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Sample records for psychotropic medication usage

  1. Children and Psychotropic Medication: A Cautionary Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James; Stone, George

    2011-01-01

    This report addresses how the mental health field is organized in terms of the use of psychotropic medications with children and adolescents, and the ethical challenge this presents to marriage and family therapists.

  2. Psychotropic medication claims among religious clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Steven M; Mustillo, Sarah A; Foy, Steven L; Arroyave, Whitney D; Hooten, Elizabeth G; Lauderback, Kari H; Meador, Keith G

    2013-03-01

    This study examined psychotropic medication claims in a sample of Protestant clergy. It estimated the proportion of clergy in the sample who had a claim for psychotropic medication (i.e., anti-depressants and anxiolytics) in 2005 and examined associations between sociodemographic characteristics, occupational distress and having a claim. Protestant clergy (n = 749) from nine denominations completed a mail survey and provided access to their pharmaceutical records. Logistic regression models assessed the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and occupational distress on having a claim. The descriptive analysis revealed that 16 % (95 % Confidence interval [CI] 13.3 %-18.5 %) of the clergy in the sample had a claim for psychotropic medication in 2005 and that, among clergy who experienced frequent occupational distress, 28 % (95 % CI 17.5 %-37.5 %) had a claim. The regression analysis found that older clergy, female clergy, and those who experienced frequent occupational distress were more likely to have a claim. Due to recent demographic changes in the clergy population, including the increasing mean age of new clergy and the growing number of female clergy, the proportion of clergy having claims for psychotropic medication may increase in the coming years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the use of psychotropic medication among clergy.

  3. Psychotropic Medication Use among Adolescents: United States, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Psychotropic Medication Use Among Adolescents: United States, 2005–2010 Recommend ... 0% of adolescents reported the use of psychotropic medications. Figure 1. Percentage of adolescents aged 12–19 ...

  4. 28 CFR 549.40 - Use of psychotropic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of psychotropic medications. 549.40 Section 549.40 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.40 Use of psychotropic medications....

  5. Understanding the Use of Psychotropic Medications in the Child Welfare System: Causes, Consequences, and Proposed Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Zakia; Calleja, Nancy G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the progressively increasing number of children prescribed psychotropic medication, while findings have illustrated significantly greater usage among child welfare-involved children. These findings have raised serious concerns among mental health and child welfare professionals as well as the general public. To…

  6. Psychotropic medication characteristics for special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E; Rundberg-Rivera, Victoria; Michel, Chenel

    2014-08-01

    Characteristics of psychotropic medication use have rarely been investigated for special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. The prevalence of psychotropic medication use was obtained at the beginning of a school year for a cohort of 77 students attending a self-contained middle school for special education students with emotional and/or behavioral problems, in the suburban New York City area. Demographics, intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement testing, and objective measures of both psychopathology and school functioning were gathered. Overall, psychotropic medication was used in 77.9% of the participants; 52.0% received more than one medication. The most commonly prescribed medicines were atypical antipsychotics (49.4%) followed by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications (48.0%). Usage patterns for specific diagnostic presentations were examined, and appeared consistent with current clinical practice. Persistent elevated psychopathology appeared frequently in students on medication. Psychotropic medication use in this unique but important sample of special education students appeared generally consistent with recent psychotropic prevalence research. The need for collaboration between special education teachers and prescribing physicians, in order to achieve optimal medication adjustment for these students, was highlighted.

  7. Psychotropic Medication Use among Insured Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Jeanne M.; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Lynch, Frances L.; Rusinak, Donna; Owen-Smith, Ashli A.; Coleman, Karen J.; Quinn, Virginia P.; Yau, Vincent M.; Qian, Yinge X.; Croen, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined psychotropic medication use among 7901 children aged 1-17 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in five health systems, comparing to matched cohorts with no ASD. Nearly half (48.5%) of children with ASD received psychotropics in the year observed; the most common classes were stimulants, alpha-agonists, or atomoxetine (30.2%),…

  8. The Relationship between Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Psychotropic Medication Use in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Barker, Alyse

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to date on the relationship between psychotropic medication use and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Participants in the current study were placed into one of four groups: ASD on psychotropic medications (N = 33), ASD off psychotropic medications (N = 45), atypically developing on psychotropic medications (N =…

  9. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of pediatric psychotropic medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S H; Shepherd, M D

    1996-08-15

    The effects of age, gender, and family background on children's use of prescription psychoactive medications were studied. Patient and prescribing information was obtained for children enrolled as dependents in any of five prescription drug benefit plans during the period from December 29, 1992, through December 28, 1993. A binary response model was specified under the assumption of logistic distribution of probabilities of psychotropic drug use. The independent variables were family size, parenting type (single- or two-parent family), parental use of psychotropic medications, and child's age, gender, and the interaction between age and gender. Logistic regression analysis was conducted not only for overall psychotropic drug use but also for antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, and CNS stimulants. The sample included 3144 children; 3.9% received psychotropic drugs. Family size and parenting type had no effect on overall use of psychotropic drugs by children, but children were more likely to receive psychotropic drugs if the parents took them. The study showed an interaction between age and gender. At younger ages, boys were more likely than girls to receive psychotropic drugs; the opposite was true at older ages. For particular subcategories of drugs the study showed that (1) boys were more likely than girls, and young children were more likely than older children, to receive CNS stimulants, (2) children from single-parent families were less likely to use antidepressants than children from two-parent households, and (3) the influence of mothers' psychotropic drug use extended to all three drug classes, but the influence of fathers' psychotropic drug use existed for antidepressants only. The effects of demographic and familial factors on children's use of psychotropic drugs varied according to the drug class.

  10. 28 CFR 549.41 - Voluntary admission and psychotropic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... medication. 549.41 Section 549.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.41 Voluntary admission and psychotropic medication. (a) A sentenced inmate may be...

  11. Psychotropic Medication Management in a Residential Group Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Douglas F.; Griffith, Annette K.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Wise, Neil, III; McElderry, Ellen; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a psychotropic medication management approach that is used within a residential care program. The approach is used to assess medications at youths' times of entry and to facilitate decision making during care. Data from a typical case study have indicated that by making medication management decisions slowly, systematically,…

  12. Risk of arrhythmia induced by psychotropic medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanoe, Søren; Kristensen, Diana; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of patients are treated with psychotropics. In subgroups of pre-disposed patients, e.g. patients with cardiac diseases or other co-morbidities, the elderly or patients treated with other negatively interacting drugs, the absolute risk of drug-induced arrhythmia may be considerable. On the other hand, several...

  13. Mortality and use of psychotropic medication in patients with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Iversen, Helle K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study sought to describe whether psychotropic medication may have long-term side effects in patients with stroke compared with controls. SETTING: Use of national register data from healthcare services were identified from the Danish National Patient Registry in Denmark. Information...... about psychotropic medication use was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality in relation to the use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antipsychotics in patients with stroke and matched controls. PARTICIPANTS: Patients...... with a diagnosis of stroke and either no drug use or preindex use of psychotropic medication (n=49,968) and compared with control subjects (n=86,100) matched on age, gender, marital status and community location. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: All-cause mortality. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was higher in patients...

  14. Mortality and use of psychotropic medication in patients with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Iversen, Helle K;

    2016-01-01

    with a diagnosis of stroke and either no drug use or preindex use of psychotropic medication (n=49 968) and compared with control subjects (n=86 100) matched on age, gender, marital status and community location. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: All-cause mortality. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was higher in patients......OBJECTIVES: The study sought to describe whether psychotropic medication may have long-term side effects in patients with stroke compared with controls. SETTING: Use of national register data from healthcare services were identified from the Danish National Patient Registry in Denmark. Information...... about psychotropic medication use was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality in relation to the use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antipsychotics in patients with stroke and matched controls. PARTICIPANTS: Patients...

  15. The Use of Psychotropic Medication for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismon, M. Lynn; Argo, Tami

    2009-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medication for foster children is in itself not unique; however, these children are of particular interest because of the stress associated with their life situations. A thorough assessment of the child and family should occur before beginning these medications, and in general, they should only be used in the presence of a…

  16. Psychotropic medication use and cognition in institutionalized older adults with mild to moderate dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H. P.; de Vries, Kerst; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most studies examining psychotropic medication use Oil cognition in older persons with dementia include measures of global cognitive function. The present study examined the relationship between different types of psychotropic medication and specific cognitive functions in older people w

  17. [Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of psychotropic medications: Differences between sexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergiannaki, J D; Kostaras, P

    2016-01-01

    The gender based or gender sensitive pharmacology is a new research area. Differences among sexes are observed in several parameters of their pharmacokinetic which may relate to alteration of their pharmacodynamic as well. Most psychotropics are given per os, and the greater part of their absorption takes place in the small intestine. Premenopausal women have slower gastric emptying times and lower gastrointestinal blood flow which probably reduces the extent of drug absorption. The distribution of drugs is influenced by the relative lower body mass index, the lower blood volume and flow and the greater percentage of body fat of women. Further, the elimination and renal clearance is reduced in women and the hepatic metabolism differ between sexes. Besides, women differ from men in physiological conditions which may have an impact on the psychotropic medication and dosage required for efficacy and response. Women are exposed to monthly hormonal fluctuations (menstruation), pregnancy, puerperium, menopause and use of contraceptives or synthetic hormonal replacement therapies. Throughout of these conditions changes may occur in total body water, in renal clearance, cardiovascular and autoimmune system, which may cause fluctuations in the activity of the psychotropics, changes in the central neurotransmitters, in the number and sensitivity of the receptors, and the general metabolism as well. Despite the fact that women are the primer consumers of psychotropic medication, taking more psychotropics as well as more multiple medications than men, little attention has been paid to sex differences in psychopharmacology. Till recently women were under-represented or excluded from most of the pharmacological clinical trials. The treatment guidelines for psychotropic medication are based on studies verified and investigated almost exclusively in men. Results from such studies were generalized and recommended for use in the clinical practice without any critique and

  18. Psychotropic Medication Use during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Flora M.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Shea, Timothy; Seel, Ronald T.; McAlister, Thomas W.; Kaelin, Darryl; Ryser, David; Corrigan, John D.; Cullen, Nora; Horn, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe psychotropic medication administration patterns during inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their relationship to patient pre-injury and injury characteristics. Design Prospective observational cohort. Setting multiple acute inpatient rehabilitation units or hospitals. Participants 2,130 individuals with TBI (complicated mild, moderate, or severe) admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. Interventions NA Main Outcome Measure(s) NA Results Most frequently administered was narcotic analgesics (72% of sample) followed by antidepressants (67%), anticonvulsants (47%), antianxiolytics (33%), hypnotics (30%), stimulants (28%), antipsychotics (25%), antiparkinson agents (25%), and miscellaneous psychotropics (18%). The psychotropic agents studied were administered to 95% of the sample with 8.5% receiving only 1 and 31.8% receiving 6 or more. Degree of psychotropic medication administration varied widely between sites. Univariate analyses indicated younger patients were more likely to receive anxiolytics, antidepressants, antiparkinson agents, stimulants, antipsychotics, and narcotic analgesics, while those older were more likely to receive anticonvulsants and miscellaneous psychotropics. Men were more likely to receive antipsychotics. All medication classes were less likely administered to Asians, and more likely to those with more severe functional impairment. Use of anticonvulsants was associated with having seizures at some point during acute care or rehabilitation stays. Narcotic analgesics were more likely for those with history of drug abuse, history of anxiety and depression (premorbid or during acute care), and severe pain during rehabilitation. Psychotropic medication administration increased rather than decreased during the course of inpatient rehabilitation in each of the medication categories except for narcotics. This observation was also true for medication administration within admission functional levels (defined

  19. Psychotropic Medication Adherence among Community-Based Individuals with Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xi; Marshall, Vincent D.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Patel, Isha; Chang, Jongwha; Erickson, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are a common treatment for mental illness in people with developmental disabilities. Medication adherence is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, but psychotropic medication adherence research specific to this population remains limited. This retrospective study analyzed Marketscan®…

  20. Development of a Psychotropic PRN Medication Evaluative Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Larry; Watt, Jackie; Pilon, Nancy; Draper, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a psychotropic PRN Evaluative Tool developed by interprofessional clinicians to address inconsistent reporting and assessment of the effectiveness of PRN medications used for people who are developmentally disabled. Fifty-nine participants (37 males, 22 females), ages 16 to 60 years, were included in the review, all…

  1. Psychotropic medication during endocrine treatment for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, G.H.; Musters, R.F.; Bos, H.J.; Schroder, C.P.; Mourits, M.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, [No Value

    Psychological problems are frequently mentioned in women treated for breast cancer in whom depression is mentioned as the most common disorder. The aim was to study the prescription of psychotropic medication in women with endocrine treatment for breast cancer in women in our prospective and

  2. Psychotropic Medications and Substances of Abuse Interactions in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Goldberg, Pablo; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of youth with substance use disorders (SUDs) manifest one or more co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Consequently, many of these youths are being prescribed with psychotropic medications. As prescribing rates continue to increase for early-onset psychiatric disorders, potential risk for substance of abuse-psychiatric medication…

  3. Development of a Psychotropic PRN Medication Evaluative Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Larry; Watt, Jackie; Pilon, Nancy; Draper, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a psychotropic PRN Evaluative Tool developed by interprofessional clinicians to address inconsistent reporting and assessment of the effectiveness of PRN medications used for people who are developmentally disabled. Fifty-nine participants (37 males, 22 females), ages 16 to 60 years, were included in the review, all…

  4. Neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2010-07-01

    Until now, studies on the reproductive safety of psychotropics have typically assessed the risk of congenital malformations and perinatal complications associated with in utero exposure to such medications. However, little is known of their inherent potential neurobehavioral teratogenicity. The objective is to analyze available data from studies investigating developmental outcome of children exposed prenatally to psychotropics. A computerized Medline/PubMed/TOXNET/ENBASE search (1960-2010) was conducted using the following keywords: pregnancy, child/infant development/neurodevelopment, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics. A separate search was also run to complete the safety profile of single specific medications. Resultant articles were cross-referenced for other relevant articles not identified in the initial search. A noncomputerized review of pertinent journals and textbooks was also performed. All studies published in English and reporting primary data on the developmental outcome of infants exposed in utero to psychotropics and born without malformations were collected. As regards antiepileptic drugs, only studies that provided data on specific medications approved for psychiatric practice use (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproate) were considered. Data were extracted from 41 articles (38 identified electronically and 3 nonelectronically), which met the inclusion criteria. Despite reviewed studies showing relevant methodological limitations, concordant, albeit preliminary, information seems to exclude that prenatal exposure to both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants may interfere with the infants' psychological and cognitive development. Conversely, information on valproate strongly discourages its use in pregnant women. Moreover, although data on carbamazepine remain controversial, information on whole classes of drugs and single medications is either absent (second

  5. Sexual Dysfunction Due to Psychotropic Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Anita H; Alkis, Andrew R; Parikh, Nishant B; Votta, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    Sexual functioning is important to assess in patients with psychiatric illness as both the condition and associated treatment may contribute to sexual dysfunction (SD). Antidepressant medications, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antianxiety agents may be associated with SD related to drug mechanism of action. Sexual adverse effects may be related to genetic risk factors, impact on neurotransmitters and hormones, and psychological elements. Effective strategies to manage medication-induced sexual dysfunction are initial choice of a drug unlikely to cause SD, switching to a different medication, and adding an antidote to reverse SD. Appropriate interventions should be determined on a clinical case-by-case basis.

  6. Problems and Solutions of the Enforcement of Usage Regulation on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances in Medical Institutions%医疗卫生机构在执行《麻醉药品和精神药品管理条例》过程中存在的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢顶仁; 杨华萍; 朱腊荣; 张友干

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for the enforcement of Usage Regulation on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (called Regulation for short).METHODS:Problems about the implementation of Regulation in health department,between departments and in medical institutions as well as Regulation was listed after relevant checks,and the countermeasures and suggestions were put forward.RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:Some health departments didn't supervise the implementation of the Regulation that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances should be bought by special card.The communication of health department with drug administration,medical institution with drug administration,enterprise and user with departments of security was in shortage.The training and examination of doctors and narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances registration were inadequate in medical institutions,and there was no designated counter for the storage of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.The narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were not used according to the Guiding Principle of Clinical Use and didn' t meet the demands of patients; the maximum dosage of a prescription for narcotic drugs and psyehotropic substances was not up to the regulation of Department of Public Health.It is suggested to delete the provisions of "prohibition of opium" and "drug abuse" in the Regulation;preserve the authority of the policies; strengthen communication and cooperation; enhance the training of medical persons for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances,master the aim of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances; clear and defmite their management responsibilities; master the principle,method and caution of use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances; perfect the contents of individual items.%目的:为《麻醉药品和精神药品管理条例》(以下简称《条例》)的全面贯彻执行提供参考.方法:总结相关检查之后发现的卫生部门、部门之间、医疗机构及

  7. Advising adolescents on the use of psychotropic medication: attitudes among medical and psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitz Elisabeth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial problems about the use of psychotropic medication. Methods Two groups of healthcare students were recruited from universities in Eastern France. 41 fourth-year medical students (MS who had completed their psychiatry course, and 76 third-year psychology students (PS in the faculty of human sciences. Respondents completed a self-administered instrument (20 brief case studies, and a personality inventory at the end of a lecture. Participation was voluntary and unpaid. Results MS would recommend psychotropic drugs in 40% of the 20 cases, PS in 27%. MS who would prescribe psychotropic medication differed in personality profile from PS. MS with a tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration, and who did not see fulfilling moral obligations as important were more likely to prescribe psychotropic drugs. Also more likely to recommend psychotropic drugs, but for different reasons, were PS who were susceptible to stress but not shy or socially anxious, who showed friendliness but little interest in others, and who lacked distance in their decision-making. Conclusion Health promotion is not simply a matter of educating those young people who take psychotropic drugs – health professionals must also question the criteria that inform their decisions. It is as important to investigate the attitudes of the future health professionals (advisers or prescribers as it is to focus on consumer-related issues.

  8. Advising adolescents on the use of psychotropic medication: attitudes among medical and psychology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial problems about the use of psychotropic medication. Methods Two groups of healthcare students were recruited from universities in Eastern France. 41 fourth-year medical students (MS) who had completed their psychiatry course, and 76 third-year psychology students (PS) in the faculty of human sciences. Respondents completed a self-administered instrument (20 brief case studies, and a personality inventory) at the end of a lecture. Participation was voluntary and unpaid. Results MS would recommend psychotropic drugs in 40% of the 20 cases, PS in 27%. MS who would prescribe psychotropic medication differed in personality profile from PS. MS with a tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration, and who did not see fulfilling moral obligations as important were more likely to prescribe psychotropic drugs. Also more likely to recommend psychotropic drugs, but for different reasons, were PS who were susceptible to stress but not shy or socially anxious, who showed friendliness but little interest in others, and who lacked distance in their decision-making. Conclusion Health promotion is not simply a matter of educating those young people who take psychotropic drugs – health professionals must also question the criteria that inform their decisions. It is as important to investigate the attitudes of the future health professionals (advisers or prescribers) as it is to focus on consumer-related issues. PMID:17626618

  9. Psychotropic Medication Management for Youth in State Care: Consent, Oversight, and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Michael W.; Davidson, Christine V.; Ortega-Piron, D. Jean; Bass, Arin; Gutierrez, Alice; Hall, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medications in youth with emotional disturbances in state custody is increasing and presents unique challenges concerning consent and oversight. We examine various means that state child welfare agencies use to provide consent for and oversight of psychotropic medications for children in state custody and describe benefits…

  10. Psychotropic Medication Use for Youth in Residential Treatment: A Comparison between Youth with Monopharmacy versus Polypharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Annette K.; Huscroft-D'Angelo, Jacqueline; Epstein, Michael H.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Pick, Robert

    2010-01-01

    At the time of entry into residential treatment, many youth have prescriptions for one or more psychotropic medications. It is not well understood why some youth are prescribed only one psychotropic medication while others may be prescribed more. We sought to determine if differences existed between youth entering residential treatment with…

  11. Psychotropic medication use and polypharmacy in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Donna; Marshall, Jaclyn; Post, Brady; Kulakodlu, Mahesh; Newschaffer, Craig; Dennen, Taylor; Azocar, Francisca; Jain, Anjali

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine rates and predictors of psychotropic use and multiclass polypharmacy among commercially insured children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This retrospective observational study used administrative medical and pharmacy claims data linked with health plan enrollment and sociodemographic information from 2001 to 2009. Children with ASD were identified by using a validated ASD case algorithm. Psychotropic polypharmacy was defined as concurrent medication fills across ≥ 2 classes for at least 30 days. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model 5 categories of psychotropic use and multiclass polypharmacy. Among 33,565 children with ASD, 64% had a filled prescription for at least 1 psychotropic medication, 35% had evidence of psychotropic polypharmacy (≥ 2 classes), and 15% used medications from ≥ 3 classes concurrently. Among children with polypharmacy, the median length of polypharmacy was 346 days. Older children, those who had a psychiatrist visit, and those with evidence of co-occurring conditions (seizures, attention-deficit disorders, anxiety, bipolar disorder, or depression) had higher odds of psychotropic use and/or polypharmacy. Despite minimal evidence of the effectiveness or appropriateness of multidrug treatment of ASD, psychotropic medications are commonly used, singly and in combination, for ASD and its co-occurring conditions. Our results indicate the need to develop standards of care around the prescription of psychotropic medications to children with ASD.

  12. Parental attitudes toward the prescription of psychotropic medications for their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A Al-Haidar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore parental attitudes towards the prescription of psychotropic medication for their children. Method: A questionnaire built to collect socio-demographic data of parents and their attitudes was distributed among parents. Results: One thousand and ten questionnaires were filled by parents. Fathers who completed the questionnaire were double the number of mothers. Eight hundred and eighteen parents (84.3% agreed to the dispensing psychotropic medication to their children if necessary. About 83.5% preferred to start with psychotherapy before trying medication. Fathers are more than twice likely than mothers to agree to the use of psychotropic drugs. Older parents more easily agreed to give their children psychotropic drugs. Parents who used psychotropic drug themselves were more likely to agree to the use of psychotropic drug by their children. Having a child with a psychiatric illness is the most significant factor in making parents accede to giving children psychotropic medication. Other factors such as pressure from schools and the side effects of drugs could also modify decision of parents. Conclusion: Although most parents agreed to give their children psychotropic drugs if necessary, they preferred to start with psychotherapy sessions before giving them the drugs. Fear and worries about such issues as side effects of drugs or addiction should be considered. Pressure from school should also be considered when deciding on drug therapy.

  13. Romantic fantasies of madness and objections to psychotropic medication.

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    Tutter, Adele

    2009-06-01

    Many patients object to, and often refuse, psychotropic medications. The exploration-a "defense analysis"-of their objections brings attention to ubiquitous fantasies of madness, which may be feared and concealed as a source of shame, destruction, and loss, and also cherished and revered as a source of power, inspiration, and mystery. They are commonly illuminated when the prospect of taking medication threatens to expose, confirm, and defuse the fantasized hidden or latent madness. Conscious or unconscious, fantasies of madness can be deeply, appealingly romantic in nature, providing valuable narcissistic supplies while defending against their more humiliating and terrifying aspects. Drawing on personal dynamics, experiences, and identifications, they are thus ultimately and intimately linked to representations of the self. Significant romantic texts illustrate how split-off conceptualizations of madness function as an organizing repository for unacceptable and intolerable emotions, wishes, and impulses. Psychoanalysts may also object to the introduction of medication into an analytic treatment. The analyst's own fantasies around madness and medication may in some cases motivate enactments in which the talking cure is privileged and medication excluded from analytic treatment or from analytic process.

  14. Pediatric psychotropic medication initiation and adherence: a literature review based on social exchange theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Vanya; McCarthy, Erin M; Tyson, Veda

    2010-08-01

    Psychotropic medication initiation and adherence is an identified problem. This literature review explores factors that determine families' decisions to initiate, sustain, or discontinue use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents. Social exchange theory is used as a framework to explore decisions to initiate and adhere to psychotropic medications. Contributing factors related to psychotropic medication initiation, adherence, and discontinuation are explored. Themes in the literature encompassing costs and benefits of psychotropic medication adherence include family experiences with adverse effects, previous psychotropic medication experience, medication psychoeducation, stigma, societal views about psychotropic medication, particular diagnosis, the effect of comorbid diagnosis on adherence, attitudes and beliefs about medication by both children and parents, and relationships with the provider. The impact of family demographics including parent gender, age of the child, ethnicity, and parent educational level on psychotropic medication adherence is evaluated. International and U.S. studies from Medline, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsychInfo evaluating medication initiation and adherence in the pediatric psychiatric population and social exchange theory was incorporated from relevant textbook resources. Rewards experienced from medication treatment include improvement in symptoms, school performance and family relationships, and reduced level of parenting stress. Identified costs include impact of adverse side effects, social stigma, lack of response, fears of addiction, and changing the child's personality. Acceptance of the diagnosis influences adherence while medication education has varying effects. Families' attitudes, beliefs and perceptions about psychiatric illness and treatment play a large role in medication treatment decisions. A trusting provider relationship has a positive effect on adherence

  15. Workplace bullying and subsequent psychotropic medication: a cohort study with register linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Haukka, Jari; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine longitudinally whether workplace bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication among women and men. Design A cohort study. Setting Helsinki, Finland. Participants Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=6606, 80% women), 40–60 years at baseline in 2000–2002, and a register-based follow-up on medication. Primary and secondary outcome measures Workplace bullying comprised questions about current and earlier bullying as well as observing bullying. The Finnish Social Insurance Institution's register data on purchases of prescribed reimbursed psychotropic medication were linked with the survey data. All psychotropic medication 3 years prior to and 5 years after the baseline survey was included. Covariates included age, prior psychotropic medication, childhood bullying, occupational class, and body mass index. Cox proportional hazard models (HR, 95% CI) were fitted and days until the first purchase of prescribed psychotropic medication after baseline were used as the time axis. Results Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication after adjusting for age and prior medication among both women (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.93) and men (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.41). Also observing bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication among women (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.88) and men (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.99). The associations only modestly attenuated after full adjustment. Conclusions Our findings highlight the significance of workplace bullying to subsequent psychotropic medication reflecting medically confirmed mental problems. Tackling workplace bullying likely helps prevent mental problems among employees. PMID:23242240

  16. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  17. No Difference in Psychotropic Medication Use in Cosmetic and General Dermatology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heather K; Lilly, Evelyn; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2016-07-01

    Patients presenting for appearance-related concerns are often perceived as being more difficult (ie, more needy, more difficult to satisfy) than patients presenting for medical dermatologic problems. While the reasons for this perception are many, some hypothesize that this may be related to a higher rate of anxiety, depression, or body image issues among these patients. To determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication use in cosmetic dermatology patients compared to the prevalence of such medication use in general dermatology patients. METHODS & The study was a retrospective chart review of female patients, 18 or older, new to a private practice. Exclusion criteria included dermatologic disorders with known psychosocial comorbidity. Psychotropic medication use was recorded. The percentage of subjects in the medical group (n=156) who reported using psychotropic medications was 22.2% compared to 26.8% in the cosmetic group (n=154; P=0.09). The prevalence of psychotropic medication use among all dermatology patients in our practice was relatively high, but there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of psychotropic medication use in cosmetic dermatology patients compared to general dermatology patients. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):858-861.

  18. Psychiatric disorders, psychotropic medication use and falls among women: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychotropic agents known to cause sedation are associated with an increased risk of falls, but the role of psychiatric illness as an independent risk factor for falls is not clear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders, psychotropic medication use and falls risk. Methods This study examined data collected from 1062 women aged 20-93 yr (median 50 yr) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, a large, ongoing, population-based stu...

  19. Use of psychotropic medications by caregivers of elderly patients with dementia: is this a sign of caregiver burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einstein Francisco Camargos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the consumption of psychotropic medications by caregivers of elderly patients with or without dementia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at all geriatric units in Brasília, Brazil, during a two-month period. Structured interviews were performed with 311 caregivers of people with or without dementia and they completed questionnaires. Among the caregivers, 196 (63% were caregivers of patients with dementia and 115 (37% were caregivers of patients without dementia. Forty-four caregivers (14.1% were taking psychotropic drugs (benzodiazepines or antidepressants, and this usage was more frequent among caregivers of patients with dementia (p<0.01. Twenty-two caregivers of patients with dementia (11.4% had used sleeping pills after beginning care, compared with only five (4.3% caregivers of patients without dementia (p<0.01. In conclusion, this study found that caregivers of patients with dementia took psychotropic drugs (benzodiazepines and antidepressants more frequently than the ones of patients without dementia.

  20. Pharmacogenomic Testing for Psychotropic Medication Selection: A Systematic Review of the Assurex GeneSight Psychotropic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Stacey; Holubowich, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background A large proportion of the Ontario population lives with a diagnosed mental illness. Nearly 5% of Ontarians have major depressive disorder, and another 5% have another type of depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, or some other disorder not otherwise specified. Medications are commonly used to treat mental illness, but choosing the right medication for each patient is challenging, and more than 40% of patients discontinue their medication within 90 days because of adverse effects or lack of response. The Assurex GeneSight Psychotropic test is a pharmacogenomic panel that provides clinicians with a report to guide medication selection that is unique to each patient based on their individual genetic profile. However, it is uncertain whether guided treatment using GeneSight is effective compared with unguided treatment (usual care). Methods We performed a systematic review to identify English-language studies published before February 22, 2016, that compared GeneSight-guided care and usual care among people with mood disorders, anxiety, or schizophrenia. Primary outcomes of interest were prevention of suicide, remission of depression symptoms, response to depression therapy, depression score, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes of interest were impact on therapeutic decisions and patient and clinician satisfaction. Risk of bias was evaluated, and the quality of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group criteria. Results Four studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies used a version of GeneSight that included the CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, SLC6A4, and HTR2A genes; one of the studies also included CYP2C9. Patients who received the GeneSight test to guide psychotropic medication selection had improved response to depression treatment, greater improvements in measures of depression, and greater patient and clinician satisfaction compared with

  1. Marriage and Family Therapists and Psychotropic Medications: Practice Patterns from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Barbara Couden; Doherty, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A national sample of marriage and family therapists (MFTs) was used to describe practice patterns of MFTs whose clients use psychotropics and to compare medicated and nonmedicated clients. Marriage and Family Therapists (n = 283) reported on 195 medicated and 483 nonmedicated adult clients. Clients (n = 375) rated their improvement and…

  2. Psychotropic Medication Use among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Enrolled in a National Registry, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Rebecca E.; Mandell, David S.; Farmer, Janet E.; Law, J. Kiely; Marvin, Alison R.; Law, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of current psychotropic medication use among 5,181 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enrolled in a Web-based registry were examined. Overall, 35% used at least one psychotropic medication, most commonly stimulants, neuroleptics, and/or antidepressants. Those who were uninsured or exclusively privately insured were less likely…

  3. Age-related trends in psychotropic medication use among very young children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dosReis, Susan; Tai, Ming-Hui; Goffman, David; Lynch, Sean E; Reeves, Gloria; Shaw, Terry

    2014-12-01

    The specific objectives were to investigate changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use for each year increase in age from three to six years old among children in foster care and to examine time-varying odds of longer duration of use by each year of age. A retrospective analysis of data on mental health and pharmacy services was conducted for 1,491 children age six and younger who were in foster care in 2010 and had at least 365 days in foster care during 2009-2011. A total of 178 children received at least one psychotropic medication from 2009 through 2011. Psychotropic prevalence and average days of use were calculated for each therapeutic class. Longitudinal regression models assessed the time-varying relationship between year of age and duration of use, controlling for demographic and clinical covariates. Approximately 12% of children age six and younger in foster care for 365 days or more received at least one psychotropic medication over the three-year study period. Prevalence of ADHD medication and antipsychotic medication and duration increased with each year of age (pchildren who initiated antipsychotic and ADHD medications before the age of six continued to receive them for longer periods of time. There is a critical need for long-term studies to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure on children's health and well-being.

  4. Psychotropic medication use among nursing home residents in Austria: a cross-sectional study

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    Pitkälä Kaisu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of psychotropic medications and their adverse effects in frail elderly has been debated extensively. However, recent data from European studies show that these drugs are still frequently prescribed in nursing home residents. In Austria, prevalence data are lacking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication prescription in Austrian nursing homes and to explore characteristics associated with their prescription. Methods Cross-sectional study and association analysis in forty-eight out of 50 nursing homes with 1844 out of a total of 2005 residents in a defined urban-rural region in Austria. Prescribed medication was retrieved from residents' charts. Psychotropic medications were coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification 2005. Cluster-adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate institutional and residents' characteristics associated with prescription. Results Residents' mean age was 81; 73% of residents were female. Mean cluster-adjusted prevalence of residents with at least one psychotropic medication was 74.6% (95% confidence interval, CI, 72.0–77.2. A total of 45.9% (95% CI 42.7–49.1 had at least one prescription of an antipsychotic medication. Two third of all antipsychotic medications were prescribed for bedtime use only. Anxiolytics were prescribed in 22.2% (95% CI 20.0–24.5, hypnotics in 13.3% (95% CI 11.3–15.4, and antidepressants in 36.8% (95% CI 34.1–39.6 of residents. None of the institutional characteristics and only few residents' characteristics were significantly associated with psychotropic medication prescription. Permanent restlessness was positively associated with psychotropic medication prescription (AOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32–1.79 whereas cognitive impairment was inversely associated (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56–0.88. Conclusion Frequency of psychotropic medication prescription is high in Austrian nursing homes

  5. Psychotropic Medication Consultation in Schools: An Ethical and Legal Dilemma for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…

  6. Effect of humour therapy on psychotropic medication use in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Jerome By; Pont, Lisa; Low, Lee-Fay

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Play Up humour therapy on antipsychotic, benzodiazepine and antidepressant use in Australian nursing homes. Play Up is a humour therapy program that has been implemented in Australian nursing homes. This study was an uncontrolled retrospective review of psychotropic medication charts of 406 residents in thirty-three nursing homes before and after 12 weeks of participation in Play Up. Prevalence and mean daily equivalent doses of psychotropic medication use were analysed. There were significant reductions from before to after the Play Up program in the prevalence of any psychotropic medication use, antipsychotic use and benzodiazepine use (P = 0.001, 0.02, 0.007, respectively). Mean daily dose equivalents of pro re nata (PRN) antipsychotics and PRN benzodiazepines significantly reduced over time (P = 0.007; P = 0.001). Play Up was associated with an overall decline in the use of psychotropic medications. Further trials are required to confirm and better define this association. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  7. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents, and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past-year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey--Adolescent Supplement (2002-2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to…

  8. Psychotropic Medication Use among Children in the Child Welfare System. Issue Brief No. 59, Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Mattingly, Marybeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that children in the child welfare system are given psychotropic medication at rates approximately three times higher than children and adolescents in the general population. Using data from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, authors Wendy Walsh and Marybeth Mattingly report that among…

  9. Psychotropic Medication Trends among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Medicaid Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Jane R.; Camacho, Fabian; Leslie, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized psychotropic medication use among Medicaid-enrolled children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders by examining trends over time, including length of treatment and polypharmacy using 4 years of administrative claims data from 41 state Medicaid programs (2000-2003). The data set included nearly 3 million children…

  10. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents, and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past-year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey--Adolescent Supplement (2002-2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to…

  11. Psychotropic medications, including short acting benzodiazepines, strongly increase the frequency of falls in elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, Astrid M.; Koek, Huiberdina L.; van Marum, Rob J.; Emmelot-Vonk, Marielle H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Falls in the elderly are common and often serious. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of different classes of psychotropic medications, especially short acting benzodiazepines, and the frequency of falling in elderly. Study design This retrospective coho

  12. Increased all-cause mortality with psychotropic medication in Parkinson's disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Baandrup, Lone; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    ) and a matched group without PD. METHOD: We identified 5861 PD patients and 31,395 control subjects matched by age, gender and marital status, and obtained register data on medication use and vital status between 1997 and 2007. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was significantly higher with the use of most groups......AIM: Use of medication and polypharmacy is common as the population ages and its disease burden increases. We evaluated the association of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and combinations of psychotropic drugs with all-cause mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD...... of psychotropic medication in PD patients and controls. Hazard ratios were as follows for the medication types: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, PD HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04-1.36; Control HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.64-1.91; benzodiazepines, PD HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0...

  13. Sexual dysfunction among females receiving psychotropic medication: A hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veda N Shetageri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD is a known adverse effect of psychotropic medications. Even though sexual difficulties are common among women; very few studies have been carried out in India. Objective: To study the prevalence and nature of SD among females receiving psychotropic medications and to compare the SD among female patients receiving antipsychotics and antidepressants. Materials and Methods: Female investigator conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study on female patients visiting the psychiatry outpatient department. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for SD disorder as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Text Revision. SD severity was measured using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI scale. Results: The prevalence of SD in this study was 68.32%. There was more than one SD in 48 (47.52%. FSFI score was significantly low in patients with SD as compared to patients not having SD (P = 0.001. SD was more common in patients who were on combination of antidepressants and benzodiazepines than antidepressant alone or antipsychotic alone. Conclusion: SD was prevalent in more than 50% of female patients on psychotropic drugs. Number of patients on individual psychotropic drugs was so small that a definite conclusion could not be drawn. Study emphasizes the need to carry out similar study on larger number of patients to get better insight into this problem.

  14. Psychotropic Medication Prescription Practices and Use and Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    disorders; (“on-” and “off-label”) side effects; misuse; polypharmacy (multiple medications taken simultaneously including CAM products); and potential...psychotropic medications may be appropriate in select individuals. If evidence-based and appropriately administered, polypharmacy (meaning in this document...MHS data systems do not comprehensively detect polypharmacy , adverse drug-drug interactions, or potential for abuse, particularly in theater. In

  15. Patterns of Psychotropic Medication Prescriptions by Psychiatrists for Private Clinic Outpatients in Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Sabahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern and utilisation of psychotropic drug prescriptions by psychiatrists in Kerman Province, Iran. Methods: The prescriptions of 27 psychiatrists were randomly selected from two Iranian public insurance organisations and were analysed for the mean number of drugs/prescriptions, drug category and the most frequently prescribed drug in each category as well as overall. Results: A total of 6,414 prescriptions were analysed. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 2.9. Antidepressants (61.0% were the most frequently prescribed category of psychotropic medications, followed by antipsychotics (29.5%, sedative/hypnotics or anti-anxiety drugs (27.5% and mood stabilisers (18.5%. The combination of antidepressants with antipsychotics was the most commonly prescribed combination (18.8%. Fluoxetine (16.5% and trifluoperazine (13.5% were among the most frequently prescribed antidepressants and antipsychotics, respectively. Clonazepam (10.5% was the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepine agent, followed by alprazolam (8.5%. In terms of total drug utilisation, sertraline (12.4% was the most commonly used psychotropic medication followed by fluoxetine (9.7%, trifluoperazine (6.6%, propranolol (4.5% and clonazepam (3.7%. Conclusion: A high proportion of psychotropic prescriptions in Kerman Province were for antidepressants, followed by antipsychotics and the benzodiazepines. Further research is needed to determine the underlying correlation between prescription practice and the diagnosis and patient characteristics, as well as to investigate the use of different psychotropic medications.

  16. Risk of arrhythmia induced by psychotropic medications: a proposal for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanoe, Søren; Kristensen, Diana; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf; Toft, Egon; Nielsen, Jimmi; Videbech, Poul; Pehrson, Steen; Bundgaard, Henning

    2014-05-21

    Several drugs used in the treatment of mental diseases are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). A general cause-relationship between the intake of these drugs and SCD is unattainable, but numerous case reports of drug-induced malignant arrhythmia and epidemiological studies, associating the use of specific drugs with SCD, strongly support the presence of an increased risk. Whereas the absolute risk of drug-induced life-threatening arrhythmia may be relatively low, even small increments in risk of SCD may have a major health impact considering that millions of patients are treated with psychotropics. In subgroups of pre-disposed patients, e.g. patients with cardiac diseases or other co-morbidities, the elderly or patients treated with other negatively interacting drugs, the absolute risk of drug-induced arrhythmia may be considerable. On the other hand, several of the major mental disorders are associated with a large risk of suicide if untreated. The observed risk of malignant arrhythmia associated with treatment with psychotropic drugs calls for clinical guidelines integrating the risk of the individual drug and other potentially interacting risk factors. In this review, data from various authorities on the risk of arrhythmia associated with psychotropic medications were weighted and categorized into three risk categories. Additionally, we suggest a clinically applicable algorithm to reduce the risk of malignant arrhythmia in patients to be treated with psychotropic medications. The algorithm integrates the risk categories of the individual drugs and pre-disposing risk factors and suggests a prudent follow-up for patients with an increased risk. We believe this clinically manageable guideline might improve safety in the many and rapidly increasing number of patients on psychotropic drugs.

  17. Psychotropic and Anticonvulsant Drug Usage in Early Childhood Special Education Programs I. Phase One: A Preliminary Report: Prevalence, Attitude, Training, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    As part of a three phase study designed to survey the teachers and parents of children receiving psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs, 208 teachers of preschool special education children on medication were mailed questionnaires. The Early Childhood Medication Questionnaire used in the survey included items relating to teacher, program, and…

  18. Music therapy for reducing agitation and psychotropic medication in nursing home residents with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a neurocognitive disease with a high risk of social isolation and agitation due to loss of cognitive functions. In nursing home residents with dementia, agitation is the most significant symptom causing patient distress and care- giver burden. Agitation is described as abuse or aggres...... without first trying the efficacy of psychosocial interventions. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of research on the effectiveness of music therapy on agitation and psychotropic medication....

  19. Psychotropic medication in a randomly selected group of citizens receiving residential or home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Helnæs, Ann Kathrine; Schultz, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with one or more psychotropic medications (PMs), especially in the elderly, is associated with risk, and the effects of treatment are poorly validated. The aim of this article was to describe the use of PM in a population of citizens receiving either residential care or home...... care with focus on the prevalence of drug use, the combination of different PMs and doses in relation to current recommendations. METHODS: The medication lists of 214 citizens receiving residential care (122) and home care (92) were collected together with information on age, gender and residential...... number 2007-58-0015....

  20. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Björkenstam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. METHODS: This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5 and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2. The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  1. Psychotropic medication from an object relations theory perspective: an analysis of vignettes from group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Dana Shindel; Sharon, Amos; Moscovici, Lucian; Schreiber, Shaul

    2008-07-01

    In this article we explore the content and dynamics of patients' verbalizations within a "living with medications" group. Patients' perceptions of their psychotropic medications are interpreted and classified within the framework of object relations theory. One's perception of the role of medication in one's life can serve as a gateway to one's inner world and the way that he or she perceives authority figures, peers, and oneself. We suggest that working through patients' relationships with their medications can help them to achieve better integration of internal object relations. Discussing patients' views about medications should therefore be seen as an important part of psychotherapy with many individuals. Such a discussion may enhance and improve efficacy of both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. It is of particular importance in group therapy, within milieu environments and with individuals reluctant to explicitly discuss interpersonal matters. Vignettes from the group sessions illustrate the way in which discussing medication advances group process.

  2. Psychotropic medication exposure and age at onset of bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kiki D; Saxena, Kirti; Howe, Meghan; Simeonova, Diana

    2010-02-01

    Exposure to psychotropic medications before the onset of bipolar disorder (BD) in children may have profound effects on the course of illness. Both antidepressant and stimulant exposure have been proposed to hasten the course of BD development, whereas mood stabilizers have been proposed as protective. We sought to describe psychotropic medication exposure in a cohort of children at risk for BD and retrospectively determine the effect of medication exposure on age at onset (AAO) of BD. Subjects were 106 children and adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD. Of these, 63 had BD I or BD II and 43 had subsyndromal symptoms of BD. AAO was determined as nearest month of first manic or hypomanic episode. Past psychotropic medication exposure prior to AAO was determined through interview and chart review. Both groups had high rates of exposure to psychotropic medications. Antidepressant or stimulant exposure was not correlated with an earlier AAO of BD. However, mood stabilizer exposure was associated with a later AAO. Children with full or subsyndromal BD are frequently exposed to a variety of psychotropic medications before their first manic episode. Our findings do not support that early stimulant or antidepressant exposure leads to an earlier AAO of BD. However, early mood stabilizer exposure may be associated with delayed AAO. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify these results.

  3. Patterns of psychotropic medication use in inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alosaimi FD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Abdulhadi Alhabbad,2 Mohammed F Abalhassan,3 Ebtihaj O Fallata,4 Nasser M Alzain,5 Mohammad Zayed Alassiry,6 Bander Abdullah Haddad71Department of Psychiatry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Prince Mohammed Medical City, Aljouf, 3Department of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 4Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Hospital, Jeddah, 5Department of Psychiatry, Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, 6Medical Services Department, Abha Psychiatric Hospital, Abha, 7Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To study the pattern of psychotropic medication use and compare this pattern between inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia.Method: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between July 2012 and June 2014 on patients seeking psychiatric advice at major hospitals in five main regions of Saudi Arabia. Male (n=651 and female (n=594 patients who signed the informed consent form and were currently or had been previously using psychotropic medications, irrespective of the patient’s type of psychiatric diagnosis and duration of the disease, were included. A total of 1,246 patients were found to be suitable in the inclusion criteria of whom 464 were inpatients while 782 were outpatients.Results: Several studied demographic factors have shown that compared with outpatients, inpatients were more likely to be male (P=0.004, unmarried (P<0.001, have less number of children (1–3; P=0.002, unemployed (P=0.001, have a lower family income (<3,000 SR; P<0.001, live in rural communities (P<0.001, have a lower body mass index (P=0.001, and are smokers (P<0.001; however, there were no differences with regard to age or educational levels. The current frequency of use of psychotropic medications in overall patients was antipsychotics (76.6%, antidepressants (41.4%, mood stabilizers

  4. Somatic complications of psychotropic medications in a patient with multiple CYP2 drug metabolism deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Blair, C Lee; Bower, Bruce; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Aleman, Yaraliz; Pearlson, Godfrey; Goethe, John W; Schwartz, Harold I

    2007-04-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented with severe anxiety, multiple somatic complaints, medication intolerance and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to numerous prescribed psychotropic medications. Multiple drug metabolizing deficiencies were suspected. Molecular analysis was performed for the CYP2 family of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug metabolism isoenzymes by DNA typing CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 genes. A multiple deficiency in CYP2 drug metabolism was discovered. The patient was a double carrier of null alleles for CYP2D6, a carrier of a null allele for CYP2C19 and a carrier of a deficient allele for CYP2C9. These alleles were confirmed by Mendelian inheritance in her nuclear family, where her brother had a similar multigene CYP2 deficiency. The patient improved clinically with discontinuation of psychotropic medications, suggesting that much of her symptomatology was drug-induced. DNA typing for multigene CYP2 deficiencies is diagnostically useful in individuals with histories of multiple ADRs, which could be avoided by DNA-guided individualized prescription.

  5. Using Analogue Functional Analysis to Measure Variations in Problem Behavior Rate and Function after Psychotropic Medication Changes: A Clinical Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Nelson, Samantha M.; Kuhle, Jennifer L.; Dierks, Abigail M.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities are often prescribed psychotropic medication to treat behaviors such as aggression and self-injury. Evaluation of these medications is often based on caregiver report or changes in frequency of behavior. The purpose of this research was to characterize the rate and function of problem…

  6. Psychotropic Medication Prescribing in Iraq/Afghanistan Veterans and Vietnam Era Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvoda, Dolores; Stefanovics, Elina A; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2017-09-26

    A new generation of veterans from Iraq/Afghanistan wars is seeking psychotropic pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from the Veterans Health Administration, but little is known about differences in prescribing practices between this group and Vietnam era veterans with the same diagnosis. The Veterans Health Administration administrative data for fiscal year 2012 were used to compare prescribing for 155,631 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans and for 327,634 Vietnam era veterans diagnosed with PTSD. The proportion of veterans who were prescribed psychotropic medications (altogether and within five of seven medication classes) were not substantially different between veteran groups. Iraq/Afghanistan veterans were more frequently prescribed prazosin (p < 0.0001, relative risk = 1.51). However, the number of prescriptions for anxiolytics/sedatives/hypnotics as well as prazosin and opiates filled by this younger group was lower by a small magnitude (Cohen's d < 0.2). Iraq/Afghanistan veterans have good access to psychopharmacological treatment for PTSD but fill somewhat fewer prescriptions than Vietnam era veterans.

  7. Adjunctive psychotropic medications during electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depression, mania, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Roger F; Loo, Colleen

    2010-09-01

    Current guidelines regarding concomitant antidepressants during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are inconsistent. Although the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on ECT discouraged combination antidepressant treatment, owing to the minimal evidence for enhanced efficacy and concern about increased adverse effects, combination treatment is recommended and considered routine for many practitioners in the United States and other parts of the world. Considering the increasing levels of treatment resistance among patients referred for ECT and the high relapse rate after acute ECT, the role of concomitant antidepressant pharmacotherapy during ECT should be reevaluated. More research, however, is needed to explore the impact of administering specific antidepressants during acute and maintenance ECT (M-ECT), on antidepressant efficacy and cognitive adverse effects. This will require appropriately controlled studies of ECT medication combinations that include attention to a range of cognitive function measures and clinical response. In addition, the role of combination ECT and psychotropic medication in the treatment of mania and schizophrenia continues to receive attention, particularly in those patients who have shown inadequate responses to psychotropic medication alone. Although there is insufficient evidence to support the routine addition of antipsychotic medications to ECT during the treatment of acute mania, the literature suggests that it is unnecessary to discontinue antipsychotic medication when ECT is added to the treatment of a manic patient that has been unresponsive to pharmacological treatment. Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, the existing literature suggests that combination ECT and antipsychotic treatment is a useful option for patients with schizophrenia who are unresponsive to pharmacological interventions alone, and its adverse effect profile does not seem different from that seen with ECT alone.

  8. BAP Position Statement: Off-label prescribing of psychotropic medication to children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya N; Arango, Celso; Coghill, David; Gringras, Paul; Nutt, David J; Pratt, Peter; Young, Allan H; Hollis, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The off-label use of medicines for children and adolescents remains a common and important issue for prescribing practice across child and adolescent psychiatry, paediatrics and primary care. This editorial focusses on psychotropic drug treatment, which plays an essential part in the comprehensive management of a range of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Despite a growing evidence base for drug treatment in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, much psychotropic medication continues to be prescribed off-label (i.e. outside the limits of the marketing authorisation or product license). The reasons for and implications of off-label prescribing, including the potential clinical benefits/risks and medico-legal implications, are often poorly understood by both patients and prescribers. An important unintended consequence of the uncertainties and confusion surrounding the status of off-label prescribing for children and adolescents may be that effective drug treatments are being withheld or underused. This BAP Position Statement aims to clarify these issues, challenge some of the myths surrounding off-label prescribing for children and adolescents and offer practical guidance for prescribers.

  9. Psychotropic Medications in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Synthesis for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Matthew; Beaulieu, Amy A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review, rating and synthesis of the empirical evidence for the use of psychotropic medications in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty-three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion and were coded and analyzed using a systematic evaluative…

  10. Use of psychotropic medication among inpatients during focused efforts in prevention of coercion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Høgh, Lene; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    and reduced life expectancy. The aim of this study is therefore to quantify the use of psychotropic medication when implementing interventions to reduce coercion and restraint. Methods: Cohort study on patients in risk of agitation and coercion in a psychiatric ward operating without physical restraint......Objective: Department of Psychiatry in Aabenraa participates in a national Danish project supporting efforts to reduce coercion and restraint in psychiatry. Antipsychotic and anxiolytic medicine is widely used among agitated patients, but is also known to contribute to cardio-vascular disease...... the project period. Results: Data collection is carried out during autumn of 2016 and preliminary results will be presented at the meeting in Gothenburg. Conclusions: Data from this study will provide new information to the evaluation of initiatives towards reduction of restraint in psychiatry. It will also...

