospective survey in all adult employees in Lombardy, Northern Italy, aged >18 years in the period 2007-2011, classified by gender, age class, nationality, education and province. During the 5-year period, there were 3,554,860 employed adults in Lombardy, of whom 277,865 (7.8%) used PDs. The use of PDs (particularly ADs) was associated with being an Italian woman aged >55 years with a basic education, a blue collar job, and an unstable working position. In 39% of cases, the use of PDs was limited to one trimester. The increase in the number of prescriptions of PDs after the economic crisis was the same as before it. The increase in PD use can be attributed more to ADs and anti-epileptic drugs with anxiolytic properties. Although continuously increasing, the use of AD fluctuated and was greater during the fall and winter. The increase involved all the provinces in Lombardy in a similar manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Scalese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females. Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: “thrill and adventure seeking,” within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; “boredom susceptibility” is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.

  18. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalese, Marco; Curzio, Olivia; Cutrupi, Valentina; Bastiani, Luca; Gori, Mercedes; Denoth, Francesca; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a) investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b) explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15-19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females). Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: "thrill and adventure seeking," within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; "boredom susceptibility" is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.

  19. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Francesca; Aviello, Gabriella; Romano, Barbara; Orlando, Pierangelo; Capasso, Raffaele; Maiello, Francesco; Guadagno, Federico; Petrosino, Stefania; Capasso, Francesco; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2009-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease affects millions of individuals; nevertheless, pharmacological treatment is disappointingly unsatisfactory. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of marijuana, exerts pharmacological effects (e.g., antioxidant) and mechanisms (e.g., inhibition of endocannabinoids enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for the inflamed gut. Thus, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of colitis. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Inflammation was assessed both macroscopically and histologically. In the inflamed colon, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were evaluated by Western blot, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10 by ELISA, and endocannabinoids by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells were used to evaluate the effect of cannabidiol on oxidative stress. Cannabidiol reduced colon injury, inducible iNOS (but not cyclooxygenase-2) expression, and interleukin-1beta, interleukin-10, and endocannabinoid changes associated with 2,4,6-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid administration. In Caco-2 cells, cannabidiol reduced reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, cannabidiol, a likely safe compound, prevents experimental colitis in mice.

  20. [Drug advertising as communication between the pharmaceutical industry and the physician: advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch medical journal, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 1900-1940].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the historical development of drug advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the leading Dutch medical journal from 1900 to 1940. The advertisements for hypnotics and sedatives, in The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch medical journal) reflected the changes in the vocabulary and image promoted by the pharmaceutical companies. In the first two decades, the advertisements were sober and to the point, and included the trademark, company name, molecular formula and therapeutic properties of the medication. The emphasis was on creating a scientific image of reliable symptom control for the therapeutic drug. In doing so, the ethical drug companies tried (successfully) to distinguish themselves from the producers of patent medicines. Once scientific credibility was established, the form and content of the advertisements changed significantly. In the late 1920s and 1930s drug companies embraced modern advertising techniques, developing a figurative language to address the changing beliefs and practices of Dutch physicians. Instead of promoting therapeutic drugs as safe and scientific, the emphasis was on their effectiveness in comparison to similar drugs. In the process, scientific information was reduced to an indispensable standardized minimum, whereby therapeutic drugs were advertised according to the latest pharmacological taxonomy rather than molecular formulas. The image-making of 'ethical marketing' began during the interwar years when marketers applied modern advertising techniques and infotainment strategies. The scanty black and white informational bulletins transitioned into colourful advertisements. The pharmaceutical companies employed the same medical language as used by physicians, so that one word or image in an advertisement would suffice for the physician to recognize a drug and its therapeutic properties. These developments show the changing relationship between the modern ethical pharmaceutical industry and Dutch

  1. Prevalence and Prescription of Antidepressants in Depression with Somatic Comorbidity in Asia: The Research on East Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Chen; Tian-Mei Si; Yu-Tao Xiang; Gabor S Ungvari; Chuan-Yue Wang; Yan-Ling He; Ee-Heok Kua

    2015-01-01

    Background:Depression is often comorbid with chronic somatic diseases.Few previous studies have investigated the prevalence of somatic diseases in depression or the prescription pattern of antidepressants in comorbidly depressed patients in Asia.This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of somatic comorbidity (SC) in depression and compared the prescriptions of antidepressants in depressed patients with and without SC.Methods:A total of 2320 patients treated with antidepressants in 8 Asian countries were examined,and a diagnosis was based on the International Classification of Disease,10th revision.We listed 17 common chronic somatic diseases.Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and psychotropic drug prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure.Results:Of the patients examined,1240 were diagnosed with depression and 30% of them (n =375) had SC.The most common comorbid condition was diabetes (23.7%).The patients with SC were more likely to seek help at a general hospital (74.7% vs.47.2%),and had a higher incidence of symptoms involving sadness,disturbed sleep,and poor appetite.Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant was prescribed more for patients with SC than for those without SC (30.4% vs.22.9%).Conclusions:SC is common in depressed Asian patients.It is important to strengthen the recognition of depression,especially in general hospitals and when patients report some somatic discomfort.It is also a matter of urgency to establish evidence-based guidelines for the use of new antidepressants in depressed patients with SC.

  2. The effects of dihydropyridine and phenylalkylamine calcium antagonist classes on autonomic function in hypertension : The VAMPHYRE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrandt, JD; Heitmann, J; Sevre, K; Castellano, M; Hausberg, M; Fallon, M; Fluckiger, L; Urbigkeit, A; Rostrup, M; Agabiti-Rosei, E; Rahn, KH; Murphy, M; Zannad, F; de Kam, PJ; van Roon, AM; Smit, AJ

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a long-acting dihydropyridine (amlodipine) and a nondihydropyridine. (verapamil) on autonomic function in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. A total of 145 patients with a diastolic blood pressure (BP) between 95 and 110 mm Hg

  3. Association of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' National Partnership to Improve Dementia Care With the Use of Antipsychotics and Other Psychotropics in Long-term Care in the United States From 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maust, Donovan T; Kim, H Myra; Chiang, Claire; Kales, Helen C

    2018-03-17

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' National Partnership to Improve Dementia Care in Nursing Homes (hereafter referred to as the partnership) was established to improve the quality of care for patients with dementia, measured by the rate of antipsychotic prescribing. To determine the association of the partnership with trends in prescribing of antipsychotic and other psychotropic medication among older adults in long-term care. This interrupted time-series analysis of a 20% Medicare sample from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2014, was conducted among 637 426 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in long-term care with Part D coverage. Data analysis was conducted from May 1, 2017, to January 9, 2018. Quarterly prevalence of use of antipsychotic and nonantipsychotic psychotropic medications (antidepressants, mood stabilizers [eg, valproic acid and carbamazepine], benzodiazepines, and other anxiolytics or sedative-hypnotics). Among the 637 426 individuals in the study (446 538 women and 190 888 men; mean [SD] age at entering nursing home, 79.3 [12.1] years), psychotropic use was declining before initiation of the partnership with the exception of mood stabilizers. In the first quarter of 2009, a total of 31 056 of 145 841 patients (21.3%) were prescribed antipsychotics, which declined at a quarterly rate of -0.53% (95% CI, -0.63% to -0.44%; P care has declined, although the partnership did not accelerate this decrease. However, the use of mood stabilizers, possibly as a substitute for antipsychotics, increased and accelerated after initiation of the partnership in both long-term care residents overall and in those with dementia. Measuring use of antipsychotics alone may be an inadequate proxy for quality of care and may have contributed to a shift in prescribing to alternative medications with a poorer risk-benefit balance.

  4. Effect of an interactive therapeutic robotic animal on engagement, mood states, agitation and psychotropic drug use in people with dementia: a cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Wendy; Beattie, Elizabeth; Draper, Brian; Shum, David; Thalib, Lukman; Jones, Cindy; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Mervin, Cindy

    2015-08-12

    Apathy, agitated behaviours, loneliness and depression are common consequences of dementia. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of a robotic animal on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in people with dementia living in long-term aged care. A cluster-randomised controlled trial with three treatment groups: PARO (robotic animal), Plush-Toy (non-robotic PARO) or Usual Care (Control). The nursing home sites are Australian Government approved and accredited facilities of 60 or more beds. The sites are located in South-East Queensland, Australia. A sample of 380 adults with a diagnosis of dementia, aged 60 years or older living in one of the participating facilities will be recruited. The intervention consists of three individual 15 min non-facilitated sessions with PARO or Plush-Toy per week, for a period of 10 weeks. The primary outcomes of interest are improvement in agitation, mood states and engagement. Secondary outcomes include sleep duration, step count, change in psychotropic medication use, change in treatment costs, and staff and family perceptions of PARO or Plush-Toy. Video data will be analysed using Noldus XT Pocket Observer; descriptive statistics will be used for participants' demographics and outcome measures; cluster and individual level analyses to test all hypotheses and Generalised Linear Models for cluster level and Generalised Estimation Equations and/or Multi-level Modeling for individual level data. The study participants or their proxy will provide written informed consent. The Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (NRS/03/14/HREC). The results of the study will provide evidence of the efficacy of a robotic animal as a psychosocial treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Findings will be presented at local and international conference meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number ACTRN

  5. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da; Yonamine, Maurício; Pucci, Liuba Laxor; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Souza, Camila Gabriela de; Mesquita, Guilherme Alves; Vieira, Ana Paula de Toledo; Vinhal, Ludmilla Barros; Dalastra, Janayna; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n=221) were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. The frequency of use was divided into: 1) lifetime use: tobacco-39.9%, alcohol-87.8%, cannabis-8.1%, cocaine-1.8%, stimulants-7.2%, solvents-10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-6.8%, LSD-0.5%, Bentyl®-0.5%, anabolic steroids-5.4%; 2) use in the previous year: tobacco-15.4%, alcohol-72.9%, stimulants-6.3%, solvents-0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%; 3) use in the previous 30 days: tobacco-14.5%, alcohol-57.5%, stimulants-5.0%, solvents-0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%. The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.

  6. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  7. Rational design, synthesis, and pharmacological properties of new 1,8-naphthyridin-2(1H)-on-3-carboxamide derivatives as highly selective cannabinoid-2 receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manera, Clementina; Saccomanni, Giuseppe; Adinolfi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The CB(2) receptor activation can be exploited for the treatment of diseases such as chronic pain and tumors of immune origin, devoid of psychotropic activity. On the basis of our already reported 1,8-naphthyridin-4(1H)-on-3-carboxamide derivatives, new 1,8-naphthyridin-2(1H)-on-3-carboxamide......-dependent decrease of cell viability. The obtained results suggest that 1,8-naphthyridin-2(1H)-on-3-carboxamides represent a new scaffold very suitable for the development of new promising CB(2) agonists....... derivatives were designed, synthesized, and tested for their affinities toward the human CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors. Some of the reported compounds showed a subnanomolar CB(2) affinity with a CB(1)/CB(2) selectivity ratio greater than 200 (compounds 6, 12, cis-12, 13, and cis-13). Further studies...

  8. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  9. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  10. Risk and Derivative Price

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Osaki

    2007-01-01

    We consider an asset market traded three types of assets: the risk–free asset, the market portfolio and derivatives written on the market portfolio return. We determine a sufficient condition to guarantee that noise risk monotonically changes their derivatives. The condition is that Arrow–Pratt absolute risk aversion is decreasing and convex.

  11. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  12. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  13. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....

  14. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari-Piri Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation , where and are the mappings on Banach algebra . We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation , where .

  15. Amphetamine derivative related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A

    1997-02-28

    Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.

  16. Investigation - Derived Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.; Anderson, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Investigation-Derived Waste Program is a software application that was developed to identify the groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site that require containerization and treatment for purge water generated during sampling

  17. Development of Derivatives Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Pejčochová, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to summarise the theoretical principles, concepts and considerations pertaining to accounting for and reporting of derivatives and to describe and analyse the development of major accounting standards dealing with related issues. Sections 1 and 2 provide a basic overview of derivative instruments'categorisation, mechanics, valuation and uses. Section 3 studies the principles that ensure the provision of useful financial information, with specific focus on financial instrument...

  18. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  19. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  20. Gorenstein derived functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective...... and injective modules are replaced by Gorenstein projective and Gorenstein injective ones, respectively. Furthermore, we derive the tensor product 􀀀 R 􀀀 using Gorenstein at modules....

  1. Does an 8-week home-based exercise program affect physical capacity, quality of life, sick leave, and use of psychotropic drugs in patients with pulmonary embolism? Study protocol for a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolving, Nanna; Brocki, Barbara C; Mikkelsen, Hanne R; Ravn, Pernille; Bloch-Nielsen, Jannie Rhod; Frost, Lars

    2017-05-30

    The existing evidence base in pulmonary embolism (PE) is primarily focused on diagnostic methods, medical treatment, and prognosis. Only a few studies have investigated how everyday life is affected by PE, although many patients are negatively affected both physically and emotionally after hospital discharge. Currently, no documented rehabilitation options are available for these patients. We aim to examine whether an 8-week home-based exercise intervention can influence physical capacity, quality of life, sick leave, and use of psychotropic drugs in patients medically treated for PE. One hundred forty patients with incident first-time PE will be recruited in five hospitals. After inclusion, patients will be randomly allocated to either the control group, receiving usual care, or the intervention group, who will be exposed to an 8-week home-based exercise program in addition to usual care. The intervention includes an initial individual exercise planning session with a physiotherapist, leading to a recommended exercise program of a minimum of three weekly training sessions of 30-60 minutes' duration. The patients have regular telephone contact with the physiotherapist during the 8-week program. At the time of inclusion, after 2 months, and after 6 months, the patients' physical capacity is measured using the Incremental Shuttle Walk test. Furthermore the patients' quality of life, sick leave, and use of psychotropic drugs is measured using self-reported questionnaires. In both randomization arms, all follow-up measurements and visits will take place at the hospital from which the patient was discharged. Levels of eligibility, consent, adherence, and retention will be used as indicators of study feasibility. We expect that the home-based exercise program will improve the physical capacity and quality of life for the patients in the intervention group. The study will furthermore contribute significantly to the limited knowledge about the optimal rehabilitation of

  2. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  3. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum

    2016-01-01

    and found them to be effective against Plasmodium falciparum under in vitro conditions. Further, we selected four most active derivatives 1m, 1o, 2c and 2j and evaluated their antimalarial potential against Plasmodium berghei in vivo. These 4-aminoquinolines cured BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei......Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives...... for structure activity relationship to find lead molecules for treating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax....

  4. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    . With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...... financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives...

  5. Patient satisfaction with psychotropic drugs: sensitivity to change and relationship to clinical status, quality-of-life, compliance and effectiveness of treatment. Results from a nation-wide 6-month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquet, Isabelle; Tcherny-Lessenot, Stéphanie; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Falissard, Bruno

    2006-12-01

    To see if patient satisfaction with psychotropics (PSP) could be used as a patient-oriented outcome variable in the evaluation of PSP drugs in clinical epidemiological studies, relationships between PSP, clinical status, QoL, compliance and the type of antipsychotic were analyzed. Elements of validation of PSP were also assessed. In a 6-month prospective study, 933 schizophrenic outpatients with initiation or change to their antipsychotic treatment were enrolled. Psychiatrists completed five CGI-SCH scales (positive, negative, cognitive, depressive and global), hospitalization, compliance, and prescription variables. Patients completed PSP, EuroQoL scales, sexual function and compliance variables. A satisfactory structural equation model was obtained showing significant relationships PSP/compliance (coef.=0.16), QoL/PSP (coef.=0.37), clinical status/QoL (coef.=0.61), clinical status/compliance (coef.=0.09). Patients receiving olanzapine were more satisfied than patients receiving other atypicals (coef.=012) and had better clinical status than patients treated with typicals (coef.=0.08). Evolution of PSP was related to clinical status, QoL, and continuation of treatment (all Pmeasure was not sufficiently sensitive to change. Multi-item questionnaires evaluating different dimensions are needed.

  6. The combinatorial derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Protasov

    2013-09-01

    $\\Delta(A=\\{g\\in G:|gA\\cap A|=\\infty\\}$. The mapping $\\Delta:\\mathcal{P}_G\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_G$, $A\\mapsto\\Delta(A$, is called a combinatorial derivation and can be considered as an analogue of the topological derivation $d:\\mathcal{P}_X\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_X$, $A\\mapsto A^d$, where $X$ is a topological space and $A^d$ is the set of all limit points of $A$. Content: elementary properties, thin and almost thin subsets, partitions, inverse construction and $\\Delta$-trajectories,  $\\Delta$ and $d$.

  7. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives...

  8. Metal borohydrides and derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paskevicius, Mark; Haarh Jepsen, Lars; Schouwink, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    major classes of metal borohydride derivatives have also been discovered: anion-substituted compounds where the complex borohydride anion, BH4 -, is replaced by another anion, i.e. a halide or amide ion; and metal borohydrides modified with neutral molecules, such as NH3, NH3BH3, N2H4, etc. Here, we...

  9. 78 FR 32191 - Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... rate risk. This proposed rule applies to federal credit unions and any federally insured, state... risk to the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund (NCUSIF). \\1\\ A derivative is an instrument... degrees of risk to a credit union. Accordingly, this risk calls for a more robust asset/ liability...

  10. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Ansari-Piri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation f(xy=xf(y+g(xy, where f and g are the mappings on Banach algebra A. We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation f(γx+βy=γf(x+βf(y, where γ,β∈ℂ.

  11. Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Choonkil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.

  12. Derived enriched uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market

  13. Computation of Mie derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Bowler, Nicola

    2013-07-10

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the derivatives of Mie scattering coefficients with respect to the electrical radius of the spherical scattering particle, and to the relative permittivity and permeability of both the particle and the surrounding medium. Their corresponding approximate expressions are developed to avoid numerical overflow based on the logarithmic derivative of Riccati-Bessel functions. The analytical expressions have been verified by comparing their results with those calculated by analytical expressions developed by Mathematica. Compared with the numerical derivative, the analytical expressions and approximate expressions show a higher accuracy and are 2.0 and 2.8 times, respectively, faster in the case of a single magnetodielectric sphere. Generally, for spheres with an electrical radius in a large range, the approximate expressions can yield acceptable accuracy and computation time up to a high order. This work can be used in the design of nonmetallic metamaterials, and in the retrieval of aerosol properties from remote sensing data. An example calculation is given for the design of an optical, all-dielectric, mu-negative metamaterial consisting of a simple cubic array of tellurium nanoparticles.

  14. Carnitine derivatives: clinical usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2012-03-01

    Carnitine and its derivatives are natural substances involved in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. This review summarizes the recent progress in the field in relation to the molecular mechanisms. The pool of different carnitine derivatives is formed by acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), and isovaleryl-carnitine. ALC may have a preferential effect on the brain tissue. ALC represents a compound of great interest for its wide clinical application in various neurological disorders: it may be of benefit in treating Alzheimer's dementia, depression in the elderly, HIV infection, chronic fatigue syndrome, peripheral neuropathies, ischemia and reperfusion of the brain, and cognitive impairment associated with various conditions. PLC has been demonstrated to replenish the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle by the propionyl-CoA moiety, a greater affinity for the sarcolemmal carrier, peripheral vasodilator activity, a greater positive inotropism, and more rapid entry into myocytes. Most studies of the therapeutic use of PLC are focused on the prevention and treatment of ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertrophic heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease. ALC and PLC are considered well tolerated without significant side-effects. A number of therapeutic effects possibly come from the interaction of carnitine and its derivatives with the elements of cellular membranes.

  15. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  16. Credit derivatives and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Gibson

    2007-01-01

    The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...

  17. Credit derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Rancière

    2002-01-01

    Credit Derivatives are securities that offer protection against credit or default risk of bonds or loans. The credit derivatives emerging market has grown rapidly and credit derivatives are widely used. This paper describes the emerging credit derivatives market structure. The current market activity is analyzed through elementary pricing dynamics and the study of the term structure of default risk. Focusing on the performance of credit derivatives in stress situation, including legal and mar...

  18. Os livros didáticos e o ensino para a saúde: o caso das drogas psicotrópicas Didactic books and teaching for health: the case of psychotropic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carlini-Cotrim

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 18 livros didáticos de primeiro e segundo graus, das disciplinas de Ciências/Biologia, Educação Moral e Cívica e Organização Social e Política do Brasil, em relação ao tratamento dado ao tema consumo de drogas psicotrópicas. A análise da estrutura dos textos evidenciou preocupação excessiva com a discussão dos efeitos (nocivos das drogas em detrimento de outros tópicos como conceituação, causas que levam ao uso, incidência, tratamento ou prevenção. Os textos se caracterizaram por uma linguagem pouco científica, onde o apelo emocional e o estilo dramático são a tônica. O usuário de drogas foi retratado como sendo necessariamente um ser decadente moral, física e psicologicamente. Os resultados da análise são discutidos à luz de teorias recentes de prevenção ao abuso de drogas.Eighteen didactic books on Sciences/Biology, Civic and Moral Education and Brazilian Political and Social Studies, for primary and secondary schools, were analyzed, with a view to assessing the way in which the issue of psychotropic drug use is dealt with. The texts analyzed are structurally centered on the discussion of the harmful effects of drugs instead of discussing others topics (such as etiology, concepts, treatment, incidence and prevalence. The texts are characterized especially by the use of non-scientific language in which emotional appeal and an exceedingly exacerbated style are the rule. The drug user is described as being necessarily a moral, physical and psychological decadent. The results were discussed in the light of recent theories on the prevention of drug abuse.

  19. In defense of derivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.

  20. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol

  1. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  2. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  3. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of the firm, using the concept of entrepreneurship as judgment introduced by Frank Knight. When judgment is complementary to other assets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labour and to own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then...... to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and so on - can...... be designed to encourage forms of proxy entrepreneurship that increase firm value while discouraging actions that destroy value. Building on key ideas from the entrepreneurship literature, Austrian economics and the economic theory of the firm, we develop a framework for analysing the trade-off between...

  4. Piroxicam derivatives THz classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.

  5. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Roundy, David; Dorko, Allison; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding...

  6. Uso y abuso de psicofármacos: diseño de una actividad del proyecto comunitario con el museo de la Farmacia Habanera Use and abuse of psychotropic drugs: design of an activity of the community project with Havana's Pharmacy Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Díaz Molina

    2008-08-01

    Museum, which includes among its activities "The Infusion Afternoons", a propitious setting for the development of general topics related to drugs. One of the most selected to this end was that on psychotropic drugs, since it is a group of drugs of particular importance. Methods: "The Infusion Afternoons" are monthly activities dealing with general pharmaceutical themes that are directed to the population and to the first-year students of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In the case of psychotropic drugs, it was used the modality of round table, followed by audience/panel debate. Results: Some aspects of interest connected with the history of the use of psychotropic drugs and of the treatment of mental diseases were approached, and special emphasis was given to those psychotropic drugs most commonly known and used by the population. The attention was focused on the need of a rational use of psychotropic drugs. Discussion: The type of activity developed made possible that both the students and the population improved their knowledge about this topic. The students were linked with the activities of drug information and health education. This activity marked the beginning of their participation in the community project.

  7. Determinants of Blood Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Blood Levels in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubukpo, Philippe; Ramoz, Nicolas; Girard, Murielle; Malauzat, Dominique; Gorwood, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are influenced by both addiction and mood disorders, as well as somatic conditions, gender, and genetic polymorphisms, leading to widely varying results. Depressive symptoms and episodes are frequently observed in patients with alcohol use disorder, and vary widely over time, making it a challenge to determine which aspects are specifically involved in variations of serum BDNF levels in this population. We assessed 227 patients with alcohol dependence involved in a detoxification program, at baseline and after a follow-up of 6 months, for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score, the length of alcohol dependence, and the number of past detoxification programs. The Beck Depression Inventory and information on current tobacco and alcohol use, suicidal ideation, body mass index, age, gender, and psychotropic treatments were also collected. Serum BDNF (ELISA) and 2 genetic polymorphisms of the BDNF gene (Val33Met and rs962369) were analyzed. The presence of the Met allele, 2 markers of the history of alcohol dependence (gamma glutamyl transferase and the number of past treatments in detoxification programs), and the presence of a depressive episode (but not depressive score) were significantly associated with the 2 blood levels of BDNF at baseline and after 6 months. After controlling for baseline BDNF levels, the presence of the Met allele and an ongoing depressive episode were the only variables associated with changes in BNDF levels after 6 months. Low serum BDNF levels are associated with characteristics related to alcohol consumption and mood disorders, and variants of the BDNF gene in alcohol use disorder patients. The factors that most strongly influenced changes in serum BDNF levels following treatment in an alcohol detoxification program were variants of the BDNF gene and ongoing depression. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Derivative spectrophotometry of cobalt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The method of derivative spectrophotometry is briefly described, and derivative absorption spectra are presented for samarium, cobalt, and commercial Sm-Co alloys. It is shown that the use of derivative spectrophotometry not only improves the accuracy and selectivity of element determinations but also simplifies the analysis of alloys. Results of a statistical evaluation of the metrological characteristics of the analytical procedure described here are presented. 8 references

  9. Psychotropic prescribing in HIV : clinical: prescribing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may also be changes in the clinical picture in patients with psychiatric disorders ... tain selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and benzodiazepines (see .... treatment in HIV-posi- tive populations have received far more attention than.