  11. Use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy: perception of teratogenic risk among physicians in two Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Cantilino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pregnant women and their health care professionals commonly believe that use of medications during pregnancy may be harmful to the unborn fetus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk perception of psychotropic drug use in pregnancy among physicians in different medical specialties. Method: This was a convenience survey conducted at outpatient clinics in the cities of Recife, Brazil, and La Plata, Bahía Blanca, and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Physicians who agreed to participate were asked to rate their perception of teratogenic risk among different classes of drugs, which included antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and benzodiazepines. Results: Two hundred and thirty-eight physicians completed the survey (response rate, 98%. These included psychiatrists, obstetricians, neurologists, cardiologists, gastroenterologists, and general practitioners. Among different specialties, a minority of psychiatrists perceived psychotropic drugs to be highly teratogenic (antidepressants, 12.5%; antipsychotics, 15%; benzodiazepines, 25% as compared with other specialties (p < 0.003 for each drug class. There was no difference in perceived risk of antiepileptic drugs among specialties, including psychiatrists. Conclusion: The risk associated with use of psychotropic drugs in pregnancy was overestimated by physicians of all medical specialties, except psychiatry. All physicians should be aware of the safety/risk of psychotropic agents in pregnancy, as they may be required to give advice and/or prescribe these drugs to pregnant women.

  12. Psychiatric illness presenting with a sexual complaint and management by psychotropic medications: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychman, Michael; Carter, Jeanne; Amsterdam, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Sexual medicine healthcare professionals, who do not normally examine men and women with psychiatric disorders, need to be aware that those with psychiatric disorders can and do present with sexual medicine problems. In particular, psychiatric individuals may present with a variety of delusions including those that have sexual content or sexual implications. The rare disorder of reverse delusional misidentification syndrome may be encountered in schizophrenic patients and may be best managed by the combined team effort of a sexual medicine specialist and psychiatrist. To report a case study that reiterates the assessment and sexual medicine management of a female with sexual dysfunction who believed she was transforming into a male. Case report of a woman who attended an outpatient clinic in an academic medical center. A 60-year-old woman with a history of paranoid schizophrenia presented to a gynecologist for ovarian cancer screening. Evaluation revealed complaints that the patient's ovaries were testes that produced sperm and her clitoris was a penis capable of erection and ejaculation. Gynecological examination revealed only atrophic vaginitis. The patient was treated with local minimally absorbed vaginal estrogens and referred for psychological assessment and counseling. Psychotropic medication compliance was encouraged, weekly psychotherapy was continued, and delusional symptoms were minimized. Sexual medicine healthcare providers should be prepared to manage sex health concerns of men and women with psychiatric disorders, including delusional misidentification syndrome, in conjunction with a psychiatrist.

  13. Unemployment and initiation of psychotropic medication: a case-crossover study of 2 348 552 Norwegian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Silje L; Pape, Kristine; Ose, Solveig O; Gunnell, David; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2016-11-01

    The study investigated initiation of psychotropic medication in relation to unemployment in the months before, during and after job loss, to detect the period of greatest risk. The Norwegian working population in 2004 (N=2 348 552) was observed from 2005 to 2010 through administrative registries linked to the Norwegian Prescription Database. A case-crossover design was used to analyse within-person relative risk of incident purchases of prescribed psychotropic drugs in relation to timing of unemployment. Control periods were defined 12, 24 and 36 months before the drug purchase. Supplementary analyses were performed on medication for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, thyroid disorder, pain and musculoskeletal conditions. Purchases of all psychotropic drugs increased 1-3 months before job loss. Antidepressants had the highest estimate in the month before job loss (OR 2.68, 95% CIs 2.39 to 3.01), followed by hypnotics/sedatives (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.97 to 2.48), anxiolytics (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.91 to 2.48) and antipsychotics (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.76 to 2.48). Rises were greatest in men. Risk of starting psychotropic medication remained raised during a spell of unemployment, but returned to close-to-baseline levels following re-employment. Drugs used to treat somatic and pain conditions showed similar trends but with weaker associations. Concerns about impending unemployment may influence mental health several months prior to job loss, especially around the time of notification. The clinical implications of this might be a strengthening of preventive health initiatives early in the unemployment process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Risk of recurrent overdose associated with prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after nonfatal overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to estimate risk of recurrent overdose associated with psychosocial assessment by psychiatrists during hospitalization for nonfatal overdose and prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after discharge. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a nationwide claims database in Japan. We classified patients aged 19–64 years hospitalized for nonfatal overdose between October 2012 and September 2013 into two cohorts: 1) those who had consulted a psychiatrist prior to overdose (n=6,790) and 2) those who had not (n=4,950). All patients were followed up from 90 days before overdose until 365 days after discharge. Results Overall, 15.3% of patients with recent psychiatric treatment had a recurrent overdose within 365 days, compared with 6.0% of those without psychiatric treatment. Psychosocial assessment during hospital admission had no significant effect on subsequent overdose, irrespective of treatment by psychiatrists before overdose. There was a dose–response relationship for the association of benzodiazepine prescription after overdose with subsequent overdose in either cohort, even after accounting for average daily dosage of benzodiazepines before overdose and other confounders. In patients with recent psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at 365 days was 27.7% for patients receiving excessive dosages of benzodiazepines, 22.0% for those receiving high dosages, 15.3% for those receiving normal dosages, and 7.6% for those receiving no benzodiazepines. In patients without psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at 365 days was 24.3% for patients receiving excessive dosages of benzodiazepines, 18.0% for those receiving high dosages, 9.0% for those receiving normal dosages, and 4.1% for those receiving no benzodiazepines. Conclusion Lower dose of benzodiazepines after overdose is associated with lower risk of subsequent overdose. PMID:28293108

  15. AIDS-related Knowledge, Condom Usage Among Medical Postgraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge about safety/unsafty of sexual acts relating to HIV transmission, levels of embarrassment related to condom and condom usage among medical postgraduates. Methods From August to December, 1998, a self-administered anonymous questionnaire was given to 271 new medical postgraduates from two medical colleges of Beijing and Hebei Province. Results There was a hazy understanding of the protective function of condom from AIDS among medical postgraduates. Only 14.4% medical postgraduates persisted in using condom, and 27.94% had never or almost never used it. The levels of embarrassment about condom were high. The median score was 3.55+0.98. Whether to use condom was related with the attitudes to condom, but not to AIDS. Conclusion There was some misunderstanding about condom and inconsistent condom usage in medical postgraduates. So it is essential to strengthen the sexual health education among them.

  16. Medical foods: guidelines for development and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognition and management of a change in nutritional requirements associated with disease is an integral part of the medical management. The nutritional needs associated with a disease reflect the amount needed in health to support life, adjusted for the distinctive changes in the nutritional needs...

  17. Psychotropic and Anticonvulsant Drug Usage in Early Childhood Special Education Programs III. A Preliminary Report: Parent Interviews about Drug Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    Interviewed were 115 parents of children receiving medication for hyperactivity, convulsive disorders, or other reasons. Parents received a Children's Medication Chart (CMC) which contained life size pictures of 69 different products to aid parents in identifying medication. The telephone interview covered such aspects as frequency of…

  18. Risk of recurrent overdose associated with prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after nonfatal overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyuki Okumura,1 Daisuke Nishi21Research Department, Institute for Health Economics and Policy, Association for Health Economics Research and Social Insurance and Welfare, Tokyo, 2Department of Mental Health Policy and Evaluation, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, JapanObjective: We aimed to estimate risk of recurrent overdose associated with psychosocial assessment by psychiatrists during hospitalization for nonfatal overdose and prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after discharge. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a nationwide claims database in Japan. We classified patients aged 19–64 years hospitalized for nonfatal overdose between October 2012 and September 2013 into two cohorts: 1 those who had consulted a psychiatrist prior to overdose (n=6,790 and 2 those who had not (n=4,950. All patients were followed up from 90 days before overdose until 365 days after discharge. Results: Overall, 15.3% of patients with recent psychiatric treatment had a recurrent overdose within 365 days, compared with 6.0% of those without psychiatric treatment. Psychosocial assessment during hospital admission had no significant effect on subsequent overdose, irrespective of treatment by psychiatrists before overdose. There was a dose–response relationship for the association of benzodiazepine prescription after overdose with subsequent overdose in either cohort, even after accounting for average daily dosage of benzodiazepines before overdose and other confounders. In patients with recent psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at 365 days was 27.7% for patients receiving excessive dosages of benzodiazepines, 22.0% for those receiving high dosages, 15.3% for those receiving normal dosages, and 7.6% for those receiving no benzodiazepines. In patients without psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at

  19. Usage of pioglitazone at Medanta, the Medicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Mithal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pioglitazone improves glycemic control by acting as an insulin sensitizer and is used in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone has recently been at the center of a controversy with regards to its safety. There is no clear consensus on how, when and in what dose the drug should be used in the management of diabetes. We have summarized our strategy on pioglitazone use in Type 2 diabetes in a large private tertiary care center - Medanta, the Medicity- which may help in generating further thought about positioning of this anti-diabetic molecule. We use pioglitazone as the fourth in the pecking order of oral anti-diabetic agents. We typically use pioglitazone in a dose of 15 mg/day. We avoid using pioglitazone with insulin. We do not use pioglitazone under following situations: In the presence of significant or proven cardiac disease, in patients who are struggling with their weight or need to lose weight, in patients at high risk for osteoporotic fractures, in patients with macular edema, in patients with pre-existing bladder cancer and would discontinue in case hematuria or any other symptom of bladder cancer develops. We continue to use the drug in patients well controlled on it without any evident side-effects or contraindications.

  20. Usage of pioglitazone at Medanta, the Medicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithal, Ambrish; Kaur, Parjeet; Bansal, Beena; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Wasir, Jasjeet S; Jevalikar, Ganesh; Mahendru, Shama

    2014-01-01

    Pioglitazone improves glycemic control by acting as an insulin sensitizer and is used in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone has recently been at the center of a controversy with regards to its safety. There is no clear consensus on how, when and in what dose the drug should be used in the management of diabetes. We have summarized our strategy on pioglitazone use in Type 2 diabetes in a large private tertiary care center - Medanta, the Medicity- which may help in generating further thought about positioning of this anti-diabetic molecule. We use pioglitazone as the fourth in the pecking order of oral anti-diabetic agents. We typically use pioglitazone in a dose of 15 mg/day. We avoid using pioglitazone with insulin. We do not use pioglitazone under following situations: In the presence of significant or proven cardiac disease, in patients who are struggling with their weight or need to lose weight, in patients at high risk for osteoporotic fractures, in patients with macular edema, in patients with pre-existing bladder cancer and would discontinue in case hematuria or any other symptom of bladder cancer develops. We continue to use the drug in patients well controlled on it without any evident side-effects or contraindications.

  1. [Medical Treatment of Newly Arrived Refugees in Erlangen: A Study of Drug Prescription Rates Focused on Psychotropic Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Fabian; Frewer, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Background: In 2015 the number of refugees who sought asylum in Germany has increased dramatically. Therefore, the medical care for these refugees faces huge challenges. The treatment of mental illness of refugees is a particular difficult topic. Objective of this study is the acquisition of the outpatient prescriptions of drugs for newly arrived refugees in Erlangen, focused on psychotropic drugs. Methods: Evaluation of all outpatient prescribed drugs (n=1 137), which were prescribed between 10/01/2014 and 09/30/2015 for asylum seekers living in the refugee center in Erlangen, a branch of the "Central Admission Institution" ("ZAE") Zirndorf. Funding organization of this treatment is the City of Erlangen. Settlement documents of the City of Erlangen were used for the analysis. Results: The prescribed drugs cover the spectrum of acute primary care. Big parts of the prescription rates are antiinfectives (ATC-Code: J), medication for the respiratory system (ATC: R), as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID's: ibuprofen, paracetamol, metamizole). The prescription of psychotropic drugs is relatively underrepresented. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Prescribing of psychotropic medications to the elderly population of a Canadian province: a retrospective study using administrative databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alessi-Severini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychotropic medications, in particular second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs and benzodiazepines, have been associated with harm in elderly populations. Health agencies around the world have issued warnings about the risks of prescribing such medications to frail individuals affected by dementia and current guidelines recommend their use only in cases where the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. This study documents the use of psychotropic medications in the entire elderly population of a Canadian province in the context of current clinical guidelines for the treatment of behavioural disturbances. Methods. Prevalent and incident utilization of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and related medications (zopiclone and zaleplon were determined in the population of Manitobans over age 65 in the time period 1997/98 to 2008/09 fiscal years. Comparisons between patients living in the community and those living in personal care (nursing homes (PCH were conducted. Influence of sociodemographic characteristics on prescribing was assessed by generalized estimating equations. Non-optimal use was defined as the prescribing of high dose of antipsychotic medications and the use of combination therapy of a benzodiazepine (or zopiclone/zaleplon with an antipsychotic. A decrease in intensity of use over time and lower proportions of patients treated with antipsychotics at high dose or in combination with benzodiazepines (or zopiclone/zaleplon was considered a trend toward better prescribing. Multiple regression analysis determined predictors of non-optimal use in the elderly population. Results. A 20-fold greater prevalent utilization of SGAs was observed in PCH-dwelling elderly persons compared to those living in the community. In 2008/09, 27% of PCH-dwelling individuals received a prescription for an SGA. Patient characteristics, such as younger age, male gender, diagnoses of dementia (or use of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor or psychosis in the

  3. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  4. Modelling medical care usage under medical insurance scheme for urban non-working residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Linping; Tian, Wenhua; Tang, Weidong

    2013-06-01

    This research investigates and evaluates China's urban medical care usage for non-working residents using microsimulation techniques. It focuses on modelling medical services usage and simulating medical expenses on hospitalization treatments as well as clinic services for serious illness in an urban area for the period of 2008-2010. A static microsimulation model was created to project the impact of the medical insurance scheme. Four kinds of achievements have been made. For three different scenarios, the model predicted the hospitalization services costs and payments, as well as the balance of the social pool fund and the medical burden on families.

  5. The use of health care services and psychotropic medication in a community sample of 9-year-old schoolchildren with ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tremmery, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Steyaert, J.; Molenberghs, G.; Feron, F.J.M.; Kalff, A.C.; Hurks, P.P.; Hendriksen, J.G.M.; Vles, J.S.; Jolles, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of the use of health care services and psychotropic medication within a community sample (N = 283) of 9-year-old school children and, more specifically, to evaluate the use of prescribed stimulants. METHODS: Data from the second follow-up phase of the "Study of

  6. Psychotropic Medication Use among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders within the Simons Simplex Collection: Are Core Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mire, Sarah S.; Nowell, Kerri P.; Kubiszyn, Thomas; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.

    2014-01-01

    Psychotropic medication use and its relationship to autism spectrum core features were examined in a well-characterized but nonstratified North American sample (N = 1605) of children/adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders utilizing the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule" and the "Autism Diagnostic…

  7. Characterization of Medication Use in a Multicenter Sample of Pediatric Inpatients with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Adams, Ryan; Erickson, Craig A; Pedersen, Kahsi A; Morrow, Eric M; Kaplan, Desmond; Siegel, Matthew

    2017-05-17

    Nearly 11% of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) undergo psychiatric hospitalization, and 65% are treated with psychotropic medication. Here we characterize psychotropic medication usage in subjects enrolled in the Autism Inpatient Collection. Participant psychotropic medication usage rates topped 90% at admission and discharge, though there was a decline at 2-month follow-up. Antipsychotics, ADHD medications, and sleep aids were the most commonly reported classes of medications. The impact of age, gender, and non-verbal IQ on medication usage rates was minimal, though age and IQ may play a role in prescribing practices. Future work is indicated to explore medication usage trends, the impact of clinical factors on medication use rates, and the safety of psychotropic medications in youth with ASD.

  8. The use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy: how about the newborn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieviet N

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Noera Kieviet,1 Koert M Dolman,1 Adriaan Honig2 1Department of Paediatrics, 2Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatry Obstetrics Paediatrics Expert Center, Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Abstract: Infants are at risk of developing symptoms of Poor Neonatal Adaptation (PNA after exposure to psychotropic drugs in utero. Such symptoms are largely similar after exposure to antidepressants, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines and consist of mostly mild neurologic, autonomic, respirator and gastro-intestinal abnormalities. Most symptoms develop within 48 hours after birth and last for 2–6 days. After exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs, mirtazapine or venlafaxine in utero, breastfeeding is presumably protective for development of PNA. The dosage of antidepressants does not seem to be related to the risk of PNA. In order to objectify possible symptoms of PNA, observation of mother and child at the maternity ward is advisable. If PNA symptoms do not occur, an observation period of 48–72 hours is sufficient. This applies to all types of psychotropic drugs. When PNA symptoms are present it is advisable to observe the infant until the symptoms are fully resolved. Observation can be performed by trained nurses using the Finnegan scoring list. This observation list should be administered every 8 hours. Interpretation of the scores should be carried out by a paediatrician. In most cases symptoms are non-specific. Therefore other diagnoses, such as infection or neurologic problems, have to be excluded. When there is any doubt on possible intoxications during pregnancy, toxicological urine screening is indicated. Most cases of PNA are mild, of short duration and self-limiting without need for treatment. Supporting measures such as frequent small feedings, swaddling and increase of skin to skin contact with the mother is usually sufficient. In case of severe PNA it is advised to admit the infant to the Neonatal Care

  9. Psychotropic drug use among Icelandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Baldursson, Gísli; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. METHODS: A nationwide population-based drug use study covering the total pediatric population (ages 0-17) in Iceland. Information was obtained from the National Medicines...... Registry to calculate prevalence of use by year and psychotropic drug group; incidence by year, psychotropic drug group, child's age and sex, and medical specialty of prescriber; the most commonly used psychotropic chemical substances, off-label and unlicensed use and concomitant psychotropic drug use....... RESULTS: The overall prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 48.7 per 1000 Icelandic children in 2007. Stimulants and antidepressants increased in prevalence from 2003 to 2007 and were the two most prevalent psychotropic drug groups, respectively, 28.4 and 23.4 per 1000 children in 2007. A statistically...

  10. Divorce and changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use: a register-based longitudinal study among middle-aged Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2013-10-01

    The annual prevalence of psychotropic medication use exceeds 10 percent in Europe and the United States, the prevalence being higher among the divorced than the married. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to divorce, sex, medication type and socio-demographic characteristics, using register-data on 304,111 Finns between 25 and 64 years of age, of whom 23,956 divorced between 1995 and 2003 and 142,093 were continuously married from 1995 to 2004. Five years before divorce, men and women already displayed about one percentage point higher prevalence of psychotropic medication use than those who continued their marriage. The excess prevalence increased with approaching divorce and peaked six to nine months before divorce, reaching 7.3 percent (95% CI 6.8-8.0) among divorcing men and 8.1 percent (95% CI 7.5-8.8) among divorcing women. The peak was followed by an 18-month decline, after which the excess compared to the continuously married settled at nearly three percentage points. The excess was not due to being socio-economically disadvantaged, and socio-demographic factors also seemed to have few modifying effects. The changes in prevalence were largest for antidepressants and almost non-existent for antipsychotics. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use among the divorced results both from selective factors already present five years before divorce and the acute and long-term causal effects of becoming and being divorced. Counselling is needed for individuals in the process of divorce, rather than economic support for divorced individuals.

  11. Does lower urine-specific gravity predict decline in renal function and hypernatremia in older adults exposed to psychotropic medications? An exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Sahar; Yu, Ching; Sylvestre, Jean-Daniel; Looper, Karl J; Segal, Marilyn; Rej, Soham

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to psychotropic agents, including lithium, antipsychotics and antidepressants, has been associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). This is especially concerning in older adults already at risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypernatremia with advanced aging. This study investigates whether commonly performed random urine-specific gravity (USG) tests can predict adverse NDI outcomes (CKD and hypernatremia) in psychotropic-exposed older adults. This was a retrospective longitudinal study of 173 geriatric psychiatry patients (age ≥65 years) exposed to psychotropic medications. Our main continuous outcome was 'decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >10 mL/min/1.73 m(2)' over 5-year follow-up. Hypernatremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) were secondary outcomes. Whether baseline USG 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Patients with a single baseline sodium concentration of ≥140 mmol/L and USG <1.010 have a 26.3% incidence of AKI and a 57.9% incidence of hypernatremia over the ensuing 5 years. In psychotropic-exposed older adults, there appears to be a clinically important association between low USG and developing both hypernatremia and CKD. USG may be a useful surrogate measure for NDI-related outcomes in large administrative database studies, where ideal measures such as 24-h urine volume may not be available.

  12. Contraceptive usage patterns in North American medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Tami S; Smith, James F; Eisenberg, Michael L; Breyer, Benjamin N; Drey, Eleanor A; Shindel, Alan W

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that the sexual beliefs and mores of students in medical professions may influence their capacity to care for patients' sexuality and contraception issues. Students also represent a large sample of reproductive-age individuals. In this study, we examined contraceptive usage patterns in North American medical students. Students using online medical student social and information networks enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February and July of 2008 were invited to participate via email and published announcements in an Internet-based survey consisting of a questionnaire that assessed ethnodemographic factors, year in school and sexual history. We also collected information about current use of contraceptive and barrier methods. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. Among our 2269 complete responses, at least one form of contraception was being utilized by 71% of men and 76% of women. Condoms were the most popular form of contraceptive, utilized by 1011 respondents (50% of men and 40% of women). Oral contraceptive pills were the contraceptive of choice for 34% of men and 41% of women. Decreased rates of contraception use were associated with being black or Asian, not being in a relationship and having more sexual dysfunction in female respondents. Students who reported comfort discussing sexual issues with patients were more likely to use effective contraceptive methods themselves. Ten percent of this of sexually active medical students was not currently using contraception. There are significant differences in contraceptive use based on demographics, even at the highest education levels. The personal contraception choices of medical students may influence their ability to accurately convey information about contraception to their patients. In addition, medical students may personally benefit from improved knowledge of effective contraceptive practices

  13. WISE-MD usage among millennial medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Nick, Michael W; Alseidi, Adnan; Lind, David Scott; Sudan, Ranjan; Isenberg, Gerald; Capella, Jeannette; Hopkins, Mary A; Petrusa, Emil R

    2015-01-01

    E-learning is increasingly common in undergraduate medical education. Internet-based multimedia materials should be designed with millennial learner utilization preferences in mind for maximal impact. Medical students used all 20 Web Initiative for Surgical Education of Medical Doctors modules from July 1, 2013 to October 1, 2013. Data were analyzed for topic frequency, time and week day, and access to questions. Three thousand five hundred eighty-seven students completed 35,848 modules. Students accessed modules for average of 51 minutes. Most frequent use occurred on Sunday (23.1%), Saturday (15.4%), and Monday (14.3%). Friday had the least use (8.2%). A predominance of students accessed the modules between 7 and 10 PM (34.4%). About 80.4% of students accessed questions for at least one module. They completed an average of 40 ± 30 of the questions. Only 827 students (2.3%) repeated the questions. Web Initiative for Surgical Education of Medical Doctors has peak usage during the weekend and evenings. Most frequently used modules reflect core surgical problems. Multiple factors influence the manner module questions are accessed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic medication prescribing in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of male and female prisoners in England

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    Lamiece Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illness is highly prevalent among prisoners. Although psychotropic medicines can ameliorate symptoms of mental illness, prescribers in prisons must balance clinical needs against risks to safety and security. Concerns have been raised at the large number of prisoners reportedly receiving psychotropic medicines in England. Nonetheless, unlike for the wider community, robust prescribing data are not routinely available for prisons. We investigated gender-specific patterns in the prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic prescribing in English prisons. Methods We studied 6052 men and 785 women in 11 prisons throughout England. This represented 7.9 % of male and 20.5 % of female prisoners nationally. Using a cross-sectional design, demographic and prescription data were collected from clinical records of all prisoners prescribed psychotropic medicines, including hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-manic, antidepressant and Central Nervous System stimulant medications. Percentages and 95 % CIs were used to estimate the prevalence of prescribing. The Prescribing Appropriate Indicators tool was used to determine appropriateness. Prevalence Ratios (PR were generated to make age-adjusted comparisons between prisoners and the general population using a dataset supplied by the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Results Overall, 47.9 % (CI 44.4–51.4 of women and 16.9 % (CI 16.0–17.9 of men in prison were prescribed one or more psychotropic medicines. Compared with the general population, age-adjusted prescribing prevalence was six times higher among women (PR 5.95 CI 5.36–6.61 and four times higher among men (PR 4.02 CI 3.75–4.30. Undocumented or unapproved indications for prescriptions, not listed in the British National Formulary, were recorded in a third (34.7 %, CI 32.5–37.0 of cases, most commonly low mood and personality disorder. Conclusions Psychotropic medicines were prescribed frequently in

  15. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties......The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...

  16. [Ethical, technical and legal procedures of the medical doctor responsibility to accomplish the road enforcement law about driving under the influence of alcohol and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Nunes, Rui; Carvalho, Félix; Santos, Agostinho; Teixeira, Helena; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The forensic toxicology (TF) is a science of analytical basis, aiming to clarify legal issues related to poisoning, whether or not fatal, within the various areas of law (criminal, civil, labor, etc.). The analysis that are more often requested (with a tendency to increase and gaining rising attention) are those concerning the procedures involving supervision of driving under the influence of alcohol and psychotropic substances, in the living individual and in the cadaver. The key players in this process, are: (a) the police agents carrying out the screening and quantification of alcohol on the exhaled breath and the screening of psychotropic and stupefacient substances in saliva; (b) the public health services that perform qualitative analysis of these substances in urine (if the test was not previously performed in saliva); (c) the doctor that collects blood samples from the living, or the dead victim; (d) the forensic toxicologist who conducts toxicological analysis in blood (or, eventually in another biological sample) and (e) the magistrate prosecutors that ultimately will receive the toxicological report to apply the law. Therefore it is important to understand and be acquainted with the road law enforcement of driving under the influence of alcohol and psychotropic substances, particularly in what concerns to the role of the medical doctor. Consequently, this paper aimed to review these topics, namely highlighting the necessary information to clarify the interested parties about the technical, ethical and legal procedures to consider.

  17. chronic psychotropic medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... lack of exercise, obesity, substance misuse) and high autonomic arousal during ... heart; however, it might precipitate complete heart block in the presence of .... desipramine) may impact more on children and the elderly. .... ECG changes such as rate, rhythm, T waves and QT interval ... Type of abnormality.

  18. An Analysis of Research Trends in Articles on Video Usage in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslibeyaz, Elif; Aydemir, Melike; Karaman, Selcuk

    2017-01-01

    Using technology in medical education has drawn the attention of researchers in the last several years. Especially, videos have been found to promote effective learning in medical education. This study aims to examine general trends and results of articles investigating video usage in medical education and published in SSCI and ERIC journals from…

  19. Psychotropic Polypharmacy in Patients with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Ane; Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Gasse, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    classes (psychotropic polypharmacy) may also pose a risk for patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with use of psychotropic polypharmacy in patients with dementia. METHODS: A population-based study using nationwide registers. Patients with dementia were identified......,403) used at least one other psychotropic drug during the antipsychotic treatment period. Nursing home residency, number of non-psychotropic medications used in 2011, and prior psychiatric diagnosis were associated with psychotropic polypharmacy among antipsychotic drug users. The most frequent combination...... cause adverse events, and potential consequences for patients' safety call for further investigation....

  20. DRUG UTILIZATION STUDY OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS PRESCRIBED IN PSYCHIATRY OPD OF L. N. MEDICAL COLLEGE ASSOCIATED J. K. HOSPITAL, BHOPAL DISTRICT, MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Utilization pattern of drugs varies from place to place and is influenced by differing patient characteristics, type of disease prevalent, cultural and environmental influences, socioeconomic states, availability of newer drugs and prescribing habit of physicians. Psychiatric disorders are one of the major causes of morbidity. Development of newer drugs like SSRIs and atypical antipsychotics has altered the treatment paradigms. Various factors like cost of drugs, local paradigms, etc. play a role in the selection of drug therapy and hence affect the outcome. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a study to delineate the various drugs used in psychiatric disorders. Psychotropic drugs have had a remarkable impact in psychiatric practice. However, their utilization in actual clinical practice, effectiveness and safety in real life situation needs continuous studies. So our aim to study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and analyse drug prescribing pattern in various psychiatric illnesses. METHODOLOGY A prospective cross sectional study was carried out for 6 months (Dec. 2014 - May. 2015 in psychiatry OPD of L. N. Medical College, Bhopal. Patients of all ages and both sexes were included in the study and 600 prescriptions were randomly selected. RESULT Antipsychotic drugs (75.33% were most frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs in various psychiatric disorders followed by Anti-Depressants (48.33% and Anxiolytics (26%. CONCLUSION This study shows that antipsychotics are the most common antipsychotic drugs prescribed in patients with psychotic illness. Depression is the most common disease. Prescription rate was higher in men between 21-40 yrs. age

  1. Using a treatment partner and text messaging to improve adherence to psychotropic medication: a qualitative formative study of service users and caregivers in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, S; Sibeko, G; Temmingh, H; Stein, D J; Milligan, P; Lund, C

    2013-09-01

    Poor adherence to medications, including psychotropic medications contributes to the burden of disease. Mental health service users (MHSU) may also not attend follow-up appointments at their health care facilities where they could discuss adherence with their health care provider. This paper reports on preliminary qualitative research preceding a randomised controlled trial that aims to improve adherence to psychotropic medication and to follow up treatment visits. The intervention will entail the support of individuals with serious mental disorder by a treatment partner and short message service (SMS) text messaging. The preliminary research reported in this paper aimed to extract views about the intervention from both mental health service users (MHSU) and caregivers through focus group discussions and individual interviews. Data were analysed using ATLAS TI qualitative software. The caregivers interviewed were all mothers of MHSU who took measures to encourage adherence. They held mixed opinions on whether the treatment partner should be a family member. Most participants expressed the view that due to living conditions, family members were natural treatment partners, but others stated that they would prefer a treatment partner who was not a family member. Similarly, while most MHSU supported the idea of a treatment partner, a minority were concerned that a treatment partner may potentially be too controlling and compromise their autonomy. The vast majority of participants supported SMS text messaging as a means of reminding MHSU to take their medication and attend follow-up appointments. One participant mentioned the importance of broader social inclusion issues that should be incorporated in the intervention. Qualitative research may provide useful insights for the design of interventions of this nature related to social inclusion randomised control trials with its focus on adherence.

  2. Patterns of Computer Usage among Medical Practitioners in Rural and Remote Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Col; Sheedy, Vicki; Lawrence, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    As part of a study examining continuing medical education, computer usage was investigated among medical practitioners in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). Surveys of 131 rural doctors showed that they used computers more than their urban counterparts and more than previously estimated. A majority of respondents considered Internet delivery…

  3. The effects of marriage and separation on the psychotropic medication use of non-married cohabiters: a register-based longitudinal study among adult Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-11-01

    Non-marital cohabitation has become increasingly common and is suggested to offer similar mental-health benefits as marriage does. We studied levels and changes in cohabiters' mental health five years before and five years after entering into marriage or separating, and compared long-term non-married and married cohabiters. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics, excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to non-marital transition and gender, using register data on 189,394 Finns aged 25 to 64. Similar levels of psychotropic-medication use were found among individuals in long unions that continued throughout the follow-up and were non-marital, marital, or changed from non-marital to marital. Among men and women who separated from longer cohabiting unions of more than five years, however, an increase in medication prevalence was observed immediately before separation, followed by a similar decline after separation. At the time of separation the level of medication use was 9.9 per cent (95% CI = 8.7 - 11.3) among men and 15.7 per cent (95% CI = 14.2 - 17.4) among women compared to 4.3 per cent (95% CI = 3.7 - 5.0) and 8.0 per cent (95% CI = 7.2 - 9.0), respectively, among those who cohabited continuously. No changes in medication use were observed before or after separation among those leaving shorter cohabiting unions of less than five years. Among those marrying following shorter cohabiting unions a positive effect of approaching marriage was observed only among women. Compared to continuous cohabiters, the level of medication use was higher among men and women separating from both short-term and long-term cohabiting unions five years before separation. This selective effect suggests that cohabiters with mental-health problems might benefit from relationship counselling. In a long-term stable union it seems to matter little for mental health whether the union is marital or non

  4. [Outlines of interdisciplinary addiction research given by the example of medical imaging with PET, SPECT and fMRI regarding effects of psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M; Golaszewski, Stefan; Ertl, Markus; Riemer, Yvonne; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Ennemoser, Oswald; Rössler, Haimo; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2010-01-01

    The addiction phenomenon provides a fertile ground for the application of the tools of medical imaging which contribute to the development of scientific conceptualization of the effect of psychotropic substances. Medical imaging as for instance PET (Positron Emission Tomography), SPECT (Single Photon Emission Tomography) or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) are well established for the examination of functional activity in the living brain. Medical imaging permits the development of functional activation maps during perceptual, cognitive or emotional efforts with a high temporal and spatial resolution. Medical imaging devices have therefore also been used to help our understanding of many aspects of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of abused drugs. Because Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and cocaine continue to be the most commonly used illicit drugs, their effects on the brain function are of major interest. The cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist Delta(9)-THC as for instance has also been suggested for treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). This article provides an overview of present applications of medical imaging with PET, SPECT, and fMRI and its results regarding addiction-related research on Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and cocaine.

  5. Case study: library usage at an Indian medical college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chinmay

    2011-03-01

    This issue's feature column reports on the findings of a small survey of library users carried out in an Indian medical college with a traditional curriculum. The study found that the main reason a student visited the library was to consult text books. Although the majority of students were satisfied with the library facilities, the study suggests that more needs to be done to promote self-directed learning. JM.

  6. Preference and usage of intracanal medications during endodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarati, Ahmad A.; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Sammani, Aya M.N.; Mandorah, Ayman O.; Bani-Younes, Hamzah A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the preferences of general dental practitioners (GDPs) and endodontists in using endodontic intra-canal medications (ICMs). Methods: This observational and descriptive study was conducted in 2014 in the western province of Saudi Arabia. Following ethical clearance and 2 pilot studies, a web-based questionnaire was electronically sent to 375 randomly and systematically selected GDPs and all endodontists in the western province (n=49). An accompanying e-mail explained the study’s aims and confirmed that the data yielded would remain confidential. The responses were collected, and the data was analyzed using the Chi-square test at p=0.05. Results: Significantly, the highest proportion of respondents (53.7%) reported disinfection of the root canals as the main function of ICMs. Calcium hydroxide (CH) was the preferred material of the majority of those who used the same ICM in all cases (85.7%). While the vast majority of all endodontists (87.5%) used CH after pulp extirpation, 48.5% of GDPs used formocresol (p<0.001). Almost 30% of those who used ICMs after pulp extirpation did not do so after cleaning and shaping of vital cases. Most endodontists used CH (62.5%) and antibiotics (37.5%) in necrotic pulp cases without apical lesions, which were significantly greater than those of GDPs who did the same (43.8% and 17.2%). Conclusions: Participants were aware that the main function of ICMs is disinfection of the root canal system. However, it is clear that GDPs should reduce their reliance on phenol- and formaldehyde-based medications. There was a distinct trend toward the use of ICMs, especially CH, in necrotic pulp cases. PMID:28674723

  7. Preclinical medical students′ usage of electronic devices in lectures: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex W. H. Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Electronic devices such as laptops, tablets, and smartphones are commonly used in clinical clerkships, problem-based learning, and practicals. However, there is limited literature on electronic device usage in medical lectures. This study aimed to (1 assess preclinical medical students′ pattern and reason for electronic device usage in lectures and (2 assess the effect of lecture content and student factors on device usage. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study from the year 1 to 3 medical students of the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong. The data was collected through self-administrated questionnaires. The questionnaire was distributed twice to the same cohort of students, once after their basic medical science lectures, another after humanities lectures. Categorical variables were compared by Chi-squared test or Fisher′s exact test; continuous variables were compared by Mann-Whitney U-test or Kruskal-Wallis H-test. Results: Five hundred and seventy-nine valid questionnaires were collected. Students spent more time on electronic devices for learning in science lectures when compared with humanities lectures (P < 0.001. In contrast, students spent more time for nonlearning purposes in humanities lectures (P < 0.001. In science lectures, the mode of admission to medical school (P < 0.05 and year of study (P < 0.001 were factors affecting the device usage. Conclusions: Lecture content, mode of admission, and year of study have a significant impact on the electronic device usage in preclinical medical lectures. Appropriate interventions are necessary to help the students make better use of their devices and decrease the time spent on nonlearning purposes, particularly in humanities lectures.

  8. The Impact of the Acquisition of Electronic Medical Texts on the Usage of Equivalent Print Books in an Academic Medical Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Morgan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – This study examines whether acquiring a text in electronic format effects the usage of the print version of the text, focusing specifically on medical texts. Studies in the literature dealt specifically with general collections and it was not clear if they were applicable to medical collections. It was also not clear if these studies should play a role in determining whether a medical library should purchase electronic texts or whether reserve collections are still needed for print texts.Methods – Four usage studies were conducted using data from the circulation system and the electronic vendor systems. These were 1 trends of print usage; 2 trends of electronic usage; 3 a comparison of electronic usage with print usage of the same title in the reserve collection; 4 a comparison of electronic usage with print usage of the same title in the general collection.Results – In comparison to print, substantial usage is being made of electronic books. Print is maintaining a level pattern of usage while electronic usage is increasing steadily. There was a noticeable difference in the usage levels of the electronic texts as regards to the package in which they are contained. Usage of print texts both on reserve and in the general collection has decreased over time, however the acquisition of the electronic version of a medical title had little impact on the usage of the equivalent print version. Conclusion – There is a demand for medical texts in medical libraries. Electronic versions can replace print versions of texts in reserve. Further investigation is needed of current patterns of print collection usage, with particular emphasis on trends in reserve collection usage.

  9. [Drug advertising as communication between the pharmaceutical industry and the physician: advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch medical journal, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 1900-1940].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the historical development of drug advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the leading Dutch medical journal from 1900 to 1940. The advertisements for hypnotics and sedatives, in The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch medical journal) reflected the changes in the vocabulary and image promoted by the pharmaceutical companies. In the first two decades, the advertisements were sober and to the point, and included the trademark, company name, molecular formula and therapeutic properties of the medication. The emphasis was on creating a scientific image of reliable symptom control for the therapeutic drug. In doing so, the ethical drug companies tried (successfully) to distinguish themselves from the producers of patent medicines. Once scientific credibility was established, the form and content of the advertisements changed significantly. In the late 1920s and 1930s drug companies embraced modern advertising techniques, developing a figurative language to address the changing beliefs and practices of Dutch physicians. Instead of promoting therapeutic drugs as safe and scientific, the emphasis was on their effectiveness in comparison to similar drugs. In the process, scientific information was reduced to an indispensable standardized minimum, whereby therapeutic drugs were advertised according to the latest pharmacological taxonomy rather than molecular formulas. The image-making of 'ethical marketing' began during the interwar years when marketers applied modern advertising techniques and infotainment strategies. The scanty black and white informational bulletins transitioned into colourful advertisements. The pharmaceutical companies employed the same medical language as used by physicians, so that one word or image in an advertisement would suffice for the physician to recognize a drug and its therapeutic properties. These developments show the changing relationship between the modern ethical pharmaceutical industry and Dutch

  10. A survey on internet usage and online learning behaviour among medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Soma; Chandrasekaran, Venkatesh; Dhandapany, Gunasekaran; Palanisamy, Soundararajan; Sadagopan, Srinivasan

    2017-05-01

    To determine the magnitude and pattern of internet usage by undergraduate medical students to retrieve medical information. A pretested questionnaire-based survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students who were willing to participate. The institute ethics committee approved the study. The responses of students to the questionnaire were analysed using VassarStats online statistical programme. Categorical variables were expressed as proportions. To determine the significance of the difference between proportions, the χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test was used. Log-linear analysis was performed for significance of association among interacting variables. A p value medical students participated in the survey. The response was 100% and involved mainly IX and VIII semester students. Internet usage was found to be 97.4%. Of the students interviewed, 35.7% were frequent internet users and 57.4% used their mobile phones to access the internet. The majority (60.9%) had their own portable 3G internet connection. Monthly expenditure for the majority (82.6%) was less than 1000 Indian Rupees per month. The most popular medical site accessed by students was Medscape, followed by Wikipedia and WebMD. Of the students studied, 8% had attended one or more online continuing medical education programmes. On log-linear analysis, a linear relationship was found for medical time and social time. An encouraging trend is seen in the use of the internet by medical students to access medical information, but this has not translated into improved online learning behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. [E-learning in ENT: Usage in University Medical Centers in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiherr von Saß, Peter; Klenzner, Thomas; Scheckenbach, Kathrin; Chaker, Adam

    2017-01-18

    E-learning is an essential part of innovative medical teaching concepts. The challenging anatomy and physiology in ENT is considered particularly suitable for self-assessed and adaptive e-learning. Usage and data on daily experience with e-learning in German ENT-university hospitals are currently unavailable and the degree of implementation of blended learning including feed-back from medical students are currently not known. We investigated the current need and usage of e-learning in academic ENT medical centers in Germany. We surveyed students and chairs for Otorhinolaryngology electronically and paperbased during the summer semester 2015. Our investigation revealed an overall heterogenous picture on quality and quantity of offered e-learning applications. While the overall amount of e-learning in academic ENT in Germany is rather low, at least half of the ENT-hospitals in medical faculties reported that e-learning had improved their own teaching activities. More collaboration among medical faculties and academic ENT-centers may help to explore new potentials, overcome technical difficulties and help to realize more ambitious projects.

  12. Checklist Usage as a Guidance on Read-Back Reducing the Potential Risk of Medication Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus N. Maharjana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital as a last line of health services shall provide quality service and oriented on patient safety, one responsibility in preventing medication errors. Effective collaboration and communication between the profession needed to achieve patient safety. Read-back is one way of doing effective communication. Before-after study with PDCA TQM approach. The samples were on the medication chart patient medical rd rd records in the 3 week of May (before and the 3 week in July (after 2013. Treatment using the check list, asked for time 2 minutes to read-back by the doctors and nurses after the visit together. Obtained 57 samples (before and 64 samples (after. Before charging 45.54% incomplete medication chart on patient medical records that have the potential risk of medication error to 10.17% after treatment with a read back check list for 10 weeks, with 77.78% based on the achievement of the PDCA TQM approach. Checklist usage as a guidance on Read-back as an effective communication can reduce charging incompleteness drug records on medical records that have the potential risk of medication errors, 45.54% to 10.17%.

  13. Use of psychotropics in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Reisberg, B; Simeon, S

    1978-01-01

    A questionnaire regarding medication preferences for major categories of psychiatric disorders was sent to 1,059 psychiatric drug investigators in 53 countries. 264 questionnaires were returned, of which 165 were appropriate for this survey. A total of 87 different psychotropic drugs were selected. Chlorpromazine was the medication most frequently cited in the treatment of schizophrenia. Amitriptyline and imipramine together accounted for the vast majority of medication chosen for all varieties of depression. In the treatment of mania, chlorpromazine was chosen by almost one-third of our sample, lithium by only one-fifth. Chlordiazepoxide and diazepam were equally preferred in the treatment of alcoholism. Most psychiatrists preferred not to use any psychotropic medications consistently in treating patients with organic brain syndromes. The implications of this study are discussed and compared uith similar studies in more limited geographical regions and in children.

  14. Development and usage of a secure assessment software system for the medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heid, Jörn

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation governing the licensing of physicians in Germany requires a large amount of examinations in medical curricula. The usage of computer-based assessment software, especially for case based examinations, is recommended. Today most systems available use a web-based approach. However, this approach reveals a lack of legal certainty and fail-safety with respect to problems related to the network and the application. To solve these problems a secure assessment software has been developed which is successfully used at the University of Heidelberg.

  15. The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on tardive dystonia or dyskinesia induced by psychotropic medication: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui-Furukori N

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Norio Yasui-Furukori,1 Atsuhiro Kikuchi,1 Hiroshi Katagai,1,2 Sunao Kaneko11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki-Aiseikai Hospital, Hirosaki, JapanBackground: Tardive dystonia and dyskinesia are potentially irreversible neurological syndromes. Successful electroconvulsive treatment (ECT has been reported by multiple sources; however, the existing retrospective reviews and open prospective trials provide little information on the response rate.Methods: Eighteen consecutive patients with tardive dystonia or dyskinesia received a standard course of ECT to treat abnormal movement. The severity of the tardive dystonia and dyskinesia was evaluated using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS before and after the course of ECT. The patients who displayed a greater than 50% improvement in the AIMS score were classified as the responders.Results: The mean AIMS score decreased from 19.1±4.7 to 9.6±4.2. There were seven responders among the 18 patients, which yielded a 39% response rate. Conclusion: ECT has a moderate but significant effect on tardive dystonia and dyskinesia. Keywords: tardive dystonia, tardive diskinesia, ECT, medication

  16. Increased all-cause mortality with use of psychotropic medication in dementia patients and controls: A population-based register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Ibsen, Rikke;

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality of middle-aged and elderly subjects diagnosed with dementia and treated with psychotropic drugs as compared with controls subjects. Using data from the Danish National Patient Registry, n=26,821 adults with a diagnosis of dementia were included. They were ...

  17. Usage of emergency contraception between medical related and non-medical related students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalid, A K

    2009-04-01

    Teenagers and young adultshave the most risk of unplanned pregnancy, due to lack of awareness to see a family planning provider after unprotected sexual intercourse. In addition, nearly one in five physicians is reluctant to provide information regarding Emergency Contraception (EC) to women and this may contribute to their lack of awareness. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the use of EC between medical related students compared to non-medical related students. Data collection was done using questionnaires distributed among students in University College Cork (UCC). 93% of medically related students were aware of EC compared to only 73.5% of non-medically related students. Medical related students also were more aware about the mechanism of action and detailed knowledge of EC compared to the non-medical students. This study has proven that medically related students have more detailed knowledge regarding EC compared to non-medical related students. However, there was no significant difference noted regarding the attitude and practice between the two groups.

  18. 双相障碍治疗药物调整的访谈与心理咨询%Psychotropic medication management and psychotherapy for bipolar disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于鲁璐; 张道龙

    2016-01-01

    一名三十余岁的已婚未育女性,从事医疗行业,本科毕业,在几年前被诊断为双相障碍,当时主要表现为抑郁和自杀倾向,每年有1~2次轻躁狂发作,表现为易激惹和思维联想加快。咨客能坚持服用精神类药物,但却受到药物副作用的困扰。近一年来咨客病情稳定,但一直伴有双手震颤,因此她希望减药。此外,咨客希望改变生活方式,计划生一个孩子,并打算去国外学习。在本次咨询中,咨客被告知上述巨大的生活改变会打破现有的稳定状态,现有的药物对妊娠也不安全。此外,药物减量时以每次调整一种为宜,可以从锂盐开始,因为这是最可能导致震颤的药物。咨客目前病情较稳定,但如果到国外学习有可能存在文化冲击,学业压力和其他应激源也都可能导致咨客疾病复发。%A married woman in her thirties without children and a college graduate working in the medical field was diagnosed with bipolar disorder several years ago. She was mainly depressed and suicidal,with one to two hypomanic episodes per year expressed as irritable and racing thoughts. Patient adheres to psychotropic medication treatment but experiences side effects. In the past year,she was stabilized but had hand tremors and wanted to reduce her medication. In particular,the patient was interested in changing her lifestyle,planning for a baby and moving overseas for study. After consultation,the patient was advised that dramatic changes would be destabilizing,including that her medications were not safe for pregnancy. Furthermore,medication reduction should be one at a time, beginning with lithium which may be causing tremors. While the patient is currently stable now,a sudden change in environment to a new country which would likely result in cultural shock,academic pressure and additional stress that could lead to a relapse.

  19. The influence of electronic medical record usage on nonverbal communication in the medical interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John M; Arar, Nedal H; Pugh, Jacqueline A

    2007-06-01

    This study examined nonverbal communication in relation to electronic medical record (EMR) use during the medical interview. Six physicians were videotaped during their consultations with 50 different patients at a single setting Veterans Administration Hospital. Three different office spatial designs were identified and named 'open,' 'closed' and 'blocked'. The ;open' arrangement put physicians in a position to establish better eye contact and physical orientation than did the alternative 'closed' and 'blocked' office configurations. Physicians who accessed the EMR and took 'breakpoints' (short periods of no computer use and sustained eye contact with patients) used more nonverbal cues than physicians who tended to talk with their patients while continuously working on the computer. Long pauses in conversational turn taking associated with EMR use may have positively influenced doctor-patient communication. High EMR use interviews were associated with patients asking more questions than they did in low EMR use interviews. Implications for medical education and future research are discussed.

  20. App Usage Factor: A Simple Metric to Compare the Population Impact of Mobile Medical Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Thomas Lorchan; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-08-19

    One factor when assessing the quality of mobile apps is quantifying the impact of a given app on a population. There is currently no metric which can be used to compare the population impact of a mobile app across different health care disciplines. The objective of this study is to create a novel metric to characterize the impact of a mobile app on a population. We developed the simple novel metric, app usage factor (AUF), defined as the logarithm of the product of the number of active users of a mobile app with the median number of daily uses of the app. The behavior of this metric was modeled using simulated modeling in Python, a general-purpose programming language. Three simulations were conducted to explore the temporal and numerical stability of our metric and a simulated app ecosystem model using a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps. Simulations confirmed the metric was stable between predicted usage limits and remained stable at extremes of these limits. Analysis of a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps calculated an average value for the app usage factor of 4.90 (SD 0.78). A temporal simulation showed that the metric remained stable over time and suitable limits for its use were identified. A key component when assessing app risk and potential harm is understanding the potential population impact of each mobile app. Our metric has many potential uses for a wide range of stakeholders in the app ecosystem, including users, regulators, developers, and health care professionals. Furthermore, this metric forms part of the overall estimate of risk and potential for harm or benefit posed by a mobile medical app. We identify the merits and limitations of this metric, as well as potential avenues for future validation and research.

  1. Cardiotoxicité des psychotropes

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIRI, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Même à dose thérapeutique, les médicaments psychotropes sont susceptibles d'engendrer des troubles du rythme cardiaque graves avec risque létal concourant à expliquer la pré valence de la mort subite dans la population psychiatrique. Les situations cliniques à risque telles que poly médication (des psychotropes entre eux ou d'un psychotrope avec un non psychotrope allongeur de QTc), interactions médicamenteuses aussi bien pharmacodynamiques que pharmacocinétiques, traitement pa...

  2. Predictors of dietary supplement usage among medical interns of Tehran university of medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoudeh, Gity; Kabiri, Sanaz; Yeganeh, Haleh Sadrzadeh; Koohdani, Fariba; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement-use and its relationship with demographics and lifestyle of medical interns. The study sample comprised 356 interns aged 23 to 25 years. Participants completed a questionnaire on dietary supplement-use during the month preceding the study, information on demographic characteristics and lifestyle was also obtained. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were employed to assess the correlates of dietary supplement-use. The prevalence of dietary supplement-use was about 33% (males 20.4% and females 43.2%, pnutritional status (39.3%) and reducing hair loss (23.4%). The decision to use dietary supplement was mostly driven by the interns themselves (56% in males, 61% in females). In the univariable analysis, men who exercised once or twice a week were less likely to use supplements compared to those who reported doing exercise more than twice weekly (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.12-0.98). Females who reported their health status to be 'excellent' were more likely to use supplements compared to those who described their health status as 'moderate/poor/very poor' (OR=2.53, 95% CI 1.15-5.56) as were women who mentioned their breakfast consumption status as 'always' (OR=2.69, 95% CI 1.47-4.92). In the multivariable analysis, only breakfast consumption was significantly related with dietary supplement-use in females (OR=2.20, 95% CI 1.11-4.38). In conclusion, dietary supplement-use among medical interns, especially among females, was relatively very common. Dietary supplement-use was related to a healthier lifestyle.