  10. Psychotropic Medications: An Update for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Nancy; Kulick, Deborah; Phelps, LeAdelle

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of medications used frequently in the treatment of pediatric depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. The need for a collaborative relationship between the prescribing physician, school personnel, and the family is outlined. School psychologists can play crucial roles by providing the physician with information…

  11. Reproductive hormones as psychotropic agents? | Berk | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  12. AN APPRAISAL OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AND THEIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study further discovers the negative implications in terms of health risk and low productivity (i.e. caffeine(93%),create anxiety, disorder and sleep ... at least every quarter of the year on drug abuse or drug related issues or where special assistances in terms of professional advise and health intervention are given.

  13. Psychotropic and neurotropic drugs and neurotransmitter receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryo

    1986-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are important in nervous and mental diseases because of their part in the pathogenesis of such diseases; at the same time, they play significant roles in the actions of effective therapeutic drugs. Studies of the mechanisms involved in the actions of such drugs not only generate useful methods to elucidate the pathogenesis of nervous and mental disorders but also serve as indispensable means of developing new drugs. In this field, investigations using both animal models of certain diseases and healthy animals are essential. Development of these animal models is urgently required. In this workshop, studies were presented of the mechanisms of action of major neuropsychotropic drugs such as anxiolytics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics, assessed in terms of the parts played by neurotransmitters and receptors. (Auth.)

  14. Prehistoric psychotropic consumption in Andean Chilean mummies

    OpenAIRE

    Juan P. Ogalde; Bernardo T. Arriaza; Elia Soto

    2007-01-01

    Hallucinogenic plants are often regarded as the main source of psychoactive drugs in antiquity to reach deep altered states of consciousness^1,2^. Many researchers believe this was particularly true during the Tiwanaku empire expansion, circa (500-1000 A.D.), along the Atacama Desert of Chile. Highly decorated snuffing tablets and tubes are often found as grave goods during this period^3,4,5,6,7,8^. Until now the type of drugs consumed in this paraphernalia has been unclear. From the modern c...

  15. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    netting agreements. When a CCP exists for interest rate derivatives, adding a CCP for credit derivatives is shown to decrease overall exposures. These findings are shown to be robust to the statistical assumptions of the model as well as the choice of risk measure used to quantify exposures....

  16. Prescrição de psicotrópicos: avaliação das informações contidas em receitas e notificações Psychotropic prescription: the evaluation of related directions and notifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Freitas Andrade

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar o cumprimento da legislação quanto à prescrição e dispensação de medicamentos psicotrópicos das listas B e C1 da Portaria n.º 344/98 - SVS/MS foram utilizadas 753 receitas, de novembro de 2000, de sete farmácias com manipulação de Ribeirão Preto. O não cumprimento pelas farmácias está presente em 88,0% das receitas B e em 85,0% das C1, enquanto que por parte dos médicos a porcentagem é de 99,6% para B e 96,5% para C1. As falhas que mais aparecem são: ausência de endereço do paciente (92,6% - receitas B; 80,1% das C1; de anotação da quantidade dispensada (85,8% das B e 72,6% das C1; da quantidade prescrita por extenso (89,5% das B e 96,5% das C1. Em 89,2% das B e em 57,1% das C1 a dispensação ocorreu no prazo fixado por lei. Os anorexígenos predominam entre as prescrições B (52,3%, seguidos dos benzodiazepínicos (47,7%. A fluoxetina (68,8% é predominante entre as prescrições C1, seguida da amitriptilina (12,5%. A maioria das prescrições foi emitida por clínicos gerais (51,4%. Os resultados revelam práticas inadequadas referentes tanto à prescrição quanto à dispensação de medicamentos de controle especial, confirmando a necessidade de fiscalização mais rigorosa.The aim of this study was to evaluate the obeying Brazilian Legislation about prescription and dispensation of the psychotropic drugs of lists B and C-1 according to the law 344/98-SVS/MS, based on 753 prescriptions of November 2000 from 7 pharmacies. Disobeying rules by pharmacies was showed in 88.0% from prescriptions B, and in 85.0% from C1, while this percentage was of 99.6% from B and 96.5% from C1 among the doctors. The most important failures observed on prescriptions were: absence of patient address (92.6% from B and 80.1% from C1; absence of the quantity dispensed (85.5% from B and 72.6% from C1; absence of the quantity prescribed. Medicine dispensation occurred correctly in the period of time fixed by law in 89

  17. Chemistry of aliphatic sulfurpentafluoride derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissell, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes the literature through 1974 on aliphatic sulfurpentafluoride compounds. Methods of preparation and methods of transforming one pentafluorothio compound into another are briefly discussed. The physical properties of all known derivatives are tabulated

  18. Higher derivatives in gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogilidze, S.A.; Sanadze, V.V.; Tkebuchava, F.G.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of appearance of highher derivatives of coordinates in the symmetry transformation law of the second Noether's theorem is established. It is shown that the corresponding transformations are canonical in the extended phase space. 15 refs

  19. Push-outs of derivations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    extension as a limit of operators b ↦→ D(ba) − b.D(a), a ∈ A in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations ...

  20. Elementary derivation of Kepler's laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1995-02-01

    A simple derivation of all three so-called Kepler Laws is presented in which the orbits, bound and unbound, follow directly and immediately from conservation of energy and angular momentum. The intent is to make this crowning achievement of Newtonian Mechanics easily accessible to students in introductory physics courses. The method is also extended to simplify the derivation of the Rutherford Scattering Law. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  1. Derivatives Trading and Negative Voting

    OpenAIRE

    Spamann, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This paper exposits a model of parallel trading of corporate securities (shares, bonds) and derivatives in which a large trader can sometimes profitably acquire securities with their corporate control rights for the sole purpose of reducing the corporations value and gaining on a net short position created through off-setting derivatives. At other times, the large trader profitably takes a net long position. The large trader requires no private information beyond its own trades. The problem i...

  2. Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reac...

  3. Anisotropic inflation with derivative couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jonathan; Kanno, Sugumi; Zavala, Ivonne

    2018-05-01

    We study anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when the inflaton and its derivative couple to a vector field. This type of coupling is motivated by D-brane inflationary models, in which the inflaton, and a vector field living on the D-brane, couple disformally (derivatively). We start by studying a phenomenological model where we show the existence of anisotropic solutions and demonstrate their stability via a dynamical system analysis. Compared to the case without a derivative coupling, the anisotropy is reduced and thus can be made consistent with current limits, while the value of the slow-roll parameter remains almost unchanged. We also discuss solutions for more general cases, including D-brane-like couplings.

  4. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  5. Synthesis of 2-phosphaadamantane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlyanoi, V.N.; Aleksandrov, A.M.; Kukhar', V.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe the synthesis and properties of 2-phosphadamantane derivatives. For the synthesis of 2-phosphaadamantane derivatives they decided to use the methodology of the synthesis of 2-thiaadamantane. The IR spectra were determined on CHCl 3 solutions with a Specord 711R spectrometer, the PMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-467 (60 MHz) and Bruker WP-200 (200 MHz) spectrometers, external standard hexamethyldisiloxane, the 31 P NMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-487 C (30 MHz) and Bruker WP-200 (81 MHz) spectrometers, external standard 85% phosphoric acid, and the mass spectra were determined on an MS-1302 spectrometer

  6. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...... quantities of interest. To be able to utilise the evidence about the derivative it is suggested to adapt the ‘conventional’ problem statement to variational calculus and the way to do so is demonstrated. A number of examples are given throughout the paper....

  7. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  8. Analytical application of derivative spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA M. STEFANOVIC

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Basic characteristics of derivative spectrophotometry 2.1. Increase of spectra resolution 2.2. Elimination of the influence of baseline shift and matrix interferences 2.3. Enhancement of the detectability of minor spectral features 2.4. Precise determination of the positions of absorption maxima 2.5. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR 2.6. Quantitative analysis 3. Analytical applications 3.1. Inorganic analysis 3.2. Organic and pharmaceutical analysis 3.3. Analysis of food and water 3.4. Application of derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of equilibrium constants

  9. Derived equivalences for group rings

    CERN Document Server

    König, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    A self-contained introduction is given to J. Rickard's Morita theory for derived module categories and its recent applications in representation theory of finite groups. In particular, Broué's conjecture is discussed, giving a structural explanation for relations between the p-modular character table of a finite group and that of its "p-local structure". The book is addressed to researchers or graduate students and can serve as material for a seminar. It surveys the current state of the field, and it also provides a "user's guide" to derived equivalences and tilting complexes. Results and proofs are presented in the generality needed for group theoretic applications.

  10. derivatives: Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cal activity study revealed that all compounds showed promising activities and bis-(1H-2-benzopyran-1-one) derivatives (5) ...... A and Galvez J 2004 Planta Med. 70 315. 6. ... Ante N, Erik De C, Jan B and Mladen M 2011 Molecules. 16 6023.

  11. Second derivative spectrophotometric determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new, simple, rapid, wide applicable range and reliable second derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of cyclophosphamide (CP) in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Calibration graph is linear in the concentration range of 25 - 200 μg/ml of CP with 10 μg/ml of detection limit and ...

  12. Hypoxanthine Derivatives in Experimental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio De Simone

    1992-01-01

    ability of ST 789 to increase interleukin-6 production, suggest that monocyte/macrophages are likely to be the main cellular target of the immunomodulating activity of ST 789. Finally, in the presentln vivo study, hypoxanthine derivatives did not enhance the mean survival time of tumour-bearing immunosuppressed mice.

  13. Radiological protection optimization using derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Acosta Perez, C. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a different approach related to the integral cost-benefit and extended cost-benefit analysis used in the decision-aiding techniques. In the ICRP publication 55 the annual protection cost is envisaged as a set of points, each of them representing an option, linked by a straight line. The detriment cost function is considered a linear function whose angular coefficient is determined by the alpha value. In this paper the uranium mine example considered in the ICRP publication 55 was used. But the potential curve was introduced both in the integral cost benefit analysis and in the extended cost-benefit analysis, which the individual dose distribution attribute is added. The result was obtained using derivatives. The detriment cost, Y, is not necessary because the alpha value is known. The Y derivative dS/dY is the alpha value itself and so, the attention is directed to the derivative -dX/dS on the points that, along with the alpha value, present the optimum option. The results makes clear that the prevailing factor in the optimum option selection is the alpha value imputed, and those a single alpha value, as suggested now, probably as little efficiency on the optimization process. Obtaining a curve for the alpha value and using the derivative technique introduced in this paper, the analytical solution is more convenient and reliable compared to the one used now. (authors)

  14. Alchemical derivatives of reaction energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Daniel; Henkelman, Graeme; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole

    2010-08-01

    Based on molecular grand canonical ensemble density functional theory, we present a theoretical description of how reaction barriers and enthalpies change as atoms in the system are subjected to alchemical transformations, from one element into another. The change in the energy barrier for the umbrella inversion of ammonia is calculated along an alchemical path in which the molecule is transformed into water, and the change in the enthalpy of protonation for methane is calculated as the molecule is transformed into a neon atom via ammonia, water, and hydrogen fluoride. Alchemical derivatives are calculated analytically from the electrostatic potential in the unperturbed system, and compared to numerical derivatives calculated with finite difference interpolation of the pseudopotentials for the atoms being transformed. Good agreement is found between the analytical and numerical derivatives. Alchemical derivatives are also shown to be predictive for integer changes in atomic numbers for oxygen binding to a 79 atom palladium nanoparticle, illustrating their potential use in gradient-based optimization algorithms for the rational design of catalysts.

  15. Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125 I. (author)

  16. Second derivative spectrophotometric determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemn

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... olanzapine in pharmaceutical formulation.Int.J.ChemTech. Res.2(1):756-761. Stanisz B, Paszun S, Lesniak M (2009). Validation of UV derivative spectrophotometric method for determination of benazepril hydrochloride in tablets and evaluation of its stability.ActaPoloniaePharmaceutica-Drug Research.

  17. Novel bisstyryl derivatives of bakuchiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Mallepally V; Thota, Niranjan; Sangwan, Payare L

    2010-01-01

    Novel bisstyryl derivatives of bakuchiol using Heck coupling reaction as the key step were synthesized and screened against a panel of six oral cavity pathogens for their antimicrobial activity. Four compounds (9-12) showed two to fourfold and four to eightfold better activity (MIC 0.25-16 microg...

  18. Push-outs of derivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Let A be a Banach algebra and let X be a Banach A-bimodule. In studying H¹(A,X) it is often useful to extend a given derivation D: A->X to a Banach algebra B containing A as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using (bounded/unbounded) approx...

  19. Asymptotic aspect of derivations in Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiok Roh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prove that every approximate linear left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra is continuous. Also, we consider linear derivations on Banach algebras and we first study the conditions for a linear derivation on a Banach algebra. Then we examine the functional inequalities related to a linear derivation and their stability. We finally take central linear derivations with radical ranges on semiprime Banach algebras and a continuous linear generalized left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra.

  20. Higher-derivative generalization of conformal mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovsky, Oleg

    2017-08-01

    Higher-derivative analogs of multidimensional conformal particle and many-body conformal mechanics are constructed. Their Newton-Hooke counterparts are derived by applying appropriate coordinate transformations.

  1. Derivatives in energy project finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed

  2. Diagnostic radio labelled polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milbrath, D.S.; Ferber, R.H.; Barnett, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radiopharmaceutical compound for diagnosing blood clots is claimed. It is the reaction product of a compound characterized by a water-soluble polysaccharide moiety having an average of at least 0.25 anionic group per monosaccharide unit, and at least one chelating group derived from the group consisting of amino acids, substituted cyclic acid anhydrides, and carbon disulfide; and a radioactive tracer metal compound selected from In-111, Tc-99m, Cr-51, Ga-68, and a reduced pertechnetate compound

  3. Derivation of Hamiltonians for accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symon, K.R.

    1997-09-12

    In this report various forms of the Hamiltonian for particle motion in an accelerator will be derived. Except where noted, the treatment will apply generally to linear and circular accelerators, storage rings, and beamlines. The generic term accelerator will be used to refer to any of these devices. The author will use the usual accelerator coordinate system, which will be introduced first, along with a list of handy formulas. He then starts from the general Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field, using the accelerator coordinate system, with time t as independent variable. He switches to a form more convenient for most purposes using the distance s along the reference orbit as independent variable. In section 2, formulas will be derived for the vector potentials that describe the various lattice components. In sections 3, 4, and 5, special forms of the Hamiltonian will be derived for transverse horizontal and vertical motion, for longitudinal motion, and for synchrobetatron coupling of horizontal and longitudinal motions. Hamiltonians will be expanded to fourth order in the variables.

  4. Financial Derivatives (Based on Two Supports Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Socaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we build a PDE like Black-Scholes equation in hypothesis of a financial derivative that is dependent on two supports (usual is dependent only on one support, like amoption based on gold, when national currency has a great float.Keywords: Financial derivatives, derivatives evaluation, derivatives based on two supports, extended Itō like lemma.

  5. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative classification... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4...

  6. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  7. Development trends of the international derivatives market

    OpenAIRE

    Motorniuk, U.; Terebukh, M.; Kharchuk, V.

    2016-01-01

    The factors forming international derivatives market trends are researched in this article. The history of the formation of the global derivatives market was analyzed, in particular, events which have led to the growth of the derivatives market. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transformation of its structure, observed in recent years. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transf...

  8. A visão de distintos atores sobre o controle sanitário da importação de substâncias psicotrópicas no Brasil The different point of view about the sanitary control of importation of psychotropic substances in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cristina Antunes Sebastião

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar a etapa da importação que integra o controle sanitário das substâncias psicotrópicas realizado pela área de portos, aeroportos e fronteiras da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Aqui, entenderam-se como substâncias psicotrópicas os insumos farmacêuticos ativos constantes da lista B1 da Portaria nº 344/98 e que necessitam da anuência da Anvisa para serem importados. Este estudo utilizou o método de entrevistas semiestruturadas com informantes-chave e observação participante. Os dados foram coletados e sistematizados por meio de análise de conteúdo, modalidade temática. Os resultados apontaram um controle bastante complexo que envolve um intenso processo burocrático. Os principais pontos críticos do processo identificados foram: a precariedade do sistema de informação; a carência em recursos humanos; a deficiência de apoio laboratorial e de infraestrutura dos recintos alfandegados. A página eletrônica da Anvisa e a legislação mostraram-se como pontos fortes, embora necessitem de aprimoramentos. Percebeu-se que, apesar do avanço, várias ações ainda precisam ser feitas para que o país tenha um sistema de controle sanitário eficiente sobre essas importações.The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of importation, that is a part of the sanitary control of psychotropic substances, made by Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency's ports, airports and borders. For this work, psychotropic substances are defined as active pharmaceutical raw materials present in the list B1 of Portaria nº 344/98; which need Anvisa's permission to be imported. For this purpose we used semistructured interviews with key informers and participant observation. The information were collected and systematized through the content analysis, thematic modality. The results show a very complex control which involves an intense bureaucratic process. The main identified critical points of

  9. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Resorcinol derivatives from Ardisia maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Wu, Feng-E

    2007-01-01

    Besides a series of known sterols and triterpenoids, a new resorcinol (1) and a known resorcinol (2) have been isolated from ethanol extract of Ardisia maculosa for the first time. The structures of these resorcinol derivatives were elucidated as 2-methyl-5-(Z-heptadec-8-enyl) resorcinol and 5-Z-heptadec-8-enyl) resorcinol by HRESI-MS, NMR ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC, HMBC) experiments. In our in vitro assay, compounds 1 and 2 showed no antimicrobial activities, however, compound 2 exhibited cytotoxity activity against human cancer cell line with GI(50) value of 2.14 x 10(- 4) mmol/ml.

  11. Topological Derivatives in Shape Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, Antonio André

    2013-01-01

    The topological derivative is defined as the first term (correction) of the asymptotic expansion of a given shape functional with respect to a small parameter that measures the size of singular domain perturbations, such as holes, inclusions, defects, source-terms and cracks. Over the last decade, topological asymptotic analysis has become a broad, rich and fascinating research area from both theoretical and numerical standpoints. It has applications in many different fields such as shape and topology optimization, inverse problems, imaging processing and mechanical modeling including synthesis and/or optimal design of microstructures, sensitivity analysis in fracture mechanics and damage evolution modeling. Since there is no monograph on the subject at present, the authors provide here the first account of the theory which combines classical sensitivity analysis in shape optimization with asymptotic analysis by means of compound asymptotic expansions for elliptic boundary value problems. This book is intende...

  12. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  13. Cytotoxicity study of pyrazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Binta Ahasan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrazolone heterocyclic compound, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one 2(a was synthesized by condensation reaction between ethyl acetoacetate and phenyl hydrazine and was converted into their corresponding heterocyclic derivatives 2(b to 2(f2 . Their cytotoxicity effects were measured by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among them the compounds 2(b , 2(f1 , and 2(f2 were highly active according to IC50 values 19.50, 19.50 and 20 ppm respectively. The rest of compounds 2(a , 2(c , 2(d1 , and 2(d2 having IC50 values 38, 33.50, 37.50, 36, 37.50 and 36 ppm in that order, were moderately active.

  14. Cytotoxicity study of pyrazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Binta Ahasan and Md. Rabiul Islam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrazolone heterocyclic compound, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one 2(a was synthesized by condensation reaction between ethyl acetoacetate and phenyl hydrazine and was converted into their corresponding heterocyclic derivatives 2(b to 2(f2. Their cytotoxicity effects were measured by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among them the compounds 2(b, 2(f1, and 2(f2 were highly active according to IC50 values 19.50, 19.50 and 20 ppm respectively. The rest of compounds 2(a, 2(c, 2(d1, and 2(d2 having IC50 values 38, 33.50, 37.50, 36, 37.50 and 36 ppm in that order, were moderately active.

  15. Silsesquioxane-derived ceramic fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, F. I.; Farmer, S. C.; Terepka, F. M.; Leonhardt, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers formed from blends of silsesquioxane polymers were characterized to study the pyrolytic conversion of these precursors to ceramics. The morphology of fibers pyrolyzed to 1400 C revealed primarily amorphous glasses whose conversion to beta-SiC is a function of both blend composition and pyrolysis conditions. Formation of beta-SiC crystallites within the glassy phase is favored by higher than stoichiometric C/Si ratios, while carbothermal reduction of Si-O bonds to form SiC with loss of SiO and CO occurs at higher methyl/phenylpropyl silsesquioxane (lower C/Si) ratios. As the carbothermal reduction is assumed to be diffusion controlled, the fibers can serve as model systems to gain understanding of the silsesquioxane pyrolysis behavior, and therefore are useful in the development of polysilsesquioxane-derived ceramic matrices and coatings as well.

  16. Radiation processing of polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethylstarch (CMS), carboxymethylchitin (CM-chitin) and carboxymethylchitosan (CM-chitosan) form gels when irradiated at paste-like condition. Bedsore prevention mat filled up CMC hydrogel crosslinked by irradiation at paste-like condition was practical applied as a health care products. It was found that CM-chitosan hydrogels have anti-microbial activity and effective as absorbents to remove metal ions. When crosslinked gel sheets of CM-chitin and CM-chitosan were immersed in copper (II) aqueous solution, absorption of Cu (II) were 161 mg/g and 172 mg/g, respectively. Radiation crosslinking of cellulose derivative such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, (HPMCP) kneaded with aqueous alkali solution and methanol was achieved with EB-irradiation at paste-like condition. The HPMCP gel absorbed organic solvents such as chloroform and pyridine. (author)

  17. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  18. Derivation of the dipole map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh; Boozer, Allen

    2004-01-01

    In our method of maps [Punjabi et al., Phy. Rev. Lett. 69, 3322 (1992), and Punjabi et al., J. Plasma Phys. 52, 91 (1994)], symplectic maps are used to calculate the trajectories of magnetic field lines in divertor tokamaks. Effects of the magnetic perturbations are calculated using the low MN map [Ali et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 1908 (2004)] and the dipole map [Punjabi et al., Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)]. The dipole map is used to calculate the effects of externally located current carrying coils on the trajectories of the field lines, the stochastic layer, the magnetic footprint, and the heat load distribution on the collector plates in divertor tokamaks [Punjabi et al., Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)]. Symplectic maps are general, efficient, and preserve and respect the Hamiltonian nature of the dynamics. In this brief communication, a rigorous mathematical derivation of the dipole map is given

  19. Landslide in claystone derived soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A M

    1979-07-01

    This article describes a landslide that occured in the Pittsburgh area in a soil deposit derived from the Pittsburgh Redbed Claystone when a cut was made at the toe. (The Pittsburgh Redbed Claystone is the parent of much of the soil material involved in the Pittsburgh area and occurs about mid way between the base of Pittsburgh Coal and the top of the Upper Freepost Coal). The topography before the slide was known and the geometry of the slide mass was established. Slope stability analysis indicated that the landslide could have been predicted using effective stress-shear-strength parameters of s of 12 to 13 and c is 0, where s is angle of shearing resistance and c is cohesion intercept in terms of effective stresses.

  20. THE SPECIFICITY OF KERATEINE DERIVATIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, L; Ecker, E E; Martiensen, E W

    1939-09-30

    Carboxymethyl, alpha-carboxyethyl-, alpha-carboxy-n-propyl-, alpha-carboxyisopropyl-, alpha-carboxy-n-butyl, alpha-carboxyisobutyl, alpha-carboxyamyl-, benzyl-, and beta-phenylethylkeratemes were prepared from the parent protein, reduced keratin or kerateine. Chemical analysis disclosed that the various compounds differed in their isoelectric points and solubilities depending on the nature of the substituent group introduced. In general, it was found that in so far as could be determined, nearly all of the available sulfhydryl groups were substituted, while no detectable substitution of the free amino groups of the proteins occurred. The results of the serologic studies revealed that the kerateine derivatives acquired a new immunologie character dependent on the nature of the introduced determinant group. Inhibition tests confirmed the results obtained. Evidence was also produced to show that the grouping See PDF for structure may play a rôle in some of the reactions observed.

  1. Penetratin and derivatives acting as antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Marcelo F.; Rodriguez, Ana M.; Raimondi, Marcela; Zacchino, Susana A.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Somlai, Csaba; Kortvelyesi, Tamas; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D.

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and conformational study of RQIKTWFQNRRMKWKK-NH(2) (penetratin) and related derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. Penetratin and some of its derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the human opportunistic pathogenic standardized ATCC

  2. Nature of the basic financial derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kats, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals the essence of basic derivatives. Studied by various authors approaches to defining derivatives and their definitions in the legislation and proposed his own definition of the most appropriate for use in accounting practice.

  3. fq-Derivations of G-Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Al-Kadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of fq-derivation as a new derivation of G-algebra. For an endomorphism map f of any G-algebra X, we show that at least one fq-derivation of X exists. Moreover, for such a map, we show that a self-map dqf of X is fq-derivation of X if X is an associative medial G-algebra. For a medial G-algebra X, dqf is fq-derivation of X if dqf is an outside fq-derivation of X. Finally, we show that if f is the identity endomorphism of X then the composition of two fq-derivations of X is a fq-derivation. Moreover, we give a condition to get a commutative composition.