  3. Learning management system and e-learning tools: an experience of medical students' usage and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, David A; Behringer, Florian; Haberstroh, Nicole; Ehlers, Jan P; Sostmann, Kai; Peters, Harm

    2016-08-20

    To investigate medical students´ utilization of and problems with a learning management system and its e-learning tools as well as their expectations on future developments. A single-center online survey has been carried out to investigate medical students´ (n = 505) usage and perception concerning the learning management system Blackboard, and provided e-learning tools. Data were collected with a standardized questionnaire consisting of 70 items and analyzed by quantitative and qualitative methods. The participants valued lecture notes (73.7%) and Wikipedia (74%) as their most important online sources for knowledge acquisition. Missing integration of e-learning into teaching was seen as the major pitfall (58.7%). The learning management system was mostly used for study information (68.3%), preparation of exams (63.3%) and lessons (54.5%). Clarity (98.3%), teaching-related contexts (92.5%) and easy use of e-learning offers (92.5%) were rated highest. Interactivity was most important in free-text comments (n = 123). It is desired that contents of a learning management system support an efficient learning. Interactivity of tools and their conceptual integration into face-to-face teaching are important for students. The learning management system was especially important for organizational purposes and the provision of learning materials. Teachers should be aware that free online sources such as Wikipedia enjoy a high approval as source of knowledge acquisition. This study provides an empirical basis for medical schools and teachers to improve their offerings in the field of digital learning for their students.

  4. Prevalence and usage of printed and electronic drug references and patient medication records in community pharmacies in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usir, Ezlina; Lua, Pei Lin; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the availability and usage of printed and electronic references and Patient Medication Record in community pharmacy. It was conducted for over 3 months from 15 January to 30 April 2007. Ninety-three pharmacies participated. Structured questionnaires were mailed to community pharmacies. Six weeks later a reminder was sent to all non responders, who were given another six weeks to return the completed questionnaire. Outcomes were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test of independence. Almost all the pharmacies (96.8%) have at least Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMS) while 78.5% have at least MIMS ANNUAL in their stores. Only about a third (31.2%) of the pharmacies were equipped with online facilities of which the majority referred to medical websites (88.9%) with only a minority (11.1%) referring to electronic journals. More than half (59.1%) of the pharmacists kept Patient Medication Record profiles with 49.1% storing it in paper, 41.8% electronically and 9.1% in both printed and electronic versions. In general, prevalence and usage of electronic references in community pharmacies were rather low. Efforts should be increased to encourage wider usage of electronic references and Patient Medication Records in community pharmacies to facilitate pharmaceutical care.

  5. National Trends in Child and Adolescent Psychotropic Polypharmacy in Office-Based Practice, 1996-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Olfson, Mark; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns and recent trends in multiclass psychotropic treatment among youth visits to office-based physicians in the United States. Method: Annual data from the 1996-2007 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys were analyzed to examine patterns and trends in multiclass psychotropic treatment within a nationally…

  6. Management of psychotropic-induced hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marken, P A; Haykal, R F; Fisher, J N

    1992-10-01

    The effects of individual psychotropic medications on serum prolactin concentrations are described, and recommendations for dealing with adverse effects are provided. Hyperprolactinemia can result in galactorrhea, amenorrhea, irregular menses, and anovulation; in men, impotence and azoospermia, with or without lactation and gynecomastia, can occur. Antipsychotics may block dopamine receptors in the pituitary prolactin-secreting cells and prevent dopamine-induced reduction of prolactin release. The magnitude of the increase in prolactin concentration correlates with the amount of antipsychotic drug given. The treatment of choice is reduction of the antipsychotic dosage or discontinuation of therapy. If adjustments to the antipsychotic dosage fail to resolve symptoms, the dopamine agonists bromocriptine and amantadine may be tried. Antidepressants may produce elevated serum prolactin concentrations, especially with long-term administration. However, the frequency of antidepressant-induced hyperprolactinemia is much lower than that seen with antipsychotics, and serious adverse clinical effects are uncommon. Other psychotropic drugs such as lithium, valproic acid, buspirone, carbamazepine, and benzodiazepines either are only rarely associated with symptomatic hyperprolactinemia or do not produce clinically important changes in prolactin concentrations. Antipsychotic drugs are the psychotropic agents most likely to cause symptomatic hyperprolactinemia. Bromocriptine or amantadine may provide symptomatic relief if withdrawal or adjustment of the antipsychotic dosage does not eliminate the symptoms.

  7. Rational use of generic psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Maren; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-05-01

    For economic reasons, the generic substitution of branded medications is common and welcome. These replacements are based on the concept of bioequivalence, which is considered equal to therapeutic equivalence. Regulatory standards for bioequivalence require the 90 % confidence intervals of group averages of pharmacokinetic measures of a generic and the original drug to overlap within ±20 %. However, therapeutic equivalence has been challenged for several psychotropic agents by retrospective studies and case reports. To evaluate the degree of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of branded and generic psychotropic drugs, we performed an electronic search (from database inception until 24 May 2012 and without language restrictions) in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Search terms were "(generic) AND (psychotropic OR psychoactive OR antipsychotic OR antiepileptic OR antidepressant OR stimulant OR benzodiazepine)" or the respective individual substances. We included clinical studies, regardless of design, comparing branded with generic psychotropic drug formulations, identifying 35 such studies. We also included case reports/series reporting on outcomes after a switch between brand and generic psychotropics, identifying 145 clinical cases. Bioequivalence studies in healthy controls or animals, in-vitro studies, and health economics studies without medical information were excluded. An overview of the few randomized controlled studies supports that US FDA regulations assure clinically adequate drug delivery in the majority of patients switched from brand to generic. However, with a growing number of competing generic products for one substance, and growing economic pressure to substitute with the currently cheapest generic, frequent generic-generic switches, often unbeknownst to prescribing clinicians, raise concerns, particularly for antiepileptics/mood stabilizers. Generic-generic switches may vary by more than ±20 % from each other in

  8. Galactorrhea due to psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, S; Ziegenbein, M; Grohmann, R; Engel, R R; Degner, D

    2004-03-01

    Within the drug safety program in psychiatry AMSP ( Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie), severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are assessed. Currently 35 psychiatric hospitals and departments are participating in detecting severe ADRs. This paper focuses on prolactin-dependent ADRs such as gynecomastia and galactorrhea due to psychotropic medications. Related to the number of patients surveyed (122,562 from 1993 to 2000), these are rare events (0.03 % or 35 cases). Imputed drugs were mostly antipsychotics, but antidepressants were also imputed in single cases. In the group of antipsychotics, relative frequencies of galactorrhea were highest for amisulpride and risperidone and corresponded to the degree of D2 binding. Galactorrhea assessed as "severe" was accompanied by distressing symptoms such as pain, tension, enlargement of breasts, or soaked clothing. The AMSP data contribute to the knowledge on endocrine ADRs by the large number of patients examined and help clinicians select the appropriate drug if their patients have been prone to for these ADRs in the past.

  9. Online dissection audio-visual resources for human anatomy: Undergraduate medical students' usage and learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L; Cuellar, William A; Williams, Anne-Marie M

    2016-11-01

    In an attempt to improve undergraduate medical student preparation for and learning from dissection sessions, dissection audio-visual resources (DAVR) were developed. Data from e-learning management systems indicated DAVR were accessed by 28% ± 10 (mean ± SD for nine DAVR across three years) of students prior to the corresponding dissection sessions, representing at most 58% ± 20 of assigned dissectors. Approximately 50% of students accessed all available DAVR by the end of semester, while 10% accessed none. Ninety percent of survey respondents (response rate 58%) generally agreed that DAVR improved their preparation for and learning from dissection when used. Of several learning resources, only DAVR usage had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.002) with feeling prepared for dissection. Results on cadaveric anatomy practical examination questions in year 2 (Y2) and year 3 (Y3) cohorts were 3.9% (P < 0.001, effect size d = -0.32) and 0.3% lower, respectively, with DAVR available compared to previous years. However, there were positive correlations between students' cadaveric anatomy question scores with the number and total time of DAVR viewed (Y2, r = 0.171, 0.090, P = 0.002, n.s., respectively; and Y3, r = 0.257, 0.253, both P < 0.001). Students accessing all DAVR scored 7.2% and 11.8% higher than those accessing none (Y2, P = 0.015, d = 0.48; and Y3, P = 0.005, d = 0.77, respectively). Further development and promotion of DAVR are needed to improve engagement and learning outcomes of more students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 545-554. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Social networks usage implications at the level of medical services consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian Gardan

    2017-03-01

    The research results reveal key issues from the perspective of emotional involvement within consumption for the patients and the influence of key variables such as level of education, personality and lifestyle within social networks usage context.

  11. Epigenetic developmental programs and adipogenesis: implications for psychotropic induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Kayla; Sharma, Rajiv P

    2013-11-01

    Psychotropic agents are notorious for their ability to increase fat mass in psychiatric patients. The two determinants of fat mass are the production of newly differentiated adipocytes (adipogenesis), and the volume of lipid accumulation. Epigenetic programs have a prominent role in cell fate commitments and differentiation required for adipogenesis. In parallel, epigenetic effects on energy metabolism are well supported by several genetic models. Consequently, a variety of psychotropics, often prescribed in combinations and for long periods, may utilize a common epigenetic effector path causing an increase in adipogenesis or reduction in energy metabolism. In particular, the recent discovery that G protein coupled signaling cascades can directly modify epigenetic regulatory enzymes implicates surface receptor activity by psychotropic medications. The potential therapeutic implications are also suggested by the effects of the clinically approved antidepressant tranylcypromine, also a histone demethylase inhibitor, which has impressive therapeutic effects on metabolism in the obese phenotype.

  12. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  13. Adverse Events Associated With Psychotropic Treatment in African American Children and Adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrell, Jeanette M

    2010-01-01

    .... All children and adolescents prescribed 1 of 7 antipsychotic medications, 1 of 26 antidepressants, or 1 of 3 antimanic agents, and a random sample of 4500 children not treated with psychotropic...

  14. Acceptance and Usage of Electronic Health Record Systems in Small Medical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannan, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the U.S. government has been the development of a nationwide health information infrastructure, including adoption and use of an electronic health records (EHR) system. However, a 2008 survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics indicated a 41.5% usage of the EHR system by physicians in office-based…

  15. Sources of patients' knowledge of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication and the perceived influence of adverse effects on compliance among service users attending community mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2009-12-01

    Noncompliance with medication has been a complex issue with patients with severe mental illness during the last few decades, and adverse effects of medication have been identified as a major contributor to noncompliance.

  16. Development of a new academic digital library: a study of usage data of a core medical electronic journal collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Barbara S; Klatt, Carolyn; Nagy, Suzanne P

    2009-04-01

    The current study evaluates the results of a previously reported method for creating a core medical electronic journal collection for a new medical school library, validates the core collection created specifically to meet the needs of the new school, and identifies strategies for making cost-effective e-journal selection decisions. Usage data were extracted for four e-journal packages (Blackwell-Synergy, Cell Press, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, and ScienceDirect). Usage was correlated with weighted point values assigned to a core list of journal titles, and each package was evaluated for relevancy and cost-effectiveness to the Florida State University College of Medicine (FSU COM) population. The results indicated that the development of the core list was a valid method for creating a new twenty-first century, community-based medical school library. Thirty-seven journals are identified for addition to the FSU COM core list based on use by the COM, and areas of overlapping research interests between the university and the COM are identified based on use of specific journals by each population. The collection development approach that evolved at the FSU COM library was useful during the initial stages of identifying and evaluating journal selections and in assessing the relative value of a particular journal package for the FSU COM after the school was established.

  17. Differential clinical characteristics, medication usage, and treatment response of bipolar disorder in the US versus The Netherlands and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M; Leverich, Gabriele S; Altshuler, Lori L; Frye, Mark A; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; McElroy, Susan L; Nolen, Willem A; Kupka, Ralph; Grunze, Heinz; Walden, Joerg; Rowe, Mike

    2011-03-01

    Increased early-onset bipolar illness was seen in the US compared with the Netherlands and Germany (abbreviated here as Europe), but other clinical characteristics, medication use, and treatment response have not been systematically explored. Outpatients with bipolar disorder were treated naturalistically and followed prospectively at four sites in the US and three in Europe. Data and clinical characteristics were collected from patient questionnaires, and medication usage and good-to-excellent response to treatment for at least 6 months ascertained from daily clinician ratings on the National Institutes of Mental Health-Life Chart Method. Almost all clinical characteristics earlier associated with a poor treatment response were more prevalent in the US than in Europe, including early onset, environmental adversity, rapid cycling, more than 20 prior episodes, comorbid anxiety and substance abuse disorders, and a positive parental history for an affective disorder. Lithium was used more frequently in Europe than in the US and had a higher rate of success, whereas valproate was used more in the US, with a trend toward higher success in Europe. Antidepressants were used more in the US, but had extremely low success rates. Many other agents were deployed differently on the two continents, but success rates were consistently lower in the US than in Europe. In conclusion, clinical characteristics and patterns of medication usage and effectiveness differed markedly in the two continents suggesting the need for uncovering explanations and considering the two populations as heterogeneous in the future pharmacological studies.

  18. Patterns of psychotropic prescribing and polypharmacy in older hospitalized patients in Ireland: the influence of dementia on prescribing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Kieran Anthony

    2016-08-16

    Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (NPS) are ubiquitous in dementia and are often treated pharmacologically. The objectives of this study were to describe the use of psychotropic, anti-cholinergic, and deliriogenic medications and to identify the prevalence of polypharmacy and psychotropic polypharmacy, among older hospitalized patients in Ireland, with and without dementia.

  19. Psychotropic prescribing in HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... multiple medications (ARVs, antibiotics, tuberculosis (TB) ... Psychiatric disorders frequently co-occur with HIV, as preceding conditions or consequent to HIV infection. ..... illness, substance abuse or personality disorder.

  20. [Autonomy attitudes in the treatment compliance of a cohort of subjects with continuous psychotropic drug administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, M; Trincard, M

    2002-01-01

    patient as an actor facing the drug and shows that he is capable of action. For observers, taking the drug is qualified as regular and some users categorically refuse to bypass the doctor's advice never . Looking for additional information is an act of autonomy. It is found partly with the doctor; but also from the media, the exchanges with the others and the reading of the notes. But talking to other people and reading the information leaflets are more often done by non-observers. Recognizing oneself in the indications and the dosage marked on the leaflet seems to be the first step to adopting the drug so as to know it better and to gain mastery of it. Autonomy is gained through finding alternative, substitutive or complementary solutions with a large share left to herbal medicine and homeopathy. Non-observers seem to be more active than observers in diminishing or stopping taking psychotropes. Affirming one's autonomy is also shown in the direction given to each person's trajectory of life, behaviour referring to it, the projection into the future, and the dynamics of life. These actions underlie a capacity of resistance, non-observers using evocative terms such as taking things in hand , recognizing the while, in certain cases, the need to be supported. This capacity of action is far less present in observers who acknowledge their difficulties in facing up to events. The intentionality and the determination of their behaviour and their choices depend on the autonomy of willpower. Adjusting the amount taken is shown by expressions of intention, and justifies self-regulation. Non-observers direct their behaviour towards a reduction in the medication and commit themselves not to go over a certain amount. Stopping usage is declared as certain , it is planned. On the other hand, it remains unpredictable for observers for whom consumption is linked to the description of a need to have long-lasting health. Observers describe taking their medication as automatic, routine, and

  1. Factors influencing psychotropic prescription by non-psychiatrist physicians in a nursing home for the elderly in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo Stella

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Although psychotropics are one of the classes of medications most prescribed in nursing homes for the elderly, studies examining prescribing patterns are limited in both number and scope. The present study was undertaken to investigate factors associated with general psychotropic use in a nursing home in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective observational study at the Nursing Home for the Elderly, Institute of Biosciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista. METHODS: Information on prescriptions was retrieved from the medical records of 108 elderly residents in a nursing home. Sixty-five of these patients, with mean age 74.5 years (± standard deviation 9.4 years, who were taking medications on a regular basis, comprised the sample. The effects of demographic and clinical variables on the psychotropic prescription pattern were examined. RESULTS: Females were more likely to receive psychotropics (p = 0.038. Individuals on medicines for cardiovascular diseases received psychotropics less frequently (p = 0.001. The number of prescribed psychotropics correlated negatively with both age (p = 0.009 and number of non-psychotropic drugs (p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: Although preliminary, the present results indicated that cardiovascular disease was the clinical variable that most influenced psychotropic prescription. Physicians' overconcern regarding drug interactions might at least partially explain this result. Further investigations involving larger sample sizes from different regions are warranted to confirm these findings.

  2. Adverse Cutaneous Reactions to Psychotropic Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Novais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychotropic drugs are often implicated in cutaneous adverse drug reactions. While most of these reactions have a benign character, it is still important, however, to consider its role in the increasing stigma and treatment adherence. A small number of the cutaneous adverse drug reactions can develop into serious and potentially fatal conditions. Objectives: This article aims to review the most common cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients taking psychotropic drugs. Methods: In this study, a search was carried out in the MEDLINE database for English language articles published , from 1999 to 2014, using as keywords: psychiatric, psychotropic, cutaneous, adverse reaction, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsant, dementia. Information available from the Portuguese regulatory and supervising agency (Infarmed was also included.Results: 121 articles were found with reference to cutaneous adverse drug reactions associated with psychotropic drugs. The drugs most frequently reported as associated with such adverse effects were anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers, followed by the antipsychotics . The antidementia drugs were rarely associated with serious cutaneous adverse reactions. Discussion and Conclusion: Cutaneous drug adverse reactions are common in psychiatric clinical practice and typically are minor in severity. The most severe reactions are most often associated with the use of mood stabilizing medications. Some of these side effects can be solved with reduction or drug discontinuation. More severe cases should be referred to a specialist in dermatology.

  3. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs
non-medical use and diversion of psychotropic prescription drugs in North America: a review of sourcing routes and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Bibby, Meagan; Bouchard, Martin

    2010-12-01

    North America features some of the world's highest consumption levels for controlled psychoactive prescription drugs (PPDs; e.g. prescription opioids, benzodiazepines, stimulants), with non-medical use and related harms (e.g. morbidity, mortality) rising in key populations in recent years. While the determinants, characteristics and impacts of these 'use' problems are increasingly well documented, little is known about the 'supply' side of non-medical PPD use, much of which is facilitated by 'diversion' as a key sourcing route. This paper provides a select review of the phenomenon of PPD diversion in North America, also considering interventions and policy implications. A conceptual and empirical review of select-peer- and non-peer-reviewed research literature from 1991 to 2010 focusing upon PPD diversion in North America was conducted. The phenomenon of PPD diversion is heterogeneous. Especially among general populations, a large proportion of PPDs for non-medical use are obtained from friends or family members. Other PPD diversion routes involve 'double doctoring' or 'prescription shopping'; street drug markets; drug thefts, prescription forgeries or fraud; as well as PPD purchases from the internet. The distinct nature and heterogeneity make PPD diversion a complex and difficult target for interventions. Prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) appear to reduce overall PPD use, yet their impact on reducing diversion or non-medical use is not clear. Law enforcement is unlikely to reach PPD diversion effectively. Effective reduction will probably require reductions in overall PPD consumption volumes, although such will need to be accomplished without compromising standards of good medical (e.g. pain) care. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. [Psychotropic drugs in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alexander

    2014-06-18

    The article presents a user-friendly overview of psychotropic drugs which are helpful for the prescription in a primary care practice. The author recommends to get familiar with just a small selection of drugs first and second line. This means to know well about their effectiveness, short-and long-term side effects, interactions with other drugs and the necessary monitoring that should be done.

  5. Prevalência do consumo de álcool, tabaco e entorpecentes por estudantes de medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic drug consumption by medical students of the "Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência do consumo de álcool, tabaco e entorpecentes por estudantes da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais e determinar fatores relacionados a esse consumo. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho foi realizado com estudantes de todos os anos do curso de Medicina, convidados a participar, de forma anônima, respondendo a um questionário autoaplicável, que foi previamente avaliado e adequado à realidade brasileira. Esse questionário foi estruturado com base no World Health Organization's Guidelines for Student Substance Use Survey e consistiu de 25 perguntas relacionadas ao uso de drogas. A comparação das médias foi por teste T de Student e as proporções foram avaliadas usando o teste Qui quadrado. RESULTADOS: Contato com bebidas alcoólicas ocorreu em 85,2% e com tabaco em 16,3% dos entrevistados. Dentre as drogas entorpecentes, a maconha foi consumida por 16,5%, LSD por 6,9%, ansiolíticos por 12%, estimulantes por 7,5% e solventes por 16,8% dos estudantes. Foi raro o consumo de cocaína, crack, opioides, xaropes ou anabolizantes. CONCLUSÃO: A droga mais consumida foi o álcool. Seu uso relacionou-se com o consumo de outras substâncias, sendo que a adesão a drogas ocorreu mais em estudantes solteiros, do sexo masculino, que moram longe da família e não dependem de si para seu sustento ou o de sua família.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic drug consumption by students of the Medical School of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to verify aspects related to those addictions. METHODS: This study was carried out with students of all years of the medical course invited to participate anonymously, by answering a self-applied questionnaire which was previously evaluated and adapted to Brazilian reality. It was based upon the World Health Organization's Guidelines for Student Substance Use Survey and included 25

  6. A qualitative study exploring visible components of organizational culture: what influences the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna J; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Fois, Romano J; Chen, Timothy F

    2016-10-01

    The influence of organizational culture on how psychotropic medicines are used in nursing homes has not been extensively studied. Schein's theory provides a framework for examining organizational culture which begins with the exploration of visible components of an organization such as behaviors, structures, and processes. This study aimed to identify key visible components related to the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes. A qualitative study was conducted in eight nursing homes in Sydney, Australia. Purposive sampling was used to conduct semi-structured interviews with 40 participants representing a broad range of health disciplines. Thematic analysis was used to derive concepts. Three visible components were related to psychotropic medicine use. These were drugs and therapeutics committee meetings, pharmacist led medication management reviews and formal and informal meetings with residents and their families. We found that only a few nursing homes utilized drugs and therapeutics committee meetings to address the overuse of psychotropic medicines. Pharmacist led medication management reviews provided a lever to minimize inappropriate psychotropic prescribing for a number of nursing homes; however, in others it was used as a box-ticking exercise. We also found that some nursing homes used meetings with residents and their families to review the use of psychotropic medicines. This study was the first to illustrate that visible components of organizational culture do influence the use of psychotropic medicines and explains in detail what of the culture needs to be addressed to reduce inappropriate psychotropic prescribing.

  7. The Usage of Social Networking Sites by Medical Students for Educational Purposes: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraya, Salman Y

    2016-07-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) (e.g., Facebook, MySpace, Flickr, Twitter and YouTube) have emerged as rapidly growing mechanisms to exchange personal and professional information among university students. This research aims to determine the medical students' extent of usage of SNSs for educational purposes. Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane library, and Excerpta Medica Data Base (EMBASE) were searched to retrieve articles from 2004 to 2014, applying predefined search terms and inclusion criteria. The extracted 10 articles were outlined in a narrative synthesis of Quality, Utility, Extent, Strength, Target and Setting of the evidence (QUESTS). Majority (75%) of the respondents admitted using SNSs, whereas 20% used these sites for sharing academic and educational information. No single study explored the impact of the SNSs on the academic performance. Understanding and knowledge of the significant use of SNSs by the medical students demand inclusion of such domains in medical curricula. This will train tomorrow's doctors in fostering their skills of digital technology for educational purposes.

  8. The usage of social networking sites by medical students for educational purposes: A meta-analysis and systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Y Guraya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Online social networking sites (SNSs (e.g., Facebook, MySpace, Flickr, Twitter and YouTube have emerged as rapidly growing mechanisms to exchange personal and professional information among university students. This research aims to determine the medical students′ extent of usage of SNSs for educational purposes. Materials and Methods: Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, the Cochrane library, and Excerpta Medica Data Base (EMBASE were searched to retrieve articles from 2004 to 2014, applying predefined search terms and inclusion criteria. The extracted 10 articles were outlined in a narrative synthesis of Quality, Utility, Extent, Strength, Target and Setting of the evidence (QUESTS. Results: Majority (75% of the respondents admitted using SNSs, whereas 20% used these sites for sharing academic and educational information. No single study explored the impact of the SNSs on the academic performance. Conclusion: Understanding and knowledge of the significant use of SNSs by the medical students demand inclusion of such domains in medical curricula. This will train tomorrow′s doctors in fostering their skills of digital technology for educational purposes.

  9. Applying Rawls to medical cases: an investigation into the usages of analytical philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevory, T C

    1986-01-01

    John Rawls's Theory of Justice has been widely and correctly recognized as a tremendous intellectual accomplishment. It has been applauded as a comprehensive and satisfying approach to the problem of defining justice. Health policy analysts and medical ethicists have thus been inspired to apply Rawls's principles to various health care issues. The result has not been greater coherence in approaches to issues of policy and ethics, leading the author to question the validity of Rawls's analytical approach.

  10. Antibiotics: neuropsychiatric effects and psychotropic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternbach, H; State, R

    1997-01-01

    Antibiotics are the second most commonly prescribed class of medication in the United States. An awareness and understanding of their potential effects on the central nervous system and their interactions with psychotropic agents is important in the evaluation of neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms in patients. Since the introduction of antibiotic agents in the 1930s, numerous (primarily anecdotal) reports have appeared describing psychiatric side effects ranging from anxiety and panic to major depression, psychosis, and delirium in patients with and without a premorbid psychiatric history. Risk factors have included prior psychopathology, coexisting medical conditions, slow acetylator status, advanced age, concomitant medications, and increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, as well as high antibiotic dosage and intrathecal or intravenous administration. Psychiatric toxicity may result from various mechanisms of action, including antagonism of gamma-aminobutyric acid or pyridoxine, adverse interactions with alcohol, or inhibition of protein synthesis. Adverse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between antibiotics and concomitant medications including lithium, benzodiazepines, carbamazepine, valproate, neuroleptics, antidepressants, methadone, and disulfiram have also been reported. Because such effects are often not recognized by clinicians, accurate epidemiologic data on their incidence are not available.

  11. Advances in Microbial Biofilm Prevention on Indwelling Medical Devices with Emphasis on Usage of Acoustic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Lavie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms are a major impediment to the use of indwelling medical devices, generating device-related infections with high morbidity and mortality. Major efforts directed towards preventing and eradicating the biofilm problem face difficulties because biofilms protect themselves very effectively by producing a polysaccharide coating, reducing biofilm sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Techniques applied to combating biofilms have been primarily chemical. These have met with partial and limited success rates, leading to current trends of eradicating biofilms through physico-mechanical strategies. Here we review the different approaches that have been developed to control biofilm formation and removal, focusing on the utilization of acoustic energy to achieve these objectives.

  12. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF RESTORATION METHODS OF X-RAY IMAGES WITH EMPHASIS ON MEDICAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hosseinian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, various medical X-ray imaging methods such as digital radiography, computed tomography and fluoroscopy are used as important tools in diagnostic and operative processes especially in the computer and robotic assisted surgeries. The procedures of extracting information from these images require appropriate deblurring and denoising processes on the pre- and intra-operative images in order to obtain more accurate information. This issue becomes more considerable when the X-ray images are planned to be employed in the photogrammetric processes for 3D reconstruction from multi-view X-ray images since, accurate data should be extracted from images for 3D modelling and the quality of X-ray images affects directly on the results of the algorithms. For restoration of X-ray images, it is essential to consider the nature and characteristics of these kinds of images. X-ray images exhibit severe quantum noise due to limited X-ray photons involved. The assumptions of Gaussian modelling are not appropriate for photon-limited images such as X-ray images, because of the nature of signal-dependant quantum noise. These images are generally modelled by Poisson distribution which is the most common model for low-intensity imaging. In this paper, existing methods are evaluated. For this purpose, after demonstrating the properties of medical X-ray images, the more efficient and recommended methods for restoration of X-ray images would be described and assessed. After explaining these approaches, they are implemented on samples from different kinds of X-ray images. By considering the results, it is concluded that using PURE-LET, provides more effective and efficient denoising than other examined methods in this research.

  14. Assessment of Restoration Methods of X-Ray Images with Emphasis on Medical Photogrammetric Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, S.; Arefi, H.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, various medical X-ray imaging methods such as digital radiography, computed tomography and fluoroscopy are used as important tools in diagnostic and operative processes especially in the computer and robotic assisted surgeries. The procedures of extracting information from these images require appropriate deblurring and denoising processes on the pre- and intra-operative images in order to obtain more accurate information. This issue becomes more considerable when the X-ray images are planned to be employed in the photogrammetric processes for 3D reconstruction from multi-view X-ray images since, accurate data should be extracted from images for 3D modelling and the quality of X-ray images affects directly on the results of the algorithms. For restoration of X-ray images, it is essential to consider the nature and characteristics of these kinds of images. X-ray images exhibit severe quantum noise due to limited X-ray photons involved. The assumptions of Gaussian modelling are not appropriate for photon-limited images such as X-ray images, because of the nature of signal-dependant quantum noise. These images are generally modelled by Poisson distribution which is the most common model for low-intensity imaging. In this paper, existing methods are evaluated. For this purpose, after demonstrating the properties of medical X-ray images, the more efficient and recommended methods for restoration of X-ray images would be described and assessed. After explaining these approaches, they are implemented on samples from different kinds of X-ray images. By considering the results, it is concluded that using PURE-LET, provides more effective and efficient denoising than other examined methods in this research.

  15. Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2011-01-01

    -reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender......Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines...... whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self...

  16. Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines...... whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self......-reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender...

  17. Effects of maternal psychotropic drug dosage on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michielsen LA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Michielsen,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,1 Paddy KC Janssen,2 Harold JH Kuijpers11Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacy, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, the NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes.Methods: A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes.Results: Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01. There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low–intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic.Conclusion: This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes.Keywords: pregnancy, psychotropic medication, dosage, birth outcomes

  18. Usage of medical internet and e-health services by the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujnowska-Fedak, Maria M; Mastalerz-Migas, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Internet and e-health services have a substantial potential to support efficient and effective care for the elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of Internet for health-related purposes among Polish elderly, the frequency and reasons of use, the importance of e-health services, and factors affecting their use. A total of 242 elderly at the age of ≥60 years were selected from the Polish population by random sampling. Data collection was carried out by phone interviews in October-November 2012. The study shows that the Internet was ever used by 32% of the elderly and 1/5 claimed a regular use. Among the Internet users, 81% of older people used it to obtain information about health or illness. The Internet was one of the less important sources of information (important for 27% of respondents), face to face contact with health professionals and family and friends are still the most required source of medical information (75%). Only 7% of elderly Internet users approached the family physician, specialists, or other health professionals over the Internet. Factors that positively affected the use of Internet among elderly were male gender, younger age, higher education, living with family, mobile phone use, and a subjective assessment of one's own health as good. The doctor's provision of Internet-based services was important in the opinion of approximately 1/4 of older people. We conclude that the development of information and communications technology (ICT) tools increasingly meets the evolving needs of patients in the field of e-health. More and more elderly become beneficiaries of these services.

  19. Usage Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Bollen, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Scholarly usage data provides unique opportunities to address the known shortcomings of citation analysis. However, the collection, processing and analysis of usage data remains an area of active research. This article provides a review of the state-of-the-art in usage-based informetric, i.e. the use of usage data to study the scholarly process.

  20. Assessment of palliative care team activities--survey of medications prescribed immediately before and at the beginning of opioid usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myotoku, Michiaki; Murayama, Yoko; Nakanishi, Akiko; Hashimoto, Norio; Koyama, Fumiko; Irishio, Keiko; Kawaguchi, Syunichi; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Ikeda, Kenji; Hirotani, Yoshihiko

    2008-02-01

    We established the Terminal Care Study Group, consisting of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, in September 2001, and developed the group into the Palliative Care Team. We have surveyed the state of concomitant medications immediately before and at the beginning of opioid usage (except injections) to assess the role of the Palliative Care Team. The survey period was 3 years from October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2005. While the frequency of the prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), laxatives, or antiemetics before the beginning of opioid administration did not differ significantly among the 3 periods, that at the beginning of opioid administration increased significantly in 2003 compared with 2002, and increased further in 2004. Many of the drugs used were those that were recommended in our cancer pain management program. Thus, the activities of the Palliative Care Team are considered to have led to proper measures for the control of the major adverse effects of opioids such as constipation and nausea/vomiting in addition to pain control in accordance with the WHO's pain ladder, and also contributed to improvements of the patients' QOL.

  1. Prevalence, Patterns and Predictors of Psychotropic Polypharmacy Among Elderly Individuals with Parkinson's Disease In Long Term Care Settings In The United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sandipan; Goldstone, Lisa; Warholak, Terri

    2016-01-01

    Elderly individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) generally suffer from more than one psychiatric comorbidity, which necessitates the use of concurrent psychotropic medications. To the best of the author's knowledge there are no nationally representative estimates of psychotropic polypharmacy among elderly individuals with PD in the United States (US). Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to examine the prevalence, patterns and predictors of psychotropic polypharmacy among elderly individuals with PD in the (US). A retrospective, cross-sectional study design with 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS) and 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey (NHHCS) data was used. The analytic sample included elderly (age ≥65 years) individuals with PD. Antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedative/hypnotics, and anti-anxiety medications constituted the psychotropic medication classes. Concurrent use of two or more psychotropic medications was classified as psychotropic polypharmacy. Approximately 93,648 and 37,439 elderly individuals with PD resided in nursing homes and home health settings respectively. Among elderly nursing home residents with PD, the nationally representative prevalence of psychotropic polypharmacy was 26.28%, whereas, it was 21.36% in the home health setting. Use of antidepressant medications constituted the majority of the psychotropic medication use among both nursing home (48.91%) and home health (40.98%) residents with PD. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that specific comorbidities were significantly associated with psychotropic polypharmacy among elderly nursing home residents with PD. These findings underscore the importance of evidence-based prescribing when psychotropic medications are used in elderly individuals with PD to reduce unnecessary polypharmacy.

  2. Psychotropic Drug Use in Sao Paulo, Brazil--An Epidemiological Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Quintana

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of one month psychotropic drug use in São Paulo, Brazil, and to assess the gap treatment between the presence of mental disorders and psychotropic drug users.A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the general population of São Paulo (n = 2336; turnout: 84.5% who were 15 years or older were interviewed by a trained research staff, applying the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (CIDI WHO (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections, and an inventory investigating psychotropic drug use during the 12-month and one-month periods immediately preceding the interview. Logistic models were fitted to investigate associations between psychotropic drug use as well as socio-demographic and clinical variables.The one month prevalence of psychotropic drug use in São Paulo was 5.89%, the most commonly used drugs were antidepressants (3.15% and tranquilizers (2.67%. A higher consumption of psychotropic drugs (overall, antidepressants and tranquilizers was observed among women (OR:2.42, older individuals (OR:1.04, individuals with higher levels of formal education (1.06, and individuals with a family (OR:2.29 or personal history of mental illness (OR:3.27. The main psychotropic drug prescribers were psychiatrists (41%, followed by general practitioners (30%; 60% of psychotropic drugs were obtained through a government-run dispensing program. Most individuals who obtained a positive diagnosis on the CIDI 2.1 during the previous month were not using psychotropic medication (85%. Among individuals with a diagnosis of moderate to severe depression, 67.5% were not on any pharmacological treatment.There is a change in the type of psychotropic more often used in São Paulo, from benzodiazepines to antidepressants, this event is observed in different cultures. The prevalence of use is similar to other developing countries. Most of the patients presenting a psychiatric illness in the

  3. Effects of maternal psychotropic drug dosage on birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Laura A; van der Heijden, Frank MMA; Janssen, Paddy KC; Kuijpers, Harold JH

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes. Methods A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes. Results Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01). There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low–intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic. Conclusion This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes. PMID:24376355

  4. Who is portrayed in psychotropic drug advertisements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Sarah E P; Robertson, Emma K; Sansom, Stephanie N; Stewart, Donna E

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine who is portrayed in psychotropic drug advertisements across time in three national psychiatric journals. All psychotropic drug advertisements portraying people were collected from the American Journal of Psychiatry, the British Journal of Psychiatry, and the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry at three time intervals (1981, 1991, and 2001). The advertisements were classified according to patient demographics, patient portrayal, and product information. Chi-square analysis was used to test for statistically significant associations among the variables. Fifty-seven percent of the psychotropic drug advertisements featured women, and 88% portrayed white patients. Statistically significant associations were detected between gender and the setting in which the patient was portrayed (chi(2) = 13.54, df = 3, p effect of these advertisements on physician perception, diagnosis, and prescribing is unknown but may be substantial. Future advertisements for psychotropic drugs should seek more balanced representations of gender and race.

  5. Can Examination of WWW Usage Statistics and other Indirect Quality Indicators Help to Distinguish the Relative Quality of Medical websites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Cervi, Pablo; Gaspar-Guardado, María Asunción; DeArcaya, María Luisa Torres-Álvarez; Ruiz-Rabaza, Ana; Jiménez-Sosa, Alejandro

    1999-01-01

    means that certain indexes obtained from the usage analysis of pediatric websites could be used as quality indicators. On the other hand, the citation analysis on the Web by the quantification of inbound links to medical websites could be an objective and feasible tool in rating great amounts of websites. PMID:11720910

  6. Gender differences and psychotropic polypharmacy in psychiatric patients in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis of the PESSOAS Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Ceccato, Maria das Graças Braga; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2017-05-18

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic polypharmacy in Brazilian psychiatric patients by gender. Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical data were obtained through face-to-face interviews and medical charts of 2,475 patients. Psychotropic polypharmacy was defined as the use of two or more psychotropic drugs and occurred in 85.7% of men (95%CI: 83.6%-87.6%) and 84.9% of women (95%CI: 82.8%-86.8%; p > 0.05). The mean number of psychotropic drugs/patient was 2.98 ± 1.23 and most common combinations included antipsychotics. Multivariate analysis showed that for both genders, previous hospitalization, severe mental illness, multiple psychiatric diagnoses and an insufficient number of professionals in the health care unit was associated with psychotropic polypharmacy. However, other correlates such as inpatient care, use of non-psychotropic drugs, living in unstable conditions and current smoking vary among them. Psychotropic polypharmacy was a common practice in this national sample. The results highlighted the need for national guidelines to manage patients with mental illness, considering the difference among genders and disease severity, to reduce the burden of polyphamacy in this population.

  7. Changes in body weight and psychotropic drugs: a systematic synthesis of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dent

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Psychotropic medication use is associated with weight gain. While there are studies and reviews comparing weight gain for psychotropics within some classes, clinicians frequently use drugs from different classes to treat psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review of all classes of psychotropics to provide an all encompassing evidence-based tool that would allow clinicians to determine the risks of weight gain in making both intra-class and interclass choices of psychotropics. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We developed a novel hierarchical search strategy that made use of systematic reviews that were already available. When such evidence was not available we went on to evaluate randomly controlled trials, followed by cohort and other clinical trials, narrative reviews, and, where necessary, clinical opinion and anecdotal evidence. The data from the publication with the highest level of evidence based on our hierarchical classification was presented. Recommendations from an expert panel supplemented the evidence used to rank these drugs within their respective classes. Approximately 9500 articles were identified in our literature search of which 666 citations were retrieved. We were able to rank most of the psychotropics based on the available evidence and recommendations from subject matter experts. There were few discrepancies between published evidence and the expert panel in ranking these drugs. CONCLUSION: Potential for weight gain is an important consideration in choice of any psychotropic. This tool will help clinicians select psychotropics on a case-by-case basis in order to minimize the impact of weight gain when making both intra-class and interclass choices.

  8. 12家医疗机构体温计使用现状调查%The current status of thermometers usage of medical institutions in 12 hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉萍; 龚月香; 金学勤

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解本地区医疗机构体温计使用现状及存在问题。方法:自行设计问卷对本地区12家医疗机构252名临床护士进行调查,内容包括主要测温工具、体温计使用管理、护士对各种体温计使用方法的认知、护士对汞污染危害的认知等。结果:水银体温计、无汞体温计在医疗机构的使用率分别是100%、48.39%;90.08%的被调查护士有打破水银体温计经历,其中仅有48.63%的护士认为自己能正确处理泄露在环境中的汞;护士对无汞体温计使用方法、注意事项等的认知率均<30%,与水银体温计比较有统计学差异;医疗机构对无汞体温计的使用管理不规范。结论:本地区医疗机构体温测量呈多元化趋势;医疗机构存在汞污染风险;护士无汞体温计使用知识缺乏;无汞体温计临床使用管理存在空白,希望得到管理层的重视和护理相关规范的支持。%Objectives: To investigate the current status of thermometers usage and existing problems. Methods: Totally 252 clinical nurses were recruited from 12 medical institutions in Kunshan and investigated by a self-designed questionnaire including major temperature measurement devices, thermometer usage management, nurses' cognitions of various kinds of thermometers usage and mercury pollution hazard. Results: The usage rates of mercury thermometer and mercury free thermometers in medical institutions were 100% and 48.39%, respectively. About 90.08% nurses had the experience of breaking mercury thermometer and only 48.63% of them considered they could properly handle the leakage of mercury in the environment. The cognition rates of the mercury free thermometers usage method and usage matters needing attention were <30%, which was statistically signiifcant with those of mercury-thermometers. The usage and management of mercury free thermometer in medical institutions were not normative. Conclusion: Temperature

  9. Assessing student usage, perception, and the utility of a Web-based simulation in a third-year medical school clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Eric M; McIvor, William R; Mangione, Michael P

    2016-09-01

    The goals of this study were to assess students' usage data of Web-based simulation (WBS), to determine if it can fill gaps in clinical experience-based medical education, and to determine students' perceived value of this kind of simulation during a clinical clerkship. Observational/prospective cohort. Medical school affiliated with a large academic hospital. A total od 138 medical students. Web-based simulation. Medical students in an anesthesiology clerkship were assigned a WBS focusing on the clinical use of pulmonary artery catheters (PACs). Usage data, including day of week and time of day that the simulation was used and total usage time, were collected for 99 students. Eighty voluntary survey responses, which gauged student perception of the simulation and clinical exposure to PACs, were also collected. Seventy-two percent of attempts were made during nonclinical hours of 5 pm to 7 am. Seventy-seven percent of students spent less than 30 minutes in total using the simulation. Students preferred the simulation (rated 4.1/5) over textbook (3.59) learning to a statistically significant degree (P simulation. Sixty-seven percent of students had never encountered a patient with a PAC before performing the simulation, and 41% did not discuss this learning objective during their clerkship. Students' self-rated understanding of PACs significantly increased from a presimulation score of 1.8 of 5, to 2.56 (mean difference, 0.760; P simulation. WBS in medical school clerkships is accepted by students and can fill gaps in clinical medical school education, without negatively affecting students' workloads or clerkship experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Usage Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoletti, Massimo

    Usage automata are an extension of finite stata automata, with some additional features (e.g. parameters and guards) that improve their expressivity. Usage automata are expressive enough to model security requirements of real-world applications; at the same time, they are simple enough to be statically amenable, e.g. they can be model-checked against abstractions of program usages. We study here some foundational aspects of usage automata. In particular, we discuss about their expressive power, and about their effective use in run-time mechanisms for enforcing usage policies.

  11. Use of psychotropic drugs and associated dental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratto, Giovanni; Manzon, Licia

    2014-01-01

    Patients with problems related to central nervous system dysfunctions are often treated with psychotropic drugs. These include antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsants, and drugs blocking specific receptors in the brain such as anticholinergics or beta-blockers. However, these medications have serious side effects affecting the oral health. In addition, many dental patients make use of psychoactive drugs, such as amphetamine, ecstasy, and cocaine. This article aims to review data on the psychotropic drugs being used in the last 30 years, their pharmacological profile, with special attention to the side effects related to the oral health. Oral diseases such as bruxism, orofacial dystonia, oromandibular dyskinesia, and rabbit syndrome are related to extrapyramidal effects of antipsychotic drugs because of their antagonist activity on the dopaminergic receptors. Drugs with anticholinergic and/or antiadrenergic effects such as tricyclic antidepressants may cause dry mouth and related complications such as candidiasis and other oral infections. Among mood stabilizers, lithium treatment induces a wide range of side effects on oral system including dry mouth, sialorrhea, infections, and ulceration of the oral cavity. Psychostimulants may instead provoke xerotomia, gingival enlargements, bruxism, dental erosion, mucosal ulceration, and oral/nasal lesions. This literature review supports the idea that the higher prevalence of oral diseases among patients with mental disorders may be attributed to the side effects of their medications mediated by complex interactions between different targeted receptors. Thus, dentists must be aware of the possible risks of these medications in order to take appropriate precautions in treating these patients.

  12. Psychotropics in different causes of itch: systematic review with controlled studies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasileiro, Lízie Emanuelle Eulalio; Barreto, Dayanna Patrícia de Carvalho; Nunes, Emerson Arcoverde

    2016-01-01

    Among the wide range of symptoms neglected or resistant to conventional treatments in clinical practice, itch is emerging gradually as a theme to be studied. Itch complaints and the negative effects in the quality of life are observed in several medical fields. Although the partially obscure pathophysiology, some researchers decided to check and test the use of psychotropic drugs in resistant itch to conventional topical treatments and antihistamines. The objective of this study was to evaluate scientific evidence in psychotropic use in the treatment of itch of various causes. This is a systematic review of scientific literature. The following databases were used: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Scielo. Randomized controlled trials that should focus on treatment with psychotropic drugs of pruritus of various causes were the inclusion criteria. All articles were analyzed by the authors, and the consensus was reached in cases of disagreement. Fifteen articles were included after analysis and selection in databases, with the majority of clinical trials focusing on psychopharmacological treatment of itch on account of chronic kidney disease. Clinical trials with psychotropic drugs mostly indicated significant improvement in the itching. In most trials of chronic kidney disease as basal disease for itch, greater effectiveness was observed with the use of psychotropic drugs compared with placebo or other antipruritic. However, the small amount of controlled trials conducted precludes the generalization that psychiatric drugs are effective for itch of various causes. PMID:28099602

  13. [Current evaluation of teratogenic and fetotoxic effects of psychotropic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Omi

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are equally common among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and many of these conditions are treated with psychotropic medications. The use of psychotropic medicines during pregnancy, especially antidepressants, became increasingly prevalent in the early 2000's, although many physicians prefer not to prescribe drugs for pregnant women due to concerns about teratogenicity. Current data on the risks of in utero exposure to psychotropic medications are limited, leaving women and physicians to make difficult decisions regarding the initiation or maintenance of treatment during pregnancy without a complete knowledge of the risks. Of all the psychotropics, antidepressant use in pregnancy has been relatively well studied. However, available studies have not yet adequately controlled for other factors that may influence birth outcomes, including maternal illness or problematic health-related behaviors such as smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy. This review focuses on the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, the antidepressants most commonly used to treat depression. In the evaluation of medication during pregnancy, teratogenicity and fetotoxicity must be considered. Most studies on the use of SSRIs during the first trimester of pregnancy have not shown an increase in the overall risk of major malformations, although several studies have suggested that SSRIs may be associated with a small increased risk of cardiovascular malformations, mainly involving ventricular and atrial septal defects. In addition to structural malformations, drugs were also observed to induce other adverse effects. Since SSRIs readily cross the placenta, concern has been raised about the short- or long-term effects of prenatal exposure to SSRIs on the developing offspring. Epidemiological studies have documented that 10-30% of neonates exposed to SSRIs near term had poor neonatal adaptation syndrome (PNAS). Some studies reported that

  14. A reliable and valid index was developed to measure appropriate psychotropic drug use in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Klaas; Gerritsen, Debby L.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Nelissen-Vrancken, Marjorie H. J. M. G.; Wetzels, Roland B.; Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop an index derived from the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAT) items that is suited for clinical studies evaluating appropriateness of psychotropic drug use (PDU) for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in patients with dementia in nursing homes and to

  15. [Prognostic value of psychotropic drugs for the risk of accidental falls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairaghi, M; Dessì, E; Mittino, F; Panzini, I

    2010-01-01

    Falls in the elderly are common and often serious. Older adults often take numerous medications for multiple chronic conditions, so they have an increased risk for drugs that potentially cause falls. We studied the association between psychotropic drugs and falls in residential care people in order to identify medications that may increase the falls risk. A prospective case control study was performed in the nursing home of Local Health Care. We assessed the incidence of patient falls during admission in nursing home in 2007 and 2008. We compared psychotropic medications (antipsychotic drugs N05B, anxiolytics N05B, antidepressants NO6A, anticholinesterases NO6D) taken by all patients who fell (140 cases) with those taken by patients who did not fall (140 controls), paired with an allocation ratio of 1:1 for the same age (quinquennial classes), sex, time of admission to nursing home. The probability of falls increased when the patients used antipsychotic drugs (OR 1.91; 95% CI 0.47, 0.19; p = 0.0114) and when the number of psychotropic drugs is equal to or greater than 2 the risk of falling increases more. (OR 2.3; 95% CI 0.56, 0.18;p = 0.0036). This work reinforces the importance of routine medication reviews, especially in elderly exposed to psychotropic polypharmacy regimens that include antipsychotic drugs.

  16. Cardiologic side effects of psychotropic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Marano; Gianandrea Traversi; Enrico Romagnoli; Valeria Catalano; Marzia Lotrionte; Antonio Abbate; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai; Marianna Mazza

    2011-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs can produce cardiovascular side effects associated with a degree of cardiotoxicity.The coexistence of a heart disease complicates the management of mental illness,can contribute to a reduced quality of life and a worse illness course.The co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders in cardiac patients might affect the clinical outcome and morbidity.Moreover,the complex underlying mechanism that links these two conditions remains unclear.This paper discusses the known cardiovascular complications of psychotropic drugs and analyzes the important implications of antidepressive treatment in patients with previous cardiac history.

  17. Effects of electromagnetic interference on the functional usage of medical equipment by 2G/3G/4G cellular phones: A revie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periyasamy M. Mariappan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the potential use of wireless devices in healthcare domain for a variety of reasons. The most commonly used device is the cellular phone, which emits strong electromagnetic energy affecting thereby the functionality of the vital medical equipment such as ventilators, ECG monitors, cardiac monitors, and defibrillators. This prompted the healthcare concerns to restrict the use of these phones in the proximity of critical and non-critical care medical equipment. Due to the developments made in the design of medical equipment to comply with the EMC standards, the restriction had been slowly laid off. Still, the researchers are concerned about the electromagnetic interference with medical devices by cellular phones in the healthcare domain and recommend for conducting continuous research to study their interaction with medical equipment. This paper overviews the certain investigations carried out in the recent years to study the electromagnetic interference between medical devices and 2G/3G/4G LTE cellular phones. During the initial development of cellular phones, the 2G cellular phones had caused more interference that affects the function and operation of some medical devices. The possibility of interference from 3G cellular phones with medical devices was considerably lower than the 2G phones, but still exists. Furthermore, almost all of the 4G phones have little to no interference with the medical devices. Currently, with the development of the medical devices industry, the current medical devices are designed to operate safely under any conditions of usage. Finally, a careful analysis would require statistics on the frequency of adverse events across the healthcare system, which apparently do not exist.