  4. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    SiC-based ceramic fibers are derived from polycarbosilane or polymetallocarbosilane precursors and are classified into three groups according to their chemical composition, oxygen content, and C/Si atomic ratio. The first-generation fibers are Si-C-O (Nicalon) fibers and Si-Ti-C-O (Tyranno Lox M) fibers. Both fibers contain more than 10-wt% oxygen owing to oxidation during curing and lead to degradation in strength at temperatures exceeding 1,300°C. The maximum use temperature is 1,100°C. The second-generation fibers are SiC (Hi-Nicalon) fibers and Si-Zr-C-O (Tyranno ZMI) fibers. The oxygen content of these fibers is reduced to less than 1 wt% by electron beam irradiation curing in He. The thermal stability of these fibers is improved (they are stable up to 1,500°C), but their creep resistance is limited to a maximum of 1,150°C because their C/Si atomic ratio results in excess carbon. The third-generation fibers are stoichiometric SiC fibers, i.e., Hi-Nicalon Type S (hereafter Type S), Tyranno SA, and Sylramic™ fibers. They exhibit improved thermal stability and creep resistance up to 1,400°C. Stoichiometric SiC fibers meet many of the requirements for the use of ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature structural application. SiBN3C fibers derived from polyborosilazane also show promise for structural applications, remain in the amorphous state up to 1,800°C, and have good high-temperature creep resistance.

  5. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509) is...

  6. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... classification guide, need not possess original classification authority. (a) If a person who applies derivative...

  7. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section...

  8. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined...

  9. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating or...

  10. Quantum derivatives and the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Adda, Faycal; Cresson, Jacky

    2004-01-01

    We define a scale derivative for non-differentiable functions. It is constructed via quantum derivatives which take into account non-differentiability and the existence of a minimal resolution for mean representation. This justify heuristic computations made by Nottale in scale-relativity. In particular, the Schroedinger equation is derived via the scale-relativity principle and Newton's fundamental equation of dynamics

  11. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... underlying assets, indices, or reference rates. The most common types of financial derivatives are futures, forward commitments, options, and swaps. A mortgage derivative security, such as a collateralized mortgage... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172...

  12. Deriving the bond pricing equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the recent focus on Eurozone debt crisis and the credit rating downgrade not only of US debt, but that of other countries and many UK major banking institutions, this paper aims to explain the concept of bond yield, its different measures and bond pricing equation. Yields on capital market instruments are rarely quoted on the same basis, which makes direct comparison between different as investment choices impossible. Some debt instruments are quoted on discount basis, whilst coupon-bearing ones accrue interest differently, offer different compounding opportunities, have different coupon payment frequencies, and manage non-business day maturity dates differently. Moreover, rules governing debt vary across countries, markets and currencies, making yield calculation and comparison a rather complex issue. Thus, some fundamental concepts applicable to debt instrument yield measurement, with focus on bond equation, are presented here. In addition, bond equation expressed in annuity form and used to apply Newton-Raphson algorithm to derive true bond yield is also shown.

  13. Classical gravity with higher derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelle, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    Inclusion of the four-derivative terms ∫Rsub(μν) Rsup(μν)(-g)sup(1/2) and ∫R 2 (-g)sup(1/2) into the gravitational action gives a class of effectively multimass models of gravity. In addition to the usual massless excitations of the field, there are now, for general amounts of the two new terms, massive spin-two and massive scalar excitations, with a total of eight degrees of freedom. The massive spin-two part of the field has negative energy. Specific ration of the two new terms give models with either the massive tensor or the massive scalar missing, with correspondingly fewer degrees of freedom. The static, linearized solutions of the field equations are combinations of Newtonian and Yukawa potentials. Owing to the Yukawa form of the corrections, observational evidence sets only very weak restrictions on the new masses. The acceptable static metric solutions in the full nonlinear theory are regular at the origin. The dynamical content of the linearized field is analyzed by reducing the fourth-order field equations to separated second-order equations, related by coupling to external sources in a fixed ratio. This analysis is carried out into the various helicity components using the transverse-traceless decomposition of the metric. (author)

  14. The estimation of derived limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.; Bryant, P.M.; Clarke, R.H.; Morley, F.

    1979-08-01

    In practical radiation protection, it is often necessary to calculate limits of intake of radionuclides associated with various quantities; such limits are needed, for example, to assess the adequacy of the control of environmental contamination. In publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these limits, when related to the basic limits of dose-equivalent by a defined model, are referred to as Derived Limits (DLs). In the present report the principles to be adopted by the Board in calculating DLs to be recommended for general application within the United Kingdom are outlined. DLs will be recommended for a wide range of radionuclides and for circumstances relevant to the workplace, and, more frequently, the general environment. The latter will include DLs in foodstuffs and associated environmental materials, such as soil and grass, and DLs for discharges from stacks. DLs will be related to dose equivalents for workers or members of the public for stochastic or non-stochastic effects as appropriate. Consideration will be given to relevant data on radiosensitivity, metabolism and dosimetry for children and to the physicochemical forms of radionuclides. (author)

  15. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... clear solution containing the active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation...

  17. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunikazu Moribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.

  18. Perturbative reduction of derivative order in EFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavan, Dražen

    2018-02-01

    Higher derivative corrections are ubiquitous in effective field theories, which seemingly introduces new degrees of freedom at successive orders. This is actually an artefact of the implicit local derivative expansion defining effective field theories. We argue that higher derivative corrections that introduce additional degrees of freedom should be removed and their effects captured either by lower derivative corrections, or special combinations of higher derivative corrections not propagating extra degrees of freedom. Three methods adapted for this task are examined and field redefinitions are found to be most appropriate. First order higher derivative corrections in a scalar tensor theory are removed by field redefinition and it is found that their effects are captured by a subset of Horndeski theories. A case is made for restricting the effective field theory expansions in principle to only terms not introducing additional degrees of freedom.

  19. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  20. Derivative pricing based on local utility maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kallsen

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to contingent claim valuation in general incomplete market models. We determine the neutral derivative price which occurs if investors maximize their local utility and if derivative demand and supply are balanced. We also introduce the sensitivity process of a contingent claim. This process quantifies the reliability of the neutral derivative price and it can be used to construct price bounds. Moreover, it allows to calibrate market models in order to be co...

  1. Chromatic Derivatives, Chromatic Expansions and Associated Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the basic properties of chromatic derivatives and chromatic expansions and provides an appropriate motivation for introducing these notions. Chromatic derivatives are special, numerically robust linear differential operators which correspond to certain families of orthogonal polynomials. Chromatic expansions are series of the corresponding special functions, which possess the best features of both the Taylor and the Shannon expansions. This makes chromatic derivatives and ...

  2. Quantile driven identification of structural derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Chesher

    2001-01-01

    Conditions are derived under which there is local nonparametric identification of derivatives of structural equations in nonlinear triangular simultaneous equations systems. The attack on this problem is via conditional quantile functions and exploits local quantile independence conditions. The identification conditions include local analogues of the order and rank conditions familiar in the analysis of linear simultaneous equations models. The objects whose identification is sought are deriv...

  3. Isotope-labelled folic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, N.; Wong, E.T.

    1976-01-01

    The suggestion deals with the production of folic acid derivatives suitable as indicators or tracers for analyses of serum folates. These folic acid derivatives contain folic acid which is bound by one or both carboxyl groups to the amino nitrogen of compounds such as, e.g., tyramine, glycyl tyrosine, tyrosine, or the methyl ester of tyrosine. The derivative obtained can be substituted by a gamma emitter, e.g. the iodine isotope I 125. The radioactive derivative is used in the method for the competitive protein bonding to determine endogenic folates in the serum. (UWI) [de

  4. Superstability for Generalized Module Left Derivations and Generalized Module Derivations on a Banach Module (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassias JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the superstability of generalized module left derivations and generalized module derivations on a Banach module. Let be a Banach algebra and a Banach -module, and . The mappings , and are defined and it is proved that if (resp., is dominated by then is a generalized (resp., linear module- left derivation and is a (resp., linear module- left derivation. It is also shown that if (resp., is dominated by then is a generalized (resp., linear module- derivation and is a (resp., linear module- derivation.

  5. Derivative analyticity relations and asymptotic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of general principles of the S-matrix theory theorems are derived showing that derivative analyticity relations analogous to those of Bronzen, Kane and Sukhatme hold at asymptotic energies if the high-energy limits of certain physical quantities exist

  6. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section 17.26 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...

  7. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as the...

  8. Derivative Securities and Financial Crisis in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gogoncea Ramona

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the impact of the global financial crisis on the young Romanian market of derivative securities. It also describes the recent developments within Romanian capital market, in general, with focus on innovation in the field of derivative products.

  9. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 12958 and directives of the Information Security Oversight Office, the incorporation, paraphrasing... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55...

  10. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of Novel Hexahydrothienocycloheptapyridazinone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Marchesi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Designed as a new group of tricyclic molecules containing the thienocycloheptapyridazinone ring system, a number of 2N-substituted-hexahydrothienocycloheptapyridazinone derivatives were synthesized and their biological activity evaluated. Among the synthesized compounds, derivatives 7d and 7h were found to possess cytotoxic activity against non-small cell lung cancer and central nervous system cancer cell lines, respectively.

  11. "Nonmorphological Derivations" and the Four Main English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the problem of "nonmorphological derivations" in English and its consequences for pedagogical lexicography, i.e. learner's dictionaries. The term "nonmorphological derivation" refers to cases such as sun — solar, moon — lunar, cat — feline, and in general to all cases where instead of, or in addition ...

  12. Mesogenic benzothiazole derivatives with methoxy substituents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2003-10-11

    Oct 11, 2003 ... literature. Barbera et al14 have synthesized 2-pyr- azoline derivatives and also studied the optical,. NLO and mesogenic properties of such materials. Highly polar thiophene-based liquid crystals have also been reported15 in the literature. However, fused ring heterocyclic derivatives which are two conden-.

  13. Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters......, and validate the final force field, Alternatives to force field derivation are discussed briefly....

  14. Weyl and Marchaud Derivatives: A Forgotten History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Ferrari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we recall the contribution given by Hermann Weyl and André Marchaud to the notion of fractional derivative. In addition, we discuss some relationships between the fractional Laplace operator and Marchaud derivative in the perspective to generalize these objects to different fields of the mathematics.

  15. Weyl and Marchaud derivatives: a forgotten history

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we recall the contribution given by Hermann Weyl and André Marchaud to the notion of fractional derivative. In addition, we discuss some relationships between the fractional Laplace operator and Marchaud derivative in the perspective to generalize these objects to different fields of the mathematics.

  16. New uracil derivatives and their biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudecova, D.; Striganova, J.; Chovanec, P.; Uher, M.

    1998-01-01

    Present study is concentrated to the research of antimicrobial activity of some derivatives of the uracil and 1,3-dimethyluracyl. The antimicrobial effects of these compounds have been tested on various strains of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. The highest antimicrobial effects were found with dithiocarbamato-derivatives, which were effective against pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria (IC 50 = 7-25 μg cm -3 ), yeasts (IC 50 = 9-60 μg cm -3 ) and filamentous fungi.The most sensitive fungus to dithiocarbamato-derivatives was Botritis cinerea. It seems to be apparent that the presence of the -NH-C(S)-S- group in molecules of derivatives of uracil and and 1,3-dimethyluracyl influencing the incorporation rate [ 14 ]-adenine and 14 ]-leucine into the biomolecules and also markedly inhibits oxygen consumption (IC 50 = 58 μg cm -3 ). The same derivative demonstrated no mutagenic activity. (authors)

  17. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  18. Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath

    2013-04-01

    Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.

  19. On derived groups of division rings II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi Hezavehi, M.; Akbari Feyzaabaadi, S.; Mehraabaadi, M.; Hajie Abolhassan, H.

    1995-05-01

    Let D be a division ring with centre F and denote by D' the derived group (commutator subgroup) of D * = D - {0}. It is shown that if each element of D' is algebraic over F, then D is algebraic over F. It is also proved that each finite separable extension of F in D is of the form F(c) for some element c in the derived group D'. Using these results, it is shown that if each element of the derived group D' is of bounded degree over F, then D is finite dimensional over F. (author). 5 refs

  20. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  1. Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei YAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury.

  2. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  3. Preparation of 7-substituted ginkgolide derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Shindou, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    alpha-fluoro ginkgolide B was equipotent to ginkgolide B underlining the critical importance of the 7-position of ginkgolides for PAF receptor activity. Herein we describe the synthesis of a series of ginkgolide B derivatives with modifications at the 7-position and the pharmacological evaluation...... of these derivatives as assayed by cloned PAF receptors. In two cases nucleophilic attack on a 7beta-O-triflate ginkgolide B did not lead to the expected products, but gave rise to two unprecedented ginkgolide derivatives, one with a novel rearranged skeleton. Furthermore, standard reduction of 7alpha-azido ginkgolide......-chloro ginkgolide B, the most potent nonaromatic ginkgolide derivative described to date with a K(i) value of 110 nM....

  4. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  5. Overtone spectroscopy of some benzaldehyde derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    internuclear distances for the aryl CH bond in the different molecules. The small variation observed in these distances is ..... [6] D N Singh, Vibrational spectra and force fields for some benzaldehyde derivatives, Ph.D. Thesis. (Banaras Hindu ...

  6. SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED FLAVONE DERIVATIVES AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Flavone (2-phenylchromone) derivatives are naturally occurring heterocyclic compound belongs to the flavanoid group. It showed significant role in pharmaceutical effects [1] including leishmanicidal activity, oviposter stimulant phytoalexins, anti-HIV, vasodilator, antiviral, anti- oxidants, bactericidal, DNA cleavage, ...

  7. Synthesis of Lipophilic Guanine N-9 Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Michael C; Pedersen, Pernille L; Löffler, Philipp M G

    2017-01-01

    the synthesis of five new guanine-N9 derivatives bearing alkyl chains with different attachment chemistries, exploiting a synthesis pathway that allows a flexible choice of hydrophobic anchor moiety. In this study, these guanine derivatives were functionalized with C10 chains for insertion into decanoic acid...... bilayer structures, in which both alkyl chain length and attachment chemistry determined their interaction with the membrane. Incubation of these guanine conjugates, as solids, with a decanoic acid vesicle suspension, showed that ether- and triazole-linked C10 anchors yielded an increased partitioning...... of the guanine derivative into the membranous phase compared to directly N-9-linked saturated alkyl anchors. Decanoic acid vesicle membranes could be loaded with up to 5.5 mol % guanine derivative, a 6-fold increase over previous limits. Thus, anchor chemistries exhibiting favorable interactions with a bilayer...

  8. Particle production in higher derivative theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker cosmological model during the early stages of the universe is analysed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The universe has been considered as an open thermodynamic system where particle production ...

  9. Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Graphene Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    The work presented in this PhD thesis can be divided into two main categories: 1) Syn-thesis and Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of graphene derivatives and 2) Application and characterization of graphene derivatives as an interface material in molecular electron-ics. While the first category could...... be divided further, the synthesis and Langmuir-Blodgett results are intertwined in such a way that it would be more confusing to pre-sent them separately. The Langmuir-Blodgett deposition also played a crucial, but more isolated, part in the investigation of graphene derivatives as interface material....... Solution processable graphene in the form of chemically derived graphene has been synthesized through the modified Hummers method with subsequent reduction into reduced graphene oxide with hydrazine. The completeness of oxidation, the effect of the refinement steps and the reduction of the graphene oxide...

  10. 76 FR 4751 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... saleable by long traders at its market value in normal cash marketing channels at the derivative contract's... Association, Futures Industry Association, GDF Suez Energy, Morgan Stanley, and NextEra Energy Power Marketing...

  11. Second derivative parallel block backward differentiation type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second derivative parallel block backward differentiation type formulas for Stiff ODEs. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... and the methods are inherently parallel and can be distributed over parallel processors. They are ...

  12. Novel hydroquinone derivatives alleviate algesia, inflammation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    derivatives were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by .... to water. The baseline rectal temperature of all mice was noted by inserting a lubricated digital thermometer ... (PDB) and the binding site residues of the receptors were ...

  13. Plant-derived nanostructures: types and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-derived nanostructures and nanoparticles (NPs) have functional applications in numerous disciplines such as health care, food and feed, cosmetics, biomedical science, energy science, drug-gene delivery, environmental health, and so on. Consequently, it is imperative for res...

  14. Anodic selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Onomura, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Anodic reactions are desirable methods from the viewpoint of Green Chemistry, since no toxic oxidants are necessary for the oxidation of organic molecules. This review introduces usefulness of anodic oxidation and successive reaction for selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives.

  15. Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...

  16. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...

  17. An alternative to the flutter derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Styrk; Brandt, Anders

    A new simplified framework to study flutter and assess the full scale flutter wind speed is suggested. The flutter instability problem is reduced from a problem involving 8 flutter derivatives to only 4 coefficients. With this method it is possible to estimate the self-excited forces with increased...... precision by using stability diagrams. Furthermore, the physical transparency of the aerodynamic damping and stiffness terms is increased because the development in vertical and torsional damping and stiffness is analysed instead of flutter derivatives....

  18. Higher-derivative Lee-Wick unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    We consider gauge coupling unification in Lee-Wick extensions of the Standard Model that include higher-derivative quadratic terms beyond the minimally required set. We determine how the beta functions are modified when some Standard Model particles have two Lee-Wick partners. We show that gauge coupling unification can be achieved in such models without requiring the introduction of additional fields in the higher-derivative theory and we comment on possible ultraviolet completions.

  19. Financial derivatives in power marketing: The basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, V.C.; Ghosh, K.

    1996-01-01

    With the ongoing changes in the power industry worldwide, electricity is beginning to be traded like other commodities. The use of financial derivative instruments in power markets is on the rise. The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of these derivatives in risk management which is vital for survival in the increasingly competitive industry. Starting with the familiar cash markets, the paper discusses the basics of futures, options, and swap markets as applied to electric energy trading

  20. Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Yoshinori.

    1985-02-01

    A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)

  1. Complexes of salicylic acid and its derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tel' zhenskaya, P N; Shvarts, E M [AN Latvijskoj SSR, Riga. Inst. Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1977-01-01

    A generalization and systematization have been made of literature data on complexing of various elements, including beryllium, cadmium, boron, indium, rare-earth elements, actinides, and transition elements with salicylic acid and it derivatives (amino-, nitro- and halosalicylic acids). The effect of the position and nature of the substitute, in the case of salicylic acid derivatives, on the complexing process is discussed. Certain physicochemical properties of the complexes under consideration are described along with data indicative of their stability.

  2. On computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, I. A.; Vinnikov, E. L.

    The algorithm of computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives is proposed with application of recurrent relations. The A.G.M.-method is used for the calculation of values L0(0), L0(1). The FORTRAN-program corresponding to the algorithm is given. The precision control was provided with numerical integrating by Simpsons method. The behavior of Laplace's coefficients and their third derivatives whith varying indices K, n for fixed values of the α-parameter is presented graphically.

  3. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europ...

  4. A note on derivations in semiprime rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vukman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove in this note the following result. Let n>1 be an integer and let R be an n!-torsion-free semiprime ring with identity element. Suppose that there exists an additive mapping D:R→R such that D(xn=∑j=1nxn−jD(xxj−1 is fulfilled for all x∈R. In this case, D is a derivation. This research is motivated by the work of Bridges and Bergen (1984. Throughout, R will represent an associative ring with center Z(R. Given an integer n>1, a ring R is said to be n-torsion-free if for x∈R, nx=0 implies that x=0. Recall that a ring R is prime if for a,b∈R, aRb=(0 implies that either a=0 or b=0, and is semiprime in case aRa=(0 implies that a=0. An additive mapping D:R→R is called a derivation if D(xy=D(xy+xD(y holds for all pairs x,y∈R and is called a Jordan derivation in case D(x2=D(xx+xD(x is fulfilled for all x∈R. Every derivation is a Jordan derivation. The converse is in general not true. A classical result of Herstein (1957 asserts that any Jordan derivation on a prime ring with characteristic different from two is a derivation. A brief proof of Herstein's result can be found in 1988 by Brešar and Vukman. Cusack (1975 generalized Herstein's result to 2-torsion-free semiprime rings (see also Brešar (1988 for an alternative proof. For some other results concerning derivations on prime and semiprime rings, we refer to Brešar (1989, Vukman (2005, Vukman and Kosi-Ulbl (2005.

  5. Introduction of Credit Derivatives and Valuation of Credit Default Swap

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Lu

    2006-01-01

    The credit derivative market was established at the beginning of the 1990s since the emergence of credit derivatives fits the rapid development of the whole derivatives market. However, compare to other derivative market, this market is still small and incomplete. As with other derivatives, credit derivatives can be used to either take more risk or hedge it, hence various credit derivatives instruments are accepted and widely used by market participants such as banks, insurance companies, etc...

  6. Multiscale analysis of the CMB temperature derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos-Caballero, A.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P., E-mail: marcos@ifca.unican.es, E-mail: martinez@ifca.unican.es, E-mail: vielva@ifca.unican.es [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Spain. (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    We study the Planck CMB temperature at different scales through its derivatives up to second order, which allows one to characterize the local shape and isotropy of the field. The problem of having an incomplete sky in the calculation and statistical characterization of the derivatives is addressed in the paper. The analysis confirms the existence of a low variance in the CMB at large scales, which is also noticeable in the derivatives. Moreover, deviations from the standard model in the gradient, curvature and the eccentricity tensor are studied in terms of extreme values on the data. As it is expected, the Cold Spot is detected as one of the most prominent peaks in terms of curvature, but additionally, when the information of the temperature and its Laplacian are combined, another feature with similar probability at the scale of 10{sup o} is also observed. However, the p -value of these two deviations increase above the 6% when they are referred to the variance calculated from the theoretical fiducial model, indicating that these deviations can be associated to the low variance anomaly. Finally, an estimator of the directional anisotropy for spinorial quantities is introduced, which is applied to the spinors derived from the field derivatives. An anisotropic direction whose probability is <1% is detected in the eccentricity tensor.

  7. Structure Activity Relationship of Brevenal Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Goodman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brevenal is a ladder frame polyether produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. This organism is also responsible for the production of the neurotoxic compounds known as brevetoxins. Ingestion or inhalation of the brevetoxins leads to adverse effects such as gastrointestinal maladies and bronchoconstriction. Brevenal shows antagonistic behavior to the brevetoxins and shows beneficial attributes when administered alone. For example, in an asthmatic sheep model, brevenal has been shown to increase tracheal mucosal velocity, an attribute which has led to its development as a potential treatment for Cystic Fibrosis. The mechanism of action of brevenal is poorly understood and the exact binding site has not been elucidated. In an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action of brevenal and potentially develop a second generation drug candidate, a series of brevenal derivatives were prepared through modification of the aldehyde moiety. These derivatives include aliphatic, aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrazide derivatives. The brevenal derivatives were tested using in vitro synaptosome binding assays to determine the ability of the compounds to displace brevetoxin and brevenal from their native receptors. A sheep inhalation model was used to determine if instillation of the brevenal derivatives resulted in bronchoconstriction. Only small modifications were tolerated, with larger moieties leading to loss of affinity for the brevenal receptor and bronchoconstriction in the sheep model.

  8. PROCEDURES FOR THE DERIVATION OF EQUILIBRIUM ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document describes procedures to derive concentrations for 32 nonionic organic chemicals in sediment which are protective of the presence of freshwater and marine benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it accounts for the varying biological availability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms. EqP can be used to calculate ESBs for any toxicity endpoint for which there are water-only toxicity data; it is not limited to any single effect endpoint. For the purposes of this document, ESBs for 32 nonionic organic chemicals, including several low molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic compounds, pesticides, and phthalates, were derived using Final Chronic Values (FCV) from Water Quality Criteria (WQC) or Secondary Chronic Values (SCV) derived from existing toxicological data using the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative (GLI) or narcosis theory approaches. These values are intended to be the concentration of each chemical in water that is protective of the presence of aquatic life. For nonionic organic chemicals demonstrating a narcotic mode of action, ESBs derived using the GLI approach specifically for fres

  9. Studies on Synthesis of Some Novel Heterocyclic Azlactone Derivatives and Imidazolinone Derivatives and their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh N. Mistry

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available p - Methyl benzoic acid on reaction with phosphorus pentachloride gives p - methyl benzoyl chloride derivative which on condensation with glycine gives p - methyl benzoyl glycine derivative. Now, this p - methyl benzoyl glycine derivative on condensation with various substituted aldehydes gives corresponding substituted 4 - [aryl methylidine] - 2 - [p - methyl phenyl] - oxazole - 5 - one derivatives [1(a-j]. Further, these derivatives [1(a-j] on condensation with 4 , 4’ - diamino diphenyl sulphone gives corresponding substituted imidazolinone - dibenzsulphone derivatives [2(a-j], on condensation with 4 , 4’ - diamino diphenyl methane gives corresponding substituted imidazolinone - dibenzmethane derivatives [3(a-j], on condensation with 4,4’- diamino benzanilide gives corresponding substituted imidazolinone - benzanilide derivatives [4(a-j] and on condensation with 2 - amino pyridine gives corresponding substituted imidazolinone - pyridine derivatives [5(a-j] respectively. Structure elucidation of synthesised compounds has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, I.R. spectral studies and 1H N.M.R. spectral studies. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesised compounds has been studied against the cultures “Staphylococcus aureus”, “Escherichia coli” and “Candela albicans”.