  18. Application of behavior-based ergonomics therapies to improve quality of life and reduce medication usage for Alzheimer's/dementia residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, Corinne; Parikh, Pratik J; Bharwani, Govind; Bharwani, Meena

    2013-02-01

    Behavior-based ergonomics therapy (BBET) has been proposed in the past as a viable individualized non-pharmacological intervention to manage challenging behaviors and promote engagement among long-term care residents diagnosed with Alzheimer's/dementia. We evaluate the effect of BBET on quality of life and behavioral medication usage in an 18-bed dementia care unit at a not-for-profit continuing care retirement community in West Central Ohio. Comparing a target cohort during the 6-month pre-implementation period with the 6-month post-implementation period, our study indicates that BBET appears to have a positive impact on the resident's quality of life and also appears to correlate with behavioral medical reduction. For instance, the number of days with behavioral episodes decreased by 53%, the total Minimum Data Set (MDS) mood counts decreased by 70%, and the total MDS behavior counts decreased by 65%. From a medication usage standpoint, the number of pro re nata (PRN) Ativan doses decreased by 57%.

  19. Influence of psychotropic drugs prescription on body weight increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4

  20. Regional Variations in Medication Usage for Cardiovascular Diseases at the Community Level in China (PURE-China Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin Gang; Gu, Hong Qiu; Bo, Jian; Wang, Yang; Li, Wei

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the usage of secondary prevention drugs and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products in individuals with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) at the community level in China. Among 2,407 participants with self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) and 872 with stroke, nearly 80% of individuals with CHD and 73% of individuals with stroke were not taking any proven secondary prevention drug. However, 32.9% of them took TCM products. Patients with CVDs in rural areas used less secondary prevention treatment, but more TCM products than their counterparts in the urban regions. After adjusting for confounding factors, lower rates of secondary prevention treatment were evident in Western China compared with Eastern China, which was more developed. Systematic change is needed to promote the development of evidence-based medicine at the community level in China. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Prescribing psychotropic drugs: whose responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R S; Wiedeman, G H; Linn, L

    1980-01-01

    Through the use of a questionnaire it has been ascertained that a significant number of second-year graduate school social work students at the Columbia University School of Social Work are called upon to monitor and dispense psychotrophic drugs in various placements where they receive their practical clinical training. In some instances they may even fill out prescription blanks that are signed by psychiatrists who do not have the time to see the patients personally. This situation not only represents the abdication of medical responsibility, frequently leaving non-medical personnel with functions beyond their training and professional competence, but also raises important ethical and legal problems. Non-medical professionals in mental health settings should receive appropriate instruction in the essentials of psychopharmacology. Such training should not be left to chance as apparently is the case now. Non-medically trained members of the mental health team, if properly instructed, could cooperate more effectively with the psychiatrists who must in any event retain primary responsibility for pharmacotherapy.

  2. Psychotropic drugs: another survey of prescribing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R; Gopalaswamy, A K

    1984-03-01

    We surveyed the psychotropic drug treatment of our hospital's 220 patients, and compared our findings with those of the only previous hospital survey in this country which showed much allegedly inappropriate prescribing. Using simple classifications of the patients' diagnoses and of the drugs prescribed, 30 per cent of our prescriptions appeared inappropriate in the absence of knowledge of the patients' symptoms. With such knowledge we show that only 2 of our 460 prescriptions were inappropriate.

  3. Investigating the Usage Pattern of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Users of E-journals during 2010-2012 based on Counter Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jalalzaeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The increase in the use of electronic resources in academic and scientific research centers and rising cost of preparing and getting access to these resources is the main reason for the importance of evaluating the amount of use from electronic resources considering appropriate use of funds in this paper. In this study, full-text usage of e-journals of five publishers (Elsevier, John Wiley, Oxford, Emrald and ProQuest was investigated in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from 2010 to 2012. Material and Methods: This is a descriptive-survey research. The required data were acquired from publishers by Counter Reporting. Then, the data were analyzed and tables and diagrams were drawn by Excel software. Results: According to the research findings, among five studied publishers, Elsevier journals had the highest number of downloading full-text articles. After Elsevier, Wiley, Oxford Journals, ProQuest and Emerald were in next ranks respectively. Conclusion: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences has a good manner in meeting the users’ information needs by appropriate policy-making and specifying efficient fund in selecting available journals by Elsevier. Also, there could be a direct relationship between Tabriz University of Medical Sciences’ users’ level of familiarity and Elsevier journals. ​

  4. Differential clinical characteristics, medication usage, and treatment response of bipolar disorder in the US versus The Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; McElroy, Susan L.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Grunze, Heinz; Walden, Joerg; Rowe, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Increased early-onset bipolar illness was seen in the US compared with the Netherlands and Germany (abbreviated here as Europe), but other clinical characteristics, medication use, and treatment response have not been systematically explored. Outpatients with bipolar disorder were treated naturalist

  5. Trends in Psychotropic Polypharmacy Among Youths Enrolled in Ohio Medicaid, 2002—2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Warner, Lynn A.; Phillips, Gary S.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Campo, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined polypharmacy patterns and rates over time among Medicaid-enrolled youths by comparing three enrollment groups (youths in foster care, with a disability, or from a family with low income). Methods Serial cross-sectional trend analyses of Medicaid claims data were conducted for youths age 17 and younger who were continuously enrolled in Ohio Medicaid for a one-year period and prescribed one or more psychotropic medications during fiscal years 2002 (N=26,252) through 2008 (N=50,311). Outcome measures were any polypharmacy (three or more psychotropic medications from any drug class) and multiclass polypharmacy (three or more psychotropic medications from different drug classes). Results Both types of polypharmacy increased across all three eligibility groups. Any polypharmacy increased from 8.8% to 11.5% for low-income youths (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.12, 99% confidence interval [CI]=1.10–1.13), from 18.0% to 24.9% for youths with a disability (AOR=1.11, CI=1.09–1.13), and from 19.8% to 27.3% for youths in foster care (AOR=1.09, CI=1.07–1.11). Combinations associated with positive increases were two or more antipsychotics, two or more stimulants, and antipsychotics with stimulants. Conclusions Polypharmacy increased across all enrollment groups, with the highest absolute rates for youths in foster care. Both the overall prevalence and increases in prescriptions for drug combinations with limited evidence of safety and efficacy, such as the prescription of two or more antipsychotics, underscore the need for targeted quality improvement efforts. System oversight and monitoring of psychotropic medication use appears to be warranted, especially for higher-risk groups, such as youths in foster care and those from low-income households who were prescribed multiple antipsychotics. PMID:25022817

  6. Trends in psychotropic polypharmacy among youths enrolled in Ohio Medicaid, 2002-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Cynthia A; Warner, Lynn A; Phillips, Gary S; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Campo, John V

    2014-11-01

    This study examined polypharmacy patterns and rates over time among Medicaid-enrolled youths by comparing three enrollment groups (youths in foster care, with a disability, or from a family with low income). Serial cross-sectional trend analyses of Medicaid claims data were conducted for youths age 17 and younger who were continuously enrolled in Ohio Medicaid for a one-year period and prescribed one or more psychotropic medications during fiscal years 2002 (N=26,252) through 2008 (N=50,311). Outcome measures were any polypharmacy (three or more psychotropic medications from any drug class) and multiclass polypharmacy (three or more psychotropic medications from different drug classes). Both types of polypharmacy increased across all three eligibility groups. Any polypharmacy increased from 8.8% to 11.5% for low-income youths (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.12, 99% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-1.13), from 18.0% to 24.9% for youths with a disability (AOR=1.11, CI=1.09-1.13), and from 19.8% to 27.3% for youths in foster care (AOR=1.09, CI=1.07-1.11). Combinations associated with positive increases were two or more antipsychotics, two or more stimulants, and antipsychotics with stimulants. Polypharmacy increased across all enrollment groups, with the highest absolute rates for youths in foster care. Both the overall prevalence and increases in prescriptions for drug combinations with limited evidence of safety and efficacy, such as the prescription of two or more antipsychotics, underscore the need for targeted quality improvement efforts. System oversight and monitoring of psychotropic medication use appears to be warranted, especially for higher-risk groups, such as youths in foster care and those from low-income households who were prescribed multiple antipsychotics.

  7. THE USAGE OF ORIGINAL COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR SCREENING OF SENILE ASTHENIA IN PRE- AND POST GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana G. Gorelik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of introduction of information technologies in educational process of medical students and students of postgraduate education were shown in the article. The actuality of material, which was outlined in the article, was caused by problems, which prevailed in the system of high education and by necessity of cooperation between practical health care and theoretical knowledge. For this aim the original «Computer program of optimization of care in geriatrics in dependence from degree of senile asthenia” was proposed. This program solved not only problems of qualitative alteration of informative environment of educational system but it contributed to increasing of effectiveness of knowledge’s mastering for increasing the quality of medical and social help to population.

  8. User satisfaction survey and usage of an electronic desktop document delivery service at an academic medical library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Ellen N; Murray, Sarah D

    2003-01-01

    In June 2000, the Biomedical Library at the University of South Alabama introduced Prospero, an electronic desktop document delivery service. From June 2000 to November 2002, Prospero delivered 28% of interlibrary loan requests and 72% of document delivery requests. In November 2002, the library conducted a user satisfaction survey of the Prospero service. Forty-two surveys were used. Fifteen responses were received from affiliated faculty, staff, and students, who generally expressed satisfaction with the service. Twenty-seven responses were received from unaffiliated users, comprised of medical libraries, individual users, and businesses. Based on the survey results, the library deemed the Prospero service a success. To better support users, the library's Web page was updated to include hardware and software requirements for successful use of the Prospero service, as well as screen shots of the Prospero process.

  9. Psychotropic drug prescriptions in Western European nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janus, Sarah I M; van Manen, Jeannette G; IJzerman, Maarten J; Zuidema, Sytse U

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the numerous warnings of European and national drug agencies as well as clinical guidelines since the year 2004, psychotropic drugs are still frequently used in dementia. A systematic review comparing the use of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes from different European countrie

  10. Psychotropic drug prescriptions in Western European nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janus, Sarah I. M.; van Manen, Jeannette G.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Zuidema, Sytse U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the numerous warnings of European and national drug agencies as well as clinical guidelines since the year 2004, psychotropic drugs are still frequently used in dementia. A systematic review comparing the use of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes from different European countrie

  11. Adverse drug reactions from psychotropic medicines in the paediatric population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba H

    2010-01-01

    ADRs reported for psychotropic medicines in the Danish paediatric population over a decade. FINDINGS: All spontaneous ADR reports from 1998 to 2007 for children from birth to 17 years of age were included. The unit of analysis was one ADR. We analysed the distribution of ADRs per year, seriousness, age......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The prescribing of psychotropic medicines for the paediatric population is rapidly increasing. In attempts to curb the use of psychotropic medicine in the paediatric population, regulatory authorities have issued various warnings about risks associated with use...... of serious ADRs reported in children from birth up to 2 years of age were presumably caused by mothers' use of psychotropic medicines during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The high number of serious ADRs reported for psychotropic medicines in the paediatric population should be a concern for health care...

  12. A STUDY ON THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, PERCEPTIONS AND PRACTICES OF ANTIBIOTIC USAGE AND RESISTANCE AMONG THE MEDICAL STUDENTS OF JNIMS, IMPHAL, MANIPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyami Tarao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The threat of antibiotic resistance is rapidly progressing. Awareness on its seriousness is the first step towards curtailing its progress. Young doctors should be given more education during their undergraduate training regarding antibiotic resistance & appropriate prescribing. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude concerning ant ibiotic resistance as well as their self - reported practices related to antibiotic usage among the undergraduate medical students of Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences (JNIMS, Imphal Manipur. A cross - sectional study was conducted during March t o May 2014. Data were collected through self - administered questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS version 22. Descriptive statistics like mean, SD and percentages were used. Chi - square test was used for analysis where p - value of less than 0.05 was taken as sign ificant. Out of 372 undergraduate medical students, 52% were females and their mean age was 21.9±1.8 (SD years. It was found that 68.3% of the respondents had the knowledge of antibiotics being used for killing/inhibiting bacteria. Indiscriminate used of antibiotic lead to ineffective treatment (96.5%, leading to bacterial resistance (96%. Only 40.1% of them consulted doctor before they start antibiotics and 54.8% stop the antibiotics if they felt better after 2 - 3 doses of antibiotics. The knowledge of b acterial resistance following indiscriminate use of antibiotics was significantly higher among male (p=0.005 students and who were below 20 years of age (p=0.05 and after crossing 1 st MBBS (p=0.001. Hence it is the time to educate the students to ensure complete course of antibiotics uses

  13. Association between plasma soluble RAGE and renal function is unaffected by medication usage and enzymatic antioxidants in chronic kidney disease with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Foo Nian; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Keng, Tee Chau; Ng, Kok Peng; Chua, Kek Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2016-01-30

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between soluble RAGE and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) after controlling for the potential confounding factors such as medication usage and enzymatic antioxidants. A total of 222 CKD patients whose eGFR is less than 60ml/min/1.73m(2) and 111 non-CKD individuals were recruited. The study subjects were classified based on their diabetes status. The plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as plasma soluble RAGE level were measured. The plasma GPx and SOD activities were significantly lower and the plasma soluble RAGE level was significantly higher in the CKD patients than in the non-CKD individuals, regardless of the diabetes status. Soluble RAGE was significantly correlated with eGFR in both diabetic CKD (D-CKD) and non-diabetic CKD (ND-CKD) patients. The association between soluble RAGE and eGFR remained largely unaffected by the confounding factors in D-CKD patients. However, the confounding effect of enzymatic antioxidants in the relationship between eGFR and soluble RAGE was observed in ND-CKD patients. The increased plasma level of soluble RAGE is a better indicator of renal function decline in diabetic CKD patients instead of non-diabetic CKD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinically relevant drug interactions between anticancer drugs and psychotropic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, K Y-L; Tay, W L; Chui, W K; Chan, A

    2011-01-01

    Drug interactions are commonly seen in the treatment of cancer patients. Psychotropics are often indicated for these patients since they may also suffer from pre-existing psychological disorders or experience insomnia and anxiety associated with cancer therapy. Thus, the risk of anticancer drug (ACD)-psychotropic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is high. Drug interactions were compiled from the British National Formulary (53rd edn), Lexi-Comp's Drug Information Handbook (15th edn), Micromedex (v5.1), Hansten & Horn's Drug Interactions (2000) and Drug Interaction Facts (2008 edn). Product information of the individual drugs, as well as documented literature on ACD-psychotropic interactions from PubMed and other databases was also incorporated. This paper identifies clinically important ACD-psychotropic DDIs that are frequently observed. Pharmacokinetic DDIs were observed for tyrosine kinase inhibitors, corticosteroids and antimicrotubule agents due to their inhibitory or inductive effects on cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. Pharmacodynamic DDIs were identified for thalidomide with central nervous system depressants, procarbazine with antidepressants, myelosuppressive ACDs with clozapine and anthracyclines with QT-prolonging psychotropics. Clinicians should be vigilant when psychotropics are prescribed concurrently with ACDs. Close monitoring of plasma drug levels should be carried out to avoid toxicity in the patient, as well as to ensure adequate chemotherapeutic and psychotropic coverage.

  15. Psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in old age: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piirtola Maarit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that the use of any psychotropic and the concomitant use of two or more benzodiazepines are related to an increased risk of fractures in old age. However, also controversial results exist. The aim was to describe associations between the use of a psychotropic drug, or the concomitant use of two or more of these drugs and the risk of fractures in a population aged 65 years or over. Methods This study was a part of a prospective longitudinal population-based study carried out in the municipality of Lieto, South-Western Finland. The objective was to describe gender-specific associations between the use of one psychotropic drug [benzodiazepine (BZD, antipsychotic (AP or antidepressant (AD] or the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in a population 65 years or over. Subjects were participants in the first wave of the Lieto study in 1990-1991, and they were followed up until the end of 1996. Information about fractures confirmed with radiology reports in 1,177 subjects (482 men and 695 women during the follow-up was collected from medical records. Two follow-up periods (three and six years were used, and previously found risk factors of fractures were adjusted as confounding factors separately for men and women. The Poisson regression model was used in the analyses. Results The concomitant use of two or more BZDs and the concomitant use of two or more APs were related to an increased risk of fractures during both follow-up periods after adjusting for confounding factors in men. No similar associations were found in women. Conclusions The concomitant use of several BZDs and that of several APs are associated with an increase in the risk of fractures in older men. Our findings show only risk relations. We cannot draw the conclusion that these drug combinations are causes of fractures.

  16. A study in Renaissance psychotropic plant ointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piomelli, D; Pollio, A

    1994-01-01

    Various historical sources from the Renaissance--including transcripts of trials for witchcraft, writings on demonology and textbooks of pharmaceutical botany--describe vegetal ointments prepared by women accused of witchcraft and endowed with marked psychoactive properties. Here, we examine the botanical composition and the possible pharmacological actions of these ointments. The results of our study suggest that recipes for narcotic and mind-altering salves were known to Renaissance folk healers, and were in part distinct from homologous preparations of educated medicine. In addition, our study reveals an unexpected connection of these vegetal psychotropes with archaic chtonic beliefs, confirming the tight association between rituals and cults entered on the Underworld and the image of the Medieval witch.

  17. Filiation et consommation de medicaments psychotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Ducousso-Lacaze

    Full Text Available A partir de deux entretiens semi-directifs l’auteur présente certains aspects des résultats d’une recherche clinique réalisée avec des patients de l’hôpital général consommant des médicaments psychotropes. Il s’agit de mette en évidence comment, pour certains patients, la consommation et la prescription prennent un sens par rapport aux enjeux de la filiation narcissique. Les analyses cliniques portent essentiellement sur la fonction de support imaginaire de la transmission que peuvent revêtir les médicaments ainsi que leur rôle dans les conflits entre appartenance et différenciation à l’égard du groupe familial.

  18. Antipsychotic Medications in Major Depression and the Association with Treatment Satisfaction and Quality of Life:Findings of Three National Surveys on Use of Psychotropics in China Between 2002 and 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xi Wang; Yu-Tao Xian; Yun-Ai Su; Qian Li; Liang Shu; Chee H Ng; Gabor S Ungvari

    2015-01-01

    Background:Optimizing treatment outcomes for depression requires understanding of how evidence-based treatments are utilized in clinical practice.Antipsychotic medications concurrent with antidepressant treatment are frequently used in major depression,but few studies have investigated trends and patterns of their use over time.This study aimed to examine the prescription patterns of antipsychotic medications for major depression in China from 2002 to 2012 and their association with treatment satisfaction and quality of life (QOL).Methods:A total of 3655 subjects with major depression treated in 45 Chinese psychiatric hospitals/centers nationwide were interviewed between 2002 and 2012.Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics including psychopathology,medication side effects,satisfaction with treatment and QOL were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection.Results:The frequency ofantipsychotic use was 24.9% in the whole sample;the corresponding figures were 17.1%,20.3%,and 32.8% in 2002,2006,and 2012,respectively (x2 =90.3,df=2,P < 0.001).Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that patients on concurrent antipsychotics had significantly more delusions or hallucinations,longer illness duration,greater side effects,and more likely to be treated as inpatients and in major hospitals (i.e.,Levcl-Ⅲ hospital).Antipsychotic use was associated with lower treatment satisfaction while there was no significant difference with respect to physical and mental QOL between the antipsychotic and nonantipsychotic groups.Conclusions:Concurrent antipsychotic use was found in about one in four treated depressed patients in China,which has increased over a 10-year period.Considering the association of drug-induced side effects and the lack of patients' and relatives' satisfaction with antipsychotic treatment,further examination of the rationale and appropriateness of the use of antipsychotics in depression is needed.

  19. Antipsychotic Medications in Major Depression and the Association with Treatment Satisfaction and Quality of Life: Findings of Three National Surveys on Use of Psychotropics in China Between 2002 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Xi; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Qian; Shu, Liang; Ng, Chee H; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen FK; Nin, Yu-Ping; Wang, Gao-Hua; Bai, Pei-Shen; Li, Tao; Sun, Li-Zhong; Shi, Jian-Guo; Chen, Xian-Sheng; Mei, Qi-Yi; Li, Ke-Qing; Yu, Xin; Si, Tian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Optimizing treatment outcomes for depression requires understanding of how evidence-based treatments are utilized in clinical practice. Antipsychotic medications concurrent with antidepressant treatment are frequently used in major depression, but few studies have investigated trends and patterns of their use over time. This study aimed to examine the prescription patterns of antipsychotic medications for major depression in China from 2002 to 2012 and their association with treatment satisfaction and quality of life (QOL). Methods: A total of 3655 subjects with major depression treated in 45 Chinese psychiatric hospitals/centers nationwide were interviewed between 2002 and 2012. Patients’ socio-demographic and clinical characteristics including psychopathology, medication side effects, satisfaction with treatment and QOL were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection. Results: The frequency of antipsychotic use was 24.9% in the whole sample; the corresponding figures were 17.1%, 20.3%, and 32.8% in 2002, 2006, and 2012, respectively (χ2 = 90.3, df = 2, P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that patients on concurrent antipsychotics had significantly more delusions or hallucinations, longer illness duration, greater side effects, and more likely to be treated as inpatients and in major hospitals (i.e., Level-III hospital). Antipsychotic use was associated with lower treatment satisfaction while there was no significant difference with respect to physical and mental QOL between the antipsychotic and nonantipsychotic groups. Conclusions: Concurrent antipsychotic use was found in about one in four treated depressed patients in China, which has increased over a 10-year period. Considering the association of drug-induced side effects and the lack of patients’ and relatives’ satisfaction with antipsychotic treatment, further examination of the rationale and appropriateness of the use of antipsychotics in depression

  20. Determinants for the use of psychotropics among nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Uhrskov; Foldspang, A; Gulmann, N C

    2001-01-01

    on the Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical (ATC) classification index, psychotropics were categorised into neuroleptics, benzodiazepines and antidepressants. Two hundred and eight-eight residents were diagnosed using the GMS–AGECAT. One hundred and eighteen staff members were interviewed about the residents......'s Activities of Daily Living (ADL), behavioural problems (Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale), orientation, communication skills and if the resident had any psychiatric disorder. Multiple logistic regression was used to select the items that determined the use of psychotropics. Results Fifty-six percent...... of the residents received a psychotropic, 21% received neuroleptics, 38% received benzodiazepines and 24% received antidepressants. In the multivariate analysis, staff assessment of the resident's mental health was a determinant for the use of all types of specific psychotropics, whereas a GMS–AGECAT diagnosis...

  1. an appraisal of psychotropic drugs and their consequences among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... It requires a lot of physical activities that are stressful to the participants .... 2.1 Two Major Groups of Psychotropic Drugs. There are two ... Stimulant is an agent that arouses organic activity, strengthens the ..... Cohesion and.

  2. Clozapine in schizophrenia and its association with treatment satisfaction and quality of life: Findings of the three national surveys on use of psychotropic medications in China (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Su, Yun-Ai; Shu, Liang; Yu, Xin; Correll, Christoph U; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Ma, Cui; Wang, Gao-Hua; Bai, Pei-Shen; Li, Tao; Sun, Li-Zhong; Shi, Jian-Guo; Chen, Xian-Sheng; Mei, Qi-Yi; Li, Ke-Qing; Si, Tian-Mei; Kane, John M

    2015-10-01

    We examined the time trends and correlates of clozapine use in schizophrenia patients in China. A total of 14,013 patients with schizophrenia treated in 45 psychiatric hospitals/centers nationwide were interviewed in 2002, 2006 and 2012. Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics including psychopathology, medication side effects, satisfaction with treatment and quality of life (QOL) were recorded in a standardized fashion. Clozapine was used in 32.9% of the whole sample; with corresponding figures of 39.7%, 32.5% and 26.4% in 2002, 2006 and 2012 (pschizophrenia patients in China, with decreasing frequency since 2002. Patients prescribed clozapine had multiple markers of greater global illness severity/chronicity and decreased satisfaction with treatment by the families, but similar QOL and less delusions and hallucinations than patients not prescribed clozapine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychotropic Pharmaceuticals in Aquatic Systems: An Ecological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hedgespeth, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic pharmaceuticals have been shown to exert a variety of sublethal effects on non-target organisms, even at low concentrations found in the environment (ng/L to µg/L); hence, the aim of my research has been to determine the individual-level effects of psychotropic pharmaceuticals (the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors sertraline and fluoxetine, and the β-blocker propranolol) on behavioral and life history traits in freshwater organisms. Further, this research was directed towa...

  4. Aberrant Behaviors and Co-occurring Conditions as Predictors of Psychotropic Polypharmacy among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah L; Carpenter, Laura; Leslie, R Scott; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Hunt, Kelly J; Charles, Jane; Nicholas, Joyce S

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify rates and predictors of psychotropic medication polypharmacy among Medicaid-eligible children in South Carolina with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from 2000 to 2008. Population-based surveillance data were linked with state Medicaid records to obtain a detailed demographic, behavioral, educational, clinical, and diagnostic data set for all Medicaid-eligible 8-year-old children (n=629) who were identified and diagnosed with ASD using standardized criteria. Polypharmacy was defined as having interclass psychotropic medication claims overlapping for ≥30 consecutive days at any time during the 2-year study period. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model predictors of any polypharmacy, and for the three most common combinations. Overall, 60% (n=377) used any psychotropic medication, and 41% (n=153) of those had interclass polypharmacy. Common combinations were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications with an antidepressant (A/AD), antipsychotic (A/AP) or a mood stabilizer (A/MS). Black children had lower odds of any polypharmacy, as did those eligible for Medicaid because of income or being foster care versus those eligible because of disability. There were no significant associations between polypharmacy and social deficits in ASD for any combination, although children with communication deficits diagnostic of ASD had lower odds of any polypharmacy and A/AP polypharmacy. Children with argumentative, aggressive, hyperactive/impulsive, or self-injurious aberrant behaviors had higher odds of polypharmacy, as did children with diagnosed co-occurring ADHD, anxiety or mood disorders, or conduct/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in Medicaid records. Future research is warranted to investigate how child-level factors impact combination psychotropic medication prescribing practices and outcomes in ASD.

  5. usage of electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Cinaroglu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health care is an organizational field that information and technology improves quickly. With ensuring health professionals adaptation to this new information and technology environment, it is possible to achieve quality and productivity improvement goal in health care. It is known that different clinical expertises brings differences in presentation of health services. It this study it was aimed to compare nurses assessments about electronic health records usage. At the end of the study it was found that nurses assessment about electronic health records usage according to different clinical expertises has a meaningful difference (t=2,40, p<0,05. Results of this study shows that surgical nurses who are forefront with and ldquo;technical abilities and rdquo; have more positive assessments about usage of electronic medical records when they compared with medical nurses who are forefront with and ldquo;patient centered and rdquo; abilities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 257-264

  6. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pneumonia is the most frequent complication in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning, which results in substantial morbidity and mortality, but which also increases the costs of treatment. Risk factors for pneumonia are numerous: age, sex, place of the appearance of pneumonia, severity of underlying disease, airway instrumentation (intubation, reintubation, etc. The incidence of pneumonia varies in poisoning caused by the various groups of drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia in the patients with acute psychotropic drugs poisoning. Methods. A group of 782 patients, out of which 614 (78.5% with psychotropic and 168 (21.5% nonpsychotropic drug poisoning were analyzed prospectively during a two-year period. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made according to: clinical presentation, new and persistent pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography, positive nonspecific parameters of inflammation, and the microbiological confirmation of causative microorganisms. To analyze predisposing risk factors for pneumonia, the following variables were recorded: sex, age, underlying diseases, endotracheal intubation, coma, severity of poisoning with different drugs, histamine H2 blockers, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheter. The univariate analysis for pneumonia risk factors in all patients, and for each group separately was done. The multivariate analysis was performed using the logistic regression technique. Results. Pneumonia was found in 94 (12.02% of the patients, 86 of which (91.5% in psychotropic and 8 (8.5% in nonpsychotropic drug poisoning. In the psychotropic drug group, pneumonia was the most frequent in antidepressant (47%, and the rarest in benzodiazepine poisoning (3.8%. A statistically significant incidence of pneumonia was found in the patients with acute antidpressant poisoning (p < 0.001. Univariate analysis showed statistical significance for the

  7. High prevalence of psychotropic drug use among persons with and without Alzheimer's disease in Finnish nationwide cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Heidi; Koponen, Marjaana; Tanskanen, Antti; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2014-11-01

    Psychotropic drugs are used for treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) although they are associated with serious adverse drug events. Objective of our study was to investigate prevalence of psychotropic drug use one year after diagnoses of Alzheimer's disease (AD), to compare prevalence to persons without AD and to assess changes in prevalence over time. Data from the MEDALZ (Medication use and Alzheimer's disease) cohort was utilized in the study including all 69,080 community-dwelling persons with new diagnosis of AD during years 2005-2011 in Finland. Four age-, gender- and region of residence-matched persons without AD were identified for each case. Register-based data included prescription drug purchases and comorbidities from Special Reimbursement Register. Annual prevalence of psychotropic drug use one year after diagnosis was determined for each person. Psychotropic drugs were used by 53% of persons with AD compared with 33% of persons without AD during one year after diagnoses. Persons with AD were six times more likely to use antipsychotics and three times more likely to use antidepressants whereas benzodiazepine and related drug (BZDR) use was comparable between persons with and without AD. According to year of AD diagnoses during 2005-2011, antipsychotic use increased from 18% to 20% (p<0.0001) and BZDR use declined from 31% to 26% (p<0.0001) among persons with AD. Widespread utilization of psychotropic drugs was observed among persons with AD. Despite safety warnings of antipsychotic use for BPSD, antipsychotic use increased from 2005 to 2011 among newly diagnosed persons with AD in Finland.

  8. Sudden death of cardiac origin and psychotropic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadiri eTimour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mortality rate is high in psychiatric patients versus general population. An important cause of this increased mortality is sudden cardiac death (SCD as a major side-effect of psychotropic drugs. These SCDs generally result from arrhythmias occurring when the posology is high and may attain a toxic threshold but also at dosages within therapeutic range, in the presence of risk factors. There are three kinds of risk factors: physiological (e.g.: low cardiac rate of sportsmen, physiopathological (e.g.: hepatic insufficiency, hypothyroidism and "therapeutic" (due to interactions between psychotropic drugs and other medicines. Association of pharmacological agents may increase the likelihood of SCDs either by i a pharmacokinetic mechanism (e.g.: increased torsadogenic potential of a psychotropic drug when its destruction and/or elimination are compromised or ii a pharmacodynamical mechanism (e.g.: mutual potentiation of proarrhythmic properties of two drugs. In addition, some psychotropic drugs may induce sudden death in cases of pre-existing congenital cardiopathies such as i congenital long QT syndrome, predisposing to torsade de pointes that eventually cause syncope and sudden death. ii a Brugada syndrome, that may directly cause ventricular fibrillation due to reduced sodium current through Nav1.5 channels. Moreover, psychotropic drugs may be a direct cause of cardiac lesions also leading to SCD. This is the case, for example, of phenothiazines responsible for ischemic coronaropathies and of clozapine that is involved in the occurrence of myocarditis. The aims of this work are to delineate: i the risk of SCD related to the use of psychotropic drugs; ii mechanisms involved in the occurrence of such SCD; iii preventive actions of psychotropic drugs side effects, on the basis of the knowledge of patient-specific risk factors, documented from clinical history, ionic balance and ECG investigation by the psychiatrist.

  9. Child, parent, and service predictors of psychotropic polypharmacy among adolescents and young adults with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Johanna K; Weiss, Jonathan A; Dergal, Julie; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the child, parent, and service factors associated with polypharmacy in adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As part of an online survey examining health service utilization patterns among individuals with ASD, parents provided demographic and clinical information pertaining to their child. This included information on current medication use, as well as information on clinical services received, clinical history, and parent well-being. Analyses examined the bivariate association between individual child, parent, and service variables and polypharmacy. Variables significantly associated with polypharmacy were included in a multiple variable logistic regression. Of the 363 participants sampled, ∼25% were receiving two or more psychotropic drugs concurrently. The patient's psychiatric comorbidity, history of hurting others, therapy use, and parent burden were predictors of polypharmacy. Adolescents and young adults with ASD are a highly medicated population with multiple factors associated with psychotropic polypharmacy. Although there may be circumstances in which polypharmacy is necessary, a richer understanding of what predicts polypharmacy may lead to targeted interventions to better support these individuals and their families. Findings also highlight the need to support families of children with ASD prescribed multiple psychotropic medications.

  10. The Effect of Psychotropic Substances to the Creativity of Painters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamanti A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Creativity is a central feature of Art, with painting being one of its creative expressions. Painting was used as a method of measuring creativity in clinical studies of the past that have examined the relationship between creativity and narcotics. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of creativity and the use of psychotropic substances. Furthermore, it was investigated, whether the use of psychotropic substances pushes artists to specific artistic writing. Materials and Methods. The research questions of the study were formed using the PICO method. Α systematic review of the bibliography followed in data bases, PubMed, ScienceDirect θαη Google Scholar. From the amounted articles the final selection was formed from twelve articles investigating the correlation of psychotropic substances and creativity in sub-study population consisted of painters. Results. Almost all studies showed changes in the expressive language of painters due to drug use, which led to expressionistic writing. The majority of the studies showed no significant positive connection between creativity and the use of psychotropic substances. Conclusions. The correlation of psychotropic substances and creativity seems to be influenced by the kind of visual writing used by the artist to produce a creative product.

  11. ECG Changes In Patients On Chronic Psychotropic medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... lack of exercise, obesity, substance misuse) and high autonomic ... heart; however, it might precipitate complete heart block in the presence of .... ECG changes such as rate, rhythm, T waves and QT interval changes have ...

  12. The use of psychotropic substances among students: The prevalence, factor association, and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Fadhilah bt Mamat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This detailed review analyzed the previously published studies related to the prevalence of psychotropic substances use, associated factors, and the misuse of the psychotropics among students. A comprehensive literature search covering six databases was performed. References from published articles and reports were extracted. This helped in identifying the available information on the use of psychotropic drugs. A total of 16 articles were included in this review. There is an upsurge of using psychotropics with the preceding years. More students are exposed to the risk of using psychotropic substances due to the multiple factors like stress, increased academic workload, etc. The misuse is found to be common with prescribed psychotropic substances. Students need to be aware of the bad outcomes of using psychotropic substances. Participation of every stakeholder to curb this menace needs to be emphasized. More extensive studies are required to know about the increasing prevalence, factors, and misuse of psychotropics.

  13. Chronic psychotropic drug treatment causes differential expression of Reelin signaling system in frontal cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J; Folsom, Timothy D

    2009-06-01

    Disruption of the Reelin and GABAergic signaling systems have been observed in psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. Less is known of therapeutic interventions that may help ameliorate the effects of these disruptions. The current study investigated whether chronic administration of psychotropic medications (clozapine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, lithium, olanzapine, and valproic acid) used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders alters levels of Reelin, its receptor Vldlr, downstream molecules Gsk3 beta, Dab-1, and Gad65/67 in rat prefrontal cortex as measured by qRT-PCR and SDS-PAGE and western blotting. qRT-PCR revealed that mRNAs for Reelin, Vldlr, Dab-1, Gsk3 beta, and Gad65 were each significantly altered by at least one of the drugs tested, and in the case of Reelin, Dab-1, and Gsk3 beta, by multiple drugs. To verify our results, we also performed SDS-PAGE and western blotting experiments. Again, several of the protein products for Reelin, Vldlr, Dab-1, Gsk3 beta, Gad65, and Gad67 were also significantly altered by multiple drugs. The present results suggest that the Reelin signaling and GABAergic systems are affected by commonly used psychotropic medications. These changes may help explain the efficacy of these drugs and provide further support for the investigation of the Reelin and GABAergic signaling systems as therapeutic targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases.

  14. Analysis of prescription and dispensation of psychotropic medications in two cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Análise da prescrição e dispensação de medicamentos psicotrópicos em dois municípios do Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Noto

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prescription and dispensation of psychotropic medications through the analysis of the prescriptions/notices kept at various institutions in two cities in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: The prescriptions kept at drugstores, magistral pharmacies, primary care settings and hospitals were collected and analyzed in collaboration with the Sanitary Vigilance agencies in the year of 1999. The information in the prescriptions/notices were typed and tabulated. RESULTS: A total of 108,215 prescriptions were processed, being 76,954 for benzodiazepines, 26,930 for anorexigenic drugs, 3,540 for opiates and 788 for other drugs. The benzodiazepines most frequently prescribed were: diazepam (31,644, bromazepam (16,911 and clonazepam (7,929. Among the anorexigenic drugs, diethylpropion (14,800 and femproporex (10,942 were the most common. When compared to men, women were given more prescriptions, mainly for anorexigenic drugs: the ratio was 10:1 in the prescriptions for diethylpropion and femproporex. The few magistral pharmacies (n=6 handled even more prescriptions than did the drugstores (n=49. A number of errors and inconsistencies were detected in the prescriptions analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the occurrence of an irrational use of such medications and a series of inadequate practices related to their prescription in Brazil. Therefore, they point out to the need of a comprehensive review of the government's control system of these substances.OBJETIVOS: Analisar a prescrição e dispensação de medicamentos psicotrópicos por meio da análise das receitas/notificações retidas em diferentes estabelecimentos de dois municípios do estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Em parceria com as Vigilâncias Sanitárias dos municípios, foram coletadas e analisadas as prescrições retidas em drogarias, farmácias de manipulação, postos públicos e hospitais no ano de 1999. Os dados contidos nas receitas/notificações foram

  15. To what extent does the indicator “concurrent use of three or more psychotropic drugs” capture use of potentially inappropriate psychotropics among the elderly?

    OpenAIRE

    Lesén, Eva; Petzold, Max; Andersson, Karolina; Carlsten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The indicator ?concurrent use of three or more psychotropic drugs? has been used as a measure of quality in drug use among the elderly. The aim of our study was to assess to what extent the indicator captures the use of specific psychotropics associated with an increased risk of adverse events among the elderly, i.e., potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs (PIP). Methods All individu...

  16. Reducing Psychotropic Polypharmacy in patients with severe mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, P; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Killian, R.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with mental illness receive psychotropic medicine in high dosages and from more than one drug. One of the consequences of this practice is obesity, which is a contributing factor to increased physical morbidity and premature death. METHODS: Our study was a cluster...

  17. Impact of hospital type II violent events: use of psychotropic drugs and mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, John M; Lipscomb, Hester J; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Pompeii, Lisa A

    2014-06-01

    While violence can adversely affect mental health of victims, repercussions of violence against workers is not as well characterized. We explored relationships between workplace violent events perpetrated by patients or visitors (Type II) against hospital employees and the employee use of psychotropic medications or mental health services using a data system that linked violent events with health claims. Significant associations were observed between reported Type II workplace violent events and employee prescription claims for anti-depressants and anxiolytics combined (RR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.01-2.33) and anti-depressants alone (RR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.10-2.48). No significant association between reported violent events and health claims for treatment of depression or anxiety was observed. Type II violence experienced by hospital workers may lead to increased use of psychotropic drugs, particularly anti-depressants but also anxiolytics. Our results suggest an important role of employee assistance programs in mitigating the psychological consequences of workplace violent events. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Influence of BMI, gender, and sports on pain decrease and medication usage after facet–medial branch neurotomy or SI joint lateral branch cooled RF-neurotomy in case of low back pain: original research in the Austrian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Wolfgang; Stelzer, Valentin; Stelzer, Dominik; Braune, Monika; Duller, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective original research was designed to illustrate the general outcome after radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy of lumbar medial branch (MB) and posterior ramus of the sacroiliac joint of 160 patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Methods Visual Analog Scale (VAS) 0–10 pain scores, quality of life, body mass index (BMI), medication usage, and frequency of physical exercise/sports participation (none, 1–3×/week, more) were collected before the procedure, at 1 month post procedure (n=160), and again at 6 (n=73) and 12 months (n=89) post procedure. Results A VAS decrease of 4 points on a 10-point scale (from 8 to 4) in the overall group was seen after 6 months and of 4.5 after 12 months. Lower medication usage was reported, with opioids decreased by 40% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by 60%. Decreased pain lasted for 12 months. Significantly better outcomes were reported by patients with BMIs 30 are less likely to report decreased pain. The better long-term pain relief in the sports participating group is a motivation for the authors to keep the patients in motion. PMID:28144161

  19. Effects of electromagnetic interference on the functional usage of medical equipment by 2G/3G/4G cellular phones: A revie

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Periyasamy M. Mariappan; Dhanasekaran R. Raghavan; Shady H.E. Abdel Aleem; Ahmed F. Zobaa

    2016-01-01

    .... The most commonly used device is the cellular phone, which emits strong electromagnetic energy affecting thereby the functionality of the vital medical equipment such as ventilators, ECG monitors...

  20. Wohin mit den älteren medizinischen Zeitschriftenbänden? - Die Benutzungserhebung 2004 an der Universitätsbibliothek der Medizinischen Universität Wien / Where to put the back numbers? - Usage of older medical journals at the Medical University Library Vienna in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing usage of e-journals questions the library's print archive. This is particularly valid for medical libraries where mainly up to date literature is required. From March to June 2004 the use of back numbers at the Medical University Library Vienna was recorded in order to assess utilisation of print journals published before 1986. During these four month 10.286 bound volumes were taken out from the print archive. Journal title, publication year and type of usage (local or interlibrary loan was registered. A ranking list of the most used journals was compiled including their impact factor. On average it came to about 105 uses per workday. This remarkable demand for back numbers is a clear argument for keeping the library's print archive inhouse regarding the publishers' patchy online backfile collections.

  1. Use of psychotropic drugs before pregnancy and the risk for induced abortion: population-based register-data from Finland 1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritvanen Annukka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some, though not all studies have reported an increased risk for mental health problems after an induced abortion. Problems with design and data have compromised these studies and the generalisation of their results. Methods The Finnish Medication and Pregnancy database (N = 622 671 births and 114 518 induced abortions for other than fetal reasons in 1996-2006 was utilised to study the use of psychotropic drugs in the three months before a pregnancy ending in a birth or an induced abortion. Results In total 2.1% of women with a birth and 5.1% of women with an induced abortion had used a psychotropic medicine 0-3 months before pregnancy. Psychotropic drug users terminated their pregnancies (30.9% more often than other pregnant women (15.5%. Adjustment for background characteristics explained one third of this elevated risk, but the risk remained significantly increased among users of psychotropic medicine (OR 1.94, 95% confidence intervals 1.87-2.02. A similar risk was found for first pregnancies (30.1% vs. 18.9%; adjusted OR 1.53, 95% confidence intervals 1.42-1.65. The rate for terminating pregnancy was the highest for women using hypnotics and sedatives (35.6% for all pregnancies and 29.1% for first pregnancies, followed by antipsychotics (33.9% and 36.0% and antidepressants (32.0% and 32.1%. Conclusions The observed increased risk for induced abortion among women with psychotropic medication highlighs the importance to acknowledge the mental health needs of women seeking an induced abortion. Further studies are needed to establish the impact of pre-existing differences in mental health on mental health outcomes of induced abortions compared to outcomes of pregnancies ending in a birth.

  2. Psychotropic marketing practices and problems: implications for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Melissa; Parry, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The descriptive diagnostic model since DSM-III has often led to "cookbook" diagnosis and assumptions of "chemical imbalance" for psychiatric disorders. Pharmaceutical companies have exploited this in their marketing. This includes promoting self-diagnosis with online checklists. Significant overprescribing of psychotropics has resulted. DSM-5 will provide new disorders and broader diagnostic criteria that will likely exacerbate this. Most psychotropic prescribing is done by primary care physicians, who are problematically excluded from DSM-5 field trials and are influenced by industry funded key opinion leaders who may promote diagnosis of subthreshold cases. More lax criteria will increase diagnosis of subthreshold cases. Expansion of not otherwise specified (NOS) categories can be used to justify off-label promotion. Pediatric bipolar disorder, constructed within the bipolar disorder NOS category, became an "epidemic" in the United States, fuelled by diagnostic upcoding pressures. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder may similarly cause overdiagnosis and excessive prescribing, as will other new disorders and lower diagnostic thresholds.

  3. Cultural symbolism of fish and the psychotropic properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, L C; Hibbeln, J R

    2006-01-01

    Fish is a food with unique psychotropic properties. Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, rich in seafood, reduces depression, aggression and anger while improving mental well-being. We posit that symbols of fish have become linked to the emotional states induced by long-chain fatty acid by associative pairings, both conscious and unconscious. The limbic and hippocampal activity necessary for memory formation containing emotional content and the labeling of social context by cortical processes appears to be optimized by diets rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acid. In this critical literature survey, we find that fish have been culturally labeled as symbols of emotional well-being and social healing in religious and medical practices among independent cultures, for at least six millennia. This understanding of the perception of fish as a symbolically healing or purifying food can assist current messages improving public health.

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Huntington’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Psychotropics (antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, anxiolytics, etc.) are commonly prescribed to treat Huntington’s disease (HD). In HD preclinical models, while no psychotropic has convincingly affected huntingtin gene, HD modifying gene, or huntingtin protein expression, psychotropic neuroprotective effects include upregulated huntingtin autophagy (lithium), histone acetylation (lithium, valproate, lamotrigine), miR-222 (lithium-plus-valproate), mitochondrial protection (haloperidol, trifluoperazine, imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine, melatonin), neurogenesis (lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, sertraline), and BDNF (lithium, valproate, sertraline) and downregulated AP-1 DNA binding (lithium), p53 (lithium), huntingtin aggregation (antipsychotics, lithium), and apoptosis (trifluoperazine, loxapine, lithium, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, cyproheptadine, melatonin). In HD live mouse models, delayed disease onset (nortriptyline, melatonin), striatal preservation (haloperidol, tetrabenazine, lithium, sertraline), memory preservation (imipramine, trazodone, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine), motor improvement (tetrabenazine, lithium, valproate, imipramine, nortriptyline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine), and extended survival (lithium, valproate, sertraline, melatonin) have been documented. Upregulated CREB binding protein (CBP; valproate, dextromethorphan) and downregulated histone deacetylase (HDAC; valproate) await demonstration in HD models. Most preclinical findings await replication and their limitations are reviewed. The most promising findings involve replicated striatal neuroprotection and phenotypic disease modification in transgenic mice for tetrabenazine and for sertraline. Clinical data consist of an uncontrolled lithium case series (n = 3) suggesting non-progression and a primarily negative double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of lamotrigine. PMID:24248060

  5. Psychotropic drug effects on gene transcriptomics relevant to Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Psychotropics are widely prescribed in Alzheimer disease (AD) without regard to their pathobiological effects. Results summarize a comprehensive survey of psychotropic effects on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression for 52 genes linked to AD. Pending future investigations, current data indicate that atypical antipsychotics, lithium, and fluoxetine reduce AD risk, whereas other drug classes promote risk. Risk may be attenuated by antipsychotics and lithium (down-regulate TNF), atypical antipsychotics (down-regulate TF), risperidone (down-regulates IL1B), olanzapine (up-regulates TFAM, down-regulates PRNP), fluoxetine (up-regulates CLU, SORCS1, NEDD9, GRN, and ECE1), and lithium coadministered with antipsychotics (down-regulates IL1B). Risk may be enhanced by neuroleptics (up-regulate TF), haloperidol (up-regulates IL1B and PION), olanzapine (down-regulates THRA and PRNP, up-regulates IL1A), and chlorpromazine, imipramine, maprotiline, fluvoxamine, and diazepam (up-regulate IL1B). There were no results for dextromethorphan-plus-quinidine. Fluoxetine effects on CLU, NEDD9, and GRN were statistically robust. Drug effects on specific variants, polymorphisms, genotypes, and other genes (CCR2, TF, and PRNP) are detailed. Translational AD risk applications and their limitations related to specific genes, mutations, variants, polymorphisms, genotypes, brain site, sex, clinical population, AD stage, and other factors are discussed. This report provides an initial summary and framework to understand the potential impact of psychotropic drugs on AD-relevant genes.

  6. Duration of residence and psychotropic drug use in recently settled refugees in Sweden--a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Norredam, Marie; Hjern, Anders

    2014-12-20

    Recently settled refugee populations have consistently been reported to have high rates of mental health problems, particularly Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among young adult refugees according to duration of residence during the first 10 years in Sweden. Cross-sectional register study of a national cohort of 43 403 refugees and their families (23-35 years old) from Iraq, Iran, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Afghanistan and a comparison population of 1.1 million Swedish-born residents. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between duration of residence in Sweden and the dispensing of at least one psychotropic medication during 2009 in four categories (any drug, neuroleptics, antidepressants and anxiolytics/hypnotics), adjusting for age, gender and domicile. Rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees were low, compared to the Swedish-born, with an increase with duration of residence. For refugee men and women from Iraq/Iran who had resided for 0-3 years the adjusted ORs compared to Swedish natives, were 0.83 (95% CI 0.77-0.90) and 0.48 (0.44-0.53) respectively; for men and women from the Horn of Africa the ORs were 0.50 (0.42-0.61) and 0.36 (0.30-0.41) respectively. After 7-10 years of residence, the ORs in these refugee groups approached the Swedish comparison population. Refugees from Afghanistan presented ORs similar to the Swedish-born, with no consistent trend by duration of residence. Women from the Horn of Africa and Iraq/Iran consumed less psychotropic drugs compared with men from these regions of origin, relative to the Swedish-born (p refugee study groups, while the ORs for dispensed antidepressants differed fourfold between the group with the lowest (Horn of Africa) and the highest (Afghanistan). The rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs in the newly settled refugee populations in this study were low, with an

  7. Social inequalities and correlates of psychotropic drug use among young adults: a population-based questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of psychotropic drugs is widespread in Europe, and is markedly more common in France than elsewhere. Young adults often fare less well than adolescents on health indicators (injury, homicide, and substance use. This population-based study assessed disparities in psychotropic drug use among people aged 18–29 from different socio-occupational groups and determined whether they were mediated by educational level, health status, income, health-related behaviours, family support, personality traits, or disability. Methods A total of 1,257 people aged 18–29, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering sex, date of birth, height, weight, educational level, occupation, smoking habit, alcohol abuse, income, health-status, diseases, reported disabilities, self-reported personality traits, family support, and frequent psychotropic medication for tiredness, nervousness/anxiety or insomnia. The data were analyzed using the adjusted odds ratios (ORa computed with logistic models. Results Use of psychotropic drugs was common (33.2%. Compared with upper/intermediate professionals, markedly high odds ratios adjusted for sex were found for manual workers (2.57, 95% CI 1.02–6.44, employees (2.58, 1.11–5.98, farmers/craftsmen/tradesmen (4.97, 1.13–21.8, students (2.40, 1.06–5.40, and housewives (3.82, 1.39–10.5. Adjusting for all the confounders considered reduced the estimates to a pronounced degree for manual workers (adjusted OR 1.49, non-significant but only slightly for the other socio-occupational groups. The odds ratio for unemployed people did not reach statistical significance. The significant confounders were: sex, not-good health status, musculoskeletal disorders and other diseases, being worried, nervous or sad, and lack of family support (adjusted odds ratios between 1.60 and 2.50. Conclusion There were marked disparities among young adults from different socio

  8. Improving value-add work and satisfaction in medical residents training: a resident-led quality improvement project employing the lean method to improve hospital supply usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jesse X; Hunt, Tristan D; Ting, Henry H; Henderson, Dan; Finkelstein, Julia; Davidson, Karina W

    2017-04-01

    Our hospital has a Housestaff Quality Council that fosters education and mentorship of medical residents for quality improvement methodologies. Medical residents on our council identified non-standardised storage rooms as a source of medical resident inefficiency and dissatisfaction. To improve value-add work, medical residents implemented and evaluated a quality improvement project of storage room supplies using the lean method. Using 5S principle and lean methodology, we designed and implemented a standardised supply cart with physician specific supplies. Between April 2014 and April 2015, 40 random observations (20 residents and 20 nurses) both before and after the standardised supply cart implementation were made. The duration time to locate an item was measured in seconds. The paths taken to locate items were drawn as spaghetti diagrams. Nurses served as our control group given that their supplies were not moved in the implementation. Fifty residents were surveyed to assess their satisfaction. Implementation of the standardised supply cart reduced the time for residents to locate an item per visit from 50.8 to 30.2 s in one unit (p5S principles and lean methodology to identify and solve a problem that created inefficiency and dissatisfaction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  10. Weight Gain, Obesity, and Psychotropic Prescribing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Nihalani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A majority of psychiatric medications are known to generate weight gain and ultimately obesity in some patients. There is much speculation about the prevalence of weight gain and the degree of weight gain during acute and longitudinal treatment with these agents. There is newer literature looking at the etiology of this weight gain and the potential treatments being used to alleviate this side effect. The authors undertook a comprehensive literature review in order to present epidemiology, etiology, and treatment options of weight gain associated with antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants.

  11. The Effectiveness of Mood Stabilizers and Antiepileptic Medication for the Management of Behaviour Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, S.; Chaplin, R.; Sohanpal, S.; Unwin, G.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Psychotropic medications are used to manage behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disability (ID). One group of psychotropic medication are mood stabilizers such as lithium and some antiepileptic drugs. Method: A comprehensive systematic review was performed to determine the evidence base for the effectiveness of mood…

  12. 我院出院患者口服二类精神药品处方分析%Analysis of Oral Second Kind Psychotropic Drugs Prescription in Our Hospital Patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯燕

    2013-01-01

    目的分析我院出院患者口服二类精神药品使用是否合理。方法以我院出院患者的口服精神药品处方为依据,采用限定日剂量(DDD)和药物利用指数为指标对其进行调查和分析。结果随机抽查的7种口服二类精神药品其药物利用指数DUI<1.00。结论我院住院部临床医生对口服二类精神药品的用法、用量和疗程的掌握较好,使用合理。%Objective To analyse the rationality of oral second kind psychotropic drugs in our hospital patients. Methods On the basis of oral psychotropic drugs prescription, Using defined daily dose (DDD) and drug utilization index as indicators for investigation and analysis. Results Random checks of 7 kinds of oral second kind psychotropic drugs, the drug utilization index less than 1.0. Conclusion The usage, dosage and treatment course of the oral second kind psychotropic drugs are bet er and reasonable in our hospital.

  13. An investigation of medical students'usage of internet learning resources in Hangzhou Normal University%医学生网络学习资源运用现状与需求调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘巧燕; 许鸣; 骆湘香; 许亮文

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解医学生与非医学生网络学习资源的运用情况和特点,为提高网络学习资源运用提供理论依据.方法:以班级为单位,分层整群抽取杭州师范大学465名医学院学生与280名非医学院学生,对两者的网络学习资源获取能力、应用能力、使用效果和期待四方面进行匿名问卷调查,分析网络学习资源运用情况.结果:医学生对万方数据库的知晓率,通过图书馆获取网络学习资源的比例显著高于非医学生(P<0.05),两者在网络学习资源的访问频率、检索方式、学习效率上的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:应结合医学生的特点,通过学校、教师配合指导以及学生的积极参与,提高医学生网络学习资源的运用水平.%Objective:To investigate the Internet learning resources use of the college students to find out the traits of students'usage of Internet learning resources,and to provide suggestions and measures to improve network resources utilization. Methods:By stratified cluster sampling method,465 students from medical college and 280 students from other colleges were chosen with class as unit from Hangzhou normal university. The four aspects of the use of Internet learning resources( access,application,effect,expectation)were investigated by questionnaire. Results:The awareness of Wanfang database and the rate of accessing Internet learning resources through library among students from medical college were significantly higher than other students(P<0. 05). There were significant differences in the network resources access frequency,retrieval way and learning efficiency among medical and other college students(P<0. 05). Conclusion:The traits of medical student's usage of Internet learning resources should be concentrated,teachers and students should carried out measures to improve students'rational use of network resources.

  14. Factors Affecting the Readiness of Medical Doctors and Patients with Chronic Conditions toward the Usage of Smartphones in the Saudi Arabian Healthcare Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam M Al-Mahadeen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the rapid increase in the number of individuals who use smartphones. However, smartphones appear to be increasingly used by healthcare workers, particularly physicians and nurses. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the readiness of medical doctors and patients with chronic conditions in using and adopting smartphones for communication. This study employs the Technology Acceptance Model to examine the behavior of people in using smartphones from the perspe...

  15. Complex psychotropic polypharmacy in bipolar disorder across varying mood polarities: A prospective cohort study of 2712 inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Julia C; Goethe, John W; Woolley, Stephen B

    2017-10-15

    It is common for patients with bipolar disorder (BP) to receive multiple psychotropics, but few studies have assessed demographic and clinical features associated with risk for receiving complex psychotropic polypharmacy. This longitudinal cohort study examined 2712 inpatients with a DSM-IV clinical diagnosis of BP to assess associations between complex polypharmacy (defined as ≥4 psychotropics) and demographic and clinical features; associations with risk of rehospitalization were also examined. Logistic regressions were performed with the sample as a whole and with each of four DSM-IV BP subtypes individually. Complex polypharmacy was present in 21.0%. BP-I depressed patients were more likely to receive complex regimens than BP-I manic, BP-I mixed or BP-II patients. In the sample as a whole, variables significantly associated with complex polypharmacy included female, white, psychotic features and a co-diagnosis of borderline personality, post-traumatic stress or another anxiety disorder. The only examined medication not significantly associated with complex polypharmacy was lithium, although only in BP-I depressed and BP-I mixed. Complex polypharmacy was associated with rehospitalization in BP-I mania within 15 and 30days post index hospitalization. All data were from one clinical facility; results may not generalize to other settings and patient populations. BP-I depression may pose a greater treatment challenge than the other BP subtypes. Lithium may confer an overall advantage compared to other medications in BP-I depressed and BP-I mixed. Further research is needed to guide pharmacotherapy decisions in BP patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Severe hypoglycemia symptoms, antecedent behaviors, immediate consequences and association with glycemia medication usage: Secondary analysis of the ACCORD clinical trial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonds Denise E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoglycemia is a common complication of diabetes treatment. This paper describes symptoms, predecessors, consequences and medications associated with the first episode of severe hypoglycemia among ACCORD participants with type 2 diabetes, and compares these between intensive (Int: goal A1C Methods Information about symptoms, antecedents, and consequences was collected at the time participants reported an episode of severe hypoglycemia. Data on medications prescribed during the clinical trial was used to determine the association of particular diabetes drug classes and severe hypoglycemia. Results The most frequently reported symptoms in both glycemia group were weakness/fatigue (Int 29%; Std 30% and sweating (Int 26%; Std 27%, followed by confusion/disorientation (Int 22%; Std 29% and shakiness (Int 21%; Std 19%. Approximately half of all events were preceded by a variation in food intake (Int 48%; Std 58%. The most common consequences were confusion (Int 37%; Std 34%, loss of consciousness (Int 25%; Std 25%, and hospitalization (Int 18%; Std 24%. The highest rates of hypoglycemia were found among those participants treated with insulin only (Int 6.09/100 person yrs; Std 2.64/100 person yrs while the lowest were among those prescribed oral agents only (Int 1.93/100 person yrs; Std 0.20/100 person yrs. Conclusions Severe hypoglycemia episodes were frequently preceded by a change in food intake, making many episodes potentially preventable. Symptoms of confusion/disorientation and loss of consciousness were frequently seen. The highest rates of hypoglycemia were seen with prescription of insulin, either alone or in combination with other medications. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00000620

  17. Combined use of ECT and psychotropic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Merk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT,despite a significant psychopharmacological development and introduction of modern drugs in recent years, is still an important, biological treatment of proven, high clinical efficacy. In the management algorithms it is still considered as a method of choice in treatment of drug-resistant patients. No wider use of ECTmay in part result from fears of potential interactions with pharmacotherapy, or need to interrupt the current treatment. The issue of potential impact of pharmacotherapy on many procedure parameters, including mostly seizure threshold and therefore indirectly clinical effect, is still up-to-date. Systematic studies have revised the existing theories about restrictions in the administration of medications during ECT treatment. Nowadays more often not only the safety of such procedure, but also possibility of synergistic therapeutic effect of ECT and psychopharmacology is highlighted. The authors present previous reports on combined use of pharmacotherapy and ECT, safety or potential risks associated with this treatment and proposals of scientific bodies in this regard. Interpretative limitations of conducted research, including especially case reports or observations of small groups, which requires further studies involving more numerous patient populations is noteworthy.

  18. Improving psychotropic drug prescription in nursing home patients with dementia : design of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Gerritsen, Debby L.; Nelissen-Vrancken, Marjorie H. J. M. G.; Wetzels, Roland B.; van der Spek, Klaas; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are highly prevalent in nursing home patients with dementia. Despite modest effectiveness and considerable side effects, psychotropic drugs are frequently prescribed for these neuropsychiatric symptoms. This raises questions whether psychotropic drugs are

  19. Investigation and analysis on the frequency of anti -psychotropic drugs of all grades of mental health institutions in Hebei%河北省各级精神卫生医疗机构抗精神药物使用频度的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 张云淑; 钱卫国; 翟京波; 孙秀丽; 严保平; 徐娜; 栗克清

    2014-01-01

    Objective To survey of the usage of psychotropic drugs in mental health institutions in Hebei province in 2011.Methods Use limit daily dose ( DDD) , pharmacoeconomics frequency analysis method and drug sales amount were as index.The drug outbound records of 39 mental health institutions in Hebei province on 2011 were analyzed.Re-sults The ranked first of psychotropic drugs in mental health institutions of different grades ( grade 3,2,1) were as followed.The ranked first of antipsychotic drug were quetiapine , risperidone, clozapinein in the 3,2, 1 institutions , respectively.The ranked first of antidepressants were cita-lopram, paroxetine, amitriptyline,in the 3,2,1 institutions, respectively.The ranked first of emotional stabilizer were magnesium valproate sus-tained-release tablets ( SR) , magnesium valproate SR , valproate in the 3,2,1 institutions, respectively.Conclusion Mental health institutions in Hebei province at all grades have tended to use the new generation of psychotropic drugs with reasonable -price, definite -curative, but significant differences exist in the medical institutions at differert levels.%目的:调查河北省精神卫生机构2011年各类精神药物的使用情况。方法以河北省39家精神卫生机构2011年全年药品出库记录为对象,以限定日剂量( DDD)为指标,对精神药物使用情况进行统计分析。结果在三、二、一级医疗机构中,各种不同精神类药物排名居首位的如下:抗精神病药物分别是奎硫平(三级)、利培酮(二级)、氯氮平(一级);抗抑郁药分别是西酞普兰、帕罗西汀、阿米替林;情感稳定剂分别是丙戊酸镁缓释片、丙戊酸镁缓释片、丙戊酸钠。结论河北省各级医疗机构对精神药物使用情况当前均趋向于使用价格合理、疗效明确的新一代精神药物,但上述三级医疗机构比较存在明显差异。

  20. Differences in smartphone usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustarini, Mattia; Scipioni, Marcello Paolo; Fanourakis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the users’ intimacy to investigate the differences in smartphone usage, considering the user’s location and number and kind of people physically around the user. With a first user study we (1) validate the intimacy concept, (2) evaluate its correlation to smartphone usage features and (3......-time features are predictive for the intimacy, and other smartphone-based features can improve the intimacy prediction accuracy....

  1. Surveying the familiarity and usage of up-to-date database among nurses working in the hospitals affiliated with Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, A H; AghazadeAsl, E; Bigdeli, Z; SakiMalehi, A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The evidence-based databases provide the details of the latest scientific findings of research on an individual subject. Factual databases have gained a significant attention regarding the importance and application of evidence-based medical information. Therefore, the purpose of present study was to investigate the level of familiarity by using an Up-To-Date database among the nurses working at the hospitals affiliated with Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medial Sciences, and by this, making ground for cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness analyses. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical research, conducted on a sample of 293 nurses selected from a population of 1246 nurses, working at the hospitals affiliated with Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. For the data collection, a researcher built questionnaire was used, and its validity and reliability were confirmed, its Cronbach's alpha coefficient being calculated as 0.71. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis test were run. Results: According to the findings, the majority of the nurses were female, having a Bachelor's degree. The nurses had a mid-familiarity with the Up-To-Date database, and most of them used this database in a very limited manner. When using the Up-To-Date database, their primary goal was to update their information and to answer to the clinical questions of the patients. Conclusions: According to the findings, it could be concluded that the access to the recent and up-to-date information in the domain of nursing required the training of the nurses with the necessary skills in information use, to be able to obtain updated information from evidence-based databases and other information resources.

  2. Psychotropic drugs and the perioperative period : A proposal for a guideline in elective surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyse, FJ; Touw, DJ; Van Schijndel, RS; De Lange, JJ; Slaets, JPJ

    2006-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the perioperative management of psychotropic drugs are lacking. The level of evidence is low and is based on case reports, open trials, and non-systematic reviews. However, the interactions and effects mentioned indicate that patients who use psychotropics and require s

  3. Off-label and unlicensed prescribing of psychotropics in children in Dutch general practice .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, A.; Dijk, L. van

    2006-01-01

    Background: Unsafe drug use is a point of concern in children with psychotropics. Methylfenidate is licensed to prescribe above the age of 6 years, but most of the antidepressants and benzodiazepines are not approved in children. We studied the off-label and unlicensed prescribing of psychotropics i

  4. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H

    2015-01-01

    : Sertraline and citalopram are first-line treatment among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for depression. It is recommended to use lithium for bipolar disorders if an overall assessment finds an indication for mood-stabilizing treatment during pregnancy. Lamotrigine can be used. Valproate...... and carbamazepin are contraindicated. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and clozapine can be used for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how...

  5. Rhabdomyolysis Syndrome in Alcohol, Psychotropic Drugs, and Illicit Substance Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the major complications of poisoning causedby alcohol, narcotics, and psychotropic substances acute toxicity, which might lead toacute renal failure and even death. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratoryfindings of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in poisoning patients who were admitted topoisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute toxicity by alcohol, narcotics,or psychotropic drugs who were admitted in poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital ofHamadan were investigated during a 6-month period in 2012. Clinical and laboratorydata were collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS softwareversion 16.Results: Eighty-two patients aged between 14 to 81 years were investigated. Twentytwocases developed rhabdomyolysis and narcotics related toxicity was the mostcommon cause. The most common clinical symptom in all patients was muscle pain(51cases, Laboratory studies showed some significant differences between serumcreatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum creatinine, andaminotransferases (AST,ALT levels in rhabdomyolysis cases as compared to theothers (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the incidence of rhabdomyolysissyndrome in acute intoxication with alcohol and narcotics is significant and withoutproper treatment might cause serious complications such as acute renal failure andeven death. Classic clinical signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are usually notpresent simultaneously, thus strong clinical suspicion and proper laboratory tests haveimportant role in early diagnosis and suitable treatment. Laboratory studies have animportant role in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  6. Topical cyclosporine to control ocular surface disease in patients with chronic glaucoma after long-term usage of topical ocular hypotensive medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Dhiman, R; Dada, T; Tandon, R; Vanathi, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate changes in ocular surface and central corneal sub-basal nerve fiber layer (SBNFL) after topical cyclosporin therapy in chronic glaucoma patients on long-term topical antiglaucoma therapy. Methods A prospective comparative study of ocular surface evaluation of chronic glaucoma patients on long-term topical therapy treated concurrently with a topical cyclosporine 0.05% twice daily for 6 months and controls was done. The study parameters evaluated at recruitment and at the 6-month follow-up included details of topical antiglaucoma medications, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, ocular surface evaluation parameters (TBUT, Schirmers I, ocular surface staining scores and ocular surface disease (OSD) index score (OSDI)), central corneal sensation (Cochet Bonnett aesthesiometer), and central confocal microscopy to study the SBNFL density (SBNFLD). Results Thirty-two eyes of 16 patients with chronic glaucoma and 30 eyes of 15 normal subjects as controls were studied. Mean TBUT, pre/post CsA treatment was 8.67±3.01/12.24±1.83 s (P=0.007). Mean conjunctival/corneal staining scores pre/post CsA treatment were 3.38±1.93/1.50±0.718 (P=0.00) /5.19±1.82/1.81±0.78 (P=0.098), respectively. Mean OSDI pre/post CsA treatment scores were 30.63±14.61/14.76±6.06 (P=0.007). Mean corneal sensations scores pre/post CsA treatment were 4.64±0.46/4.94±0.39 (P=0.002). Central corneal SBNFLD pre and post CsA treatment was 8811.35±2985.29/10335.13±4092.064 μm/mm2 (P=0.0001). Conclusions Schirmer's test, ocular surface staining scores, OSDI, corneal sensations, and corneal SBNFLD showed a statistically significant improvement following a 6-month concurrent topical CsA therapy. PMID:25857609

  7. World Technology Usage Lags

    OpenAIRE

    Diego A. Comin; Bart Hobijn; Emilie Rovito

    2006-01-01

    We present evidence on the differences in the intensity with which ten major technologies are used in 185 countries across the world. We do so by calculating how many years ago these technologies were used in the U.S. at the same intensity as they are used in the countries in our sample. We denote these time lags as technology usage lags and compare them with lags in real GDP per capita. We find that (i) technology usage lags are large, often comparable to lags in real GDP per capita, (ii) us...

  8. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  9. Cases of Adverse Reaction to Psychotropic Drugs and Possible Association with Pharmacogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Piatkov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of samples for pharmacogenetic tests have been analysed in our laboratory since its establishment. In this article we describe some of the most interesting cases of CYP poor metabolisers associated with adverse reactions to psychotropic drugs. Prevention of disease/illness, including Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR, is an aim of modern medicine. Scientific data supports the fact that evaluation of drug toxicology includes several factors, one of which is genetic variations in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drug pathways. These variations are only a part of toxicity evaluation, however, even if it would help to prevent only a small percentage of patients from suffering adverse drug reactions, especially life threatening ADRs, pharmacogenetic testing should play a significant role in any modern psychopharmacologic practice. Medical practitioners should also consider the use of other medications or alternative dosing strategies for drugs in patients identified as altered metabolisers. This will promise not only better and safer treatments for patients, but also potentially lowering overall healthcare costs.

  10. Workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use: the mediating role of physical and mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stéphanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre; Acquarone, D; Aicardi, F; André-Mazeaud, P; Arsento, M; Astier, R; Baille, H; Bajon-Thery, F; Barre, E; Basire, C; Battu, J L; Baudry, S; Beatini, C; Beaud'huin, N; Becker, C; Bellezza, D; Beque, C; Bernstein, O; Beyssier, C; Blanc-Cascio, F; Blanchet, N; Blondel, C; Boisselot, R; Bordes-Dupuy, G; Borrelly, N; Bouhnik, D; Boulanger, M F; Boulard, J; Bourreau, P; Bourret, D; Boustière, A M; Breton, C; Bugeon, G; Buono-Michel, M; Canonne, J F; Capella, D; Cavin-Rey, M; Cervoni, C; Charreton, D; Charrier, D; Chauvin, M A; Chazal, B; Cougnot, C; Cuvelier, G; Dalivoust, G; Daumas, R; Debaille, A; De Bretteville, L; Delaforge, G; Delchambre, A; Domeny, L; Donati, Y; Ducord-Chapelet, J; Duran, C; Durand-Bruguerolle, D; Fabre, D; Faivre, A; Falleri, R; Ferrando, G; Ferrari-Galano, J; Flutet, M; Fouché, J P; Fournier, F; Freyder, E; Galy, M; Garcia, A; Gazazian, G; Gérard, C; Girard, F; Giuge, M; Goyer, C; Gravier, C; Guyomard, A; Hacquin, M C; Halimi, E; Ibagnes, T; Icart, P; Jacquin, M C; Jaubert, B; Joret, J P; Julien, J P; Kacel, M; Kesmedjian, E; Lacroix, P; Lafon-Borelli, M; Lallai, S; Laudicina, J; Leclercq, X; Ledieu, S; Leroy, J; Leroyer, L; Loesche, F; Londi, D; Longueville, J M; Lotte, M C; Louvain, S; Lozé, M; Maculet-Simon, M; Magallon, G; Marcelot, V; Mareel, M C; Martin, P; Masse, A M; Méric, M; Milliet, C; Mokhtari, R; Monville, A M; Muller, B; Obadia, G; Pelser, M; Peres, L; Perez, E; Peyron, M; Peyronnin, F; Postel, S; Presseq, P; Pyronnet, E; Quinsat, C; Raulot-Lapointe, H; Rigaud, P; Robert, F; Robert, O; Roger, K; Roussel, A; Roux, J P; Rubini-Remigy, D; Sabaté, N; Saccomano-Pertus, C; Salengro, B; Salengro-Trouillez, P; Samsom, E; Sendra-Gille, L; Seyrig, C; Stoll, G; Tarpinian, N; Tavernier, M; Tempesta, S; Terracol, H; Torresani, F; Triglia, M F; Vandomme, V; Vieillard, F; Vilmot, K; Vital, N

    2011-03-01

    The association between workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use is not well established. This study was aimed at exploring the association between workplace bullying, and its characteristics, and psychotropic drug use and studying the mediating role of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the south-east of France. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument elaborated by Leymann, and psychotropic drug use, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physico-chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. Workplace bullying was strongly associated with psychotropic drug use. Past exposure to bullying increased the risk for this use. The more frequent and the longer the exposure to bullying, the stronger the association with psychotropic drug use. Observing bullying on someone else at the workplace was associated with psychotropic drug use. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms reduced the magnitude of the associations, especially for men. The association between bullying and psychotropic drug use was found to be significant and strong and was partially mediated by physical and mental health.

  11. PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINE PRESCRIPTIONS IN A PRIMARY CARE UNIT IN A BIG CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oliveira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming toknowthe consumptionprofileof psychotropic drugs inpopulation ofperipheral region of abig cityof São Paulo State, 800 prescriptionsfromaPrimary CareUnitareassessedaccordingto344/98-SVS/MS.In that timethecontrolof these drugs were mademanually.The results showed1371 drugsdispensedandamong those1134were psychotropic.Thetotal was64,513pillunits, an average of 107 units with 1.7 drugs per prescription, while82.1% came from public services. The total number of drugs prescribed per prescription had themajority (60.0% onedrug, 20.3%, two drugs, three drugs 11.6%, 6.6% four or moremedications, including those not controlled (14% . Twenty drugswerenot on the standard list.Of controlled, 78.4% belonged to theclassC1 and21.6% toB1.There is a large consumption ofpsychotropic medications for thispoorpopulation, with a prevalence of antidepressants. Thesubsequent implementation of the computerized system significantly reduced the units dispensed,indicating that forms of management are factors to be considered in the rational use of drugs,such as the use of technologies and also the wide range of approaches to health education, such astraining of health professionals, including prescribers

  12. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, William G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can determi

  13. Homeostatic Disorders in Acute Poisoning by Psychotropic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Belova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the impact of the degree of oxidative stress on homeostatic parameters in critically ill patients with acute poisoning by psychotropic agents (PTA.Materials and methods. The components of lipid peroxidation (LPO and the antioxidative system (AOS, blood rheological and immunological parameters, and the markers of endogenous intoxication were studied in 43 patients with severe acute PTA intoxication before and during intensive detoxification therapy.Results. The first hours of poisoning were marked by LPO-AOS imbalance with a significant preponderance of peroxidation processes, by impaired blood viscous properties, the manifestations of secondary immunodeficiency and endogenous intoxication. There were changes in the study parameters during detoxification therapy and at the early somatogenic stage of the disease.Conclusion. In patients with acute poisoning-induced critical conditions, the degree of oxidative stress affects the time course of homeostatic changes and determines the severity of endotoxicosis at all stages of the disease. 

  14. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Utkualp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day.

  15. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  16. Number and type of psychotropic drugs on the Scandinavian market in 1950-1977

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemminki, E; Pesonen, T; Hansen, E H

    1981-01-01

    This article describes the number and types of psychotropic drugs on the market in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from 1950-1977. The total number of drugs on the market in each country depended greatly on how psychotropic drugs were defined, but trends with time and differences between...... the countries were less affected by this definition. The number of drugs was highest in Finland and lowest in Norway. In all countries, the number of drugs increased from 1950 to the mid-1960s, most abruptly in Finland. They then quickly decreased in Finland and Sweden, but remained fairly constant in Denmark...... and Norway. The number of different active substances was much smaller than the number of drugs, and the differences between the countries were also smaller. The proportions of combination and hidden psychotropic drugs in relation to all psychotropics were considerable in Finland and Sweden, and the varying...

  17. [Psychotropic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: what are the arguments?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesure, G; Fallet, A; Chevalier, J F

    1995-01-01

    The authors report a case of acute mania induced by perindopril (Coversyl) in a 57 year old man with no prior history of mental illness. This Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACEI) had been introduced eight days prior to the first signs of excitation, in order to treat recently diagnosed arterial hypertension. Without proof of reintroduction, and on the basis of clinical observations, the attribution appears plausible. Similar observations have been made for other molecules in this class of medication, such as captopril (Lopril). A review of literature regroups recent data concerning psychotropic effects of ACEIs. Several reports claim that captopril clearly acts as an antidepressant. Studies on the mood or the quality of life of treated hypertensive patients show ACEIs to have an euphoric-type positive effect compared to other anti-hypertensive treatments. Captopril and perindopril also act like potential antidepressants in experimental models of antidepression. Furthermore, pharmacologic data confirm that the most lipophilic ACEIs penetrate the central nervous system and argue in favor of the role of these molecules in activating central opioides. As these data provide evidence of mood swing in some patients, but also of an overall benefit in hypertensive populations, the clinical importance of the antidepressant effect of ACEIs needs further investigations.

  18. Psychomotor developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Damase-Michel, Christine; Finotto, Laurent; Guitard, Claudine; Vayssière, Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Montastruc, François; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about neurodevelopment of children exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs on psychomotor development in children. This observational study used the EFEMERIS database. The database records the drugs prescribed and delivered during pregnancy and the resulting outcomes. Neurodevelopment at nine and 24 months of children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics) during the second and/or third trimesters of pregnancy was compared to children who were not exposed to these drugs. Psychomotor development of 493 children (1.5%) exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was compared to 32 303 unexposed children. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of abnormal motor development at 9 months (OR = 1.3 [1.1-2.2]) and abnormal motor and mental development at 24 months (OR = 4.8 [2.1-11.0] and OR = 2.3 [1.05-4.9]). Increased risk was observed in children born to women exposed to anti-epileptic drugs, neuroleptics or antidepressants during pregnancy. This study found a higher rate of deviation from the normal developmental milestones in children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and more particularly antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics.

  19. Sex differences in pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia:findings from national survey 2012 on use of psychotropic medications%2012年我国十省市精神分裂症患者药物治疗的性别差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏允爱; 师建国; 陈宪生; 梅其一; 栗克清; 司天梅; 李茜; 舒良; 于欣; 宁玉萍; 王高华; 张克让; 李涛; 孙立忠

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the sex differences in prescribing patterns of psychotropic drugs and drug-induced side effects in schizophrenia patients in China. Methods Using the same design and a standardized protocol as in 2002 and 2006, the cross-sectional survey was conducted from July to August, 2012 in 45 psychiatric hospitals/centers in 10 provinces and municipalities in China. Inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia were consecutively screened for eligibility for this study. Sociodemographic characteristics and prescription pattern were collected by using a modified questionnaire for the study. Data comparisons between male and female were performed with univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the gender differences in prescription pattern and drug-induced side effects. Results The sample consisted of 2 260 male and 1 979 female patients. Univariate analyses showed that male patients were younger than female patients(t=5.398), having an earlier age at onset(t=5.662), higher percentage of being employed(χ2=31.597), and more negative symptoms(χ2=10.814)and aggressive behavior (χ2=5.816), more likely to receive clozapine (23.9%(472/1 979) vs. 28.5%(645/2 260),χ2=11.955), higher antipsychotic doses(476 mg vs. 514 mg,F=14.003), less use of antidepressants (7.9%(156/1 979) vs. 6.0%(136/2 260),χ2=5.722)and benzodiazepines(23.9%(472/1 979)vs. 20.0%(451/2 260),χ2=9.396), more frequent tardive dyskinesia(1.3%(25/1 979)vs. 2.1%(47/2 260),χ2=4.212)and less weight gain(11.0%(218/1 979)vs. 7.7%(173/2 260),χ2=14.233)and prolactin elevation(3.2%(63/1 979)vs. 1.7%(39/2 260),χ2=9.548;all P<0.05). In multivariate analyses, greater rate of clozapine use (OR=1.268,P=0.001), less rate of benzodiazepines use(OR=0.841,P=0.025) and antidepressants(OR=0.78,P=0.045),higher rate of tardive dyskinesia(OR=1.879,P=0.014)and less weight gain (OR=0.669,P=0.001) and prolactin elevation (OR=0.527,P=0.003) were independently associated with

  20. Zeolites and Usage Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Gülen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are formed via several reactions from the minerals that consist of aluminium and silica. Zeolites, which have a growing significance in recent days are one of important industrial raw materials. As well as being used as a catalyst, theirability to do ion exchange and adsorption make them even more valuable. Zeolites are used in several industries such as energy, agriculture and animal husbandry, mining and metallurgy, construction, detergent, paper, etc. In this study, the definiton, formation and usage areas of zeolites are explained.

  1. Analysis of the Utilization and Affordability of TypeⅡ Psychotropic Substances in Our Hospital%我院第二类精神药品应用情况与可负担性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜淑珍; 魏波; 余斌; 胡茂荣; 占海燕; 曹晶晶

    2013-01-01

      目的:对我院第二类精神药品的合理使用情况与可负担性情况进行分析。方法:选取我院2012年1~6月第二类精神药品处方,按用药总量、年龄、性别、疾病诊断情况等进行统计,分别按照WHO推荐的药物用药频度(DDDs)和药物利用指数(DUI)、WHO/HAI的标准方法分析药品合理使用情况和药品可负担性。结果与结论:我院使用的所有二类精神药品的DUI 值均<1.0,药物使用情况合理;大部分药品可负担性良好,劳拉西泮片可负担程度相对较低,我院应继续加强基本药物的使用。%Objective: To investigate the utilization and affordability of type Ⅱpsychotropic substances in our hospital. Methods: The prescriptions of type Ⅱpsychotropic substances in our hospital from January to June in 2012 were collected and analyzed statistically in terms of the number of prescriptions including drug consumption, age ,sex and disease. According to DDDs, DUI and the standard drug price methodology of WHO /HAI, the utilization and affordability of type Ⅱpsychotropic substances in our hospital were analyzed. Results & Conclusion: DUI of all kinds of type Ⅱpsychotropic substances were smaller than 1.0 in our hospital , and the affordability of drugs is better overall except lorazepam, suggesting an increase usage of the essential drug is required.

  2. What should we measure? Conceptualizing usage in health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R; Jasperson, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Health Information Technology for Economic & Clinical Health act providers need to demonstrate their 'meaningful use' of electronic health record systems' health information exchange (HIE) capability. HIE usage is not a simple construct, but the choice of its measurement must attend to the users, context, and objectives of the system being examined. This review examined how usage is reported in the existing literature and also what conceptualizations of usage might best reflect the nature and objectives of HIE. While existing literature on HIE usage included a diverse set of measures, most were theoretically weak, did not attend to the interplay of measure, level of analysis and architectural strategy, and did not reflect how HIE usage affected the actual process of care. Attention to these issues will provide greater insight into the effects of previously inaccessible information on medical decision-making and the process of care.

  3. Pulmonary fibrosis associated with psychotropic drug therapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Clare

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sertraline and Risperidone are commonly used psychotropic drugs. Sertraline has previously been associated with eosinopilic pneumonia. Neither drug is recognised as a cause of diffuse fibrotic lung disease. Our report represents the first such case. Case Presentation We describe the case of a 33 year old Asian male with chronic schizophrenia who had been treated for three years with sertraline and risperidone. He presented to hospital in respiratory failure following a six month history of progressive breathlessness. High resolution CT scan demonstrated diffuse pulmonary fibrosis admixed with patchy areas of consolidation. Because the aetiology of this man's diffuse parenchymal lung disease remained unclear a surgical lung biopsy was undertaken. Histological assessment disclosed widespread fibrosis with marked eosinophillic infiltration and associated organising pneumonia - features all highly suggestive of drug induced lung disease. Following withdrawal of both sertraline and risperidone and initiation of corticosteroid therapy the patient's respiratory failure resolved and three years later he remains well albeit limited by breathlessness on heavy exertion. Conclusion Drug induced lung disease can be rapidly progressive and if drug exposure continues may result in respiratory failure and death. Prompt recognition is critical as drug withdrawal may result in marked resolution of disease. This case highlights sertraline and risperidone as drugs that may, in susceptible individuals, cause diffuse pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. [Smartphone usage among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmendi, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Among our technological gadgets smartphones play the most important role, new generation devices offer other functions beyond calling (internet availability, computer games, music player, camera functions etc.) In everydays can be experienced that youth spend more and more time with their smartphones and despite the actuality of this issue there are no studies on the excessive smartphone usage in Hungary and we can find only a few international studies. Our goal is to examine smartphone usage in primary and secondary schools in Hajdu-Bihar county, Hungary and its relationship with personality traits. Our sample consist of 263 youth from primary and secondary schools. We measured the characteristics of smartphone using and attitudes with a Mobilephone Using Questionnare. Personality traits are measured with Impulsiveness, Venturesomeness, Empathy Scale. The Child Behavior Checklist gives information about peer relationships, mental state and emotions. Average phone using time is 4,48 hours per day regarding the whole sample. This mean for boys is 3,40 hour for girls 5,39 hour. Average phone using time is higher at 16 (6,35 hour per day). The most frequent used applications are calling and visiting community sites. There is no connection between phone using and grades. The smartphone using time per day shows a significant positive relationship with Impulsivity, Anxiety and Depression, Attention deficits and Somatic problems within 17-19 ages. One of the explanation of excessive smartphone using may be the frequent visiting of community sites. Mobile phones in this case raise the availability of addictive object (community site) therefore contribute to the development of community site addiction. The connection with impulsivity, somatic problems and attention deficits refer to the anxiety reducing role of smartphones within 17-19 ages.

  5. Epidemiology of psychotropic drug use in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gaps in mental illness treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Quintana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drugs use in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and establish its relationship with the presence of mental disorders. METHODS: A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals, from the general population of Rio de Janeiro (n = 1208;turn out:81%, 15 years or older, who were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections, and asked about their psychotropic use during a 12 and one-month period before the interview. Data were collected between June/2007-February/2008.The prevalence was estimated with a confidence interval of 95%. The associations between psychotropics use and mental disorders were analyzed through a logistic regression model (Odds Ration - OR. RESULTS: The one-month prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 6.55%, 3.19% for men and 9.13% for women. Antidepressants were the most frequently used drug (2.78%, followed by anorectics (1.65%, tranquilizers (1.61% and mood stabilizers (1.23%. General practitioners issued the highest number of prescriptions (46.3%, followed by psychiatrists (29.3%; 86.6% of the psychotropic drugs used were paid for by the patient himself. Individuals with increased likelihood of using psychotropic drugs were those that had received a psychiatric diagnosis during a one-month period before the study (OR:3.93, females (OR:1.82, separated/divorced (OR:2.23, of increased age (OR:1.03, with higher income (OR:2.96, and family history of mental disorder (OR:2.59; only 16% of the individuals with a current DSM IV diagnosis were using a psychotropic drug; 17% among individuals with a depression-related diagnosis and 8% with Phobic Anxiety Disorders-related diagnosis used psychotropics. CONCLUSION: Approximately 84% of individuals displaying some mental disorder did not use psychotropic drugs, which indicates an important gap between demand and access to treatment. A

  6. [An analysis of advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch Journal of Psychiatry ('Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereycken, W; Kuyken, K

    2009-01-01

    Through the marketing of psychotropics the pharmaceutical industry is able to influence the way in which psychiatrists practise their profession. To look at the image of psychiatry as reflected in advertisements for psychotropics. method Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the advertisements for psychotropics in the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie between 1999 and 2006. On average 6 per cent of the total number of pages was given over annually to advertisements of psychotropics. The number of pages used for these advertisements changed over the years, with a sharp decline between 2002 and 2004. Before 2002 the majority of advertisements was for antidepressants, but later most of them were for antipsychotics. Three-quarters of the illustrations for antidepressants featured women whereas three-quarters of the illustrations for antipsychotics featured men. In general, the advertisements were of an 'emotional' nature and surprisingly few of them contained any scientific information. The advertisements for psychotropics portrayed a stereotyped image implying that it is mainly women who are depressed and mainly men who are psychotic. In its advertisements the pharmaceutical industry seeks primarily emotional reactions and uses hardly any scientific arguments. We wonder if the editorial boards of scientific journals should perhaps adopt a more critical attitude to these kinds of advertisements.

  7. The Importance of Teacher Involvement in Medication Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been a steady increase in the use of medication therapy to help control student behavior within schools. While psychotropic medications do not "cure" mental illnesses, they have demonstrated efficacy in helping children function better at school and within their home environment. However, it is important…

  8. Illicit psychotropic substance contents in the air of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Budetta, Valentina; Pasini, Antonello

    2010-06-01

    Two in-field campaigns were performed in 2009 to elucidate the contents of illicit psychotropic substances in airborne particulates of Italian cities. Twenty-eight localities of eight Italian regions were investigated in winter, and further eleven sites in June (14 regions in total), thanks to contribution of Regional Environmental Agencies. Cocaine was found almost everywhere, although some sites were rural or suburban. The maximum was recorded in Milan in winter (˜0.39 ng m -3), and "high" values (up to ˜0.16 ng m -3) in other Northern cities and in Rome. Besides cocaine, three cannabinoids will be monitored, namely Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol. The three compounds often affected the air at lower extents than cocaine, and sometimes resulted absent. Cannabinol accounted for up to 90% of the total. The concentrations of illicit compounds were up to six times lower in June than in winter. This decrease was probably induced by the lowering of boundary layer height typical of winter, and by the oxidizing capacity of atmosphere, which is stronger in the warm season. Compared to n-alkanes, polynuclear aromatic compounds, nicotine, caffeine and airborne particulate, cocaine seemed to follow a peculiar behaviour; in fact, meaningful (≥0.80) Pearson (linear) regression coefficients were calculated from the corresponding concentrations only at local scale (e.g. Rome), and within just one season. Improvements of the method are needed to monitor illicit drug metabolites (e.g. benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, 9-carboxy-11-nor-Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), heroin and semi-volatile amphetamines.

  9. Psychiatric Disorders and TRP Channels: Focus on Psychotropic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Demirdaş, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurological disorders are mostly associated with the changes in neural calcium ion signaling pathways required for activity-triggered cellular events. One calcium channel family is the TRP cation channel family, which contains seven subfamilies. Results of recent papers have discovered that calcium ion influx through TRP channels is important. We discuss the latest advances in calcium ion influx through TRP channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Activation of TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPV1 cation channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, fear-associated responses, and depression modulate calcium ion influx. Evidence substantiates that anandamide and its analog (methanandamide) induce an anxiolytic-like effect via CB1 receptors and TRPV1 channels. Intracellular calcium influx induced by oxidative stress has an significant role in the etiology of bipolar disorders (BDs), and studies recently reported the important role of TRP channels such as TRPC3, TRPM2, and TRPV1 in converting oxidant or nitrogen radical signaling to cytosolic calcium ion homeostasis in BDs. The TRPV1 channel also plays a function in morphine tolerance and hyperalgesia. Among psychotropic drugs, amitriptyline and capsazepine seem to have protective effects on psychiatric disorders via the TRP channels. Some drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine also seem to have an important role in alcohol addiction and substance abuse via activation of the TRPV1 channel. Thus, we explore the relationships between the etiology of psychiatric disorders and TRP channel-regulated mechanisms. Investigation of the TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of the development of new drug treatments.

  10. A case-control study of breast cancer and psychotropic drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R B; Sherman, B M; Bean, J A

    1982-01-01

    The relative risk of breast cancer incidence and tumor promotion associated with psychotropic drug consumption was evaluated in 151 patients with newly diagnosed neoplasms and 151 hospital controls. No significantly altered risk of breast cancer was found in association with the use of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, antidepressants, major tranquillizers, sedatives or hypnotics, even after adjustment for known menstrual and reproductive risk factors. No substantial evidence of tumor promotion effects was found, as measured by altered age-at-onset of disease or altered clinical stage at presentation. Psychotropic drug use was inversely related to subject ponderosity (measured by the Quetelet Index) and while this did not confound risk estimates, it may be important in exploring biologic hypotheses of psychotropic drug use and breast cancer.

  11. Prevalence of Psychotropic Drug Use in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Positive and Negative Findings from a Large Scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, John A.; Kim, Soh-Yule; Brown, W. Ted; Pettinger, Jill; Cohen, Ira L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of psychotropics by categories and the reason for their prescription was investigated in a large scale study of 4,069 adults with ID, including those with autism spectrum disorder, in New York State. Similar to other studies it was found that 58 % (2,361/4,069) received one or more psychotropics. Six percent received typical, 6 % received…

  12. Prevalence of Psychotropic Drug Use in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Positive and Negative Findings from a Large Scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, John A.; Kim, Soh-Yule; Brown, W. Ted; Pettinger, Jill; Cohen, Ira L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of psychotropics by categories and the reason for their prescription was investigated in a large scale study of 4,069 adults with ID, including those with autism spectrum disorder, in New York State. Similar to other studies it was found that 58 % (2,361/4,069) received one or more psychotropics. Six percent received typical, 6 % received…

  13. Factors Affecting Radiologist's PACS Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.

  14. Dealing with sadness, madness and hostility. New psychotropic drug remedies for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present an overview of new forms of psychotropic drug therapy that may be expected to play a role in psychiatric practice in the 1990s. In predicting these future developments, three lines of approach have been followed. Firstly, progress in elucidating basic neur

  15. JUVENILE CRIMES CONNECTED WITH NARCOTICS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES TRAFFICKING: CRIMINOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Irina V. Tseveleva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with criminological aspects of juvenile crime in the narcotics and psychotropic substances trafficking. The authors analyzed the main reasons of committing these crimes by teenagers. The proposals for the prevention of minors’ criminal behavior in drug trafficking are drafted.

  16. Attitudes and Beliefs of Marriage and Family Therapists regarding Psychotropic Drugs and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul R.; Harris, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical members of AAMFT were solicited by means of a randomized multi-staged clustering technique to identify their attitudes and beliefs regarding psychotropic drugs. All participants were blind to the overall purpose of the study (n = 322) and were directed to read a clinical vignette and then identify what course of action they would take…

  17. Struggles in prescribing : determinants of psychotropic drug use in multiple clinical settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis were to establish the prevalence of psychotropic drug use as well as possible determinants associated with its use in multiple clinical settings: psychiatric admission wards, an intensive care unit and two settings for the intellectually disabled. In this

  18. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of dif

  19. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of dif

  20. Struggles in prescribing : determinants of psychotropic drug use in multiple clinical settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis were to establish the prevalence of psychotropic drug use as well as possible determinants associated with its use in multiple clinical settings: psychiatric admission wards, an intensive care unit and two settings for the intellectually disabled. In this thesis,

  1. Rapid ultraviolet monitoring of multiple psychotropic drugs with a renewable microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jin; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian; Song, Chaojin; Zhang, Daming

    2010-10-29

    A rapid method for sensitive ultraviolet detection of multiple psychotropic drugs in human plasma was developed on a low-cost and expediently fabricated hybrid microfluidic device. The device was composed of one fused-silica capillary with a sampling fracture, a poly(methyl methacrylate) board with four reservoirs, and a printed circuit board. At the optimal separation and detection conditions, the baseline separation of three kinds of psychotropic drugs including barbiturates (phenobarbital and barbital), benzodiazepines (nitrazepam, clonazepam, chlordiazepoxide, alprazolam and diazepam) and tricyclic antidepressant drugs (amitriptyline) was achieved within 200 s with separation efficiency up to 3.80 × 10(5) plates m(-1). The linear ranges for ultraviolet detection were from 2.0 to 1000.0 μg mL(-1) for chlordiazepoxide and 1.0 to 1000.0 μg mL(-1) for other seven drugs. Combining with solid-phase extraction, this novel protocol could successfully be used to screen naturally existing psychotropic drugs in a known human plasma sample. The minimum detectable concentration was down to 27 ng mL(-1) for phenobarbital spiked in plasma. This work provided a promising way to initially screen different psychotropic drugs with high resolution, rapid separation and low-cost.

  2. Factors related to psychotropic drug prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, C.H.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Derksen, E.; Vries, E. de; Spek, K. van der; Koopmans, R.T.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. DESIGN: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. SETTING: Twelve NHs in The

  3. Factors Related to Psychotropic Drug Prescription for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Derksen, Els; de Vries, Erica; van der Spek, Klaas; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Gerritsen, Debby L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. Design: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Setting: Twelve NHs in The

  4. Pharmacoepidemiological characterization of psychotropic drugs consumption using a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, Laura; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Sébille, Véronique; Hardouin, Jean-Benoît; Feuillet, Fanny; Pivette, Jacques; Chaslerie, Anicet; Jolliet, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    France has one of the highest recorded rates of psychotropic use of drugs compared with other European countries, especially for anxiolytics, hypnotics and antidepressants. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of three psychotropic drugs among the most prescribed in France (bromazepam, paroxetine, zolpidem) using reimbursement databases in real-life conditions. Individuals from a region affiliated to the French General Health Insurance Scheme, who had received at least two dispensings of bromazepam, paroxetine or zolpidem reimbursed between 1 January and 30 June 2008, were included. We used a latent class analysis to identify different subgroups of users for these three psychotropic drugs. A total of 40,644 patients were included for bromazepam, 36,264 for zolpidem and 31,235 for paroxetine. Using latent class analysis, four clinical subtypes of users of bromazepam and zolpidem were identified: nonproblematic users, at-risk users, users with a probable mental disorder and compulsive users. Three subgroups were identified for paroxetine that differed rather by the prescription patterns. Users of anxiolytics and hypnotics with at-risk behaviours represented a significant proportion in the studied population. This original method could be extended to other prescription databases to identify populations at risk of abuse or dependence to psychotropic drugs.

  5. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J.; Scheers, Tom; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmaco-therapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 t

  6. Effects of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, on the uptake of serotonin by blood platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Soudijn, W.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, and some putative metabolites on the uptake of14C-5-HT into blood platelets of rat and man were studied and compared to the effects of imipramine, sulpiride and clozapine. Halopemide, its putative metabolites R 38570 and R 29676 and sulpiride in

  7. Regional localization of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, in the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Van Wijngaarden, I.; Janssen, P.A.J.; Soudijn, W.

    1978-01-01

    Halopemide is a new psychotropic agent, structurally related to the neuroleptics of the butyrophenone type, but with a different pharmacological and clinical profile. The concentration of halopemide in the rat brain is about 10 times less than that of R 29800, its chemical congener and of spiperone,

  8. EFFECTS OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AS BACTERIAL EFFLUX PUMP INHIBITORS ON QUORUM SENSING REGULATED BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Aybey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic drugs are known to have antimicrobial activity against several groups of microorganisms. The antidepressant agents such as duloxetine, paroxetine, hydroxyzine and venlafaxine are shown to act as efflux pump inhibitors in bacterial cells. In order to the investigation of the effects of psychotropic drugs were determined for clinically significant pathogens by using standart broth microdillusion method. The anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS activity of psychotropic drugs was tested against four test pathogens using the agar well diffusion method. All drugs showed strong inhibitory effect on the growth of S. typhimurium. Additionally, quorum sensing-regulated behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production were investigated. Most effective drugs on swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production, respectively, were paroxetine and duloxetine; duloxetine; hydroxyzine and venlafaxine; paroxetine and venlafaxine; venlafaxine. Accordingly, psychotropic drugs were shown strongly anti-QS activity by acting as bacterial efflux pump inhibitors and effection on motility and alkaline protease production of P. aeruginosa.

  9. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J.; Scheers, Tom; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmaco-therapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4

  10. Factors Related to Psychotropic Drug Prescription for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Derksen, Els; de Vries, Erica; van der Spek, Klaas; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Gerritsen, Debby L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. Design: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Setting: Twelve NHs in The Neth

  11. Factors related to psychotropic drug prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, C.H.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Derksen, E.; Vries, E. de; Spek, K. van der; Koopmans, R.T.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. DESIGN: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. SETTING: Twelve NHs in The Neth

  12. Altmetrics, PIRUS and Usage Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Shepherd

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have moved their publications onto the web, and the ongoing conversation around the outputs of research increasingly takes place there. Beyond the research community itself, scholarly information has an impact on other professionals, as well as on the general public. Traditional measures do not reflect these wider impacts. The mission of COUNTER is to set and monitor global standards for the measurement of online usage of content. Usage is an important measure of the impact and value of publications, and as such has a role in altmetrics. Usage can be reported at the individual item and individual researcher level and aggregated to the journal or institution level. PIRUS and Usage Factor are two COUNTER-lead initiatives that are based on this approach, with the potential to provide useful altmetrics.

  13. Network mapping and usage determination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Senekal, FP

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A large computer network such as the Internet contains millions of computers, services and users, interconnected in a complicated and ever changing web. This article provides an introduction to network mapping and usage determination – the study...

  14. Regional changes in psychotropic use among Finnish persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease in 2005-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Ari; Taipale, Heidi; Tanskanen, Antti; Lavikainen, Piia; Koponen, Marjaana; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe and compare temporal changes in prevalence and incidence of psychotropic use (antipsychotics, antidepressants and benzodiazepines and related drugs; BZDRs) in persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease (AD) between university hospital districts of Finland during 2005–2011. Methods The MEDALZ study includes all community-dwellers of Finland who received a clinically verified AD diagnosis in 2005–2011 (N = 70,718). Prevalent and incident use of psychotropics among those who had received AD diagnosis less than one year ago were compared in 2005–2011. Results Regional differences in psychotropic use between university hospital districts were more evident in 2005 than 2011 for prevalent use of any psychotropic, antipsychotic and BZDRs and incident use of any psychotropic and antipsychotics. Regional differences in prevalent antidepressant use and incident BZDR use remained similar during the follow-up, while differences in incident antidepressant use increased during the follow-up. The prevalence of any psychotropic use in 2005 varied between 44.7–50.7% and between 45.0–47.9% in 2011. Incidence of any psychotropic use in 2005 was between 8.6–12.1% and 6.2–8.2% in 2011. In 2005, the distribution of incident psychotropic use followed a large scale spatial variation that, however, did not correspond to university hospital districts. During the study period from 2005 to 2011 the cyclic spatial variation disappeared. No sign of adjacent hospital districts being more or less closely related to each other compared to hospital districts in general was detected. Conclusions Except for antidepressants, regional differences in psychotropic use have mainly diminished between 2005 and 2011. Our findings highlight the importance of acknowledging regional differences in a country with relatively homogeneous healthcare system and conducting future studies assessing the reasons behind these differences. PMID:28278245

  15. Prevalence of bipolar disorder diagnoses and psychotropic drug therapy among privately insured children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusetzina, Stacie B; Weinberger, Morris; Gaynes, Bradley N; Farley, Joel F; Sleath, Betsy; Hansen, Richard A

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the treated prevalence of bipolar disorder in a privately insured population, describe the characteristics of children and adolescents receiving these diagnoses, and describe patterns of their psychotropic drug therapy. Retrospective, repeated cross-sectional study. MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy claims databases. A total of 22,360 children and adolescents (aged 0-17 yrs) with one inpatient or two or more outpatient claims for any bipolar spectrum disorder between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2007. Annual cross-sections were used to estimate the treated prevalence of bipolar disorder diagnoses, patient characteristics, and psychotropic drugs used 30 days after a child's latest recorded bipolar disorder diagnosis within each year. The annual treated prevalence of any bipolar spectrum disorder in this privately insured population was 0.24% in 2005 and 0.26% in 2006 and 2007. Approximately 25% of diagnoses were for children younger than 13 years. Approximately 30% of children had coexisting attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder during the year. In each year, 35% of patients used no psychotropic drug therapy in the 30-day period after their most recent diagnosis. Twenty-five percent used one psychotropic drug, and 40% used two or more drugs. The most common drug regimens were antipsychotic or mood stabilizer (lithium or anticonvulsant) monotherapy and the combination of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics. Drug therapy patterns suggest that children and adolescents with bipolar diagnoses receive complex treatment regimens, often involving multiple classes of psychotropic drugs. Research on treatment combinations, particularly antipsychotic and mood stabilizer combinations, should be prioritized to better understand the safety and effectiveness of commonly prescribed treatments. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  16. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  17. 'Psychotropics caught in a trap' - adopting a screening approach to specific needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Jürgen; Traber, Jessica; Auwärter, Volker; Huppertz, Laura M

    2014-10-01

    In the field of forensic toxicology, numerous strategies using different types of LC-MS platforms have been developed to set up an ultimate comprehensive screening method. Despite all this research, the question for the detection of a dedicated set of substances arises quite often in daily routine work. In this project, a screening method for the detection of psychotropic drugs based on the open library concept of a recently developed LC-MS(n) screening approach was developed and the effectiveness of a heated ESI-source was evaluated. To set up an individual spectral library all available data of psychotropics from the Toxtyper™ library was transferred to a new library format and complemented by MS, MS(2) and MS(3) data of additional psychotropic compounds. Precursor masses and retention time information of the library were used to trigger data dependent acquisition of MS(n)-spectra. Serum samples were analysed after alkaline liquid-liquid extraction on a Dionex RSLC (Acclaim™ C18 100×2.1C) coupled to a Bruker amaZon speed ion trap. A conventional ESI-source and an ionBooster™ source (IB) were used for ionization. All other LC and MS parameters were adopted from the original screening approach. Identification and result reporting was carried out by a fully automated software script. This screening method finally contains the individual precursor mass and retention time of 105 psychotropic substances and metabolites. Method evaluation was performed using pooled serum samples fortified with 12 different mixtures containing a total of 99 compounds at low therapeutic concentrations (cLOW and 2×cLOW). The customized method (ESI/IB) led to a higher rate of identifications (92%) - especially at low concentration levels (cLOW) - as the comprehensive screening approach (87%). Results from routine analysis with known intake of psychotropic drugs were confirmed with positive findings, if the concentration range was above or around the assumed limit of detection from

  18. Video Editing and Medication to Produce a Therapeutic Self Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowrick, Peter W.; Raeburn, John M.

    1977-01-01

    Self-modeling requires the production of a videotape in which the subject is seen to perform in a model way. A 4-year-old "hyperactive" boy, initially under psychotropic medication, was unable to role play suitable behaviors. Video editing was used to produce a videotape that when watched by the subject, had therapeutic effects as compared with an…

  19. [Problems in clinical testing of a psychotropic substance examplified by L-5-HTP-ester (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastpar, M; Pühringer, W; Graw, P; Wirz-Justice, A; Lacoste, V

    1978-01-01

    An i.v. injectable form of the serotonin-precursor L-5-hydroxytyptophan (Ro 3-5940) was investigated for its acute psychotropic effect. The difficulties are presented which had to be overcome as it was not known which effects could be expected. It was shown that for the intensive psychotropic effect found, it was not possible to use a long and detailed self-rating scale. The problem of informed consent is discussed.

  20. Mental illness, challenging behaviour, and psychotropic drug prescribing in people with intellectual disability: UK population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rory; Hassiotis, Angela; Walters, Kate; Osborn, David; Strydom, André; Horsfall, Laura

    2015-09-01

    To describe the incidence of recorded mental illness and challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability in UK primary care and to explore the prescription of psychotropic drugs in this group. Cohort study. 571 general practices contributing data to The Health Improvement Network clinical database. 33,016 adults (58% male) with intellectual disability who contributed 211,793 person years' data. Existing and new records of mental illness, challenging behaviour, and psychotropic drug prescription. 21% (7065) of the cohort had a record of mental illness at study entry, 25% (8300) had a record of challenging behaviour, and 49% (16,242) had a record of prescription of psychotropic drugs. During follow-up, the rate of new cases of mental illness in people without a history at cohort entry was 262 (95% confidence interval 254 to 271) per 10,000 person years and the rate of challenging behaviour was 239 (231 to 247) per 10,000 person years. The rate of new psychotropic drug prescription in those without a previous history of psychotropic drug treatment was 518 (503 to 533) per 10,000 person years. Rates of new recording of severe mental illness declined by 5% (95% confidence interval 3% to 7%) per year (Pdisability who have been treated with psychotropic drugs far exceeds the proportion with recorded mental illness. Antipsychotics are often prescribed to people without recorded severe mental illness but who have a record of challenging behaviour. The findings suggest that changes are needed in the prescribing of psychotropics for people with intellectual disability. More evidence is needed of the efficacy and safety of psychotropic drugs in this group, particularly when they are used for challenging behaviour. © Sheehan et al 2015.

  1. Public health nurses? perception of their roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents: a phenomenographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Steffenak, Anne Kjersti Myhrene; Nordstr?m, Gun; Hartz, Ingeborg; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives The purpose of the paper was to describe the perceptions of public health nurses? roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents. Background Mental health problems among adolescents are documented with studies indicating an increased use of psychotropic drugs. In Norway, care for such adolescents may fall naturally into the remit of public health nurses. Design A phenomenographic approach was used to analyse the data. Method A qualitative interview study was mad...

  2. Public health nurses' perception of their roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents: a phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenak, Anne Kjersti Myhrene; Nordström, Gun; Hartz, Ingeborg; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the paper was to describe the perceptions of public health nurses' roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents. Mental health problems among adolescents are documented with studies indicating an increased use of psychotropic drugs. In Norway, care for such adolescents may fall naturally into the remit of public health nurses. A phenomenographic approach was used to analyse the data. A qualitative interview study was made of 20 Norwegian public health nurses, strategically chosen using phenomenographic methodology. The public health nurses described three categories: discovering public health nurses who become aware of psychotropic drug use in the health dialogue with adolescents and choose to either act or not act in relation to psychotropic drug use. Those public health nurses who take action are cooperating public health nurses, who cooperate with adolescents, their families, schools and others. If cooperation has been established, supporting public health nurses teach and support the adolescent in relation to psychotropic drug use. The public health nurses who do not act can hinder or delay further treatment. Public health nurses need to acquire knowledge about psychotropic drugs, to fulfil their role in nursing mental health problems among adolescents and the increasing use of psychotropic drugs. The results demonstrated that public health nurses, working in health centres and schools, have the responsibility and the opportunity to identify young people struggling with mental health problems and psychotropic drug use as well as teach and support significant others, e.g. parents and siblings. Intervention studies are needed with regard to health promotion programmes aimed at fortifying young people's mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cyanoacrylic tissue glues: Biochemical properties and their usage in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Tissue adhesives are being used in medical and cosmetic industries and first aid for a long time. But their everyday usage has not been widespread. Only case report information is available about their usage. Despite good and meaningful results after they were used, there is lack of standard information that gives idea of about in which cases they could be helpful. Nowadays, cyanoacrylates are used in the surgery more frequently. In this review, we wanted to oversee the biochemical properties and the urological utilisation areas of cyanoacrylates. PMID:28270946

  4. Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borini

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Brazil PARTICIPANTS: The study was made among 123 patients interned in the Hospital Espírita de Marília from October 1996 to December 1998, divided into 3 groups: 26 (21% using only marijuana, 83 (67.5% using marijuana and crack, and 14 (11.4% consuming marijuana and alcohol. PROCEDURES AND MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Patients were examined clinically with special emphasis on types of drugs used, drug intake route, age when consumption began, length and pattern of usage, presence of tattooing, jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Serum determinations of total proteins, albumin, globulin, total and fractions of bilirubin, aspartate (AST and alanine (ALT aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma-glutamyltransferase and prothrombin activity were performed. RESULTS: Among users of only marijuana, hepatomegaly was observed in 57.7% and splenomegaly in 73.1%, and slightly elevated AST (42.3%, ALT (34.6% and AP (53.8%. The three groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly. The group using both marijuana and alcohol showed the highest prevalence of alterations and highest levels of aminotransferases. Mean AP levels were above normal in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic marijuana usage, on its own or in association with other drugs, was associated with hepatic morphologic and enzymatic alterations. This indicates that cannabinoids are possible hepatotoxic substances.

  5. Teaching Psychology to Medical Students on a Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabinet, Laille; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Practical advice on teaching skills which are essential, but difficult for many medical students to master, is presented. Topics covered include interviewing skills, the mental status examination, the use of psychotropic medication in the general hospital, psychodiagnostic techniques, and dealing with ward management problems. (RM)

  6. Antipsychotic Medication and People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Knowledge and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Rachel; Withers, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotics are the most frequently prescribed psychotropic medication for people with intellectual disabilities. Many people are prescribed this medication for "challenging behaviours" without having had a formal diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Antipsychotics have been reported to have severe side-effect profiles, which can…

  7. Physical restraint usage at a teaching hospital: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton-Gooden, Antoinette; Dawkins, Pauline E; Bennett, Joanna

    2015-02-01

    This mixed method study examines the prevalence of restraint usage; perception of nurses and doctors about the practice and whether they were trained to apply physical restraints. The physical restraint prevalence tools were used to observe 172 adult patients and conduct 47 chart audits in the medical-surgical wards and a psychiatric unit in November 2011. Focus group discussions with nurses and doctors were conducted. Quantitative data were analyzed using the SPSS and focus group discussions thematically analyzed. The prevalence of physical restraints between the medical-surgical wards was 75%. Nurses and medical doctors were not formally trained to apply restraint, and had learnt from peer observation. They expressed sadness, guilt, and fear when restraints are used and identified that inadequate institutional support existed. Restraint usage was high, and nurses and doctors experienced moral dilemma when they perceived that lack of formal training and inadequate institutional support may contribute to patient injury. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Identification of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and beta-carbolines in psychotropic ayahuasca beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Aroni, Kyriaki; Rossi, Riccardo; Moretti, Luca; Bacci, Mauro

    2008-10-01

    Recently many people have shown great interest in traditional indigenous practices and popular medicine, involving the ingestion of natural psychotropic drugs. We received a request to analyze and determine the nature of a dark green liquid with a dark brown plant sediment, which the police had seized at an airport and inside the home of a person belonging to the 'Santo Daime' religious movement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the extract identified N,N-dimethyltryptamine, a potent hallucinogen, and the beta-carboline alkaloids harmine and harmaline, revealing monoamine oxidase A-inhibiting properties. These substances are typical components of Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic beverage obtained by boiling the bark of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi together with the leaves of various admixture plants, principally Psychotria viridis.

  9. Utilization of psychotropic drugs prescribed to persons with and without HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L D; Obel, D; Kronborg, G;

    2014-01-01

    .76 for anxiolytics, 4.42 for hypnotics and sedatives, and 2.28 for antidepressants. Antidepressants were confined primarily to men who have sex with men (MSM). Older age, more recent calendar time, and increased time after HIV diagnosis were associated with increased drug utilization. However, no association...... with exposure to HAART or efavirenz was found. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected individuals had a higher utilization of psychotropic drugs than the background population, which was not confined to individuals with a history of IDU or HCV infection. This emphasizes the need to focus on diagnosis of, and appropriate......OBJECTIVES: The objective was to estimate the utilization of psychotropic drugs in HIV-infected individuals compared with that in the background population. METHODS: Using data obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish National Prescription Registry, we analysed aggregated data...

  10. [Effect of psychotropic drugs on activity of anticonvulsants in maximal electroshock test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikina, N A; Tregubov, A L; Kotegov, V P

    2010-08-01

    The effect ofpsychotropic drugs on the pharmacological properties of anticonvulsants was studied on white mice under maximal electroshock (ME) test conditions. Changes in the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital, diphenin, carbamazepine, hexamidine were traced upon their joint administration with psychotropic drugs, including piracetam, aminalon, amitriptyline, imizine, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate. An important result of research is the fact, that in no one of combinations the basic pharmacological effect of anticonvulsants was decreased. Based on the results of experiments, the most rational combinations of anticonvulsants with psychotropic preparations were revealed as manifested in the ME test. As criterion of rational combination was the increase in the activity of anticonvulsants and reduction of their toxicity in combination or at least invariance of this parameter. Rational combinations include (i) phenobarbital with piracetam, amitriptyline, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate; (ii) carbamazepine with piracetam; and (iii) hexamidine with amitriptyline, levomepromazine and imizine.

  11. Quantitative EEG Brain Mapping In Psychotropic Drug Development, Drug Treatment Selection, and Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Itil, Kurt Z.

    1995-05-01

    Quantification of standard electroencephalogram (EEG) by digital computers [computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG)] has transformed the subjective analog EEG into an objective scientific method. Until a few years ago, CEEG was only used to assist in the development of psychotropic drugs by means of the quantitative pharmaco EEG. Thanks to the computer revolution and the accompanying reductions in cost of quantification, CEEG can now also be applied in psychiatric practice. CEEG can assist the physician in confirming clinical diagnoses, selecting psychotropic drugs for treatment, and drug treatment monitoring. Advancements in communications technology allow physicians and researchers to reduce the costs of acquiring a high-technology CEEG brain mapping system by utilizing the more economical telephonic services.

  12. Older Adults with Alzheimer’s Disease, Comorbid Arthritis and Prescription of Psychotropic Medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith E Balfour

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is assumed that analgesia is underutilized among those with Alzheimer disease and that these patients may be inappropriately prescribed neuroleptics and benzodiazepines. The current study examines this assertion.

  13. Psychotropic medication use among adolescent disaster survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, C.J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Veen, P.M.H. ten

    2004-01-01

    Background: We study the health consequences of a fire disaster which took place on January 1st, 2001, in Volendam, the Netherlands. The fire occurred in a discotheque where about 300 youngsters were celebrating new year’ eve. 14 youngsters were killed and about 200 injured. Next to the threat,to th

  14. Understanding Mobile Social Media Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chunmei; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity and growing trend of mobile social media in China, factors affecting users’ continued usage behavior remains unclear and deserves further scholarly attention. Synthesizing theories of expectation confirmation as well as uses and gratification, we advance a uses a...

  15. Users, Use, and Usage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2010-01-01

    For the August/September 2010 issue of "Library Technology Reports" (LTR) published by the American Library Association Techsource division, the author and her colleague, Rachel A. Fleming-May, focused on use and usage, both of electronic resources and use of libraries in general. In this article, the author discusses a few of the findings from an…

  16. Modeling Educational Usage of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the…

  17. Modeling Educational Usage of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the…

  18. Adverse drug reactions monitoring of psychotropic drugs: a tertiary care centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemendra Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many new psychotropic drugs/ agents have been developed and found to be effective in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, these drugs also exhibit adverse drug reactions (ADRs which may affect compliance in psychiatric patients. Hence the present study was aimed at monitoring and assessing ADRs caused by psychotropic drugs. Methods: A hospital based prospective observational study was carried out in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital for the duration of six months. Two hundred and two patients were included in the study and ADRs were documented using a predesigned data collection form. The causality assessment was carried out as per the criteria of both the World Health Organization- Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC and Naranjo scale. Severity and predictability assessment of ADRs were also performed. Results: A total of 106 ADRs were observed during the study period with majority of them occurring in 25-35 years of age group (40.56%. Weight gain (18.86% followed by sedation (16.03% and insomnia (11.32% were found to be the commonest ADRs. Risperidone (19.8% and escitalopram (12.3% were the drugs responsible for majority of the ADRs. Causality assessment showed that most of ADRs were possible and probable. 94.33% of ADRs were found to be mild and 89% of them were predictable. Conclusion: A wide range of ADRs affecting central nervous and metabolic systems were reported with psychotropic drugs. The study findings necessitate the need for an active pharmacovigilance programme for the safe and effective use of psychotropics.

  19. Usage Patterns of Stop Smoking Medications in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States: Findings from the 2006–2008 International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hammond

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varenicline is a new prescription stop smoking medication (SSM that has been available in the United States since August 1, 2006, in the United Kingdom and other European Union countries since December 5, 2006, in Canada since April 12, 2007, and in Australia since January 1, 2008. There are few population-based studies that have examined use rates of varenicline and other stop smoking medications. We report data from the ITC Four Country survey conducted with smokers in the US, UK, Canada, and Australia who reported an attempt to quit smoking in past year in the 2006 survey (n = 4,022 participants, 2007 (n = 3,790 participants, and 2008 surveys (n = 2,735 participants Respondents reported use of various stop smoking medications to quit smoking at each survey wave, along with demographic and smoker characteristics. The self-reported use of any stop smoking medication has increased significantly over the 3 year period in all 4 countries, with the sharpest increase occurring in the United States. Varenicline has become the second most used stop smoking medication, behind NRT, in all 4 countries since being introduced. Between 2006 and 2008, varenicline use rates increased from 0.4% to 21.7% in the US, 0.0% to 14.8% in Canada, 0.0% to 14.5% in Australia, and 0.0% to 4.4% in the UK. In contrast, use of NRT and bupropion remained constant in each country. Males and non-whites were significantly less likely to report using any SSM, while more educated smokers were significantly more likely to use any SSM, including varenicline. Our findings suggest that the introduction of varenicline led to an increase in the number of smokers who used evidence-based treatment during their quit attempts, rather than simply gaining market share at the expense of other medications. From a public health perspective, messages regarding increased success rates among medication users and the relative safety of stop smoking medications should be disseminated widely so as to

  20. Psychotropic drug monitoring in general practice in Italy: a two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellantuono, C; Fiorio, R; Williams, P; Martini, N; Bozzini, L

    1987-03-01

    A psychotropic drug monitoring study in general practice was carried out in 1983 and 1984 using a computerized drug information system. The prescription data analysed in the study came from 68 general practitioners operating in south Verona and have been collected by 14 community pharmacies located in the same area. Benzodiazepine hypnotics were the most commonly prescribed drugs, followed by antidepressants and neuroleptics both in 1983 and in 1984. The distribution of the general practitioners in terms of low, medium and high prescribers was examined by analysing the rates of prescriptions per registered patient. The rates were obtained for the total number of prescriptions and also for each of the three different classes of psychotropic drug. The proportion of low and high prescribers decreased from 1983 to 1984 (18.3 versus 11.7 and 26.7 versus 16.7 for low and high prescribers respectively); this change was mainly due to the reduction in benzodiazepine prescriptions. No significant correlation was found between the rates of psychotropic drug prescriptions and list size. The monthly variation in prescription of the three drug classes followed a similar pattern during the two years; the fluctuations were clearly cyclical, more definitely in 1984 than in 1983 where the most relevant feature was the summer trough.

  1. Airborne psychotropic substances in eight Italian big cities: burdens and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia

    2012-12-01

    Psychotropic substances were monitored in eight big cities of Italy over one year, starting in May 2010, in the frame of the Ariadrugs Project. Yearly average concentrations ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.26 ± 0.11 ng/m(3) for cocaine, from 0.05 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 1.37 ng/m(3) for cannabinoids, from 16 ± 6 to 61 ± 28 ng/m(3) for nicotine, and from 1.0 ± 0.8 to 8 ± 7 ng/m(3) for caffeine. Palermo and Turin were the cities suffering the lowest and the highest psychotropic substance concentrations, respectively. Nicotine and cocaine exhibited trends less seasonally modulated than common air toxicants. Caffeine and cannabinoids peaked in winter dropping close to zero from May to August. In Rome, where various anthropic contours were investigated in February 2011, differences were observed both in net concentrations and ratios of psychotropic substances vs. regulated toxicants. Ambient drugs look as a consequence of addiction and their burdens give insights about the corresponding consumes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing Potential Vulnerability and Response of Fish to Simulated Avian Predation after Exposure to Psychotropic Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie L. Hedgespeth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic pharmaceuticals present in the environment may impact organisms both directly and via interaction strengths with other organisms, including predators; therefore, this study examined the potential effects of pharmaceuticals on behavioral responses of fish to avian predators. Wild-caught juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis were assayed using a striking bird model after a seven-day exposure to psychotropic pharmaceuticals (the antidepressants fluoxetine or sertraline, or the β-blocker propranolol under the hypotheses that exposure would increase vulnerability to avian predation via increasing the probability of predator encounter as well as degrading evasive behaviors upon encounter. None of the substances significantly affected swimming activity of the fish, nor did they increase vulnerability by affecting encounter probability or evasive endpoints compared to control treatments. Counter to our expectations, fish exposed to 100 μg/L fluoxetine (but no other concentrations or pharmaceuticals were less likely to enter the open area of the arena, i.e., less likely to engage in risky behavior that could lead to predator encounters. Additionally, all fish exposed to environmentally relevant, low concentrations of sertraline (0.12 μg/L and propranolol (0.1 μg/L sought refuge after the simulated attack. Our unexpected results warrant further research as they have interesting implications on how these psychotropic pharmaceuticals may affect predator-prey interactions spanning the terrestrial-aquatic interface.

  3. 新生儿精神药物撤药综合征的研究进展%Research progress of neonatal psychotropic withdrawal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振晓

    2014-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy causes withdrawal symptoms in 20% ~ 30% of newborns.The main clinical features of neonatal psychotrpic withdrawal syndrome are neurologic excitability,gastrointestinal dysfunction,respiratory symptoms and autonomic nervous dysfunctions.Because the clinical features of neonatal psychotropic withdrawal syndrome are non-specific,it was easily misdiagnosed.We should get the details of disease history in mothers,especially medication using during pregnancy,closely observe clinical symptoms,assess patients by the neonatal drug withdrawal scoring system,make laboratory test and other accessory examination,exclude other diseases.Supportive treatment is essential to this disease,pharmacologic therapy (such as phenobarbital) could be adopted if necessary.%妊娠期应用精神药物可导致20%~30%的新生儿出现撤药症状,临床表现主要包括中枢神经系统兴奋症状、胃肠道功能失常症状、呼吸系统症状、自主神经方面症状体征等.由于新生儿精神药物撤药综合征临床表现无特异性,容易误诊,所以应详细询问母亲病史,特别是孕期用药史,严密观察临床症状,采用临床量表进行评定,进行有关的实验室及其他检查,并排除其他疾病.治疗上支持疗法至关重要,病情严重时可给予苯巴比妥等药物.

  4. Medication challenges for patients with severe mental illness: experience and views of patients, caregivers and mental health care workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseselo, Masunga K; Ambikile, Joel Seme

    2017-01-01

    Management of patients with mental disorders is inadequate in the majority of low and middle income countries. The main treatment modality for patients with severe mental disorders in these countries is mainly pharmacological approach. Patients face many challenges in meeting medication needs. In this context, high percentages of individuals who have severe mental disorders are not treated. Regular and adequate supplies of appropriate, safe and affordable medications are some of the important aspects required for provision of quality mental health services. Psychotropic medications are an important component of holistic care that provides treatment options for those suffering from mental illnesses. In Tanzania, mental health services face many challenges including inadequate mental health care providers, infrastructure, and medication supply. Relapse is a common problem among patients attending mental health facilities. This study is aimed at exploring views and experiences of patients, caregivers and mental health care providers on the psychotropic medication in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative study was conducted, involving two focus group discussions with seven and nine caregivers in each group. Eleven in-depth interviews with four patients and seven mental health care providers at Temeke Municipality, Dar es Salaam, were conducted. Convenient sampling procedure was used to select participants for the study. Discussion and interview guides were used during data collection. Interviews were audio-recorded in Kiswahili with all study participants. The recorded interviews were transcribed and qualitative content thematic analysis was used to analyze data after translation. Four themes were identified. These include attitudes of patients towards psychotropic medication, availability of psychotropic medications, financial concerns towards psychotropic medications, and coverage of free treatment policy. The availability and affordability of psychotropic

  5. Web Usage Analysis: New Science Indicators and Co-usage

    CERN Document Server

    Polanco, Xavier; Besagni, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    A new type of statistical analysis of the science and technical information (STI) in the Web context is produced. We propose a set of indicators about Web users, visualized bibliographic records, and e-commercial transactions. In addition, we introduce two Web usage factors. Finally, we give an overview of the co-usage analysis. For these tasks, we introduce a computer based system, called Miri@d, which produces descriptive statistical information about the Web users' searching behaviour, and what is effectively used from a free access digital bibliographical database. The system is conceived as a server of statistical data which are carried out beforehand, and as an interactive server for online statistical work. The results will be made available to analysts, who can use this descriptive statistical information as raw data for their indicator design tasks, and as input for multivariate data analysis, clustering analysis, and mapping. Managers also can exploit the results in order to improve management and d...

  6. Psychotropic drugs and the perioperative period: a proposal for a guideline in elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyse, Frits J; Touw, Daan J; van Schijndel, Rob Strack; de Lange, Jaap J; Slaets, Joris P J

    2006-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the perioperative management of psychotropic drugs are lacking. The level of evidence is low and is based on case reports, open trials, and non-systematic reviews. However, the interactions and effects mentioned indicate that patients who use psychotropics and require surgery have an enhanced perioperative risk. A group of clinicians from several clinical disciplines determined which risks should be considered in an integrated preoperative assessment, as well as how psychotropics might interfere with these risks. The risks that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of the surgery, the patient's physical state, anesthesia, the direct and indirect (Phase I and II) effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms, and risk of psychiatric recurrence or relapse. Because of new drug developments, the risk of interactions increases. The literature has not provided articles that systematically address these risks. On the basis of a systematic analysis of the available literature guided by the formulated perioperative risks, a proposal for the perioperative management of psychotropics was formulated. Patients who use lithium, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclics, and clozepine have serious drug-drug interactions, with increased physical risks, including withdrawal, and therefore qualify for American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Classification 3. From the perspective of the physical risk, they require discontinuation. However, from the perspective of the risk of withdrawal and psychiatric relapse and recurrence, these patients deserve intensive, integrated anesthetic/psychiatric management. For patients on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) who are mentally and physical stable (ASA Classification 2), the risk of withdrawal seems to justify their continuation. Yet, patients on SSRIs with higher physical or psychiatric risks should be seen in consultation. Both the physical and psychiatric

  7. Specialist prescribing of psychotropic drugs to older persons in Sweden - a register-based study of 188 024 older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinsson Gunilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The situation for older persons with mental disorders other than dementia disorders has scarcely been studied. The older population is increasing worldwide and along with this increase the prevalence of mental disorders will also rise. The treatment of older persons with mental disorders entails complex challenges, with drugs constituting the major medical treatment. Knowledge of geriatric psychiatry is essential for providing older persons with appropriate treatment and care. This study aimed to evaluate the prescription of drugs for mental disorders to older persons (≥65 in Sweden, focused on the medical specialties of the prescribing physicians. Methods Data concerning drug treatment for older persons from 2006 to 2008 was gathered from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Mental disorders, defined as affective, psychotic and anxiety disorders (ICD-10 F20-42 were evaluated in order to identify associated drugs. Included was a total of 188 024 older individuals, who collectively filled 2 013 079 prescriptions for the treatment of mental disorders. Descriptive analyses were performed, including frequency distribution and 95% CI. The competence of the prescribers was analyzed by subdividing them into five groups: geriatricians, psychiatrists, general practitioners (GPs, other specialists, and physicians without specialist education. Results GPs represented the main prescribers, whereas geriatricians and psychiatrists rarely prescribed drugs to older persons. Benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were the most commonly prescribed drugs. Women were prescribed drugs from geriatricians and psychiatrists to a greater extent than men. Conclusions This study examined the prescription of psychotropic drugs to older persons. Physicians specialized in older persons’ disorders and mental health were rarely the prescribers of these drugs. Contrary to clinical guidelines, benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were

  8. 国内外特殊医学用途婴儿配方食品标准分析%Analysis on standard for infant formula foods for special medical usage in home and abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华家才; 姜艳喜; 黄强; 储小军; 尤玉如

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the infant food standards of China ,Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) ,Australia‐New Zealand ,and European Union ,and mainly compares the nutritious index of formula for special medical purposes intended for infant out of respective National (Union) Standards . It is found that Chinese standard shares highly consistency with that of other countries (Union) on formula for special medical purposes intended for infant , w hich helps Chinese formula for special medical purposes intended for infant to rapidly enter the international market .%概述了中国、国际食品法典委员会(CAC)、澳大利亚新西兰(简称澳新)、欧盟的婴幼儿食品标准框架,重点分析了各国(组织)特殊医学用途婴儿配方食品的营养指标。分析发现,中国特殊医学用途婴儿配方食品的标准与其他各国(组织)标准基本一致,这将有助于中国研究开发的特殊医学用途婴儿配方食品更快地进入国际市场。

  9. Student Empowerment Through Internet Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    in a University in Southern India to empower the female students through Internet usage. The study was done to find out the problems the woman students faced in gaining access and using Internet and how they can be empowered through Internet usage. Future workshop was conducted to find out the problems...... Technologies that brought massive change in the ways people communicate and how information is exchanged across the globe. Educational sector has been strongly influenced by the emergence of Internet Technologies. Digital literacy is a prerequisite for students of this generation. Studies say that woman always...... and a research design was formulated in consultation with the participants. Action research model for reflective Internet searching developed by Edwards and Bruce (2002) was deployed in the study where students did the Internet searching based on the action research cycle of planning, acting, recording...

  10. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Peter [RWTH Aachen U.; Hufnagel, Dirk [Fermilab; Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Tadel, M. [UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I. [UC, San Diego; Letts, J. [UC, San Diego; Wuerthwein, F. [UC, San Diego; McCrea, A. [UC, San Diego; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Fajardo, E. [Andes U., Merida; Linares, L. [Andes U., Merida; Wagner, R. [TI, San Diego; Konstantinov, P. [Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res.; Blumenfeld, B. [Johns Hopkins U.; Bradley, D. [Wisconsin U., Madison

    2014-01-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  11. The prevalence of alcohol and psychotropic drugs in fatalities of road-traffic accidents in Jordan during 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallat, Imad M; Al Ali, Rayyan; Hudaib, Arwa A; Salameh, Ghada A M; Salameh, Rakiz J M; Idhair, Ahmed K F

    2016-04-01

    Several studies confirmed alcohol and psychotropic drug consumption as important risk factors underlying fatal accidents. This paper presents updated toxicological findings in the fatalities of road traffic accidents of Amman district, in order to have an overall picture of the occurrence of these substances in these victims in Jordan. Over a seven-year period (2008-2014), 2743, autopsies were conducted at Jordan University Hospital in which the sum of n = 311 (11.38%) were victims of road traffic accidents. Blood samples from these victims were collected. Toxicology screening for psychotropic drugs and alcohol was conducted on these samples, and the results were analyzed according to age, sex and victim's status. This study revealed that Alcohol and psychotropic drugs were positive in 36.5%, (n = 58) of the cases, and for alcohol alone (n = 13, 37.1%). The majority of the victims were pedestrians (n = 155, 49.8%). Additionally, 29.6% (n = 92) of the cases were of ages 19-29. Detected psychotropic drugs were benzodiazepines, barbiturates. None of the collected specimens were positive for illicit cocaine, amphetamines or cannabis. The results from this study proved the existence of alcohol and psychotropic drugs in the victims of road traffic accidents; Indicating an association between the uses of these substances in accident involvement. Though having some limitations, other conclusions require further data collection, cooperation with related parties in Jordan, and utilizing simple extended toxicological screens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Parent Report of Antidepressant, Anxiolytic, and Antipsychotic Medication Use in Individuals with Williams Syndrome: Effectiveness and Adverse Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A.; Seyfer, Daisha L.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Foster, Jessica E. A.; Chowdhury, Monali; McClure, Kelsey E.; Coury, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterized in part by anxiety and behavioral difficulties. We examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic medications in individuals with WS. A total of 513 parents/caregivers completed a survey of psychotropic medication usage…

  13. Chronic use of diazepam in primary healthcare centers: user profile and usage pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sylvia Ribeiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic use of benzodiazepines is frequent in general practice. The aim of this study was to describe the usage pattern and profile of chronic users of diazepam who had been consuming this drug for a minimum of thirty-six months continuously. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a descriptive study (survey and clinical assessment at five primary healthcare centers in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: Psychotropic drug control books revealed 48 eligible patients. Among these, 41 were assessed by means of the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD and a questionnaire on usage pattern. RESULTS: Most patients were women (85.4%. The patients' mean age was 57.6 years, and they were from the social strata C (39%, D (54% and E (7%. The mean length of diazepam consumption was 10 years. The patients presented a lack of prescription compliance and had made frustrated attempts to stop using the drug. 55.5% said their doctor had never given any guidance on the effects of the drug. According to SCAN, 25 patients (61% suffered from depressive disorders; only 12 cases of benzodiazepine dependence were detected by this instrument. CONCLUSION: There is a need to improve the detection and treatment of mental disorders, as well as to prevent inappropriate prescription and use of benzodiazepines. Diazepam dependence has distinctive characteristics that make it undetected by SCAN.

  14. USAGE OF BELARUS TRANSIT POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Antioushenya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that sustainable and safety operation of a transport system and also efficient functioning of transport infrastructure depend on introduction of modern systems and technologies of passenger and load transportation  with usage of logistic approaches. The paper cites results of marketing investigations testifying to availability of the potential for formation of a transport and logistic system in the Republic. A conclusion has been made that realization of the mentioned key ideas shall allow efficiently to integrate in the world economic system.

  15. [Psychotropic drugs - The special importance of anticonvulsants and neuroleptics in treatment of patients with chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkers, Michael; Petz, Tobias; Hoffmeyer, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Therapy by psychotropic drugs is bound to limited indications, which are partially changing. By an extent literary research in pubmed and Cochrane especially corresponding articles of the past 10 years were proofed. So antidepressants were continually seldom given to nociceptor pain. While on the other side anticonvulsants are to be given in the case of neuropathic pain of defined quality, it will be looked for new applications for these drugs. Particularly hitherto existing difficult indications as fibromyalgia were investigated as possible indication for anticonvulsants. At least neuroleptics can be used for very difficult, resistant and bizarre pains such as cenesthesias.

  16. [Clinico-hemodynamic effects of psychotropic preparations and psychosomatic correlations in cardiac rhythm disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T R; Skibitskiĭ, V V

    1986-01-01

    A total of 136 patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmia and tachyform of atrial fibrillation and polytopic extrasystoles were examined. The combination of cardiovascular and psychovegetative disturbances closely related to the expression of psychopathological shifts was revealed. The antiarrhythmic activity of psychotropic drugs (phenibut, sulpiride, pipofezin, tofizopam and falilepsin) depending on the nature of the time course of the emotional-personality status in prolonged intermittent treatment of patients with arrhythmias of the functional and mixed genesis was shown. A negative inotropic effect of phenibut, a hyperdynamic effect of sulpiride, pipofezin, falilepsin and a modulating effect of tofizopam were revealed. Prolonged therapy with psychopharmacological drugs in short courses was proposed.

  17. Change in access to prescribed medication following an episode of deliberate self-poisoning: a multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergljot Gjelsvik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with a history of deliberate self-poisoning (DSP are prescribed a greater amount of medication than the general public. DSP is the most robust risk factor for repeat episodes of DSP and subsequent death by suicide, and one might therefore expect that access to prescribed medication would be reduced following an episode of DSP. However, it is unclear whether access to prescribed medication changes after an episode of DSP. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes in 1 overall, psychotropic, non-psychotropic and the psychotropic subgroup antidepressant prescribed medication availability in DSP patients following an episode of DSP, 2 prescribing of the medication ingested in the episode, and 3 potential effects of gender, age and repeater status on such change. METHODS: The design was longitudinal. We included 171 patients admitted for DSP between January 2006 and March 2007. Data on patients' prescriptions prior to admission were retrieved from The Norwegian Prescription Database. The outcome measure was the difference between medication load in the year following compared to the year prior to the DSP episode. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in total medication load following DSP, including both psychotropic and non-psychotropic medication. Antidepressant medication load remained stable. There was a tendency for access to drugs ingested in the episode to increase following the episode, albeit not significantly. Medication load increased with age across all medication groups irrespective of time period and gender. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that physicians do not curb prescribing to patients who have recently deliberately self-poisoned. Moreover, they highlight the need for cautious and judicious prescribing for these patients, in combination with psychological and social interventions.

  18. The significance of pharmacodynamic measurements in the assessment of bioavailability and bioequivalence of psychotropic drugs using CEEG and dynamic brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Itil, K Z

    1986-09-01

    There are a variety of problems in evaluating the bioavailability of psychotropic drugs. Psychotropics have many metabolites; there are discrepancies between peripheral plasma levels and therapeutic effects, and psychotropics must penetrate the blood-brain barrier to have an effect on their target organ. Therefore, "classical" pharmacokinetic evaluation may not be sufficient to determine the bioavailability and bioequivalence of these drugs. Additional and more precise information may be obtained by adding pharmacodynamic procedures to these evaluations. Quantitative pharmaco-EEG (QPEEG), which uses the computer-analyzed electroencephalogram (CEEG), may be the method of choice for determining the pharmacodynamic profiles of psychotropic drugs at the central nervous system (CNS) level. The difficulties in evaluating the bioavailability of psychotropics, as well as the results of several studies that confirm the significance of CEEG as a pharmacodynamic measure, are discussed.

  19. A review of the current nomenclature for psychotropic agents and an introduction to the Neuroscience-based Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Joseph; Stahl, Stephen; Moller, Hans-Jurgen; Blier, Pierre; Kupfer, David; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Spedding, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M; Nutt, David

    2015-12-01

    Neuroscience based Nomenclature (NbN) is a new system of classifying psychotropic drugs by their pharmacological profile. The NbN was developed to replace the current indication-based nomenclature and to provide an up-to-date and more useful framework to better inform pharmacological decisions. NbN provides updated relevant and specific scientific, regulatory and clinical information, aiming to support rational and lucid prescribing. This pharmacologically driven nomenclature, which highlights pharmacological domains and modes of action, may also increase drug adherence as it clarifies the rationale for selecting a specific psychotropic agent.

  20. Evaluation of the Use of Two Types of Psychotropic Drugs in Our Hospital in 2009%我院2009年二类精神药品利用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春颖; 金振波; 史卫忠; 王莉文

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the use of two types of psychotropic drugs in order to promote rational drug use. Method: A statistical analysis of two types of psychotropic drugs and practical situations was made in the hospital from January to December, 2009, and the defined daily doses ( DDD), the DDDs, DDC and B/A value were used. Result:Two types of psychotropic drugs in our hospital ranking in the top three of total drugs were estazolam, lorazepam, clonazepam. The proportion of the medication for over 40 years patients was 76.59% of the total patients. Conclusion: Considering the widely used benzodiazepine drugs, a rational drug use should be monitored to avoid their abuse.%目的:分析我院二类精神药品的使用情况,为促进临床合理用药提供参考.方法:采用限定日剂量(I)DD)法,以用药频率(DDDs)、限定日费用(1DDC)和序号比(B/A)值等为指标,统计分析医院2009年1月~2009年12月二类精神药品使用情况.结果:我院二类精神药品用药总量排序在前3位的分别是艾司唑仑、劳拉西泮、氯硝西泮,大于40岁的患者用药比例占总比例的76.59%.结论:苯二氮卓类药物目前临床应用普遍,应注意合理用药,防止精神药品的滥用.

  1. Exploring the link between organizational climate and the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Fois, Romano A; Chen, Timothy F

    Research concerning the overprescribing of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes suggests that organizational climate plays a significant role in the use of psychotropic medicines. Organizational climate refers to how members of the organization perceive their work environment as well as interactions with each other or outsiders. This study aimed to explore the key dimensions of organizational climate and their subsequent influence on the use of psychotropic medicines. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 on-site and visiting staff from eight nursing homes in Sydney, Australia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants representing a broad range of health disciplines and roles. Transcripts were content coded for participants' perceptions related to the work environment and descriptions of psychotropic medicines use. Thematic analysis was used to derive key concepts. Three salient dimensions of organizational climate were linked to the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: staffing, managerial expectations and teamwork among visiting and on-site staff. Inadequate staffing levels were perceived to influence on-site staff requests for initiation of psychotropic medicines to cope with high workload. Participants reported managers that prioritized the non-pharmacological management of behavioral disturbances led other on-site staff to have a reduced preference for psychotropic medicines. In addition, trust and open communication among on-site and visiting staff facilitated the cessation of psychotropic medicines. This study illustrates that organizational climate is an important factor influencing the use of psychotropic medicines. Furthermore, the study highlights what aspects of organizational climate need to be addressed to reduce the inappropriate prescribing of psychotropic medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perspectives on Zebrafish Models of Hallucinogenic Drugs and Related Psychotropic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Among different classes of psychotropic drugs, hallucinogenic agents exert one of the most prominent effects on human and animal behaviors, markedly altering sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive responses. The growing clinical and preclinical interest in psychedelic, dissociative, and deliriant hallucinogens necessitates novel translational, sensitive, and high-throughput in vivo models and screens. Primate and rodent models have been traditionally used to study cellular mechanisms and neural circuits of hallucinogenic drugs’ action. The utility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in neuroscience research is rapidly growing due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, robust behaviors, and cost effectiveness. Possessing a fully characterized genome, both adult and larval zebrafish are currently widely used for in vivo screening of various psychotropic compounds, including hallucinogens and related drugs. Recognizing the growing importance of hallucinogens in biological psychiatry, here we discuss hallucinogenic-induced phenotypes in zebrafish and evaluate their potential as efficient preclinical models of drug-induced states in humans. PMID:23883191

  3. The Neuroprotective Disease-Modifying Potential of Psychotropics in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Lauterbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotective treatments in Parkinson's disease (PD have remained elusive. Psychotropics are commonly prescribed in PD without regard to their pathobiological effects. The authors investigated the effects of psychotropics on pathobiological proteins, proteasomal activity, mitochondrial functions, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, trophic factors, stem cells, and neurogenesis. Only findings replicated in at least 2 studies were considered for these actions. Additionally, PD-related gene transcription, animal model, and human neuroprotective clinical trial data were reviewed. Results indicate that, from a PD pathobiology perspective, the safest drugs (i.e., drugs least likely to promote cellular neurodegenerative mechanisms balanced against their likelihood of promoting neuroprotective mechanisms include pramipexole, valproate, lithium, desipramine, escitalopram, and dextromethorphan. Fluoxetine favorably affects transcription of multiple genes (e.g., MAPT, GBA, CCDC62, HIP1R, although it and desipramine reduced MPTP mouse survival. Haloperidol is best avoided. The most promising neuroprotective investigative priorities will involve disease-modifying trials of the safest agents alone or in combination to capture salutary effects on H3 histone deacetylase, gene transcription, glycogen synthase kinase-3, α-synuclein, reactive oxygen species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS, apoptosis, inflammation, and trophic factors including GDNF and BDNF.

  4. [Characterization of drug, narcotic and psychotropic drug chirality by statistical methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszál, B; Schiller, Z

    1999-04-01

    The percentage of chiral entities among drug, narcotic drug and psychotropic compounds is steadily increasing. Receptors of the human body recognize the enantiomeric forms of constitutionally identical compounds as entirely different chemical agents. Based upon these facts, this paper reports the percentage of chiral compounds in the various pharmacological classes, and related data. Pertinent terms, such as eutomer, distomer, eudismic index, eudismic affinity quotient are defined. Differences in biological activity between eutomers and distomers are exemplified. The pharmacological classes and subclasses of highest chirality, and the "most chiral" active principles are shown. Some puzzling observations on pharmacological behaviour of stereoisomers are highlighted. The necessity of "racemate switch" in the pharmaceutical industry, and the significance of stereo-specific interactions between the drug, narcotic drug and psychotropic ligands, and complementary, "pocket" moieties of the human body are emphasized. Some features of enantiopharmacology, a fledgling science in the interface of stereochemistry and traditional pharmacology are introduced. The statistical treatment of asymmetric compounds in pharmacological classes and subclasses shows that presently, the percentage of chirality in drug categories is more characteristic of the origin of the compound than its target molecule.

  5. Semantic Session Analysis for Web Usage Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; SONG Hantao; XU Xiaomei

    2007-01-01

    A semantic session analysis method partitioning Web usage logs is presented. Semantic Web usage log preparation model enhances usage logs with semantic. The Markov chain model based on ontology semantic measurement is used to identifying which active session a request should belong to. The competitive method is applied to determine the end of the sessions.Compared with other algorithms, more successful sessions are additionally detected by semantic outlier analysis.

  6. Combining Psychotherapy and Medication for College Students with Severe Psychopathology: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stewart E.; Nasr, Suhayl J.

    2006-01-01

    Given the extensive and increasing use of medications to augment psychotherapy in intervening with college students with more severe psychopathology, the absence of scholarship on this topic is surprising. This article briefly summarizes earlier published pieces on combining counseling with psychotropic treatment in college counseling center…

  7. Medication-Related Practice Roles: An Ethical and Legal Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…

  8. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Medication Use in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tara R.; Viskochil, Joseph; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.; Morgan, Jubel; Bilder, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medication use among adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained as children during a 1980's statewide Utah autism prevalence study (n = 129). Seventy-three individuals (56.6%) met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder; 89…

  9. [Simple and rapid screening for psychotropic natural products using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART)-TOFMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2009-06-01

    Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) is a novel ionization technique that provides for the rapid ionization of small molecules under ambient conditions. To investigate the trend of non-controlled psychotropic plants of abuse in Japan, a rapid screening method, without sample preparation, was developed using DART-time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) for plant products. The major psychotropic constituents of these products were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). As a result of the DART-TOFMS analyses of 36 products, the protonated molecular ions [M+H](+), corresponding to 6 kinds of major hallucinogenic constituents (mescaline, salvinorin A, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, harmine, harmaline and lysergamide), were detected in 21 products. It was possible to estimate their accurate elemental compositions through exact mass measurements. These results were consistent with those of the LC/MS analyses and the contents of the 6 psychotropic constituents were in the range from 0.05 to 45 microg/mg. Typical controlled narcotic drugs, tetrahydrocannabinol, opioid alkaloids and psilocin were also directly detected in marijuana cigarette, opium gum and magic mushroom respectively. Although it is difficult to estimate the matrix effects caused by other plant ingredients, the DART-TOFMS could be useful as a simple and rapid screening method for the targeted psychotropic natural products, because it provides the molecular information of the target compounds without time-consuming extraction and pre-treatment steps.

  10. Psychotropic drug prescription in nursing home patients with dementia : influence of environmental correlates and staff distress on physicians' prescription behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, Sytse U; de Jonghe, Jos F M; Verhey, Frans R J; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine whether staff distress and aspects of the nursing home environment were associated with psychotropic drug use (PDU) in patients with dementia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 1289 nursing home patients with dementia from 56 Dementia Specia

  11. Regional distribution of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, in the rat brain at different time intervals and after chronic administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Van Wijngaarden, I.; Janssen, P.A.J.; Soudijn, W.

    1979-01-01

    Only a very small amount of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, structurally related to the butyrophenones, but with a different pharmacological and clinical profile, penetrates into the rat brain. The maximum concentration is reached between 1 and 2 hours after injection. Halopemide is evenly dis

  12. Use and Cost of Psychotropic Drugs among Recipients with Autism in a State Medicaid Fee-for-Service Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, R.; Jariwala, K.; West-Strum, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of autism in the USA in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to provide recent estimates of psychotropic drug use and costs among individuals with autism enrolled in the Medicaid programme. Method: A cross-sectional analysis of 2007 Mississippi (MS) Medicaid…

  13. [Relations between usage of marihuana and other drugs among teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgaitiene, Dalia; Targamadze, Vilija

    2006-01-01

    Some supporters of liberal drug politics in the whole world and in Lithuania try to suggest that usage of marihuana and other cannabis products is harmless and marihuana can even be used for medical purposes. They state that usage of cannabis products does not lead to usage of stronger drugs and so on. Other authors state that regular marihuana use always leads to trying stronger drugs and development of drug addiction. The aim of this study is to examine connection between regular marihuana use and other drugs, to find factors that motivate marihuana users to try other drugs, and to name differences of attitude towards drugs and drug addiction between regular and irregular marihuana users. The research was conducted in six vocational schools of Klaipeda; 912 freshman students (mean age 17.5 years) were surveyed. During the survey, anonymous questionnaires were administered, and data were processed using SPSS program package. During the study, it was established that 15.6% of vocational schools' males and 4.9% of females smoked marihuana often or more often (more than 20 times). Those students are regular marihuana users, and they already may need medical or psychological help. Behavior and attitude of regular marihuana towards drugs users, which can be named as tolerance towards all drug usage ideology, statistically significantly differed from ideology of irregular marihuana users. The following percentage of regular marihuana users have also tried other illegal drugs: 58.6% have tried psychostimulants in the form of pills or powder (amphetamine, ecstasy, LSD, and others), 20.0% have tried intravenous drugs, 19.2%--various other drugs, and 42.4%--alcohol with pills.

  14. 德国老年人对替代医学疗法、针刺、顺势疗法及人智学疗法的使用情况%Usage of alternative medical systems, acupuncture,homeopathy and anthroposophic medicine,by older German adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arndt Büissing; Thomas Ostermann; Peter Heusser; Peter F. Matthiessen

    2011-01-01

    目的:很多有关补充替代医学(complementary and alternative medicine,CAM)的研究表明,CAM的使用情况与患者的社会文化背景、性别、年龄及基础疾病等因素有关.本研究旨在调查分析拥有医疗保险的德国老年人对特定的CAM疗法的使用情况.方法:在一次匿名的德国保险受益人的横断面调查中,对5 830名老年人过去5年里通过医生或非医疗工作者使用CAM的情况的调查数据进行分析.结果:德国老年人最广泛使用的CAM疗法分别为针刺/中医(21%)、顺势疗法(21%)、运动疗法/锻炼(19%)、整骨疗法/脊椎指压疗法(12%)、草药/植物疗法(7%)、节食/特殊食谱(6%)及足底反射疗法(5%).人智学疗法只被很少数的人使用.针刺与顺势疗法的使用者倾向于同时使用多种CAM疗法,特别是同时使用针刺与顺势疗法.男性患者与女性患者在CAM疗法的使用上有显著的不同.结论:针刺与顺势疗法的使用人数近似,而顺势疗法是源于西欧的一种CAM疗法,这说明针刺这一来自东方的疗法在德国也有其立足之地.很多患者同时使用多种CAM疗法,特别是针刺与顺势疗法同时使用者居多.此外,对于一些将并非CAM疗法的治疗方法纳入其研究之中而得出的结论,应该持谨慎态度.%The manifold studies on the usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) indicate that its utilization differs with respect to socio-cultural background,gender,age and underlying disease.This study intended to analyze the usage of specific CAM practices among a population of older German adults with health insurance coverage.Methods:Data of 5 830 older individuals who participated in an anonymous cross sectional survey among German insurance beneficiaries were analyzed with respect to usage of CAM treatments applied by medical doctors or non-medical practitioners within the last 5 years.Results:The most frequently used approaches were acupuncture

  15. MRI usage in a pediatric emergency department: an analysis of usage and usage trends over 5 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheinfeld, Meir H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Emergency Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Moon, Jee-Young; Wang, Dan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Fagan, Michele J. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Davoudzadeh, Reubin [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Taragin, Benjamin H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usage has anecdotally increased due to the principles of ALARA and the desire to Image Gently. Aside from a single abstract in the emergency medicine literature, pediatric emergency department MRI usage has not been described. Our objective was to determine whether MRI use is indeed increasing at a high-volume urban pediatric emergency department with 24/7 MRI availability. Also, we sought to determine which exams, time periods and demographics influenced the trend. Institutional Review Board exemption was obtained. Emergency department patient visit and exam data were obtained from the hospital database for the 2011-2015 time period. MRI usage data were normalized using emergency department patient visit data to determine usage rates. The z-test was used to compare MRI use by gender. The chi-square test was used to test for trends in MRI usage during the study period and in patient age. MRI usage for each hour and each weekday were tabulated to determine peak and trough usage times. MRI usage rate per emergency department patient visit was 0.36%. Headache, pain and rule-out appendicitis were the most common indications for neuroradiology, musculoskeletal and trunk exams, respectively. Usage in female patients was significantly greater than in males (0.42% vs. 0.29%, respectively, P<0.001). Usage significantly increased during the 5-year period (P<0.001). Use significantly increased from age 3 to 17 (0.011% to 1.1%, respectively, P<0.001). Sixty percent of exams were performed after-hours, the highest volume during the 10 p.m. hour and lowest between 4 a.m. and 9 a.m. MRI use was highest on Thursdays and lowest on Sundays (MRI on 0.45% and 0.22% of patients, respectively). MRI use in children increased during the study period, most notably in females, on weekdays and after-hours. (orig.)

  16. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  17. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  18. Neurotic Anxiety, Pronoun Usage, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lewis Sigmund; Groman, William D.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the function of a particular aspect of verbal communication, pronoun usage, by (a) using a Gestalt Therapy theory conceptual framework and (b) experimentally focusing on the relationship of pronoun usage to neurotic anxiety and emotional stress. (Author/RK)

  19. Library Training to Promote Electronic Resource Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  20. Problematic Internet Usage of ICT Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Semseddin

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) have affected all area in a society. Human can learn quickly and accurately from the internet. The aim of this study was to investigate what the problematic internet usage of ICT teachers. Therefore, the present study investigated the problematic internet usage, who worked as an ICT teacher in…

  1. MESUR metrics from scholarly usage of resources

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Sompel, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Usage data is increasingly regarded as a valuable resource in the assessment of scholarly communication items. However, the development of quantitative, usage-based indicators of scholarly impact is still in its infancy. The Digital Library Research & Prototyping Team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Research library has therefore started a program to expand the set of usage-based tools for the assessment of scholarly communication items. The two-year MESUR project, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, aims to define and validate a range of usage-based impact metrics, and issue guidelines with regards to their characteristics and proper application. The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting c...

  2. Mining usage patterns for the Android API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson S. Borges

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available API methods are not used alone, but in groups and following patterns. However, despite being a key information for API users, most usage patterns are not described in official API documents. In this article, we report a study that evaluates the feasibility of automatically enriching API documents with information on usage patterns. For this purpose, we mine and analyze 1,952 usage patterns, from a set of 396 Android applications. As part of our findings, we report that the Android API has many undocumented and non-trivial usage patterns, which can be inferred using association rule mining algorithms. We also describe a field study where a version of the original Android documentation is instrumented with the extracted usage patterns. During 17 months, this documentation received 77,863 visits from professional Android developers.

  3. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns discovered in the next phase. In reactive web usage mining techniques, the source data is web server logs and the topology of the web pages served by the web server domain. Other kinds of information collected during the interactive browsing of web site by user, such as cookies or web logs containing similar information, are not used. The next phase of web usage mining is discovering frequent user navigation patterns. In this phase, pattern discovery methods are applied on the reconstructed sessions obtained in the first phas...

  4. [Presence of psychotropic drugs in the blood of drivers responsible for car accidents, and who consumed alcohol at the same time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, C; Lacalle, H; Fryc, O

    1994-01-01

    The presence of psychotropic drugs was determined in 383 blood samples of drivers being responsible for car accidents, having taken alcohol as well. Benzodiazepines were detected in 52 cases and cannabinoids in 31 cases. The characterisation of these positive cases showed a majority of classic benzodiazepines (diazepam, nordiazepam, and bromazepam). Even if the specific role of these two families of psychotropic drugs cannot be deduced from this study, the results should make drivers more aware of the dangers of the simultaneous consumption of alcohol and psychotropes.

  5. PYRITINOL USAGE IN PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zavadenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of developmental disorders, correction of learning disabilities and behavioral problems in children should be prompt, complex and include pharmacotherapy with nootropic agents. The results of recent studies shown in this review proved effectiveness of pharmacotherapy with pyritinol in children with perinatal injury of central nervous system and its consequences, psychomotor and speech development delay, dyslexia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, cognitive disorders and learning disabilities (including manifestations of epilepsy, chronic tic disorders and Tourette syndrome. Due to its ability to optimize metabolic processes in central nervous system, pyritinol is used in treatment of vegetative dysfunction in children and adolescents, especially associated with asthenical manifestations, as well as in complex therapy of exertion headache and migraine. The drug is effective in treatment of cognitive disorders in children and adolescents with epilepsy, pyritinol was administered without changing of the basic anticonvulsive therapy and no deterioration (increase of severity of seizures or intensity of epileptiform activity on electroencephalogramms was observed. Significant nootropic effect of pyritinol, including neurometabolic, neuroprotective, neurodynamic and other mechanisms, in association with safety and rare side effects of this drug determines its wide usage in pediatric neurology.

  6. [Usage of antibiotics in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternák, G; Almási, I

    1996-12-29

    The authors publish the results of a survey conducted among hospital records of patients discharged from eight inpatient's institutes between 1-31st of January 1995 to gather information on the indications and usage of antibiotics. The institutes were selected from different part of the country to represent the hospital structure as much as possible. Data from the 13,719 documents were recorded and analysed by computer program. It was found that 27.6% of the patients (3749 cases) received antibiotic treatment. 407 different diagnosis and 365 different surgical procedures (as profilaxis) were considered as indications of antibiotic treatment (total: 4450 indications for 5849 antibiotic treatment). The largest group of patients receiving antibiotics was of antibiotic profilaxis (24.56%, 1093 cases), followed by lower respiratory tract infections (19.89%, 849 cases), uroinfections (10.53%, 469 cases) and upper respiratory tract infections. Relatively large group of patients belonged to those who had fever or subfebrility without known reason (7.35%, 327 cases) and to those who did not have any proof in their document indicating the reasons of antibiotic treatment (6.4%, 285 cases). We can not consider the antibiotic indications well founded in those groups of patients (every sixth or every fifth cases). The most frequently used antibiotics were of [2-nd] generation cefalosporins. The rate of nosocomial infections were found as 6.78% average. The results are demonstrated on diagrams and table.

  7. Psychopharmacoteratophobia: Excessive fear of malformation associated with prescribing psychotropic drugs during pregnancy: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushad Ram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Psychopharmacoteratophobia is the fear or avoidance of prescribing psychotropic medicine to a pregnant woman on a given indication in anticipation of fetal malformation." It is rooted in the tragedy associated with thalidomide use and is increasing due to the inability to predict accurately, strict legal provision of consumer protection, ethical and legal issues involved, and pitfalls in the available evidence of teratogenicity. In the Indian setting, the physicians face more challenges as the majority of the patients may ask them to decide, what is the best for their health. Most guidelines emphasize more on what not to do than what to do, and the locus of decision is left to the doctor and the patient. In this review, we have focused on relevant issues related to psychopharmacoteraophobia that may be helpful to understand this phenomenon and help to address the deprivation of a mentally ill woman from the required treatment.

  8. Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviello, Gabriella; Romano, Barbara; Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Gallo, Laura; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2012-08-01

    Colon cancer affects millions of individuals in Western countries. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of Cannabis sativa, exerts pharmacological actions (antioxidant and intestinal antinflammatory) and mechanisms (inhibition of endocannabinoid enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for colon carcinogenesis. Thus, we investigated its possible chemopreventive effect in the model of colon cancer induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in mice. AOM treatment was associated with aberrant crypt foci (ACF, preneoplastic lesions), polyps, and tumour formation, up-regulation of phospho-Akt, iNOS and COX-2 and down-regulation of caspase-3. Cannabidiol-reduced ACF, polyps and tumours and counteracted AOM-induced phospho-Akt and caspase-3 changes. In colorectal carcinoma cell lines, cannabidiol protected DNA from oxidative damage, increased endocannabinoid levels and reduced cell proliferation in a CB(1)-, TRPV1- and PPARγ-antagonists sensitive manner. It is concluded that cannabidiol exerts chemopreventive effect in vivo and reduces cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms.

  9. Adolescent Religiosity and Contraceptive Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Marlena; Thornton, Arland

    1987-01-01

    Examined contraceptive use by never married, sexually experienced female adolescents (N=224). Found birth control pills to be the single most popular method of contraception. Subjects who reported regularly attending religious services were less likely to have used an effective, medical method of contraception than those who rarely attended…

  10. Neuroglialpharmacology: myelination as a shared mechanism of action of psychotropic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzokis, George

    2012-06-01

    Current psychiatric diagnostic schema segregate symptom clusters into discrete entities, however, large proportions of patients suffer from comorbid conditions that fit neither diagnostic nor therapeutic schema. Similarly, psychotropic treatments ranging from lithium and antipsychotics to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have been shown to be efficacious in a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders ranging from autism, schizophrenia (SZ), depression, and bipolar disorder (BD) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This apparent lack of specificity suggests that psychiatric symptoms as well as treatments may share aspects of pathophysiology and mechanisms of action that defy current symptom-based diagnostic and neuron-based therapeutic schema. A myelin-centered model of human brain function can help integrate these incongruities and provide novel insights into disease etiologies and treatment mechanisms. Available data are integrated herein to suggest that widely used psychotropic treatments ranging from antipsychotics and antidepressants to lithium and electroconvulsive therapy share complex signaling pathways such as Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) that affect myelination, its plasticity, and repair. These signaling pathways respond to neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, hormones, and nutrition, underlie intricate neuroglial communications, and may substantially contribute to the mechanisms of action and wide spectra of efficacy of current therapeutics by promoting myelination. Imaging and genetic technologies make it possible to safely and non-invasively test these hypotheses directly in humans and can help guide clinical trial efforts designed to correct myelination abnormalities. Such efforts may provide insights into novel avenues for treatment and prevention of some of the most prevalent and devastating human diseases.

  11. EEG topography and tomography (LORETA) in the classification and evaluation of the pharmacodynamics of psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletu, Bernd; Anderer, Peter; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda M

    2006-04-01

    By multi-lead computer-assisted quantitative analyses of human scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (QEEG) in combination with certain statistical procedures (quantitative pharmaco-EEG) and mapping techniques (pharmaco-EEG mapping or topography), it is possible to classify psychotropic substances and objectively evaluate their bioavailability at the target organ, the human brain. Specifically, one may determine at an early stage of drug development whether a drug is effective on the central nervous system (CNS) compared with placebo, what its clinical efficacy will be like, at which dosage it acts, when it acts and the equipotent dosages of different galenic formulations. Pharmaco-EEG maps of neuroleptics, antidepressants, tranquilizers, hypnotics, psychostimulants and nootropics/cognition-enhancing drugs will be described. Methodological problems, as well as the relationships between acute and chronic drug effects, alterations in normal subjects and patients, CNS effects and therapeutic efficacy will be discussed. Imaging of drug effects on the regional brain electrical activity of healthy subjects by means of EEG tomography such as low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) has been used for identifying brain areas predominantly involved in psychopharmacological action. This will be shown for the representative drugs of the four main psychopharmacological classes, such as 3 mg haloperidol for neuroleptics, 20 mg citalopram for antidepressants, 2 mg lorazepam for tranquilizers and 20 mg methylphenidate for psychostimulants. LORETA demonstrates that these psychopharmacological classes affect brain structures differently. By considering these differences between psychotropic drugs and placebo in normal subjects, as well as between mental disorder patients and normal controls, it may be possible to choose the optimum drug for a specific patient according to a key-lock principle, since the drug should normalize the deviant brain function. Thus, pharmaco

  12. Light microscopy can reveal the consumption of a mixture of psychotropic plant and fungal material in suspicious death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Patricia E J; Hawksworth, David L; Edwards, Kevin J

    2015-08-01

    Light microscopical examination of plant and fungal remains in the post mortem gut may be capable of demonstrating the ingestion of unexpected natural psychotropic materials. This is demonstrated here in a case in which a 'shaman' was accused of causing the death of a young man. The deceased had participated in a ceremony which involved the drinking of ayahuasca in order to induce a psychotropic experience. Ayahuasca is an infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca vine), which produces a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and one or more additional tropical plants, generally Psychotria viridis (chacruna) which produces dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The monoamine oxidase inhibitor prevents DMT from being broken down in the gut, so enabling its passage into the bloodstream and across the blood/brain barrier. Toxicological tests for DMT demonstrated the presence of this compound in the body. The deceased was reported to be in the habit of using Psilocybe semilanceata (liberty cap). This fungus (popularly called magic mushroom) contains psilocybin which is hydrolysed in the gut to psilocin; this compound mimics a serotonin uptake inhibitor, and also invokes psychotropic experiences. Microscopical examination established that the ileum and colon contained spores of Psilocybe and, in addition, pollen of Cannabis sativa and seeds of Papaver cf. somniferum (opium poppy). Both the plant species yield psychotropic substances. Palynological and mycological analysis of containers from the deceased person's dwelling also yielded abundant trace evidence of pertinent pollen and spores. The police had requested analysis for DMT but there was no screening for other psychotropic substances. Investigators were surprised that a mixture of hallucinogenic materials had been consumed by the deceased. The charge was modified from manslaughter to possession of a 'Class A' drug as the deceased had been consuming psychotropic substances not administered by the 'shaman'. Where death involving drugs

  13. Diagnosis and Medication Overload? A Nurse Review of the Psychiatric Histories of Older Youth in Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Bertram, Julie; McMillen, J. Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has raised concern about the appropriateness of psychotropic medication use and the validity of psychiatric diagnosing for youth in child welfare but has lacked in-depth case information. This study reports results from a psychiatric nurse review conducted with eight youth entering a foster care intervention using case records and…

  14. Use of Medication for the Management of Behavior Problems among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Clinicians' Consensus Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Gemma Louise; Deb, Shoumitro

    2008-01-01

    Current prescribing preferences among relevant experts regarding the use of psychotropic medication for the management of behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities in the absence of a diagnosed psychiatric illness was defined. We used a questionnaire design to synthesize the preferences of a large group, namely, clinical…

  15. Medication Use among Australian Adults with Intellectual Disability in Primary Healthcare Settings: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Tan N.; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Taylor-Gomez, Miriam; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is concern about widespread medication use by people with intellectual disability (ID), especially psychotropic and anticonvulsant agents. However, there is sparse information on prescribing patterns in Australia. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 among adults with ID who live in the community…

  16. Oral health impacts of medications used to treat mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, N; Pradhan, A; Taing, M W; Kisely, S; Ford, P J

    2017-12-01

    Many psychotropic medications affect oral health. This review identified oral side effects for antidepressant, antipsychotic, anticonvulsant, antianxiety and sedative drugs that are recommended in Australia for the management of common mental illnesses and provides recommendations to manage these side-effects. The Australian Therapeutic Guidelines and the Australian Medicines Handbook were searched for medications used to treat common mental health conditions. For each medication, the generic name, class, and drug company reported side-effects were extracted from the online Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (eMIMs) and UpToDate databases. Meyler's Side Effect of Drugs Encyclopaedia was used to identify additional oral adverse reactions to these medications. Fifty-seven drugs were identified: 23 antidepressants, 22 antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, and 12 anxiolytic or sedative medications. Xerostomia (91%) the most commonly reported side effect among all classes of medications of the 28 identified symptoms. Other commonly reported adverse effects included dysguesia (65%) for antidepressants, and tardive dyskinesia (94%) or increased salivation (78%) for antipsychotic medications. While xerostomia has often been reported as a common adverse effect of psychotropic drugs, this review has identified additional side effects including dysguesia from antidepressants and tardive dyskinesia and increased salivation from antipsychotics. Clinicians should consider oral consequences of psychotropic medication in addition to other side-effects when prescribing. For antidepressants, this would mean choosing duloxetine, agomelatine and any of the serotonin re-uptake inhibitors except sertraline. In the case of antipsychotics and mood stabilisers, atypical agents have less oral side effects than older alternatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 抗消化性溃疡药使用情况统计分析--基于“基药”与“基保”目录的差异视角%Statistical Analysis on the Usage of Anti-Ulcer Drugs of Digestive Tract --Based on the Perspective of Difference between the Directories of "National Essential Drugs" and "Basic Medical Insurance Drugs"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锦娟; 池明建; 胡世明; 康洽福

    2015-01-01

    By reviewing the usage of anti-ulcer drugs of digestive tract in hospitalized patients of 11 Second-or higher level designated hospitals of Fujian Medical Insurance Management Center in Fuzhou area, we obtained 2153 hospitalization data in 2014, to compare the amounts of medication, DDs, DDC and some other index according to the Directory of “national essential drugs” or the Directory of“local basic medical insurance”. Based on the results of comparison, we suggest that national essential drugs directory and basic medical insurance drugs directory should be connected; drug directory revision should consider clinical and practical application; medical insurance agencies, health supervision departments and medical institutions should cooperate in PPIs rational using of medicine.%本文通过分析福州地区11家二甲及以上定点医院住院医保患者抗消化性溃疡药使用情况。调取2014年度使用抗消化性溃疡药计2153份住院数据,根据是否国家基本药物、是否福建省基本医疗保险药品目录分别统计用药金额、DDDs、DDC等不同指标的统计对比,提出了国家基本药物目录与基本医疗保险药品目录应相互衔接;目录修订应考虑临床实际应用情况;医保经办机构、医疗监管部门、医疗机构要协同做好PPIs合理用药工作的建议。

  18. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  19. Originator usage control with business process slicing

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Ziyi

    2012-01-01

    Originator Control allows information providers to define the information re-dissemination condition. Combined with usage control policy, fine-grained 'downstream usage control' can be achieved, which specifies what attributes the downstream consumers should have and how data is used. This paper discusses originator usage control, paying particular attention to enterprise-level dynamic business federations. Rather than 'pre-defining' the information re-dissemination paths, our business process slicing method 'capture' the asset derivation pattern, allowing to maintain originators' policies during the full lifecycle of assets in a collaborative context. First, we propose Service Call Graph (SCG), based on extending the System Dependency Graph, to describe dependencies among partners. When SCG (and corresponding 'service call tuple' list) is built for a business process, it is analyzed to group partners into sub-contexts, according to their dependency relations. Originator usage control can be achieved focusing...

  20. Internet Usage and Academic Performance of Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet Usage and Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students in University ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... of University of Ilorin had positively influenced their academic performance in their ...

  1. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  2. Studies on accumulation of (14C)-mescaline in brain homogenates: effects of psychotropic and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N S; Gulati, O D

    1975-01-01

    Incubation of rat brain homogenates or 14,500 g pellet isolated from the homogenate with (14C)-mescaline was associated with accumulation of (14C)-mescaline in the pellet. 1.33 mumol/ml of chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, fluphenazine, imipramine, desmethylimipramine, nortriptyline and amitriptyline inhibited the accumulation of mescaline. Lower concentrations (0.133-0.44 mumol/ml) of the psychotropic drugs were less effective. The tricyclic antidepressants were less potent than the tranquilizers. Although the trimethoxyphenylacetic acid (TMPA) levels of the pellet were also reduced by the psychotropic drugs, the TMPA:mescaline ratios were unchanged indicating that the drugs had no effect on the metabolism of mescaline. The inhibition of accumulation of mescaline by the high concentrations of tranquilizers may divert more of the hallucinogen to the receptor site. Thus, an explanation for the reported worsening of clinical syndrome of hallucinogenic poisoning by tranquilizers is provided.

  3. Access to mental health services and psychotropic drug use in refugees and asylum seekers hosted in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, M; Turrini, G; Barbui, C

    2015-10-01

    In the populations of refugees and asylum seekers hosted in high-income countries, access to mental health care and psychotropic drugs, is a major challenge. A recent Swedish cross-sectional register study has explored this phenomenon in a national cohort of 43 403 young refugees and their families from Iraq, Iran, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Afghanistan. This register study found lower rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees, as compared with Swedish-born residents, with an increase in the use with duration of residence. In this commentary, the results of this survey are discussed in view of their global policy implications for high-income countries hosting populations of refugees and asylum seekers.

  4. Feature Usage Explorer: Usage Monitoring and Visualization Tool in HTML5 Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunas Marciuska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Feature Usage Explorer is a JavaScript library, which automatically detects features in HTML5 based applications and monitors their usage. The collected information can be visualized in a Feature Usage Diagram, which is automatically generated from an input json file. Currently, the users of Feature Usage Explorer have to design their own tool in order to generate the json file from collected usage information. This option remains viable when using the library in order not to constraint the user’s choice of preferred data storage. Feature Usage Explorer can be reused in any HTML5 based applications where an understanding of how users interact with the system is required (i.e. user experience and usability studies, human computer interaction field, or requirement prioritization area.

  5. Psychotropics and weak opioid analgesics in plasma samples of older hip fracture patients - detection frequencies and consistency with drug records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waade, Ragnhild Birkeland; Molden, Espen; Martinsen, Mette Irene; Hermann, Monica; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2017-07-01

    To determine use of psychotropic drugs and weak opioids in hip fracture patients by analysing plasma samples at admission, and compare detected drug frequencies with prescription registry data and drug records. Plasma from 250 hip fracture patients aged ≥65 years sampled at hospital admission were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for detection of psychotropic drugs and weak opioid analgesics (alcohol also determined). Odds ratios for drugs detected in plasma of hip fracture patients vs. prescription frequencies of the same drugs in an age-, time- and region-matched reference population were calculated. Moreover, recorded and measured drugs were compared. Psychotropic drugs and/or weak opioid analgesics were detected in 158 (63%) of the patients (median age 84 years; 76% females), while alcohol was found in 19 patients (7.6%). The occurrence of diazepam (odds ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.4), nitrazepam (2.3; 1.3-4.1), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (1.9; 1.3-2.9) and mirtazapine (2.3; 1.2-4.3) was significantly higher in plasma samples of hip fracture patients than in prescription data from the reference population. Poor consistency between recorded and measured drugs was disclosed for z-hypnotics and benzodiazepines; e.g. diazepam was detected in 29 (11.6%), but only recorded in six (2.4%) of the patients. Plasma analysis shows that use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines in hip fracture patients is significantly more frequent than respective prescription frequencies in the general elderly population. Moreover, consistency between recorded and actual use of psychotropic fall-risk drugs is poor at hospital admission of hip fracture patients. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Statistical analysis: the need, the concept, and the usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naduvilath Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, better understanding of the need and usage of statistics would benefit the medical community in India. This paper explains why statistical analysis is needed, and what is the conceptual basis for it. Ophthalmic data are used as examples. The concept of sampling variation is explained to further corroborate the need for statistical analysis in medical research. Statistical estimation and testing of hypothesis which form the major components of statistical inference are construed. Commonly reported univariate and multivariate statistical tests are explained in order to equip the ophthalmologist with basic knowledge of statistics for better understanding of research data. It is felt that this understanding would facilitate well designed investigations ultimately leading to higher quality practice of ophthalmology in our country.

  7. Uso de Psicofármacos en prisión (CP Madrid III The use of psychotropic drugs in prison (CP Madrid III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Varela-González

    2007-10-01

    prescribed in order to find therapeutic uses in the fields of personality disorders, addictions, and dysfunctional behaviours that have not been accepted as indications (compassive use. This study enabled us to make a detailed description of the use of psychiatric drugs at the Madrid III prison, a centre with one of the lowest levels of pharmaceutical expenditure in the region. For a two-week period, all prescriptions of psychotropic drugs were collected and registered along with data of several possible conditioning factors. 20.5% of the population was receiving some kind of psychiatric drug; 76% of those inmates undergoing treatment were receiving one or two psychotropic drugs; 65% were taking sedatives, 38% antidepressants and 27% antipsychotic medication. The total amount of psychotropics consumed was 9,840 DDDs, 46% of which were sedatives, 17% of those being antidepressants and the other 14% antipsychotics. The total cost of the fortnight’s treatment was 5,379 euros, 72% of which was spent on antipsychotic medication. There are signs that compassive use of the latest generation of antipsychotics and antiepileptics, and the newer antidepressants are a main cause of the dramatic increase in cost, and cost efficiency has not always been clearly demonstrated. One of the key influencing factors on amount, type and cost of treatment was the prescriptor. An unexpected result was that of finding no relationship between age, nationality, grade or other individual variables and prescription of different kind of medication, with the exception of benzodiazepines.

  8. [Chronic psychotropic drugs use in the Canadian labor force: what are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, A; Blanc, M-E

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to better understand the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions to the development of chronic psychotropic drugs use among workers in Canada. The study is based on a secondary analysis of the longitudinal data of the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) of Statistics Canada which includes five cycles from 1994-1995 to 2002-2003. A panel of 6585 people from 15 to 55 years old and employed at cycle 1 and nested in 1413 neighbourhoods was selected. Multilevel models of regression were estimated on three levels: repeated measures (level 1=24,785 observations) were nested in the individuals (level 2=6585 individuals) and the individuals nested in the local communities (level 3=1413 neighborhoods). The prevalence of multiple episodes (two episodes and more between cycle 1 and cycle 5) of psychotropic drugs use was 6.7% (95%CI=6.0-7.4%). Only occupation and the number of working hours showed a significant contribution. Family and individual variables like marital status and personality traits (locus of control and sense of coherence) had a significant contribution, in addition to time, gender, age, physical health, number of cigarettes and stressful childhood events. Work contributes weakly to the risk of chronic psychotropic drugs use, whereas individual characteristics make a much more important contribution to the phenomenon.

  9. Gridded usage inventories of chlordane in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang WANG; Lijuan ZHAO; Xuekun FANG; Jianhua XU; Yifan LI; Yehong SHI; Jianxin HU

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Chlordane (1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-3a,4,7, 7a-tetra-hydro-4,7-methanoindane) is one of organochlor- ine pesticides (OCPs) which has been listed as one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to be reduced and finally eliminated in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, because of its great persistence, toxicity, bio-accumulation and long-range transport potential. It is critical to create a national chlordane usage inventories for China to compile chlordane emission inventories, which is helpful for carrying out risk assessments and other researches related to chlordane in China. The annual data of chlordane usage was calculated and modified in accordance with the reported annual production of chlordane which was caculated on the basis of the termite distribution, the data of chlordane usage rate and the annual new construction area (NCA). With the help of Geographic Information System, the usage data of this NCA were allocated to a grid system then, with a 1/4° longitude by 1/6°latitude resolution and a size for each grid cell of approximately 25 km by 25 km. Between 1988 and 2008, the total usage of chlordane in China was 2745 t, accounting for approximately 80% of the production in the same period. Zhejiang Province was the largest consumer of chlordane in China, whose usage adds up to 980 t, greatly exceeding other provinces/regions, followed by Jiangsu Province (534 t) and Sichuan Province (428 t). The region with the least usage of chlordane was Beijing. Provinces of Guizhou, Henan and Hebei did not use any chlordane, even though termites had occurred in these provinces. Gridded usage inventories showed that the intensive use of chlordane was concentrated in the southeast part of China, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta in particular. The satisfaction of the inventories was supported by the consistence between the estimated data of annual usage and the reported annual production of

  10. Frecuencia de uso de prácticas médicas basadas en la evidencia en el cuidado del parto en hospitales de la ciudad de Medellín. Años 2004 y 2005 Usage frequency of medical practices based on the evidence in the childbirth attention in hospitals of Medellín, Colombia, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza de Monterrosa

    2006-01-01

    , OBJECTIVE AND SETTING: Descriptive and prospective study to know the usage frequency of some beneficial, ineffective and harmful practices during childbirth attention in three health institutions located in Medellín, Colombia, one of them public and the other two, private. They see patients of the first, second and third levels of complexity. RESULTS: At the institutions included in the study 30.7% of childbirths were carried out by Caesarean section. In 12% of vaginal childbirth cases, the perineum was shaved. In 31.5% of the situations, partogram was not performed. In 43.1% of cases women were not accompanied by any relative or close friend during childbirth work, and 76.1% of patients had their childbirth in supine position. In 19.3% of cases, an active handling of childbirth did not take place. 71.4% of first-time pregnant women underwent an episiotomy. Prophylactic antibiotics were not applied to 55% of the mothers delivered by Caesarean section. CONCLUSIONS: Some practices in medical attention of childbirth are still used or avoided despite the current recommendations of the medical literature.

  11. Frequency and Influencing Factors of Rubber Dam Usage in Tianjin: A Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the frequency and influencing factors of rubber dam usage for endodontic procedures among general dentistry practitioners and specialized practitioners (endodontist in Tianjin. Methods. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed among practitioners from 3 different types of medical institutions in Tianjin. Data were collected and analysed using Chi-square tests. Results. There were 63.3% of respondents who have used rubber dam (response rate 82.7%, valid response rate 76.3%. However, only 0.4% and 3.1% of them recognized using rubber dam “every time” during caries direct restoration and root canal therapy, respectively. There was no significant difference in rubber dam usage between male and female practitioners. Among the respondents, practitioners with working experience between 5 and 10 years showed the highest usage rate (76.3%, while practitioners working more than 20 years showed the lowest (53.2%. The endodontists gained the highest and the most frequent usage rate and the best rubber dam technique mastering skills. Practitioners working in those stomatological departments of general hospitals showed the lowest rubber dam usage rate. Conclusions. The prevalence of rubber dam usage in Tianjin city is still low. The practitioner’s gender, years of professional experience, general or specialized field, and the type of dental setting they work for are the factors that need to be considered during making policy and executing training.

  12. 2013-2015年天津市肿瘤医院第二类精神药品使用情况分析%Analysis on use of second class psychotropic substances in Tianjin Cancer Hospital from 2013 to 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜俊; 谷振坤; 杜晓琅; 王晨; 张洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the usage and variation tendency of second class psychotropic substances in Tianjin Cancer Hospital, in order to provide reference for rational drug use in clinic.Methods The utilization, consumption sums, frequency of drug use (DDDs), defined daily cost (DDC), and drug sequence ratio (B/A) of second class psychotropic substances in Tianjin Cancer Hospital during 2013 to 2015 were calculated and analyzed.Results The consumption sums of second class psychoactive substances increased rapidly year by year from 2013 to 2015. The consumption sums of Pentazocine Injection, Dezocine Injection, and Midazolam Injection ranked first. DDDs of second class psychoactive substances increased year by year from 2013 to 2015, and DDDs of Dezocine Injection and Pentazocine Injection ranked the first and the second in 2015. In 2013 and 2014, DDC of second class psychotropic substances was basically stable, and DDDs of Pentazocine Injection ranked the first. DDC of all the second class psychotropic substances were lower than 10 Yuan in 2015. B/A of most second class psychotropic substances was closed to 1.00 in 2015.Conclusion The utilization of second class psychotropic substances in Tianjin Cancer Hospital is rational on the whole, but there are still some problems.%目的:分析天津市肿瘤医院第二类精神药品的使用情况和变化趋势,为促进临床合理用药提供依据。方法对2013—2015年天津市肿瘤医院第二类精神药品的销售量、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均药费(DDC)、药品排序比(B/A)进行统计和分析。结果2013—2015年,第二类精神药品的销售金额逐年增长,喷他佐辛注射液、地佐辛注射液、咪达唑仑注射液销售金额排名始终居前。第二类精神药物的DDDs逐年增长,地佐辛注射液、喷他佐辛注射液DDDs排名跃居前2位。2013—2014年各种精神药品的DDC基本相同,喷他佐辛注射液

  13. Associations of social and material deprivation with tobacco, alcohol, and psychotropic drug use, and gender: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravaud Jean-François

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge concerning these issues may help public health policy-makers design more effective means of preventing substance abuse. Methods The sample comprised 6,216 people aged ≥ 15 years randomly selected from the population in north-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, employment, income, smoking habit, alcohol abuse and "psychotropic" drug intake (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia. A deprivation score (D was defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployed, living alone, nationality other than western European, low income, and non-home-ownership. Data were analysed using adjusted odds ratios (ORa computed with logistic models. Results Deprivation was common: 37.4% of respondents fell into category D = 1, 21.2% into D = 2, and 10.0% into D ≥ 3. More men than women reported tobacco use (30.2% vs. 21.9% and alcohol abuse (12.5% vs. 3.3%, whereas psychotropic drug use was more common among women (23.8% vs. 41.0%. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use (ORa vs. D = 0: 1.16 in D = 1, 1.49 in D = 2, and 1.93 in D ≥ 3, alcohol abuse (1.19 in D = 1, 1.32 in D = 2, and 1.80 in D ≥ 3 and frequent psychotropic drug intake (1.26 in D = 1, 1.51 in D = 2, and 1.91 in D ≥ 3. These patterns were observed in working/other non-retired men and women (except for alcohol abuse in women. Among retired people, deprivation was associated with tobacco and psychotropic drug use only in men. Conclusion Preventive measures should be designed to improve work conditions, reduce deprivation, and help deprived populations to be more aware of risk and to find remedial

  14. A Survey of Bioinformatics Database and Software Usage through Mining the Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraint Duck

    Full Text Available Computer-based resources are central to much, if not most, biological and medical research. However, while there is an ever expanding choice of bioinformatics resources to use, described within the biomedical literature, little work to date has provided an evaluation of the full range of availability or levels of usage of database and software resources. Here we use text mining to process the PubMed Central full-text corpus, identifying mentions of databases or software within the scientific literature. We provide an audit of the resources contained within the biomedical literature, and a comparison of their relative usage, both over time and between the sub-disciplines of bioinformatics, biology and medicine. We find that trends in resource usage differs between these domains. The bioinformatics literature emphasises novel resource development, while database and software usage within biology and medicine is more stable and conservative. Many resources are only mentioned in the bioinformatics literature, with a relatively small number making it out into general biology, and fewer still into the medical literature. In addition, many resources are seeing a steady decline in their usage (e.g., BLAST, SWISS-PROT, though some are instead seeing rapid growth (e.g., the GO, R. We find a striking imbalance in resource usage with the top 5% of resource names (133 names accounting for 47% of total usage, and over 70% of resources extracted being only mentioned once each. While these results highlight the dynamic and creative nature of bioinformatics research they raise questions about software reuse, choice and the sharing of bioinformatics practice. Is it acceptable that so many resources are apparently never reused? Finally, our work is a step towards automated extraction of scientific method from text. We make the dataset generated by our study available under the CC0 license here: http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1281371.

  15. [Treatment for irritable bowel syndrome--psychotropic drugs, antidepressants and so on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mitsuko; Murakami, Masato

    2006-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disease with good prognosis, which is diagnosed by exclusion of possible causative organic diseases. However, since the patients tend to have strong psychotic symptoms including anxiety, tension, depression, irritation and insomnia, this syndrome has to be elucidated as a psychosomatic disease. Although the symptoms are usually limited to gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and abnormal bowel movements, many patients also manifest some kinds of psychiatric abnormalities such as hypochondria, depression, hysteria, panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Especially, the prevalence of depression is high. Therefore, use of psychotropic drugs is efficient in treating IBS. Antidepressant agents including tricyclic agents such as amitriptyline, trimipramine, imipramine, clomipramine, amoxapine and nortriptyline; tetracyclic antidepressant; antidepressants such as SSRI and SNRI; sulpiride; benzodiazepine class anxiolytic agents; tandospirone; and Chinese herbal medicine are being used. IBS is a stress-related disease. Therefore, in spite of the importance of pharmacotherapy, patients should also be instructed to avoid the stress that aggravates the symptoms in all aspects of daily life.

  16. Six psychotropics for pre-symptomatic & early Alzheimer's (MCI, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Lauterbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quest for neuroprotective drugs to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD, and Huntington's disease (HD, has been largely unrewarding. Preclinical evidence suggests that repurposing quetiapine, lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine for early and pre-symptomatic disease-modification in NDDs may be promising and can spare regulatory barriers. The literature of these psychotropics in early stage and pre-symptomatic AD, PD, and HD is reviewed and propitious findings follow. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI phase of AD: salutary human randomized controlled trial findings for low-dose lithium and, in selected patients, donepezil await replication. Pre-symptomatic AD: human epidemiological data indicate that lithium reduces AD risk. Animal model studies (AMS reveal encouraging results for quetiapine, lithium, donepezil, and memantine. Early PD: valproate AMS findings show promise. Pre-symptomatic PD: lithium and valproate AMS findings are encouraging. Early HD: uncontrolled clinical data indicate non-progression with lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine. Pre-symptomatic HD: lithium and valproate are auspicious in AMS. Many other promising findings awaiting replication (valproate in MCI; lithium, valproate, fluoxetine in pre-symptomatic AD; lithium in early PD; lithium, valproate, fluoxetine in pre-symptomatic PD; donepezil in early HD; lithium, fluoxetine, memantine in pre-symptomatic HD are reviewed. Dose- and stage-dependent effects are considered. Suggestions for signal-enhancement in human trials are provided for each NDD stage.

  17. Ion-exchange vs reversed-phase chromatography for separation and determination of basic psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, Anna; Wróblewski, Karol; Deja, Michał; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2015-11-01

    Ion exchange chromatography, an alternative to reversed-phase (RP) chromatography, is described in this paper. We aimed to obtain optimal conditions for the separation of basic drugs because silica-based RP stationary phases show silanol effect and make the analysis of basic analytes hardly possible. The retention, separation selectivity, symmetry of peaks and system efficiency were examined in different eluent systems containing different types of buffers at acidic pH and with the addition of organic modifiers: methanol and acetonitrile. The obtained results reveal a large influence of the salt cation used for buffer preparation and the type of organic modifier on the retention behavior of the analytes. These results were also compared with those obtained on an XBridge C18 column. The obtained results demonstrated that SCX stationary phases can be successfully used as alternatives to C18 stationary phases in the separation of basic compounds. The most selective and efficient chromatographic systems were applied for the quantification of some psychotropic drugs in fortified human serum samples.

  18. Genome landscapes and bacteriophage codon usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius B Lucks

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Across all kingdoms of biological life, protein-coding genes exhibit unequal usage of synonymous codons. Although alternative theories abound, translational selection has been accepted as an important mechanism that shapes the patterns of codon usage in prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes. Here we analyze patterns of codon usage across 74 diverse bacteriophages that infect E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and L. lactis as their primary host. We use the concept of a "genome landscape," which helps reveal non-trivial, long-range patterns in codon usage across a genome. We develop a series of randomization tests that allow us to interrogate the significance of one aspect of codon usage, such as GC content, while controlling for another aspect, such as adaptation to host-preferred codons. We find that 33 phage genomes exhibit highly non-random patterns in their GC3-content, use of host-preferred codons, or both. We show that the head and tail proteins of these phages exhibit significant bias towards host-preferred codons, relative to the non-structural phage proteins. Our results support the hypothesis of translational selection on viral genes for host-preferred codons, over a broad range of bacteriophages.

  19. Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDsIt will be our tradition to start every issue with a topic which demands attention of peopleespecially pharma professionals and of course the researchers. NSAIDs are proved to be verybeneficial as analgesic, antipyretic and anti inflammatory agents. Their usage is becoming moreand more as they are available as OTC drugs. Its worth to remember that they too possessesnumber of side effects, including GI side effects, Nephropathy, liver failure and prolongedbleeding after an injury or surgery. It is now reported NSAIDs causes dementia and showsnegative effect on protein synthesis. Their cardiovascular risk was in the head lines for severalmonths. One more fact is that no NSAID should be taken for more than 10 days, unless a doctorhas prescribed otherwise. Unnecessary and indiscriminate usage of NSAIDS increasingalarmingly (Green, 2001 and should be taken care of. They often take along with prescriptiondrugs and there are several incidences of drug interactions. For example concomitant usage ofanticoagulants or oral glucocorticoids should be avoided. (Ibuprofen, Clinical Pharmacologywww.clinicalpharmacology.com. So, indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs should be regulated.

  20. EBSCO's Usage Consolidation Attempts to Streamline Gathering, Storage, and Reporting of Usage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of EBSCO's new Usage Consolidation product designed to streamline the harvesting, storage, and analysis of usage statistics from electronic resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the product are discussed as well as an early beta partner's experience. In the current atmosphere of flat or declining budgets, libraries…

  1. EBSCO's Usage Consolidation Attempts to Streamline Gathering, Storage, and Reporting of Usage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of EBSCO's new Usage Consolidation product designed to streamline the harvesting, storage, and analysis of usage statistics from electronic resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the product are discussed as well as an early beta partner's experience. In the current atmosphere of flat or declining budgets, libraries…

  2. Universality and Shannon entropy of codon usage

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sciarrino, A; Sorba, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The distribution functions of the codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data, for 40 eukaryotic biological species and 5 chloroplasts, do not follow a Zipf law, but are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondriae the analysis is not conclusive. A quantum-mechanics-inspired model is proposed to describe the observed behaviour. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total GC content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly depending on the exonic GC content, is computed.

  3. The risk of shortage of radioelements at medical use must not lead to overlook the reactors safety that produce them; Le risque de penurie de radioelements a usage medical ne doit pas conduire a faire l'impasse sur la surete des reacteurs qui les produisent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    As the reactors supplying the world production of radioelements for medical use have over 40 years of operation, the nuclear safety authority alerts the stake holders on the necessity to prevent the conflicts between public health and nuclear safety in the production of these elements; Asn estimates that the solution is not to extend the lifetime of the reactors but goes for a new international concerted approach. The most of the present production comes from five old reactors: N.R.U. at Chalk river (Canada, 40%), H.F.R. at Petten (Netherlands, 30%), Safari at Pelindaba (South Africa, 10%) B.R.2 at Mol (Belgium, 9%) and Osiris at Saclay (France, 5%). In this context, Asn organised in january 2009 a seminar on the safety-availability of facilities of radio-isotopes production with safety authorities of the concerned countries. Nea organised a seminar on the radiopharmaceuticals supply at the end of january 2009. (N.C.)

  4. Media usage as health segmentation variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Shelly; Chen, Qimei; Duffy, Margaret; Fleming, Kenneth

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to contrast a traditional audience segmentation model that uses demographics and health evaluations against a model that uses these same variables plus media usage variables. The goal was to determine whether media usage variables - typically not used in health segmentation studies - add predictive power in determining health behaviors and attitudes. The results of the analysis showed an increase in the ability to predict health behaviors such as aspirin use, vitamin use, diet, and exercise, and suggest that there is predictive value for including media variables as part of the segmentation process. Implications for public health education and campaign planning are discussed.

  5. CloudMonitor: Profiling Power Usage

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, James William; Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Sommerville, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In Cloud Computing platforms the addition of hardware monitoring devices to gather power usage data can be impractical or uneconomical due to the large number of machines to be metered. CloudMonitor, a monitoring tool that can generate power models for software-based power estimation, can provide insights to the energy costs of deployments without additional hardware. Accurate power usage data leads to the possibility of Cloud providers creating a separate tariff for power and therefore incentivizing software developers to create energy-efficient applications.

  6. NAT Usage in Residential Broadband Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Gregor; Schneider, Fabian; Feldmann, Anja

    Many Internet customers use network address translation (NAT) when connecting to the Internet. To understand the extend of NAT usage and its implications, we explore NAT usage in residential broadband networks based on observations from more than 20,000 DSL lines. We present a unique approach for detecting the presence of NAT and for estimating the number of hosts connected behind a NAT gateway using IP TTLs and HTTP user-agent strings. Furthermore, we study when each of the multiple hosts behind a single NAT gateway is active. This enables us to detect simultaneous use. In addition, we evaluate the accuracy of NAT analysis techniques when fewer information is available.

  7. Psychotropic drug consumption: analysis of ambulatory setting prescriptions as basis for drug-related problems studies / Consumo de medicamentos psicotrópicos: análisis de recetas médicas ambulatorias como base para estudios de problemas relacionados con medicamentos / Consumo de psicotrópicos: análise das prescrições ambulatoriais como base para estudos de problemas relacionados com medicamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelá IR

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed to discuss consumption of psychotropic registered by Health Municipal Secretariat of Ribeirão Preto (SMSRP, São Paulo (Brazil in 2001. Data were gathered from monthly records of Pharmacy Units, kept in Pharmacy Department of SMSRP, and were expressed in DDD per 10.000 inhabitants/day, for each pharmaceutical. Diazepam (DZP was the most used anxiolytic (DDD/10000=96.8, followed by phenobarbital (DDD/10000=32.8. Amitriptyline was the most used antidepressant, and the 4th among all psychotropic drugs (DDD/10000=18.6. A increasing trend in DZP and AMT consumption was observed, being most of the prescriptions done by psychiatry specialists (53 and 60%, respectively, while the rest was originated in neurology, rheumatology and ambulatory AIDS clinics. The present study concludes that antidepressant consumption suggests a great use in non-psychiatric use, specially AMT, pointing out its use in analgesia. It also concludes that although data are not enough to obtain risk-cost-benefit of this drugs, neither factors determining psychotropic consumption, they point to the necessity of multy-dimensional assessments to verify existence of symptoms medicalization by non-psychiatric medicine, and their iatrogenic consequences.

  8. Fire usage and ancient hominin detoxification genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Jac M.M.J.G.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Scherjon, Fulco; MacDonald, Katharine; Smith, Alison C.; Nijveen, Harm; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the defence capacity of ancient hominins against toxic substances may contribute importantly to the reconstruction of their niche, including their diets and use of fire. Fire usage implies frequent exposure to hazardous compounds from smoke and heated food, known to affect general heal

  9. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  10. The scope of usage-based theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbotson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy, and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the "cognitive commitment" of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing, and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highlight where there are significant debates. Finally, we draw special attention to a set of culturally generated structural patterns that seem to lie beyond the explanation of core usage-based cognitive processes. In this context we draw a distinction between cognition permitting language structure vs. cognition entailing language structure. As well as addressing the need for greater clarity on the mechanisms of generalizations and the fundamental units of grammar, we suggest that integrating culturally generated structures within existing cognitive models of use will generate tighter predictions about how language works.

  11. Mobile Device Usage in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcker, Jan; Honal, Andrea; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on mobile device usage of students in higher education. While more and more students embrace mobile devices in their daily life, institutions attempt to profit from those devices for educational purposes. It is therefore crucial for institutional development to identify students' needs and how mobile devices may facilitate these…

  12. Design models for anticipating future usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooden, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    In usage centred design designers need to consider a variety of users operating the intended product in a variety of ways in a variety of contexts. By tuning their design to potential ways of operation designers can prevent usability problems from occurring. In the project it was explored how design

  13. An Analysis of Electronic-Mail Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study that established a measure and model for use in predicting and explaining electronic mail systems as an example of computer-mediated communication technologies usage and choice. The results indicated that all of the eight hypotheses showed significant correlation between criterion and predictor variates, supported by different…

  14. MESUR: metrics from scholarly usage of resources

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting ...

  15. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…

  16. Collaborative Portfolio's Effect on Library Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Library resources are expensive and it is the library media specialist's responsibility to ensure that use of the library's resources is maximized to support the School Strategic Plan (SSP). This library usage study examined data on the scheduling of high school classes for research-based assignments, related to content area curriculum standards,…

  17. Usage Patterns of Open Genomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Genome Expression Omnibus (GEO), a data repository in biomedical sciences, to examine the usage patterns of open data repositories. It attempts to identify the degree of recognition of data reuse value and understand how e-science has impacted a large-scale scholarship. By analyzing a list of 1,211 publications that cite GEO data…

  18. Twitter Usage of Universities in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Ozgu

    2013-01-01

    Universities are among the users of the most popular social media networks. Usage of social media by especially students and many other people and institutions, which constitutes the target audience for universities, encourages the universities to effectively use this environment. Twitter is among these social media networks which facilitate the…

  19. Current Usage of Relative Pronouns in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozete, Oscar

    1981-01-01

    Examines variations in current usage that pose problems in teaching Spanish relative pronouns. Discusses their treatment in first-year college textbooks, in the professional literature and in newspapers and magazines prose. Attempts to provide a description of the use of these pronouns applicable to classroom presentation. (MES)

  20. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  1. Empirical modeling of information communication technology usage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    2015-11-01

    Nov 1, 2015 ... Information Communication Technology (ICT) usage behavior), based on ... highly integrated ICT schemes with competent personnel, using ICTs in .... skilled business teachers, office administrators and ... management of various aspects of the learning ..... Library, 31(6):792-807. doi: 10.1108/EL-04-2012-.

  2. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…

  3. Sporforming probiotics and their usage in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The data of literature about spore-forming probiotics, as well as their usage in the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract in children were sumerised. Analysis of the data allows us to recommend the preparation «Biosporin-Biopharma» for preventive measures and treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases at all levels of children health care, including infants.

  4. Mobile phones: Time to rethink and limit usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency waves generated from mobile phones cause potential public health problems. Short-term effects like changes in sleep, heart rate, and blood pressure, and long-term effects like carcinoma are well documented. The Government of India′s efforts in laying down regulations regarding the safety limits, manufacture, marketing, and mobile use are still in nascent stage. The need for stringent enforcement of laws for prevention of phone usage while driving and guidelines of medical regulatory bodies regarding rules and regulations of phone usage while at class or attending patients is of utmost importance. This should be supplemented by mass media to raise awareness among people regarding the possible health effects of radiofrequency emissions from mobile phones and the guidelines to minimize its exposure. It is the need of the hour to teach young people to be structured, to know when to have the cell phone on, and to avoid becoming the slave of technology instead of its mastery.

  5. Drug utilization study of psychotropic drugs in outdoor patients in a tertiary care hospital attached with a medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan Madhusudan Doshi

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Overall, the drugs were prescribed rationally. Benzodiazepine should be prescribed only for short-term duration. Use of central acting anticholinergic drugs with all antipsychotic drugs was not justified. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1220-1223

  6. Depression with psychotic features in a child with SLE: successful therapy with psychotropic medications--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovancevic, Milica Pejovic; Miletic, Vladimir; Deusic, Smiljka Popovic; Gajic, Saveta Draganic; Tosevski, Dusica Lecic

    2013-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic, autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, which affects multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system (CNS). Neuropsychiatric manifestations are seen in 13-75% of all SLE patients, with equal frequency in children and adults. Despite a high prevalence of psychiatric manifestations, there is no consensus on the proper treatment of such cases. We report here a case of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed with a severe depressive episode with psychotic features, treated successfully with risperidone and sertraline as an adjunct to immunosuppressive therapy.

  7. Factors Influencing the Use of Psychotropic Medication for Challenging Behaviour in the United Kingdom: A Q Method Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastell, Sarah; Skirrow, Paul; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The use of pharmacological interventions to manage challenging behaviour displayed by adults with intellectual disabilities remains controversial, with current clinical guidelines in the United Kingdom advocating the use of less invasive psychological interventions. This exploratory study aimed to discover what views and beliefs are…

  8. Estimating emollient usage in patients with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, K L E; Ching, G K; Leung, T F; Choi, C Y; Lee, K K C; Ng, P C

    2010-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is characterized by reduced skin hydration (SH) and impaired integrity of the skin. Proper emollient usage is an important facet of AE management and patients are encouraged to use emollients liberally. To evaluate whether the amount of emollient and skin cleanser used correlates with eczema severity, SH or transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and whether liberal usage alters disease severity, SH and TEWL. We studied SH and TEWL at three common measurement sites on the forearm (antecubital flexure, 20 mm below the antecubital flexure, mid-forearm) and determined the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score, Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS), Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and the amount of emollient and cleanser usage over a 2-week period in consecutive new patients seen at the paediatric skin clinic of a teaching hospital. In total, 48 subjects and 19 controls were recruited. Patients with AE had significantly higher TEWL and lower SH in the studied sites. Emollient and cleanser usage was significantly higher (P = 0.001 and P = 0.041, respectively) in patients with AE than in controls. The amount of emollient usage was correlated with NESS, SCORAD, CDLQI, TEWL and mid-forearm SH. No such correlation was found with cleanser usage. Regardless of SCORAD, prescribing 130 g/m(2)/week of emollient met the requirement of 95.8% of patients, and 73 g/m(2)/week met that of 85.4%; for the cleanser, prescribing 136 g/m(2)/week met the requirement of 91.7% of patients. Although skin dryness and SH were improved, there was no significant improvement in SCORAD or TEWL after 2 weeks. In terms of global acceptability of treatment, three-quarters of patients with AE and controls rated the combination of cream and cleanser as 'good' or 'very good'. Adequate amounts of emollient and bathing cleanser should be prescribed to patients with AE. These amounts can be conveniently estimated based on body surface area instead of the less readily

  9. Endocrine and Metabolic Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much as an increase in the use of psychotropic drugs is observed in children and adolescents over the last decade, the endocrine and metabolic side effects of these drugs can limit their use. Atypical antipsychotics can cause many side effects, which are not suitable for the developmental periods of children and adolescents, such as those related with thyroid, blood sugar, level of sex hormones, growth rate and bone metabolism. Children are under a more serious risk regarding the weight increasing effects of atypical antipsychotics and weight gain that is not proportionate with age is especially important due to the association between glucose or lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular mortality. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone are the least risky antipsychotic drugs when it comes to metabolic side affects. The antipsychotic drug that is associated with weight increase and diabetes in children and adolescents most is olanzapine. Even though there are no comparative long-term data concerning children, it is suggested by the currently available information that metabolic side effects including dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance are at an alarming level when it comes to long-term treatment with antipsychotics. The most risky agents in terms of hyperglycemia and glucosuria development are olanzapine and clozapine. Use of risperidone and haloperidol should be undertaken with caution since it may bring about the risk of hyperprolactinemia. Among the antidepressants associated with weight loss and suppression of appetite are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, bupropion and venlafaxine. Thyroid functions can be affected by lithium, carbamazepine and valproate treatments. It is reported that the side effect most frequently associated with valproate is weight increase. The relationship between valproate treatment and the development of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in young women should also be kept in mind. [TAF Prev

  10. [Electrogastroenterographic study of the digestive motor effects of prolonged psychotropic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A; Etienne, T; Rigalleau, J; Moline, J; Masson, J M; Arlot, J C; David, C

    1975-07-01

    Functional digestive complaints are frequent in psychiatri patients: simple constipation, which cannot be explained solely by the loss of the sensation of rectal fullness; occlusions, occasionally hemorragies; the late complication of dolichomegacolon (Bourgeois, 1973). In 160 subjects, an attempt to understand the physio-pathology were made by recording diurnal digestive motor activity using skin electrodes placed on the abdomen and extremities (electrogastroenterography or E.G.E.G.). A hypoactive E.G.E.G. was observed in 2/3 of 18 psychotic depressive patients, in 3/4 of 36 schizophrenies. The nocive effect of giving sedative phenothiazine and antiparkinsonian drugs (trihexyphenidyl or ethybenzatropine) during long periods is clear. Whereas non sedative phenothiazine and clotiapine gicen in small doses, do not have an undesirable effect. Sulpiride has been used in gastroduodenal dyskinesia. The dyskinesia noted by the E.G.E.G., sometimes found in the large intestin, were found in 55% of 30 patients with caracter disorders; they coincide with the high frequency of electro-encephalogram dysrythmies. Finally, in hysterical patients, one usually observes normal E.G.E.G., tracings which confirms the clinical observation that hysterical and psychosomatic symptoms, may succeed each other, but do not appear at the same time. In the same categories of patients, no longer treated in a classical psychiatric environment but in a group with institutional objectives, the same clinic results were obtained with fewer digestive disturbances. This tends to show the inutility and nocivity of excessive doses of psychotropic drugs given alone or in complexe association.

  11. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON BEHAVIOR ASSOCIATED WITH MOBILE PHONE USAGE AND ITS EFFECT ON HEALTH AMONG ME D ICAL STUDENTS IN CHENNAI

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji; Swapna; Saranya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Mobile phone usage has created undeniable health problems. The purpose of the current study is to describe patterns of mobile phone usage and associated effects on health. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study questionnaire was administered to (n = 213) the Medical students of ACS Medical College which covered the socio - demographic profile, behavior patterns like repeated checking, midnight checking etc., benefits as well as health problems encou...

  12. Frequency of Pathological Changes in Lungs of Bodies with Positive Postmortem Toxicology Results for Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mostafazadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of drug abuse in Iran has dramatically changed in recent years, turning from the traditional opioids [opium, opium dross, and refined opium dross (Shireh] into drugs with newer forms. The present study is aimed at investigating the frequency of pathological changes in the lungs of bodies with positive postmortem toxicology results for narcotics and psychotropic substances autopsied in the forensic dissection hall of Tehran, Iran [the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO]. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 153 bodies, which had been referred to the LMO with positive results in postmortem toxicology for narcotics and psychotropic substances. Results: We found that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were used more in men than women. Moreover, the average age of death due to drug use was 36 years old. In addition, methamphetamine was the mostly-used type of substances, and smoking was the most widely used method to use the drugs. Besides, the dominant consistency and color of the lungs of half of the bodies investigated were elastic brown-gray. Moreover, the most common pathologic changes observed in the lungs of the bodies investigated were congestion and edema. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of pathological changes in the lungs of the examined bodies and congestion, edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage, the results of the present study can be particularly effective in determining the drug use and the resultant death in the absence of any previous records and/or a negative result of toxicology.

  13. Identification and Treatment of Psychotropic Drug-induced Alopecia%精神药物致脱发的识别与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振晓; 于相芬

    2014-01-01

    多种精神药物可引起脱发,本文对脱发的概念、精神药物所致脱发的诊断、鉴别诊断、发病机制及处理等作一综述,以提高临床对精神药物所致脱发的认识。%A variety of psychotropic drugs can cause alopecia . In order to make a better understanding of psy-chotropic drug-induced alopecia , this article made a review on the definition of alopecia , diagnosis , differential diag-nosis , pathomechanism and the treatment of psychotropic drug-induced alopecia .

  14. Codon usage bias and the evolution of influenza A viruses. Codon Usage Biases of Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Emily HM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influenza A virus is an important infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and was responsible for 3 pandemics in the 20th century. As the replication of the influenza virus is based on its host's machinery, codon usage of its viral genes might be subject to host selection pressures, especially after interspecies transmission. A better understanding of viral evolution and host adaptive responses might help control this disease. Results Relative Synonymous Codon Usage (RSCU values of the genes from segment 1 to segment 6 of avian and human influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1, were studied via Correspondence Analysis (CA. The codon usage patterns of seasonal human influenza viruses were distinct among their subtypes and different from those of avian viruses. Newly isolated viruses could be added to the CA results, creating a tool to investigate the host origin and evolution of viral genes. It was found that the 1918 pandemic H1N1 virus contained genes with mammalian-like viral codon usage patterns, indicating that the introduction of this virus to humans was not through in toto transfer of an avian influenza virus. Many human viral genes had directional changes in codon usage over time of viral isolation, indicating the effect of host selection pressures. These changes reduced the overall GC content and the usage of G at the third codon position in the viral genome. Limited evidence of translational selection pressure was found in a few viral genes. Conclusions Codon usage patterns from CA allowed identification of host origin and evolutionary trends in influenza viruses, providing an alternative method and a tool to understand the evolution of influenza viruses. Human influenza viruses are subject to selection pressure on codon usage which might assist in understanding the characteristics of newly emerging viruses.

  15. Monitoring Object Library Usage and Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, R. K.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Ames Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation program Aeronautics Consolidated Supercomputing Facility (NAS/ACSF) supercomputing center services over 1600 users, and has numerous analysts with root access. Several tools have been developed to monitor object library usage and changes. Some of the tools do "noninvasive" monitoring and other tools implement run-time logging even for object-only libraries. The run-time logging identifies who, when, and what is being used. The benefits are that real usage can be measured, unused libraries can be discontinued, training and optimization efforts can be focused at those numerical methods that are actually used. An overview of the tools will be given and the results will be discussed.

  16. Flexible diaphragm-extreme temperature usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A diaphragm suitable for extreme temperature usage, such as encountered in critical aerospace applications, is fabricated by a unique method, and of a unique combination of materials. The materials include multilayered lay-ups of diaphragm materials sandwiched between layers of bleeder fabrics. After being formed in the desired shape on a mold, they are vacuum sealed and then cured under pressure, in a heated autoclave. A bond capable of withstanding extreme temperatures are produced.

  17. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  18. Employee personal Internet usage in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hemin

    2016-01-01

    Information technology (IT) devices connected to the Internet, such as computers, tablets, and smartphones, have become pervasive in the workplace. These IT devices have greatly facilitated the performance of job tasks for employees. At the same time, employees are increasingly using these technologies for non-work-related purposes during office hours, which is called personal Internet usage in the workplace (PIU). Examples of PIU include, but are not limited to, check...

  19. Correlation matrix for quartet codon usage

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sorba, Paul

    2005-01-01

    It has been argued that the sum of usage probabilities for codons, belonging to quartets, that have as third nucleotide C or A, is independent of the biological species for vertebrates. The comparison between the theoretical correlation matrix derived from these sum rules and the experimentally computed matrix for 26 species shows a satisfactory agreement. The Shannon entropy, weakly depending on the biological species, gives further support. Suppression of codons containing the dinucleotides CG or AU is put in evidence.

  20. Recommendations for PDF usage in LHC predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Placakyte, Ringaile

    2016-01-01

    A short review of the currently available modern parton distribution functions (PDFs)and the theory predictions obtained using those PDFs for several benchmark processes at LHC, including Higgs boson production, is presented in this write-up. It includes the discussion on theory assumptions made in the determination procedure of PDFs and an impact on the differences in the obtained predictions, followed by the alternative to PDF4LHC recommendations for the usage of PDF sets for theory predictions at the LHC.

  1. Usage of Wifi Technology for PLC Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jaromír ŠKUTA

    2009-01-01

    This contribution describes usage of WIFI technology for programming and parameterization of application in PLC. INSYS WLAN unit from the Microelectronics INSYS Corporation is the base of application. Software access point with using USB WIFI component WL167 is running in industrial PC. Particular PC clients are connecting into network infrastructure PLC by the help of this access point and INSYS WLAN unit. This connection allows configuring and uploading program into this PLC.

  2. LHCb Computing Resource usage in 2015 (II)

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzi, Concezio

    2016-01-01

    This documents reports the usage of computing resources by the LHCb collaboration during the period January 1st – December 31st 2015. The data in the following sections has been compiled from the EGI Accounting portal: https://accounting.egi.eu. For LHCb specific information, the data is taken from the DIRAC Accounting at the LHCb DIRAC Web portal: http://lhcb-portal-dirac.cern.ch.

  3. Duration of residence and psychotropic drug use in recently settled refugees in Sweden - a register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Hjern, Anders

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently settled refugee populations have consistently been reported to have high rates of mental health problems, particularly Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among young adult refugees....... RESULTS: Rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees were low, compared to the Swedish-born, with an increase with duration of residence. For refugee men and women from Iraq/Iran who had resided for 0-3 years the adjusted ORs compared to Swedish natives, were 0.83 (95% CI 0.......77-0.90) and 0.48 (0.44-0.53) respectively; for men and women from the Horn of Africa the ORs were 0.50 (0.42-0.61) and 0.36 (0.30-0.41) respectively. After 7-10 years of residence, the ORs in these refugee groups approached the Swedish comparison population. Refugees from Afghanistan presented ORs similar...

  4. A Structural Equation Model for ICT Usage in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usluel, Yasemin Kocak; Askar, Petek; Bas, Turgay

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usage, which is the indicator of diffusion. A model composed of the variables which can explain ICT usage in Turkish higher education is established and tested within the study. The two dimensions of ICT usage are considered: instructional and managerial. The data collected…

  5. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  6. Gadget Dependency among Medical College Students in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, N.; Krishnamurthy, V.; J Majhi; Gupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gadget holds the great importance in everyday life. Mobile phone and internet usage have become universal practice especially among the student community. Gadgets usage has both pros and cons. Objective: To assess the magnitude of gadget utilization among medical college students in Delhi and to estimate the burden of gadget dependency. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in three medical colleges. The participants were 957 medical students selected by systematic ra...

  7. Preterm births and use of medication in early adulthood: a population-based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Anders; Bjørge, Tone; Klungsøyr, Kari; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Furu, Kari

    2017-07-01

    To explore associations between preterm birth and use of medications in young adulthood as a proxy for different diseases. We linked data on birth characteristics from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-1999) and the Norwegian Prescription Database (2004-2015). Individuals born as singletons during 1974-1984 and alive at the age of 31 were included (main analyses) (n = 450 555). Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of using different medications were estimated by log-binomial regression. Population attributable risk and attributable risk percentage (PAR% and AR%) due to preterm birth were calculated. Individuals born preterm used more specific medications at age 30 than those born at term. The risks of being dispensed psychotropic medications overall and the subgroups antiepileptics, antipsychotics, anxiolytics and hypnotics were elevated in individuals born preterm. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medications, the risk was elevated in males born extremely preterm (RR 5.8; 95%CI: 2.2-15). The risk of being dispensed antiasthmatics increased by shorter gestational ages. For psychotropic medications, PAR% was 0.6% in males and 0.7% in females at age 30; AR% was 13% in males and 17% in females. For antiasthmatics, the corresponding figures were 1.4, 1.1, 24 and 23%. Individuals born preterm used more psychotropic medications overall and antiasthmatics around age 30 than those born at term. The proportions using these medications increased for those born at earlier gestational ages. Those born preterm, especially before 32 weeks of gestation, should be given special attention during early adulthood regarding development of symptoms and signs of certain diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad- ... Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ...

  9. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Maria A; Coll-Negre, Montserrat; Coll-de-Tuero, Gabriel; Saez, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis. In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012) was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined 'selection on observables' as (propensity scoring) matching and 'selection on unobservables' as (random coefficient) the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework. In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009), there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD), with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis. Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis.

  10. Evidence for involvement of the insula in the psychotropic effects of THC in humans: a double-blind, randomized pharmacological MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, van H.H.; Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Kristo, G.; Osch, M.J.P.; Zelaya, F.; Kahn, R.S.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    The main reason for recreational use of cannabis is the ‘high’, the primary psychotropic effect of ¿9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This psychoactive compound of cannabis induces a range of subjective, physical and mental reactions. The effect on heart rate is pronounced and complicates

  11. Evidence for involvement of the insula in the psychotropic effects of THC in humans: a double-blind, randomized pharmacological MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, van H.H.; Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Kristo, G.; Osch, M.J.P.; Zelaya, F.; Kahn, R.S.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    The main reason for recreational use of cannabis is the ‘high’, the primary psychotropic effect of ¿9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This psychoactive compound of cannabis induces a range of subjective, physical and mental reactions. The effect on heart rate is pronounced and complicates bloodflow-base

  12. A Review of Brugada Electrocardiogram Patterns and Brugada Syndrome Induced by Psychotropic Drugs%精神药物致Brugada波及Brugada综合征综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振晓; 于相芬

    2015-01-01

    Brugada syndrome is an ion channel disease closely associated with sudden cardiac death. Psy-chotropic drugs could induce Brugada electrocardiogram patterns and Brugada syndrome at routine dose or over-dose. In order to make a better understanding of psychotropic drug-induced Brugada electrocardiogram patterns and Brugada syndrome in clinical practice,this article made a review on the definition of Brugada electrocardiogram patterns and Brugada syndrome,diagnosis,differential diagnosis,pathomechanism and the treatment of psychotrop-ic drug-induced Brugada electrocardiogram patterns and Brugada syndrome.%Brugada综合征是一种与心脏性猝死密切相关的离子通道疾病。精神药物在常规或过量使用时,可引起心电图Brugada波及Brugada综合征。为提高临床医生的认识,对Brugada波与Brugada综合征的概念、精神药物所致Brugada波及Brugada综合征的诊断、鉴别诊断、病理生理机制及处理等作一综述。

  13. 精神药物所致咳嗽的识别与处理%Identification and Treatment of Psychotropic Drug-induced Cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于相芬; 孙振晓

    2014-01-01

    Many psychotropic drugs could cause cough which may have no typical symptoms and is difficult to distinguish at an early stage. In order to make a better understanding of psychotropic drug-induced cough, this article made a review on the definition and causes of cough, and the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathomechanism and management of psychotropic drug-induced cough. Clinicians should strengthen the ability of discrimination and treatment of cough induced by psychotropic drugs.%多种精神药物可引起咳嗽,且表现无典型特征,早期难以发现。本文对咳嗽的定义及原因、精神药物所致咳嗽的诊断、鉴别诊断、发病机制及处理等作一综述。临床应加强对精神药物引起的咳嗽进行识别和处理。

  14. Pharmacogenetics in electroconvulsive therapy and adjunctive medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; van Noorden, Martijn S; Swen, Jesse; Nozari, Ala; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of patients with depression and other mental illnesses who do not respond to psychotropic medications or need urgent control of their symptoms. Pharmacogenetics contributes to an individual's sensitivity and response to a variety of drugs. Clinical insights into pharmacogenetics of ECT and adjunctive medications not only improves its safety and efficacy in the indicated patients, but can also lead to the identification of novel treatments in psychiatric disorders through understanding of potential molecular and biological mechanisms involved. In this review, we explore the indications of pharmacogenetics role in safety and efficacy of ECT and present the evidence for its role in patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing ECT.

  15. Economic Effects of Anti-Depressant Usage on Elective Lumbar Fusion Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirali Sayadipour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested, although not proven, that presence of concomitant psychiatric disorders may increase the inpatient costs for patients undergoing elective surgery. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that elective lumbar fusion surgery is more costly in patients with under treatment for depression. Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study of 142 patients who underwent elective lumbar fusion. Of those 142 patients, 41 patients were chronically using an antidepressant medication that considered as a "study group", and 101 patients were not taking an antidepressant medication that considered as a "control group". Data was collected for this cohort regarding antidepressant usage patient demographics, length of stay (LOS, age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index scores and cost. Costs were compared between those with a concomitant antidepressant usage and those without antidepressant usage using multivariate analysis. Results: Patients using antidepressants and those with no history of antidepressant usage were similar in terms of gender, age and number of operative levels. The LOS demonstrated a non-significant trend towards longer stays in those using anti-depressants. Total charges, payments, variable costs and fixed costs were all higher in the antidepressant group but none of the differences reached statistical significance. Using Total Charges as the dependent variable, gender and having psychiatric comorbidities were retained independent variables. Use of an antidepressant was independently predictive of a 36% increase in Total Charges . Antidepressant usage as an independent variable also conferred a 22% increase in cost and predictive of a 19% increase in Fixed Cost . Male gender was predictive of a 30% increase in Total Charges . Conclusion: This study suggests use of antidepressant in patients who undergo elective spine fusion compared with control group is associated with increasing total cost and

  16. [Analysis of the use of field medical units in the armies of NATO and Russian Armed Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniushko, I G; Iakovlev, S V; Murashev, I V; Sidorov, V A; Medvedev, V R; Matveev, A G

    2011-12-01

    An analysis of medical services of NATO and the Medical Service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation of modern technology deployment stages of medical evacuation (tents, inflatable structures, shelters, containers, medical armored vehicles, cars, etc.) is presented. Examples of their usage in isolated employment, usage in the group as a mobile medical stations and field hospitals in various conditions, the prospects and directions of development of technical means deployment of medical service are given.

  17. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  18. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  19. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarino, Eduardo Anibal [INVAP S.E., San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  20. An assessment of worldwide supercomputer usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Hayes, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a comparative study of advanced supercomputing usage in Japan and the United States as of Spring 1994. It is based on the findings of a group of US scientists whose careers have centered on programming, evaluating, and designing high-performance supercomputers for over ten years. The report is a follow-on to an assessment of supercomputing technology in Europe and Japan that was published in 1993. Whereas the previous study focused on supercomputer manufacturing capabilities, the primary focus of the current work was to compare where and how supercomputers are used. Research for this report was conducted through both literature studies and field research in Japan.

  1. Impact of HSD11B1 polymorphisms on BMI and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving psychotropic treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Quteineh, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic treatments represents a major health issue. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes tissue regeneration of active cortisol from cortisone. Elevated enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD1 may lead to the development of MetS. Methods We investigated the association between seven HSD11B1 gene (encoding 11β-HSD1) polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in a psychiatric sample treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (n=478). The polymorphisms that survived Bonferroni correction were analyzed in two independent psychiatric samples (n R1 =168, n R2 =188) and in several large population-based samples (n 1 =5338; n 2 =123 865; n 3 >100 000). Results HSD11B1 rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers were found to be associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure compared with the reference genotype (P corrected <0.05). These associations were exclusively detected in women (n=257) with more than 3.1 kg/m 2, 7.5 cm, and 4.2 mmHg lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, in rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers compared with noncarriers (P corrected <0.05). Conversely, carriers of the rs846906-T allele had significantly higher waist circumference and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol exclusively in men (P corrected =0.028). The rs846906-T allele was also associated with a higher risk of MetS at 3 months of follow-up (odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.17, P corrected =0.014). No association was observed between HSD11B1 polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in the population-based samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that HSD11B1 polymorphisms may contribute toward the development of MetS in psychiatric patients treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, but do not

  2. General Medical Burden in Bipolar Disorder: Findings from the LiTMUS Comparative Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, David E.; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Thase, Michael E.; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Ostacher, Michael J.; Leon, Andrew C.; Ketter, Terence A.; Friedman, Edward S.; Bowden, Charles L.; Pencina, Michael; Iosifescu, Dan V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined general medical illnesses and their association with clinical features of bipolar disorder. Methods Data were cross-sectional and derived from the Lithium Treatment – Moderate Dose Use Study (LiTMUS), which randomized symptomatic adults (n=264 with available medical comorbidity scores) with bipolar disorder to moderate doses of lithium plus optimized treatment (OPT) or to OPT alone. Clinically significant high and low medical comorbidity burden were defined as a Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) score ≥ 4 and < 4, respectively. Results The baseline prevalence of significant medical comorbidity was 53% (n=139). Patients with high medical burden were more likely to present in a major depressive episode (P=.04), meet criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (P=.02), and experience a greater number of lifetime mood episodes (P=0.02). They were also more likely to be prescribed a greater number of psychotropic medications (P=.002). Sixty-nine percent of the sample was overweight or obese as defined by body mass index (BMI), with African-Americans representing the racial group with the highest proportion of stage II obesity (BMI ≥ 35; 31%, n=14). Conclusions The burden of comorbid medical illnesses was high in this generalizable sample of treatment-seeking patients and appears associated with worsened course of illness and psychotropic medication patterns. (Funded by NIMH Contract N01MH80001; ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00667745). PMID:23465084

  3. Deriving Framework Usages Based on Behavioral Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenmyo, Teruyoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Saeki, Motoshi

    One of the critical issue in framework-based software development is a huge introduction cost caused by technical gap between developers and users of frameworks. This paper proposes a technique for deriving framework usages to implement a given requirements specification. By using the derived usages, the users can use the frameworks without understanding the framework in detail. Requirements specifications which describe definite behavioral requirements cannot be related to frameworks in as-is since the frameworks do not have definite control structure so that the users can customize them to suit given requirements specifications. To cope with this issue, a new technique based on satisfiability problems (SAT) is employed to derive the control structures of the framework model. In the proposed technique, requirements specifications and frameworks are modeled based on Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs) with branch conditions represented by predicates. Truth assignments of the branch conditions in the framework models are not given initially for representing the customizable control structure. The derivation of truth assignments of the branch conditions is regarded as the SAT by assuming relations between termination states of the requirements specification model and ones of the framework model. This derivation technique is incorporated into a technique we have proposed previously for relating actions of requirements specifications to ones of frameworks. Furthermore, this paper discuss a case study of typical use cases in e-commerce systems.

  4. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  5. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Reed

    Full Text Available Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test, depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire, sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28. This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.

  6. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.

  7. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A.; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health – General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339

  8. Better Living Through Metadata: Examining Archive Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.; Winkelman, S.; Rots, A.

    2013-10-01

    The primary purpose of an observatory's archive is to provide access to the data through various interfaces. User interactions with the archive are recorded in server logs, which can be used to answer basic questions like: Who has downloaded dataset X? When did she do this? Which tools did she use? The answers to questions like these fill in patterns of data access (e.g., how many times dataset X has been downloaded in the past three years). Analysis of server logs provides metrics of archive usage and provides feedback on interface use which can be used to guide future interface development. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is fortunate in that a database to track data access and downloads has been continuously recording such transactions for years; however, it is overdue for an update. We will detail changes we hope to effect and the differences the changes may make to our usage metadata picture. We plan to gather more information about the geographic location of users without compromising privacy; create improved archive statistics; and track and assess the impact of web “crawlers” and other scripted access methods on the archive. With the improvements to our download tracking we hope to gain a better understanding of the dissemination of Chandra's data; how effectively it is being done; and perhaps discover ideas for new services.

  9. Emergency department usage by uninsured patients in Galveston County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Paar, David; Giordano, Thomas P; Zachariah, Brian; Rudkin, Laura L; Wu, Z Helen; Raimer, Ben G

    2008-07-01

    The number of uninsured Texas residents who rely on the medical emergency department as their primary health care provider continues to increase. Unfortunately, little information about the characteristics of this group of emergency department users is available. Using an administrative billing database, we conducted a descriptive study to examine the demographic and clinical features of 17,110 consecutive patients without medical insurance who presented to the emergency department of the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston over a 12-month period. We also analyzed the risk of multiple emergency department visits or hospitalization according to demographic characteristics. Twenty percent of the study population made two or more emergency department visits during the study period; 19% of the population was admitted to the hospital via the emergency department. The risk of multiple emergency department visits was significantly elevated among African Americans and increased in a stepwise fashion according to age. The risk of being hospitalized was significantly reduced among females, African Americans, and Hispanics. There was an age-related monotonic increase in the risk of hospitalization. Abdominal pain, cellulitis, and spinal disorders were the most common primary diagnoses in patients who made multiple emergency department visits. Hospitalization occurred most frequently in patients with a primary diagnosis of chest pain, nonischemic heart disease, or an affective disorder. Additional studies of emergency department usage by uninsured patients from other regions of Texas are warranted. Such data may prove helpful in developing effective community-based alternatives to the emergency department for this growing segment of our population. Local policymakers who are responsible for the development of safety net programs throughout the state should find this information particularly useful.

  10. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  11. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  12. Contraceptive usage and awareness among postpartum mothers in urban field practice area of a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Kaur Sidhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study contraceptive usage and awareness among postpartum mothers. Objective: To assess prevalence of postpartum contraception and factors affecting the usage of contraceptives in Urban area. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the Urban Field practice area of Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Bathinda. All females who delivered within last one year were included in the study. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and other details. A total of 92 females were included. The appropriate statistical analysis was done to present the results. Results: 30.4% females had adopted one or the other postpartum contraceptive measure. Condom was the most common method used. Usage of postpartum contraception was significantly associated with women’s and husband’s education, type of delivery and availing of antenatal and postnatal visits. The main reason for not using postpartum contraception was lack of knowledge and access. 16.3% females had unmet need of postpartum contraception. Conclusions: Overall usage of postpartum contraception was low and mainly related to lack of awareness and knowledge.

  13. Comparison of salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviours between adults in Myanmar and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyungjin; Kim, So Mi; Jeong, Seong Su; Kim, Soon Bae

    2016-12-01

    Excessive oral salt intake can induce hypertension. According to previous studies, the prevalence of hypertension is higher in Myanmar than in Korea. We postulated that Myanmar adults had higher salt taste thresholds and eat much saltier food. This study aimed to compare salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviour scores between adults in Myanmar and Korea. This cross-sectional study enrolled patients who visited volunteer medical service clinics at Ansung in Korea and Hlegu and Bago in Myanmar in August 2014. We measured the vital signs, heights, and weights of each patient and evaluated detection thresholds, recognition thresholds, and salt preferences. All patients underwent urinalysis and spot urine Na tests. Additionally, they each completed a salt usage behaviour questionnaire. A total of 131 patients were enrolled, including 64 Myanmarese patients and 67 Korean patients. Blood pressure was significantly higher in the Myanmarese than in the Koreans. Detection and recognition thresholds, salt preferences, and spot urine sodium and salt usage behaviour scores were also higher in the Myanmarese than in the Korean subjects. We calculated correlation coefficients between systolic blood pressure and parameters that were related to salt intake. The detection and recognition thresholds were significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. All parameters related to salt intake, including detection and recognition thresholds, salt preference, salt usage behaviour scores and spot urine sodium concentrations, are significantly higher in Myanmarese than in Korean individuals.

  14. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  15. Effects of psychotropic agents on extinction of lever-press avoidance in a rat model of anxiety vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilu eJiao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance and its perseveration represent key features of anxiety disorders. Both pharmacological and behavioral approaches (i.e. anxiolytics and extinction therapy have been utilized to modulate avoidance behavior in patients. However, the outcome has not always been desirable. Part of the reason is attributed to the diverse neuropathology of anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of psychotropic drugs that target various monoamine systems on extinction of avoidance behavior using lever-press avoidance task. Here we used the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat, a unique rat model that exhibits facilitated avoidance and extinction resistance along with malfunction of the dopamine (DA system. Sprague Dawley (SD and WKY rats were trained to acquire lever-press avoidance. WKY rats acquired avoidance faster and to a higher level compared to SD rats. During pharmacological treatment, bupropion, and desipramine significantly reduced avoidance response selectively in WKY rats. However, after the discontinuation of drug treatment, only those WKY rats that were previously treated with desipramine exhibited lower avoidance response compared to the control group. In contrast, none of the psychotropic drugs facilitated avoidance extinction in SD rats. Instead, desipramine impaired avoidance extinction and increased non-reinforced response in SD rats. Interestingly, paroxetine, a widely used antidepressant and anxiolytic, exhibited the weakest effect in WKY rats and no effects at all in SD rats. Thus, our data suggest that malfunctions in brain catecholamine system could be one of the underlying etiologies of anxiety-like behavior, particularly avoidance perseveration. Pharmacological manipulation targeting DA and norepinephrine is more effective to facilitate extinction learning in this strain. The data from the present study may shed light on new pharmacological approaches to treat patients with anxiety disorders who are not responding to serotonin re

  16. Is the efficacy of psychopharmacological drugs comparable to the efficacy of general medicine medication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemüller Florian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an ongoing debate concerning the risk benefit ratio of psychopharmacologic compounds. With respect to the benefit, recent reports and meta-analyses note only small effect sizes with comparably high placebo response rates in the psychiatric field. These reports together with others lead to a wider, general critique on psychotropic drugs in the scientific community and in the lay press. In a recently published article, Leucht and his colleagues compare the efficacy of psychotropic drugs with the efficacy of common general medicine drugs in different indications according to results from reviewed meta-analyses. The authors conclude that, overall, the psychiatric drugs were generally not less effective than most other medical drugs. This article will highlight some of the results of this systematic review and discuss the limitations and the impact of this important approach on the above mentioned debate.

  17. Do usage and scientific collaboration associate with citation impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, P.S.; Glänzel, W.

    2016-07-01

    In this study usage counts and times cited from Web of Science Core Collection (WoS) were collected for each article published in 2013 with Belgian, Israeli and Iranian addresses. We investigate the relations among three indicators related to citation impact, usage counts coauthorship, respectively. In addition, we apply the method of Characteristic Scores and Scal (CSS) to analyse the distributions of citations and usage counts. The results show that citations and usage counts in WoS correlate to each other significantly, especially in the social sciences. However, the increase of the number of co-authors does not increase usage counts or citations significantly. Furthermore, the stability of CSS-class distributions proves the availability of CSS in characterising both usage and citation distributions. (Author)

  18. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity.

  19. Usage of hydrocolloids in cereal technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Mikuš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocolloids are high-molecular-weight polymer substances soluble in water which create viscous colloidal solutions. They are mainly used to influence functional properties of food (structure, texture, etc., improving their properties during production (bigger dough volume, better dough manipulation – better adhesion, increasing stability, maintaining taste firmness in frozen products and prolonging durability of cereal products in food industry. Hydrocolloids are characteristic for their thickening effect and are used for their emulsifying and steadiness properties. The aim of this review is to provide useful information about hydrocolloids including chemical structure, origin, common and recommended usage in food industry, proper application in the cereal technology and future scientific heading of these hydrocolloids.

  20. Recommendations for PDF usage in LHC predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accardi, A. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Alekhin, S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Bluemlein, J. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany); and others

    2016-03-15

    We review the present status of the determination of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in the light of the precision requirements for the LHC in Run 2 and other future hadron colliders. We provide brief reviews of all currently available PDF sets and use them to compute cross sections for a number of benchmark processes, including Higgs boson production in gluon-gluon fusion at the LHC.We show that the differences in the predictions obtained with the various PDFs are due to particular theory assumptions made in the fits of those PDFs. We discuss PDF uncertainties in the kinematic region covered by the LHC and on averaging procedures for PDFs, such as advocated by the PDF4LHC15 sets, and provide recommendations for the usage of PDF sets for theory predictions at the LHC.

  1. Usage-Oriented Topic Maps Building Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, Nebrasse; Lammari, Nadira; Métais, Elisabeth; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

    In this paper, we present a collaborative and incremental construction approach of multilingual Topic Maps based on enrichment and merging techniques. In recent years, several Topic Map building approaches have been proposed endowed with different characteristics. Generally, they are dedicated to particular data types like text, semi-structured data, relational data, etc. We note also that most of these approaches take as input monolingual documents to build the Topic Map. The problem is that the large majority of resources available today are written in various languages, and these resources could be relevant even to non-native speakers. Thus, our work is driven towards a collaborative and incremental method for Topic Map construction from textual documents available in different languages. To enrich the Topic Map, we take as input a domain thesaurus and we propose also to explore the Topic Map usage which means available potential questions related to the source documents.

  2. WWW portal usage analysis using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Popelka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a new method suitable for advanced analysis of web portal visits. This is part of retrieving information and knowledge from web usage data (web usage mining. Such information is necessary in order to gain better insight into visitor’s needs and generally consumer behaviour. By le­ve­ra­ging this information a company can optimize the organization of its internet presentations and offer a better end-user experience. The proposed approach is using Grammatical evolution which is computational method based on genetic algorithms. Grammatical evolution is using a context-free grammar in order to generate the solution in arbitrary reusable form. This allows us to describe visitors’ behaviour in different manners depending on desired further processing. In this article we use description with a procedural programming language. Web server access log files are used as source data.The extraction of behaviour patterns can currently be solved using statistical analysis – specifically sequential analysis based methods. Our objective is to develop an alternative algorithm.The article further describes the basic algorithms of two-level grammatical evolution; this involves basic Grammatical Evolution and Differential Evolution, which forms the second phase of the computation. Grammatical evolution is used to generate the basic structure of the solution – in form of a part of application code. Differential evolution is used to find optimal parameters for this solution – the specific pages visited by a random visitor. The grammar used to conduct experiments is described along with explanations of the links to the actual implementation of the algorithm. Furthermore the fitness function is described and reasons which yield to its’ current shape. Finally the process of analyzing and filtering the raw input data is described as it is vital part in obtaining reasonable results.

  3. Effects of smell loss (hyposmia) on salt usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I

    2014-06-01

    Smell loss (hyposmia) inhibits flavor perception and influences food intake. To compensate for flavor loss, some patients with hyposmia appear to increase salt usage. The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported salt usage in patients with hyposmia with that in normal volunteers. Salt usage was compared in 56 patients with hyposmia but with normal taste function with that in 27 normal volunteers. Salt usage was formulated with respect to 1) a standard quantitative salt intake scale, 2) salt addition related to food intake, 3) intake of foods and beverages with high salt content, and 4) salt intake related to presence or absence of hypertension. Eighteen (32%) of the 56 patients self-reported increased salt usage; they were labeled "increased users." The other 38 hyposmic patients (68%) did not report increased salt usage; they were labeled "non-changers." Increased users estimated their salt usage rose an average 2.8 times that experienced before their hyposmia onset. They also reported adding salt to their food before tasting it and ate more highly salted foods than did the non-changers. Salt usage was not increased further among increased users with hypertension but was increased further among non-changers with hypertension. Salt usage is increased among some patients with hyposmia presumably to enhance flavor perception to compensate for diminished flavor perception related to loss of smell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of cognitive enhancers among medical students in Lithuania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aiste Lengvenyte; Robertas Strumila; Jurgita Grikiniene

    2016-01-01

      AIMS - The purpose of this study is to analyse the use of cognitive enhancers among medical students in Lithuania, determine the reasons for usage and evaluate the contributing factors such as socio...

  5. Use of cognitive enhancers among medical students in Lithuania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lengvenyte Aiste; Strumila Robertas; Grikiniene Jurgita

    2016-01-01

    AIMS – The purpose of this study is to analyse the use of cognitive enhancers among medical students in Lithuania, determine the reasons for usage and evaluate the contributing factors such as socio...

  6. Source Reference File Usage: Management Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A report by region then by state that details how often medical sources from the Source Reference File are used when taking disability claims vs. sources that are...

  7. Computer usage and task-switching during resident’s working day: Disruptive or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Antoine; Wenger, Nathalie; Castioni, Julien; Waeber, Gérard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent implementation of electronic health records (EHR) has dramatically changed medical ward organization. While residents in general internal medicine use EHR systems half of their working time, whether computer usage impacts residents’ workflow remains uncertain. We aimed to observe the frequency of task-switches occurring during resident’s work and to assess whether computer usage was associated with task-switching. Methods In a large Swiss academic university hospital, we conducted, between May 26 and July 24, 2015 a time-motion study to assess how residents in general internal medicine organize their working day. Results We observed 49 day and 17 evening shifts of 36 residents, amounting to 697 working hours. During day shifts, residents spent 5.4 hours using a computer (mean total working time: 11.6 hours per day). On average, residents switched 15 times per hour from a task to another. Task-switching peaked between 8:00–9:00 and 16:00–17:00. Task-switching was not associated with resident’s characteristics and no association was found between task-switching and extra hours (Spearman r = 0.220, p = 0.137 for day and r = 0.483, p = 0.058 for evening shifts). Computer usage occurred more frequently at the beginning or ends of day shifts and was associated with decreased overall task-switching. Conclusion Task-switching occurs very frequently during resident’s working day. Despite the fact that residents used a computer half of their working time, computer usage was associated with decreased task-switching. Whether frequent task-switches and computer usage impact the quality of patient care and resident’s work must be evaluated in further studies. PMID:28235078

  8. Computer usage and task-switching during resident's working day: Disruptive or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méan, Marie; Garnier, Antoine; Wenger, Nathalie; Castioni, Julien; Waeber, Gérard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Recent implementation of electronic health records (EHR) has dramatically changed medical ward organization. While residents in general internal medicine use EHR systems half of their working time, whether computer usage impacts residents' workflow remains uncertain. We aimed to observe the frequency of task-switches occurring during resident's work and to assess whether computer usage was associated with task-switching. In a large Swiss academic university hospital, we conducted, between May 26 and July 24, 2015 a time-motion study to assess how residents in general internal medicine organize their working day. We observed 49 day and 17 evening shifts of 36 residents, amounting to 697 working hours. During day shifts, residents spent 5.4 hours using a computer (mean total working time: 11.6 hours per day). On average, residents switched 15 times per hour from a task to another. Task-switching peaked between 8:00-9:00 and 16:00-17:00. Task-switching was not associated with resident's characteristics and no association was found between task-switching and extra hours (Spearman r = 0.220, p = 0.137 for day and r = 0.483, p = 0.058 for evening shifts). Computer usage occurred more frequently at the beginning or ends of day shifts and was associated with decreased overall task-switching. Task-switching occurs very frequently during resident's working day. Despite the fact that residents used a computer half of their working time, computer usage was associated with decreased task-switching. Whether frequent task-switches and computer usage impact the quality of patient care and resident's work must be evaluated in further studies.

  9. Challenges and Usage of Link Mining to Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaved Akhtar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available - It is an emerging challenge for data mining is the problem of mining richly structures datasets, where the objects are linked in some way. Links among the objects may demonstrate certain patterns, which can be helpful for many data mining tasks and are usually hard to capture with traditional statistical models. Many datasets of interest today are best described as a linked collection of interrelated objects. These may represent homogeneous networks, in which there is a single-object type and link type (eg. people connected by friendship links, or the WWW, a collection of linked web pages or richer, heterogeneous networks, in which there may be multiple object and link types (and possibly other semantic information. Examples of heterogeneous networks include those in medical domains describing patients, diseases, treatments and contacts, or in bibliographic domains describing publications, authors, and venues. Link mining refers to data mining techniques that explicitly consider these links when building predictive or descriptive models of the linked data. Commonly addressed link mining tasks include object ranking, group detection, collective classification, link prediction and subgraph discovery. This is an exciting and rapidly expanding area. In this article we review some of the common emerging themes and discuss ongoing link mining challenges; open issues and suggest ideas that could be opportunities for solutions. The most conclusion of this article is that providing an idea to usage link mining techniques from link mining to help to construct the Semantic Web.

  10. Evolution, Metabolism and Biotechnological Usage of Methylotrophic Microorganisms

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    Oleg Mosin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylotrophs – aerobic chemoheterotrophic microorganisms submitted by cocci and bacilli mobile forms, are inhabitants of reservoirs and soils of various type, where there are going on various processes of decomposition of organic substances with formation of the one-carbon С1-compounds and some С2-, and С3-compounds, capable to be assimilated by methylotrophs. These microorganisms assimilating carbon on ribuloso-5-monophospate and serine pathways, are allocated from soil ground, the sewage containing decomposing vegetative remainss, from ruminant paunch and other sources. Methylotrophic bacteria recently draw the increasing attention of biotechnology as feasible sources of natural biologically active compounds – fodder fibers and irreplaceable amino acids, carotenoid pigments, lipids and policarbohydrates. For preparation of these compounds are used genetically marked strains of methylotrophic bacteria, obtained via genetic engineering approaches and selection. Recently developed gene-engineering methods of manipulation with the methylotrophic genom allow create on the basis of microbic DNA of methylotrophs expression vectors of eukaryotic proteins for medical and veterinary purposes, as human insulins. In this review article there are submitted data including the results of the authors’ own research on evolution of methylotrophic bacteria, the metabolism and their biotechnological usage

  11. Novel Therapeutics for Diabetes: Uptake, Usage Trends, and Comparative Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vishal; Chou, Chia-Hung

    2016-06-01

    The number of available therapies for treating type 2 diabetes has grown considerably in recent years. This growth has been fueled by availability of newer medications, whose benefits and risks have not been fully established. In this study, we review and synthesize the existing literature on the uptake, efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of novel antidiabetic agents. Specifically, we focus on three drug classes that were introduced in the market recently: thiazolidinediones (TZDs), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. Not surprisingly, we find that the usage trends reflect the efficacy and safety profile of these novel drugs. The use of TZDs increased initially but decreased after a black-box warning was issued for rosiglitazone in 2007 that highlighted the cardiovascular risks associated with using the drug. Conversely, DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists gained market shares due to their efficacy in glycemic control as an add-on treatment to metformin. DPP-4 inhibitors were the most commonly prescribed agents among the three novel drug classes, likely because they are relatively less expensive, have better safety profile, are administered orally, and are weight neutral. Sitagliptin was the most preferred DPP-4 inhibitor. The level of evidence on the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost implications of using novel antidiabetic agents remains low and further studies with long-term follow-ups are needed.

  12. Antibiotic usage and appropriateness for a university hospital in Turkey: comparison of the results of the point prevalence in 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanefi Cem Gul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aims to compare point prevalence results which were done with one year interval in a university hospital with a 1,200-bed capacity. METHODS: The study assessed antibiotic usage among all hospitalised patients in the hospital on April 20, 2012 and April 19, 2013, using the point prevalence method. The assessment was carried out by an infectious disease specialist relying on the basic principles of antibiotic usage and current antimicrobial treatment guides. The causes of antibiotic usage were classified under three groups, namely, empirical, infection diagnosis and prophylactic. Data were transferred to computer and analysed using SPSS 15.0. We used the chi square method for comparisons of categorical variables. P values <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: When rate of patients used antibiotic is examined, the rate of 2012 (39.3%, 262/66 is found similar by comparing 2013 and #8217;s rate (36.7%, 249/678. At distribution of antibiotic usage rate according to wards, statistically significantly reduction is observed in pediatric wards (p<0.001; 2102: 90.5%, 2013: 37.8%. While appropriateness of usage indications increased from 55.7% to 69.8%, inappropriateness usage rate decreased from 44.3% to 30.2% (p<0.001. Inappropriateness rate of infection diagnosis usage declined from 15,8% to 4.7%. Particularly, appropriateness rate of empiric usage soared from 48% to 65% and it was found to be statistically significant. Appropriateness rate of empiric usage increased from 13.3% to 44.5% (p<0.05 on surgical wards, while inappropriateness rate of infection diagnosed usage diminished from 22% to 5.9% on medical wards (p<0.017. When the frequency of causes of infection was compared, 6 patients used antibiotic due to prosthetic infection dropped to zero and the usage for diabetic foot infection risen to 13 from 3 (p<0.05. Fluoroquinolone usage for prophylaxis statistically significantly reduced (from 23.2% to 7.4%; p

  13. Joint pain epidemiology and analgesic usage in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samison, Luc Hervé; Randriatsarafara, Fidiniaina Mamy; Ralandison, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of joint pains and document analgesics usage in an African context. Patients suffering from joint pain were recruited from nine sites located in Antananarivo, Madagascar, including 6 hospital services and 3 clinics. Doctors collected information on the etiology and characteristics of the patients' pain. Analgesics prescribed by these doctors were also documented. In total, 400 patients were enrolled in the study (52.5% women, mean age of 42.34 years ± 17.7 [4-86]). Pain of mechanical type was found in 260 participants, 65%; 95% CI [60.1% to 69.6%] and inflammatory type pains in 128 cases 32%; 95% CI [27.5% to 36.9%]. Mixed pains were found in 12 patients (3%). The median duration of pain prior to the consultation was 6.5 days. The average pain intensity was 57.9 ± 19.9 mm of a total of 100 mm maximum on a visual analogue scale, VAS. The etiologies of mechanical type pains were dominated by fracture, common low back pain and tendonitis. Arthrosis was the dominant cause of inflammatory type pain, followed by rheumatoid arthritis and gout. NSAIDs (74.5%) were the most frequently prescribed analgesics followed by paracetamol (49.5%), weak opioids (23%) and corticosteroids (12.25%). Two-thirds of medical prescriptions (65.3%) were of combined analgesics. These findings demonstrated that mechanical type pains were the main reason for consultations for joint pain in these situations in Antananarivo, Madagascar. The most frequently prescribed pain-relieving medications were NSAIDs, paracetamol, weak opioids and corticosteroids. This descriptive study may be a useful starting point for further epidemiological studies of pain in the African context.

  14. Human liver tumors in relation to steroidal usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, G H; Christopherson, W M

    1983-01-01

    Since 1973 a number of investigators have reported an association between liver neoplasia and steroid usage. Through referral material we have examined the histology of over 250 cases of hepatic neoplasia, most in patients receiving steroid medications. The majority have been benign, predominantly focal nodular hyperplasia (55%) and hepatocellular adenoma (39%). The average age was 31.4 years; 83% had significant steroid exposure with an average duration of 71 months for focal nodular hyperplasia and 79.6 months for hepatocellular adenoma. The type of estrogenic agent was predominantly mestranol; however, during the period mestranol was the most frequently used synthetic steroid. A distinct clinical entity of life threatening hemorrhage from the lesion occurred in 31% of patients with hepatocellular adenoma and 9% of patients with focal nodular hyperplasia. Recurrence of benign tumors has occurred in some patients who continued using steroids and regression has been observed in patients who had incomplete tumor removal but discontinued steroid medication. Medial and intimal vascular changes have been present in a large number of the benign tumors. The relationship of these vascular changes to oncogenesis is unclear, but similar lesions have been described in the peripheral vasculature associated with steroid administration. A number of hepatocellular carcinomas have also been seen. Of significance is the young age of these patients and lack of abnormal histology in adjacent nonneoplastic liver. A striking number of the malignant hepatocellular tumors have been of the uncommon type described as "eosinophilic hepatocellular carcinoma with lamellar fibrosis." The epidemiology of liver lesions within this series is difficult to assess, since the material has been referred from very diverse locations. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:6307679

  15. [Appliancation of logistics in resources management of medical asset].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Iu V; Goriachev, A B; Bunin, S A

    2011-06-01

    The usage of basic regulations of logistics in practical activity for providing joints and military units with medical asset is theoretically justified. The role of logistics in organizing, building and functioning of military (armed forces) medical supply system is found out. The methods of solving urgent problems of improvement the resources management of medical asset on the basis of logistics are presented.

  16. Effect of chromatographic conditions on retention behavior and system efficiency for HPTLC of selected psychotropic drugs on chemically bonded stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, Anna; Wróblewski, Karol; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Selected psychotropic drug standards have been chromatographed on RP18, CN and diol layers with a variety of aqueous and nonaqueous mobile phases. The effect of buffers at acidic or basic pH, acetic acid, ammonia and diethylamine (DEA) in aqueous mobile phases on retention, efficiency and peak symmetry was examined. Improved peak symmetry and separation selectivity for investigated compounds were observed when ammonia or DEA were used as mobile phase additives. The effect of diethylamine concentration in aqueous eluents on retention, peak symmetry and theoretical plate number obtained on CN plates was also investigated. Because of the strong retention of these basic drugs on stationary phases bonded on silica matrix, nonaqueous eluents containing medium polar diluents, strongly polar modifiers and silanol blockers (ammonia or diethylamine) were applied. Aqueous and nonaqueous eluent systems with the best selectivity and efficiency were used for separate psychotropic drug standards' mixture on CN layer by 2D TLC.

  17. Web-based pathology practice examination usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Klatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: General and subject specific practice examinations for students in health sciences studying pathology were placed onto a free public internet web site entitled web path and were accessed four clicks from the home web site menu. Subjects and Methods: Multiple choice questions were coded into. html files with JavaScript functions for web browser viewing in a timed format. A Perl programming language script with common gateway interface for web page forms scored examinations and placed results into a log file on an internet computer server. The four general review examinations of 30 questions each could be completed in up to 30 min. The 17 subject specific examinations of 10 questions each with accompanying images could be completed in up to 15 min each. The results of scores and user educational field of study from log files were compiled from June 2006 to January 2014. Results: The four general review examinations had 31,639 accesses with completion of all questions, for a completion rate of 54% and average score of 75%. A score of 100% was achieved by 7% of users, ≥90% by 21%, and ≥50% score by 95% of users. In top to bottom web page menu order, review examination usage was 44%, 24%, 17%, and 15% of all accessions. The 17 subject specific examinations had 103,028 completions, with completion rate 73% and average score 74%. Scoring at 100% was 20% overall, ≥90% by 37%, and ≥50% score by 90% of users. The first three menu items on the web page accounted for 12.6%, 10.0%, and 8.2% of all completions, and the bottom three accounted for no more than 2.2% each. Conclusions: Completion rates were higher for shorter 10 questions subject examinations. Users identifying themselves as MD/DO scored higher than other users, averaging 75%. Usage was higher for examinations at the top of the web page menu. Scores achieved suggest that a cohort of serious users fully completing the examinations had sufficient preparation to use them to support

  18. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Barceló

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis.In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012 was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined 'selection on observables' as (propensity scoring matching and 'selection on unobservables' as (random coefficient the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework.In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009, there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD, with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis.Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis.

  19. Reviewing and Critiquing Computer Learning and Usage among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sek

    2008-01-01

    By searching the keywords of "older adult" and "computer" in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address older adults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of older adults' usage of computers, (b)…

  20. Measuring ICT usage quality for information society building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Danylchenko, Lesya

    2014-01-01

    , an alternative framework for IS measurement, addressing the important aspects of ICT usage quality, is developed based on data from EU member states. By applying the framework on measuring of ICT usage quality at Romania, Cyprus and Estonia, the usefulness is tested positive, and the need to evaluate the actual...