  10. Adaptive synchronization of the complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teachers' College, Hubei 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fang Jian' an [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Wen [School of Mathematics and Information, Yangtze University, Hubei Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2010-04-05

    This Letter investigates the synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling. Based on LaSalle's invariance principle, adaptive synchronization criteria are obtained. Analytical result shows that under the designed adaptive controllers, a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling can asymptotically synchronize to a given trajectory, and several useful criteria for synchronization are given. What is more, the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. Finally, simulations results show the method is effective.

  11. Uso de drogas psicotrópicas no Brasil: pesquisa domiciliar envolvendo as 107 maiores cidades do país - 2001 Uso de drogas psicotrópicas en Brasil: investigación domiciliaria en las 107 mayores ciudades del país - 2001 Use of psychotropic drugs in Brazil: household survey in the 107 biggest Brazilian cities - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos F. Galduróz

    2005-10-01

    of drugs, alcohol, tobacco and the use of non-medical psychotropics. This study enclosed the 107 biggest cities in Brazil; sample: ages between 12 and 65 years. Sampling in three periods: tax sectors; household and the respondent. Were interviewed 8,589 people. The lifetime use of the alcohol was 68.7%, closer to 70.8% in Chile. The lifetime use of the tobacco was of 41.1%, lower than U.S.A. (70.5%. The lifetime use of the marijuana was of 6.9% closer to Colombia (5.4% and lower than U.S.A. (34.2%. The lifetime use of the cocaine was 2.3%, lower than U.S.A. (11.2%. The lifetime use of solvent was of 5.8%, much lower than the United Kingdom (20.0%. The stimulants have had 1.5% of lifetime use and the anxiolytics with 3.3%. These findings will allow the implantation of adjusted public politics to our reality in the field of the psychotropics drugs.

  12. 32 CFR 2400.14 - Use of derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 2400.14 Use of derivative classification. (a) Derivative... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of derivative classification. 2400.14... person who applies derivative classification markings believes that the paraphrasing, restating, or...

  13. Contact allergy to isoeugenol and its derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, Susumu; Royds, C; Buckley, Christopher D

    2004-01-01

    A total of 2261 (808 male, 1453 female) consecutive patients attending contact dermatitis clinics were patch tested to isoeugenol and its derivatives listed in the EU Inventory of Fragrance Ingredients. Positive reactions were found to isoeugenol in 40, transisoeugenol in 40, isoeugenyl acetate...... and 15/16 of those to isoeugenyl phenylacetate but in none of those 6 positive to isoeugenyl methyl ether and in neither of those 2 positive to benzyl isoeugenyl ether. Concomitant contact allergy between isoeugenol and its derivatives may occur through chemical cross-reactivity or local skin metabolism...... of the derivatives. It is more commonly observed with the esters rather than the ethers. Isoeugenyl acetate has been proposed as an alternative to isoeugenol, but there is a high degree of concomitant reactivity with isoeugenol....

  14. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  15. Structure-activity relationships of bumetanide derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Lykke; Töllner, Kathrin; Römermann, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    of diuretics such as bumetanide. Bumetanide was discovered by screening ∼5000 3-amino-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid derivatives, long before NKCC2 was identified in the kidney. Therefore, structure-activity studies on effects of bumetanide derivatives on NKCC2 are not available. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In this study......, the effect of a series of diuretically active bumetanide derivatives was investigated on human NKCC2 variant A (hNKCC2A) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. KEY RESULTS: Bumetanide blocked hNKCC2A transport with an IC50 of 4 μM. There was good correlation between the diuretic potency of bumetanide and its...... of the structural requirements that determine relative potency of loop diuretics on human NKCC2 splice variants, and may lead to the discovery of novel high-ceiling diuretics....

  16. FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES - MEANINGS BEYOND SUBPRIME CRISIS STIGMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRĂU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Derivatives are designed as complex financial instruments and their main aim is to manage the risk associated with the underlying asset, in order to ensure against fluctuations in value, or to profit from periods of inactivity, instability or decline. In recent years financial derivatives have experienced a fulminant development and also they have been perceived as an effective lever of the modern economy. The subprime crisis was triggered by a quite significant financial infrastructure glitch, which coalesced around certain factors influence, such as : highly permissive regulation of financial markets, speculative bubbles, underperforming risk management, liquidity injections and structural imbalances. Despite the fact that is a innovative segment and quite difficult affordable as understanding level of the operation mechanisms, financial derivatives were only the tool triggering this global dimension crisis.

  17. Deriving Trading Rules Using Gene Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian VISOIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how buy and sell trading rules are generated using gene expression programming with special setup. Market concepts are presented and market analysis is discussed with emphasis on technical analysis and quantitative methods. The use of genetic algorithms in deriving trading rules is presented. Gene expression programming is applied in a form where multiple types of operators and operands are used. This gives birth to multiple gene contexts and references between genes in order to keep the linear structure of the gene expression programming chromosome. The setup of multiple gene contexts is presented. The case study shows how to use the proposed gene setup to derive trading rules encoded by Boolean expressions, using a dataset with the reference exchange rates between the Euro and the Romanian leu. The conclusions highlight the positive results obtained in deriving useful trading rules.

  18. Additive derivations on algebras of measurable operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayupov, Sh.A.; Kudaybergenov, K.K.

    2009-08-01

    Given a von Neumann algebra M we introduce the so-called central extension mix(M) of M. We show that mix(M) is a *-subalgebra in the algebra LS(M) of all locally measurable operators with respect to M, and this algebra coincides with LS(M) if and only if M does not admit type II direct summands. We prove that if M is a properly infinite von Neumann algebra then every additive derivation on the algebra mix(M) is inner. This implies that on the algebra LS(M), where M is a type I ∞ or a type III von Neumann algebra, all additive derivations are inner derivations. (author)

  19. 5-Nitroimidazole Derivatives and their Antimicrobial Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.M.; Salar, U.; Yousuf, S.; Naz, F.

    2016-01-01

    5-Nitroimidazole derivatives 2-8 were synthesized from secnidazole. The syntheses were accomplished in two steps which start from the oxidation of secnidazole to the secnidazolone 1. Secnidazolone 1 was converted into its hydrazone derivative 2-8 by treating with different substituted acid hydrazide. Compounds 2-8 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, compounds 3 and 4 showed the significant activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, however, compound 2 showed good inhibitions against Corynebacterium diphtheria when compared with the standard. Compound 3 showed good inhibitory potential against tested Gram-negative bacterial strains i.e. Enterobacter aerogene, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella flexeneri and Vibrio choleriae. All synthetic derivatives were also tested against eight fungal stains, however, they were weekly active against Aspergillus flavus and Candida albican. The synthesized compounds were characterized by different spectroscopy techniques. (author)

  20. Structural studies of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Silvio; Oliveira, Shana M.; Rodrigues, Manoel T.; Bastos, Rodrigo M.; Ferrari, Jailton; de Oliveira, Cecília M. A.; Kato, Lucília; Napolitano, Hamilton B.; Vencato, Ivo; Lariucci, Carlito

    2005-10-01

    Reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine with acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, benzoyl isothiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, maleic anhydride and methoxymethylene Meldrum's acid afforded a series of new antipyrine derivatives. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 29737, and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was evaluated and the minimal inhibitory concentration determined. Modest activity was found only to the maleamic acid obtained from the reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine and maleic anhydride. 1H NMR investigation of this maleamic acid showed that it is slowly converted to the corresponding toxic maleimide. The structures of three derivatives were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  1. Ethanolamine derivatives of dysprosium and holmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharia, K.S.; Singh, M.; Mathur, S.; Sankhla, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation and properties of dysprosium and holmium derivatives of mono-, di- and tri-ethanolamine derivatives are described. Compounds of general formulae: Ln(OPrsup(i)) 2 (mea), Ln(OPrsup(i))(mea) 2 , Ln(mea) 3 , Ln(OPrsup(i))(dea), Ln 2 (dea) 3 , Ln(dea)(deaH) and Ln(tea) (where Ln = Dy or Ho and mea, dea and tea are the anions of respective ethanolamine) were obtained and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectra. (author)

  2. Geometric derivation of the quantum speed limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Philip J.; Kok, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin inequalities play an important role in the study of quantum-mechanical processes in nature since they provide general limits on the speed of dynamical evolution. However, to date there has been only one derivation of the Margolus-Levitin inequality. In this paper, alternative geometric derivations for both inequalities are obtained from the statistical distance between quantum states. The inequalities are shown to hold for unitary evolution of pure and mixed states, and a counterexample to the inequalities is given for evolution described by completely positive trace-preserving maps. The counterexample shows that there is no quantum speed limit for nonunitary evolution.

  3. A 'simple' hybrid model for power derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, Matthew R.; Elliott, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for valuing power derivatives using a supply-demand approach. Our method extends work in the field by incorporating randomness into the base load portion of the supply stack function and equating it with a noisy demand process. We obtain closed form solutions for European option prices written on average spot prices considering two different supply models: a mean-reverting model and a Markov chain model. The results are extensions of the classic Black-Scholes equation. The model provides a relatively simple approach to describe the complicated price behaviour observed in electricity spot markets and also allows for computationally efficient derivatives pricing. (author)

  4. Novel Aflatoxin Derivatives and Protein Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Niessner

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, a group of structurally related mycotoxins, are well known for their toxic and carcinogenic effects in humans and animals. Aflatoxin derivatives and protein conjugates are needed for diverse analytical applications. This work describes a reliable and fast synthesis of novel aflatoxin derivatives, purification by preparative HPLC and characterisation by ESI-MS and one- and two-dimensional NMR. Novel aflatoxin bovine serum albumin conjugates were prepared and characterised by UV absorption and MALDI-MS. These aflatoxin protein conjugates are potentially interesting as immunogens for the generation of aflatoxin selective antibodies with novel specificities.

  5. Derived limits and their practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minarik, F.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is devoted to the approach and methodological procedure in determining derived limits for surface contamination with special regard to external exposure of hands, inhalation of resuspended activity, contamination of the skin and with regard to ingestion of radioactive material from the skin. In the practical part of the article, results are given of measuring contamination by radionuclides 134 Cs, 133 Cs and 60 Co, and the resulting annual equivalent dose rates and their comparison with derived air contamination in the sense of ICRP Publ. No. 30. (author)

  6. Development of chitosan derivatives with anhydride maleic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Solranny C.C.C.; Braz, Elton Marks de A.; Brito, Carla Adriana R. de S.; Silva, Durcilene A. da; Junior, Luiz de S.S.; Silva Filho, Edson C. da

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan was chemically modified with maleic anhydride in ratios of 1/2, 1/5 and 1/10 in the absence of solvents. The obtained derivatives were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, thermal analysis (TGA / DTG) and XRD where it was possible to prove the chemical modification. Elemental analysis showed an increase of the relation C / N with the increasing of the proportion of anhydrides. The FTIR showed the incorporation of the anhydride in the biopolymer structure. The thermal stability of the derivatives was lower in comparison to the polysaccharide and by XRD the modified materials were less crystalline. (author)

  7. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  8. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xian-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula. (paper)

  9. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  10. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensite, Fred

    2014-01-01

    We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid) existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally.

  11. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Greensite

    Full Text Available We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally.

  12. Scale up of proteoliposome derived Cochleate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Caridad; Bracho, Gustavo; Lastre, Miriam; González, Domingo; Gil, Danay; Acevedo, Reinaldo; del Campo, Judith; Taboada, Carlos; Solís, Rosa L; Barberá, Ramón; Pérez, Oliver

    2006-04-12

    Cochleate are highly stable structures with promising immunological features. Cochleate structures are usually obtaining from commercial lipids. Proteoliposome derived Cochleate are derived from an outer membrane vesicles of Neisseria meningitidis B. Previously, we obtained Cochleates using dialysis procedures. In order to increase the production process, we used a crossflow system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The raw material and solutions used in the production process are already approved for human application. This work demonstrates that CFS is very efficient process to obtain Cochleate structures with a yield of more than 80% and the immunogenicity comparable to that obtained by dialysis membrane.

  13. Urinary Derivations: Radiological Anatomy and Complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Escartin, I.; Zapater, C.; Riazuelo, G.; Canon, R.; Solanas, S.; Garcia de Jalon, A.

    2003-01-01

    Cystectomy with urine derivation is a common procedure in the treatment of transition cell carcinoma of the bladder. We present radiological findings (ultrasound scan, computerized tomography (CT) and urography) from the surgical reconstruction techniques most often performed by the Urology staff of our hospital as well as some of the complications which occur. The above-mentioned techniques are basically divided into two types: incontinent derivations, of which we highlight the Bicker-Wallace technique and continent ones. The latter can either be ortho topic, with urethral anastomosis (Hauptmann's technique), or heterotopic, with urine excretion through the anus (Mains II technique) or employing a self-catheter (Mainz I technique). (Author) 7 refs

  14. Prescribing in prison: minimizing psychotropic drug diversion in correctional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkinton, Patricia D; Pilkinton, James C

    2014-04-01

    Correctional facilities are a major provider of mental health care throughout the United States. In spite of the numerous benefits of providing care in this setting, clinicians are sometimes concerned about entering into correctional care because of uncertainty in prescribing practices. This article provides an introduction to prescription drug use, abuse, and diversion in the correctional setting, including systems issues in prescribing, commonly abused prescription medications, motivation for and detection of prescription drug abuse, and the use of laboratory monitoring. By understanding the personal and systemic factors that affect prescribing habits, the clinician can develop a more rewarding correctional practice and improve care for inmates with mental illness.

  15. Psychotropic Medication Use among Adolescents: United States, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... no. 12–3929. 2010. Pratt LA, Brody DJ. Depression in the United States household population, 2005–2006. NCHS data brief, no 7. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2008. Akinbami LJ, Liu X, Pastor PN, Reuben ...

  16. Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Fujiwara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis contains the psychoactive component delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC, and the non-psychoactive components cannabidiol (CBD, cannabinol, and cannabigerol. It is well-known that delta9-THC and other cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury. Additionally, delta9-THC also mediates psychological effects through the activation of the CB1 receptor in the central nervous system. In addition to the CB1 receptor agonists, cannabis also contains therapeutically active components which are CB1 receptor independent. Of the CB1 receptor-independent cannabis, the most important is CBD. In the past five years, an increasing number of publications have focused on the discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD. In particular, CBD exerts positive pharmacological effects in ischemic stroke and other chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB1 receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity. Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance. In this review, we will discuss the therapeutic possibility of CBD as a cerebroprotective agent, highlighting recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms, and therapeutic time window of CBD in ischemic stroke.

  17. Social [and health] relevance of psychotropic substances monitoring in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Mollica, Roberto; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse assessment methods based on measuring illicit substances in waste waters are consolidated. The approach of ambient air monitoring looks questionable, nonetheless it can be explored if the variables determining the drug burdens are accounted for, or suitable co-contaminants are adopted to normalize concentrations to environmental and human contours. The general approach linking the airborne drug concentrations to consumption is presented and the case of cocaine is discussed according to measurements conducted in Italy. The cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio, identified as the most suitable tool, fitted well with anti-drug Police operations and people noticed for drug-related crimes, and with the abuse prevalence estimated in the cities investigated. According to that, the conversion factors of drug concentrations into prevalence estimates seem assessable, provided sufficient databases over space and time are collected. Further investigations are necessary to understand if airborne drugs cause adverse sanitary effects. -- Highlights: •The drug contents in the air were discussed to draw information about abuse prevalence. •The time and site drug modulations were compared to those of the airborne toxicants. •Nicotine looks suitable to normalize the cocaine concentrations to human and environmental contours. •The health impact of illicit and licit drugs onto non-abusers is still insufficiently understood. -- The airborne cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio looks a promising tool to estimate the cocaine abuse prevalence

  18. Psychotropic prescribing in HIV | Parker | Southern African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of psychiatric medication in patients with HIV infection is a complex area, but given the high rates of psychiatric disorder in this population – possibly as high as 50%1 – it deserves further consideration. A number of issues need to be thought about, including the nature of both the psychiatric illness and the HIV ...

  19. [Integrated management of patients with schizophrenia: beyond psychotropic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda Zapata, Eliana; Montoya Gonzalez, Laura Elisa; Gómez Sierra, Natalia María; Arteaga Morales, Laura María; Correa Rico, Oscar Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease with severe functional repercussions; therefore it merits treatment which goes beyond drugs. It requires an approach that considers a diathesis-stress process that includes rehabilitation, psychotherapeutic strategies for persistent cognitive, negative and psychotic symptoms, psychoeducation of patient and communities, community adaptation strategies, such as the introduction to the work force, and the community model, such as a change in the asylum paradigm. It is necessary to establish private and public initiatives for the integrated care of schizophrenia in the country, advocating the well-being of those with the disease. The integrated management of schizophrenic patients requires a global view of the patient and his/her disease, and its development is essential. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Seizure Duration in Females Receiving ECT with Concurrent Psychotropic Medication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Urbánek, Tomáš; Hrdlička, M.; Chacko, R. C.; Moran, M.; Manasova, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2002), s. 39-46 ISSN 0213-6163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : Electroconvulsive therapy * Drug therapy * EEG Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.154, year: 2002

  1. Regulatory and clinical aspects of psychotropic medicinal products bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałkowiec-Iskra, Ewa; Cessak, Grzegorz; Kuzawińska, Olga; Sejbuk-Rozbicka, Katarzyna; Rokita, Konrad; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara

    2015-07-01

    Introduction of generic medicinal products to the market has increased access to modern therapies but also enabled significant reduction in their cost, leading to containment of public expenditures on medicinal products reimbursement. The critical assessment of bioequivalence of any reference medicinal product and its counterpart is based on comparison of their rate and extent of absorption. It is assumed that two medicinal products are bioequivalent when their rate and extent of absorption do not show significant differences when administered at the same dose under similar experimental conditions. Bioequivalent medicinal products are declared to be also therapeutically equivalent and can be used interchangeably. However, despite regulatory declaration, switching from reference to generic drugs is often associated with concerns of healthcare providers about decreased treatment effectiveness or occurrence of adverse drug reactions. The aim of this article is to provide a description of rules that guide registration of generic medicinal products in the European Union and to analyze specific examples from the scientific literature concerning therapeutic equivalence of reference and generic antidepressant and antipsychotic medicinal products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. [Manneristic catatonia. A psychotropic drug refractory chronic progressive course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöber, G; Jungkunz, G; Franzek, E; Beckmann, H

    1996-07-01

    Manneristic catatonia, one form of Leonhard's systematic schizophrenias, is illustrated in nine case notes. The essential syndrome of this rare disorder (described by Leonhard in the preneuroleptic era) consisted in mannerisms and progressive stiffness of psychomotor activity. Mannerisms often developed from obsessive and compulsive ideas; whereas distress disappeared, repetitive behavior developed into a stereotype. Complex movements (e.g. not to shake hands; mutism) became mannerisms. With disease progression stiffness of facial expression and gestures and an impairment of voluntary motor activity became increasingly prominent. There were no signs of (neuroleptic-induced) parkinsonism. Manneristic catatonia affects preponderantly men and exhibits an early age of onset (median: 23 years). In none of the cases a family history of psychiatric illness was noted. Severe obstetric and birth complications as well as the high prevalence of supratentorial and cerebellar CT/MR abnormalities in this patient group point to deviations of prenatal brain maturation. The median yearly dose of neuroleptics was 83.1 g chlorpromazin equivalents. The characteristic psychopathology was not essentially influenced by modern psychopharmacological treatment neither in the beginning nor in the long run irrespective of the time of onset of the disease. Continuous high-dose neuroleptic treatment is not efficacious in this distinct group of systematic schizophrenias. Behavioural training in a rehabilitation unit is the treatment of choice from the early beginning.

  3. Derivation and characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment and initial characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line, PICM-31, and a colony-cloned derivative cell line, PICM-31A, is described. The cell lines were propagated for several months at split ratios of 1:3 or 1:5 at each passage on STO feeder cells af...

  4. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives. Derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for deriving and using a class of constitutive laws incorporating spatial gradients of internal variables is presented. It uses two basic ingredients: a derivation of such models by homogenization techniques and a reformulation of the evolution equation at the scale of the whole structure. (orig.)

  5. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Derivative instrument liabilities. This account must include the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not designated as cash flow or fair value hedges. Account 426.5, Other deductions... the fair value of the derivative instrument. ...

  6. Optimal economic order quantity for buyer-distributor-vendor supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo; Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wee, Hui Ming

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we first complement an inappropriate mathematical error on the total cost in the previously published paper by Chung and Wee [2007, 'Optimal the Economic Lot Size of a Three-stage Supply Chain With Backlogging Derived Without Derivatives', European Journal of Operational Research, 183, 933-943] related to buyer-distributor-vendor three-stage supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives. Then, an arithmetic-geometric inequality method is proposed not only to simplify the algebraic method of completing prefect squares, but also to complement their shortcomings. In addition, we provide a closed-form solution to integral number of deliveries for the distributor and the vendor without using complex derivatives. Furthermore, our method can solve many cases in which their method cannot, because they did not consider that a squared root of a negative number does not exist. Finally, we use some numerical examples to show that our proposed optimal solution is cheaper to operate than theirs.

  7. Energy derivatives, experiences in derivative trading from the natural gas industry : back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, G.; Coyle, T.

    1998-01-01

    Some basic facts regarding derivatives in the electric power industry were discussed based on experiences in the natural gas industry. Derivatives were described as financial instruments that have no value of their own but derive their value from other assets, such as commodities. Futures and Options are the two forms of derivatives. Electricity as a commodity was characterized, and a historical parallel was drawn between deregulation in the natural gas and electric power industry. Short term and long term factors impacting the market and market dynamics impacting derivatives were identified. The latter include: (1) volatility, (2) liquidity, (3) correlations, and (4) price discovery. In contrast to the natural gas market, the electricity market is considered as lacking liquidity and in need of moving farther along the maturity timeline. The question of natural gas/ electricity convergence was also addressed refs., tabs., figs

  8. Deriving simulators for hybrid Chi models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van D.A.; Man, K.L.; Reniers, M.A.; Rooda, J.E.; Schiffelers, R.R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid Chi language is formalism for modeling, simulation and verification of hybrid systems. The formal semantics of hybrid Chi allows the definition of provably correct implementations for simulation, verification and realtime control. This paper discusses the principles of deriving an

  9. Unedoside derivatives in Nuxia and their biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Ravnkilde, Lene; Schripsema, Jan

    1998-01-01

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia showed that this genus is characterized by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2 "-acetyl-3 "-cinnamoyl-nuxioside were...

  10. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivatives in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S.C.; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    Background: Isoeugenol, an important fragrance allergen in consumers, has been restricted to 200 p.p.m. since 1998 according to guidelines issued by the fragrance industry. However, no decline in contact allergy to isoeugnol has been detected. It has been speculated that isoeugenol derivatives...

  11. Structural Studies of Some Binaphthyl Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Niels; Bjørnholm, T.; Bechgaard, K.

    1996-01-01

    Crystal structures of several 1,1'-binaphthyl derivatives have been determined. In particular compounds which at the 2,2' positions have either identical ethoxy groups or a closed bridged ether and furthermore have identical substitution at the 6,6' positions. The latter groups may be Br, CHO, CN...

  12. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of novel sulfonamides derivatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Chemistry, Comsat Institute of Information & Technology Riawind road. Lahore ... Newer sulfonamides and their derivatives has obtained great attention in pharmaceutical field in ... MS data was recorded on Finnigan MAT 112 mass ..... potent and orally active sulfonamide ETB selective antagonists. Bioorg.

  14. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200.506 Section 200.506 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security...

  15. Fundamentals of futures, options, basis and derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. [TD Securities Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Characteristic features of futures and options contracts, basis differentials and derivatives were defined and explained. A futures contract refers to an exchange-traded supply contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer is obligated to take delivery and the seller is obligated to provide delivery of a fixed amount of a commodity at a predetermined price at a specified location. In contrast, an option contract gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying commodity at a certain price on or before an agreed date. Basis differential refers to the discount between two distinct delivery points to reflect the relative value of a commodity, such as natural gas, at those points. Advantages and disadvantages of futures and options contacts, the factors affecting options pricing, and basis differentials, and the methods of calculating basis differentials were described. The nature and intricacies of derivatives, their benefits, in particular their use as a tool for the effective management of the volatilities associated with the oil and gas industry were explained. Their shortcomings such as the high liquidity risk, were also described. Examples of derivative transactions were provided to illustrate the interrelationships of futures/options/derivatives, and their role in financial risk management.

  16. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION...

  17. Interest Rate Derivative Pricing with Stochastic Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of exotic derivative pricing models is to enable financial institutions to quantify and manage their financial risk, arising from large books of portfolios. These portfolios consist of many non-standard exotic financial products. Risk is managed by means of the evaluation of sensitivity

  18. Microscopically derived free energy of dislocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooiman, M.; Hütter, M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of large amounts of dislocations is the governing mechanism in metal plasticity. The free energy of a continuous dislocation density profile plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics of dislocations, as free energy derivatives act as the driving forces of dislocation

  19. Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze.

  20. Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze.