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Sample records for psychotropic drugs including

  1. [Psychotropic drugs in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alexander

    2014-06-18

    The article presents a user-friendly overview of psychotropic drugs which are helpful for the prescription in a primary care practice. The author recommends to get familiar with just a small selection of drugs first and second line. This means to know well about their effectiveness, short-and long-term side effects, interactions with other drugs and the necessary monitoring that should be done.

  2. Psychotropic drug use among Icelandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Baldursson, Gísli; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. METHODS: A nationwide population-based drug use study covering the total pediatric population (ages 0-17) in Iceland. Information was obtained from the National Medicines...... Registry to calculate prevalence of use by year and psychotropic drug group; incidence by year, psychotropic drug group, child's age and sex, and medical specialty of prescriber; the most commonly used psychotropic chemical substances, off-label and unlicensed use and concomitant psychotropic drug use....... RESULTS: The overall prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 48.7 per 1000 Icelandic children in 2007. Stimulants and antidepressants increased in prevalence from 2003 to 2007 and were the two most prevalent psychotropic drug groups, respectively, 28.4 and 23.4 per 1000 children in 2007. A statistically...

  3. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties......The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...

  4. Galactorrhea due to psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, S; Ziegenbein, M; Grohmann, R; Engel, R R; Degner, D

    2004-03-01

    Within the drug safety program in psychiatry AMSP ( Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie), severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are assessed. Currently 35 psychiatric hospitals and departments are participating in detecting severe ADRs. This paper focuses on prolactin-dependent ADRs such as gynecomastia and galactorrhea due to psychotropic medications. Related to the number of patients surveyed (122,562 from 1993 to 2000), these are rare events (0.03 % or 35 cases). Imputed drugs were mostly antipsychotics, but antidepressants were also imputed in single cases. In the group of antipsychotics, relative frequencies of galactorrhea were highest for amisulpride and risperidone and corresponded to the degree of D2 binding. Galactorrhea assessed as "severe" was accompanied by distressing symptoms such as pain, tension, enlargement of breasts, or soaked clothing. The AMSP data contribute to the knowledge on endocrine ADRs by the large number of patients examined and help clinicians select the appropriate drug if their patients have been prone to for these ADRs in the past.

  5. Rational use of generic psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Maren; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-05-01

    For economic reasons, the generic substitution of branded medications is common and welcome. These replacements are based on the concept of bioequivalence, which is considered equal to therapeutic equivalence. Regulatory standards for bioequivalence require the 90 % confidence intervals of group averages of pharmacokinetic measures of a generic and the original drug to overlap within ±20 %. However, therapeutic equivalence has been challenged for several psychotropic agents by retrospective studies and case reports. To evaluate the degree of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of branded and generic psychotropic drugs, we performed an electronic search (from database inception until 24 May 2012 and without language restrictions) in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Search terms were "(generic) AND (psychotropic OR psychoactive OR antipsychotic OR antiepileptic OR antidepressant OR stimulant OR benzodiazepine)" or the respective individual substances. We included clinical studies, regardless of design, comparing branded with generic psychotropic drug formulations, identifying 35 such studies. We also included case reports/series reporting on outcomes after a switch between brand and generic psychotropics, identifying 145 clinical cases. Bioequivalence studies in healthy controls or animals, in-vitro studies, and health economics studies without medical information were excluded. An overview of the few randomized controlled studies supports that US FDA regulations assure clinically adequate drug delivery in the majority of patients switched from brand to generic. However, with a growing number of competing generic products for one substance, and growing economic pressure to substitute with the currently cheapest generic, frequent generic-generic switches, often unbeknownst to prescribing clinicians, raise concerns, particularly for antiepileptics/mood stabilizers. Generic-generic switches may vary by more than ±20 % from each other in

  6. Who is portrayed in psychotropic drug advertisements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Sarah E P; Robertson, Emma K; Sansom, Stephanie N; Stewart, Donna E

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine who is portrayed in psychotropic drug advertisements across time in three national psychiatric journals. All psychotropic drug advertisements portraying people were collected from the American Journal of Psychiatry, the British Journal of Psychiatry, and the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry at three time intervals (1981, 1991, and 2001). The advertisements were classified according to patient demographics, patient portrayal, and product information. Chi-square analysis was used to test for statistically significant associations among the variables. Fifty-seven percent of the psychotropic drug advertisements featured women, and 88% portrayed white patients. Statistically significant associations were detected between gender and the setting in which the patient was portrayed (chi(2) = 13.54, df = 3, p effect of these advertisements on physician perception, diagnosis, and prescribing is unknown but may be substantial. Future advertisements for psychotropic drugs should seek more balanced representations of gender and race.

  7. Cardiologic side effects of psychotropic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Marano; Gianandrea Traversi; Enrico Romagnoli; Valeria Catalano; Marzia Lotrionte; Antonio Abbate; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai; Marianna Mazza

    2011-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs can produce cardiovascular side effects associated with a degree of cardiotoxicity.The coexistence of a heart disease complicates the management of mental illness,can contribute to a reduced quality of life and a worse illness course.The co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders in cardiac patients might affect the clinical outcome and morbidity.Moreover,the complex underlying mechanism that links these two conditions remains unclear.This paper discusses the known cardiovascular complications of psychotropic drugs and analyzes the important implications of antidepressive treatment in patients with previous cardiac history.

  8. Adverse Cutaneous Reactions to Psychotropic Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Novais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychotropic drugs are often implicated in cutaneous adverse drug reactions. While most of these reactions have a benign character, it is still important, however, to consider its role in the increasing stigma and treatment adherence. A small number of the cutaneous adverse drug reactions can develop into serious and potentially fatal conditions. Objectives: This article aims to review the most common cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients taking psychotropic drugs. Methods: In this study, a search was carried out in the MEDLINE database for English language articles published , from 1999 to 2014, using as keywords: psychiatric, psychotropic, cutaneous, adverse reaction, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsant, dementia. Information available from the Portuguese regulatory and supervising agency (Infarmed was also included.Results: 121 articles were found with reference to cutaneous adverse drug reactions associated with psychotropic drugs. The drugs most frequently reported as associated with such adverse effects were anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers, followed by the antipsychotics . The antidementia drugs were rarely associated with serious cutaneous adverse reactions. Discussion and Conclusion: Cutaneous drug adverse reactions are common in psychiatric clinical practice and typically are minor in severity. The most severe reactions are most often associated with the use of mood stabilizing medications. Some of these side effects can be solved with reduction or drug discontinuation. More severe cases should be referred to a specialist in dermatology.

  9. Clinically relevant drug interactions between anticancer drugs and psychotropic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, K Y-L; Tay, W L; Chui, W K; Chan, A

    2011-01-01

    Drug interactions are commonly seen in the treatment of cancer patients. Psychotropics are often indicated for these patients since they may also suffer from pre-existing psychological disorders or experience insomnia and anxiety associated with cancer therapy. Thus, the risk of anticancer drug (ACD)-psychotropic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is high. Drug interactions were compiled from the British National Formulary (53rd edn), Lexi-Comp's Drug Information Handbook (15th edn), Micromedex (v5.1), Hansten & Horn's Drug Interactions (2000) and Drug Interaction Facts (2008 edn). Product information of the individual drugs, as well as documented literature on ACD-psychotropic interactions from PubMed and other databases was also incorporated. This paper identifies clinically important ACD-psychotropic DDIs that are frequently observed. Pharmacokinetic DDIs were observed for tyrosine kinase inhibitors, corticosteroids and antimicrotubule agents due to their inhibitory or inductive effects on cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. Pharmacodynamic DDIs were identified for thalidomide with central nervous system depressants, procarbazine with antidepressants, myelosuppressive ACDs with clozapine and anthracyclines with QT-prolonging psychotropics. Clinicians should be vigilant when psychotropics are prescribed concurrently with ACDs. Close monitoring of plasma drug levels should be carried out to avoid toxicity in the patient, as well as to ensure adequate chemotherapeutic and psychotropic coverage.

  10. Psychotropic drugs: another survey of prescribing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R; Gopalaswamy, A K

    1984-03-01

    We surveyed the psychotropic drug treatment of our hospital's 220 patients, and compared our findings with those of the only previous hospital survey in this country which showed much allegedly inappropriate prescribing. Using simple classifications of the patients' diagnoses and of the drugs prescribed, 30 per cent of our prescriptions appeared inappropriate in the absence of knowledge of the patients' symptoms. With such knowledge we show that only 2 of our 460 prescriptions were inappropriate.

  11. Psychotropic drug prescriptions in Western European nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janus, Sarah I M; van Manen, Jeannette G; IJzerman, Maarten J; Zuidema, Sytse U

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the numerous warnings of European and national drug agencies as well as clinical guidelines since the year 2004, psychotropic drugs are still frequently used in dementia. A systematic review comparing the use of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes from different European countrie

  12. Psychotropic drug prescriptions in Western European nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janus, Sarah I. M.; van Manen, Jeannette G.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Zuidema, Sytse U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the numerous warnings of European and national drug agencies as well as clinical guidelines since the year 2004, psychotropic drugs are still frequently used in dementia. A systematic review comparing the use of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes from different European countrie

  13. Prescribing psychotropic drugs: whose responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R S; Wiedeman, G H; Linn, L

    1980-01-01

    Through the use of a questionnaire it has been ascertained that a significant number of second-year graduate school social work students at the Columbia University School of Social Work are called upon to monitor and dispense psychotrophic drugs in various placements where they receive their practical clinical training. In some instances they may even fill out prescription blanks that are signed by psychiatrists who do not have the time to see the patients personally. This situation not only represents the abdication of medical responsibility, frequently leaving non-medical personnel with functions beyond their training and professional competence, but also raises important ethical and legal problems. Non-medical professionals in mental health settings should receive appropriate instruction in the essentials of psychopharmacology. Such training should not be left to chance as apparently is the case now. Non-medically trained members of the mental health team, if properly instructed, could cooperate more effectively with the psychiatrists who must in any event retain primary responsibility for pharmacotherapy.

  14. Workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use: the mediating role of physical and mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stéphanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre; Acquarone, D; Aicardi, F; André-Mazeaud, P; Arsento, M; Astier, R; Baille, H; Bajon-Thery, F; Barre, E; Basire, C; Battu, J L; Baudry, S; Beatini, C; Beaud'huin, N; Becker, C; Bellezza, D; Beque, C; Bernstein, O; Beyssier, C; Blanc-Cascio, F; Blanchet, N; Blondel, C; Boisselot, R; Bordes-Dupuy, G; Borrelly, N; Bouhnik, D; Boulanger, M F; Boulard, J; Bourreau, P; Bourret, D; Boustière, A M; Breton, C; Bugeon, G; Buono-Michel, M; Canonne, J F; Capella, D; Cavin-Rey, M; Cervoni, C; Charreton, D; Charrier, D; Chauvin, M A; Chazal, B; Cougnot, C; Cuvelier, G; Dalivoust, G; Daumas, R; Debaille, A; De Bretteville, L; Delaforge, G; Delchambre, A; Domeny, L; Donati, Y; Ducord-Chapelet, J; Duran, C; Durand-Bruguerolle, D; Fabre, D; Faivre, A; Falleri, R; Ferrando, G; Ferrari-Galano, J; Flutet, M; Fouché, J P; Fournier, F; Freyder, E; Galy, M; Garcia, A; Gazazian, G; Gérard, C; Girard, F; Giuge, M; Goyer, C; Gravier, C; Guyomard, A; Hacquin, M C; Halimi, E; Ibagnes, T; Icart, P; Jacquin, M C; Jaubert, B; Joret, J P; Julien, J P; Kacel, M; Kesmedjian, E; Lacroix, P; Lafon-Borelli, M; Lallai, S; Laudicina, J; Leclercq, X; Ledieu, S; Leroy, J; Leroyer, L; Loesche, F; Londi, D; Longueville, J M; Lotte, M C; Louvain, S; Lozé, M; Maculet-Simon, M; Magallon, G; Marcelot, V; Mareel, M C; Martin, P; Masse, A M; Méric, M; Milliet, C; Mokhtari, R; Monville, A M; Muller, B; Obadia, G; Pelser, M; Peres, L; Perez, E; Peyron, M; Peyronnin, F; Postel, S; Presseq, P; Pyronnet, E; Quinsat, C; Raulot-Lapointe, H; Rigaud, P; Robert, F; Robert, O; Roger, K; Roussel, A; Roux, J P; Rubini-Remigy, D; Sabaté, N; Saccomano-Pertus, C; Salengro, B; Salengro-Trouillez, P; Samsom, E; Sendra-Gille, L; Seyrig, C; Stoll, G; Tarpinian, N; Tavernier, M; Tempesta, S; Terracol, H; Torresani, F; Triglia, M F; Vandomme, V; Vieillard, F; Vilmot, K; Vital, N

    2011-03-01

    The association between workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use is not well established. This study was aimed at exploring the association between workplace bullying, and its characteristics, and psychotropic drug use and studying the mediating role of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the south-east of France. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument elaborated by Leymann, and psychotropic drug use, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physico-chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. Workplace bullying was strongly associated with psychotropic drug use. Past exposure to bullying increased the risk for this use. The more frequent and the longer the exposure to bullying, the stronger the association with psychotropic drug use. Observing bullying on someone else at the workplace was associated with psychotropic drug use. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms reduced the magnitude of the associations, especially for men. The association between bullying and psychotropic drug use was found to be significant and strong and was partially mediated by physical and mental health.

  15. Use of psychotropic drugs and associated dental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratto, Giovanni; Manzon, Licia

    2014-01-01

    Patients with problems related to central nervous system dysfunctions are often treated with psychotropic drugs. These include antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsants, and drugs blocking specific receptors in the brain such as anticholinergics or beta-blockers. However, these medications have serious side effects affecting the oral health. In addition, many dental patients make use of psychoactive drugs, such as amphetamine, ecstasy, and cocaine. This article aims to review data on the psychotropic drugs being used in the last 30 years, their pharmacological profile, with special attention to the side effects related to the oral health. Oral diseases such as bruxism, orofacial dystonia, oromandibular dyskinesia, and rabbit syndrome are related to extrapyramidal effects of antipsychotic drugs because of their antagonist activity on the dopaminergic receptors. Drugs with anticholinergic and/or antiadrenergic effects such as tricyclic antidepressants may cause dry mouth and related complications such as candidiasis and other oral infections. Among mood stabilizers, lithium treatment induces a wide range of side effects on oral system including dry mouth, sialorrhea, infections, and ulceration of the oral cavity. Psychostimulants may instead provoke xerotomia, gingival enlargements, bruxism, dental erosion, mucosal ulceration, and oral/nasal lesions. This literature review supports the idea that the higher prevalence of oral diseases among patients with mental disorders may be attributed to the side effects of their medications mediated by complex interactions between different targeted receptors. Thus, dentists must be aware of the possible risks of these medications in order to take appropriate precautions in treating these patients.

  16. an appraisal of psychotropic drugs and their consequences among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... It requires a lot of physical activities that are stressful to the participants .... 2.1 Two Major Groups of Psychotropic Drugs. There are two ... Stimulant is an agent that arouses organic activity, strengthens the ..... Cohesion and.

  17. Adverse drug reactions from psychotropic medicines in the paediatric population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba H

    2010-01-01

    ADRs reported for psychotropic medicines in the Danish paediatric population over a decade. FINDINGS: All spontaneous ADR reports from 1998 to 2007 for children from birth to 17 years of age were included. The unit of analysis was one ADR. We analysed the distribution of ADRs per year, seriousness, age......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The prescribing of psychotropic medicines for the paediatric population is rapidly increasing. In attempts to curb the use of psychotropic medicine in the paediatric population, regulatory authorities have issued various warnings about risks associated with use...... of serious ADRs reported in children from birth up to 2 years of age were presumably caused by mothers' use of psychotropic medicines during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The high number of serious ADRs reported for psychotropic medicines in the paediatric population should be a concern for health care...

  18. Sudden death of cardiac origin and psychotropic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadiri eTimour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mortality rate is high in psychiatric patients versus general population. An important cause of this increased mortality is sudden cardiac death (SCD as a major side-effect of psychotropic drugs. These SCDs generally result from arrhythmias occurring when the posology is high and may attain a toxic threshold but also at dosages within therapeutic range, in the presence of risk factors. There are three kinds of risk factors: physiological (e.g.: low cardiac rate of sportsmen, physiopathological (e.g.: hepatic insufficiency, hypothyroidism and "therapeutic" (due to interactions between psychotropic drugs and other medicines. Association of pharmacological agents may increase the likelihood of SCDs either by i a pharmacokinetic mechanism (e.g.: increased torsadogenic potential of a psychotropic drug when its destruction and/or elimination are compromised or ii a pharmacodynamical mechanism (e.g.: mutual potentiation of proarrhythmic properties of two drugs. In addition, some psychotropic drugs may induce sudden death in cases of pre-existing congenital cardiopathies such as i congenital long QT syndrome, predisposing to torsade de pointes that eventually cause syncope and sudden death. ii a Brugada syndrome, that may directly cause ventricular fibrillation due to reduced sodium current through Nav1.5 channels. Moreover, psychotropic drugs may be a direct cause of cardiac lesions also leading to SCD. This is the case, for example, of phenothiazines responsible for ischemic coronaropathies and of clozapine that is involved in the occurrence of myocarditis. The aims of this work are to delineate: i the risk of SCD related to the use of psychotropic drugs; ii mechanisms involved in the occurrence of such SCD; iii preventive actions of psychotropic drugs side effects, on the basis of the knowledge of patient-specific risk factors, documented from clinical history, ionic balance and ECG investigation by the psychiatrist.

  19. [Current evaluation of teratogenic and fetotoxic effects of psychotropic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Omi

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are equally common among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and many of these conditions are treated with psychotropic medications. The use of psychotropic medicines during pregnancy, especially antidepressants, became increasingly prevalent in the early 2000's, although many physicians prefer not to prescribe drugs for pregnant women due to concerns about teratogenicity. Current data on the risks of in utero exposure to psychotropic medications are limited, leaving women and physicians to make difficult decisions regarding the initiation or maintenance of treatment during pregnancy without a complete knowledge of the risks. Of all the psychotropics, antidepressant use in pregnancy has been relatively well studied. However, available studies have not yet adequately controlled for other factors that may influence birth outcomes, including maternal illness or problematic health-related behaviors such as smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy. This review focuses on the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, the antidepressants most commonly used to treat depression. In the evaluation of medication during pregnancy, teratogenicity and fetotoxicity must be considered. Most studies on the use of SSRIs during the first trimester of pregnancy have not shown an increase in the overall risk of major malformations, although several studies have suggested that SSRIs may be associated with a small increased risk of cardiovascular malformations, mainly involving ventricular and atrial septal defects. In addition to structural malformations, drugs were also observed to induce other adverse effects. Since SSRIs readily cross the placenta, concern has been raised about the short- or long-term effects of prenatal exposure to SSRIs on the developing offspring. Epidemiological studies have documented that 10-30% of neonates exposed to SSRIs near term had poor neonatal adaptation syndrome (PNAS). Some studies reported that

  20. Effects of maternal psychotropic drug dosage on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michielsen LA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Michielsen,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,1 Paddy KC Janssen,2 Harold JH Kuijpers11Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacy, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, the NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes.Methods: A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes.Results: Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01. There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low–intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic.Conclusion: This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes.Keywords: pregnancy, psychotropic medication, dosage, birth outcomes

  1. Effects of maternal psychotropic drug dosage on birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Laura A; van der Heijden, Frank MMA; Janssen, Paddy KC; Kuijpers, Harold JH

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes. Methods A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes. Results Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01). There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low–intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic. Conclusion This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes. PMID:24376355

  2. Adverse drug reactions monitoring of psychotropic drugs: a tertiary care centre study

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    Hemendra Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many new psychotropic drugs/ agents have been developed and found to be effective in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, these drugs also exhibit adverse drug reactions (ADRs which may affect compliance in psychiatric patients. Hence the present study was aimed at monitoring and assessing ADRs caused by psychotropic drugs. Methods: A hospital based prospective observational study was carried out in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital for the duration of six months. Two hundred and two patients were included in the study and ADRs were documented using a predesigned data collection form. The causality assessment was carried out as per the criteria of both the World Health Organization- Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC and Naranjo scale. Severity and predictability assessment of ADRs were also performed. Results: A total of 106 ADRs were observed during the study period with majority of them occurring in 25-35 years of age group (40.56%. Weight gain (18.86% followed by sedation (16.03% and insomnia (11.32% were found to be the commonest ADRs. Risperidone (19.8% and escitalopram (12.3% were the drugs responsible for majority of the ADRs. Causality assessment showed that most of ADRs were possible and probable. 94.33% of ADRs were found to be mild and 89% of them were predictable. Conclusion: A wide range of ADRs affecting central nervous and metabolic systems were reported with psychotropic drugs. The study findings necessitate the need for an active pharmacovigilance programme for the safe and effective use of psychotropics.

  3. Rapid ultraviolet monitoring of multiple psychotropic drugs with a renewable microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jin; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian; Song, Chaojin; Zhang, Daming

    2010-10-29

    A rapid method for sensitive ultraviolet detection of multiple psychotropic drugs in human plasma was developed on a low-cost and expediently fabricated hybrid microfluidic device. The device was composed of one fused-silica capillary with a sampling fracture, a poly(methyl methacrylate) board with four reservoirs, and a printed circuit board. At the optimal separation and detection conditions, the baseline separation of three kinds of psychotropic drugs including barbiturates (phenobarbital and barbital), benzodiazepines (nitrazepam, clonazepam, chlordiazepoxide, alprazolam and diazepam) and tricyclic antidepressant drugs (amitriptyline) was achieved within 200 s with separation efficiency up to 3.80 × 10(5) plates m(-1). The linear ranges for ultraviolet detection were from 2.0 to 1000.0 μg mL(-1) for chlordiazepoxide and 1.0 to 1000.0 μg mL(-1) for other seven drugs. Combining with solid-phase extraction, this novel protocol could successfully be used to screen naturally existing psychotropic drugs in a known human plasma sample. The minimum detectable concentration was down to 27 ng mL(-1) for phenobarbital spiked in plasma. This work provided a promising way to initially screen different psychotropic drugs with high resolution, rapid separation and low-cost.

  4. EFFECTS OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AS BACTERIAL EFFLUX PUMP INHIBITORS ON QUORUM SENSING REGULATED BEHAVIORS

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    Aynur Aybey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic drugs are known to have antimicrobial activity against several groups of microorganisms. The antidepressant agents such as duloxetine, paroxetine, hydroxyzine and venlafaxine are shown to act as efflux pump inhibitors in bacterial cells. In order to the investigation of the effects of psychotropic drugs were determined for clinically significant pathogens by using standart broth microdillusion method. The anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS activity of psychotropic drugs was tested against four test pathogens using the agar well diffusion method. All drugs showed strong inhibitory effect on the growth of S. typhimurium. Additionally, quorum sensing-regulated behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production were investigated. Most effective drugs on swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production, respectively, were paroxetine and duloxetine; duloxetine; hydroxyzine and venlafaxine; paroxetine and venlafaxine; venlafaxine. Accordingly, psychotropic drugs were shown strongly anti-QS activity by acting as bacterial efflux pump inhibitors and effection on motility and alkaline protease production of P. aeruginosa.

  5. [Prognostic value of psychotropic drugs for the risk of accidental falls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairaghi, M; Dessì, E; Mittino, F; Panzini, I

    2010-01-01

    Falls in the elderly are common and often serious. Older adults often take numerous medications for multiple chronic conditions, so they have an increased risk for drugs that potentially cause falls. We studied the association between psychotropic drugs and falls in residential care people in order to identify medications that may increase the falls risk. A prospective case control study was performed in the nursing home of Local Health Care. We assessed the incidence of patient falls during admission in nursing home in 2007 and 2008. We compared psychotropic medications (antipsychotic drugs N05B, anxiolytics N05B, antidepressants NO6A, anticholinesterases NO6D) taken by all patients who fell (140 cases) with those taken by patients who did not fall (140 controls), paired with an allocation ratio of 1:1 for the same age (quinquennial classes), sex, time of admission to nursing home. The probability of falls increased when the patients used antipsychotic drugs (OR 1.91; 95% CI 0.47, 0.19; p = 0.0114) and when the number of psychotropic drugs is equal to or greater than 2 the risk of falling increases more. (OR 2.3; 95% CI 0.56, 0.18;p = 0.0036). This work reinforces the importance of routine medication reviews, especially in elderly exposed to psychotropic polypharmacy regimens that include antipsychotic drugs.

  6. Combined use of ECT and psychotropic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Merk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT,despite a significant psychopharmacological development and introduction of modern drugs in recent years, is still an important, biological treatment of proven, high clinical efficacy. In the management algorithms it is still considered as a method of choice in treatment of drug-resistant patients. No wider use of ECTmay in part result from fears of potential interactions with pharmacotherapy, or need to interrupt the current treatment. The issue of potential impact of pharmacotherapy on many procedure parameters, including mostly seizure threshold and therefore indirectly clinical effect, is still up-to-date. Systematic studies have revised the existing theories about restrictions in the administration of medications during ECT treatment. Nowadays more often not only the safety of such procedure, but also possibility of synergistic therapeutic effect of ECT and psychopharmacology is highlighted. The authors present previous reports on combined use of pharmacotherapy and ECT, safety or potential risks associated with this treatment and proposals of scientific bodies in this regard. Interpretative limitations of conducted research, including especially case reports or observations of small groups, which requires further studies involving more numerous patient populations is noteworthy.

  7. Pharmacoepidemiological characterization of psychotropic drugs consumption using a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, Laura; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Sébille, Véronique; Hardouin, Jean-Benoît; Feuillet, Fanny; Pivette, Jacques; Chaslerie, Anicet; Jolliet, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    France has one of the highest recorded rates of psychotropic use of drugs compared with other European countries, especially for anxiolytics, hypnotics and antidepressants. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of three psychotropic drugs among the most prescribed in France (bromazepam, paroxetine, zolpidem) using reimbursement databases in real-life conditions. Individuals from a region affiliated to the French General Health Insurance Scheme, who had received at least two dispensings of bromazepam, paroxetine or zolpidem reimbursed between 1 January and 30 June 2008, were included. We used a latent class analysis to identify different subgroups of users for these three psychotropic drugs. A total of 40,644 patients were included for bromazepam, 36,264 for zolpidem and 31,235 for paroxetine. Using latent class analysis, four clinical subtypes of users of bromazepam and zolpidem were identified: nonproblematic users, at-risk users, users with a probable mental disorder and compulsive users. Three subgroups were identified for paroxetine that differed rather by the prescription patterns. Users of anxiolytics and hypnotics with at-risk behaviours represented a significant proportion in the studied population. This original method could be extended to other prescription databases to identify populations at risk of abuse or dependence to psychotropic drugs.

  8. Psychotropic drug effects on gene transcriptomics relevant to Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Psychotropics are widely prescribed in Alzheimer disease (AD) without regard to their pathobiological effects. Results summarize a comprehensive survey of psychotropic effects on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression for 52 genes linked to AD. Pending future investigations, current data indicate that atypical antipsychotics, lithium, and fluoxetine reduce AD risk, whereas other drug classes promote risk. Risk may be attenuated by antipsychotics and lithium (down-regulate TNF), atypical antipsychotics (down-regulate TF), risperidone (down-regulates IL1B), olanzapine (up-regulates TFAM, down-regulates PRNP), fluoxetine (up-regulates CLU, SORCS1, NEDD9, GRN, and ECE1), and lithium coadministered with antipsychotics (down-regulates IL1B). Risk may be enhanced by neuroleptics (up-regulate TF), haloperidol (up-regulates IL1B and PION), olanzapine (down-regulates THRA and PRNP, up-regulates IL1A), and chlorpromazine, imipramine, maprotiline, fluvoxamine, and diazepam (up-regulate IL1B). There were no results for dextromethorphan-plus-quinidine. Fluoxetine effects on CLU, NEDD9, and GRN were statistically robust. Drug effects on specific variants, polymorphisms, genotypes, and other genes (CCR2, TF, and PRNP) are detailed. Translational AD risk applications and their limitations related to specific genes, mutations, variants, polymorphisms, genotypes, brain site, sex, clinical population, AD stage, and other factors are discussed. This report provides an initial summary and framework to understand the potential impact of psychotropic drugs on AD-relevant genes.

  9. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H

    2015-01-01

    : Sertraline and citalopram are first-line treatment among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for depression. It is recommended to use lithium for bipolar disorders if an overall assessment finds an indication for mood-stabilizing treatment during pregnancy. Lamotrigine can be used. Valproate...... and carbamazepin are contraindicated. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and clozapine can be used for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how...

  10. Neuroprotective Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Huntington’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Psychotropics (antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, anxiolytics, etc.) are commonly prescribed to treat Huntington’s disease (HD). In HD preclinical models, while no psychotropic has convincingly affected huntingtin gene, HD modifying gene, or huntingtin protein expression, psychotropic neuroprotective effects include upregulated huntingtin autophagy (lithium), histone acetylation (lithium, valproate, lamotrigine), miR-222 (lithium-plus-valproate), mitochondrial protection (haloperidol, trifluoperazine, imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine, melatonin), neurogenesis (lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, sertraline), and BDNF (lithium, valproate, sertraline) and downregulated AP-1 DNA binding (lithium), p53 (lithium), huntingtin aggregation (antipsychotics, lithium), and apoptosis (trifluoperazine, loxapine, lithium, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, cyproheptadine, melatonin). In HD live mouse models, delayed disease onset (nortriptyline, melatonin), striatal preservation (haloperidol, tetrabenazine, lithium, sertraline), memory preservation (imipramine, trazodone, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine), motor improvement (tetrabenazine, lithium, valproate, imipramine, nortriptyline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine), and extended survival (lithium, valproate, sertraline, melatonin) have been documented. Upregulated CREB binding protein (CBP; valproate, dextromethorphan) and downregulated histone deacetylase (HDAC; valproate) await demonstration in HD models. Most preclinical findings await replication and their limitations are reviewed. The most promising findings involve replicated striatal neuroprotection and phenotypic disease modification in transgenic mice for tetrabenazine and for sertraline. Clinical data consist of an uncontrolled lithium case series (n = 3) suggesting non-progression and a primarily negative double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of lamotrigine. PMID:24248060

  11. Influence of psychotropic drugs prescription on body weight increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4

  12. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  13. [Effect of psychotropic drugs on activity of anticonvulsants in maximal electroshock test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikina, N A; Tregubov, A L; Kotegov, V P

    2010-08-01

    The effect ofpsychotropic drugs on the pharmacological properties of anticonvulsants was studied on white mice under maximal electroshock (ME) test conditions. Changes in the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital, diphenin, carbamazepine, hexamidine were traced upon their joint administration with psychotropic drugs, including piracetam, aminalon, amitriptyline, imizine, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate. An important result of research is the fact, that in no one of combinations the basic pharmacological effect of anticonvulsants was decreased. Based on the results of experiments, the most rational combinations of anticonvulsants with psychotropic preparations were revealed as manifested in the ME test. As criterion of rational combination was the increase in the activity of anticonvulsants and reduction of their toxicity in combination or at least invariance of this parameter. Rational combinations include (i) phenobarbital with piracetam, amitriptyline, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate; (ii) carbamazepine with piracetam; and (iii) hexamidine with amitriptyline, levomepromazine and imizine.

  14. Improving psychotropic drug prescription in nursing home patients with dementia : design of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Gerritsen, Debby L.; Nelissen-Vrancken, Marjorie H. J. M. G.; Wetzels, Roland B.; van der Spek, Klaas; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are highly prevalent in nursing home patients with dementia. Despite modest effectiveness and considerable side effects, psychotropic drugs are frequently prescribed for these neuropsychiatric symptoms. This raises questions whether psychotropic drugs are

  15. Rhabdomyolysis Syndrome in Alcohol, Psychotropic Drugs, and Illicit Substance Poisonings

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    Seyed Kazem Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the major complications of poisoning causedby alcohol, narcotics, and psychotropic substances acute toxicity, which might lead toacute renal failure and even death. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratoryfindings of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in poisoning patients who were admitted topoisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute toxicity by alcohol, narcotics,or psychotropic drugs who were admitted in poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital ofHamadan were investigated during a 6-month period in 2012. Clinical and laboratorydata were collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS softwareversion 16.Results: Eighty-two patients aged between 14 to 81 years were investigated. Twentytwocases developed rhabdomyolysis and narcotics related toxicity was the mostcommon cause. The most common clinical symptom in all patients was muscle pain(51cases, Laboratory studies showed some significant differences between serumcreatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum creatinine, andaminotransferases (AST,ALT levels in rhabdomyolysis cases as compared to theothers (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the incidence of rhabdomyolysissyndrome in acute intoxication with alcohol and narcotics is significant and withoutproper treatment might cause serious complications such as acute renal failure andeven death. Classic clinical signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are usually notpresent simultaneously, thus strong clinical suspicion and proper laboratory tests haveimportant role in early diagnosis and suitable treatment. Laboratory studies have animportant role in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  16. Pulmonary fibrosis associated with psychotropic drug therapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Clare

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sertraline and Risperidone are commonly used psychotropic drugs. Sertraline has previously been associated with eosinopilic pneumonia. Neither drug is recognised as a cause of diffuse fibrotic lung disease. Our report represents the first such case. Case Presentation We describe the case of a 33 year old Asian male with chronic schizophrenia who had been treated for three years with sertraline and risperidone. He presented to hospital in respiratory failure following a six month history of progressive breathlessness. High resolution CT scan demonstrated diffuse pulmonary fibrosis admixed with patchy areas of consolidation. Because the aetiology of this man's diffuse parenchymal lung disease remained unclear a surgical lung biopsy was undertaken. Histological assessment disclosed widespread fibrosis with marked eosinophillic infiltration and associated organising pneumonia - features all highly suggestive of drug induced lung disease. Following withdrawal of both sertraline and risperidone and initiation of corticosteroid therapy the patient's respiratory failure resolved and three years later he remains well albeit limited by breathlessness on heavy exertion. Conclusion Drug induced lung disease can be rapidly progressive and if drug exposure continues may result in respiratory failure and death. Prompt recognition is critical as drug withdrawal may result in marked resolution of disease. This case highlights sertraline and risperidone as drugs that may, in susceptible individuals, cause diffuse pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Psychotropic drugs and the perioperative period : A proposal for a guideline in elective surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyse, FJ; Touw, DJ; Van Schijndel, RS; De Lange, JJ; Slaets, JPJ

    2006-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the perioperative management of psychotropic drugs are lacking. The level of evidence is low and is based on case reports, open trials, and non-systematic reviews. However, the interactions and effects mentioned indicate that patients who use psychotropics and require s

  18. Number and type of psychotropic drugs on the Scandinavian market in 1950-1977

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemminki, E; Pesonen, T; Hansen, E H

    1981-01-01

    This article describes the number and types of psychotropic drugs on the market in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from 1950-1977. The total number of drugs on the market in each country depended greatly on how psychotropic drugs were defined, but trends with time and differences between...... the countries were less affected by this definition. The number of drugs was highest in Finland and lowest in Norway. In all countries, the number of drugs increased from 1950 to the mid-1960s, most abruptly in Finland. They then quickly decreased in Finland and Sweden, but remained fairly constant in Denmark...... and Norway. The number of different active substances was much smaller than the number of drugs, and the differences between the countries were also smaller. The proportions of combination and hidden psychotropic drugs in relation to all psychotropics were considerable in Finland and Sweden, and the varying...

  19. Psychomotor developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Damase-Michel, Christine; Finotto, Laurent; Guitard, Claudine; Vayssière, Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Montastruc, François; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about neurodevelopment of children exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs on psychomotor development in children. This observational study used the EFEMERIS database. The database records the drugs prescribed and delivered during pregnancy and the resulting outcomes. Neurodevelopment at nine and 24 months of children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics) during the second and/or third trimesters of pregnancy was compared to children who were not exposed to these drugs. Psychomotor development of 493 children (1.5%) exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was compared to 32 303 unexposed children. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of abnormal motor development at 9 months (OR = 1.3 [1.1-2.2]) and abnormal motor and mental development at 24 months (OR = 4.8 [2.1-11.0] and OR = 2.3 [1.05-4.9]). Increased risk was observed in children born to women exposed to anti-epileptic drugs, neuroleptics or antidepressants during pregnancy. This study found a higher rate of deviation from the normal developmental milestones in children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and more particularly antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics.

  20. Psychotropic drugs and the perioperative period: a proposal for a guideline in elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyse, Frits J; Touw, Daan J; van Schijndel, Rob Strack; de Lange, Jaap J; Slaets, Joris P J

    2006-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the perioperative management of psychotropic drugs are lacking. The level of evidence is low and is based on case reports, open trials, and non-systematic reviews. However, the interactions and effects mentioned indicate that patients who use psychotropics and require surgery have an enhanced perioperative risk. A group of clinicians from several clinical disciplines determined which risks should be considered in an integrated preoperative assessment, as well as how psychotropics might interfere with these risks. The risks that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of the surgery, the patient's physical state, anesthesia, the direct and indirect (Phase I and II) effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms, and risk of psychiatric recurrence or relapse. Because of new drug developments, the risk of interactions increases. The literature has not provided articles that systematically address these risks. On the basis of a systematic analysis of the available literature guided by the formulated perioperative risks, a proposal for the perioperative management of psychotropics was formulated. Patients who use lithium, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclics, and clozepine have serious drug-drug interactions, with increased physical risks, including withdrawal, and therefore qualify for American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Classification 3. From the perspective of the physical risk, they require discontinuation. However, from the perspective of the risk of withdrawal and psychiatric relapse and recurrence, these patients deserve intensive, integrated anesthetic/psychiatric management. For patients on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) who are mentally and physical stable (ASA Classification 2), the risk of withdrawal seems to justify their continuation. Yet, patients on SSRIs with higher physical or psychiatric risks should be seen in consultation. Both the physical and psychiatric

  1. High prevalence of psychotropic drug use among persons with and without Alzheimer's disease in Finnish nationwide cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Heidi; Koponen, Marjaana; Tanskanen, Antti; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2014-11-01

    Psychotropic drugs are used for treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) although they are associated with serious adverse drug events. Objective of our study was to investigate prevalence of psychotropic drug use one year after diagnoses of Alzheimer's disease (AD), to compare prevalence to persons without AD and to assess changes in prevalence over time. Data from the MEDALZ (Medication use and Alzheimer's disease) cohort was utilized in the study including all 69,080 community-dwelling persons with new diagnosis of AD during years 2005-2011 in Finland. Four age-, gender- and region of residence-matched persons without AD were identified for each case. Register-based data included prescription drug purchases and comorbidities from Special Reimbursement Register. Annual prevalence of psychotropic drug use one year after diagnosis was determined for each person. Psychotropic drugs were used by 53% of persons with AD compared with 33% of persons without AD during one year after diagnoses. Persons with AD were six times more likely to use antipsychotics and three times more likely to use antidepressants whereas benzodiazepine and related drug (BZDR) use was comparable between persons with and without AD. According to year of AD diagnoses during 2005-2011, antipsychotic use increased from 18% to 20% (p<0.0001) and BZDR use declined from 31% to 26% (p<0.0001) among persons with AD. Widespread utilization of psychotropic drugs was observed among persons with AD. Despite safety warnings of antipsychotic use for BPSD, antipsychotic use increased from 2005 to 2011 among newly diagnosed persons with AD in Finland.

  2. Quantitative EEG Brain Mapping In Psychotropic Drug Development, Drug Treatment Selection, and Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Itil, Kurt Z.

    1995-05-01

    Quantification of standard electroencephalogram (EEG) by digital computers [computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG)] has transformed the subjective analog EEG into an objective scientific method. Until a few years ago, CEEG was only used to assist in the development of psychotropic drugs by means of the quantitative pharmaco EEG. Thanks to the computer revolution and the accompanying reductions in cost of quantification, CEEG can now also be applied in psychiatric practice. CEEG can assist the physician in confirming clinical diagnoses, selecting psychotropic drugs for treatment, and drug treatment monitoring. Advancements in communications technology allow physicians and researchers to reduce the costs of acquiring a high-technology CEEG brain mapping system by utilizing the more economical telephonic services.

  3. Psychiatric Disorders and TRP Channels: Focus on Psychotropic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Demirdaş, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurological disorders are mostly associated with the changes in neural calcium ion signaling pathways required for activity-triggered cellular events. One calcium channel family is the TRP cation channel family, which contains seven subfamilies. Results of recent papers have discovered that calcium ion influx through TRP channels is important. We discuss the latest advances in calcium ion influx through TRP channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Activation of TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPV1 cation channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, fear-associated responses, and depression modulate calcium ion influx. Evidence substantiates that anandamide and its analog (methanandamide) induce an anxiolytic-like effect via CB1 receptors and TRPV1 channels. Intracellular calcium influx induced by oxidative stress has an significant role in the etiology of bipolar disorders (BDs), and studies recently reported the important role of TRP channels such as TRPC3, TRPM2, and TRPV1 in converting oxidant or nitrogen radical signaling to cytosolic calcium ion homeostasis in BDs. The TRPV1 channel also plays a function in morphine tolerance and hyperalgesia. Among psychotropic drugs, amitriptyline and capsazepine seem to have protective effects on psychiatric disorders via the TRP channels. Some drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine also seem to have an important role in alcohol addiction and substance abuse via activation of the TRPV1 channel. Thus, we explore the relationships between the etiology of psychiatric disorders and TRP channel-regulated mechanisms. Investigation of the TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of the development of new drug treatments.

  4. Chronic psychotropic drug treatment causes differential expression of Reelin signaling system in frontal cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J; Folsom, Timothy D

    2009-06-01

    Disruption of the Reelin and GABAergic signaling systems have been observed in psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. Less is known of therapeutic interventions that may help ameliorate the effects of these disruptions. The current study investigated whether chronic administration of psychotropic medications (clozapine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, lithium, olanzapine, and valproic acid) used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders alters levels of Reelin, its receptor Vldlr, downstream molecules Gsk3 beta, Dab-1, and Gad65/67 in rat prefrontal cortex as measured by qRT-PCR and SDS-PAGE and western blotting. qRT-PCR revealed that mRNAs for Reelin, Vldlr, Dab-1, Gsk3 beta, and Gad65 were each significantly altered by at least one of the drugs tested, and in the case of Reelin, Dab-1, and Gsk3 beta, by multiple drugs. To verify our results, we also performed SDS-PAGE and western blotting experiments. Again, several of the protein products for Reelin, Vldlr, Dab-1, Gsk3 beta, Gad65, and Gad67 were also significantly altered by multiple drugs. The present results suggest that the Reelin signaling and GABAergic systems are affected by commonly used psychotropic medications. These changes may help explain the efficacy of these drugs and provide further support for the investigation of the Reelin and GABAergic signaling systems as therapeutic targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases.

  5. Psychotropic Drug Use in Sao Paulo, Brazil--An Epidemiological Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Quintana

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of one month psychotropic drug use in São Paulo, Brazil, and to assess the gap treatment between the presence of mental disorders and psychotropic drug users.A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the general population of São Paulo (n = 2336; turnout: 84.5% who were 15 years or older were interviewed by a trained research staff, applying the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (CIDI WHO (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections, and an inventory investigating psychotropic drug use during the 12-month and one-month periods immediately preceding the interview. Logistic models were fitted to investigate associations between psychotropic drug use as well as socio-demographic and clinical variables.The one month prevalence of psychotropic drug use in São Paulo was 5.89%, the most commonly used drugs were antidepressants (3.15% and tranquilizers (2.67%. A higher consumption of psychotropic drugs (overall, antidepressants and tranquilizers was observed among women (OR:2.42, older individuals (OR:1.04, individuals with higher levels of formal education (1.06, and individuals with a family (OR:2.29 or personal history of mental illness (OR:3.27. The main psychotropic drug prescribers were psychiatrists (41%, followed by general practitioners (30%; 60% of psychotropic drugs were obtained through a government-run dispensing program. Most individuals who obtained a positive diagnosis on the CIDI 2.1 during the previous month were not using psychotropic medication (85%. Among individuals with a diagnosis of moderate to severe depression, 67.5% were not on any pharmacological treatment.There is a change in the type of psychotropic more often used in São Paulo, from benzodiazepines to antidepressants, this event is observed in different cultures. The prevalence of use is similar to other developing countries. Most of the patients presenting a psychiatric illness in the

  6. Perspectives on Zebrafish Models of Hallucinogenic Drugs and Related Psychotropic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Among different classes of psychotropic drugs, hallucinogenic agents exert one of the most prominent effects on human and animal behaviors, markedly altering sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive responses. The growing clinical and preclinical interest in psychedelic, dissociative, and deliriant hallucinogens necessitates novel translational, sensitive, and high-throughput in vivo models and screens. Primate and rodent models have been traditionally used to study cellular mechanisms and neural circuits of hallucinogenic drugs’ action. The utility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in neuroscience research is rapidly growing due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, robust behaviors, and cost effectiveness. Possessing a fully characterized genome, both adult and larval zebrafish are currently widely used for in vivo screening of various psychotropic compounds, including hallucinogens and related drugs. Recognizing the growing importance of hallucinogens in biological psychiatry, here we discuss hallucinogenic-induced phenotypes in zebrafish and evaluate their potential as efficient preclinical models of drug-induced states in humans. PMID:23883191

  7. Epidemiology of psychotropic drug use in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gaps in mental illness treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Quintana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drugs use in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and establish its relationship with the presence of mental disorders. METHODS: A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals, from the general population of Rio de Janeiro (n = 1208;turn out:81%, 15 years or older, who were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections, and asked about their psychotropic use during a 12 and one-month period before the interview. Data were collected between June/2007-February/2008.The prevalence was estimated with a confidence interval of 95%. The associations between psychotropics use and mental disorders were analyzed through a logistic regression model (Odds Ration - OR. RESULTS: The one-month prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 6.55%, 3.19% for men and 9.13% for women. Antidepressants were the most frequently used drug (2.78%, followed by anorectics (1.65%, tranquilizers (1.61% and mood stabilizers (1.23%. General practitioners issued the highest number of prescriptions (46.3%, followed by psychiatrists (29.3%; 86.6% of the psychotropic drugs used were paid for by the patient himself. Individuals with increased likelihood of using psychotropic drugs were those that had received a psychiatric diagnosis during a one-month period before the study (OR:3.93, females (OR:1.82, separated/divorced (OR:2.23, of increased age (OR:1.03, with higher income (OR:2.96, and family history of mental disorder (OR:2.59; only 16% of the individuals with a current DSM IV diagnosis were using a psychotropic drug; 17% among individuals with a depression-related diagnosis and 8% with Phobic Anxiety Disorders-related diagnosis used psychotropics. CONCLUSION: Approximately 84% of individuals displaying some mental disorder did not use psychotropic drugs, which indicates an important gap between demand and access to treatment. A

  8. A case-control study of breast cancer and psychotropic drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R B; Sherman, B M; Bean, J A

    1982-01-01

    The relative risk of breast cancer incidence and tumor promotion associated with psychotropic drug consumption was evaluated in 151 patients with newly diagnosed neoplasms and 151 hospital controls. No significantly altered risk of breast cancer was found in association with the use of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, antidepressants, major tranquillizers, sedatives or hypnotics, even after adjustment for known menstrual and reproductive risk factors. No substantial evidence of tumor promotion effects was found, as measured by altered age-at-onset of disease or altered clinical stage at presentation. Psychotropic drug use was inversely related to subject ponderosity (measured by the Quetelet Index) and while this did not confound risk estimates, it may be important in exploring biologic hypotheses of psychotropic drug use and breast cancer.

  9. Changes in body weight and psychotropic drugs: a systematic synthesis of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dent

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Psychotropic medication use is associated with weight gain. While there are studies and reviews comparing weight gain for psychotropics within some classes, clinicians frequently use drugs from different classes to treat psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review of all classes of psychotropics to provide an all encompassing evidence-based tool that would allow clinicians to determine the risks of weight gain in making both intra-class and interclass choices of psychotropics. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We developed a novel hierarchical search strategy that made use of systematic reviews that were already available. When such evidence was not available we went on to evaluate randomly controlled trials, followed by cohort and other clinical trials, narrative reviews, and, where necessary, clinical opinion and anecdotal evidence. The data from the publication with the highest level of evidence based on our hierarchical classification was presented. Recommendations from an expert panel supplemented the evidence used to rank these drugs within their respective classes. Approximately 9500 articles were identified in our literature search of which 666 citations were retrieved. We were able to rank most of the psychotropics based on the available evidence and recommendations from subject matter experts. There were few discrepancies between published evidence and the expert panel in ranking these drugs. CONCLUSION: Potential for weight gain is an important consideration in choice of any psychotropic. This tool will help clinicians select psychotropics on a case-by-case basis in order to minimize the impact of weight gain when making both intra-class and interclass choices.

  10. [Characterization of drug, narcotic and psychotropic drug chirality by statistical methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszál, B; Schiller, Z

    1999-04-01

    The percentage of chiral entities among drug, narcotic drug and psychotropic compounds is steadily increasing. Receptors of the human body recognize the enantiomeric forms of constitutionally identical compounds as entirely different chemical agents. Based upon these facts, this paper reports the percentage of chiral compounds in the various pharmacological classes, and related data. Pertinent terms, such as eutomer, distomer, eudismic index, eudismic affinity quotient are defined. Differences in biological activity between eutomers and distomers are exemplified. The pharmacological classes and subclasses of highest chirality, and the "most chiral" active principles are shown. Some puzzling observations on pharmacological behaviour of stereoisomers are highlighted. The necessity of "racemate switch" in the pharmaceutical industry, and the significance of stereo-specific interactions between the drug, narcotic drug and psychotropic ligands, and complementary, "pocket" moieties of the human body are emphasized. Some features of enantiopharmacology, a fledgling science in the interface of stereochemistry and traditional pharmacology are introduced. The statistical treatment of asymmetric compounds in pharmacological classes and subclasses shows that presently, the percentage of chirality in drug categories is more characteristic of the origin of the compound than its target molecule.

  11. Cases of Adverse Reaction to Psychotropic Drugs and Possible Association with Pharmacogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Piatkov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of samples for pharmacogenetic tests have been analysed in our laboratory since its establishment. In this article we describe some of the most interesting cases of CYP poor metabolisers associated with adverse reactions to psychotropic drugs. Prevention of disease/illness, including Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR, is an aim of modern medicine. Scientific data supports the fact that evaluation of drug toxicology includes several factors, one of which is genetic variations in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drug pathways. These variations are only a part of toxicity evaluation, however, even if it would help to prevent only a small percentage of patients from suffering adverse drug reactions, especially life threatening ADRs, pharmacogenetic testing should play a significant role in any modern psychopharmacologic practice. Medical practitioners should also consider the use of other medications or alternative dosing strategies for drugs in patients identified as altered metabolisers. This will promise not only better and safer treatments for patients, but also potentially lowering overall healthcare costs.

  12. Prevalence of bipolar disorder diagnoses and psychotropic drug therapy among privately insured children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusetzina, Stacie B; Weinberger, Morris; Gaynes, Bradley N; Farley, Joel F; Sleath, Betsy; Hansen, Richard A

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the treated prevalence of bipolar disorder in a privately insured population, describe the characteristics of children and adolescents receiving these diagnoses, and describe patterns of their psychotropic drug therapy. Retrospective, repeated cross-sectional study. MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy claims databases. A total of 22,360 children and adolescents (aged 0-17 yrs) with one inpatient or two or more outpatient claims for any bipolar spectrum disorder between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2007. Annual cross-sections were used to estimate the treated prevalence of bipolar disorder diagnoses, patient characteristics, and psychotropic drugs used 30 days after a child's latest recorded bipolar disorder diagnosis within each year. The annual treated prevalence of any bipolar spectrum disorder in this privately insured population was 0.24% in 2005 and 0.26% in 2006 and 2007. Approximately 25% of diagnoses were for children younger than 13 years. Approximately 30% of children had coexisting attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder during the year. In each year, 35% of patients used no psychotropic drug therapy in the 30-day period after their most recent diagnosis. Twenty-five percent used one psychotropic drug, and 40% used two or more drugs. The most common drug regimens were antipsychotic or mood stabilizer (lithium or anticonvulsant) monotherapy and the combination of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics. Drug therapy patterns suggest that children and adolescents with bipolar diagnoses receive complex treatment regimens, often involving multiple classes of psychotropic drugs. Research on treatment combinations, particularly antipsychotic and mood stabilizer combinations, should be prioritized to better understand the safety and effectiveness of commonly prescribed treatments. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  13. [Chronic psychotropic drugs use in the Canadian labor force: what are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, A; Blanc, M-E

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to better understand the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions to the development of chronic psychotropic drugs use among workers in Canada. The study is based on a secondary analysis of the longitudinal data of the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) of Statistics Canada which includes five cycles from 1994-1995 to 2002-2003. A panel of 6585 people from 15 to 55 years old and employed at cycle 1 and nested in 1413 neighbourhoods was selected. Multilevel models of regression were estimated on three levels: repeated measures (level 1=24,785 observations) were nested in the individuals (level 2=6585 individuals) and the individuals nested in the local communities (level 3=1413 neighborhoods). The prevalence of multiple episodes (two episodes and more between cycle 1 and cycle 5) of psychotropic drugs use was 6.7% (95%CI=6.0-7.4%). Only occupation and the number of working hours showed a significant contribution. Family and individual variables like marital status and personality traits (locus of control and sense of coherence) had a significant contribution, in addition to time, gender, age, physical health, number of cigarettes and stressful childhood events. Work contributes weakly to the risk of chronic psychotropic drugs use, whereas individual characteristics make a much more important contribution to the phenomenon.

  14. Dealing with sadness, madness and hostility. New psychotropic drug remedies for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present an overview of new forms of psychotropic drug therapy that may be expected to play a role in psychiatric practice in the 1990s. In predicting these future developments, three lines of approach have been followed. Firstly, progress in elucidating basic neur

  15. Attitudes and Beliefs of Marriage and Family Therapists regarding Psychotropic Drugs and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul R.; Harris, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical members of AAMFT were solicited by means of a randomized multi-staged clustering technique to identify their attitudes and beliefs regarding psychotropic drugs. All participants were blind to the overall purpose of the study (n = 322) and were directed to read a clinical vignette and then identify what course of action they would take…

  16. Struggles in prescribing : determinants of psychotropic drug use in multiple clinical settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis were to establish the prevalence of psychotropic drug use as well as possible determinants associated with its use in multiple clinical settings: psychiatric admission wards, an intensive care unit and two settings for the intellectually disabled. In this

  17. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of dif

  18. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of dif

  19. Struggles in prescribing : determinants of psychotropic drug use in multiple clinical settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis were to establish the prevalence of psychotropic drug use as well as possible determinants associated with its use in multiple clinical settings: psychiatric admission wards, an intensive care unit and two settings for the intellectually disabled. In this thesis,

  20. Factors related to psychotropic drug prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, C.H.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Derksen, E.; Vries, E. de; Spek, K. van der; Koopmans, R.T.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. DESIGN: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. SETTING: Twelve NHs in The

  1. Factors Related to Psychotropic Drug Prescription for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Derksen, Els; de Vries, Erica; van der Spek, Klaas; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Gerritsen, Debby L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. Design: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Setting: Twelve NHs in The

  2. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J.; Scheers, Tom; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmaco-therapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 t

  3. A reliable and valid index was developed to measure appropriate psychotropic drug use in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Klaas; Gerritsen, Debby L.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Nelissen-Vrancken, Marjorie H. J. M. G.; Wetzels, Roland B.; Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop an index derived from the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAT) items that is suited for clinical studies evaluating appropriateness of psychotropic drug use (PDU) for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in patients with dementia in nursing homes and to

  4. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J.; Scheers, Tom; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmaco-therapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4

  5. Factors Related to Psychotropic Drug Prescription for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Derksen, Els; de Vries, Erica; van der Spek, Klaas; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Gerritsen, Debby L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. Design: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Setting: Twelve NHs in The Neth

  6. Factors related to psychotropic drug prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, C.H.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Derksen, E.; Vries, E. de; Spek, K. van der; Koopmans, R.T.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. DESIGN: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. SETTING: Twelve NHs in The Neth

  7. In vitro interaction between psychotropic drugs and alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, M G; Bello, F; Burguillo, F J; Cachaza, J M; Kennedy, J F

    1991-03-01

    A series of CNS-stimulating and -depressant drugs have been studied for their in vitro interaction with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity. The depressant drugs studied included barbital, phenobarbital, thiopental, nitrazepam, chlorpromazine, sulpiride, clomethiazole, Li2CO3, diazepam, phenytoin, ethosuximide, morphine, and codeine. The stimulant drugs were theophylline, caffeine, amphetamine, imipramine, chlorimipramine, amitriptyline, and tranylcypromine. The results were as follows. First, ADH activity was inhibited by the action of chlorpromazine, tranylcypromine, imipramine, chlorimipramine, amitriptyline, sulpiride, amphetamine, codeine, ethosuximide, morphine, clomethiazole, nitrazepam, Li2CO3, theophylline, and phenobarbital, in descending order of inhibitory effect. Second, inhibition followed by activation of ADH activity was observed for imipramine and chlorimipramine. Third, activation of ADH activity was observed for phenytoin. Finally, the following drugs were not seen to exert any effect on ADH activity: barbital, thiopental, diazepam, and caffeine.

  8. Psychotropic drug monitoring in general practice in Italy: a two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellantuono, C; Fiorio, R; Williams, P; Martini, N; Bozzini, L

    1987-03-01

    A psychotropic drug monitoring study in general practice was carried out in 1983 and 1984 using a computerized drug information system. The prescription data analysed in the study came from 68 general practitioners operating in south Verona and have been collected by 14 community pharmacies located in the same area. Benzodiazepine hypnotics were the most commonly prescribed drugs, followed by antidepressants and neuroleptics both in 1983 and in 1984. The distribution of the general practitioners in terms of low, medium and high prescribers was examined by analysing the rates of prescriptions per registered patient. The rates were obtained for the total number of prescriptions and also for each of the three different classes of psychotropic drug. The proportion of low and high prescribers decreased from 1983 to 1984 (18.3 versus 11.7 and 26.7 versus 16.7 for low and high prescribers respectively); this change was mainly due to the reduction in benzodiazepine prescriptions. No significant correlation was found between the rates of psychotropic drug prescriptions and list size. The monthly variation in prescription of the three drug classes followed a similar pattern during the two years; the fluctuations were clearly cyclical, more definitely in 1984 than in 1983 where the most relevant feature was the summer trough.

  9. Utilization of psychotropic drugs prescribed to persons with and without HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L D; Obel, D; Kronborg, G;

    2014-01-01

    .76 for anxiolytics, 4.42 for hypnotics and sedatives, and 2.28 for antidepressants. Antidepressants were confined primarily to men who have sex with men (MSM). Older age, more recent calendar time, and increased time after HIV diagnosis were associated with increased drug utilization. However, no association...... with exposure to HAART or efavirenz was found. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected individuals had a higher utilization of psychotropic drugs than the background population, which was not confined to individuals with a history of IDU or HCV infection. This emphasizes the need to focus on diagnosis of, and appropriate......OBJECTIVES: The objective was to estimate the utilization of psychotropic drugs in HIV-infected individuals compared with that in the background population. METHODS: Using data obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish National Prescription Registry, we analysed aggregated data...

  10. Psychotropic and Anticonvulsant Drug Usage in Early Childhood Special Education Programs I. Phase One: A Preliminary Report: Prevalence, Attitude, Training, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    As part of a three phase study designed to survey the teachers and parents of children receiving psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs, 208 teachers of preschool special education children on medication were mailed questionnaires. The Early Childhood Medication Questionnaire used in the survey included items relating to teacher, program, and…

  11. DRUG UTILIZATION STUDY OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS PRESCRIBED IN PSYCHIATRY OPD OF L. N. MEDICAL COLLEGE ASSOCIATED J. K. HOSPITAL, BHOPAL DISTRICT, MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Utilization pattern of drugs varies from place to place and is influenced by differing patient characteristics, type of disease prevalent, cultural and environmental influences, socioeconomic states, availability of newer drugs and prescribing habit of physicians. Psychiatric disorders are one of the major causes of morbidity. Development of newer drugs like SSRIs and atypical antipsychotics has altered the treatment paradigms. Various factors like cost of drugs, local paradigms, etc. play a role in the selection of drug therapy and hence affect the outcome. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a study to delineate the various drugs used in psychiatric disorders. Psychotropic drugs have had a remarkable impact in psychiatric practice. However, their utilization in actual clinical practice, effectiveness and safety in real life situation needs continuous studies. So our aim to study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and analyse drug prescribing pattern in various psychiatric illnesses. METHODOLOGY A prospective cross sectional study was carried out for 6 months (Dec. 2014 - May. 2015 in psychiatry OPD of L. N. Medical College, Bhopal. Patients of all ages and both sexes were included in the study and 600 prescriptions were randomly selected. RESULT Antipsychotic drugs (75.33% were most frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs in various psychiatric disorders followed by Anti-Depressants (48.33% and Anxiolytics (26%. CONCLUSION This study shows that antipsychotics are the most common antipsychotic drugs prescribed in patients with psychotic illness. Depression is the most common disease. Prescription rate was higher in men between 21-40 yrs. age

  12. Psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in old age: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piirtola Maarit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that the use of any psychotropic and the concomitant use of two or more benzodiazepines are related to an increased risk of fractures in old age. However, also controversial results exist. The aim was to describe associations between the use of a psychotropic drug, or the concomitant use of two or more of these drugs and the risk of fractures in a population aged 65 years or over. Methods This study was a part of a prospective longitudinal population-based study carried out in the municipality of Lieto, South-Western Finland. The objective was to describe gender-specific associations between the use of one psychotropic drug [benzodiazepine (BZD, antipsychotic (AP or antidepressant (AD] or the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in a population 65 years or over. Subjects were participants in the first wave of the Lieto study in 1990-1991, and they were followed up until the end of 1996. Information about fractures confirmed with radiology reports in 1,177 subjects (482 men and 695 women during the follow-up was collected from medical records. Two follow-up periods (three and six years were used, and previously found risk factors of fractures were adjusted as confounding factors separately for men and women. The Poisson regression model was used in the analyses. Results The concomitant use of two or more BZDs and the concomitant use of two or more APs were related to an increased risk of fractures during both follow-up periods after adjusting for confounding factors in men. No similar associations were found in women. Conclusions The concomitant use of several BZDs and that of several APs are associated with an increase in the risk of fractures in older men. Our findings show only risk relations. We cannot draw the conclusion that these drug combinations are causes of fractures.

  13. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pneumonia is the most frequent complication in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning, which results in substantial morbidity and mortality, but which also increases the costs of treatment. Risk factors for pneumonia are numerous: age, sex, place of the appearance of pneumonia, severity of underlying disease, airway instrumentation (intubation, reintubation, etc. The incidence of pneumonia varies in poisoning caused by the various groups of drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia in the patients with acute psychotropic drugs poisoning. Methods. A group of 782 patients, out of which 614 (78.5% with psychotropic and 168 (21.5% nonpsychotropic drug poisoning were analyzed prospectively during a two-year period. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made according to: clinical presentation, new and persistent pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography, positive nonspecific parameters of inflammation, and the microbiological confirmation of causative microorganisms. To analyze predisposing risk factors for pneumonia, the following variables were recorded: sex, age, underlying diseases, endotracheal intubation, coma, severity of poisoning with different drugs, histamine H2 blockers, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheter. The univariate analysis for pneumonia risk factors in all patients, and for each group separately was done. The multivariate analysis was performed using the logistic regression technique. Results. Pneumonia was found in 94 (12.02% of the patients, 86 of which (91.5% in psychotropic and 8 (8.5% in nonpsychotropic drug poisoning. In the psychotropic drug group, pneumonia was the most frequent in antidepressant (47%, and the rarest in benzodiazepine poisoning (3.8%. A statistically significant incidence of pneumonia was found in the patients with acute antidpressant poisoning (p < 0.001. Univariate analysis showed statistical significance for the

  14. Public health nurses? perception of their roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents: a phenomenographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Steffenak, Anne Kjersti Myhrene; Nordstr?m, Gun; Hartz, Ingeborg; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives The purpose of the paper was to describe the perceptions of public health nurses? roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents. Background Mental health problems among adolescents are documented with studies indicating an increased use of psychotropic drugs. In Norway, care for such adolescents may fall naturally into the remit of public health nurses. Design A phenomenographic approach was used to analyse the data. Method A qualitative interview study was mad...

  15. Public health nurses' perception of their roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents: a phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenak, Anne Kjersti Myhrene; Nordström, Gun; Hartz, Ingeborg; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the paper was to describe the perceptions of public health nurses' roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents. Mental health problems among adolescents are documented with studies indicating an increased use of psychotropic drugs. In Norway, care for such adolescents may fall naturally into the remit of public health nurses. A phenomenographic approach was used to analyse the data. A qualitative interview study was made of 20 Norwegian public health nurses, strategically chosen using phenomenographic methodology. The public health nurses described three categories: discovering public health nurses who become aware of psychotropic drug use in the health dialogue with adolescents and choose to either act or not act in relation to psychotropic drug use. Those public health nurses who take action are cooperating public health nurses, who cooperate with adolescents, their families, schools and others. If cooperation has been established, supporting public health nurses teach and support the adolescent in relation to psychotropic drug use. The public health nurses who do not act can hinder or delay further treatment. Public health nurses need to acquire knowledge about psychotropic drugs, to fulfil their role in nursing mental health problems among adolescents and the increasing use of psychotropic drugs. The results demonstrated that public health nurses, working in health centres and schools, have the responsibility and the opportunity to identify young people struggling with mental health problems and psychotropic drug use as well as teach and support significant others, e.g. parents and siblings. Intervention studies are needed with regard to health promotion programmes aimed at fortifying young people's mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Integrated management of patients with schizophrenia: beyond psychotropic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda Zapata, Eliana; Montoya Gonzalez, Laura Elisa; Gómez Sierra, Natalia María; Arteaga Morales, Laura María; Correa Rico, Oscar Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease with severe functional repercussions; therefore it merits treatment which goes beyond drugs. It requires an approach that considers a diathesis-stress process that includes rehabilitation, psychotherapeutic strategies for persistent cognitive, negative and psychotic symptoms, psychoeducation of patient and communities, community adaptation strategies, such as the introduction to the work force, and the community model, such as a change in the asylum paradigm. It is necessary to establish private and public initiatives for the integrated care of schizophrenia in the country, advocating the well-being of those with the disease. The integrated management of schizophrenic patients requires a global view of the patient and his/her disease, and its development is essential. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of Psychotropic Drug Use in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Positive and Negative Findings from a Large Scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, John A.; Kim, Soh-Yule; Brown, W. Ted; Pettinger, Jill; Cohen, Ira L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of psychotropics by categories and the reason for their prescription was investigated in a large scale study of 4,069 adults with ID, including those with autism spectrum disorder, in New York State. Similar to other studies it was found that 58 % (2,361/4,069) received one or more psychotropics. Six percent received typical, 6 % received…

  18. Prevalence of Psychotropic Drug Use in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Positive and Negative Findings from a Large Scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, John A.; Kim, Soh-Yule; Brown, W. Ted; Pettinger, Jill; Cohen, Ira L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of psychotropics by categories and the reason for their prescription was investigated in a large scale study of 4,069 adults with ID, including those with autism spectrum disorder, in New York State. Similar to other studies it was found that 58 % (2,361/4,069) received one or more psychotropics. Six percent received typical, 6 % received…

  19. Mental illness, challenging behaviour, and psychotropic drug prescribing in people with intellectual disability: UK population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rory; Hassiotis, Angela; Walters, Kate; Osborn, David; Strydom, André; Horsfall, Laura

    2015-09-01

    To describe the incidence of recorded mental illness and challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability in UK primary care and to explore the prescription of psychotropic drugs in this group. Cohort study. 571 general practices contributing data to The Health Improvement Network clinical database. 33,016 adults (58% male) with intellectual disability who contributed 211,793 person years' data. Existing and new records of mental illness, challenging behaviour, and psychotropic drug prescription. 21% (7065) of the cohort had a record of mental illness at study entry, 25% (8300) had a record of challenging behaviour, and 49% (16,242) had a record of prescription of psychotropic drugs. During follow-up, the rate of new cases of mental illness in people without a history at cohort entry was 262 (95% confidence interval 254 to 271) per 10,000 person years and the rate of challenging behaviour was 239 (231 to 247) per 10,000 person years. The rate of new psychotropic drug prescription in those without a previous history of psychotropic drug treatment was 518 (503 to 533) per 10,000 person years. Rates of new recording of severe mental illness declined by 5% (95% confidence interval 3% to 7%) per year (Pdisability who have been treated with psychotropic drugs far exceeds the proportion with recorded mental illness. Antipsychotics are often prescribed to people without recorded severe mental illness but who have a record of challenging behaviour. The findings suggest that changes are needed in the prescribing of psychotropics for people with intellectual disability. More evidence is needed of the efficacy and safety of psychotropic drugs in this group, particularly when they are used for challenging behaviour. © Sheehan et al 2015.

  20. [Treatment for irritable bowel syndrome--psychotropic drugs, antidepressants and so on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mitsuko; Murakami, Masato

    2006-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disease with good prognosis, which is diagnosed by exclusion of possible causative organic diseases. However, since the patients tend to have strong psychotic symptoms including anxiety, tension, depression, irritation and insomnia, this syndrome has to be elucidated as a psychosomatic disease. Although the symptoms are usually limited to gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and abnormal bowel movements, many patients also manifest some kinds of psychiatric abnormalities such as hypochondria, depression, hysteria, panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Especially, the prevalence of depression is high. Therefore, use of psychotropic drugs is efficient in treating IBS. Antidepressant agents including tricyclic agents such as amitriptyline, trimipramine, imipramine, clomipramine, amoxapine and nortriptyline; tetracyclic antidepressant; antidepressants such as SSRI and SNRI; sulpiride; benzodiazepine class anxiolytic agents; tandospirone; and Chinese herbal medicine are being used. IBS is a stress-related disease. Therefore, in spite of the importance of pharmacotherapy, patients should also be instructed to avoid the stress that aggravates the symptoms in all aspects of daily life.

  1. Endocrine and Metabolic Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much as an increase in the use of psychotropic drugs is observed in children and adolescents over the last decade, the endocrine and metabolic side effects of these drugs can limit their use. Atypical antipsychotics can cause many side effects, which are not suitable for the developmental periods of children and adolescents, such as those related with thyroid, blood sugar, level of sex hormones, growth rate and bone metabolism. Children are under a more serious risk regarding the weight increasing effects of atypical antipsychotics and weight gain that is not proportionate with age is especially important due to the association between glucose or lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular mortality. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone are the least risky antipsychotic drugs when it comes to metabolic side affects. The antipsychotic drug that is associated with weight increase and diabetes in children and adolescents most is olanzapine. Even though there are no comparative long-term data concerning children, it is suggested by the currently available information that metabolic side effects including dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance are at an alarming level when it comes to long-term treatment with antipsychotics. The most risky agents in terms of hyperglycemia and glucosuria development are olanzapine and clozapine. Use of risperidone and haloperidol should be undertaken with caution since it may bring about the risk of hyperprolactinemia. Among the antidepressants associated with weight loss and suppression of appetite are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, bupropion and venlafaxine. Thyroid functions can be affected by lithium, carbamazepine and valproate treatments. It is reported that the side effect most frequently associated with valproate is weight increase. The relationship between valproate treatment and the development of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in young women should also be kept in mind. [TAF Prev

  2. Psychotropic medications, including short acting benzodiazepines, strongly increase the frequency of falls in elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, Astrid M.; Koek, Huiberdina L.; van Marum, Rob J.; Emmelot-Vonk, Marielle H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Falls in the elderly are common and often serious. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of different classes of psychotropic medications, especially short acting benzodiazepines, and the frequency of falling in elderly. Study design This retrospective coho

  3. [Psychotropic drugs - The special importance of anticonvulsants and neuroleptics in treatment of patients with chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkers, Michael; Petz, Tobias; Hoffmeyer, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Therapy by psychotropic drugs is bound to limited indications, which are partially changing. By an extent literary research in pubmed and Cochrane especially corresponding articles of the past 10 years were proofed. So antidepressants were continually seldom given to nociceptor pain. While on the other side anticonvulsants are to be given in the case of neuropathic pain of defined quality, it will be looked for new applications for these drugs. Particularly hitherto existing difficult indications as fibromyalgia were investigated as possible indication for anticonvulsants. At least neuroleptics can be used for very difficult, resistant and bizarre pains such as cenesthesias.

  4. Somatic complications of psychotropic medications in a patient with multiple CYP2 drug metabolism deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Blair, C Lee; Bower, Bruce; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Aleman, Yaraliz; Pearlson, Godfrey; Goethe, John W; Schwartz, Harold I

    2007-04-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented with severe anxiety, multiple somatic complaints, medication intolerance and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to numerous prescribed psychotropic medications. Multiple drug metabolizing deficiencies were suspected. Molecular analysis was performed for the CYP2 family of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug metabolism isoenzymes by DNA typing CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 genes. A multiple deficiency in CYP2 drug metabolism was discovered. The patient was a double carrier of null alleles for CYP2D6, a carrier of a null allele for CYP2C19 and a carrier of a deficient allele for CYP2C9. These alleles were confirmed by Mendelian inheritance in her nuclear family, where her brother had a similar multigene CYP2 deficiency. The patient improved clinically with discontinuation of psychotropic medications, suggesting that much of her symptomatology was drug-induced. DNA typing for multigene CYP2 deficiencies is diagnostically useful in individuals with histories of multiple ADRs, which could be avoided by DNA-guided individualized prescription.

  5. Relationship between psychotropic drugs and thyroid function: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, M F; Marquet, P; Rousseau, A; Raby, C; Buxeraud, J; Lachâtre, G

    1998-04-01

    Some widely used psychoactive drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants and antipsychotic phenothiazines exhibit iatrogenic effects on the thyroid. These side effects may arise from interactions at different steps of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. These drugs can induce a change in iodine capture by thyroid cells or can complex iodine, making it unavailable for thyroid hormone synthesis and thus decreasing thyroid hormone blood levels; they can also inhibit thyroid peroxidase activity and thus T3 and T4 synthesis or enhance deiodination of T4 to T3 or to Rt3 by stimulation of deiodinase activity. Moreover, tricyclic antidepressants interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis via the noradrenergic or serotonergic systems and might therefore decrease T4 or T3 blood levels, respectively. Phenothiazines can induce autoimmune hypothyroidism, as shown by an increase in the expression of the major histocompatibility complex antigen and by a production of antithyroglobulin or antithyroperoxidase antibodies. However, all these mechanisms are only speculative in humans, as they have only been demonstrated in vitro or in animal experiments. Clinically, thyroid function and affective disorders are closely linked. On one hand, the therapeutic response to antidepressants could be influenced by the thyroid status; on the other hand, the larger the thyroxin decrease induced by antidepressants, the better the therapeutic effect might be. Moreover, cotreatment with thyroid hormones and antidepressant drugs could allow either a decrease in the rate of treatment failure or a faster recovery from depression. As antipsychotic or antidepressant treatments are administered over long periods in humans, their thyroid toxic effects must be taken seriously.

  6. Psychotropic drug profiles: comparisons by topographic maps of absolute power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, R; Herrmann, W M

    1987-01-01

    In a double-blind fourfold crossover design, 11 subjects were randomly assigned to placebo, 10 mg diazepam, 75 mg amitriptyline, and 75 mg chlorpromazine. During a simple vigilance task, 12 midline and left hemisphere leads were recorded before and 3 h after drug administration. The EEG was quantified by spectrum analysis, the topographic structure displayed by brain mapping techniques, and the results compared with earlier studies which used the same design and drugs. Diazepam showed the expected increase in beta; however, fast beta was increased as much as slow beta. Amitriptyline showed an increase of slow wave power and a reduction of alpha. In contrast to earlier studies, a decrease of fast beta was found. In addition, the spatial pattern of alpha changed from an occipital to a parietal maximum. Chlorpromazine showed an increase in the theta band. In occipital regions, there was a small decrease of fast beta; however, centrally there was an increase of both slow and fast beta. These results were confirmed by a multivariate analysis of variance.

  7. The prevalence of alcohol and psychotropic drugs in fatalities of road-traffic accidents in Jordan during 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallat, Imad M; Al Ali, Rayyan; Hudaib, Arwa A; Salameh, Ghada A M; Salameh, Rakiz J M; Idhair, Ahmed K F

    2016-04-01

    Several studies confirmed alcohol and psychotropic drug consumption as important risk factors underlying fatal accidents. This paper presents updated toxicological findings in the fatalities of road traffic accidents of Amman district, in order to have an overall picture of the occurrence of these substances in these victims in Jordan. Over a seven-year period (2008-2014), 2743, autopsies were conducted at Jordan University Hospital in which the sum of n = 311 (11.38%) were victims of road traffic accidents. Blood samples from these victims were collected. Toxicology screening for psychotropic drugs and alcohol was conducted on these samples, and the results were analyzed according to age, sex and victim's status. This study revealed that Alcohol and psychotropic drugs were positive in 36.5%, (n = 58) of the cases, and for alcohol alone (n = 13, 37.1%). The majority of the victims were pedestrians (n = 155, 49.8%). Additionally, 29.6% (n = 92) of the cases were of ages 19-29. Detected psychotropic drugs were benzodiazepines, barbiturates. None of the collected specimens were positive for illicit cocaine, amphetamines or cannabis. The results from this study proved the existence of alcohol and psychotropic drugs in the victims of road traffic accidents; Indicating an association between the uses of these substances in accident involvement. Though having some limitations, other conclusions require further data collection, cooperation with related parties in Jordan, and utilizing simple extended toxicological screens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. EEG topography and tomography (LORETA) in the classification and evaluation of the pharmacodynamics of psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletu, Bernd; Anderer, Peter; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda M

    2006-04-01

    By multi-lead computer-assisted quantitative analyses of human scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (QEEG) in combination with certain statistical procedures (quantitative pharmaco-EEG) and mapping techniques (pharmaco-EEG mapping or topography), it is possible to classify psychotropic substances and objectively evaluate their bioavailability at the target organ, the human brain. Specifically, one may determine at an early stage of drug development whether a drug is effective on the central nervous system (CNS) compared with placebo, what its clinical efficacy will be like, at which dosage it acts, when it acts and the equipotent dosages of different galenic formulations. Pharmaco-EEG maps of neuroleptics, antidepressants, tranquilizers, hypnotics, psychostimulants and nootropics/cognition-enhancing drugs will be described. Methodological problems, as well as the relationships between acute and chronic drug effects, alterations in normal subjects and patients, CNS effects and therapeutic efficacy will be discussed. Imaging of drug effects on the regional brain electrical activity of healthy subjects by means of EEG tomography such as low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) has been used for identifying brain areas predominantly involved in psychopharmacological action. This will be shown for the representative drugs of the four main psychopharmacological classes, such as 3 mg haloperidol for neuroleptics, 20 mg citalopram for antidepressants, 2 mg lorazepam for tranquilizers and 20 mg methylphenidate for psychostimulants. LORETA demonstrates that these psychopharmacological classes affect brain structures differently. By considering these differences between psychotropic drugs and placebo in normal subjects, as well as between mental disorder patients and normal controls, it may be possible to choose the optimum drug for a specific patient according to a key-lock principle, since the drug should normalize the deviant brain function. Thus, pharmaco

  9. [Medical Treatment of Newly Arrived Refugees in Erlangen: A Study of Drug Prescription Rates Focused on Psychotropic Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Fabian; Frewer, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Background: In 2015 the number of refugees who sought asylum in Germany has increased dramatically. Therefore, the medical care for these refugees faces huge challenges. The treatment of mental illness of refugees is a particular difficult topic. Objective of this study is the acquisition of the outpatient prescriptions of drugs for newly arrived refugees in Erlangen, focused on psychotropic drugs. Methods: Evaluation of all outpatient prescribed drugs (n=1 137), which were prescribed between 10/01/2014 and 09/30/2015 for asylum seekers living in the refugee center in Erlangen, a branch of the "Central Admission Institution" ("ZAE") Zirndorf. Funding organization of this treatment is the City of Erlangen. Settlement documents of the City of Erlangen were used for the analysis. Results: The prescribed drugs cover the spectrum of acute primary care. Big parts of the prescription rates are antiinfectives (ATC-Code: J), medication for the respiratory system (ATC: R), as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID's: ibuprofen, paracetamol, metamizole). The prescription of psychotropic drugs is relatively underrepresented. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of pediatric psychotropic medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S H; Shepherd, M D

    1996-08-15

    The effects of age, gender, and family background on children's use of prescription psychoactive medications were studied. Patient and prescribing information was obtained for children enrolled as dependents in any of five prescription drug benefit plans during the period from December 29, 1992, through December 28, 1993. A binary response model was specified under the assumption of logistic distribution of probabilities of psychotropic drug use. The independent variables were family size, parenting type (single- or two-parent family), parental use of psychotropic medications, and child's age, gender, and the interaction between age and gender. Logistic regression analysis was conducted not only for overall psychotropic drug use but also for antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, and CNS stimulants. The sample included 3144 children; 3.9% received psychotropic drugs. Family size and parenting type had no effect on overall use of psychotropic drugs by children, but children were more likely to receive psychotropic drugs if the parents took them. The study showed an interaction between age and gender. At younger ages, boys were more likely than girls to receive psychotropic drugs; the opposite was true at older ages. For particular subcategories of drugs the study showed that (1) boys were more likely than girls, and young children were more likely than older children, to receive CNS stimulants, (2) children from single-parent families were less likely to use antidepressants than children from two-parent households, and (3) the influence of mothers' psychotropic drug use extended to all three drug classes, but the influence of fathers' psychotropic drug use existed for antidepressants only. The effects of demographic and familial factors on children's use of psychotropic drugs varied according to the drug class.

  11. Impact of hospital type II violent events: use of psychotropic drugs and mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, John M; Lipscomb, Hester J; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Pompeii, Lisa A

    2014-06-01

    While violence can adversely affect mental health of victims, repercussions of violence against workers is not as well characterized. We explored relationships between workplace violent events perpetrated by patients or visitors (Type II) against hospital employees and the employee use of psychotropic medications or mental health services using a data system that linked violent events with health claims. Significant associations were observed between reported Type II workplace violent events and employee prescription claims for anti-depressants and anxiolytics combined (RR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.01-2.33) and anti-depressants alone (RR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.10-2.48). No significant association between reported violent events and health claims for treatment of depression or anxiety was observed. Type II violence experienced by hospital workers may lead to increased use of psychotropic drugs, particularly anti-depressants but also anxiolytics. Our results suggest an important role of employee assistance programs in mitigating the psychological consequences of workplace violent events. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Construction of an Integrated Positive Youth Development Conceptual Framework for the Prevention of the Use of Psychotropic Drugs among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yan Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical paper with an aim to construct an integrated conceptual framework for the prevention of adolescents' use and abuse of psychotropic drugs. This paper first reports the subjective reasons for adolescents' drug use and abuse in Hong Kong and reviews the theoretical underpinnings. Theories of drug use and abuse, including neurological, pharmacological, genetic predisposition, psychological, and sociological theories, were reviewed. It provides a critical re-examination of crucial factors that support the construction of a conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescents' drug use and abuse building on, with minor revision, the model of victimization and substance abuse among women presented by Logan et al. This revised model provides a comprehensive and coherent framework synthesized from theories of drug abuse. This paper then provides empirical support for integrating a positive youth development perspective in the revised model. It further explains how the 15 empirically sound constructs identified by Catalano et al. and used in a positive youth development program, the Project P.A.T.H.S., relate generally to the components of the revised model to formulate an integrated positive youth development conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescent drug use. Theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations and recommendations are discussed.

  13. Specialist prescribing of psychotropic drugs to older persons in Sweden - a register-based study of 188 024 older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinsson Gunilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The situation for older persons with mental disorders other than dementia disorders has scarcely been studied. The older population is increasing worldwide and along with this increase the prevalence of mental disorders will also rise. The treatment of older persons with mental disorders entails complex challenges, with drugs constituting the major medical treatment. Knowledge of geriatric psychiatry is essential for providing older persons with appropriate treatment and care. This study aimed to evaluate the prescription of drugs for mental disorders to older persons (≥65 in Sweden, focused on the medical specialties of the prescribing physicians. Methods Data concerning drug treatment for older persons from 2006 to 2008 was gathered from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Mental disorders, defined as affective, psychotic and anxiety disorders (ICD-10 F20-42 were evaluated in order to identify associated drugs. Included was a total of 188 024 older individuals, who collectively filled 2 013 079 prescriptions for the treatment of mental disorders. Descriptive analyses were performed, including frequency distribution and 95% CI. The competence of the prescribers was analyzed by subdividing them into five groups: geriatricians, psychiatrists, general practitioners (GPs, other specialists, and physicians without specialist education. Results GPs represented the main prescribers, whereas geriatricians and psychiatrists rarely prescribed drugs to older persons. Benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were the most commonly prescribed drugs. Women were prescribed drugs from geriatricians and psychiatrists to a greater extent than men. Conclusions This study examined the prescription of psychotropic drugs to older persons. Physicians specialized in older persons’ disorders and mental health were rarely the prescribers of these drugs. Contrary to clinical guidelines, benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were

  14. Psychotropic drug prescription in nursing home patients with dementia : influence of environmental correlates and staff distress on physicians' prescription behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, Sytse U; de Jonghe, Jos F M; Verhey, Frans R J; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine whether staff distress and aspects of the nursing home environment were associated with psychotropic drug use (PDU) in patients with dementia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 1289 nursing home patients with dementia from 56 Dementia Specia

  15. Use and Cost of Psychotropic Drugs among Recipients with Autism in a State Medicaid Fee-for-Service Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, R.; Jariwala, K.; West-Strum, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of autism in the USA in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to provide recent estimates of psychotropic drug use and costs among individuals with autism enrolled in the Medicaid programme. Method: A cross-sectional analysis of 2007 Mississippi (MS) Medicaid…

  16. [Autonomy attitudes in the treatment compliance of a cohort of subjects with continuous psychotropic drug administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, M; Trincard, M

    2002-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs are part of a general practitioner's daily routine. As with all drugs, they need to be controlled by a phenomenon of observance. Respecting prescriptions is in fact a major public health concern. Our problematic is centred on the analysis of the association between observance and autonomy in order to gain a better understanding of the links between the drug, how it is to be taken, and how the patients adapt and control it. Identifying and comparing autonomous practices psychotrope users associated with attitudes put into play by those who claim to observe or not to observe their treatment is the aim of this project. The qualitative analysis of the speech is based on the categorial analysis of the contents of 46 transcriptions of 23 women et 23 men continuous (regular monthly intake for at least 5 years), aged between 50 and 65. The majority live in couples, have professional activities, and are executives. The psychotropes with the largest consumption are: anxiolytics and antidepressors. The average duration of their consumption is more than 17 years. Two types of attitude can be distinguished through the qualitative analyse. The attitudes of non-observers towards the psychotropic drug and dependence show controlled, autonomous acts. Autonomy is an influencing factor in their observation of the prescribed treatment, it is a major component of their non-observance regarding psychotropes; thus our hypothesis is confirmed. The strategy adopted around the medication arises from autonomy of action. Organising the treatment is seen as a sign of autonomy, as taking an initiative in relation to the medical prescription, and not as rebellious, or carefree behaviour, or as a sign of inconsistency. Non-observers seem more to be involved in a step towards self-regulation. Active taking verbs such as stop, diminish, increase , and success verbs succeed the I is greatly used, reinforced in some cases by myself ; this vocabulary situates the

  17. The use of psychotropic substances among students: The prevalence, factor association, and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Fadhilah bt Mamat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This detailed review analyzed the previously published studies related to the prevalence of psychotropic substances use, associated factors, and the misuse of the psychotropics among students. A comprehensive literature search covering six databases was performed. References from published articles and reports were extracted. This helped in identifying the available information on the use of psychotropic drugs. A total of 16 articles were included in this review. There is an upsurge of using psychotropics with the preceding years. More students are exposed to the risk of using psychotropic substances due to the multiple factors like stress, increased academic workload, etc. The misuse is found to be common with prescribed psychotropic substances. Students need to be aware of the bad outcomes of using psychotropic substances. Participation of every stakeholder to curb this menace needs to be emphasized. More extensive studies are required to know about the increasing prevalence, factors, and misuse of psychotropics.

  18. The significance of pharmacodynamic measurements in the assessment of bioavailability and bioequivalence of psychotropic drugs using CEEG and dynamic brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Itil, K Z

    1986-09-01

    There are a variety of problems in evaluating the bioavailability of psychotropic drugs. Psychotropics have many metabolites; there are discrepancies between peripheral plasma levels and therapeutic effects, and psychotropics must penetrate the blood-brain barrier to have an effect on their target organ. Therefore, "classical" pharmacokinetic evaluation may not be sufficient to determine the bioavailability and bioequivalence of these drugs. Additional and more precise information may be obtained by adding pharmacodynamic procedures to these evaluations. Quantitative pharmaco-EEG (QPEEG), which uses the computer-analyzed electroencephalogram (CEEG), may be the method of choice for determining the pharmacodynamic profiles of psychotropic drugs at the central nervous system (CNS) level. The difficulties in evaluating the bioavailability of psychotropics, as well as the results of several studies that confirm the significance of CEEG as a pharmacodynamic measure, are discussed.

  19. Psychotropics and weak opioid analgesics in plasma samples of older hip fracture patients - detection frequencies and consistency with drug records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waade, Ragnhild Birkeland; Molden, Espen; Martinsen, Mette Irene; Hermann, Monica; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2017-07-01

    To determine use of psychotropic drugs and weak opioids in hip fracture patients by analysing plasma samples at admission, and compare detected drug frequencies with prescription registry data and drug records. Plasma from 250 hip fracture patients aged ≥65 years sampled at hospital admission were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for detection of psychotropic drugs and weak opioid analgesics (alcohol also determined). Odds ratios for drugs detected in plasma of hip fracture patients vs. prescription frequencies of the same drugs in an age-, time- and region-matched reference population were calculated. Moreover, recorded and measured drugs were compared. Psychotropic drugs and/or weak opioid analgesics were detected in 158 (63%) of the patients (median age 84 years; 76% females), while alcohol was found in 19 patients (7.6%). The occurrence of diazepam (odds ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.4), nitrazepam (2.3; 1.3-4.1), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (1.9; 1.3-2.9) and mirtazapine (2.3; 1.2-4.3) was significantly higher in plasma samples of hip fracture patients than in prescription data from the reference population. Poor consistency between recorded and measured drugs was disclosed for z-hypnotics and benzodiazepines; e.g. diazepam was detected in 29 (11.6%), but only recorded in six (2.4%) of the patients. Plasma analysis shows that use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines in hip fracture patients is significantly more frequent than respective prescription frequencies in the general elderly population. Moreover, consistency between recorded and actual use of psychotropic fall-risk drugs is poor at hospital admission of hip fracture patients. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Sexual dysfunction related to psychotropic drugs: a critical review. Part III: mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, A; Giupponi, G; Duffy, D M; Pompili, M; Grözinger, M; Kapfhammer, H P; Conca, A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a potential side effect of mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs: this article presents a critical review of the current literature. Although many studies have been published on sexual side effects of psychopharmacological treatment, only a minority relate to mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs. Most of these studies are not methodologically robust, few are RCTs and most did not use a validated rating scale to evaluate sexual functioning. In addition, many of the studies on sexual dysfunction associated with mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs are limited by other methodological flaws. While there is evidence to suggest that mood stabilizers, with some exceptions, negatively affect sexual functioning, there is still insufficient evidence to draw any clear conclusions about the effects of anxiolytic drugs on sexual function. There is some weak evidence to indicate that switching from enzyme-inducing to non-enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs, could be clinically useful. Some researchers recommend that sexual dysfunction in patients taking antiepileptic drugs should in general be treated according to standard guidelines for the management of sexual dysfunction, since reliable data on special populations is not available. However, specific approaches may be useful, but cannot yet be recommended until further validating research has been conducted. We did not find evidence supporting the use of any specific treatment strategy for sexual dysfunction associated with anxiolytic treatment. This study was conducted in 2013 using the paper and electronic resources of the library of the Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari (APSS) in Trento, Italy (http://atoz.ebsco.com/Titles/2793). The library has access to a wide range of databases including DYNAMED, MEDLINE Full Text, CINAHL Plus Full Text, The Cochrane Library, Micromedex healthcare series, BMJ Clinical Evidence. The full list of available journals can be viewed at http

  1. [Presence of psychotropic drugs in the blood of drivers responsible for car accidents, and who consumed alcohol at the same time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, C; Lacalle, H; Fryc, O

    1994-01-01

    The presence of psychotropic drugs was determined in 383 blood samples of drivers being responsible for car accidents, having taken alcohol as well. Benzodiazepines were detected in 52 cases and cannabinoids in 31 cases. The characterisation of these positive cases showed a majority of classic benzodiazepines (diazepam, nordiazepam, and bromazepam). Even if the specific role of these two families of psychotropic drugs cannot be deduced from this study, the results should make drivers more aware of the dangers of the simultaneous consumption of alcohol and psychotropes.

  2. Ion-exchange vs reversed-phase chromatography for separation and determination of basic psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, Anna; Wróblewski, Karol; Deja, Michał; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2015-11-01

    Ion exchange chromatography, an alternative to reversed-phase (RP) chromatography, is described in this paper. We aimed to obtain optimal conditions for the separation of basic drugs because silica-based RP stationary phases show silanol effect and make the analysis of basic analytes hardly possible. The retention, separation selectivity, symmetry of peaks and system efficiency were examined in different eluent systems containing different types of buffers at acidic pH and with the addition of organic modifiers: methanol and acetonitrile. The obtained results reveal a large influence of the salt cation used for buffer preparation and the type of organic modifier on the retention behavior of the analytes. These results were also compared with those obtained on an XBridge C18 column. The obtained results demonstrated that SCX stationary phases can be successfully used as alternatives to C18 stationary phases in the separation of basic compounds. The most selective and efficient chromatographic systems were applied for the quantification of some psychotropic drugs in fortified human serum samples.

  3. Access to mental health services and psychotropic drug use in refugees and asylum seekers hosted in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, M; Turrini, G; Barbui, C

    2015-10-01

    In the populations of refugees and asylum seekers hosted in high-income countries, access to mental health care and psychotropic drugs, is a major challenge. A recent Swedish cross-sectional register study has explored this phenomenon in a national cohort of 43 403 young refugees and their families from Iraq, Iran, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Afghanistan. This register study found lower rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees, as compared with Swedish-born residents, with an increase in the use with duration of residence. In this commentary, the results of this survey are discussed in view of their global policy implications for high-income countries hosting populations of refugees and asylum seekers.

  4. Duration of residence and psychotropic drug use in recently settled refugees in Sweden--a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Norredam, Marie; Hjern, Anders

    2014-12-20

    Recently settled refugee populations have consistently been reported to have high rates of mental health problems, particularly Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among young adult refugees according to duration of residence during the first 10 years in Sweden. Cross-sectional register study of a national cohort of 43 403 refugees and their families (23-35 years old) from Iraq, Iran, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Afghanistan and a comparison population of 1.1 million Swedish-born residents. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between duration of residence in Sweden and the dispensing of at least one psychotropic medication during 2009 in four categories (any drug, neuroleptics, antidepressants and anxiolytics/hypnotics), adjusting for age, gender and domicile. Rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees were low, compared to the Swedish-born, with an increase with duration of residence. For refugee men and women from Iraq/Iran who had resided for 0-3 years the adjusted ORs compared to Swedish natives, were 0.83 (95% CI 0.77-0.90) and 0.48 (0.44-0.53) respectively; for men and women from the Horn of Africa the ORs were 0.50 (0.42-0.61) and 0.36 (0.30-0.41) respectively. After 7-10 years of residence, the ORs in these refugee groups approached the Swedish comparison population. Refugees from Afghanistan presented ORs similar to the Swedish-born, with no consistent trend by duration of residence. Women from the Horn of Africa and Iraq/Iran consumed less psychotropic drugs compared with men from these regions of origin, relative to the Swedish-born (p refugee study groups, while the ORs for dispensed antidepressants differed fourfold between the group with the lowest (Horn of Africa) and the highest (Afghanistan). The rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs in the newly settled refugee populations in this study were low, with an

  5. Associations of social and material deprivation with tobacco, alcohol, and psychotropic drug use, and gender: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravaud Jean-François

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge concerning these issues may help public health policy-makers design more effective means of preventing substance abuse. Methods The sample comprised 6,216 people aged ≥ 15 years randomly selected from the population in north-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, employment, income, smoking habit, alcohol abuse and "psychotropic" drug intake (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia. A deprivation score (D was defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployed, living alone, nationality other than western European, low income, and non-home-ownership. Data were analysed using adjusted odds ratios (ORa computed with logistic models. Results Deprivation was common: 37.4% of respondents fell into category D = 1, 21.2% into D = 2, and 10.0% into D ≥ 3. More men than women reported tobacco use (30.2% vs. 21.9% and alcohol abuse (12.5% vs. 3.3%, whereas psychotropic drug use was more common among women (23.8% vs. 41.0%. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use (ORa vs. D = 0: 1.16 in D = 1, 1.49 in D = 2, and 1.93 in D ≥ 3, alcohol abuse (1.19 in D = 1, 1.32 in D = 2, and 1.80 in D ≥ 3 and frequent psychotropic drug intake (1.26 in D = 1, 1.51 in D = 2, and 1.91 in D ≥ 3. These patterns were observed in working/other non-retired men and women (except for alcohol abuse in women. Among retired people, deprivation was associated with tobacco and psychotropic drug use only in men. Conclusion Preventive measures should be designed to improve work conditions, reduce deprivation, and help deprived populations to be more aware of risk and to find remedial

  6. Social inequalities and correlates of psychotropic drug use among young adults: a population-based questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of psychotropic drugs is widespread in Europe, and is markedly more common in France than elsewhere. Young adults often fare less well than adolescents on health indicators (injury, homicide, and substance use. This population-based study assessed disparities in psychotropic drug use among people aged 18–29 from different socio-occupational groups and determined whether they were mediated by educational level, health status, income, health-related behaviours, family support, personality traits, or disability. Methods A total of 1,257 people aged 18–29, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering sex, date of birth, height, weight, educational level, occupation, smoking habit, alcohol abuse, income, health-status, diseases, reported disabilities, self-reported personality traits, family support, and frequent psychotropic medication for tiredness, nervousness/anxiety or insomnia. The data were analyzed using the adjusted odds ratios (ORa computed with logistic models. Results Use of psychotropic drugs was common (33.2%. Compared with upper/intermediate professionals, markedly high odds ratios adjusted for sex were found for manual workers (2.57, 95% CI 1.02–6.44, employees (2.58, 1.11–5.98, farmers/craftsmen/tradesmen (4.97, 1.13–21.8, students (2.40, 1.06–5.40, and housewives (3.82, 1.39–10.5. Adjusting for all the confounders considered reduced the estimates to a pronounced degree for manual workers (adjusted OR 1.49, non-significant but only slightly for the other socio-occupational groups. The odds ratio for unemployed people did not reach statistical significance. The significant confounders were: sex, not-good health status, musculoskeletal disorders and other diseases, being worried, nervous or sad, and lack of family support (adjusted odds ratios between 1.60 and 2.50. Conclusion There were marked disparities among young adults from different socio

  7. [Drug advertising as communication between the pharmaceutical industry and the physician: advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch medical journal, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 1900-1940].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the historical development of drug advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the leading Dutch medical journal from 1900 to 1940. The advertisements for hypnotics and sedatives, in The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch medical journal) reflected the changes in the vocabulary and image promoted by the pharmaceutical companies. In the first two decades, the advertisements were sober and to the point, and included the trademark, company name, molecular formula and therapeutic properties of the medication. The emphasis was on creating a scientific image of reliable symptom control for the therapeutic drug. In doing so, the ethical drug companies tried (successfully) to distinguish themselves from the producers of patent medicines. Once scientific credibility was established, the form and content of the advertisements changed significantly. In the late 1920s and 1930s drug companies embraced modern advertising techniques, developing a figurative language to address the changing beliefs and practices of Dutch physicians. Instead of promoting therapeutic drugs as safe and scientific, the emphasis was on their effectiveness in comparison to similar drugs. In the process, scientific information was reduced to an indispensable standardized minimum, whereby therapeutic drugs were advertised according to the latest pharmacological taxonomy rather than molecular formulas. The image-making of 'ethical marketing' began during the interwar years when marketers applied modern advertising techniques and infotainment strategies. The scanty black and white informational bulletins transitioned into colourful advertisements. The pharmaceutical companies employed the same medical language as used by physicians, so that one word or image in an advertisement would suffice for the physician to recognize a drug and its therapeutic properties. These developments show the changing relationship between the modern ethical pharmaceutical industry and Dutch

  8. [An analysis of advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch Journal of Psychiatry ('Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereycken, W; Kuyken, K

    2009-01-01

    Through the marketing of psychotropics the pharmaceutical industry is able to influence the way in which psychiatrists practise their profession. To look at the image of psychiatry as reflected in advertisements for psychotropics. method Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the advertisements for psychotropics in the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie between 1999 and 2006. On average 6 per cent of the total number of pages was given over annually to advertisements of psychotropics. The number of pages used for these advertisements changed over the years, with a sharp decline between 2002 and 2004. Before 2002 the majority of advertisements was for antidepressants, but later most of them were for antipsychotics. Three-quarters of the illustrations for antidepressants featured women whereas three-quarters of the illustrations for antipsychotics featured men. In general, the advertisements were of an 'emotional' nature and surprisingly few of them contained any scientific information. The advertisements for psychotropics portrayed a stereotyped image implying that it is mainly women who are depressed and mainly men who are psychotic. In its advertisements the pharmaceutical industry seeks primarily emotional reactions and uses hardly any scientific arguments. We wonder if the editorial boards of scientific journals should perhaps adopt a more critical attitude to these kinds of advertisements.

  9. Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs. Part 3: Antipsychotic, dopaminergic, and mood-stabilizing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Robert H

    2010-08-01

    Abrupt discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier, and often more severe, illness episodes than are seen with gradual discontinuation. Antipsychotic drugs can cause various abnormal motor syndromes, but abruptly stopping them has been associated with the seemingly paradoxical development of similar motor syndromes, such as withdrawal dyskinesias, parkinsonian symptoms, dystonias, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Dopamine-releasing and dopamine-agonist drugs are used to treat some of the motor syndromes caused by antipsychotic drugs, but their abrupt discontinuation can also be associated with abnormal syndromes. When antipsychotic drugs, lithium, or certain anticonvulsant drugs are used for treatment of bipolar disorder, rapid versus gradual discontinuation is more likely to lead to greater mood instability and manic relapse. If necessary, these medications should be gradually tapered to minimize all types of adverse discontinuation effects. Patients should be educated about the possible adverse effects of abrupt medication discontinuation.

  10. Identification and Treatment of Psychotropic Drug-induced Alopecia%精神药物致脱发的识别与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振晓; 于相芬

    2014-01-01

    多种精神药物可引起脱发,本文对脱发的概念、精神药物所致脱发的诊断、鉴别诊断、发病机制及处理等作一综述,以提高临床对精神药物所致脱发的认识。%A variety of psychotropic drugs can cause alopecia . In order to make a better understanding of psy-chotropic drug-induced alopecia , this article made a review on the definition of alopecia , diagnosis , differential diag-nosis , pathomechanism and the treatment of psychotropic drug-induced alopecia .

  11. [Is cocoa a psychotropic drug? Psychopathologic study of a population of subjects self-identified as chocolate addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallard, I; Cathebras, P; Sauron, C; Massoubre, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to search for eating disorders, DSM III-R Axis I mental disorders, personality disorders, and addictive behavior, in self-labeled "chocolate addicts". Subjects were recruited through advertisements placed in a university and a hospital. Fifteen subjects were included, 3 men and 12 women aged between 18 and 49. Most of them were not overweight, although 7 thought they had a weight problem. They consumed an average of 50 g per day of pure cacao and, for 13 subjects, this consumption was lasting since childhood or adolescence. The psychological effects of chocolate, as indicated by the subjects, consisted in feelings of increased energy or increased concentration ability, and in an anxiolytic effect during stress. Seven subjects described minor withdrawal symptoms. None of the subjects reached the thresholds for eating disorders on the EAT and BULIT scales. The structured interview (MINI) identified an important ratio of subjects with a history of major depressive episode (13/15), and one woman was currently experiencing a major depressive episode. Four people suffered, or had suffered from anxiety disorders. Although only one subject satisfied all criteria for a personality disorder on the DIP-Q, seven displayed some pathological personality features. The self-labeled "chocoholics" do not seem to suffer from eating disorders, but may represent a population of psychologically vulnerable and depression--or anxiety--prone people. They seem to use chocolate as a light psychotropic drug able to relieve some of their distress. The amount of cacao consumed, although very chronically, remains moderate, and they rarely display other addictive behaviors.

  12. Duration of residence and psychotropic drug use in recently settled refugees in Sweden - a register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Hjern, Anders

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently settled refugee populations have consistently been reported to have high rates of mental health problems, particularly Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among young adult refugees....... RESULTS: Rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees were low, compared to the Swedish-born, with an increase with duration of residence. For refugee men and women from Iraq/Iran who had resided for 0-3 years the adjusted ORs compared to Swedish natives, were 0.83 (95% CI 0.......77-0.90) and 0.48 (0.44-0.53) respectively; for men and women from the Horn of Africa the ORs were 0.50 (0.42-0.61) and 0.36 (0.30-0.41) respectively. After 7-10 years of residence, the ORs in these refugee groups approached the Swedish comparison population. Refugees from Afghanistan presented ORs similar...

  13. 麻醉科毒麻精神药品管理的改进与体会%Improved Drug Hemp and Experience Anesthesiology Management of Psychotropic Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 郑艳萍; 周艳

    2014-01-01

    Ensure the safe use of toxic hemp drugs is an important part of the work of drug administration in anesthesiology department. During our work, we found that there are some loopholes in administration of toxic hemp psychotropic drugs in anesthesiology department of our hospital. We propose a combination of the psychotropic drugs management experience from anesthesiology department of PLA general hospital and drug hemp content in spiritual Narcotic Drugs and Drug Regulations, to improve and perfect the regulation of anesthesiology department. The operating room nurses are united with anesthesiology nurses, to jointly manage toxic hemp medicines and ensure that every aspect of the use of psychotropic drugs is under the control of regulation, to prevent the outlfow of narcotic drugs, and to ensure that the process of psychotropic drugs use in security, legalization, standardized and orderly.%保证毒麻药品的安全使用是麻醉科药品管理工作的重要内容之一,在工作中发现我院麻醉科毒麻精神药品管理存在一些漏洞。现将解放军总医院麻醉科毒麻精神药品的管理经验与《麻醉药品精神药品管理条例》内容相结合,对我院麻醉科的管理制度进行改进与完善,联合麻醉科护士与手术室护士共同对毒麻药品进行管理,确保毒麻药品精神药品每个使用环节都有监管,杜绝麻醉药品外流。保证毒麻精神药品使用过程中的安全性、合法化、规范化、有序化。

  14. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Maria A; Coll-Negre, Montserrat; Coll-de-Tuero, Gabriel; Saez, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis. In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012) was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined 'selection on observables' as (propensity scoring) matching and 'selection on unobservables' as (random coefficient) the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework. In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009), there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD), with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis. Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis.

  15. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  16. 精神药物所致咳嗽的识别与处理%Identification and Treatment of Psychotropic Drug-induced Cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于相芬; 孙振晓

    2014-01-01

    Many psychotropic drugs could cause cough which may have no typical symptoms and is difficult to distinguish at an early stage. In order to make a better understanding of psychotropic drug-induced cough, this article made a review on the definition and causes of cough, and the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathomechanism and management of psychotropic drug-induced cough. Clinicians should strengthen the ability of discrimination and treatment of cough induced by psychotropic drugs.%多种精神药物可引起咳嗽,且表现无典型特征,早期难以发现。本文对咳嗽的定义及原因、精神药物所致咳嗽的诊断、鉴别诊断、发病机制及处理等作一综述。临床应加强对精神药物引起的咳嗽进行识别和处理。

  17. Fast quantification of ten psychotropic drugs and metabolites in human plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermot, Nicolas; Brawand-Amey, Marlyse; Kottelat, Astrid; Eap, Chin B

    2013-05-31

    A sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for the fast quantification of ten psychotropic drugs and metabolites in human plasma for the needs of our laboratory (amisulpride, asenapine, desmethyl-mirtazapine, iloperidone, mirtazapine, norquetiapine, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine and risperidone). Stable isotope-labeled internal standards were used for all analytes, to compensate for the global method variability, including extraction and ionization variations. Sample preparation was performed by generic protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved in less than 3.0min on an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column (2.1mm×50mm; 1.7μm), using a gradient elution of 10mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3.0 and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The compounds were quantified on a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization mode, using multiple reaction monitoring. The method was fully validated according to the latest recommendations of international guidelines. Eight point calibration curves were used to cover a large concentration range 0.5-200ng/ml for asenapine, desmethyl-mirtazapine, iloperidone, mirtazapine, olanzapine, paliperidone and risperidone, and 1-1500ng/ml for amisulpride, norquetiapine and quetiapine. Good quantitative performances were achieved in terms of trueness (93.1-111.2%), repeatability (1.3-8.6%) and intermediate precision (1.8-11.5%). Internal standard-normalized matrix effects ranged between 95 and 105%, with a variability never exceeding 6%. The accuracy profiles (total error) were included in the acceptance limits of ±30% for biological samples. This method is therefore suitable for both therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies.

  18. A Review of Brugada Electrocardiogram Patterns and Brugada Syndrome Induced by Psychotropic Drugs%精神药物致Brugada波及Brugada综合征综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振晓; 于相芬

    2015-01-01

    Brugada syndrome is an ion channel disease closely associated with sudden cardiac death. Psy-chotropic drugs could induce Brugada electrocardiogram patterns and Brugada syndrome at routine dose or over-dose. In order to make a better understanding of psychotropic drug-induced Brugada electrocardiogram patterns and Brugada syndrome in clinical practice,this article made a review on the definition of Brugada electrocardiogram patterns and Brugada syndrome,diagnosis,differential diagnosis,pathomechanism and the treatment of psychotrop-ic drug-induced Brugada electrocardiogram patterns and Brugada syndrome.%Brugada综合征是一种与心脏性猝死密切相关的离子通道疾病。精神药物在常规或过量使用时,可引起心电图Brugada波及Brugada综合征。为提高临床医生的认识,对Brugada波与Brugada综合征的概念、精神药物所致Brugada波及Brugada综合征的诊断、鉴别诊断、病理生理机制及处理等作一综述。

  19. Psychopharmacoteratophobia: Excessive fear of malformation associated with prescribing psychotropic drugs during pregnancy: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushad Ram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Psychopharmacoteratophobia is the fear or avoidance of prescribing psychotropic medicine to a pregnant woman on a given indication in anticipation of fetal malformation." It is rooted in the tragedy associated with thalidomide use and is increasing due to the inability to predict accurately, strict legal provision of consumer protection, ethical and legal issues involved, and pitfalls in the available evidence of teratogenicity. In the Indian setting, the physicians face more challenges as the majority of the patients may ask them to decide, what is the best for their health. Most guidelines emphasize more on what not to do than what to do, and the locus of decision is left to the doctor and the patient. In this review, we have focused on relevant issues related to psychopharmacoteraophobia that may be helpful to understand this phenomenon and help to address the deprivation of a mentally ill woman from the required treatment.

  20. Determination of some psychotropic drugs in serum and saliva samples by HPLC-DAD and HPLC MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, A; Wróblewski, K; Szultka-Młyńska, M; Buszewski, B; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, H; Gajewski, J; Morylowska-Topolska, J; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M

    2016-08-05

    A simple, rapid and sensitive HPLC-DAD method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven psychotropic drugs (risperidone, citalopram, clozapine,quetiapine, levomepromazine, perazine and aripiprazole) in human serum or saliva samples. The chromatographic analyses were performed on a XSELECT CSH Phenyl-Hexyl column with a mobile phase containing methanol, acetate buffer at pH 3.5 and 0.025mL(-1) diethylamine. The influence of concentration of methanol in injection samples and injection volume on peak symmetry and system efficiency was examined.The full separation of all investigated drugs, good peaks' symmetry and simultaneously high systems efficiency were obtained in applied chromatographic system. The method is suitable for the analysis of investigated drugs in human plasma or saliva for psychiatric patients for control of pharmacotherapy, particularly in combination therapy. HPLC-MS was applied for verification of the presence of drugs and their metabolites in serum and saliva samples from patients.

  1. Effect of chromatographic conditions on retention behavior and system efficiency for HPTLC of selected psychotropic drugs on chemically bonded stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, Anna; Wróblewski, Karol; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Selected psychotropic drug standards have been chromatographed on RP18, CN and diol layers with a variety of aqueous and nonaqueous mobile phases. The effect of buffers at acidic or basic pH, acetic acid, ammonia and diethylamine (DEA) in aqueous mobile phases on retention, efficiency and peak symmetry was examined. Improved peak symmetry and separation selectivity for investigated compounds were observed when ammonia or DEA were used as mobile phase additives. The effect of diethylamine concentration in aqueous eluents on retention, peak symmetry and theoretical plate number obtained on CN plates was also investigated. Because of the strong retention of these basic drugs on stationary phases bonded on silica matrix, nonaqueous eluents containing medium polar diluents, strongly polar modifiers and silanol blockers (ammonia or diethylamine) were applied. Aqueous and nonaqueous eluent systems with the best selectivity and efficiency were used for separate psychotropic drug standards' mixture on CN layer by 2D TLC.

  2. Use of psychotropic drugs before pregnancy and the risk for induced abortion: population-based register-data from Finland 1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritvanen Annukka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some, though not all studies have reported an increased risk for mental health problems after an induced abortion. Problems with design and data have compromised these studies and the generalisation of their results. Methods The Finnish Medication and Pregnancy database (N = 622 671 births and 114 518 induced abortions for other than fetal reasons in 1996-2006 was utilised to study the use of psychotropic drugs in the three months before a pregnancy ending in a birth or an induced abortion. Results In total 2.1% of women with a birth and 5.1% of women with an induced abortion had used a psychotropic medicine 0-3 months before pregnancy. Psychotropic drug users terminated their pregnancies (30.9% more often than other pregnant women (15.5%. Adjustment for background characteristics explained one third of this elevated risk, but the risk remained significantly increased among users of psychotropic medicine (OR 1.94, 95% confidence intervals 1.87-2.02. A similar risk was found for first pregnancies (30.1% vs. 18.9%; adjusted OR 1.53, 95% confidence intervals 1.42-1.65. The rate for terminating pregnancy was the highest for women using hypnotics and sedatives (35.6% for all pregnancies and 29.1% for first pregnancies, followed by antipsychotics (33.9% and 36.0% and antidepressants (32.0% and 32.1%. Conclusions The observed increased risk for induced abortion among women with psychotropic medication highlighs the importance to acknowledge the mental health needs of women seeking an induced abortion. Further studies are needed to establish the impact of pre-existing differences in mental health on mental health outcomes of induced abortions compared to outcomes of pregnancies ending in a birth.

  3. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Barceló

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis.In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012 was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined 'selection on observables' as (propensity scoring matching and 'selection on unobservables' as (random coefficient the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework.In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009, there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD, with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis.Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis.

  4. Rapid determination of some psychotropic drugs in complex matrices by tandem dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Alireza; Fahimi, Ebrahim; Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Boutorabi, Leila

    2017-03-15

    Simple and rapid determinations of some psychotropic drugs in some pharmaceutical wastewater and human plasma samples were successfully accomplished via the tandem dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (TDLLME-HPLC-UV). TDLLME of the three psychotropic drugs clozapine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine was easily performed through two consecutive dispersive liquid-liquid microextractions. By performing this convenient method, proper sample preconcentrations and clean-ups were achieved in just about 7min. In order to achieve the best extraction efficiency, the effective parameters involved were optimized. The optimal experimental conditions consisted of 100μL of CCl4 (as the extraction organic solvent), and the pH values of 13 and 2 for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively. Under these optimum experimental conditions, the proposed TDLLME-HPLC-UV technique provided a good linearity in the range of 5-3000ngmL(-1) for the three psychotropic drugs with the correlation of determinations (R(2)s) higher than 0.996. The limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) obtained were 5.0ngmL(-1) and 1.0-1.5ngmL(-1), respectively. Also the proper enrichment factors (EFs) of 96, 99, and 88 for clozapine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine, respectively, and good extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations below 9.3%, n=5) were obtained.

  5. The role of serendipity in the discovery of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs: beyond of the myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Baumeister, Alan A; Hawkins, Mike F; Alamo, Cecilio

    2012-01-01

    The serendipity is the faculty for making a discovery through a combination of accident and sagacity. In psychopharmacology, the serendipity played a key role in the discovery of many psychotropic drugs, although there are marked disputes in this regard, possibly due to semantic differences in relation to the meaning of this term. We have implemented an operational definition of serendipity based on the discovery of something unexpected or not sought intentionally, irrespective of the systematic process leading to the accidental observation. The present paper analyses some representative examples of discoveries in the field of psychopharmacology according to different serendipitous intervention patterns. Following this approach there would be four different imputability patterns: pure serendipitous discoveries (valproic acid/valproate); serendipitous observation leading to a non-serendipitous discoveries (imipramine); non-serendipitous discoveries secondarily associated with serendipitous observation (barbiturates); non-serendipitous discoveries (haloperidol). We can conclude that pure serendipitous discoveries in this field are not very frequent, most common being a mixed pattern; an initial serendipitous observation which leads to a non-serendipitous discovery of clinical utility. This is the case of imipramine, lithium salts, chlorpromazine or meprobamate.

  6. [Comparison of behavioral effects of fluoxetine, imipramine and new psychotropic drug TC-2153 on mice with hereditary predisposition to catalepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, E A; Tikhonova, M A; Volcho, K P; Khomenko, T M; Salakhutdinov, N F; Kulikov, A V; Popova, N K

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral effects of classic antidepressants, fluoxetine and imipramine, and new psychotropic benzopentathiepin TC-2153 (20 mg/kg, per os) were studied on mice differing in the predisposition to catalepsy-noncataleptic AKR strain and cataleptic strains CBA and AKR.CBA-D13Mit76 (D13). Mice of D13 strain was created by transferring the CBA-allele of major locus of catalepsy to AKR genome. In the forced swim test (FST) fluoxetine showed antidepressant effect on mice of all three strains, imipramine was effective only in D13 mice, while TC-2153 produced antidepressant effect on AKR and D13 mice. Unlike to imipramine and fluoxetine, TC-2153 did not produce negative side effects in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests. Thus, TC-2153 produces antidepressant effects similar to imipramine and fluoxetine, without any visible negative side effect on locomotory activity and anxiety. The D13 mice in the FST showed high sensitivity to the studied drugs in comparison to the parent strains and can be used as new genetic model for investigation of the mechanism of antidepressant effects.

  7. Development of a classification rule for four clinical therapeutic psychotropic drug classes with EEG power-spectrum variables of human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, W M; Fichte, K; Itil, T M; Kubicki, S

    1979-01-01

    An objective rule for the classification of psychotropic substances has been developed. Classification is based on data from five basic studies simultaneously designed and performed and involving 75 healthy volunteers who ingested 20 different psychotropic drugs and 5 placebos in single oral dosages. Each volunteer took one psychostimulant, one antidepressant, one neuroleptic, one minor tranquilizer and one placebo in a double-blind Latin square cross-over design. The variables were 6 frequency bands, based on power spectrum estimates and determined by factor analysis, plus total power in the 1.5-30.0 Hz range. An objective classification rule was established by multi-group (5 groups) linear discriminant analysis. Reclassification of the substances by the new rule yielded correct results for 17 out of 20 psychotropic drugs and 4 out of 5 placebos. Of placebos from various studies not used for the establishment of the classification rule, 7/9 were classified correctly. The validity of the rule for other classes of substances will have to be verified in independent studies.

  8. 78 FR 9397 - International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; World Health Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... recommendations on control measures it may find appropriate in the light of that assessment. The Commission... December 2012 to the Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, c/o...

  9. Screening and Confirmation of Psychotropic Drugs in Blood and Urine by HPLCLTQ Orbitrap MS%HPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS对血液、尿液中精神药品的筛选及确证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓雯; 沈保华; 江峥; 卓先义

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a screening and confirmation method for psychotropic drugs and their metabolites in human blood and urine by HPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS. Methods The samples were pretreated with Sirocco? Protein precipitation plate, and then analyzed by HPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS. The method was validated in terms of the limit of detection (LOD). An accurate mass database was created for psychotropic drugs screening. Results The LOD for most of 56 determined compounds was ≤0.1 ng/mL. The accurate mass database included the accurate mass information of 61 psychotropic drugs. Conclusion The method is accurate, rapid, sensitive and the database is suitable for psychotropic drugs screening and confirmation.%目的 利用高效液相色谱-质谱联用(HPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS)技术建立准确、快速筛选和确证血液、尿液中精神药品及其代谢物的方法.方法 采用蛋白沉淀板处理样品,通过HPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS 对血液、尿液中的精神药品及其代谢物共56种化合物进行分离和检测,并考察其在血液和尿液中的最低检测限.建立精神药品精确相对分子质量数据库. 结果 所测定的56种化合物绝大部分最低检测限≤0.1 ng/mL.建立了包含精神药品及其代谢物共61种化合物的精确相对分子质量数据库.结论 建立的方法准确、快速、灵敏度高,结合精确相对分子质量数据库,可应用于实际案例中精神药品的筛选和确证.

  10. The action of psychotropic drugs on DOPA induced behavioural responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, H; Leonard, B E; Rigter, H

    1976-01-01

    The "DOPA potentiation" test in mice was investigated for its usefulness in the detection of compounds with antidepressant properties. It was found that the anti-depressant drugs imipramine, amitriptyline, 5-methylamino-acetyl-6-methyl-5,6-dihydro-phenanthridine-HCl (Org OI77) and 1,2,3,4,10,14b-hexahydro-2-methyl-dibenzo[c,f]pyrazino[1,2-a]azepine-HCl (mianserin, Org GB 94) potentiated the behavioural effect of DOPA in groups of mice which had been treated 17 h previously with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) iproniazid. However, the DOPA response was also potentiated by a variety of centrally acting drugs which do not have antidepressant properties (atropine, methysergide, chlordiazepoxide, apomorphine). The peptide hormones ACTH4-10 and desglycinamide lysine vasopressin had equivocal effects while melanocyte stimulating hormone release-inhibiting factor (MIF) had no effect on the DOPA response. The DOPA response was inhibited by the neuroleptics chlorpromazine and haloperidol. There appeared to be no correlation between the effects of the drugs on the behavioural responses elicited by DOPA and the changes found in the brain concentration of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, tryptophan and tyrosine. It is concluded that the "DOPA potentiation" test cannot be considered as a reliable test in the detection of anti-depressant compounds.

  11. Comparison of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and psychotropic drug treatments among old people in geriatric care in 2000 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve; Karlsson, Stig; Sandman, Per-Olof

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms, such as verbal or physical aggression, aberrant motor behaviors, psychotic symptoms, anxiety, depressive symptoms and apathy are common among people with dementia. The aim of the present study was to compare the one-week prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug treatment among people with cognitive impairment living in institutional care, in two large, comparable samples from 2000 and 2007. A comparison was made between two cross-sectional samples, collected in 2000 and 2007, comprising 4054 participants with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. The Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS) was used to assess cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms. The use of psychotropic drugs was recorded. Between 2000 and 2007, 15 out of 39 behavioral or psychological symptoms had become less common and no symptoms had become more common, after controlling for demographic changes. Four out of six behaviors within the cluster of aggressive behaviors had declined in prevalence. Patients prescribed anti-dementia drugs increased from 5.1% to 18.0% and antidepressant drug use increased from 43.2% to 49.1%, while anxiolytic, hypnotic, sedative and antipsychotic drug use remained largely unchanged. The prevalence of many behavioral symptoms had declined from 2000 to 2007, and among these changes, the decline in aggressive behaviors probably has the greatest clinical impact.

  12. Drug utilization study of psychotropic drugs in outdoor patients in a tertiary care hospital attached with a medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan Madhusudan Doshi

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Overall, the drugs were prescribed rationally. Benzodiazepine should be prescribed only for short-term duration. Use of central acting anticholinergic drugs with all antipsychotic drugs was not justified. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1220-1223

  13. Psychotropic Polypharmacy in Patients with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Ane; Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Gasse, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    classes (psychotropic polypharmacy) may also pose a risk for patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with use of psychotropic polypharmacy in patients with dementia. METHODS: A population-based study using nationwide registers. Patients with dementia were identified......,403) used at least one other psychotropic drug during the antipsychotic treatment period. Nursing home residency, number of non-psychotropic medications used in 2011, and prior psychiatric diagnosis were associated with psychotropic polypharmacy among antipsychotic drug users. The most frequent combination...... cause adverse events, and potential consequences for patients' safety call for further investigation....

  14. Dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the use of psychotropic drugs among older people who receive domiciliary care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergeland, Jon N; Selbæk, Geir; Høgset, Lisbeth D; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Kirkevold, Øyvind

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to (a) determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment, dementia, and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) among home-dwelling people, 70 years and older (70+ years), who receive domiciliary care, and (b) describe their use of psychotropic drugs. Few studies have investigated dementia among people receiving in-home care. A sample (N = 1,000) representative of people aged 70+ years receiving domiciliary care was randomly recruited for participation. A standardized interview with the participants and their next of kin were performed using well-established assessment scales. Two clinical experts independently diagnosed dementia according to ICD-10 criteria. Of the 415 participants (41.5%) with dementia according to ICD-10 criteria, 19.5% had a dementia diagnosis known to the patient themselves, their caregiver, or health workers in the domiciliary care service. In the previous month, 72.1% exhibited NPSs (21.1% rated as clinically significant), with depression (47.5%), apathy (33.7%), anxiety (33.0%), and irritability (31.1%) being the most common. Psychotropic drugs were regularly used by 40.1% of the sample. Antidepressants (p = 0.001) and cognitive enhancers (p dementia than to those without dementia. Dementia and NPSs are highly prevalent among people who receive domiciliary care, and diagnostic disclosure is low. People with dementia constitute a distinct group with respect to NPSs and psychotropic drug use. Early detection and correct diagnosis might increase the understanding of their everyday challenges and enable families to alleviate consequences of dementia and NPSs.

  15. 精神药物所致口吃的识别与处理%Identification and treatment of psychotropic drug-induced mental stuttering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付云婕

    2015-01-01

    Stuttering was a rare adverse reactions of psychotropic substances,in order to raise awareness of clinicians,the definition and classification of stuttering,diagnosis of drug-induced stuttering,pathogenesis and treatment were reviewed by this paper.%口吃是精神药物罕见的不良反应,为了提高临床医师的认识,本文对口吃的定义及分类、精神药物所致口吃的诊断、发病机制及处理等作一综述。

  16. Selective electrochemical discrimination between dopamine and phenethylamine-derived psychotropic drugs using electrodes modified with an acyclic receptor containing two terminal 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazole rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech, Antonio; Navarro, Pilar; Arán, Vicente J; Muro, Beatriz; Montoya, Noemí; García-España, Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Electrochemical discrimination between dopamine and psychotropic drugs which have in common a skeletal structure of phenethylamine, can be obtained using acyclic receptors L(1) and L(2), containing two terminal 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazole rings. Upon attachment to graphite electrodes, L(1) and L(2) exhibit a well-defined, essentially reversible solid state electrochemistry in contact with aqueous media, based on electrolyte-assisted reduction processes involving successive cation and anion insertion/binding. As a result, a distinctive, essentially Nernstian electrochemical response is obtained for phenethylammonium ions of methamphetamine (METH), p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), amphetamine (AMPH), mescaline (MES), homoveratrylamine (HOM), phenethylamine (PEA) and dopamine (DA) in aqueous media.

  17. Interaction of bovine serum albumin with a psychotropic drug alprazolam: Physicochemical, photophysical and molecular docking studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Moumita; Paul, Shiv Shankar; Mukherjea, Kalyan K., E-mail: k_mukherjea@yahoo.com

    2013-10-15

    The interaction between alprazolam (Alp) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated under physiological conditions by UV–vis, steady state as well as time-resolved fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic and molecular docking studies. The binding constant K of Alp to BSA was found to be 1.8×10{sup 5} L mol{sup −1} from absorption data. Fluorometric studies suggested the formation of the Alp–BSA complex, while time-resolved fluorescence studies showed that the binding of Alp by BSA was mainly static and the effective rate constant is found to be 2.33×10{sup 13} L mol{sup −1} s{sup −1}. According to the modified Stern–Volmer equation, the Stern–Volmer quenching constants (K{sub SV}) between Alp and BSA at four different temperatures 295, 303, 308, 313 K were obtained to be 1.19×10{sup 5}, 1.05×10{sup 5}, 0.99×10{sup 5} and 0.90×10{sup 5} L mol{sup −1}, respectively. The change in enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were calculated to be −11.66 and 57.64 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}, respectively, indicating that the interaction was hydrophobic in nature. Site marker competitive experiments suggested that the binding of Alp to BSA primarily took place in sub-domain IIA, whereas the binding distance (r) between Alp and the tryptophan residue of BSA was obtained to be 1.87 nm by Förster's theory of non-radiative energy transfer. The conformational studies by CD spectroscopy showed that the presence of Alp decreased the α-helical content of BSA and induced the unfolding of the polypeptide of the protein. The change in conformation was also supported by excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) studies. The molecular docking experiment supports the above results and effectively proves the binding of Alp to BSA. -- Highlights: • Alprazolam: a benzodiazepine drug with anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties. • Alprazolam induces conformational change on the native as well as urea denatured BSA. • Alprazolam may

  18. Gender differences and psychotropic polypharmacy in psychiatric patients in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis of the PESSOAS Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Ceccato, Maria das Graças Braga; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2017-05-18

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic polypharmacy in Brazilian psychiatric patients by gender. Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical data were obtained through face-to-face interviews and medical charts of 2,475 patients. Psychotropic polypharmacy was defined as the use of two or more psychotropic drugs and occurred in 85.7% of men (95%CI: 83.6%-87.6%) and 84.9% of women (95%CI: 82.8%-86.8%; p > 0.05). The mean number of psychotropic drugs/patient was 2.98 ± 1.23 and most common combinations included antipsychotics. Multivariate analysis showed that for both genders, previous hospitalization, severe mental illness, multiple psychiatric diagnoses and an insufficient number of professionals in the health care unit was associated with psychotropic polypharmacy. However, other correlates such as inpatient care, use of non-psychotropic drugs, living in unstable conditions and current smoking vary among them. Psychotropic polypharmacy was a common practice in this national sample. The results highlighted the need for national guidelines to manage patients with mental illness, considering the difference among genders and disease severity, to reduce the burden of polyphamacy in this population.

  19. Comparison between two household surveys on psychotropic drug use in Brazil: 2001 and 2004 O uso de drogas no Brasil: comparação de dois levantamentos domiciliares: 2001 e 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arilton Martins Fonseca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available CEBRID (Brazilian Center of Information on Psychotropic Drugs conducted two household surveys on drug use in Brazil, the first in 2001 and the second in 2005, making it possible for researchers, for the first time ever, to have a timeline comparison using this type of methodology. The universe studied corresponded to the Brazilian population living in 107 Brazilian cities with more than 200.00 inhabitants. 8,589 people were interviewed in the first survey in 2001, and 7,939 people in the second. Data on prevalence of lifetime use for psychotropic drugs showed that there was a significant increase only in the number of people who had made lifetime use of psychotropic substances (including tobacco and alcohol. In 2001, 19.4% of the interviewees reported having used some type of drug, and the ranking of lifetime drug use in 2004 was 22.8%, a statistically significant increase. There was also a statistically significant increase in lifetime use of alcohol and tobacco in comparison between the two surveys.O CEBRID realizou duas pesquisas domiciliares sobre drogas no Brasil, uma em 2001 e uma em 2004, permitindo, pela primeira vez, uma comparação usando a mesma metodologia. O universo estudado correspondeu à população brasileira que vive nas 107 cidades brasileiras com mais de 200.00 habitantes. 8,589 pessoas foram entrevistadas na primeira pesquisa realizada em 2001 e 7,939 pessoas, na segunda. Os dados sobre a prevalência mostraram que houve um aumento significativo do uso na vida de drogas psicotrópicas (inclusive para o tabaco e o álcool. Em 2001, 19,4% dos entrevistados relataram ter usado algum tipo de droga e, em 2004, foi 22,8% de uso na vida de drogas, um aumento estatisticamente significativo. Verificou-se também um aumento estatisticamente significativo no uso na vida de álcool e tabaco na comparação entre os dois levantamentos.

  20. 293例二类精神药品门诊处方分析%The analysis of 293 cases outpatient prescriptions of the second category of psychotropic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟民

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the utilization status of the second-class psychotropic drugs among 293 subjects so as to provide references for their clinical rational use. Methods All the outpatient prescriptions of the second category of psychotropic drugs between January 2012 and March 2012 were provided by the First Hospital Affiliated to Henan University of Science & Technology. The psychotropic prescriptions statistics was performed according to sex and age range. The psychotropic drug continuous consumption was analyzed. The frequency of drug use(DDDs) and drug use index(DUI) were calculated and analyzed. Results Among 293 cases outpatient prescriptions of the second category of psychotropic substances, DUI of 5 drugs was not more than 1.0, DUI of 1 drug was slightly larger than 1.0; the Frequency of drug use for old patients more than 60 years was higher than that of most other patients. The drug use time of these old patients was longer than others. Conclusions The clinical use of 293 cases second category of psychotropic drugs was basic rational, but the drug use time of some old patients was too long, some of them showed drug abuse and psychotropic dependence, this status should attract the clinicians' attention.%  目的分析评价我院293例二类精神药品的使用情况,为精神药品的临床合理用药提供参考.方法选取河南科技大学第一附属医院2012年1-3月份门诊精神药品处方,按性别及年龄区间的处方数和连续用药情况等进行统计,并对各药的用药频度(DDDs)和药物利用指数(DUI)进行分析.结果在293例第二类精神药品中,5种药品的DUI小于1.0,有1种大于1.0;大于60岁的患者使用率高,连续用药时间也较长.结论我院二类精神药品使用基本合理,但一部分老年患者连续用药过长,呈现滥用甚至出现精神依赖性情况,应引起临床医师的高度重视.

  1. 我院出院患者口服二类精神药品处方分析%Analysis of Oral Second Kind Psychotropic Drugs Prescription in Our Hospital Patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯燕

    2013-01-01

    目的分析我院出院患者口服二类精神药品使用是否合理。方法以我院出院患者的口服精神药品处方为依据,采用限定日剂量(DDD)和药物利用指数为指标对其进行调查和分析。结果随机抽查的7种口服二类精神药品其药物利用指数DUI<1.00。结论我院住院部临床医生对口服二类精神药品的用法、用量和疗程的掌握较好,使用合理。%Objective To analyse the rationality of oral second kind psychotropic drugs in our hospital patients. Methods On the basis of oral psychotropic drugs prescription, Using defined daily dose (DDD) and drug utilization index as indicators for investigation and analysis. Results Random checks of 7 kinds of oral second kind psychotropic drugs, the drug utilization index less than 1.0. Conclusion The usage, dosage and treatment course of the oral second kind psychotropic drugs are bet er and reasonable in our hospital.

  2. Psychotropics in different causes of itch: systematic review with controlled studies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasileiro, Lízie Emanuelle Eulalio; Barreto, Dayanna Patrícia de Carvalho; Nunes, Emerson Arcoverde

    2016-01-01

    Among the wide range of symptoms neglected or resistant to conventional treatments in clinical practice, itch is emerging gradually as a theme to be studied. Itch complaints and the negative effects in the quality of life are observed in several medical fields. Although the partially obscure pathophysiology, some researchers decided to check and test the use of psychotropic drugs in resistant itch to conventional topical treatments and antihistamines. The objective of this study was to evaluate scientific evidence in psychotropic use in the treatment of itch of various causes. This is a systematic review of scientific literature. The following databases were used: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Scielo. Randomized controlled trials that should focus on treatment with psychotropic drugs of pruritus of various causes were the inclusion criteria. All articles were analyzed by the authors, and the consensus was reached in cases of disagreement. Fifteen articles were included after analysis and selection in databases, with the majority of clinical trials focusing on psychopharmacological treatment of itch on account of chronic kidney disease. Clinical trials with psychotropic drugs mostly indicated significant improvement in the itching. In most trials of chronic kidney disease as basal disease for itch, greater effectiveness was observed with the use of psychotropic drugs compared with placebo or other antipruritic. However, the small amount of controlled trials conducted precludes the generalization that psychiatric drugs are effective for itch of various causes. PMID:28099602

  3. Consumo de psicofármacos em uma região administrativa do Rio de Janeiro: a Ilha do Governador Consumption of psychotropic drugs in an Administrative Region of the city of Rio de Janeiro: Ilha do Governador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Maria de Almeida

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 1988, um inquérito epidemiológico foi realizado para se estimar a prevalência de alcoolismo crônico e uso de álcool na população da XX Região Administrativa da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. O instrumento incluiu perguntas sobre o consumo de psicofármacos, café e cigarros. Este trabalho analisa os dados referentes ao consumo de psicofármacos nos 30 dias anteriores à pesquisa. A amostra representativa da população acima de 13 anos foi composta por 1.459 pessoas, Os resultados mostram uma prevalência de consumo global de 5,2% (3,1% para homens e 6,7% para mulheres. As mulheres, as pessoas mais velhas (especialmente pessoas entre 60 e 69 anos, os separados e viúvos, e as pessoas de renda mais baixa apresentaram prevalências mais elevadas. Avaliou-se a associação de cada variável demográfica através do cálculo deodds ratio ajustado por regressão logística. Os tranqüilizantes derivados dos benzodiazepínicos predominaram entre os tipos de psicofármacos referidos (85,23%, seguidos pelos antiepilépticos (5,68% e pelos hipnóticos e sedativos (4,54%. Os clínicos não-especializados em neurologia ou psiquiatria lideraram as prescrições (65,8%. Oitenta por cento dos medicamentos foram obtidos na rede privada, enquanto 13,16% foram adquiridos na farmácia pública, quase todos mediante a apresentação do receituário controlado. Os resultados são discutidos e novas linhas de pesquisa são apontadas.In 1988, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of alcoholism and alcohol consumption in the 20th Administrative Region of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The interview protocol included questions about consumption of psychotropics, coffee, and cigarettes. This paper presents data from psychotropic consumption in the month. The sample of the population older than 13 years old included 1,459 subjects. Overall consumption of psychotropic drugs was 5.2%. Rate of psychotropic use was higher for females (6.7% than

  4. Drugs (including oxygen) in severe COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, P; Calverley, P M A

    2008-05-01

    Access to comprehensive guidelines on the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now available, and several treatment goals of therapy have been identified from these guidelines, which have since been studied in clinical trials. Drug therapy is a key component of an individual patient's management plan, particularly in more severe disease. During the past few years, a number of new drug treatments have become available, although these are not always appropriately prescribed; this is particularly the case for oxygen. For patients with a history of exacerbations, there is good evidence for the use of inhaled long-acting anticholinergic agents or combined inhaled steroids and long-acting beta-agonists. Evidence for prophylactic antibiotics and antioxidant agents is lacking. Nutritional and calorie supplementation have not been shown to improve exercise capacity. Statins may improve outcomes in COPD, but prospective trials are needed to confirm this. The evidence for the use of long-term oxygen therapy in hypoxaemic patients is robust. Ambulatory oxygen improves exercise capacity, but whether it is used appropriately is in doubt. Overall, short burst oxygen therapy does not offer a benefit and therefore cannot be recommended.

  5. Pattern of psychotropic drug use among older adults having a depression or an anxiety disorder: results from the longitudinal ESA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Bossé, Cindy; Dionne, Pierre-Alexandre; Voyer, Philippe; Brassard, Joëlle

    2011-06-01

    To document the use of psychotropic drugs in Quebec older adult population with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Data from the Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés (ESA) study conducted between 2005 and 2008 using a representative sample (n = 1869) of community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older were used to examine the use of psychotropic drugs in the Quebec older adult population. Our results indicate that only 46.9% of the older adults with a diagnosis of depression or anxiety during the 24-month period studied according to the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Quebec (RAMQ) register used antidepressants (AD) for 400 days (12.9 months) on average during this period. Also, 59% of the RAMQ's mental health disorder patients used a mean daily dose of 5 mg of a diazepam equivalent for 338 days (10.9 months) on average during the same period. However, 10.0% of the older adults without any symptoms (ESA) at T1 and at T2 and any RAMQ depression and anxiety diagnosis between T0 and T2 were AD users during the 24-month period studied. They represent 26.2% of the AD users and consumed them for 494 days (15.9 months) on average during the 24-month period studied. Finally, the number of days of AD and benzodiazepine use was not associated with partial or total remission. This result questions the population effectiveness of these drugs in this population.

  6. Psychotropic drug initiation during the first diagnosis and the active treatment phase of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a cohort study of the French national health insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Cécile; Rueter, Manuela; Laurent, Guy; Bourrel, Robert; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Despas, Fabien

    2016-11-01

    Patients with B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHLs) are known to be at risk of developing psychological disorders. The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of psychotropic drug use during the diagnosis and the active treatment phase in comparison with controls from the general population, and to identify factors associated with this use. B-NHL patients were selected through the French national health insurance database in the Midi-Pyrénées region (southwestern France) from January 1, 2011, to April 31, 2013. Patients with a previous history of B-NHL and/or psychotropic drug treatment were excluded. Among 745 newly diagnosed B-NHL patients, psychotropic treatment was initiated in 31.5 % (95 % CI [28.1-34.9]), compared to 7.6 % (95 % CI [7.57-7.64]) in the general population during the same period. This incidence was comparable in colorectal cancer patients (33.5 %) but higher than that in patients with myocardial infarction (23.5 %) or with a first knee replacement surgery (22.4 %). Anxiolytics and hypnotics were the most frequently used drugs. Median duration of treatment was 37 days for anxiolytics and 58 days for hypnotics, with 20.8 % of patients remaining under treatment at 8 months. Factors associated with psychotropic drug initiation were young age, health care consumption in the year before diagnosis, and initial care at a university hospital. The high rate of psychotropic drug initiation reflects a high level of anxiety at the initial phase of B-NHL patients' trajectory. This pharmacoepidemiological study reveals inappropriate use in some patients, which should now be investigated in lymphoma survivorship.

  7. Inhibitory effects of psychotropic drugs on the acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium current (IK.ACh) in guinea-pig atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Muneyoshi; Watanabe, Shinya; Matada, Takashi; Asao, Yoko; Hamatani, Ramu; Yamawaki, Hideyuki; Hara, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Influences of psychotropic drugs, six antipsychotics and three antidepressants, on acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium current (IK.ACh) were examined by a whole-cell patch clamp method in freshly isolated guinea-pig atrial myocyte. IK.ACh was induced by a superfusion of carbachol (CCh) or by an intracellular application of guanosine 5'-[thio] triphosphate (GTPγS). To elucidate mechanism for anticholinergic action, IC50 ratio, the ratio of IC50 for GTPγS-activated IK.ACh to CCh-induced IK.ACh, was calculated. Antipsychotics and antidepressants inhibited CCh-induced IK.ACh in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values were as follows; chlorpromazine 0.53 μM, clozapine 0.06 μM, fluphenazine 2.69 μM, haloperidol 2.66 μM, sulpiride 42.3 μM, thioridazine 0.07 μM, amitriptyline 0.03 μM, imipramine 0.22 μM and maprotiline 1.81 μM. The drugs, except for sulpiride, inhibited GTPγS-activated IK.ACh with following IC50 values; chlorpromazine 1.71 μM, clozapine 14.9 μM, fluphenazine 3.55 μM, haloperidol 2.73 μM, thioridazine 1.90 μM, amitriptyline 7.55 μM, imipramine 7.09 μM and maprotiline 5.93 μM. The IC50 ratio for fluphenazine and haloperidol was close to unity. The IC50 ratio for chlorpromazine, clozapine, thioridazine, amitriptyline, imipramine and maprotiline was much higher than unity. The present findings suggest that the psychotropics studied suppress IK.ACh. Chlorpromazine, clozapine, thioridazine, amitriptyline, imipramine, maprotiline and sulpiride are preferentially acting on muscarinic receptor. Fluphenazine and haloperidol may act on G protein and/or potassium channel.

  8. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above.

  9. Regional changes in psychotropic use among Finnish persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease in 2005-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Ari; Taipale, Heidi; Tanskanen, Antti; Lavikainen, Piia; Koponen, Marjaana; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe and compare temporal changes in prevalence and incidence of psychotropic use (antipsychotics, antidepressants and benzodiazepines and related drugs; BZDRs) in persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease (AD) between university hospital districts of Finland during 2005–2011. Methods The MEDALZ study includes all community-dwellers of Finland who received a clinically verified AD diagnosis in 2005–2011 (N = 70,718). Prevalent and incident use of psychotropics among those who had received AD diagnosis less than one year ago were compared in 2005–2011. Results Regional differences in psychotropic use between university hospital districts were more evident in 2005 than 2011 for prevalent use of any psychotropic, antipsychotic and BZDRs and incident use of any psychotropic and antipsychotics. Regional differences in prevalent antidepressant use and incident BZDR use remained similar during the follow-up, while differences in incident antidepressant use increased during the follow-up. The prevalence of any psychotropic use in 2005 varied between 44.7–50.7% and between 45.0–47.9% in 2011. Incidence of any psychotropic use in 2005 was between 8.6–12.1% and 6.2–8.2% in 2011. In 2005, the distribution of incident psychotropic use followed a large scale spatial variation that, however, did not correspond to university hospital districts. During the study period from 2005 to 2011 the cyclic spatial variation disappeared. No sign of adjacent hospital districts being more or less closely related to each other compared to hospital districts in general was detected. Conclusions Except for antidepressants, regional differences in psychotropic use have mainly diminished between 2005 and 2011. Our findings highlight the importance of acknowledging regional differences in a country with relatively homogeneous healthcare system and conducting future studies assessing the reasons behind these differences. PMID:28278245

  10. Risk of arrhythmia induced by psychotropic medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanoe, Søren; Kristensen, Diana; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of patients are treated with psychotropics. In subgroups of pre-disposed patients, e.g. patients with cardiac diseases or other co-morbidities, the elderly or patients treated with other negatively interacting drugs, the absolute risk of drug-induced arrhythmia may be considerable. On the other hand, several...

  11. Psychotropic Medication Adherence among Community-Based Individuals with Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xi; Marshall, Vincent D.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Patel, Isha; Chang, Jongwha; Erickson, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are a common treatment for mental illness in people with developmental disabilities. Medication adherence is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, but psychotropic medication adherence research specific to this population remains limited. This retrospective study analyzed Marketscan®…

  12. To what extent does the indicator “concurrent use of three or more psychotropic drugs” capture use of potentially inappropriate psychotropics among the elderly?

    OpenAIRE

    Lesén, Eva; Petzold, Max; Andersson, Karolina; Carlsten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The indicator ?concurrent use of three or more psychotropic drugs? has been used as a measure of quality in drug use among the elderly. The aim of our study was to assess to what extent the indicator captures the use of specific psychotropics associated with an increased risk of adverse events among the elderly, i.e., potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs (PIP). Methods All individu...

  13. Uso de Psicofármacos en prisión (CP Madrid III The use of psychotropic drugs in prison (CP Madrid III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Varela-González

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso de psicofármacos en el entorno de atención primaria está aumentando exponencialmente y el medio penitenciario no constituye una excepción a esta tendencia. Con alguna frecuencia estos tratamientos se prescriben buscando utilidades terapéuticas en relación con trastornos de personalidad, dependencias y conductas disfuncionales que no han sido aceptadas como indicaciones (uso compasivo. El presente estudio ha permitido una descripción pormenorizada del uso de psicofármacos en el Centro Penitenciario (CP Madrid III, uno de los centros con menor gasto farmacéutico de la Comunidad Autónoma. Durante dos semanas se registraron todas las prescripciones de psicofármacos junto con diversos parámetros que pudiesen resultar condicionantes. Un 23,46% de la población recibía algún tipo de psicofármaco; el 76% de los internos a tratamiento recibía uno o dos psicofármacos, un 65% tenía prescritos ansiolíticos, un 38% antidepresivos y un 27% antipsicóticos. El consumo total de psicofármacos ascendió a 9.840 Dosis Diarias de Mantenimiento, un 46% de las cuales correspondían con ansiolíticos, un 17% con antidepresivos y un 14% con antipsicóticos. En dos semanas, el gasto total sumó 5.379 euros y los antipsicóticos acumularon un 72% del coste (3.857 euros. Hay indicios de que el uso compasivo de nuevos antipsicóticos y antiepilépticos supone un porcentaje sustancial del incremento del gasto con dudosa utilidad. Los resultados del estudio apuntan al médico prescriptor como agente primordial en relación con qué, cuánto y con qué coste se prescribe. Al contrario de lo que cabía esperar, no se encontró asociación entre variables como la edad, nacionalidad, grado o tipo de condena de los internos y la prescripción de los distintos subgrupos de psicofármacos con la excepción de las benzodiacepinas.The use of psychotropic drugs in primary care has exponentially increased and prisons are no exception. These drugs are often

  14. Use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy: perception of teratogenic risk among physicians in two Latin American countries

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    Amaury Cantilino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pregnant women and their health care professionals commonly believe that use of medications during pregnancy may be harmful to the unborn fetus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk perception of psychotropic drug use in pregnancy among physicians in different medical specialties. Method: This was a convenience survey conducted at outpatient clinics in the cities of Recife, Brazil, and La Plata, Bahía Blanca, and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Physicians who agreed to participate were asked to rate their perception of teratogenic risk among different classes of drugs, which included antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and benzodiazepines. Results: Two hundred and thirty-eight physicians completed the survey (response rate, 98%. These included psychiatrists, obstetricians, neurologists, cardiologists, gastroenterologists, and general practitioners. Among different specialties, a minority of psychiatrists perceived psychotropic drugs to be highly teratogenic (antidepressants, 12.5%; antipsychotics, 15%; benzodiazepines, 25% as compared with other specialties (p < 0.003 for each drug class. There was no difference in perceived risk of antiepileptic drugs among specialties, including psychiatrists. Conclusion: The risk associated with use of psychotropic drugs in pregnancy was overestimated by physicians of all medical specialties, except psychiatry. All physicians should be aware of the safety/risk of psychotropic agents in pregnancy, as they may be required to give advice and/or prescribe these drugs to pregnant women.

  15. No Difference in Psychotropic Medication Use in Cosmetic and General Dermatology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heather K; Lilly, Evelyn; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2016-07-01

    Patients presenting for appearance-related concerns are often perceived as being more difficult (ie, more needy, more difficult to satisfy) than patients presenting for medical dermatologic problems. While the reasons for this perception are many, some hypothesize that this may be related to a higher rate of anxiety, depression, or body image issues among these patients. To determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication use in cosmetic dermatology patients compared to the prevalence of such medication use in general dermatology patients. METHODS & The study was a retrospective chart review of female patients, 18 or older, new to a private practice. Exclusion criteria included dermatologic disorders with known psychosocial comorbidity. Psychotropic medication use was recorded. The percentage of subjects in the medical group (n=156) who reported using psychotropic medications was 22.2% compared to 26.8% in the cosmetic group (n=154; P=0.09). The prevalence of psychotropic medication use among all dermatology patients in our practice was relatively high, but there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of psychotropic medication use in cosmetic dermatology patients compared to general dermatology patients. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):858-861.

  16. Evaluation of the Use of Two Types of Psychotropic Drugs in Our Hospital in 2009%我院2009年二类精神药品利用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春颖; 金振波; 史卫忠; 王莉文

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the use of two types of psychotropic drugs in order to promote rational drug use. Method: A statistical analysis of two types of psychotropic drugs and practical situations was made in the hospital from January to December, 2009, and the defined daily doses ( DDD), the DDDs, DDC and B/A value were used. Result:Two types of psychotropic drugs in our hospital ranking in the top three of total drugs were estazolam, lorazepam, clonazepam. The proportion of the medication for over 40 years patients was 76.59% of the total patients. Conclusion: Considering the widely used benzodiazepine drugs, a rational drug use should be monitored to avoid their abuse.%目的:分析我院二类精神药品的使用情况,为促进临床合理用药提供参考.方法:采用限定日剂量(I)DD)法,以用药频率(DDDs)、限定日费用(1DDC)和序号比(B/A)值等为指标,统计分析医院2009年1月~2009年12月二类精神药品使用情况.结果:我院二类精神药品用药总量排序在前3位的分别是艾司唑仑、劳拉西泮、氯硝西泮,大于40岁的患者用药比例占总比例的76.59%.结论:苯二氮卓类药物目前临床应用普遍,应注意合理用药,防止精神药品的滥用.

  17. Alterations in body weight and biochemistry in patient treated with different psychotropic drugs in a clinic in Istanbul

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    Yeltekin Demirel,

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim Was to compare adult female patients receiving psychiatricdrugs with obese adult females who didn’t receive any drug treatmentwith respect to the alterations in body weight and biochemistry,and find out the contrubution of a team approach for the managementof these alterations.Methods A total of 102 female patients aged mean 40.9±12.4years who had been followed up and treated in the Psychiatry OutpatientClinics in Istanbul University for their psychiatric disordersand were complaining about increased body weight in thetreatment period were included. The controls were composed of261 females aged mean 39.8±13.0 years who had been referred byvarious departments to dietitians due to exogenous obesity but hadno endocrine-metabolic or psychiatric disorders or history of druguse. Initially, antropometric measurements and biochemical testswere performed for all patients.Results In the group receiving psychiatric treatment, the meanbody weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences, body fat percentage(p<0.001; blood insulin, triglyceride, TSH, fibrinogenand homocysteine levels, and HOMA-IR were found to be higherthan those of the controls (p<0.05, whereas the total protein, albumin,zinc and folate levels were significantly lower (p<0.001.Conclusion The results of this study showed that patients whoneed psychopharmacotherapies were also more susceptible to severalmetabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, it wouldbe useful if psychiatric patients are treated with a multidisciplinaryteam approach consisting of an endocrinologist, psychiatrist and adietitian specialized in this area to prevent or delay the metabolicdisorders caused by psychiatric disorders and treatments.

  18. Psychotropic medication use and cognition in institutionalized older adults with mild to moderate dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H. P.; de Vries, Kerst; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most studies examining psychotropic medication use Oil cognition in older persons with dementia include measures of global cognitive function. The present study examined the relationship between different types of psychotropic medication and specific cognitive functions in older people w

  19. 我院2009~2011年二类精神药品的应用情况分析%Application Analysis on the Second Class Psychotropic Drugs in Our Hospital from 2009 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉娉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application situation and development tendency of the second class psychotropic drugs in our hospital and provide references for the drug management and rational drug use. Methods Using the daily dose limit recommended by the World Health Organization(WHO) as the indicator, to retrospectively analyze the application of the second class psychotropic drugs. Results The annual sales and drug use frequency of benzodiazepine and barbiturate psychotropic drugs are rising year by year, with higher use frequency of Clonazepam, Alprazolam and Estazolam. As a representative of the new generation non-benzodiazepine drugs, Zaleplon has been used in a decreased tendency. Conclusion The application structure of the second class psychotropic drugs is stable, and the clinical use of them is basically reasonable. Benzodiazepine drugs have the dominant position in the clinical use.%目的 评价我院二类精神药品的应用情况与发展趋势,为药品管理及合理用药提供参考.方法 采用世界卫生组织推荐的限定日剂量为指标的分析方法,对我院2009~ 2011年二类精神药品的应用进行回顾性分析.结果 我院苯二氮革类及巴比妥类二类精神药品的年销售金额和用药频度逐年上升,氯硝西泮、阿普唑仑和艾司唑仑的用药频度较高,以扎来普隆为代表的新一代非苯二氮革类药物用量有下降趋势.结论 二类精神药品应用结构稳定,临床用药基本合理.苯二氮革类药物占临床用药的主导地位.

  20. Psychotropic Medication Prescription Practices and Use and Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    disorders; (“on-” and “off-label”) side effects; misuse; polypharmacy (multiple medications taken simultaneously including CAM products); and potential...psychotropic medications may be appropriate in select individuals. If evidence-based and appropriately administered, polypharmacy (meaning in this document...MHS data systems do not comprehensively detect polypharmacy , adverse drug-drug interactions, or potential for abuse, particularly in theater. In

  1. Use of PET and the radioligand [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]WAY-100635 in psychotropic drug development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andree, Bengt; Halldin, Christer; Thorberg, Seth-Olov; Sandell, Johan; Farde, Lars

    2000-07-01

    Positron-emission tomography (PET) provides potential in neuropsychiatric drug development by expanding knowledge of drug action in the living human brain and reducing time consumption and costs. The 5-hydroxytryptamine{sub 1A} (5-HT{sub 1A}) receptor is of central interest as a target for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. Research on the clinical significance of the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor now benefits from the highly selective radioligand [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]WAY-100635 (WAY) for quantitative determination of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in the primate and human brain in vivo using PET. In this paper, three studies are reviewed to demonstrate the suitability of WAY as radioligand for quantification of central 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in brain and as an applicable tool for drug development. In the first study a monkey model was used to characterize WAY binding. It was confirmed that the reference ligand 8-OH-DPAT and psychoactive drugs such as buspirone and pindolol occupies 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in the primate brain. Pindolol is an {beta}-adrenoreceptor antagonist with a high affinity to 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors. This drug has been suggested in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of depression and was given to healthy males in the second study. Pindolol induced a marked inhibition of central 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors as calculated by the ratio-analysis method and simplified reference tissue model, 2 h after administration of 10 mg as a single oral dose. This observation suggests that pindolol may have a role for the suggested potentiation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment of depression. The third study was on robalzotan (NAD-299), a recently developed 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor antagonist and putative drug with implications for the treatment of depression. In the cynomolgus monkey brain, robalzotan in the dose range 2-100 {mu}g/kg IV occupied 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in a dose-dependent and saturable

  2. Uso y abuso de psicofármacos: diseño de una actividad del proyecto comunitario con el museo de la Farmacia Habanera Use and abuse of psychotropic drugs: design of an activity of the community project with Havana's Pharmacy Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Díaz Molina

    2008-08-01

    Museum, which includes among its activities "The Infusion Afternoons", a propitious setting for the development of general topics related to drugs. One of the most selected to this end was that on psychotropic drugs, since it is a group of drugs of particular importance. Methods: "The Infusion Afternoons" are monthly activities dealing with general pharmaceutical themes that are directed to the population and to the first-year students of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In the case of psychotropic drugs, it was used the modality of round table, followed by audience/panel debate. Results: Some aspects of interest connected with the history of the use of psychotropic drugs and of the treatment of mental diseases were approached, and special emphasis was given to those psychotropic drugs most commonly known and used by the population. The attention was focused on the need of a rational use of psychotropic drugs. Discussion: The type of activity developed made possible that both the students and the population improved their knowledge about this topic. The students were linked with the activities of drug information and health education. This activity marked the beginning of their participation in the community project.

  3. Prevalência do consumo de álcool, tabaco e entorpecentes por estudantes de medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic drug consumption by medical students of the "Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência do consumo de álcool, tabaco e entorpecentes por estudantes da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais e determinar fatores relacionados a esse consumo. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho foi realizado com estudantes de todos os anos do curso de Medicina, convidados a participar, de forma anônima, respondendo a um questionário autoaplicável, que foi previamente avaliado e adequado à realidade brasileira. Esse questionário foi estruturado com base no World Health Organization's Guidelines for Student Substance Use Survey e consistiu de 25 perguntas relacionadas ao uso de drogas. A comparação das médias foi por teste T de Student e as proporções foram avaliadas usando o teste Qui quadrado. RESULTADOS: Contato com bebidas alcoólicas ocorreu em 85,2% e com tabaco em 16,3% dos entrevistados. Dentre as drogas entorpecentes, a maconha foi consumida por 16,5%, LSD por 6,9%, ansiolíticos por 12%, estimulantes por 7,5% e solventes por 16,8% dos estudantes. Foi raro o consumo de cocaína, crack, opioides, xaropes ou anabolizantes. CONCLUSÃO: A droga mais consumida foi o álcool. Seu uso relacionou-se com o consumo de outras substâncias, sendo que a adesão a drogas ocorreu mais em estudantes solteiros, do sexo masculino, que moram longe da família e não dependem de si para seu sustento ou o de sua família.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic drug consumption by students of the Medical School of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to verify aspects related to those addictions. METHODS: This study was carried out with students of all years of the medical course invited to participate anonymously, by answering a self-applied questionnaire which was previously evaluated and adapted to Brazilian reality. It was based upon the World Health Organization's Guidelines for Student Substance Use Survey and included 25

  4. Psychotropic medication claims among religious clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Steven M; Mustillo, Sarah A; Foy, Steven L; Arroyave, Whitney D; Hooten, Elizabeth G; Lauderback, Kari H; Meador, Keith G

    2013-03-01

    This study examined psychotropic medication claims in a sample of Protestant clergy. It estimated the proportion of clergy in the sample who had a claim for psychotropic medication (i.e., anti-depressants and anxiolytics) in 2005 and examined associations between sociodemographic characteristics, occupational distress and having a claim. Protestant clergy (n = 749) from nine denominations completed a mail survey and provided access to their pharmaceutical records. Logistic regression models assessed the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and occupational distress on having a claim. The descriptive analysis revealed that 16 % (95 % Confidence interval [CI] 13.3 %-18.5 %) of the clergy in the sample had a claim for psychotropic medication in 2005 and that, among clergy who experienced frequent occupational distress, 28 % (95 % CI 17.5 %-37.5 %) had a claim. The regression analysis found that older clergy, female clergy, and those who experienced frequent occupational distress were more likely to have a claim. Due to recent demographic changes in the clergy population, including the increasing mean age of new clergy and the growing number of female clergy, the proportion of clergy having claims for psychotropic medication may increase in the coming years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the use of psychotropic medication among clergy.

  5. Intoxicaciones medicamentosas (I: Psicofármacos y antiarrítmicos Acute pharmacologic poisoning (I: Psychotropic and antiarrhythmic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Osés

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la valoración de la Intoxicación Medicamentosa Aguda (IMA en pacientes graves con dosis potencialmente no tóxicas del teórico fármaco responsable es importante insistir en la anamnesis en la coingesta de otros fármacos o tóxicos. Inicialmente se prestará atención a las medidas de soporte vital, oxigenando, protegiendo la vía aérea y expandiendo la volemia. El ECG es una herramienta diagnóstica de primer orden en las IMA, sobre todo por antidepresivos tricíclicos (ADT y medicación cardiovascular. Su monitorización continua durante las primeras 12-24 horas suele ser necesaria en la mayoría de los casos. Las benzodiacepinas no suelen producir intoxicaciones graves. El uso del flumazenilo se reservará a los casos de depresión respiratoria, coma profundo o de causa no filiada. Pueden dar lugar a convulsiones, sobre todo en caso de intoxicación mixta con antidepresivos, y síndrome de abstinencia. Los ADT poseen una potencial gravedad enorme, pudiendo originar arritmias mortales. El rango terapéutico del litio es muy estrecho, pudiendo producirse signos de toxicidad fundamentalmente digestiva y neurológica. En caso de intoxicación por digoxina, se considerará el uso de anticuerpos antidigital en caso de bradiarritmias graves, bloqueos AV o PCR. El glucagón es el antídoto para la intoxicación grave por ß-bloqueantes y para la hipotensión refractaria en caso de calcioantagonistas.In the evaluation of Acute Drug Poisoning (ADP in patients seriously ill with a potentially non-toxic dose of the drug that is theoretically responsible, it is important to insist on anamnesis in the coingestion of other drugs or toxics. Initially attention is given to life support measures, oxygenation, protection of the airway and expanding the volemia. The ECG is a diagnostic tool of the first order in ADPs, above all for tricyclic antidepressants (TAD and cardio-vascular drugs. In the majority of cases continuous monitoring is usually

  6. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da; Yonamine, Maurício; Pucci, Liuba Laxor; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Souza, Camila Gabriela de; Mesquita, Guilherme Alves; Vieira, Ana Paula de Toledo; Vinhal, Ludmilla Barros; Dalastra, Janayna; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n=221) were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. The frequency of use was divided into: 1) lifetime use: tobacco-39.9%, alcohol-87.8%, cannabis-8.1%, cocaine-1.8%, stimulants-7.2%, solvents-10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-6.8%, LSD-0.5%, Bentyl®-0.5%, anabolic steroids-5.4%; 2) use in the previous year: tobacco-15.4%, alcohol-72.9%, stimulants-6.3%, solvents-0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%; 3) use in the previous 30 days: tobacco-14.5%, alcohol-57.5%, stimulants-5.0%, solvents-0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%. The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.

  7. [A daycare program of animal assisted therapy for affective disorder patients during psychotropic drug therapy: evaluation of the relaxation effect by fNIRS (functional near-infrared spectroscopy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Fukamauchi, Fumihiko; Aoki, Jun; Kurihara, Kouhei; Yoshihara, Eiji; Inoue, Masao; Shibanai, Hiroko; Ishigooka, Jun

    2010-06-01

    During daycare programs of animal assisted therapy (AAT), we collected data on the brain function of two affective disorder patients who received psychotropic drug therapy with fNIRS, after written informed consent was obtained. A male patient at first showed a bloodstream drop, seen in the lower inside part of frontal lobe. In both patients, at least a slight activation of the function of the frontal lobe was seen during the therapy. Therefore, an activation effect of AAT was seen at least objectively by fNIRS.

  8. Parental attitudes toward the prescription of psychotropic medications for their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A Al-Haidar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore parental attitudes towards the prescription of psychotropic medication for their children. Method: A questionnaire built to collect socio-demographic data of parents and their attitudes was distributed among parents. Results: One thousand and ten questionnaires were filled by parents. Fathers who completed the questionnaire were double the number of mothers. Eight hundred and eighteen parents (84.3% agreed to the dispensing psychotropic medication to their children if necessary. About 83.5% preferred to start with psychotherapy before trying medication. Fathers are more than twice likely than mothers to agree to the use of psychotropic drugs. Older parents more easily agreed to give their children psychotropic drugs. Parents who used psychotropic drug themselves were more likely to agree to the use of psychotropic drug by their children. Having a child with a psychiatric illness is the most significant factor in making parents accede to giving children psychotropic medication. Other factors such as pressure from schools and the side effects of drugs could also modify decision of parents. Conclusion: Although most parents agreed to give their children psychotropic drugs if necessary, they preferred to start with psychotherapy sessions before giving them the drugs. Fear and worries about such issues as side effects of drugs or addiction should be considered. Pressure from school should also be considered when deciding on drug therapy.

  9. Use of psychotropics in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Reisberg, B; Simeon, S

    1978-01-01

    A questionnaire regarding medication preferences for major categories of psychiatric disorders was sent to 1,059 psychiatric drug investigators in 53 countries. 264 questionnaires were returned, of which 165 were appropriate for this survey. A total of 87 different psychotropic drugs were selected. Chlorpromazine was the medication most frequently cited in the treatment of schizophrenia. Amitriptyline and imipramine together accounted for the vast majority of medication chosen for all varieties of depression. In the treatment of mania, chlorpromazine was chosen by almost one-third of our sample, lithium by only one-fifth. Chlordiazepoxide and diazepam were equally preferred in the treatment of alcoholism. Most psychiatrists preferred not to use any psychotropic medications consistently in treating patients with organic brain syndromes. The implications of this study are discussed and compared uith similar studies in more limited geographical regions and in children.

  10. 413例精神科住院患者精神药物使用时点调查%Time survey of psychotropic drugs use among 413 inpatients in psychiatric department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳璞; 冯长军; 戴劲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the use condition and its rationality of psychotropic drugs in inpatients of psychiatric department in our hospital. Methods The use condition of psychotropic drugs in inpatients of psychiatric department at 18:00 on February 17, 2011 was investigated by the hospital information system (HIS) of Beijing Ankang hospital. Results Among 413 inpatients in the psychotropic department, 407 used antipsychotics, involved 24 kinds of drugs. 225 patients (55.28%) were given single drug, of whom 81 patients (36.00%) used Risperidone Tablets (Zhuofei, Ketong, Risperdal), 51 patients (22.67%) used Aripiprazole Tablets and 33 patients (14.67%) used Clozapine. 182 patients were given combination drugs. Among the two-drugs combination, benzodiazepines (Lorazepam, Clonazepam, Nitrazepam, Diazepam, Estazolam) combined with other drugs were used in 66 patients (41.51%) and Risperidone + Zaleplon were used in 21 patients (13.21%). Among the three-drugs combination, benzodiazepines + Risperidone + other drugs were used in 8 patients (34.78%) and Zaleplon combination was used in 6 patients (26.09%). Conclusion The use of psychotropic drugs among the inpatients in the psychiatric department of Beijing Ankang Hospital is rational and the use of new atypical antipsychotics increases gradually. However, doctors should adhere to the principle of using single drug first and reduce the multi-drug combination.%目的 了解我院精神科住院患者精神药物使用情况及其合理性.方法 利用北京市安康医院HIS系统查阅2011年2月17日精神科住院患者精神药物用药情况,于18∶00时进行用药时点调查.结果 413例精神科住院患者中407例使用抗精神药物,涉及24种药物,单一用药物者225例(55.28%),其中,使用利培酮片(卓菲、可同、维思通)81例(36.00%),阿立哌唑片51例(22.67%),氯氮平33例(14.67%);联合用药者182例.两种药物联合应用患者中苯二氮(艹卓)类(劳拉西泮、氯硝西泮、

  11. Cardiotoxicité des psychotropes

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIRI, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Même à dose thérapeutique, les médicaments psychotropes sont susceptibles d'engendrer des troubles du rythme cardiaque graves avec risque létal concourant à expliquer la pré valence de la mort subite dans la population psychiatrique. Les situations cliniques à risque telles que poly médication (des psychotropes entre eux ou d'un psychotrope avec un non psychotrope allongeur de QTc), interactions médicamenteuses aussi bien pharmacodynamiques que pharmacocinétiques, traitement pa...

  12. Management of psychotropic-induced hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marken, P A; Haykal, R F; Fisher, J N

    1992-10-01

    The effects of individual psychotropic medications on serum prolactin concentrations are described, and recommendations for dealing with adverse effects are provided. Hyperprolactinemia can result in galactorrhea, amenorrhea, irregular menses, and anovulation; in men, impotence and azoospermia, with or without lactation and gynecomastia, can occur. Antipsychotics may block dopamine receptors in the pituitary prolactin-secreting cells and prevent dopamine-induced reduction of prolactin release. The magnitude of the increase in prolactin concentration correlates with the amount of antipsychotic drug given. The treatment of choice is reduction of the antipsychotic dosage or discontinuation of therapy. If adjustments to the antipsychotic dosage fail to resolve symptoms, the dopamine agonists bromocriptine and amantadine may be tried. Antidepressants may produce elevated serum prolactin concentrations, especially with long-term administration. However, the frequency of antidepressant-induced hyperprolactinemia is much lower than that seen with antipsychotics, and serious adverse clinical effects are uncommon. Other psychotropic drugs such as lithium, valproic acid, buspirone, carbamazepine, and benzodiazepines either are only rarely associated with symptomatic hyperprolactinemia or do not produce clinically important changes in prolactin concentrations. Antipsychotic drugs are the psychotropic agents most likely to cause symptomatic hyperprolactinemia. Bromocriptine or amantadine may provide symptomatic relief if withdrawal or adjustment of the antipsychotic dosage does not eliminate the symptoms.

  13. Reduce Errors Of Narcotic And The First Class of Psychotropic Drugs Management By QCC%品管圈活动降低麻醉药品管理差错率工作实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷利群; 肖顺林; 叶云; 张峥; 袁浩宇; 俞瑜

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过品管圈活动对麻醉药品及一类精神药品管理进行规范化管理,促进药事管理质量的持续改进。方法以“降低麻醉药品及一类精神药品管理差错率”为主题,按照品管圈活动的10个步骤进行计划、实施、确认和处置。结果3年的品管圈活动中,处方书写(开具)错误由改善前的249件降低到41件,专册登记数量与使用数量不符由14件降低到3件,未专册登记由10件降低到0件;目标达成率分别为118.18%,110.00%和125.00%;进步率分别高达83.53%,78.57%和100.00%。结论推行品管圈活动能够降低麻醉药品、一类精神药品管理差错率,减少了药物的浪费,从而提高了用药安全性。%Objective To Reduce errors of narcotic and the first class of psychotropic drugs management by QCC. enhance pharmacists’ consciousness of special drugs management and job satisfaction. Methods In accordance with the theme - reducing the error rates of narcotic and the first class of psychotropic drugs management, process such as planning, implementation, confirmation and disposition were redesigned by 10 steps. Results By 3 years QCC activities, the number of errors in Prescription writing (drawn), special issue registra-tions and absence reduced from 249 to 41, 14 to 3 and 14 to 0, with the standard - reaching rates of 118. 18% , 110. 00% and 125. 00% , the progress rates of 83. 54% , 78. 57% and 100. 00% . Conclusion “Quality Control Circle(QCC)”activities have achieved satisfactory results in reducing error rates of narcotic and the first class of psychotropic drugs management, cutted down drug waste and enhanced the quality of pharmaceutical care.

  14. Increased all-cause mortality with use of psychotropic medication in dementia patients and controls: A population-based register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Ibsen, Rikke;

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality of middle-aged and elderly subjects diagnosed with dementia and treated with psychotropic drugs as compared with controls subjects. Using data from the Danish National Patient Registry, n=26,821 adults with a diagnosis of dementia were included. They were ...

  15. Off-label and unlicensed prescribing of psychotropics in children in Dutch general practice .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, A.; Dijk, L. van

    2006-01-01

    Background: Unsafe drug use is a point of concern in children with psychotropics. Methylfenidate is licensed to prescribe above the age of 6 years, but most of the antidepressants and benzodiazepines are not approved in children. We studied the off-label and unlicensed prescribing of psychotropics i

  16. Integrated Strategy for Use of Positron Emission Tomography in Nonhuman Primates to Confirm Multitarget Occupancy of Novel Psychotropic Drugs: An Example with AZD3676.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnäs, Katarina; Juréus, Anders; Johnström, Peter; Ahlgren, Charlotte; Schött, Pär; Schou, Magnus; Gruber, Susanne; Jerning, Eva; Malmborg, Jonas; Halldin, Christer; Afzelius, Lovisa; Farde, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is widely applied in central nervous system (CNS) drug development for assessment of target engagement in vivo. As the majority of PET investigations have addressed drug interaction at a single binding site, findings of multitarget engagement have been less frequently reported and have often been inconsistent with results obtained in vitro. AZD3676 [N,N-dimethyl-7-(4-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl)piperazin-1-yl) benzofuran-2-carboxamide] is a novel combined serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor antagonist that was developed for the treatment of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we evaluated the properties of AZD3676 as a CNS drug by combining in vitro and ex vivo radioligand binding techniques, behavioral pharmacology in rodents, and PET imaging in nonhuman primates. Target engagement in the nonhuman primate brain was assessed in PET studies by determination of drug-induced occupancy using receptor-selective radioligands. AZD3676 showed preclinical properties consistent with CNS drug potential, including nanomolar receptor affinity and efficacy in rodent models of learning and memory. In PET studies of the monkey brain, AZD3676 inhibited radioligand binding in a dose-dependent manner with similar affinity at both receptors. The equally high affinity at 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors as determined in vivo was not predicted from corresponding estimates obtained in vitro, suggesting more than 10-fold selectivity for 5-HT1A versus 5-HT1B receptors. These findings support the further integrated use of PET for confirmation of multitarget occupancy of CNS drugs. Importantly, earlier introduction of PET studies in nonhuman primates may reduce future development costs and the requirement for animal experiments in preclinical CNS drug development programs.

  17. [Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of psychotropic medications: Differences between sexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergiannaki, J D; Kostaras, P

    2016-01-01

    The gender based or gender sensitive pharmacology is a new research area. Differences among sexes are observed in several parameters of their pharmacokinetic which may relate to alteration of their pharmacodynamic as well. Most psychotropics are given per os, and the greater part of their absorption takes place in the small intestine. Premenopausal women have slower gastric emptying times and lower gastrointestinal blood flow which probably reduces the extent of drug absorption. The distribution of drugs is influenced by the relative lower body mass index, the lower blood volume and flow and the greater percentage of body fat of women. Further, the elimination and renal clearance is reduced in women and the hepatic metabolism differ between sexes. Besides, women differ from men in physiological conditions which may have an impact on the psychotropic medication and dosage required for efficacy and response. Women are exposed to monthly hormonal fluctuations (menstruation), pregnancy, puerperium, menopause and use of contraceptives or synthetic hormonal replacement therapies. Throughout of these conditions changes may occur in total body water, in renal clearance, cardiovascular and autoimmune system, which may cause fluctuations in the activity of the psychotropics, changes in the central neurotransmitters, in the number and sensitivity of the receptors, and the general metabolism as well. Despite the fact that women are the primer consumers of psychotropic medication, taking more psychotropics as well as more multiple medications than men, little attention has been paid to sex differences in psychopharmacology. Till recently women were under-represented or excluded from most of the pharmacological clinical trials. The treatment guidelines for psychotropic medication are based on studies verified and investigated almost exclusively in men. Results from such studies were generalized and recommended for use in the clinical practice without any critique and

  18. Reducing Psychotropic Polypharmacy in patients with severe mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, P; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Killian, R.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with mental illness receive psychotropic medicine in high dosages and from more than one drug. One of the consequences of this practice is obesity, which is a contributing factor to increased physical morbidity and premature death. METHODS: Our study was a cluster...

  19. The Effect of Psychotropic Substances to the Creativity of Painters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamanti A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Creativity is a central feature of Art, with painting being one of its creative expressions. Painting was used as a method of measuring creativity in clinical studies of the past that have examined the relationship between creativity and narcotics. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of creativity and the use of psychotropic substances. Furthermore, it was investigated, whether the use of psychotropic substances pushes artists to specific artistic writing. Materials and Methods. The research questions of the study were formed using the PICO method. Α systematic review of the bibliography followed in data bases, PubMed, ScienceDirect θαη Google Scholar. From the amounted articles the final selection was formed from twelve articles investigating the correlation of psychotropic substances and creativity in sub-study population consisted of painters. Results. Almost all studies showed changes in the expressive language of painters due to drug use, which led to expressionistic writing. The majority of the studies showed no significant positive connection between creativity and the use of psychotropic substances. Conclusions. The correlation of psychotropic substances and creativity seems to be influenced by the kind of visual writing used by the artist to produce a creative product.

  20. Mortality and use of psychotropic medication in patients with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Iversen, Helle K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study sought to describe whether psychotropic medication may have long-term side effects in patients with stroke compared with controls. SETTING: Use of national register data from healthcare services were identified from the Danish National Patient Registry in Denmark. Information...... about psychotropic medication use was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality in relation to the use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antipsychotics in patients with stroke and matched controls. PARTICIPANTS: Patients...... with a diagnosis of stroke and either no drug use or preindex use of psychotropic medication (n=49,968) and compared with control subjects (n=86,100) matched on age, gender, marital status and community location. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: All-cause mortality. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was higher in patients...

  1. Mortality and use of psychotropic medication in patients with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Iversen, Helle K;

    2016-01-01

    with a diagnosis of stroke and either no drug use or preindex use of psychotropic medication (n=49 968) and compared with control subjects (n=86 100) matched on age, gender, marital status and community location. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: All-cause mortality. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was higher in patients......OBJECTIVES: The study sought to describe whether psychotropic medication may have long-term side effects in patients with stroke compared with controls. SETTING: Use of national register data from healthcare services were identified from the Danish National Patient Registry in Denmark. Information...... about psychotropic medication use was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality in relation to the use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antipsychotics in patients with stroke and matched controls. PARTICIPANTS: Patients...

  2. Effects of psychotropic drugs used in the treatment of anxiety disorders on the recognition of facial expressions of emotion: Critical analysis of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Alini Daniéli Viana; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Osório, Flávia L

    2016-12-01

    Deficits in recognition of facial expressions of emotion (RFEE) play a central role in the manifestation of anxiety disorders (AD). We systematically reviewed the literature to determine effects of drugs used in AD treatment on RFEE, based on outcomes of accuracy rate, reaction time, and intensity. Electronic databases, including Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Scielo, were used without time constraints. Twenty-six clinical/experimental studies on healthy subjects, focusing on 11 drugs, published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, were selected. We found that increased recognition of happiness was associated with acute use of citalopram, fluoxetine, duloxetine, and reboxetine. Increased and decreased recognition of negative emotions were associated with the use of selective serotonin and/or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, respectively. Benzodiazepine favored recognition of negative emotions. Differences in reaction time were rarely observed. Stimuli with distinct emotion intensities produced similar effects. Specific changes occurred in RFEE depending on the drug, its administration route and dose, and emotion valence. Evidences indicate significant effects on emotional processing relevant to clinical practice, particularly in treating patients with emotional disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of Fixed Dose Combination (FDC Drugs in India: Central Regulatory Approval and Sales of FDCs Containing Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs, Metformin, or Psychotropic Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McGettigan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, an Indian parliamentary committee reported that manufacturing licenses for large numbers of fixed dose combination (FDC drugs had been issued by state authorities without prior approval of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO in violation of rules, and considered that some ambiguity until 1 May 2002 about states' powers might have contributed. To our knowledge, no systematic enquiry has been undertaken to determine if evidence existed to support these findings. We investigated CDSCO approvals for and availability of oral FDC drugs in four therapeutic areas: analgesia (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], diabetes (metformin, depression/anxiety (anti-depressants/benzodiazepines, and psychosis (anti-psychotics.This was an ecologic study with a time-trend analysis of FDC sales volumes (2007-2012 and a cross-sectional examination of 2011-2012 data to establish the numbers of formulations on the market with and without a record of CDSCO approval ("approved" and "unapproved", their branded products, and sales volumes. Data from the CDSCO on approved FDC formulations were compared with sales data from PharmaTrac, a database of national drug sales. We determined the proportions of FDC sales volumes (2011-2012 arising from centrally approved and unapproved formulations and from formulations including drugs banned/restricted internationally. We also determined the proportions of centrally approved and unapproved formulations marketed before and after 1 May 2002, when amendments were made to the drug rules. FDC approvals in India, the United Kingdom (UK, and United States of America (US were compared. For NSAID FDCs, 124 formulations were marketed, of which 34 (27% were centrally approved and 90 (73% were unapproved; metformin: 25 formulations, 20 (80% approved, five (20% unapproved; anti-depressants/benzodiazepines: 16 formulations, three (19% approved, 13 (81% unapproved; anti-psychotics: ten formulations, three (30

  4. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    Use for Addicts .................................................... 34 Figures Figure 1. Map of World Drug Majors in FY2009...cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,2 LSD ,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine. Examples of other...methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine). 3 LSD is the street name for lysergic acid diethylamide. 4 The most recent international effort to estimate the value of

  5. Os livros didáticos e o ensino para a saúde: o caso das drogas psicotrópicas Didactic books and teaching for health: the case of psychotropic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carlini-Cotrim

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 18 livros didáticos de primeiro e segundo graus, das disciplinas de Ciências/Biologia, Educação Moral e Cívica e Organização Social e Política do Brasil, em relação ao tratamento dado ao tema consumo de drogas psicotrópicas. A análise da estrutura dos textos evidenciou preocupação excessiva com a discussão dos efeitos (nocivos das drogas em detrimento de outros tópicos como conceituação, causas que levam ao uso, incidência, tratamento ou prevenção. Os textos se caracterizaram por uma linguagem pouco científica, onde o apelo emocional e o estilo dramático são a tônica. O usuário de drogas foi retratado como sendo necessariamente um ser decadente moral, física e psicologicamente. Os resultados da análise são discutidos à luz de teorias recentes de prevenção ao abuso de drogas.Eighteen didactic books on Sciences/Biology, Civic and Moral Education and Brazilian Political and Social Studies, for primary and secondary schools, were analyzed, with a view to assessing the way in which the issue of psychotropic drug use is dealt with. The texts analyzed are structurally centered on the discussion of the harmful effects of drugs instead of discussing others topics (such as etiology, concepts, treatment, incidence and prevalence. The texts are characterized especially by the use of non-scientific language in which emotional appeal and an exceedingly exacerbated style are the rule. The drug user is described as being necessarily a moral, physical and psychological decadent. The results were discussed in the light of recent theories on the prevention of drug abuse.

  6. Analysis of the Application of Second Class of Psychotropic Drugs in Outpatient Department of Our Hospi-tal during 2012-2015%我院门诊2012-2015年第二类精神药品使用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊青; 李荣琴; 王年生; 张龚

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for rational use of second class of psychotropic drugs in the clinic. METHODS:The second class of psychotropic drugs in outpatient department of our hospital during 2012-2015 were analyzed retrospectively in respects of the number of common drugs prescription,distribution of gender/age/disease diagnosis,DDDs and DUI,etc. RE-SULTS:During 2012-2015,second class of psychotropic drugs in outpatient department of our hospital accounted for 25.09%of to-tal prescription amout. The drugs with high use frequency were alprazolam,clonazepam,lorazepam and estazolam,accounting for 93.10% of total prescription amount of second class of psychotropic drugs. The proportion of male to female was 1∶1.50;the pa-tients aged 19-35 years old took up the biggest proportion,accounting for 34.62%. The proportion of schizophrenia prescription was the highest,accounting for 45.17%. DDDs of alprazolam was the highest,being 742 141.67;its DUI was 1.075;DUI of oth-er drugs was lower than 1.0. CONCLUSIONS:The use of second class of psychotropic drugs is basically reasonable in our hospi-tal. Guiding principles of Clinical Application of Psychotropic Drugs should be implemented strictly and continously to avoid abuse of second class of psychotropic drugs.%目的:为第二类精神药品的临床合理使用提供参考。方法:回顾性分析我院门诊2012-2015年第二类精神药品处方,对常用药品的处方数,患者性别、年龄、临床诊断分布,使用频度(DDDs)和药物利用指数(DUI)等进行统计分析。结果:2012-2015年,我院门诊第二类精神药品占调查处方总量的25.09%;使用频率最高的药物是阿普唑仑片、氯硝西泮片、劳拉西泮片和艾司唑仑片,共占第二类精神药品处方总量的93.10%。使用第二类精神药品的男女性别比例为1∶1.50;19~35岁年龄段患者使用最多,占34.62%;精神分裂症患者处方比例最高,达45.17%

  7. Ensuring access to psychotropic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-04

    Sep 4, 2007 ... Options for sourcing of quality drugs are outlined with practical examples. An argument is ... that of ensuring a regular, adequate supply of appropriate, safe, .... points in the chain means that there have been more failures.

  8. Advising adolescents on the use of psychotropic medication: attitudes among medical and psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitz Elisabeth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial problems about the use of psychotropic medication. Methods Two groups of healthcare students were recruited from universities in Eastern France. 41 fourth-year medical students (MS who had completed their psychiatry course, and 76 third-year psychology students (PS in the faculty of human sciences. Respondents completed a self-administered instrument (20 brief case studies, and a personality inventory at the end of a lecture. Participation was voluntary and unpaid. Results MS would recommend psychotropic drugs in 40% of the 20 cases, PS in 27%. MS who would prescribe psychotropic medication differed in personality profile from PS. MS with a tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration, and who did not see fulfilling moral obligations as important were more likely to prescribe psychotropic drugs. Also more likely to recommend psychotropic drugs, but for different reasons, were PS who were susceptible to stress but not shy or socially anxious, who showed friendliness but little interest in others, and who lacked distance in their decision-making. Conclusion Health promotion is not simply a matter of educating those young people who take psychotropic drugs – health professionals must also question the criteria that inform their decisions. It is as important to investigate the attitudes of the future health professionals (advisers or prescribers as it is to focus on consumer-related issues.

  9. Advising adolescents on the use of psychotropic medication: attitudes among medical and psychology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial problems about the use of psychotropic medication. Methods Two groups of healthcare students were recruited from universities in Eastern France. 41 fourth-year medical students (MS) who had completed their psychiatry course, and 76 third-year psychology students (PS) in the faculty of human sciences. Respondents completed a self-administered instrument (20 brief case studies, and a personality inventory) at the end of a lecture. Participation was voluntary and unpaid. Results MS would recommend psychotropic drugs in 40% of the 20 cases, PS in 27%. MS who would prescribe psychotropic medication differed in personality profile from PS. MS with a tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration, and who did not see fulfilling moral obligations as important were more likely to prescribe psychotropic drugs. Also more likely to recommend psychotropic drugs, but for different reasons, were PS who were susceptible to stress but not shy or socially anxious, who showed friendliness but little interest in others, and who lacked distance in their decision-making. Conclusion Health promotion is not simply a matter of educating those young people who take psychotropic drugs – health professionals must also question the criteria that inform their decisions. It is as important to investigate the attitudes of the future health professionals (advisers or prescribers) as it is to focus on consumer-related issues. PMID:17626618

  10. PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINE PRESCRIPTIONS IN A PRIMARY CARE UNIT IN A BIG CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oliveira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming toknowthe consumptionprofileof psychotropic drugs inpopulation ofperipheral region of abig cityof São Paulo State, 800 prescriptionsfromaPrimary CareUnitareassessedaccordingto344/98-SVS/MS.In that timethecontrolof these drugs were mademanually.The results showed1371 drugsdispensedandamong those1134were psychotropic.Thetotal was64,513pillunits, an average of 107 units with 1.7 drugs per prescription, while82.1% came from public services. The total number of drugs prescribed per prescription had themajority (60.0% onedrug, 20.3%, two drugs, three drugs 11.6%, 6.6% four or moremedications, including those not controlled (14% . Twenty drugswerenot on the standard list.Of controlled, 78.4% belonged to theclassC1 and21.6% toB1.There is a large consumption ofpsychotropic medications for thispoorpopulation, with a prevalence of antidepressants. Thesubsequent implementation of the computerized system significantly reduced the units dispensed,indicating that forms of management are factors to be considered in the rational use of drugs,such as the use of technologies and also the wide range of approaches to health education, such astraining of health professionals, including prescribers

  11. Analysis of the Utilization of Narcotic Drugs and First Type Psychotropic Drugs in a Third Grade Class A Hos-pital during 2012-2014%某三甲医院2012-2014年麻醉药品和第一类精神药品使用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江莉; 陈丹镝; 樊王冬; 黄玲; 许蕾

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for rational use of analgesic drugs for advanced cancer,moderate to severe pain. METHODS:The data of narcotic drugs and first type psychotropic drugs were collected from hospital information system of a third grade class A hospital during 2012-2014,and then analyzed in respects of amount,consumption sum and DDDs,etc. RE-SULTS:The amount of narcotic drugs and first type psychotropic drugs kept stable basically,and the consumption sum of them during 2012-2014 was 1 566 289.92 yuan,1 525 220.23 yuan and 1 531 277.44 yuan. The consumption sum of Morphine hydrochlo-ride tablet increased the fastest,increasing by 89.78% in 2013 and 142.81% in 2014,compared with the year before;those of other drugs had negative growth rate. DDDs of Morphine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets were the highest among all the narcotics and first type psychotropic drugs and increased year by year,increasing from 26 848.00 in 2012 to 47 158.00 in 2014. CONCLU-SIONS:The use of narcotic drugs and first type psychotropic drugs conform to the specifications,but they still need strict supervi-sion to promote safe and effective use of them in the clinic.%目的:为晚期癌症、中重度疼痛镇痛药物的合理使用提供参考.方法:从某三甲医院的信息管理系统中提取2012-2014年麻醉药品和第一类精神药品的相关数据,对使用数量和销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)等进行统计分析.结果:该院2012-2014年麻醉药品和第一类精神药品的整体使用数量基本持平,各年的销售金额分别为1 566 289.92、1 525 220.23、1 531 277.44元.盐酸吗啡片的销售金额增长最快,2013、2014年分别比前一年增长了89.78%和142.81%,其余药品大多为负增长.盐酸吗啡缓释片的DDDs 3年均排名第1且逐年递增,从2012年的26 848.00增加至2014年的47 158.00.结论:该院麻醉药品和第一类精神药品用药基本符合规范,但仍然需要严格监管,使之更加安全、有效地应用于临床.

  12. BAP Position Statement: Off-label prescribing of psychotropic medication to children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya N; Arango, Celso; Coghill, David; Gringras, Paul; Nutt, David J; Pratt, Peter; Young, Allan H; Hollis, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The off-label use of medicines for children and adolescents remains a common and important issue for prescribing practice across child and adolescent psychiatry, paediatrics and primary care. This editorial focusses on psychotropic drug treatment, which plays an essential part in the comprehensive management of a range of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Despite a growing evidence base for drug treatment in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, much psychotropic medication continues to be prescribed off-label (i.e. outside the limits of the marketing authorisation or product license). The reasons for and implications of off-label prescribing, including the potential clinical benefits/risks and medico-legal implications, are often poorly understood by both patients and prescribers. An important unintended consequence of the uncertainties and confusion surrounding the status of off-label prescribing for children and adolescents may be that effective drug treatments are being withheld or underused. This BAP Position Statement aims to clarify these issues, challenge some of the myths surrounding off-label prescribing for children and adolescents and offer practical guidance for prescribers.

  13. Development of a Psychotropic PRN Medication Evaluative Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Larry; Watt, Jackie; Pilon, Nancy; Draper, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a psychotropic PRN Evaluative Tool developed by interprofessional clinicians to address inconsistent reporting and assessment of the effectiveness of PRN medications used for people who are developmentally disabled. Fifty-nine participants (37 males, 22 females), ages 16 to 60 years, were included in the review, all…

  14. Development of a Psychotropic PRN Medication Evaluative Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Larry; Watt, Jackie; Pilon, Nancy; Draper, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a psychotropic PRN Evaluative Tool developed by interprofessional clinicians to address inconsistent reporting and assessment of the effectiveness of PRN medications used for people who are developmentally disabled. Fifty-nine participants (37 males, 22 females), ages 16 to 60 years, were included in the review, all…

  15. A qualitative study exploring visible components of organizational culture: what influences the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna J; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Fois, Romano J; Chen, Timothy F

    2016-10-01

    The influence of organizational culture on how psychotropic medicines are used in nursing homes has not been extensively studied. Schein's theory provides a framework for examining organizational culture which begins with the exploration of visible components of an organization such as behaviors, structures, and processes. This study aimed to identify key visible components related to the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes. A qualitative study was conducted in eight nursing homes in Sydney, Australia. Purposive sampling was used to conduct semi-structured interviews with 40 participants representing a broad range of health disciplines. Thematic analysis was used to derive concepts. Three visible components were related to psychotropic medicine use. These were drugs and therapeutics committee meetings, pharmacist led medication management reviews and formal and informal meetings with residents and their families. We found that only a few nursing homes utilized drugs and therapeutics committee meetings to address the overuse of psychotropic medicines. Pharmacist led medication management reviews provided a lever to minimize inappropriate psychotropic prescribing for a number of nursing homes; however, in others it was used as a box-ticking exercise. We also found that some nursing homes used meetings with residents and their families to review the use of psychotropic medicines. This study was the first to illustrate that visible components of organizational culture do influence the use of psychotropic medicines and explains in detail what of the culture needs to be addressed to reduce inappropriate psychotropic prescribing.

  16. Factors influencing psychotropic prescription by non-psychiatrist physicians in a nursing home for the elderly in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo Stella

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Although psychotropics are one of the classes of medications most prescribed in nursing homes for the elderly, studies examining prescribing patterns are limited in both number and scope. The present study was undertaken to investigate factors associated with general psychotropic use in a nursing home in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective observational study at the Nursing Home for the Elderly, Institute of Biosciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista. METHODS: Information on prescriptions was retrieved from the medical records of 108 elderly residents in a nursing home. Sixty-five of these patients, with mean age 74.5 years (± standard deviation 9.4 years, who were taking medications on a regular basis, comprised the sample. The effects of demographic and clinical variables on the psychotropic prescription pattern were examined. RESULTS: Females were more likely to receive psychotropics (p = 0.038. Individuals on medicines for cardiovascular diseases received psychotropics less frequently (p = 0.001. The number of prescribed psychotropics correlated negatively with both age (p = 0.009 and number of non-psychotropic drugs (p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: Although preliminary, the present results indicated that cardiovascular disease was the clinical variable that most influenced psychotropic prescription. Physicians' overconcern regarding drug interactions might at least partially explain this result. Further investigations involving larger sample sizes from different regions are warranted to confirm these findings.

  17. The Neuroprotective Disease-Modifying Potential of Psychotropics in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Lauterbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotective treatments in Parkinson's disease (PD have remained elusive. Psychotropics are commonly prescribed in PD without regard to their pathobiological effects. The authors investigated the effects of psychotropics on pathobiological proteins, proteasomal activity, mitochondrial functions, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, trophic factors, stem cells, and neurogenesis. Only findings replicated in at least 2 studies were considered for these actions. Additionally, PD-related gene transcription, animal model, and human neuroprotective clinical trial data were reviewed. Results indicate that, from a PD pathobiology perspective, the safest drugs (i.e., drugs least likely to promote cellular neurodegenerative mechanisms balanced against their likelihood of promoting neuroprotective mechanisms include pramipexole, valproate, lithium, desipramine, escitalopram, and dextromethorphan. Fluoxetine favorably affects transcription of multiple genes (e.g., MAPT, GBA, CCDC62, HIP1R, although it and desipramine reduced MPTP mouse survival. Haloperidol is best avoided. The most promising neuroprotective investigative priorities will involve disease-modifying trials of the safest agents alone or in combination to capture salutary effects on H3 histone deacetylase, gene transcription, glycogen synthase kinase-3, α-synuclein, reactive oxygen species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS, apoptosis, inflammation, and trophic factors including GDNF and BDNF.

  18. Child, parent, and service predictors of psychotropic polypharmacy among adolescents and young adults with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Johanna K; Weiss, Jonathan A; Dergal, Julie; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the child, parent, and service factors associated with polypharmacy in adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As part of an online survey examining health service utilization patterns among individuals with ASD, parents provided demographic and clinical information pertaining to their child. This included information on current medication use, as well as information on clinical services received, clinical history, and parent well-being. Analyses examined the bivariate association between individual child, parent, and service variables and polypharmacy. Variables significantly associated with polypharmacy were included in a multiple variable logistic regression. Of the 363 participants sampled, ∼25% were receiving two or more psychotropic drugs concurrently. The patient's psychiatric comorbidity, history of hurting others, therapy use, and parent burden were predictors of polypharmacy. Adolescents and young adults with ASD are a highly medicated population with multiple factors associated with psychotropic polypharmacy. Although there may be circumstances in which polypharmacy is necessary, a richer understanding of what predicts polypharmacy may lead to targeted interventions to better support these individuals and their families. Findings also highlight the need to support families of children with ASD prescribed multiple psychotropic medications.

  19. Psychotropic Medication Use during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Flora M.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Shea, Timothy; Seel, Ronald T.; McAlister, Thomas W.; Kaelin, Darryl; Ryser, David; Corrigan, John D.; Cullen, Nora; Horn, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe psychotropic medication administration patterns during inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their relationship to patient pre-injury and injury characteristics. Design Prospective observational cohort. Setting multiple acute inpatient rehabilitation units or hospitals. Participants 2,130 individuals with TBI (complicated mild, moderate, or severe) admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. Interventions NA Main Outcome Measure(s) NA Results Most frequently administered was narcotic analgesics (72% of sample) followed by antidepressants (67%), anticonvulsants (47%), antianxiolytics (33%), hypnotics (30%), stimulants (28%), antipsychotics (25%), antiparkinson agents (25%), and miscellaneous psychotropics (18%). The psychotropic agents studied were administered to 95% of the sample with 8.5% receiving only 1 and 31.8% receiving 6 or more. Degree of psychotropic medication administration varied widely between sites. Univariate analyses indicated younger patients were more likely to receive anxiolytics, antidepressants, antiparkinson agents, stimulants, antipsychotics, and narcotic analgesics, while those older were more likely to receive anticonvulsants and miscellaneous psychotropics. Men were more likely to receive antipsychotics. All medication classes were less likely administered to Asians, and more likely to those with more severe functional impairment. Use of anticonvulsants was associated with having seizures at some point during acute care or rehabilitation stays. Narcotic analgesics were more likely for those with history of drug abuse, history of anxiety and depression (premorbid or during acute care), and severe pain during rehabilitation. Psychotropic medication administration increased rather than decreased during the course of inpatient rehabilitation in each of the medication categories except for narcotics. This observation was also true for medication administration within admission functional levels (defined

  20. Uso de drogas psicotrópicas por estudantes: prevalência e fatores sociais associados Use of psychotropics drugs among students: prevalence and associated social factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Soldera

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência do uso pesado de drogas por estudantes de primeiro e segundo graus em uma amostra de escolas públicas e particulares, e identificar fatores demográficos, psicológicos e socioculturais associados. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com uma técnica de amostragem do tipo intencional comparando-se escolas públicas de áreas periféricas e centrais e escolas particulares. Foi utilizado um questionário anônimo de autopreenchimento. A amostra foi constituída por 2.287 estudantes de primeiro e segundo graus da cidade de Campinas, SP, no ano de 1998. Considerou-se uso pesado, o uso de drogas em 20 dias ou mais nos 30 dias que antecederam a pesquisa. Para análise estatística, utilizou-se a análise de regressão logística politômica - modelo logito, visando identificar fatores que influenciem este modo de usar drogas. RESULTADOS: O uso pesado de drogas lícitas e ilícitas foi de: álcool (11,9%, tabaco (11,7%, maconha (4,4%, solventes (1,8%, cocaína (1,4%, medicamentos (1,1%, ecstasy (0,7%. O uso pesado foi maior entre os estudantes da escola pública central, do período noturno, que trabalhavam, pertencentes aos níveis socioeconômicos A e B, e cuja educação religiosa na infância foi pouco intensa. CONCLUSÕES: Maior disponibilidade de dinheiro e padrões específicos de socialização foram identificados como fatores associados ao uso pesado de drogas em estudantes.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the heavy use of drugs among elementary and high school students in a sample of public and private schools, and to identify associated demographic, psychological, cultural and social factors. METHODS: This report describes a cross-sectional study using an intention-type sampling technique that compared public schools in central and peripheral areas and private schools. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was applied. The sample consisted of 2,287 elementary and high school

  1. Psychotropic drug consumption: analysis of ambulatory setting prescriptions as basis for drug-related problems studies / Consumo de medicamentos psicotrópicos: análisis de recetas médicas ambulatorias como base para estudios de problemas relacionados con medicamentos / Consumo de psicotrópicos: análise das prescrições ambulatoriais como base para estudos de problemas relacionados com medicamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelá IR

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed to discuss consumption of psychotropic registered by Health Municipal Secretariat of Ribeirão Preto (SMSRP, São Paulo (Brazil in 2001. Data were gathered from monthly records of Pharmacy Units, kept in Pharmacy Department of SMSRP, and were expressed in DDD per 10.000 inhabitants/day, for each pharmaceutical. Diazepam (DZP was the most used anxiolytic (DDD/10000=96.8, followed by phenobarbital (DDD/10000=32.8. Amitriptyline was the most used antidepressant, and the 4th among all psychotropic drugs (DDD/10000=18.6. A increasing trend in DZP and AMT consumption was observed, being most of the prescriptions done by psychiatry specialists (53 and 60%, respectively, while the rest was originated in neurology, rheumatology and ambulatory AIDS clinics. The present study concludes that antidepressant consumption suggests a great use in non-psychiatric use, specially AMT, pointing out its use in analgesia. It also concludes that although data are not enough to obtain risk-cost-benefit of this drugs, neither factors determining psychotropic consumption, they point to the necessity of multy-dimensional assessments to verify existence of symptoms medicalization by non-psychiatric medicine, and their iatrogenic consequences.

  2. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs
non-medical use and diversion of psychotropic prescription drugs in North America: a review of sourcing routes and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Bibby, Meagan; Bouchard, Martin

    2010-12-01

    North America features some of the world's highest consumption levels for controlled psychoactive prescription drugs (PPDs; e.g. prescription opioids, benzodiazepines, stimulants), with non-medical use and related harms (e.g. morbidity, mortality) rising in key populations in recent years. While the determinants, characteristics and impacts of these 'use' problems are increasingly well documented, little is known about the 'supply' side of non-medical PPD use, much of which is facilitated by 'diversion' as a key sourcing route. This paper provides a select review of the phenomenon of PPD diversion in North America, also considering interventions and policy implications. A conceptual and empirical review of select-peer- and non-peer-reviewed research literature from 1991 to 2010 focusing upon PPD diversion in North America was conducted. The phenomenon of PPD diversion is heterogeneous. Especially among general populations, a large proportion of PPDs for non-medical use are obtained from friends or family members. Other PPD diversion routes involve 'double doctoring' or 'prescription shopping'; street drug markets; drug thefts, prescription forgeries or fraud; as well as PPD purchases from the internet. The distinct nature and heterogeneity make PPD diversion a complex and difficult target for interventions. Prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) appear to reduce overall PPD use, yet their impact on reducing diversion or non-medical use is not clear. Law enforcement is unlikely to reach PPD diversion effectively. Effective reduction will probably require reductions in overall PPD consumption volumes, although such will need to be accomplished without compromising standards of good medical (e.g. pain) care. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. A Comprehensive List of Items to be Included on a Pediatric Drug Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren E; Ito, Shinya; Woods, David; Nunn, Anthony J; Taketomo, Carol; de Hoog, Matthijs; Offringa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Children require special considerations for drug prescribing. Drug information summarized in a formulary containing drug monographs is essential for safe and effective prescribing. Currently, little is known about the information needs of those who prescribe and administer medicines to children. Our primary objective was to identify a list of important and relevant items to be included in a pediatric drug monograph. Following the establishment of an expert steering committee and an environmental scan of adult and pediatric formulary monograph items, 46 participants from 25 countries were invited to complete a 2-round Delphi survey. Questions regarding source of prescribing information and importance of items were recorded. An international consensus meeting to vote on and finalize the items list with the steering committee followed. Pediatric formularies are most commonly the first resource consulted for information on medication used in children by 31 Delphi participants. After the Delphi rounds, 116 items were identified to be included in a comprehensive pediatric drug monograph, including general information, adverse drug reactions, dosages, precautions, drug-drug interactions, formulation, and drug properties. Health care providers identified 116 monograph items as important for prescribing medicines for children by an international consensus-based process. This information will assist in setting standards for the creation of new pediatric drug monographs for international application and for those involved in pediatric formulary development.

  4. Use of drugs for ADHD among adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlstad, Øystein; Zoëga, Helga; Furu, Kari

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The use of ADHD drugs among adults is controversial and has until recently not been approved for use in adults in most countries. The aim was to investigate use of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) among the entire adult population in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We conducted...... a multinational population-based prescription register study based on the entire adult population in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). All users of ADHD drugs aged 18-64 years during 2008-2012 were included, which for 2012 comprised 76,896 drug users among 15.8 million...... period. Methylphenidate was used by 88 % of drug users. Treatment was discontinued within the first year by 21 % of new drug users. Among all users of ADHD drugs, 53 % of men and 64 % of women concurrently used other psychotropic drugs, most frequently antidepressants and hypnotics. Psychotropic co...

  5. Neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2010-07-01

    Until now, studies on the reproductive safety of psychotropics have typically assessed the risk of congenital malformations and perinatal complications associated with in utero exposure to such medications. However, little is known of their inherent potential neurobehavioral teratogenicity. The objective is to analyze available data from studies investigating developmental outcome of children exposed prenatally to psychotropics. A computerized Medline/PubMed/TOXNET/ENBASE search (1960-2010) was conducted using the following keywords: pregnancy, child/infant development/neurodevelopment, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics. A separate search was also run to complete the safety profile of single specific medications. Resultant articles were cross-referenced for other relevant articles not identified in the initial search. A noncomputerized review of pertinent journals and textbooks was also performed. All studies published in English and reporting primary data on the developmental outcome of infants exposed in utero to psychotropics and born without malformations were collected. As regards antiepileptic drugs, only studies that provided data on specific medications approved for psychiatric practice use (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproate) were considered. Data were extracted from 41 articles (38 identified electronically and 3 nonelectronically), which met the inclusion criteria. Despite reviewed studies showing relevant methodological limitations, concordant, albeit preliminary, information seems to exclude that prenatal exposure to both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants may interfere with the infants' psychological and cognitive development. Conversely, information on valproate strongly discourages its use in pregnant women. Moreover, although data on carbamazepine remain controversial, information on whole classes of drugs and single medications is either absent (second

  6. A study in Renaissance psychotropic plant ointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piomelli, D; Pollio, A

    1994-01-01

    Various historical sources from the Renaissance--including transcripts of trials for witchcraft, writings on demonology and textbooks of pharmaceutical botany--describe vegetal ointments prepared by women accused of witchcraft and endowed with marked psychoactive properties. Here, we examine the botanical composition and the possible pharmacological actions of these ointments. The results of our study suggest that recipes for narcotic and mind-altering salves were known to Renaissance folk healers, and were in part distinct from homologous preparations of educated medicine. In addition, our study reveals an unexpected connection of these vegetal psychotropes with archaic chtonic beliefs, confirming the tight association between rituals and cults entered on the Underworld and the image of the Medieval witch.

  7. 40 CFR 36.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... awareness program? 36.215 Section 36.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS...) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals § 36.215 What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? You must establish an ongoing drug-free awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The...

  8. Problems and Solutions of the Enforcement of Usage Regulation on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances in Medical Institutions%医疗卫生机构在执行《麻醉药品和精神药品管理条例》过程中存在的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢顶仁; 杨华萍; 朱腊荣; 张友干

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for the enforcement of Usage Regulation on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (called Regulation for short).METHODS:Problems about the implementation of Regulation in health department,between departments and in medical institutions as well as Regulation was listed after relevant checks,and the countermeasures and suggestions were put forward.RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:Some health departments didn't supervise the implementation of the Regulation that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances should be bought by special card.The communication of health department with drug administration,medical institution with drug administration,enterprise and user with departments of security was in shortage.The training and examination of doctors and narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances registration were inadequate in medical institutions,and there was no designated counter for the storage of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.The narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were not used according to the Guiding Principle of Clinical Use and didn' t meet the demands of patients; the maximum dosage of a prescription for narcotic drugs and psyehotropic substances was not up to the regulation of Department of Public Health.It is suggested to delete the provisions of "prohibition of opium" and "drug abuse" in the Regulation;preserve the authority of the policies; strengthen communication and cooperation; enhance the training of medical persons for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances,master the aim of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances; clear and defmite their management responsibilities; master the principle,method and caution of use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances; perfect the contents of individual items.%目的:为《麻醉药品和精神药品管理条例》(以下简称《条例》)的全面贯彻执行提供参考.方法:总结相关检查之后发现的卫生部门、部门之间、医疗机构及

  9. Drug eruptions: An 8-year study including 106 inpatients at a dermatology clinic in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Akpinar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few clinical studies are found in the literature about patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption. Aims: To determine the clinical types of drug eruptions and their causative agents in a hospital-based population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the Dermatology Department of Haseki General Hospital. Through 1751 patients hospitalized in this department between 2002 and 2009, inpatients diagnosed as drug eruption were evaluated according to WHO causality definitions. 106 patients composed of probable and possible cases of cutaneous drug eruptions were included in this study. Results: Seventy one females and 35 males were evolved. Mean age was 44.03±15.14. Duration between drug intake and onset of reaction varied from 5 minutes to 3 months. The most common clinical type was urticaria and/or angioedema in 48.1% of the patients, followed by maculopapular rash in 13.2%, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in 8.5%. Drugs most frequently associated with cutaneous drug eruptions were antimicrobial agents in 40.5% of the patients, followed by antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics in 31.1%, and antiepileptics in 11.3%. Conclusion: Urticaria and/or angioedema and maculopapular rash comprised majority of the drug eruptions. Rare reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, sweet syndrome, oral ulceration were also found. Antimicrobial agents and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics were the most commonly implicated drugs. Infrequently reported adverse reactions to myorelaxant agents, newer cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were also detected. We suppose that studies on drug eruptions should continue, because the pattern of consumption of drugs is changing in every country at different periods and many new drugs are introduced on the market continuously.

  10. 某专科医院精神科住院病人用药时点调查%Inpatient utilization of psychotropic drugs:A time-point survey of psychiatry in a mental hospital of zhongshan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温全胜; 卢文芬; 厉倬学; 孙录

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status and regularities in the utilization of psychotropic drugs for the third people's hospital of zhongshan hospital patients.Methods The durg use was analyzed,and the regularity of prescription was summarized for overall hospitalized patients in our hospital at the same day,i.e.May 14th.2013.Results The top 5 antipsychotic drugs were Risperidone,Clozapine,Olanzapine,Aripiprazole and Quetiapine.The top 3 mood stabilizers were Sodium Valproate,Oxcarbaz-epine and Magnesium Valproate.Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have become the first line antipsychotic drugs.The medication scheme for psychotic inpatients in this hospital is rational on the whole.But more attention should be paid to make reasonable use of such medicine as Antane and Benzodiazeyzine.%目的:了解中山市第三人民医院住院精神障碍患者的药物应用情况及其用药规律。方法采用一日法,以2013年5月14日为时间节点,对该院住院病人的用药情况进行分析,总结其用药规律。结果①单用抗精神病药、心境稳定剂、抗焦虑药/镇静催眠药、抗抑郁药和苯海索分别占60.53%、27.70%、30.74%、7.40%和14.23%,未使用抗精神病药、心境稳定剂、抗焦虑药/镇静催眠药、抗抑郁药和苯海索分别占5.50%、69.83%、66.98%、92.60%和85.77%;②使用频率居前5位的抗精神病药分别为利培酮174例(33.02%),氯氮平143例(27.13%),奥氮平107例(20.30%),阿立哌唑75例(14.23%),喹硫平68例(12.90%)。居前3位的心境稳定剂分别为丙戊酸钠110例(20.87%),奥卡西平22例(4.17%),丙戊酸镁19例(3.60%)。结论非典型抗精神病药和新型抗抑郁药已成为临床一线用药,临床用药总体较规范,但仍需要注意苯海索和苯二氮艹卓类(BDZ)药物的合理使用。

  11. Pediatric psychotropic medication initiation and adherence: a literature review based on social exchange theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Vanya; McCarthy, Erin M; Tyson, Veda

    2010-08-01

    Psychotropic medication initiation and adherence is an identified problem. This literature review explores factors that determine families' decisions to initiate, sustain, or discontinue use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents. Social exchange theory is used as a framework to explore decisions to initiate and adhere to psychotropic medications. Contributing factors related to psychotropic medication initiation, adherence, and discontinuation are explored. Themes in the literature encompassing costs and benefits of psychotropic medication adherence include family experiences with adverse effects, previous psychotropic medication experience, medication psychoeducation, stigma, societal views about psychotropic medication, particular diagnosis, the effect of comorbid diagnosis on adherence, attitudes and beliefs about medication by both children and parents, and relationships with the provider. The impact of family demographics including parent gender, age of the child, ethnicity, and parent educational level on psychotropic medication adherence is evaluated. International and U.S. studies from Medline, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsychInfo evaluating medication initiation and adherence in the pediatric psychiatric population and social exchange theory was incorporated from relevant textbook resources. Rewards experienced from medication treatment include improvement in symptoms, school performance and family relationships, and reduced level of parenting stress. Identified costs include impact of adverse side effects, social stigma, lack of response, fears of addiction, and changing the child's personality. Acceptance of the diagnosis influences adherence while medication education has varying effects. Families' attitudes, beliefs and perceptions about psychiatric illness and treatment play a large role in medication treatment decisions. A trusting provider relationship has a positive effect on adherence

  12. Risk of arrhythmia induced by psychotropic medications: a proposal for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanoe, Søren; Kristensen, Diana; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf; Toft, Egon; Nielsen, Jimmi; Videbech, Poul; Pehrson, Steen; Bundgaard, Henning

    2014-05-21

    Several drugs used in the treatment of mental diseases are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). A general cause-relationship between the intake of these drugs and SCD is unattainable, but numerous case reports of drug-induced malignant arrhythmia and epidemiological studies, associating the use of specific drugs with SCD, strongly support the presence of an increased risk. Whereas the absolute risk of drug-induced life-threatening arrhythmia may be relatively low, even small increments in risk of SCD may have a major health impact considering that millions of patients are treated with psychotropics. In subgroups of pre-disposed patients, e.g. patients with cardiac diseases or other co-morbidities, the elderly or patients treated with other negatively interacting drugs, the absolute risk of drug-induced arrhythmia may be considerable. On the other hand, several of the major mental disorders are associated with a large risk of suicide if untreated. The observed risk of malignant arrhythmia associated with treatment with psychotropic drugs calls for clinical guidelines integrating the risk of the individual drug and other potentially interacting risk factors. In this review, data from various authorities on the risk of arrhythmia associated with psychotropic medications were weighted and categorized into three risk categories. Additionally, we suggest a clinically applicable algorithm to reduce the risk of malignant arrhythmia in patients to be treated with psychotropic medications. The algorithm integrates the risk categories of the individual drugs and pre-disposing risk factors and suggests a prudent follow-up for patients with an increased risk. We believe this clinically manageable guideline might improve safety in the many and rapidly increasing number of patients on psychotropic drugs.

  13. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  14. One-day Investigation of Psychotropic Drugs Use for 149 Inpatients in the Psychosomatic Disorder Department%149例心身障碍科住院患者1日精神药物使用调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章凤君; 陈晓燕; 孙皎

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the one-day use of psychotropic drugs for the patients in the psychosomatic disorder department, and provide guidance for clinical rational medication. Methods: Prescriptions of 149 inpatients were investigated in the psychosomatic disorder department on May 8, 2012 through Hospital Information System (HIS). Results: Top five prescriptions of antidepressants were respectively paroxetine 35(23.49% ) , sertraline 21 ( 14.09% ) , escita-lopram 19(12. 75%) , mirtazapine 17(11.41%) and venlafaxine 15(10. 07%), while the top five anxiolytics were clon-azepam 130(87.25% ) , buspirone hydrochloride 16( 10.74% ), lorazepam 14(9.40% ) , alprazolam 10(6.71% ) and ox-azepam 6(4. 03% ) in order. The antipsychotics that were used most frequently were Sulpiride 68(45. 64% ) , followed by quetiapine 33(22. 15% ), olanzapine 16( 10. 74% ) , risperidone 7(4.70% ) and aripiprazole 3(2.01% ). Simultaneously , inpatients often received a combination of two or three different drugs above in the psychosomatic disorder department. Conclusion: The new generation of antidepressants and anxiolytics which were safe and had fewer side effects were mainly utilized in the psychosomatic disorder department. Most prescriptions in the one - day investigation were rational. However, some problems should be seriously considered, such as high prevalence of Benzodiazepines use, excessive drug combination and lack of the non-medical therapy.%目的:调查某院心身障碍科1日用药情况,为临床合理用药提供客观数据.方法:统计该院心身障碍科2012年5月8日149例住院患者用药信息.结果:抗抑郁药使用频次依次为帕罗西汀35例(23.49%)、舍曲林21例(14.09%)、艾司西酞普兰19例(12.75%)、米氮平17例(11.41%)、文拉法辛15例(10.07%);镇静催眠抗焦虑药前5位的是氯硝西泮130例(87.25%)、丁螺环酮16例(10.74%)、劳拉西泮14例(9.40%)、阿普唑仑10例(6.71%)、奥沙西泮6例(4.03

  15. [Use of psychotropic drugs in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D

    2008-12-01

    The need for specific psychopharmacology trials in the pediatric population has been recognized and promoted by clinicians and regulatory instances. There are indeed specificities in symptom expression and pharmacological characteristics in this population, and recent studies showed that extrapolation from adult data is not always possible. Available results are insufficient to provide effective guidance for prescription and long-term evaluation of risk/benefit ratio in most indications. The aim of this article is to give an overview of efficacy and safety data in pediatric psychopharmacology.

  16. Workplace bullying and subsequent psychotropic medication: a cohort study with register linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Haukka, Jari; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine longitudinally whether workplace bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication among women and men. Design A cohort study. Setting Helsinki, Finland. Participants Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=6606, 80% women), 40–60 years at baseline in 2000–2002, and a register-based follow-up on medication. Primary and secondary outcome measures Workplace bullying comprised questions about current and earlier bullying as well as observing bullying. The Finnish Social Insurance Institution's register data on purchases of prescribed reimbursed psychotropic medication were linked with the survey data. All psychotropic medication 3 years prior to and 5 years after the baseline survey was included. Covariates included age, prior psychotropic medication, childhood bullying, occupational class, and body mass index. Cox proportional hazard models (HR, 95% CI) were fitted and days until the first purchase of prescribed psychotropic medication after baseline were used as the time axis. Results Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication after adjusting for age and prior medication among both women (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.93) and men (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.41). Also observing bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication among women (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.88) and men (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.99). The associations only modestly attenuated after full adjustment. Conclusions Our findings highlight the significance of workplace bullying to subsequent psychotropic medication reflecting medically confirmed mental problems. Tackling workplace bullying likely helps prevent mental problems among employees. PMID:23242240

  17. Investigation and analysis on the frequency of anti -psychotropic drugs of all grades of mental health institutions in Hebei%河北省各级精神卫生医疗机构抗精神药物使用频度的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 张云淑; 钱卫国; 翟京波; 孙秀丽; 严保平; 徐娜; 栗克清

    2014-01-01

    Objective To survey of the usage of psychotropic drugs in mental health institutions in Hebei province in 2011.Methods Use limit daily dose ( DDD) , pharmacoeconomics frequency analysis method and drug sales amount were as index.The drug outbound records of 39 mental health institutions in Hebei province on 2011 were analyzed.Re-sults The ranked first of psychotropic drugs in mental health institutions of different grades ( grade 3,2,1) were as followed.The ranked first of antipsychotic drug were quetiapine , risperidone, clozapinein in the 3,2, 1 institutions , respectively.The ranked first of antidepressants were cita-lopram, paroxetine, amitriptyline,in the 3,2,1 institutions, respectively.The ranked first of emotional stabilizer were magnesium valproate sus-tained-release tablets ( SR) , magnesium valproate SR , valproate in the 3,2,1 institutions, respectively.Conclusion Mental health institutions in Hebei province at all grades have tended to use the new generation of psychotropic drugs with reasonable -price, definite -curative, but significant differences exist in the medical institutions at differert levels.%目的:调查河北省精神卫生机构2011年各类精神药物的使用情况。方法以河北省39家精神卫生机构2011年全年药品出库记录为对象,以限定日剂量( DDD)为指标,对精神药物使用情况进行统计分析。结果在三、二、一级医疗机构中,各种不同精神类药物排名居首位的如下:抗精神病药物分别是奎硫平(三级)、利培酮(二级)、氯氮平(一级);抗抑郁药分别是西酞普兰、帕罗西汀、阿米替林;情感稳定剂分别是丙戊酸镁缓释片、丙戊酸镁缓释片、丙戊酸钠。结论河北省各级医疗机构对精神药物使用情况当前均趋向于使用价格合理、疗效明确的新一代精神药物,但上述三级医疗机构比较存在明显差异。

  18. Children and Psychotropic Medication: A Cautionary Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James; Stone, George

    2011-01-01

    This report addresses how the mental health field is organized in terms of the use of psychotropic medications with children and adolescents, and the ethical challenge this presents to marriage and family therapists.

  19. Antipsychotic drugs alter neuronal development including ALM neuroblast migration and PLM axonal outgrowth in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Dallas R; Weeks, Kathrine; Aamodt, Eric J; Dwyer, Donard S

    2008-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are increasingly being prescribed for children and adolescents, and are used in pregnant women without a clear demonstration of safety in these populations. Global effects of these drugs on neurodevelopment (e.g., decreased brain size) have been reported in rats, but detailed knowledge about neuronal effects and mechanisms of action are lacking. Here we report on the evaluation of a comprehensive panel of antipsychotic drugs in a model organism (Caenorhabditis elegans) that is widely used to study neuronal development. Specifically, we examined the effects of the drugs on neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth in mechanosensory neurons visualized with green fluorescent protein expressed from the mec-3 promoter. Clozapine, fluphenazine, and haloperidol produced deficits in the development and migration of ALM neurons and axonal outgrowth in PLM neurons. The defects included failure of neuroblasts to migrate to the proper location, and excessive growth of axons past their normal termination point, together with abnormal morphological features of the processes. Although the antipsychotic drugs are potent antagonists of dopamine and serotonin receptors, the neurodevelopmental deficits were not rescued by co-incubation with serotonin or the dopaminergic agonist, quinpirole. Other antipsychotic drugs, risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine, trifluoperazine and olanzapine, also produced modest, but detectable, effects on neuronal development. This is the first report that antipsychotic drugs interfere with neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth in a developing nervous system.

  20. Psychotropic marketing practices and problems: implications for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Melissa; Parry, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The descriptive diagnostic model since DSM-III has often led to "cookbook" diagnosis and assumptions of "chemical imbalance" for psychiatric disorders. Pharmaceutical companies have exploited this in their marketing. This includes promoting self-diagnosis with online checklists. Significant overprescribing of psychotropics has resulted. DSM-5 will provide new disorders and broader diagnostic criteria that will likely exacerbate this. Most psychotropic prescribing is done by primary care physicians, who are problematically excluded from DSM-5 field trials and are influenced by industry funded key opinion leaders who may promote diagnosis of subthreshold cases. More lax criteria will increase diagnosis of subthreshold cases. Expansion of not otherwise specified (NOS) categories can be used to justify off-label promotion. Pediatric bipolar disorder, constructed within the bipolar disorder NOS category, became an "epidemic" in the United States, fuelled by diagnostic upcoding pressures. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder may similarly cause overdiagnosis and excessive prescribing, as will other new disorders and lower diagnostic thresholds.

  1. An overview of drug delivery vehicles for cancer treatment: Nanocarriers and nanoparticles including photovoltaic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Silvia; Yusof, Faridah; Salim, Wan Wardatul Amani Wan; Sulaiman, Nadzril; Faruck, Mohammad Omer

    2016-11-01

    Cancer is a complicated disease for which finding a cure presents challenges. In recent decades, new ways to treat cancer are being sought; one being nanomedicine, which manipulates nanoparticles to target a cancer and release drugs directly to the cancer cells. A number of cancer treatments based on nanomedicine are under way and mostly are in preclinical trials owing to challenges in administration, safety, and effectiveness. One alternative method for drug delivery is the use of photovoltaic nanoparticles, which has the potential to deliver drugs via light activation. The concepts are based on standard photovoltaic cell that holds opposite charges on its surfaces and releases drugs when charge intensity or polarity changes upon photo-stimulation such as from a laser source or sunlight. This review will cover some recent progress in cancer treatment using nanoparticles, including photovoltaic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of Psychotropic Medication Prescriptions by Psychiatrists for Private Clinic Outpatients in Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Sabahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern and utilisation of psychotropic drug prescriptions by psychiatrists in Kerman Province, Iran. Methods: The prescriptions of 27 psychiatrists were randomly selected from two Iranian public insurance organisations and were analysed for the mean number of drugs/prescriptions, drug category and the most frequently prescribed drug in each category as well as overall. Results: A total of 6,414 prescriptions were analysed. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 2.9. Antidepressants (61.0% were the most frequently prescribed category of psychotropic medications, followed by antipsychotics (29.5%, sedative/hypnotics or anti-anxiety drugs (27.5% and mood stabilisers (18.5%. The combination of antidepressants with antipsychotics was the most commonly prescribed combination (18.8%. Fluoxetine (16.5% and trifluoperazine (13.5% were among the most frequently prescribed antidepressants and antipsychotics, respectively. Clonazepam (10.5% was the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepine agent, followed by alprazolam (8.5%. In terms of total drug utilisation, sertraline (12.4% was the most commonly used psychotropic medication followed by fluoxetine (9.7%, trifluoperazine (6.6%, propranolol (4.5% and clonazepam (3.7%. Conclusion: A high proportion of psychotropic prescriptions in Kerman Province were for antidepressants, followed by antipsychotics and the benzodiazepines. Further research is needed to determine the underlying correlation between prescription practice and the diagnosis and patient characteristics, as well as to investigate the use of different psychotropic medications.

  3. Antibiotics: neuropsychiatric effects and psychotropic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternbach, H; State, R

    1997-01-01

    Antibiotics are the second most commonly prescribed class of medication in the United States. An awareness and understanding of their potential effects on the central nervous system and their interactions with psychotropic agents is important in the evaluation of neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms in patients. Since the introduction of antibiotic agents in the 1930s, numerous (primarily anecdotal) reports have appeared describing psychiatric side effects ranging from anxiety and panic to major depression, psychosis, and delirium in patients with and without a premorbid psychiatric history. Risk factors have included prior psychopathology, coexisting medical conditions, slow acetylator status, advanced age, concomitant medications, and increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, as well as high antibiotic dosage and intrathecal or intravenous administration. Psychiatric toxicity may result from various mechanisms of action, including antagonism of gamma-aminobutyric acid or pyridoxine, adverse interactions with alcohol, or inhibition of protein synthesis. Adverse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between antibiotics and concomitant medications including lithium, benzodiazepines, carbamazepine, valproate, neuroleptics, antidepressants, methadone, and disulfiram have also been reported. Because such effects are often not recognized by clinicians, accurate epidemiologic data on their incidence are not available.

  4. JUVENILE CRIMES CONNECTED WITH NARCOTICS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES TRAFFICKING: CRIMINOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Irina V. Tseveleva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with criminological aspects of juvenile crime in the narcotics and psychotropic substances trafficking. The authors analyzed the main reasons of committing these crimes by teenagers. The proposals for the prevention of minors’ criminal behavior in drug trafficking are drafted.

  5. 分析我院2012-2013年麻醉药品和第一类精神药品使用情况%Analysis of the situation of the narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances used from 2012 to 2013 in our hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective:In order to promote the rational use of drugs and prevent the drugs abuse,we collected the use of narcotic drugs and the first class of psychoactive drugs in our hospital.Methods:We analyzed using datas of narcotic drugs and the first category of psychotropic drugs in 2012 and 2013 according to the boen management system.We analyzed the drug variety, consumption,the number of prescriptions,sales amount and DDDs.Results:The DDDs sequence of the fentanyl citrate injection continu first for two years,and the DDDs sequence of each drug varieties changed little.The pethidine hydrochloride injection and oral tablet dosage decreased year by year.Conclusion:The use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances is basically reasonable,in conformity with the relevant provisions,and without abuse tendency.%目的:通过分析本院麻醉药品和第一类精神药品的使用情况,促进临床合理用药,防止药物滥用。方法:结合博恩管理系统,收集2012年和2013年麻醉药品、第一类精神药品的使用数据进行统计,对用药品种、年消耗量、处方数量、销售金额、DDDs 等进行分析。结果:枸橼酸芬太尼注射液的 DDDs 排序两年连续第一,各用药品种的DDDs排序变化不大;盐酸哌替啶注射剂和口服片剂的用量逐年下降。结论:麻醉药品和第一类精神药品的使用基本合理,符合有关规定,无滥用倾向。

  6. Psychotropic Medication Use among Adolescents: United States, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Psychotropic Medication Use Among Adolescents: United States, 2005–2010 Recommend ... 0% of adolescents reported the use of psychotropic medications. Figure 1. Percentage of adolescents aged 12–19 ...

  7. Analysis of the Utilization and Affordability of TypeⅡ Psychotropic Substances in Our Hospital%我院第二类精神药品应用情况与可负担性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜淑珍; 魏波; 余斌; 胡茂荣; 占海燕; 曹晶晶

    2013-01-01

      目的:对我院第二类精神药品的合理使用情况与可负担性情况进行分析。方法:选取我院2012年1~6月第二类精神药品处方,按用药总量、年龄、性别、疾病诊断情况等进行统计,分别按照WHO推荐的药物用药频度(DDDs)和药物利用指数(DUI)、WHO/HAI的标准方法分析药品合理使用情况和药品可负担性。结果与结论:我院使用的所有二类精神药品的DUI 值均<1.0,药物使用情况合理;大部分药品可负担性良好,劳拉西泮片可负担程度相对较低,我院应继续加强基本药物的使用。%Objective: To investigate the utilization and affordability of type Ⅱpsychotropic substances in our hospital. Methods: The prescriptions of type Ⅱpsychotropic substances in our hospital from January to June in 2012 were collected and analyzed statistically in terms of the number of prescriptions including drug consumption, age ,sex and disease. According to DDDs, DUI and the standard drug price methodology of WHO /HAI, the utilization and affordability of type Ⅱpsychotropic substances in our hospital were analyzed. Results & Conclusion: DUI of all kinds of type Ⅱpsychotropic substances were smaller than 1.0 in our hospital , and the affordability of drugs is better overall except lorazepam, suggesting an increase usage of the essential drug is required.

  8. Sexual dysfunction among females receiving psychotropic medication: A hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veda N Shetageri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD is a known adverse effect of psychotropic medications. Even though sexual difficulties are common among women; very few studies have been carried out in India. Objective: To study the prevalence and nature of SD among females receiving psychotropic medications and to compare the SD among female patients receiving antipsychotics and antidepressants. Materials and Methods: Female investigator conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study on female patients visiting the psychiatry outpatient department. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for SD disorder as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Text Revision. SD severity was measured using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI scale. Results: The prevalence of SD in this study was 68.32%. There was more than one SD in 48 (47.52%. FSFI score was significantly low in patients with SD as compared to patients not having SD (P = 0.001. SD was more common in patients who were on combination of antidepressants and benzodiazepines than antidepressant alone or antipsychotic alone. Conclusion: SD was prevalent in more than 50% of female patients on psychotropic drugs. Number of patients on individual psychotropic drugs was so small that a definite conclusion could not be drawn. Study emphasizes the need to carry out similar study on larger number of patients to get better insight into this problem.

  9. 2011-2013年新疆精神卫生中心二类精神药品的使用现状及趋势分析Δ%Status Quo and Tendency of the Use of the Second Kind of Psychotropic Drugs in Xinjiang Mental Health Center during 2011-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 武芳; 胡源

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To analyze the status quo and the tendency of the use of the second kind psychotropic drugs (SKPDs) in our hospital for reference of rational use of SKPDs .METHODS:The use of SKPDs in our hospital during 2011-2013 period was analyzed statistically and retrospectively with regard to consumption sum , DDDs and DDC. RESULTS:The number of species of the second kind psychotropic drugs in our hospital was basically stable , yet the consumption sum of which increased year by year .The consumption sum of non-benzodiazepine drugs dominating the list over the three consecutive years , and it accounted for over 50%of total drug consumption .The DDDs of single species remained stable , leading the list was alprazolam over the three years .CONCLUSIONS:The SKPDs were the drugs under state control .The consumption of SKPDs witnessed a rapid increased in recent years .It is important to intensify monitoring on the safety and the effectiveness of SKPDs so as to improve the rational level in the use of SKPDs .%目的:了解二类精神药品在新疆精神卫生中心(以下简称“我院”)的使用现状和趋势,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法:采用回顾性分析方法,对2011—2013年我院二类精神药品的销售金额、用药频度( DDDs)、限定日费用( DDC)等项目进行统计分析。结果:2011—2013年我院二类精神药品的品种数基本稳定,销售金额逐年递增,非苯二氮�类药的销售金额连续3年排序居前列,且其销售金额构成比均在50%以上。单品种的DDDs排序保持稳定,其中阿普唑仑连续3年排序居第1位。结论:二类精神药品属国家管制药品,近年来其使用量的增长较快,应加强对其安全性、有效性的监管,提高合理用药水平。

  10. Medicines and Drugs from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, William C.

    1997-07-01

    Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants or fungi. In many traditional cultures, sickness and death are attributed to maligned spirits so that medicine and religion become inseparable. Uses of cohohba, snakeplant, coca, and peyote are discussed. The process by which new pharmaceuticals are discovered from natural products is described. The implications of an agreement between a major pharmaceutical company and a country in the tropics are discussed.

  11. VARIOUS PHARMACEUTICALS INCLUDING DRUGS AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kirrolia and Vikas Nehra*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the potential and, in particular, some relevant hazards associated with the use of veterinary drugs, various pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals that have produced serious environmental risks and affected the life of people along with other animals by posing great health risks. Risk analysis regarding these problems has also been discussed with the measures to handle the problem at global level. The most contentious residues which occur in meat, milk and eggs along with the environment are antibacterial drugs, hormonal growth promoters, heavy metals and industrial chemicals that are producing potential toxic health effects that include systemic toxicity, mutations, cancer, birth defects and reproductive disorders. Systemic toxicity involves changes in the structure and function of organs and organ systems: weight change, structural alterations and changes in organ system or whole animal function. Functional effects may include changes in the lungs, liver, kidneys, cardiovascular function, brain, nervous system activity, behavior and in production of resistance to disease. Furthermore, continued monitoring and periodic reassessment of risks posed by these contaminants is needed to detect or anticipate new problems so that appropriate action can be taken in the interests of public safety.

  12. A review of the current nomenclature for psychotropic agents and an introduction to the Neuroscience-based Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Joseph; Stahl, Stephen; Moller, Hans-Jurgen; Blier, Pierre; Kupfer, David; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Spedding, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M; Nutt, David

    2015-12-01

    Neuroscience based Nomenclature (NbN) is a new system of classifying psychotropic drugs by their pharmacological profile. The NbN was developed to replace the current indication-based nomenclature and to provide an up-to-date and more useful framework to better inform pharmacological decisions. NbN provides updated relevant and specific scientific, regulatory and clinical information, aiming to support rational and lucid prescribing. This pharmacologically driven nomenclature, which highlights pharmacological domains and modes of action, may also increase drug adherence as it clarifies the rationale for selecting a specific psychotropic agent.

  13. Psychotropic Medication Trends among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Medicaid Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Jane R.; Camacho, Fabian; Leslie, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized psychotropic medication use among Medicaid-enrolled children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders by examining trends over time, including length of treatment and polypharmacy using 4 years of administrative claims data from 41 state Medicaid programs (2000-2003). The data set included nearly 3 million children…

  14. Psychiatric disorders are overlooked in patients with drug abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruckow, Line; Linnet, Kristian; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Psychiatric disease is overlooked in drug users. Patients with both drug abuse and a psychiatric disease – dual diagnosis – suffer decreased compliance to treatment and decreased life expectancy compared with single-diagnosis patients. Identifying the patients among ­either drug...... addicts or mentally ill patients is difficult. Methods: All drug addicts autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in the years 1992, 2002 and 2012 were included. The group was divided into two subpopulations of possible dual diagnosis patients either according...... to police reports stating mental illness or to psychotropics found in the toxicology screening after autopsy. Results: We found a rise in possible mental illness in both subpopulations in the study period. Drug addicts with psychotropics in the blood at the time of death increased from 3.1% in 1992 to 48...

  15. Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs, Including LSD, PCP, Ketamine, Dextromethorphan. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Research is developing a clearer picture of the dangers of mind-altering drugs. The goal of this report is to present the latest information to providers to help them strengthen their prevention and treatment efforts. A description is presented of dissociative drugs, and consideration is given as to why people take hallucinogens. The physical…

  16. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Björkenstam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. METHODS: This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5 and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2. The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  17. Prevalence, Patterns and Predictors of Psychotropic Polypharmacy Among Elderly Individuals with Parkinson's Disease In Long Term Care Settings In The United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sandipan; Goldstone, Lisa; Warholak, Terri

    2016-01-01

    Elderly individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) generally suffer from more than one psychiatric comorbidity, which necessitates the use of concurrent psychotropic medications. To the best of the author's knowledge there are no nationally representative estimates of psychotropic polypharmacy among elderly individuals with PD in the United States (US). Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to examine the prevalence, patterns and predictors of psychotropic polypharmacy among elderly individuals with PD in the (US). A retrospective, cross-sectional study design with 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS) and 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey (NHHCS) data was used. The analytic sample included elderly (age ≥65 years) individuals with PD. Antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedative/hypnotics, and anti-anxiety medications constituted the psychotropic medication classes. Concurrent use of two or more psychotropic medications was classified as psychotropic polypharmacy. Approximately 93,648 and 37,439 elderly individuals with PD resided in nursing homes and home health settings respectively. Among elderly nursing home residents with PD, the nationally representative prevalence of psychotropic polypharmacy was 26.28%, whereas, it was 21.36% in the home health setting. Use of antidepressant medications constituted the majority of the psychotropic medication use among both nursing home (48.91%) and home health (40.98%) residents with PD. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that specific comorbidities were significantly associated with psychotropic polypharmacy among elderly nursing home residents with PD. These findings underscore the importance of evidence-based prescribing when psychotropic medications are used in elderly individuals with PD to reduce unnecessary polypharmacy.

  18. Psychotropic medication use among nursing home residents in Austria: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitkälä Kaisu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of psychotropic medications and their adverse effects in frail elderly has been debated extensively. However, recent data from European studies show that these drugs are still frequently prescribed in nursing home residents. In Austria, prevalence data are lacking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication prescription in Austrian nursing homes and to explore characteristics associated with their prescription. Methods Cross-sectional study and association analysis in forty-eight out of 50 nursing homes with 1844 out of a total of 2005 residents in a defined urban-rural region in Austria. Prescribed medication was retrieved from residents' charts. Psychotropic medications were coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification 2005. Cluster-adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate institutional and residents' characteristics associated with prescription. Results Residents' mean age was 81; 73% of residents were female. Mean cluster-adjusted prevalence of residents with at least one psychotropic medication was 74.6% (95% confidence interval, CI, 72.0–77.2. A total of 45.9% (95% CI 42.7–49.1 had at least one prescription of an antipsychotic medication. Two third of all antipsychotic medications were prescribed for bedtime use only. Anxiolytics were prescribed in 22.2% (95% CI 20.0–24.5, hypnotics in 13.3% (95% CI 11.3–15.4, and antidepressants in 36.8% (95% CI 34.1–39.6 of residents. None of the institutional characteristics and only few residents' characteristics were significantly associated with psychotropic medication prescription. Permanent restlessness was positively associated with psychotropic medication prescription (AOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32–1.79 whereas cognitive impairment was inversely associated (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56–0.88. Conclusion Frequency of psychotropic medication prescription is high in Austrian nursing homes

  19. The Interactions of P-Glycoprotein with Antimalarial Drugs, Including Substrate Affinity, Inhibition and Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M D K Ganga Senarathna

    Full Text Available The combination of passive drug permeability, affinity for uptake and efflux transporters as well as gastrointestinal metabolism defines net drug absorption. Efflux mechanisms are often overlooked when examining the absorption phase of drug bioavailability. Knowing the affinity of antimalarials for efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp may assist in the determination of drug absorption and pharmacokinetic drug interactions during oral absorption in drug combination therapies. Concurrent administration of P-gp inhibitors and P-gp substrate drugs may also result in alterations in the bioavailability of some antimalarials. In-vitro Caco-2 cell monolayers were used here as a model for potential drug absorption related problems and P-gp mediated transport of drugs. Artemisone had the highest permeability at around 50 x 10(-6 cm/sec, followed by amodiaquine around 20 x 10(-6 cm/sec; both mefloquine and artesunate were around 10 x 10(-6 cm/sec. Methylene blue was between 2 and 6 x 10(-6 cm/sec depending on the direction of transport. This 3 fold difference was able to be halved by use of P-gp inhibition. MRP inhibition also assisted the consolidation of the methylene blue transport. Mefloquine was shown to be a P-gp inhibitor affecting our P-gp substrate, Rhodamine 123, although none of the other drugs impacted upon rhodamine123 transport rates. In conclusion, mefloquine is a P-gp inhibitor and methylene blue is a partial substrate; methylene blue may have increased absorption if co-administered with such P-gp inhibitors. An upregulation of P-gp was observed when artemisone and dihydroartemisinin were co-incubated with mefloquine and amodiaquine.

  20. The Interactions of P-Glycoprotein with Antimalarial Drugs, Including Substrate Affinity, Inhibition and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarathna, S M D K Ganga; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Crowe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The combination of passive drug permeability, affinity for uptake and efflux transporters as well as gastrointestinal metabolism defines net drug absorption. Efflux mechanisms are often overlooked when examining the absorption phase of drug bioavailability. Knowing the affinity of antimalarials for efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may assist in the determination of drug absorption and pharmacokinetic drug interactions during oral absorption in drug combination therapies. Concurrent administration of P-gp inhibitors and P-gp substrate drugs may also result in alterations in the bioavailability of some antimalarials. In-vitro Caco-2 cell monolayers were used here as a model for potential drug absorption related problems and P-gp mediated transport of drugs. Artemisone had the highest permeability at around 50 x 10−6 cm/sec, followed by amodiaquine around 20 x 10−6 cm/sec; both mefloquine and artesunate were around 10 x 10−6 cm/sec. Methylene blue was between 2 and 6 x 10−6 cm/sec depending on the direction of transport. This 3 fold difference was able to be halved by use of P-gp inhibition. MRP inhibition also assisted the consolidation of the methylene blue transport. Mefloquine was shown to be a P-gp inhibitor affecting our P-gp substrate, Rhodamine 123, although none of the other drugs impacted upon rhodamine123 transport rates. In conclusion, mefloquine is a P-gp inhibitor and methylene blue is a partial substrate; methylene blue may have increased absorption if co-administered with such P-gp inhibitors. An upregulation of P-gp was observed when artemisone and dihydroartemisinin were co-incubated with mefloquine and amodiaquine. PMID:27045516

  1. Requirements for Foreign and Domestic Establishment Registration and Listing for Human Drugs, Including Drugs That Are Regulated Under a Biologics License Application, and Animal Drugs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations governing drug establishment registration and drug listing. These amendments reorganize, modify, and clarify current regulations concerning who must register establishments and list human drugs, human drugs that are also biological products, and animal drugs. The final rule requires electronic submission, unless waived in certain circumstances, of registration and listing information. This rulemaking pertains to finished drug products and to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) alone or together with one or more other ingredients. The final rule describes how and when owners or operators of establishments at which drugs are manufactured or processed must register their establishments with FDA and list the drugs they manufacture or process. In addition, the rule makes certain changes to the National Drug Code (NDC) system. We are taking this action to improve management of drug establishment registration and drug listing requirements and make these processes more efficient and effective for industry and for us. This action also supports implementation of the electronic prescribing provisions of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) and the availability of current drug labeling information through DailyMed, a computerized repository of drug information maintained by the National Library of Medicine.

  2. Trends in Psychotropic Polypharmacy Among Youths Enrolled in Ohio Medicaid, 2002—2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Warner, Lynn A.; Phillips, Gary S.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Campo, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined polypharmacy patterns and rates over time among Medicaid-enrolled youths by comparing three enrollment groups (youths in foster care, with a disability, or from a family with low income). Methods Serial cross-sectional trend analyses of Medicaid claims data were conducted for youths age 17 and younger who were continuously enrolled in Ohio Medicaid for a one-year period and prescribed one or more psychotropic medications during fiscal years 2002 (N=26,252) through 2008 (N=50,311). Outcome measures were any polypharmacy (three or more psychotropic medications from any drug class) and multiclass polypharmacy (three or more psychotropic medications from different drug classes). Results Both types of polypharmacy increased across all three eligibility groups. Any polypharmacy increased from 8.8% to 11.5% for low-income youths (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.12, 99% confidence interval [CI]=1.10–1.13), from 18.0% to 24.9% for youths with a disability (AOR=1.11, CI=1.09–1.13), and from 19.8% to 27.3% for youths in foster care (AOR=1.09, CI=1.07–1.11). Combinations associated with positive increases were two or more antipsychotics, two or more stimulants, and antipsychotics with stimulants. Conclusions Polypharmacy increased across all enrollment groups, with the highest absolute rates for youths in foster care. Both the overall prevalence and increases in prescriptions for drug combinations with limited evidence of safety and efficacy, such as the prescription of two or more antipsychotics, underscore the need for targeted quality improvement efforts. System oversight and monitoring of psychotropic medication use appears to be warranted, especially for higher-risk groups, such as youths in foster care and those from low-income households who were prescribed multiple antipsychotics. PMID:25022817

  3. Trends in psychotropic polypharmacy among youths enrolled in Ohio Medicaid, 2002-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Cynthia A; Warner, Lynn A; Phillips, Gary S; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Campo, John V

    2014-11-01

    This study examined polypharmacy patterns and rates over time among Medicaid-enrolled youths by comparing three enrollment groups (youths in foster care, with a disability, or from a family with low income). Serial cross-sectional trend analyses of Medicaid claims data were conducted for youths age 17 and younger who were continuously enrolled in Ohio Medicaid for a one-year period and prescribed one or more psychotropic medications during fiscal years 2002 (N=26,252) through 2008 (N=50,311). Outcome measures were any polypharmacy (three or more psychotropic medications from any drug class) and multiclass polypharmacy (three or more psychotropic medications from different drug classes). Both types of polypharmacy increased across all three eligibility groups. Any polypharmacy increased from 8.8% to 11.5% for low-income youths (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.12, 99% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-1.13), from 18.0% to 24.9% for youths with a disability (AOR=1.11, CI=1.09-1.13), and from 19.8% to 27.3% for youths in foster care (AOR=1.09, CI=1.07-1.11). Combinations associated with positive increases were two or more antipsychotics, two or more stimulants, and antipsychotics with stimulants. Polypharmacy increased across all enrollment groups, with the highest absolute rates for youths in foster care. Both the overall prevalence and increases in prescriptions for drug combinations with limited evidence of safety and efficacy, such as the prescription of two or more antipsychotics, underscore the need for targeted quality improvement efforts. System oversight and monitoring of psychotropic medication use appears to be warranted, especially for higher-risk groups, such as youths in foster care and those from low-income households who were prescribed multiple antipsychotics.

  4. Time trends in antipsychotic drug use in patients with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Ane; Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Gasse, Christiane;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are often used to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia, but the evidence for effect is limited. Antipsychotics have been associated with increased risk of adverse events and mortality in patients with dementia, leading to safety regulations worldwide. OBJECTIVE......: To investigate time trends in use of antipsychotics and other psychotropic drugs in dementia care. METHODS: The study included longitudinal data on all Danish residents ≥65 years. The study population was defined on January 1 of each year from 2000-2012. Data included prescriptions, discharge diagnoses......, and somatic and psychiatric comorbidities. Multivariate time trend analyses of psychotropic drug use in patients with dementia within 4-year age bands were performed. RESULTS: Overall, among patients with dementia the prevalence of antipsychotic drug use decreased from 31.3% in 2000 to 20.4% in 2012...

  5. 'Psychotropics caught in a trap' - adopting a screening approach to specific needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Jürgen; Traber, Jessica; Auwärter, Volker; Huppertz, Laura M

    2014-10-01

    In the field of forensic toxicology, numerous strategies using different types of LC-MS platforms have been developed to set up an ultimate comprehensive screening method. Despite all this research, the question for the detection of a dedicated set of substances arises quite often in daily routine work. In this project, a screening method for the detection of psychotropic drugs based on the open library concept of a recently developed LC-MS(n) screening approach was developed and the effectiveness of a heated ESI-source was evaluated. To set up an individual spectral library all available data of psychotropics from the Toxtyper™ library was transferred to a new library format and complemented by MS, MS(2) and MS(3) data of additional psychotropic compounds. Precursor masses and retention time information of the library were used to trigger data dependent acquisition of MS(n)-spectra. Serum samples were analysed after alkaline liquid-liquid extraction on a Dionex RSLC (Acclaim™ C18 100×2.1C) coupled to a Bruker amaZon speed ion trap. A conventional ESI-source and an ionBooster™ source (IB) were used for ionization. All other LC and MS parameters were adopted from the original screening approach. Identification and result reporting was carried out by a fully automated software script. This screening method finally contains the individual precursor mass and retention time of 105 psychotropic substances and metabolites. Method evaluation was performed using pooled serum samples fortified with 12 different mixtures containing a total of 99 compounds at low therapeutic concentrations (cLOW and 2×cLOW). The customized method (ESI/IB) led to a higher rate of identifications (92%) - especially at low concentration levels (cLOW) - as the comprehensive screening approach (87%). Results from routine analysis with known intake of psychotropic drugs were confirmed with positive findings, if the concentration range was above or around the assumed limit of detection from

  6. Psychotropic Medication Use among Insured Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Jeanne M.; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Lynch, Frances L.; Rusinak, Donna; Owen-Smith, Ashli A.; Coleman, Karen J.; Quinn, Virginia P.; Yau, Vincent M.; Qian, Yinge X.; Croen, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined psychotropic medication use among 7901 children aged 1-17 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in five health systems, comparing to matched cohorts with no ASD. Nearly half (48.5%) of children with ASD received psychotropics in the year observed; the most common classes were stimulants, alpha-agonists, or atomoxetine (30.2%),…

  7. 28 CFR 549.40 - Use of psychotropic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of psychotropic medications. 549.40 Section 549.40 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.40 Use of psychotropic medications....

  8. DrugLogit: logistic discrimination between drugs and nondrugs including disease-specificity by assigning probabilities based on molecular properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sosa, Alfonso T; Oja, Mare; Hetényi, Csaba; Maran, Uko

    2012-08-27

    The increasing knowledge of both structure and activity of compounds provides a good basis for enhancing the pharmacological characterization of chemical libraries. In addition, pharmacology can be seen as incorporating both advances from molecular biology as well as chemical sciences, with innovative insight provided from studying target-ligand data from a ligand molecular point of view. Predictions and profiling of libraries of drug candidates have previously focused mainly on certain cases of oral bioavailability. Inclusion of other administration routes and disease-specificity would improve the precision of drug profiling. In this work, recent data are extended, and a probability-based approach is introduced for quantitative and gradual classification of compounds into categories of drugs/nondrugs, as well as for disease- or organ-specificity. Using experimental data of over 1067 compounds and multivariate logistic regressions, the classification shows good performance in training and independent test cases. The regressions have high statistical significance in terms of the robustness of coefficients and 95% confidence intervals provided by a 1000-fold bootstrapping resampling. Besides their good predictive power, the classification functions remain chemically interpretable, containing only one to five variables in total, and the physicochemical terms involved can be easily calculated. The present approach is useful for an improved description and filtering of compound libraries. It can also be applied sequentially or in combinations of filters, as well as adapted to particular use cases. The scores and equations may be able to suggest possible routes for compound or library modification. The data is made available for reuse by others, and the equations are freely accessible at http://hermes.chem.ut.ee/~alfx/druglogit.html.

  9. Identification of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and beta-carbolines in psychotropic ayahuasca beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Aroni, Kyriaki; Rossi, Riccardo; Moretti, Luca; Bacci, Mauro

    2008-10-01

    Recently many people have shown great interest in traditional indigenous practices and popular medicine, involving the ingestion of natural psychotropic drugs. We received a request to analyze and determine the nature of a dark green liquid with a dark brown plant sediment, which the police had seized at an airport and inside the home of a person belonging to the 'Santo Daime' religious movement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the extract identified N,N-dimethyltryptamine, a potent hallucinogen, and the beta-carboline alkaloids harmine and harmaline, revealing monoamine oxidase A-inhibiting properties. These substances are typical components of Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic beverage obtained by boiling the bark of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi together with the leaves of various admixture plants, principally Psychotria viridis.

  10. Increased all-cause mortality with psychotropic medication in Parkinson's disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Baandrup, Lone; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    ) and a matched group without PD. METHOD: We identified 5861 PD patients and 31,395 control subjects matched by age, gender and marital status, and obtained register data on medication use and vital status between 1997 and 2007. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was significantly higher with the use of most groups......AIM: Use of medication and polypharmacy is common as the population ages and its disease burden increases. We evaluated the association of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and combinations of psychotropic drugs with all-cause mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD...... of psychotropic medication in PD patients and controls. Hazard ratios were as follows for the medication types: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, PD HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04-1.36; Control HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.64-1.91; benzodiazepines, PD HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0...

  11. Pharmacogenomic Testing for Psychotropic Medication Selection: A Systematic Review of the Assurex GeneSight Psychotropic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Stacey; Holubowich, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background A large proportion of the Ontario population lives with a diagnosed mental illness. Nearly 5% of Ontarians have major depressive disorder, and another 5% have another type of depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, or some other disorder not otherwise specified. Medications are commonly used to treat mental illness, but choosing the right medication for each patient is challenging, and more than 40% of patients discontinue their medication within 90 days because of adverse effects or lack of response. The Assurex GeneSight Psychotropic test is a pharmacogenomic panel that provides clinicians with a report to guide medication selection that is unique to each patient based on their individual genetic profile. However, it is uncertain whether guided treatment using GeneSight is effective compared with unguided treatment (usual care). Methods We performed a systematic review to identify English-language studies published before February 22, 2016, that compared GeneSight-guided care and usual care among people with mood disorders, anxiety, or schizophrenia. Primary outcomes of interest were prevention of suicide, remission of depression symptoms, response to depression therapy, depression score, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes of interest were impact on therapeutic decisions and patient and clinician satisfaction. Risk of bias was evaluated, and the quality of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group criteria. Results Four studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies used a version of GeneSight that included the CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, SLC6A4, and HTR2A genes; one of the studies also included CYP2C9. Patients who received the GeneSight test to guide psychotropic medication selection had improved response to depression treatment, greater improvements in measures of depression, and greater patient and clinician satisfaction compared with

  12. [Clinico-hemodynamic effects of psychotropic preparations and psychosomatic correlations in cardiac rhythm disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T R; Skibitskiĭ, V V

    1986-01-01

    A total of 136 patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmia and tachyform of atrial fibrillation and polytopic extrasystoles were examined. The combination of cardiovascular and psychovegetative disturbances closely related to the expression of psychopathological shifts was revealed. The antiarrhythmic activity of psychotropic drugs (phenibut, sulpiride, pipofezin, tofizopam and falilepsin) depending on the nature of the time course of the emotional-personality status in prolonged intermittent treatment of patients with arrhythmias of the functional and mixed genesis was shown. A negative inotropic effect of phenibut, a hyperdynamic effect of sulpiride, pipofezin, falilepsin and a modulating effect of tofizopam were revealed. Prolonged therapy with psychopharmacological drugs in short courses was proposed.

  13. Sol-Gel Behavior of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC in Ionic Media Including Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil C. Joshi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sol-gel transformations in HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose are being increasingly studied because of their role in bio-related applications. The thermo-reversible behavior of HPMC is particularly affected by its properties and concentration in solvent media, nature of additives, and the thermal environment it is exposed to. This article contains investigations on the effects of salt additives in Hofmeister series on the HPMC gelation. Various findings regarding gelation with salt ions as well as with the ionic and non-ionic surfactants are presented. The gel formation in physiological salt fluids such as simulated gastric and intestine fluids is also examined with the interest in oral drug delivery systems. The processes of swelling, dissolution and dispersion of HPMC tablets in simulated bio-fluids are explored and the release of a drug from the tablet affected by such processes is studied. Explanations are provided based on the chemical structure and the molecular binding/association of HPMC in a media. The test results at the body or near-body temperature conditions helped in understanding the progress of the gelation process within the human body environment. The detailed interpretation of various molecule level interactions unfolded the sol-gel mechanisms and the influence of a few other factors. The obtained test data and the established mathematical models are expected to serve as a guide in customizing applications of HPMC hydrogels.

  14. Six psychotropics for pre-symptomatic & early Alzheimer's (MCI, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Lauterbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quest for neuroprotective drugs to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD, and Huntington's disease (HD, has been largely unrewarding. Preclinical evidence suggests that repurposing quetiapine, lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine for early and pre-symptomatic disease-modification in NDDs may be promising and can spare regulatory barriers. The literature of these psychotropics in early stage and pre-symptomatic AD, PD, and HD is reviewed and propitious findings follow. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI phase of AD: salutary human randomized controlled trial findings for low-dose lithium and, in selected patients, donepezil await replication. Pre-symptomatic AD: human epidemiological data indicate that lithium reduces AD risk. Animal model studies (AMS reveal encouraging results for quetiapine, lithium, donepezil, and memantine. Early PD: valproate AMS findings show promise. Pre-symptomatic PD: lithium and valproate AMS findings are encouraging. Early HD: uncontrolled clinical data indicate non-progression with lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine. Pre-symptomatic HD: lithium and valproate are auspicious in AMS. Many other promising findings awaiting replication (valproate in MCI; lithium, valproate, fluoxetine in pre-symptomatic AD; lithium in early PD; lithium, valproate, fluoxetine in pre-symptomatic PD; donepezil in early HD; lithium, fluoxetine, memantine in pre-symptomatic HD are reviewed. Dose- and stage-dependent effects are considered. Suggestions for signal-enhancement in human trials are provided for each NDD stage.

  15. The Relationship between Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Psychotropic Medication Use in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Barker, Alyse

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to date on the relationship between psychotropic medication use and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Participants in the current study were placed into one of four groups: ASD on psychotropic medications (N = 33), ASD off psychotropic medications (N = 45), atypically developing on psychotropic medications (N =…

  16. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  17. Airborne psychotropic substances in eight Italian big cities: burdens and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia

    2012-12-01

    Psychotropic substances were monitored in eight big cities of Italy over one year, starting in May 2010, in the frame of the Ariadrugs Project. Yearly average concentrations ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.26 ± 0.11 ng/m(3) for cocaine, from 0.05 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 1.37 ng/m(3) for cannabinoids, from 16 ± 6 to 61 ± 28 ng/m(3) for nicotine, and from 1.0 ± 0.8 to 8 ± 7 ng/m(3) for caffeine. Palermo and Turin were the cities suffering the lowest and the highest psychotropic substance concentrations, respectively. Nicotine and cocaine exhibited trends less seasonally modulated than common air toxicants. Caffeine and cannabinoids peaked in winter dropping close to zero from May to August. In Rome, where various anthropic contours were investigated in February 2011, differences were observed both in net concentrations and ratios of psychotropic substances vs. regulated toxicants. Ambient drugs look as a consequence of addiction and their burdens give insights about the corresponding consumes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Filiation et consommation de medicaments psychotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Ducousso-Lacaze

    Full Text Available A partir de deux entretiens semi-directifs l’auteur présente certains aspects des résultats d’une recherche clinique réalisée avec des patients de l’hôpital général consommant des médicaments psychotropes. Il s’agit de mette en évidence comment, pour certains patients, la consommation et la prescription prennent un sens par rapport aux enjeux de la filiation narcissique. Les analyses cliniques portent essentiellement sur la fonction de support imaginaire de la transmission que peuvent revêtir les médicaments ainsi que leur rôle dans les conflits entre appartenance et différenciation à l’égard du groupe familial.

  19. HIV model parameter estimates from interruption trial data including drug efficacy and reservoir dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutao Luo

    Full Text Available Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3-5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients.

  20. An overview of anthrax infection including the recently identified form of disease in injection drug users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W.; Sweeney, Daniel A.; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Bacillus anthracis infection (anthrax) can be highly lethal. Two recent outbreaks related to contaminated mail in the USA and heroin in the UK and Europe and its potential as a bioterrorist weapon have greatly increased concerns over anthrax in the developed world. Methods This review summarizes the microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of anthrax. Results and conclusions Anthrax, a gram-positive bacterium, has typically been associated with three forms of infection: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalational. However, the anthrax outbreak among injection drug users has emphasized the importance of what is now considered a fourth disease form (i.e., injectional anthrax) that is characterized by severe soft tissue infection. While cutaneous anthrax is most common, its early stages are distinct and prompt appropriate treatment commonly produces a good outcome. However, early symptoms with the other three disease forms can be nonspecific and mistaken for less lethal conditions. As a result, patients with gastrointestinal, inhalational, or injectional anthrax may have advanced infection at presentation that can be highly lethal. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with gram stain and culture from blood or tissue followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR). While antibiotics are the mainstay of anthrax treatment, use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists are a consideration. Prompt surgical therapy appears to be important for successful management of injectional anthrax. PMID:22527064

  1. Studies on accumulation of (14C)-mescaline in brain homogenates: effects of psychotropic and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N S; Gulati, O D

    1975-01-01

    Incubation of rat brain homogenates or 14,500 g pellet isolated from the homogenate with (14C)-mescaline was associated with accumulation of (14C)-mescaline in the pellet. 1.33 mumol/ml of chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, fluphenazine, imipramine, desmethylimipramine, nortriptyline and amitriptyline inhibited the accumulation of mescaline. Lower concentrations (0.133-0.44 mumol/ml) of the psychotropic drugs were less effective. The tricyclic antidepressants were less potent than the tranquilizers. Although the trimethoxyphenylacetic acid (TMPA) levels of the pellet were also reduced by the psychotropic drugs, the TMPA:mescaline ratios were unchanged indicating that the drugs had no effect on the metabolism of mescaline. The inhibition of accumulation of mescaline by the high concentrations of tranquilizers may divert more of the hallucinogen to the receptor site. Thus, an explanation for the reported worsening of clinical syndrome of hallucinogenic poisoning by tranquilizers is provided.

  2. Drug: D01358 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tral nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D01358 Mianserin hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) Anatomical Thera... of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 1 Agents affecting nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting cen

  3. Conhecimento dos estudantes de enfermagem em relação às drogas psicotrópicas Conocimiento de los estudiantes de enfermería en relación a las drogas psicotrópicas Knowledge of nursing students on psychotropic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vieira de Campos

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar a situação de aprendizado dos estudantes de enfermagem sobre drogas psicotrópicas. Foram entrevistados estudantes de uma escola pública e uma privada. A análise dos dados foi temática. Os resultados não apontam diferenças substanciais entre as escolas, mostrando: aprendizado centrado nos psicofármacos; influência da mídia e utilização do senso-comum na epidemiologia, motivações e problemas advindos do uso de drogas, reprodução de mitos e preconceitos sobre usuários; desconsideração dos conflitos sociais que permeiam as drogas. É necessário aperfeiçoar o ensino desses conteúdos para que os estudantes tenham uma base de conhecimento adequada nos espaços de atuação.El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el estado de conocimiento sobre drogas psicotrópicas en estudiantes de enfermería. Se entrevistaron estudiantes de una escuela pública y de una privada. El análisis de los datos fue temático. Los resultados no muestran diferencias substanciales entre las escuelas. Se evidencia conocimiento centrado en los psicofármacos; influencia de los medios de comunicación y la utilización del sentido común en la epidemiología; motivaciones y problemas resultantes del uso de drogas; reproducción de mitos y prejuicios sobre los usuarios; desconsideración de los conflictos sociales que permean las drogas. Es necesario mejorar la educación de esos contenidos para que los estudiantes tengan una base de conocimiento adecuada en los espacios de actuación.The objective of this study is to characterize the learning situation of nursing students with regard to psychotropic drugs. Students from a public and a private school were interviewed. Data analysis was thematic. The results do not suggest substantial differences between the schools regarding: learning centered on psychophar-macology; influence of media and use of common sense in the epidemiology; motivations and problems related

  4. Determinants for the use of psychotropics among nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Uhrskov; Foldspang, A; Gulmann, N C

    2001-01-01

    on the Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical (ATC) classification index, psychotropics were categorised into neuroleptics, benzodiazepines and antidepressants. Two hundred and eight-eight residents were diagnosed using the GMS–AGECAT. One hundred and eighteen staff members were interviewed about the residents......'s Activities of Daily Living (ADL), behavioural problems (Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale), orientation, communication skills and if the resident had any psychiatric disorder. Multiple logistic regression was used to select the items that determined the use of psychotropics. Results Fifty-six percent...... of the residents received a psychotropic, 21% received neuroleptics, 38% received benzodiazepines and 24% received antidepressants. In the multivariate analysis, staff assessment of the resident's mental health was a determinant for the use of all types of specific psychotropics, whereas a GMS–AGECAT diagnosis...

  5. [Simple and rapid screening for psychotropic natural products using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART)-TOFMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2009-06-01

    Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) is a novel ionization technique that provides for the rapid ionization of small molecules under ambient conditions. To investigate the trend of non-controlled psychotropic plants of abuse in Japan, a rapid screening method, without sample preparation, was developed using DART-time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) for plant products. The major psychotropic constituents of these products were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). As a result of the DART-TOFMS analyses of 36 products, the protonated molecular ions [M+H](+), corresponding to 6 kinds of major hallucinogenic constituents (mescaline, salvinorin A, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, harmine, harmaline and lysergamide), were detected in 21 products. It was possible to estimate their accurate elemental compositions through exact mass measurements. These results were consistent with those of the LC/MS analyses and the contents of the 6 psychotropic constituents were in the range from 0.05 to 45 microg/mg. Typical controlled narcotic drugs, tetrahydrocannabinol, opioid alkaloids and psilocin were also directly detected in marijuana cigarette, opium gum and magic mushroom respectively. Although it is difficult to estimate the matrix effects caused by other plant ingredients, the DART-TOFMS could be useful as a simple and rapid screening method for the targeted psychotropic natural products, because it provides the molecular information of the target compounds without time-consuming extraction and pre-treatment steps.

  6. Psychotropic Pharmaceuticals in Aquatic Systems: An Ecological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hedgespeth, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic pharmaceuticals have been shown to exert a variety of sublethal effects on non-target organisms, even at low concentrations found in the environment (ng/L to µg/L); hence, the aim of my research has been to determine the individual-level effects of psychotropic pharmaceuticals (the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors sertraline and fluoxetine, and the β-blocker propranolol) on behavioral and life history traits in freshwater organisms. Further, this research was directed towa...

  7. Drugs used in child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Between 2000 and 2008, the American Association of Poison Control Centers recorded 1439 cases in which drugs or alcohol were used to mistreat children under 7 years of age, representing an average of 160 reports per year. Median age was 2 years, and 57% of victims were boys. The substances included psychotropic drugs, analgesics, cold remedies, alcohol, and illicit drugs. 18 children died, while 32 children experienced life-threatening effects or residual disability. It is not clear whether these results can be extrapolated to the French population. In France, a yearly survey of the Centres for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) identified 162 cases of "chemical submission", 3 of which involved children. In practice, it is often difficult to recognise when a child is being maltreated, especially when medications, illicit drugs or alcohol are used. Taking into consideration the known adverse effect profile of a drug may provide a clue, help to limit harms to the child and allow appropriate management.

  8. Synergistic interactions in two-drug and three-drug combinations (thymol, EDTA and vancomycin) against multi drug resistant bacteria including E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoud, Razan; Zimmermann, Stefan; Reichling, Jürgen; Wink, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Combinations of two or more drugs, which affect different targets, have frequently been used as a new approach against resistant bacteria. In our work we studied the antimicrobial activity (MIC, MBC) of individual drugs (the phenolic monoterpene thymol, EDTA and vancomycin), of two-drug interactions between thymol and EDTA in comparison with three-drug interactions with vancomycin against sensitive and resistant bacteria. Thymol demonstrated moderate bactericidal activity (MBC between 60 and 4000μg/ml) while EDTA only exhibited bacteriostatic activity over a range of 60-4000μg/ml. MICs of vancomycin were between 0.125 and 16μg/ml against Gram-positive and between 32 and 128μg/ml against Gram-negative bacteria. Checkerboard dilution and time-kill curve assays were performed to evaluate the mode of interaction of several combinations against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA NCTC 10442) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Checkerboard data indicate indifferent interaction against Gram-positive (FICI=1-1.3) and synergy against Gram-negative bacteria (FICI≈0.4), while time kill analyses suggest synergistic effect in different combinations against both types of bacteria. It is remarkable that the combinations could enhance the sensitivity of E. coli to vancomycin 16-fold to which it is normally insensitive. We have provided proof for the concept, that combinations of known antibiotics with modern phytotherapeutics can expand the spectrum of useful therapeutics.

  9. Drugs as research tools in psychology: experiments with drugs in personality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, H J

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that psychotropic drugs act to shift a person's behaviour on the three major dimensions of personality in one direction or another, in predictable ways, and that it is possible to create a taxonomy of psychotropic drugs according to these effects. The history of this concept is traced and many examples given to illustrate how drug action and personality theory interact, and how this interaction can be used to gain greater insight into both personality and drug action.

  10. Psychotropic medication in a randomly selected group of citizens receiving residential or home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Helnæs, Ann Kathrine; Schultz, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with one or more psychotropic medications (PMs), especially in the elderly, is associated with risk, and the effects of treatment are poorly validated. The aim of this article was to describe the use of PM in a population of citizens receiving either residential care or home...... care with focus on the prevalence of drug use, the combination of different PMs and doses in relation to current recommendations. METHODS: The medication lists of 214 citizens receiving residential care (122) and home care (92) were collected together with information on age, gender and residential...... number 2007-58-0015....

  11. Unemployment and initiation of psychotropic medication: a case-crossover study of 2 348 552 Norwegian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Silje L; Pape, Kristine; Ose, Solveig O; Gunnell, David; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2016-11-01

    The study investigated initiation of psychotropic medication in relation to unemployment in the months before, during and after job loss, to detect the period of greatest risk. The Norwegian working population in 2004 (N=2 348 552) was observed from 2005 to 2010 through administrative registries linked to the Norwegian Prescription Database. A case-crossover design was used to analyse within-person relative risk of incident purchases of prescribed psychotropic drugs in relation to timing of unemployment. Control periods were defined 12, 24 and 36 months before the drug purchase. Supplementary analyses were performed on medication for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, thyroid disorder, pain and musculoskeletal conditions. Purchases of all psychotropic drugs increased 1-3 months before job loss. Antidepressants had the highest estimate in the month before job loss (OR 2.68, 95% CIs 2.39 to 3.01), followed by hypnotics/sedatives (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.97 to 2.48), anxiolytics (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.91 to 2.48) and antipsychotics (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.76 to 2.48). Rises were greatest in men. Risk of starting psychotropic medication remained raised during a spell of unemployment, but returned to close-to-baseline levels following re-employment. Drugs used to treat somatic and pain conditions showed similar trends but with weaker associations. Concerns about impending unemployment may influence mental health several months prior to job loss, especially around the time of notification. The clinical implications of this might be a strengthening of preventive health initiatives early in the unemployment process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Assessing Potential Vulnerability and Response of Fish to Simulated Avian Predation after Exposure to Psychotropic Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie L. Hedgespeth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic pharmaceuticals present in the environment may impact organisms both directly and via interaction strengths with other organisms, including predators; therefore, this study examined the potential effects of pharmaceuticals on behavioral responses of fish to avian predators. Wild-caught juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis were assayed using a striking bird model after a seven-day exposure to psychotropic pharmaceuticals (the antidepressants fluoxetine or sertraline, or the β-blocker propranolol under the hypotheses that exposure would increase vulnerability to avian predation via increasing the probability of predator encounter as well as degrading evasive behaviors upon encounter. None of the substances significantly affected swimming activity of the fish, nor did they increase vulnerability by affecting encounter probability or evasive endpoints compared to control treatments. Counter to our expectations, fish exposed to 100 μg/L fluoxetine (but no other concentrations or pharmaceuticals were less likely to enter the open area of the arena, i.e., less likely to engage in risky behavior that could lead to predator encounters. Additionally, all fish exposed to environmentally relevant, low concentrations of sertraline (0.12 μg/L and propranolol (0.1 μg/L sought refuge after the simulated attack. Our unexpected results warrant further research as they have interesting implications on how these psychotropic pharmaceuticals may affect predator-prey interactions spanning the terrestrial-aquatic interface.

  13. 长期服用精神科药物对糖脂代谢的影响因素分析及探讨%Analysis and discussion of the influence factors on glucose and lipid metabolism of long-term use psychotropic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨长期服用精神科药物对糖脂代谢的不良影响。方法:收治精神分裂症患者116例,随机分为舒必利组、氯氮平组、利培酮组和奥氮平组,每组29例,比较各组治疗前后各指标。结果:治疗后4组患者的IR、C肽及空腹胰岛素均高于治疗前(P<0.05)。舒必利和利培酮对空腹NS、CHOL、C肽、TG、IR、BMI的影响程度小于奥氮平和氯氮平(P<0.05)。结论:舒必利和利培酮对糖代谢及脂代谢的影响小于奥氮平和氯氮平,并且存在性别差异。%Objective:To explore the adverse effects on glucose and lipid metabolism of long-term use psychotropic drugs. Methods:116 patients with schizophrenia were selected.They were randomly divided into the sulpiride group,the clozapine group, the risperidone group and the olanzapine group with 29 cases in each,The each indexes before and after treatment of groups were compared.Results:After treatment,the IR,C peptide and fasting insulin of patients in four groups were all higher than those before treatment(P<0.05).The influence degrees on the fasting NS、CHOL、C peptide、TG、IR、BMI of sulpiride and risperidone were smaller than those of olanzapine and clozapine(P<0.05).Conclusion:The influences on the glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism of sulpiride and risperidone are smaller than those of olanzapine and clozapine,and there is gender difference.

  14. N-nitrosation of medicinal drugs catalysed by bacteria from human saliva and gastro-intestinal tract, including Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, D; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    1997-02-01

    Micro-organisms commonly present in human saliva and three DSM strains (Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni and Neisseria cinerea), which can be isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract, were assayed in vitro for their capacity to catalyse N-nitrosation of a series of medicinal drugs and other compounds. Following incubation at pH 7.2 in the presence of nitrate (or nitrite) for up to 24 (48) h, the yield of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) was quantified by HPLC equipped with a post-column derivatization device, allowing the sensitive detection of acid-labile and acid-stable NOC. Eleven out of the 23 test compounds underwent bacteria-catalysed nitrosation by salivary bacteria, the yield of the respective nitrosation products varying 800-fold. 4-(Methylamino)antipyrine exhibited the highest rate of nitrosation, followed by dichlofenac > metamizole > piperazine > five other drugs, whilst L-proline and L-thioproline had the lowest nitrosation rate. Ten drugs including aminophenazone, cimetidine and nicotine, did not inhibit bacterial growth, allowing transitory nitrite to be formed, but no N-nitroso derivatives were detected. Three drugs inhibited the proliferation of bacteria and neither nitrite nor any NOC were formed. Using metamizole as an easily nitrosatable precursor, two strains, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori, were shown to catalyse nitrosation in the presence of nitrite at pH 7.2. As compared to Neisseria cinerea used as a nitrosation-proficient control strain, H. pylori was 30-100 times less effective, whilst C. jejuni had intermediary activity. The results of our sensitive nitrosation assay further confirm that bacteria isolated from human sources, possessing nitrate reductase and/or nitrosating enzymes such as cytochrome cd1-nitrite reductase (Calmels et al., Carcinogenesis, 17, 533-536, 1996), can contribute to intragastric nitrosamine formation in the anacidic stomach when nitrosatable precursors from exogenous and endogenous sources

  15. Light microscopy can reveal the consumption of a mixture of psychotropic plant and fungal material in suspicious death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Patricia E J; Hawksworth, David L; Edwards, Kevin J

    2015-08-01

    Light microscopical examination of plant and fungal remains in the post mortem gut may be capable of demonstrating the ingestion of unexpected natural psychotropic materials. This is demonstrated here in a case in which a 'shaman' was accused of causing the death of a young man. The deceased had participated in a ceremony which involved the drinking of ayahuasca in order to induce a psychotropic experience. Ayahuasca is an infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca vine), which produces a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and one or more additional tropical plants, generally Psychotria viridis (chacruna) which produces dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The monoamine oxidase inhibitor prevents DMT from being broken down in the gut, so enabling its passage into the bloodstream and across the blood/brain barrier. Toxicological tests for DMT demonstrated the presence of this compound in the body. The deceased was reported to be in the habit of using Psilocybe semilanceata (liberty cap). This fungus (popularly called magic mushroom) contains psilocybin which is hydrolysed in the gut to psilocin; this compound mimics a serotonin uptake inhibitor, and also invokes psychotropic experiences. Microscopical examination established that the ileum and colon contained spores of Psilocybe and, in addition, pollen of Cannabis sativa and seeds of Papaver cf. somniferum (opium poppy). Both the plant species yield psychotropic substances. Palynological and mycological analysis of containers from the deceased person's dwelling also yielded abundant trace evidence of pertinent pollen and spores. The police had requested analysis for DMT but there was no screening for other psychotropic substances. Investigators were surprised that a mixture of hallucinogenic materials had been consumed by the deceased. The charge was modified from manslaughter to possession of a 'Class A' drug as the deceased had been consuming psychotropic substances not administered by the 'shaman'. Where death involving drugs

  16. Epigenetic developmental programs and adipogenesis: implications for psychotropic induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Kayla; Sharma, Rajiv P

    2013-11-01

    Psychotropic agents are notorious for their ability to increase fat mass in psychiatric patients. The two determinants of fat mass are the production of newly differentiated adipocytes (adipogenesis), and the volume of lipid accumulation. Epigenetic programs have a prominent role in cell fate commitments and differentiation required for adipogenesis. In parallel, epigenetic effects on energy metabolism are well supported by several genetic models. Consequently, a variety of psychotropics, often prescribed in combinations and for long periods, may utilize a common epigenetic effector path causing an increase in adipogenesis or reduction in energy metabolism. In particular, the recent discovery that G protein coupled signaling cascades can directly modify epigenetic regulatory enzymes implicates surface receptor activity by psychotropic medications. The potential therapeutic implications are also suggested by the effects of the clinically approved antidepressant tranylcypromine, also a histone demethylase inhibitor, which has impressive therapeutic effects on metabolism in the obese phenotype.

  17. Illicit psychotropic substance contents in the air of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Budetta, Valentina; Pasini, Antonello

    2010-06-01

    Two in-field campaigns were performed in 2009 to elucidate the contents of illicit psychotropic substances in airborne particulates of Italian cities. Twenty-eight localities of eight Italian regions were investigated in winter, and further eleven sites in June (14 regions in total), thanks to contribution of Regional Environmental Agencies. Cocaine was found almost everywhere, although some sites were rural or suburban. The maximum was recorded in Milan in winter (˜0.39 ng m -3), and "high" values (up to ˜0.16 ng m -3) in other Northern cities and in Rome. Besides cocaine, three cannabinoids will be monitored, namely Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol. The three compounds often affected the air at lower extents than cocaine, and sometimes resulted absent. Cannabinol accounted for up to 90% of the total. The concentrations of illicit compounds were up to six times lower in June than in winter. This decrease was probably induced by the lowering of boundary layer height typical of winter, and by the oxidizing capacity of atmosphere, which is stronger in the warm season. Compared to n-alkanes, polynuclear aromatic compounds, nicotine, caffeine and airborne particulate, cocaine seemed to follow a peculiar behaviour; in fact, meaningful (≥0.80) Pearson (linear) regression coefficients were calculated from the corresponding concentrations only at local scale (e.g. Rome), and within just one season. Improvements of the method are needed to monitor illicit drug metabolites (e.g. benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, 9-carboxy-11-nor-Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), heroin and semi-volatile amphetamines.

  18. Update on medical and regulatory issues pertaining to compounded and FDA-approved drugs, including hormone therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkerton, JoAnn V; Pickar, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We review the historical regulation of drug compounding, concerns about widespread use of non-Food and Drug Admiistration (FDA)-approved compounded bioidentical hormone therapies (CBHTs), which do not have proper labeling and warnings, and anticipated impact of the 2013 Drug Quality and Security Act (DQSA) on compounding. Methods: US government websites were searched for documents concerning drug compounding regulation and oversight from 1938 (passage of Federal Food, Drug...

  19. Use of psychotropic medications by caregivers of elderly patients with dementia: is this a sign of caregiver burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einstein Francisco Camargos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the consumption of psychotropic medications by caregivers of elderly patients with or without dementia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at all geriatric units in Brasília, Brazil, during a two-month period. Structured interviews were performed with 311 caregivers of people with or without dementia and they completed questionnaires. Among the caregivers, 196 (63% were caregivers of patients with dementia and 115 (37% were caregivers of patients without dementia. Forty-four caregivers (14.1% were taking psychotropic drugs (benzodiazepines or antidepressants, and this usage was more frequent among caregivers of patients with dementia (p<0.01. Twenty-two caregivers of patients with dementia (11.4% had used sleeping pills after beginning care, compared with only five (4.3% caregivers of patients without dementia (p<0.01. In conclusion, this study found that caregivers of patients with dementia took psychotropic drugs (benzodiazepines and antidepressants more frequently than the ones of patients without dementia.

  20. Uso de drogas psicotrópicas no Brasil: pesquisa domiciliar envolvendo as 107 maiores cidades do país - 2001 Uso de drogas psicotrópicas en Brasil: investigación domiciliaria en las 107 mayores ciudades del país - 2001 Use of psychotropic drugs in Brazil: household survey in the 107 biggest Brazilian cities - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos F. Galduróz

    2005-10-01

    of drugs, alcohol, tobacco and the use of non-medical psychotropics. This study enclosed the 107 biggest cities in Brazil; sample: ages between 12 and 65 years. Sampling in three periods: tax sectors; household and the respondent. Were interviewed 8,589 people. The lifetime use of the alcohol was 68.7%, closer to 70.8% in Chile. The lifetime use of the tobacco was of 41.1%, lower than U.S.A. (70.5%. The lifetime use of the marijuana was of 6.9% closer to Colombia (5.4% and lower than U.S.A. (34.2%. The lifetime use of the cocaine was 2.3%, lower than U.S.A. (11.2%. The lifetime use of solvent was of 5.8%, much lower than the United Kingdom (20.0%. The stimulants have had 1.5% of lifetime use and the anxiolytics with 3.3%. These findings will allow the implantation of adjusted public politics to our reality in the field of the psychotropics drugs.

  1. Six psychotropics for pre-symptomatic & early Alzheimer’s (MCI), Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease modiifcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward C. Lauterbach

    2016-01-01

    The quest for neuroprotective drugs to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), includ-ing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Huntington’s disease (HD), has been largely unrewarding. Preclinical evidence suggests that repurposing quetiapine, lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine for early and pre-symptomatic disease-modiifcation in NDDs may be promising and can spare regulatory barriers. The literature of these psychotropics in early stage and pre-symptomatic AD, PD, and HD is reviewed and propitious ifndings follow. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) phase of AD: salutary human randomized controlled trial ifndings for low-dose lithium and, in selected patients, donepezil await replication. Pre-symptomatic AD: human epidemiological data indicate that lithium reduc-es AD risk. Animal model studies (AMS) reveal encouraging results for quetiapine, lithium, donepezil, and memantine. Early PD: valproate AMS ifndings show promise. Pre-symptomatic PD: lithium and valproate AMS ifndings are encouraging. Early HD: uncontrolled clinical data indicate non-progression with lithium, lfuoxetine, donepezil, and memantine. Pre-symptomatic HD: lithium and valproate are auspicious in AMS. Many other promising ifndings awaiting replication (valproate in MCI; lithium, valproate, lfuoxetine in pre-symptomatic AD; lithium in early PD; lithium, valproate, lfuoxetine in pre-symptomatic PD; donepezil in early HD; lithium, lfuoxetine, memantine in pre-symptomatic HD) are reviewed. Dose- and stage-de-pendent effects are considered. Suggestions for signal-enhancement in human trials are provided for each NDD stage.

  2. Frequency of Pathological Changes in Lungs of Bodies with Positive Postmortem Toxicology Results for Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mostafazadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of drug abuse in Iran has dramatically changed in recent years, turning from the traditional opioids [opium, opium dross, and refined opium dross (Shireh] into drugs with newer forms. The present study is aimed at investigating the frequency of pathological changes in the lungs of bodies with positive postmortem toxicology results for narcotics and psychotropic substances autopsied in the forensic dissection hall of Tehran, Iran [the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO]. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 153 bodies, which had been referred to the LMO with positive results in postmortem toxicology for narcotics and psychotropic substances. Results: We found that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were used more in men than women. Moreover, the average age of death due to drug use was 36 years old. In addition, methamphetamine was the mostly-used type of substances, and smoking was the most widely used method to use the drugs. Besides, the dominant consistency and color of the lungs of half of the bodies investigated were elastic brown-gray. Moreover, the most common pathologic changes observed in the lungs of the bodies investigated were congestion and edema. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of pathological changes in the lungs of the examined bodies and congestion, edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage, the results of the present study can be particularly effective in determining the drug use and the resultant death in the absence of any previous records and/or a negative result of toxicology.

  3. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  4. The Use of Psychotropic Medication for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismon, M. Lynn; Argo, Tami

    2009-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medication for foster children is in itself not unique; however, these children are of particular interest because of the stress associated with their life situations. A thorough assessment of the child and family should occur before beginning these medications, and in general, they should only be used in the presence of a…

  5. Psychotropic medication during endocrine treatment for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, G.H.; Musters, R.F.; Bos, H.J.; Schroder, C.P.; Mourits, M.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, [No Value

    Psychological problems are frequently mentioned in women treated for breast cancer in whom depression is mentioned as the most common disorder. The aim was to study the prescription of psychotropic medication in women with endocrine treatment for breast cancer in women in our prospective and

  6. Psychotropic Medications and Substances of Abuse Interactions in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Goldberg, Pablo; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of youth with substance use disorders (SUDs) manifest one or more co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Consequently, many of these youths are being prescribed with psychotropic medications. As prescribing rates continue to increase for early-onset psychiatric disorders, potential risk for substance of abuse-psychiatric medication…

  7. 28 CFR 549.41 - Voluntary admission and psychotropic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... medication. 549.41 Section 549.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.41 Voluntary admission and psychotropic medication. (a) A sentenced inmate may be...

  8. Psychotropic Medication Management in a Residential Group Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Douglas F.; Griffith, Annette K.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Wise, Neil, III; McElderry, Ellen; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a psychotropic medication management approach that is used within a residential care program. The approach is used to assess medications at youths' times of entry and to facilitate decision making during care. Data from a typical case study have indicated that by making medication management decisions slowly, systematically,…

  9. New drug development for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlant, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    US FDA approval of two serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) agents for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has created new opportunities for drug development. This follows many years of exploring the potential utility of several classes of psychotropic agents for this very common, yet under-recognized and under-treated disorder. This review examines some of the basic neurobiological abnormalities observed in PTSD and summarizes open and controlled drug trials for major classes of medications, including SSRIs, other antidepressants, atypical neuroleptics, noradrenergic modulators and anticonvulsants, while critically evaluating the extent of effectiveness of these agents and reviewing unmet gaps in therapeutic need.

  10. Assessment of global reporting of adverse drug reactions for anti-malarials, including artemisinin-based combination therapy, to the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring

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    Van Erps Jan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of enhanced control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem causing close to a million deaths annually. With support from several donors, large amounts of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT are being deployed in endemic countries raising safety concerns as little is known about the use of ACT in several of the settings where they are deployed. This project was undertaken to profile the provenance of the pharmacovigilance reporting of all anti-malarials, including ACT to the WHO adverse drug reaction (ADR database (Vigibase™ over the past 40 years. Methods The WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring, the Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC provided anonymized extracts of Vigibase™ covering the period 1968-2008. All countries in the programme were clustered according to their malaria control phase and income status. The number of individual case safety reports (ICSRs of anti-malarials was analyzed according to those clusters. Results From 1968 to 2008, 21,312 ICSRs suspecting anti-malarials were received from 64 countries. Low-income countries, that are also malaria-endemic (categorized as priority 1 countries submitted only 1.2% of the ICSRs. Only 60 out of 21,312 ICSRs were related to ACT, 51 of which were coming from four sub-Saharan African countries. Although very few ICSRs involved artemisinin-based compounds, many of the adverse events reported were potentially serious. Conclusions This paper illustrates the low reporting of ADRs to anti-malarials in general and ACT in particular. Most reports were submitted by non-endemic and/or high-income countries. Given the current mix of large donor funding, the insufficient information on safety of these drugs, increasing availability of ACT and artemisinin-based monotherapies in public and private sector channels, associated potential for inappropriate use and finally a pipeline of more than 10 new novel anti-malarials in various stages of

  11. Mining the topography and dynamics of the 4D Nucleome to identify novel CNS drug pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Gerald A; Allyn-Feuer, Ari; Georgoff, Patrick; Nikolian, Vahagn; Alam, Hasan; Athey, Brian D

    2017-04-03

    The pharmacoepigenome can be defined as the active, noncoding province of the genome including canonical spatial and temporal regulatory mechanisms of gene regulation that respond to xenobiotic stimuli. Many psychotropic drugs that have been in clinical use for decades have ill-defined mechanisms of action that are beginning to be resolved as we understand the transcriptional hierarchy and dynamics of the nucleus. In this review, we describe spatial, temporal and biomechanical mechanisms mediated by psychotropic medications. Focus is placed on a bioinformatics pipeline that can be used both for detection of pharmacoepigenomic variants that discretize drug response and adverse events to improve pharmacogenomic testing, and for the discovery of novel CNS therapeutics. This approach integrates the functional topology and dynamics of the transcriptional hierarchy of the pharmacoepigenome, gene variant-driven identification of pharmacogenomic regulatory domains, and mesoscale mapping for the discovery of novel CNS pharmacodynamic pathways in human brain. Examples of the application of this pipeline are provided, including the discovery of valproic acid (VPA) mediated transcriptional reprogramming of neuronal cell fate following injury, and mapping of a CNS pathway glutamatergic pathway for the mood stabilizer lithium. These examples in regulatory pharmacoepigenomics illustrate how ongoing research using the 4D nucleome provides a foundation to further insight into previously unrecognized psychotropic drug pharmacodynamic pathways in the human CNS.

  12. Sexual Dysfunction Due to Psychotropic Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Anita H; Alkis, Andrew R; Parikh, Nishant B; Votta, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    Sexual functioning is important to assess in patients with psychiatric illness as both the condition and associated treatment may contribute to sexual dysfunction (SD). Antidepressant medications, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antianxiety agents may be associated with SD related to drug mechanism of action. Sexual adverse effects may be related to genetic risk factors, impact on neurotransmitters and hormones, and psychological elements. Effective strategies to manage medication-induced sexual dysfunction are initial choice of a drug unlikely to cause SD, switching to a different medication, and adding an antidote to reverse SD. Appropriate interventions should be determined on a clinical case-by-case basis.

  13. Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2011-01-01

    -reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender......Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines...... whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self...

  14. Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines...... whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self......-reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender...

  15. Ligand structure-function relationships in the vitamin D endocrine system from the perspective of drug development (including cancer treatment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W; Mizwicki, Mathew T; Okamura, William H

    2003-01-01

    It has become readily apparent to many scientists and pharmaceutical companies that the vitamin D endocrine system offers a wide array of drug development opportunities. There are already successes, as noted by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 (Roche, and Abbott) for renal osteodystrophy and osteoporosis and 1alpha(OH)D3 (Leo, Chugai, Teijin) for renal osteodystrophy and (in Japan) osteoporosis, 1alpha,24(OH)2-24-cyclopropyl-D3 (Dovonex) and 1alpha,24(OH)2D3 (Teijin) for psoriasis, and 19-nor-1alpha,25(OH)2D2 (Abbott) for renal osteodystrophy, as well as drugs under active development. Yet there are still many important and challenging drug development frontiers, particularly in the area of cancer treatment and immune system disorders where exploration is only in the initial early stages. In addition, the application of vitamin D-related drugs in neurology and brain pathology should not be overlooked. It is to be hoped that the cellular and molecular basis for the vexing problem of analog-induced hypercalcemia will be elucidated. Given that there are believed to be over 2000 analogs of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 already available for consideration, it is to be expected that over the next decade a significant number of new vitamin D structure-function drug development projects will be brought to conclusion.

  16. Chemotherapy of Rodent Malaria. Evaluation of Drug Action against Normal and Resistant Strains including Exo-Erythrocytic Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    transmissible PYR Highly resistant to pyrimethamine B highly resistant to proguanil and cycloguanil ORA highly resistant to sulphonamides V., P moderately...action of pyrimethamine (up to 10 months in polymer) and various sulphonamides . Silastic implants so far have proved less effective than polymers. -- 4...with a sulphonamide or sulphone proved successful. (4, 5, 9, 21, 23) In addition, however, several unexpected types of drug potentiation were

  17. Patterns of psychotropic medication use in inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alosaimi FD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Abdulhadi Alhabbad,2 Mohammed F Abalhassan,3 Ebtihaj O Fallata,4 Nasser M Alzain,5 Mohammad Zayed Alassiry,6 Bander Abdullah Haddad71Department of Psychiatry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Prince Mohammed Medical City, Aljouf, 3Department of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 4Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Hospital, Jeddah, 5Department of Psychiatry, Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, 6Medical Services Department, Abha Psychiatric Hospital, Abha, 7Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To study the pattern of psychotropic medication use and compare this pattern between inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia.Method: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between July 2012 and June 2014 on patients seeking psychiatric advice at major hospitals in five main regions of Saudi Arabia. Male (n=651 and female (n=594 patients who signed the informed consent form and were currently or had been previously using psychotropic medications, irrespective of the patient’s type of psychiatric diagnosis and duration of the disease, were included. A total of 1,246 patients were found to be suitable in the inclusion criteria of whom 464 were inpatients while 782 were outpatients.Results: Several studied demographic factors have shown that compared with outpatients, inpatients were more likely to be male (P=0.004, unmarried (P<0.001, have less number of children (1–3; P=0.002, unemployed (P=0.001, have a lower family income (<3,000 SR; P<0.001, live in rural communities (P<0.001, have a lower body mass index (P=0.001, and are smokers (P<0.001; however, there were no differences with regard to age or educational levels. The current frequency of use of psychotropic medications in overall patients was antipsychotics (76.6%, antidepressants (41.4%, mood stabilizers

  18. Absorption-enhancing effects of gemini surfactant on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic drugs including peptide and protein drugs in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alama, Tammam; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-02-29

    In general, the intestinal absorption of small hydrophilic molecules and macromolecules like peptides, after oral administration is very poor. Absorption enhancers are considered to be one of the most promising agents to enhance the intestinal absorption of drugs. In this research, we focused on a gemini surfactant, a new type of absorption enhancer. The intestinal absorption of drugs, with or without sodium dilauramidoglutamide lysine (SLG-30), a gemini surfactant, was examined by an in situ closed-loop method in rats. The intestinal absorption of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (FDs) was significantly enhanced in the presence of SLG-30, such effect being reversible. Furthermore, the calcium levels in the plasma significantly decreased when calcitonin was co-administered with SLG-30, suggestive of the increased intestinal absorption of calcitonin. In addition, no significant increase in the of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity or in protein release from the intestinal epithelium was observed in the presence of SLG-30, suggestive of the safety of this compound. These findings indicate that SLG-30 is an effective absorption-enhancer for improving the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed drugs, without causing serious damage to the intestinal epithelium.

  19. Despite 2007 law requiring FDA hotline to be included in print drug ads, reporting of adverse events by consumers still low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dongyi; Goldsmith, John; Aikin, Kathryn J; Encinosa, William E; Nardinelli, Clark

    2012-05-01

    In 2007 the federal government began requiring drug makers to include in their print direct-to-consumer advertisements information for consumers on how to contact the Food and Drug Administration directly, either by phone or through the agency's website, to report any adverse events that they experienced after taking a prescription drug. Adverse events can range from minor skin problems like itching to serious injuries or illness that result in hospitalization, permanent disability, or even death. Even so, current rates of adverse event reporting are low. We studied adverse event reports about 123 drugs that came from patients before and after the enactment of the print advertising requirement and estimated that requirement's impact with model simulations. We found that if monthly spending on print direct-to-consumer advertising increased from zero to $7.7 million per drug, the presence of the Food and Drug Administration contact information tripled the increase in patient-reported adverse events, compared to what would have happened in the absence of the law. However, the absolute monthly increase was fewer than 0.24 reports per drug, suggesting that the public health impact of the increase was small and that the adverse event reporting rate would still be low. The study results suggest that additional measures, such as more publicity about the Adverse Event Reporting System or more consumer education, should be considered to promote patient reporting of adverse events.

  20. Does lower urine-specific gravity predict decline in renal function and hypernatremia in older adults exposed to psychotropic medications? An exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Sahar; Yu, Ching; Sylvestre, Jean-Daniel; Looper, Karl J; Segal, Marilyn; Rej, Soham

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to psychotropic agents, including lithium, antipsychotics and antidepressants, has been associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). This is especially concerning in older adults already at risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypernatremia with advanced aging. This study investigates whether commonly performed random urine-specific gravity (USG) tests can predict adverse NDI outcomes (CKD and hypernatremia) in psychotropic-exposed older adults. This was a retrospective longitudinal study of 173 geriatric psychiatry patients (age ≥65 years) exposed to psychotropic medications. Our main continuous outcome was 'decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >10 mL/min/1.73 m(2)' over 5-year follow-up. Hypernatremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) were secondary outcomes. Whether baseline USG 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Patients with a single baseline sodium concentration of ≥140 mmol/L and USG <1.010 have a 26.3% incidence of AKI and a 57.9% incidence of hypernatremia over the ensuing 5 years. In psychotropic-exposed older adults, there appears to be a clinically important association between low USG and developing both hypernatremia and CKD. USG may be a useful surrogate measure for NDI-related outcomes in large administrative database studies, where ideal measures such as 24-h urine volume may not be available.

  1. Quality of drug prescribing in elderly people in nursing homes and special care units for dementia: a cross-sectional computerized pharmacy register analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jonny; Bergman, Asa; Carlsten, Anders; Oké, Thimothy; Bernsten, Cecilia; Schmidt, Ingrid K; Fastbom, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Drug prescribing to the elderly is extensive and often inappropriate. Furthermore, the number of drugs used is the most important risk factor for adverse drug reactions. Despite this, drug prescribing in the elderly in Sweden is high and increasing. In 2003 the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare launched a set of indicators to evaluate the quality of drug therapy in the elderly. Use of this tool in combination with the Swedish computerized national register covering all persons receiving multi-dose drug dispensing (drugs dispensed in one dose unit bag for each dose occasion) would enable detection of inappropriate drug prescribing and could help reduce the risk of drug-related problems among the elderly. To assess the extent and quality of drug prescribing in younger and older elderly residents receiving multi-dose drug dispensing in ordinary nursing homes (NHs) and special care units for dementia (NHDs), and to evaluate the relationship between the quality of prescribing and the number of prescribers per resident, in a Swedish county. The computerized national pharmacy drug register provided the database and a cross-sectional design was used. Selected drug-specific quality indicators proposed by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in 2003 were used to assess the quality of drug prescribing. This study included 3705 residents. Their mean age was 85 years and 72% were women. The mean number of prescribed drugs was 10.3 per resident. The proportion of residents with prescriptions for psychotropic drugs was 80% in NHs and 85% in NHDs. The prevalence of each drug-specific quality indicator was as follows: long-acting benzodiazepines 16.4% (NHs) versus 11.7% (NHDs), anticholinergic drugs 20.7% versus 18.5%, drug duplication 14.6% versus 13.6%, three or more psychotropic drugs 25.6% versus 35.3%, class C interactions (drug combinations that may require dose adjustment) 41.9% versus 38.7% and class D interactions (drug combinations that should be

  2. Use of drugs for ADHD among adults-a multinational study among 15.8 million adults in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstad, Øystein; Zoëga, Helga; Furu, Kari; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Martikainen, Jaana E; Kieler, Helle; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-12-01

    The use of ADHD drugs among adults is controversial and has until recently not been approved for use in adults in most countries. The aim was to investigate use of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) among the entire adult population in the Nordic countries. We conducted a multinational population-based prescription register study based on the entire adult population in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). All users of ADHD drugs aged 18-64 years during 2008-2012 were included, which for 2012 comprised 76,896 drug users among 15.8 million adult inhabitants. Annual prevalence of drug use increased during the study period for both genders and all age groups. The overall prevalence increased from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 men and 1.8 to 4.4 per 1000 women. Incidence also increased, but to a lesser extent in the last part of the study period. Methylphenidate was used by 88 % of drug users. Treatment was discontinued within the first year by 21 % of new drug users. Among all users of ADHD drugs, 53 % of men and 64 % of women concurrently used other psychotropic drugs, most frequently antidepressants and hypnotics. Psychotropic co-medication increased with age and was more pronounced among women than men. Use of ADHD drug among adults more than doubled over a 5-year period, and a majority were concurrently treated with other psychotropics. Adults constitute a substantial proportion of persons treated with ADHD drugs. Thus, evidence for long-term efficacy and safety in adults is urgently needed.

  3. Psychotropic Medication Management for Youth in State Care: Consent, Oversight, and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Michael W.; Davidson, Christine V.; Ortega-Piron, D. Jean; Bass, Arin; Gutierrez, Alice; Hall, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medications in youth with emotional disturbances in state custody is increasing and presents unique challenges concerning consent and oversight. We examine various means that state child welfare agencies use to provide consent for and oversight of psychotropic medications for children in state custody and describe benefits…

  4. Psychotropic Medication Use for Youth in Residential Treatment: A Comparison between Youth with Monopharmacy versus Polypharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Annette K.; Huscroft-D'Angelo, Jacqueline; Epstein, Michael H.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Pick, Robert

    2010-01-01

    At the time of entry into residential treatment, many youth have prescriptions for one or more psychotropic medications. It is not well understood why some youth are prescribed only one psychotropic medication while others may be prescribed more. We sought to determine if differences existed between youth entering residential treatment with…

  5. National Trends in Child and Adolescent Psychotropic Polypharmacy in Office-Based Practice, 1996-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Olfson, Mark; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns and recent trends in multiclass psychotropic treatment among youth visits to office-based physicians in the United States. Method: Annual data from the 1996-2007 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys were analyzed to examine patterns and trends in multiclass psychotropic treatment within a nationally…

  6. Psychotropic medication use and polypharmacy in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Donna; Marshall, Jaclyn; Post, Brady; Kulakodlu, Mahesh; Newschaffer, Craig; Dennen, Taylor; Azocar, Francisca; Jain, Anjali

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine rates and predictors of psychotropic use and multiclass polypharmacy among commercially insured children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This retrospective observational study used administrative medical and pharmacy claims data linked with health plan enrollment and sociodemographic information from 2001 to 2009. Children with ASD were identified by using a validated ASD case algorithm. Psychotropic polypharmacy was defined as concurrent medication fills across ≥ 2 classes for at least 30 days. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model 5 categories of psychotropic use and multiclass polypharmacy. Among 33,565 children with ASD, 64% had a filled prescription for at least 1 psychotropic medication, 35% had evidence of psychotropic polypharmacy (≥ 2 classes), and 15% used medications from ≥ 3 classes concurrently. Among children with polypharmacy, the median length of polypharmacy was 346 days. Older children, those who had a psychiatrist visit, and those with evidence of co-occurring conditions (seizures, attention-deficit disorders, anxiety, bipolar disorder, or depression) had higher odds of psychotropic use and/or polypharmacy. Despite minimal evidence of the effectiveness or appropriateness of multidrug treatment of ASD, psychotropic medications are commonly used, singly and in combination, for ASD and its co-occurring conditions. Our results indicate the need to develop standards of care around the prescription of psychotropic medications to children with ASD.

  7. Prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic medication prescribing in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of male and female prisoners in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiece Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illness is highly prevalent among prisoners. Although psychotropic medicines can ameliorate symptoms of mental illness, prescribers in prisons must balance clinical needs against risks to safety and security. Concerns have been raised at the large number of prisoners reportedly receiving psychotropic medicines in England. Nonetheless, unlike for the wider community, robust prescribing data are not routinely available for prisons. We investigated gender-specific patterns in the prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic prescribing in English prisons. Methods We studied 6052 men and 785 women in 11 prisons throughout England. This represented 7.9 % of male and 20.5 % of female prisoners nationally. Using a cross-sectional design, demographic and prescription data were collected from clinical records of all prisoners prescribed psychotropic medicines, including hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-manic, antidepressant and Central Nervous System stimulant medications. Percentages and 95 % CIs were used to estimate the prevalence of prescribing. The Prescribing Appropriate Indicators tool was used to determine appropriateness. Prevalence Ratios (PR were generated to make age-adjusted comparisons between prisoners and the general population using a dataset supplied by the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Results Overall, 47.9 % (CI 44.4–51.4 of women and 16.9 % (CI 16.0–17.9 of men in prison were prescribed one or more psychotropic medicines. Compared with the general population, age-adjusted prescribing prevalence was six times higher among women (PR 5.95 CI 5.36–6.61 and four times higher among men (PR 4.02 CI 3.75–4.30. Undocumented or unapproved indications for prescriptions, not listed in the British National Formulary, were recorded in a third (34.7 %, CI 32.5–37.0 of cases, most commonly low mood and personality disorder. Conclusions Psychotropic medicines were prescribed frequently in

  8. Adjunctive psychotropic medications during electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depression, mania, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Roger F; Loo, Colleen

    2010-09-01

    Current guidelines regarding concomitant antidepressants during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are inconsistent. Although the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on ECT discouraged combination antidepressant treatment, owing to the minimal evidence for enhanced efficacy and concern about increased adverse effects, combination treatment is recommended and considered routine for many practitioners in the United States and other parts of the world. Considering the increasing levels of treatment resistance among patients referred for ECT and the high relapse rate after acute ECT, the role of concomitant antidepressant pharmacotherapy during ECT should be reevaluated. More research, however, is needed to explore the impact of administering specific antidepressants during acute and maintenance ECT (M-ECT), on antidepressant efficacy and cognitive adverse effects. This will require appropriately controlled studies of ECT medication combinations that include attention to a range of cognitive function measures and clinical response. In addition, the role of combination ECT and psychotropic medication in the treatment of mania and schizophrenia continues to receive attention, particularly in those patients who have shown inadequate responses to psychotropic medication alone. Although there is insufficient evidence to support the routine addition of antipsychotic medications to ECT during the treatment of acute mania, the literature suggests that it is unnecessary to discontinue antipsychotic medication when ECT is added to the treatment of a manic patient that has been unresponsive to pharmacological treatment. Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, the existing literature suggests that combination ECT and antipsychotic treatment is a useful option for patients with schizophrenia who are unresponsive to pharmacological interventions alone, and its adverse effect profile does not seem different from that seen with ECT alone.

  9. Drug: D02371 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02371 Drug Clocapramine hydrochloride hydrate (JP16); Clofekton (TN) C28H37ClN4O. ...affecting central nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D02371 Clocapramine hydrochloride hydrate (JP... Rhodopsin family Dopamine dopamine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Clocapramine D02371 Clocapramine hydr

  10. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Preet; Bansal, Varun; Patel, Jinal; Ho, Johnson S; Diaz, Julian; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2010-07-15

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is applied in a range of biomedical applications including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive procedure where a weak direct current (<2 mA) is applied across the scalp to modulate brain function. High-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) is a technique used to increase the spatial focality of tDCS by passing current across the scalp using <12 mm diameter electrodes. The purpose of this study was to design and optimize "high-definition" electrode-gel parameters for electrode durability, skin safety and subjective pain. Anode and cathode electrode potential, temperature, pH and subjective sensation over time were assessed during application of 2 mA direct current, for up to 22 min on agar gel or subject forearms. A selection of five types of solid-conductors (Ag pellet, Ag/AgCl pellet, rubber pellet, Ag/AgCl ring and Ag/AgCl disc) and seven conductive gels (Signa, Spectra, Tensive, Redux, BioGel, Lectron and CCNY-4) were investigated. The Ag/AgCl ring in combination with CCNY-4 gel resulted in the most favorable outcomes. Under anode stimulations, electrode potential and temperature rises were generally observed in all electrode-gel combinations except for Ag/AgCl ring and disc electrodes. pH remained constant for all solid-conductors except for both Ag and rubber pellet electrodes with Signa and CCNY-4 gels. Sensation ratings were independent of stimulation polarity. Ag/AgCl ring electrodes were found to be the most comfortable followed by Ag, rubber and Ag/AgCl pellet electrodes across all gels.

  11. The use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy: how about the newborn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieviet N

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Noera Kieviet,1 Koert M Dolman,1 Adriaan Honig2 1Department of Paediatrics, 2Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatry Obstetrics Paediatrics Expert Center, Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Abstract: Infants are at risk of developing symptoms of Poor Neonatal Adaptation (PNA after exposure to psychotropic drugs in utero. Such symptoms are largely similar after exposure to antidepressants, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines and consist of mostly mild neurologic, autonomic, respirator and gastro-intestinal abnormalities. Most symptoms develop within 48 hours after birth and last for 2–6 days. After exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs, mirtazapine or venlafaxine in utero, breastfeeding is presumably protective for development of PNA. The dosage of antidepressants does not seem to be related to the risk of PNA. In order to objectify possible symptoms of PNA, observation of mother and child at the maternity ward is advisable. If PNA symptoms do not occur, an observation period of 48–72 hours is sufficient. This applies to all types of psychotropic drugs. When PNA symptoms are present it is advisable to observe the infant until the symptoms are fully resolved. Observation can be performed by trained nurses using the Finnegan scoring list. This observation list should be administered every 8 hours. Interpretation of the scores should be carried out by a paediatrician. In most cases symptoms are non-specific. Therefore other diagnoses, such as infection or neurologic problems, have to be excluded. When there is any doubt on possible intoxications during pregnancy, toxicological urine screening is indicated. Most cases of PNA are mild, of short duration and self-limiting without need for treatment. Supporting measures such as frequent small feedings, swaddling and increase of skin to skin contact with the mother is usually sufficient. In case of severe PNA it is advised to admit the infant to the Neonatal Care

  12. Homeostatic Disorders in Acute Poisoning by Psychotropic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Belova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the impact of the degree of oxidative stress on homeostatic parameters in critically ill patients with acute poisoning by psychotropic agents (PTA.Materials and methods. The components of lipid peroxidation (LPO and the antioxidative system (AOS, blood rheological and immunological parameters, and the markers of endogenous intoxication were studied in 43 patients with severe acute PTA intoxication before and during intensive detoxification therapy.Results. The first hours of poisoning were marked by LPO-AOS imbalance with a significant preponderance of peroxidation processes, by impaired blood viscous properties, the manifestations of secondary immunodeficiency and endogenous intoxication. There were changes in the study parameters during detoxification therapy and at the early somatogenic stage of the disease.Conclusion. In patients with acute poisoning-induced critical conditions, the degree of oxidative stress affects the time course of homeostatic changes and determines the severity of endotoxicosis at all stages of the disease. 

  13. Complex psychotropic polypharmacy in bipolar disorder across varying mood polarities: A prospective cohort study of 2712 inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Julia C; Goethe, John W; Woolley, Stephen B

    2017-10-15

    It is common for patients with bipolar disorder (BP) to receive multiple psychotropics, but few studies have assessed demographic and clinical features associated with risk for receiving complex psychotropic polypharmacy. This longitudinal cohort study examined 2712 inpatients with a DSM-IV clinical diagnosis of BP to assess associations between complex polypharmacy (defined as ≥4 psychotropics) and demographic and clinical features; associations with risk of rehospitalization were also examined. Logistic regressions were performed with the sample as a whole and with each of four DSM-IV BP subtypes individually. Complex polypharmacy was present in 21.0%. BP-I depressed patients were more likely to receive complex regimens than BP-I manic, BP-I mixed or BP-II patients. In the sample as a whole, variables significantly associated with complex polypharmacy included female, white, psychotic features and a co-diagnosis of borderline personality, post-traumatic stress or another anxiety disorder. The only examined medication not significantly associated with complex polypharmacy was lithium, although only in BP-I depressed and BP-I mixed. Complex polypharmacy was associated with rehospitalization in BP-I mania within 15 and 30days post index hospitalization. All data were from one clinical facility; results may not generalize to other settings and patient populations. BP-I depression may pose a greater treatment challenge than the other BP subtypes. Lithium may confer an overall advantage compared to other medications in BP-I depressed and BP-I mixed. Further research is needed to guide pharmacotherapy decisions in BP patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of psychotropic agents on extinction of lever-press avoidance in a rat model of anxiety vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilu eJiao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance and its perseveration represent key features of anxiety disorders. Both pharmacological and behavioral approaches (i.e. anxiolytics and extinction therapy have been utilized to modulate avoidance behavior in patients. However, the outcome has not always been desirable. Part of the reason is attributed to the diverse neuropathology of anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of psychotropic drugs that target various monoamine systems on extinction of avoidance behavior using lever-press avoidance task. Here we used the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat, a unique rat model that exhibits facilitated avoidance and extinction resistance along with malfunction of the dopamine (DA system. Sprague Dawley (SD and WKY rats were trained to acquire lever-press avoidance. WKY rats acquired avoidance faster and to a higher level compared to SD rats. During pharmacological treatment, bupropion, and desipramine significantly reduced avoidance response selectively in WKY rats. However, after the discontinuation of drug treatment, only those WKY rats that were previously treated with desipramine exhibited lower avoidance response compared to the control group. In contrast, none of the psychotropic drugs facilitated avoidance extinction in SD rats. Instead, desipramine impaired avoidance extinction and increased non-reinforced response in SD rats. Interestingly, paroxetine, a widely used antidepressant and anxiolytic, exhibited the weakest effect in WKY rats and no effects at all in SD rats. Thus, our data suggest that malfunctions in brain catecholamine system could be one of the underlying etiologies of anxiety-like behavior, particularly avoidance perseveration. Pharmacological manipulation targeting DA and norepinephrine is more effective to facilitate extinction learning in this strain. The data from the present study may shed light on new pharmacological approaches to treat patients with anxiety disorders who are not responding to serotonin re

  15. Bupivacaine-loaded comatrix formed by albumin microspheres included in a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) film: in vivo biocompatibility and drug release studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M D; Bernardo, M V; Gómez, C; Muñiz, E; Teijón, J M

    1999-10-01

    Bupivacaine-loaded comatrix, formed by bupivacaine-loaded microspheres included in a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) film, was assayed for the controlled release of the drug 'in vivo'. The comatrix, with 66.37 microg of bupivacaine, signifying a dose of 265.5 microg/kg, was subcutaneously implanted in the back of rats. Maximum plasma bupivacaine concentration was 147.6 +/- 5.0 ng/ml 95 h after the device implantation, and the drug was detected in plasma for 17 days. The half-life time of bupivacaine improves by more than 50 times with regard to that of the drug administered in a solution by intraperitoneal injection. After 15 days of implantation the comatrix was included in a thin fibrous capsule and degradation of the microspheres was observed. The histological studies show good biocompatibility of this comatrix. After 50 days the comatrix was degraded and its remains were almost indistinguishable from the surrounding tissue. Small number of microspheres was observed and they were surrounded by conjunctive tissue. Nerve packets and small blood vessels were also observed in the periphery of the implant.

  16. Adverse Events Associated With Psychotropic Treatment in African American Children and Adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrell, Jeanette M

    2010-01-01

    .... All children and adolescents prescribed 1 of 7 antipsychotic medications, 1 of 26 antidepressants, or 1 of 3 antimanic agents, and a random sample of 4500 children not treated with psychotropic...

  17. Psychiatric disorders, psychotropic medication use and falls among women: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychotropic agents known to cause sedation are associated with an increased risk of falls, but the role of psychiatric illness as an independent risk factor for falls is not clear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders, psychotropic medication use and falls risk. Methods This study examined data collected from 1062 women aged 20-93 yr (median 50 yr) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, a large, ongoing, population-based stu...

  18. Availability of prescription drugs for bipolar disorder at online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Bauer, Michael

    2016-03-15

    There is increasing use of online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs. While some online pharmacies are legitimate and safe, there are many unsafe and illegal so-called "rogue" online pharmacies. This study investigated the availability of psychotropic drugs online to consumers in the US, using 5 commonly prescribed drugs for bipolar disorder. Using the search term "buy [drug name]" in the Google, Yahoo and Bing search engines, the characteristics of the online pharmacies found on the first two pages of search results were investigated. The availability of the requested dosage and formulations of two brand (Seroquel XR, Abilify) and three generic drugs (lamotrigine, lithium carbonate and bupropion SR) were determined. Of 30 online pharmacies found, 17 (57%) were rated as rogue by LegitScript. Of the 30 pharmacies, 15 (50%) require a prescription, 21 (70%) claim to be from Canada, with 20 of these having a Canadian International Pharmacy association (CIPA) seal on the website. Only 13 of the 20 sites with a CIPA seal were active CIPA members. There were about the same number of trust verification seals on the rogue and legitimate pharmacy sites. Some rogue pharmacies are professional in appearance, and may be difficult for consumers to recognize as rogue. All five brand and generic drugs were offered for sale online, with or without a prescription. However, many substitutions were presented such as different strengths and formulations including products not approved by the FDA. No evaluation of product quality, packaging or purchasing. Psychotropic medications are available online with or without a prescription. The majority of online pharmacy websites were rogue. Physicians should ask about the use of online pharmacies. For those who choose to use online pharmacies, two measures to detect rogue pharmacies are recommended: (1) only purchase drugs from pharmacies that require a prescription, and (2) check all pharmacy verification seals directly on the website

  19. Impact of HSD11B1 polymorphisms on BMI and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving psychotropic treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Quteineh, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic treatments represents a major health issue. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes tissue regeneration of active cortisol from cortisone. Elevated enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD1 may lead to the development of MetS. Methods We investigated the association between seven HSD11B1 gene (encoding 11β-HSD1) polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in a psychiatric sample treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (n=478). The polymorphisms that survived Bonferroni correction were analyzed in two independent psychiatric samples (n R1 =168, n R2 =188) and in several large population-based samples (n 1 =5338; n 2 =123 865; n 3 >100 000). Results HSD11B1 rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers were found to be associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure compared with the reference genotype (P corrected <0.05). These associations were exclusively detected in women (n=257) with more than 3.1 kg/m 2, 7.5 cm, and 4.2 mmHg lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, in rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers compared with noncarriers (P corrected <0.05). Conversely, carriers of the rs846906-T allele had significantly higher waist circumference and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol exclusively in men (P corrected =0.028). The rs846906-T allele was also associated with a higher risk of MetS at 3 months of follow-up (odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.17, P corrected =0.014). No association was observed between HSD11B1 polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in the population-based samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that HSD11B1 polymorphisms may contribute toward the development of MetS in psychiatric patients treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, but do not

  20. Case series of three different scenarios with drug-induced Brugada patterns: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asil, Serkan; Canpolat, Uğur; Kaya, Ergün Barış; Aytemir, Kudret; Kabakçı, Giray

    2017-10-01

    Brugada syndrome is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia condition characterized by coved-type ST elevation and J point elevation of at least 2 mm in at least 2 of the right precordial electrocardiogram (ECG) leads (V1-3). An increasing number of noncardiac agents, including psychotropic and anesthetic drugs, have been shown to induce a characteristic Brugada ECG pattern, predisposing the patient to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. However, there are scarce data regarding the clinical significance. In this case series, a typical Brugada pattern was unmasked by lithium, valproic acid, and thiocolchicoside; however, the clinical scenario was different in all 3 cases, ranging from an asymptomatic patient to sudden cardiac arrest.

  1. Developing a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Serious Injury Surveillance System that Includes Adverse Event Hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    types fractures ; sprains; wounds; complications due to procedures or use of medical devices; and medication and other poisoning-related discharges...total discharges coded with an inpatient death over the 5-year period were associated with intracranial injuries (10.6 percent), hip fractures (6...with medication adverse events were associated with psychotropic drugs. Poisonings due to benzodiazepine tranquilizers consistently ranked as the

  2. Drug: D00801 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00801 Drug Lithium carbonate (JP16/USP); Eskalith (TN); Lithobid (TN) CO3. 2Li 74....ing central nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D00801 Lithium carbonate...TICS N05A ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AN Lithium N05AN01 Lithium D00801 Lithium carbonate (JP16/USP) USP drug classifi...cation [BR:br08302] Bipolar Agents Mood Stabilizers Lithium D00801 Lithium carbon

  3. Drug: D01296 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01296 Drug Methylphenidate hydrochloride (JAN/USP); Concerta (TN); Metadate (TN); ... nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D01296 Methylphenidate hydrochloride (JAN/USP) Anatomical Ther...TS, AGENTS USED FOR ADHD AND NOOTROPICS N06BA Centrally acting sympathomimetics N06BA04 Methylphenidate... D01296 Methylphenidate hydrochloride (JAN/USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] C...entral Nervous System Agents Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Agents, Non- amphetamines Methylphenidate D01296 Methylphenidat

  4. [Electrogastroenterographic study of the digestive motor effects of prolonged psychotropic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A; Etienne, T; Rigalleau, J; Moline, J; Masson, J M; Arlot, J C; David, C

    1975-07-01

    Functional digestive complaints are frequent in psychiatri patients: simple constipation, which cannot be explained solely by the loss of the sensation of rectal fullness; occlusions, occasionally hemorragies; the late complication of dolichomegacolon (Bourgeois, 1973). In 160 subjects, an attempt to understand the physio-pathology were made by recording diurnal digestive motor activity using skin electrodes placed on the abdomen and extremities (electrogastroenterography or E.G.E.G.). A hypoactive E.G.E.G. was observed in 2/3 of 18 psychotic depressive patients, in 3/4 of 36 schizophrenies. The nocive effect of giving sedative phenothiazine and antiparkinsonian drugs (trihexyphenidyl or ethybenzatropine) during long periods is clear. Whereas non sedative phenothiazine and clotiapine gicen in small doses, do not have an undesirable effect. Sulpiride has been used in gastroduodenal dyskinesia. The dyskinesia noted by the E.G.E.G., sometimes found in the large intestin, were found in 55% of 30 patients with caracter disorders; they coincide with the high frequency of electro-encephalogram dysrythmies. Finally, in hysterical patients, one usually observes normal E.G.E.G., tracings which confirms the clinical observation that hysterical and psychosomatic symptoms, may succeed each other, but do not appear at the same time. In the same categories of patients, no longer treated in a classical psychiatric environment but in a group with institutional objectives, the same clinic results were obtained with fewer digestive disturbances. This tends to show the inutility and nocivity of excessive doses of psychotropic drugs given alone or in complexe association.

  5. Romantic fantasies of madness and objections to psychotropic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutter, Adele

    2009-06-01

    Many patients object to, and often refuse, psychotropic medications. The exploration-a "defense analysis"-of their objections brings attention to ubiquitous fantasies of madness, which may be feared and concealed as a source of shame, destruction, and loss, and also cherished and revered as a source of power, inspiration, and mystery. They are commonly illuminated when the prospect of taking medication threatens to expose, confirm, and defuse the fantasized hidden or latent madness. Conscious or unconscious, fantasies of madness can be deeply, appealingly romantic in nature, providing valuable narcissistic supplies while defending against their more humiliating and terrifying aspects. Drawing on personal dynamics, experiences, and identifications, they are thus ultimately and intimately linked to representations of the self. Significant romantic texts illustrate how split-off conceptualizations of madness function as an organizing repository for unacceptable and intolerable emotions, wishes, and impulses. Psychoanalysts may also object to the introduction of medication into an analytic treatment. The analyst's own fantasies around madness and medication may in some cases motivate enactments in which the talking cure is privileged and medication excluded from analytic treatment or from analytic process.

  6. Drugs and development: the global impact of drug use and trafficking on social and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2008-12-01

    Locating development efforts within the context of globalism and global drug capitalism, this article examines the significant health and social impact both legal and illegal drugs have on international development efforts. The paper takes on an issue that is generally overlooked in the development debate and is not much addressed in the current international development standard, the Millennium Development Goals, and yet is one that places serious constraints on the ability of underdeveloped nations to achieve improvement. The relationship between psychotropic or "mind/mood altering" drugs and sustainable development is rooted in the contribution that the legal and illegal drug trade makes to a set of barriers to development, including: (1) interpersonal crime and community violence; (2) the corruption of public servants and the disintegration of social institutions; (3) the emergence of new or enhanced health problems; (4) the lowering of worker productivity; (5) the ensnarement of youth in drug distribution and away from productive education or employment; (6) the skewing of economies to drug production and money laundering. The paper emphasizes the need for new approaches for diminishing the burden placed by drugs on development.

  7. Identification of Daqingye and Banlangen including crude drugs and decoction dregs from three plant species by normal light and fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojing, Wan; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hu-Biao; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Li, Ping

    2013-08-01

    Daqingye and Banlangen are commonly used Chinese medicinal materials derived from the leaves and roots of Isatis indigotica Fort., respectively, which clinical effects have been confirmed by many studies in recent years. However, many problems have arisen concerning the quality and identity of materials sold in the market under these two names. Thus, the identification of Daqingye and Banlangen has drawn public attention. In this work, transverse sections of Daqingye and Banlangen from I. indigotica Fort. and two easily confused species, namely Baphicacanthus cusia (Nees) Bremek. and Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz., were investigated with normal light and fluorescence microscopy. The distinguishing features were 7-9 vascular bundles, cystoliths and nonglandular hairs in the leaves of I. indigotica, B. cusia, and C. cyrtophyllum, respectively. The Banlangen could be distinguished according to the characteristics of parenchymous cells, cystoliths, and stone cells. Moreover, the fluorescence features of Daqingye and Banlangen investigated in this study can provide direct points for differentiating those samples. Importantly, whether the crude drugs were decocted could be easily identified by their different fluorescence features, which can ensure their quality in clinical application. This is the first report to distinguish the three species that are commonly found in the market sold as Daqingye and Banlangen by normal light and fluorescence microscopy. This work indicates that the combination of normal light and fluorescence microscopy could be powerful, convenient, and economical for authenticating Daqingye and Banlangen from the three species, including crude drugs and decoction dregs.

  8. Psychiatric illness presenting with a sexual complaint and management by psychotropic medications: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychman, Michael; Carter, Jeanne; Amsterdam, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Sexual medicine healthcare professionals, who do not normally examine men and women with psychiatric disorders, need to be aware that those with psychiatric disorders can and do present with sexual medicine problems. In particular, psychiatric individuals may present with a variety of delusions including those that have sexual content or sexual implications. The rare disorder of reverse delusional misidentification syndrome may be encountered in schizophrenic patients and may be best managed by the combined team effort of a sexual medicine specialist and psychiatrist. To report a case study that reiterates the assessment and sexual medicine management of a female with sexual dysfunction who believed she was transforming into a male. Case report of a woman who attended an outpatient clinic in an academic medical center. A 60-year-old woman with a history of paranoid schizophrenia presented to a gynecologist for ovarian cancer screening. Evaluation revealed complaints that the patient's ovaries were testes that produced sperm and her clitoris was a penis capable of erection and ejaculation. Gynecological examination revealed only atrophic vaginitis. The patient was treated with local minimally absorbed vaginal estrogens and referred for psychological assessment and counseling. Psychotropic medication compliance was encouraged, weekly psychotherapy was continued, and delusional symptoms were minimized. Sexual medicine healthcare providers should be prepared to manage sex health concerns of men and women with psychiatric disorders, including delusional misidentification syndrome, in conjunction with a psychiatrist.

  9. Psychotropic medication characteristics for special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E; Rundberg-Rivera, Victoria; Michel, Chenel

    2014-08-01

    Characteristics of psychotropic medication use have rarely been investigated for special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. The prevalence of psychotropic medication use was obtained at the beginning of a school year for a cohort of 77 students attending a self-contained middle school for special education students with emotional and/or behavioral problems, in the suburban New York City area. Demographics, intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement testing, and objective measures of both psychopathology and school functioning were gathered. Overall, psychotropic medication was used in 77.9% of the participants; 52.0% received more than one medication. The most commonly prescribed medicines were atypical antipsychotics (49.4%) followed by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications (48.0%). Usage patterns for specific diagnostic presentations were examined, and appeared consistent with current clinical practice. Persistent elevated psychopathology appeared frequently in students on medication. Psychotropic medication use in this unique but important sample of special education students appeared generally consistent with recent psychotropic prevalence research. The need for collaboration between special education teachers and prescribing physicians, in order to achieve optimal medication adjustment for these students, was highlighted.

  10. Patterns of psychotropic prescribing and polypharmacy in older hospitalized patients in Ireland: the influence of dementia on prescribing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Kieran Anthony

    2016-08-16

    Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (NPS) are ubiquitous in dementia and are often treated pharmacologically. The objectives of this study were to describe the use of psychotropic, anti-cholinergic, and deliriogenic medications and to identify the prevalence of polypharmacy and psychotropic polypharmacy, among older hospitalized patients in Ireland, with and without dementia.

  11. Psychotropic Medication Use among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Enrolled in a National Registry, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Rebecca E.; Mandell, David S.; Farmer, Janet E.; Law, J. Kiely; Marvin, Alison R.; Law, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of current psychotropic medication use among 5,181 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enrolled in a Web-based registry were examined. Overall, 35% used at least one psychotropic medication, most commonly stimulants, neuroleptics, and/or antidepressants. Those who were uninsured or exclusively privately insured were less likely…

  12. Clinical trials and E-health: impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Reynier, Jean-Charles; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    Within the last few years, new technology has come to play an important part in our professional and private daily environment. Healthcare has not escaped this progressive mutation with computers reaching the bedside. Clinical research has also shown growing interest in these new tools available to the clinical investigator, the patient, as well as to specialist departments for diagnosis and follow-up of patients, and to the different professions in clinical research. If the use of new technology seems to make life easier, by centralizing data or by simplifying data-sharing between different teams, it is still a matter of private data which must remain reliable, confidential and secure, whether it is being used in ordinary healthcare or in academic or industrial research. The aim of the round table was to estimate the impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research. First, an inventory was made of the development of these new technologies in the healthcare system. The second point developed was identification of expected benefits in order to issue guidelines for their good use and hazard warnings in clinical trials. Finally, the impact of these new technologies on the investigator as well as the project manager was analysed.

  13. [Cartography of psychoactive heterotopias: a look at the medical, legal and social discourses regarding drug use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massó, Paloma

    2015-09-01

    This article traces a map of the social control of drugs through the politics of space, according to the Foucaultian concept of "heterotopia." Firstly, a brief genealogy of the use of psychotropic substances in different times and cultures is described, up to the introduction of the prohibitionist paradigm. Attention is paid to the way in which power has marked, separated and enclosed certain rituals and uses of pleasure in physical and symbolic sites. The itinerary is focused on the Spanish context to establish a dialogue between the various policies of space that have come into being and have overlapped in the construction and management of a problem which has been rendered an object to the gazes, mechanics and discourses of the medical, legal, and social fields. In this way, the intersections between the liminal spaces of drug use and the harm reduction paradigm are analyzed, including therapeutic strategies with prescribed drugs, from methadone programs to the new heroin programs.

  14. The Effects of Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs on Postural Control : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Moek, Marije A.; Tulner, Linda R.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analyses showed that psychotropic drugs (antidepressants, neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, antiepileptic drugs) and some cardiac drugs (digoxin, type IA anti-arrhythmics, diuretics) are associated with increased fall risk. Because balance and gait disorders are the most consistent predictors of f

  15. Evaluation of a procedure to assess the adverse effects of illicit drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, J G C van; Best, W; Opperhuizen, A; Wolff, F A de

    2004-01-01

    The assessment procedure of new synthetic illicit drugs that are not documented in the UN treaty on psychotropic drugs was evaluated using a modified Electre model. Drugs were evaluated by an expert panel via the open Delphi approach, where the written score was discussed on 16 items, covering

  16. Drug Treatment with Children in Programs for the Trainable Mentally Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    In order to describe the extent of drug treatment with mentally retarded children in public schools and the involvement of teachers in the drug regimen, a study was designed to survey teachers of the trainable mentally handicapped by mail about psychotropic and anticonvulsant drug use with the children they were teaching. The study was divided…

  17. Multi-drug resistant E.coli urosepsis in physicians following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies--three cases including one death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, William H; Bell, David G; Lawen, Joseph G; Rendon, Ricardo A

    2010-04-01

    Three male physicians underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies for elevated prostate-specific antigen levels or irregular digital rectal exam findings. All three of these patients developed urosepsis secondary to multi-drug resistant organisms despite antibiotic prophylaxis. There are increasing reports of infectious complications following prostate biopsy caused by multi-drug resistant organisms. These cases highlight the potentially lethal risks to healthcare workers who are more likely to harbor multi-drug resistant organisms than the general population. Further research into preoperative assessment and appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis in all potentially high risk patients is warranted.

  18. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  19. Drug: D02574 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02574 Drug Atomoxetine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN); Tomoxetine hydrochloride; Stratte...ans 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D02574 Atom...ly acting sympathomimetics N06BA09 Atomoxetine D02574 Atomoxetine hydrochloride (... Disorder Agents, Non- amphetamines Atomoxetine D02574 Atomoxetine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) Target-based cla...[HSA:6530] [KO:K05035] Atomoxetine [ATC:N06BA09] D02574 Atomoxetine hydrochloride

  20. Drug: D02260 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02260 Drug Paroxetine hydrochloride hydrate (JAN); Paxil (TN) (C19H20FNO3. HCl)2. ...em and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D02260...ake inhibitors N06AB05 Paroxetine D02260 Paroxetine hydrochloride hydrate (JAN) U...otonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors) Paroxetine D02260 Paroxetine hydrochloride hydrate (JAN) Anxi...olytics SSRIs/SNRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors) Paroxetine D02260

  1. Psychotropic Medication Consultation in Schools: An Ethical and Legal Dilemma for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…

  2. Age-related trends in psychotropic medication use among very young children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dosReis, Susan; Tai, Ming-Hui; Goffman, David; Lynch, Sean E; Reeves, Gloria; Shaw, Terry

    2014-12-01

    The specific objectives were to investigate changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use for each year increase in age from three to six years old among children in foster care and to examine time-varying odds of longer duration of use by each year of age. A retrospective analysis of data on mental health and pharmacy services was conducted for 1,491 children age six and younger who were in foster care in 2010 and had at least 365 days in foster care during 2009-2011. A total of 178 children received at least one psychotropic medication from 2009 through 2011. Psychotropic prevalence and average days of use were calculated for each therapeutic class. Longitudinal regression models assessed the time-varying relationship between year of age and duration of use, controlling for demographic and clinical covariates. Approximately 12% of children age six and younger in foster care for 365 days or more received at least one psychotropic medication over the three-year study period. Prevalence of ADHD medication and antipsychotic medication and duration increased with each year of age (pchildren who initiated antipsychotic and ADHD medications before the age of six continued to receive them for longer periods of time. There is a critical need for long-term studies to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure on children's health and well-being.

  3. Effect of humour therapy on psychotropic medication use in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Jerome By; Pont, Lisa; Low, Lee-Fay

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Play Up humour therapy on antipsychotic, benzodiazepine and antidepressant use in Australian nursing homes. Play Up is a humour therapy program that has been implemented in Australian nursing homes. This study was an uncontrolled retrospective review of psychotropic medication charts of 406 residents in thirty-three nursing homes before and after 12 weeks of participation in Play Up. Prevalence and mean daily equivalent doses of psychotropic medication use were analysed. There were significant reductions from before to after the Play Up program in the prevalence of any psychotropic medication use, antipsychotic use and benzodiazepine use (P = 0.001, 0.02, 0.007, respectively). Mean daily dose equivalents of pro re nata (PRN) antipsychotics and PRN benzodiazepines significantly reduced over time (P = 0.007; P = 0.001). Play Up was associated with an overall decline in the use of psychotropic medications. Further trials are required to confirm and better define this association. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  4. Marriage and Family Therapists and Psychotropic Medications: Practice Patterns from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Barbara Couden; Doherty, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A national sample of marriage and family therapists (MFTs) was used to describe practice patterns of MFTs whose clients use psychotropics and to compare medicated and nonmedicated clients. Marriage and Family Therapists (n = 283) reported on 195 medicated and 483 nonmedicated adult clients. Clients (n = 375) rated their improvement and…

  5. Effects of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, on the uptake of serotonin by blood platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Soudijn, W.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, and some putative metabolites on the uptake of14C-5-HT into blood platelets of rat and man were studied and compared to the effects of imipramine, sulpiride and clozapine. Halopemide, its putative metabolites R 38570 and R 29676 and sulpiride in

  6. Regional localization of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, in the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Van Wijngaarden, I.; Janssen, P.A.J.; Soudijn, W.

    1978-01-01

    Halopemide is a new psychotropic agent, structurally related to the neuroleptics of the butyrophenone type, but with a different pharmacological and clinical profile. The concentration of halopemide in the rat brain is about 10 times less than that of R 29800, its chemical congener and of spiperone,

  7. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents, and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past-year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey--Adolescent Supplement (2002-2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to…

  8. Psychotropic Medication Use among Children in the Child Welfare System. Issue Brief No. 59, Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Mattingly, Marybeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that children in the child welfare system are given psychotropic medication at rates approximately three times higher than children and adolescents in the general population. Using data from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, authors Wendy Walsh and Marybeth Mattingly report that among…

  9. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents, and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past-year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey--Adolescent Supplement (2002-2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to…

  10. Understanding the Use of Psychotropic Medications in the Child Welfare System: Causes, Consequences, and Proposed Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Zakia; Calleja, Nancy G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the progressively increasing number of children prescribed psychotropic medication, while findings have illustrated significantly greater usage among child welfare-involved children. These findings have raised serious concerns among mental health and child welfare professionals as well as the general public. To…

  11. Drug: D02372 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02372 Drug Perospirone hydrochloride hydrate (JAN); Lullan (TN) C23H30N4O2S. 2H2O....r agonists/antagonists map07213 Dopamine receptor agonists/antagonists Therapeutic category of drugs in Japa...ecting central nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D02372 Perospirone hydrochloride hydrate (JAN) T...arget-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Dopamine dopam...ine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Perospirone D02372 Perospirone hydrochloride hydr

  12. Versatile, Reversible, and Reusable Gel of a Monocholesteryl Conjugated Calix[4]arene as Functional Material to Store and Release Dyes and Drugs Including Doxorubicin, Curcumin, and Tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandela, Anil Kumar; Hinge, Vijaya Kumar; Yarramala, Deepthi S; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla

    2015-06-03

    Gels are interesting soft materials owing to their functional properties leading to potential applications. This paper deals with the synthesis of monocholesteryl derivatized calix[4]arene (G) and its instantaneous gelation at a minimum gelator concentration of 0.6% in 1:1 v/v THF/acetonitrile. The gel shows remarkable thermoreversibility by exhibiting Tgel→sol at ∼48 °C and is demonstrated for several cycles. The gel shows an organized network of nanobundles, while that of the sol shows spherical nanoaggregates in microscopy. A bundle with ∼12 nm diameter possessing hydrophobic pockets in itself is obtained from computationally modeled gel, and hence the gel is suitable for storage and release applications. The guest-entrapped gels exhibit the same microstructures as that observed with simple gels, while fluorescence spectra and molecular mechanics suggests that the drug molecules occupy the hydrophobic pockets. All the entrapped drug molecules are released into water, suggesting a complete recovery of the trapped species. The reusability of the gel for the storage and release of the drug into water is demonstrated for four consecutive cycles, and hence the gel formed from G acts as a functional material that finds application in drug delivery.

  13. Similar effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, glucocorticoids, and biologic agents on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of 70 randomized placebo-controlled or drug-controlled studies, including 112 comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2010-01-01

    To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents.......To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents....

  14. Risk of recurrent overdose associated with prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after nonfatal overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyuki Okumura,1 Daisuke Nishi21Research Department, Institute for Health Economics and Policy, Association for Health Economics Research and Social Insurance and Welfare, Tokyo, 2Department of Mental Health Policy and Evaluation, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, JapanObjective: We aimed to estimate risk of recurrent overdose associated with psychosocial assessment by psychiatrists during hospitalization for nonfatal overdose and prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after discharge. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a nationwide claims database in Japan. We classified patients aged 19–64 years hospitalized for nonfatal overdose between October 2012 and September 2013 into two cohorts: 1 those who had consulted a psychiatrist prior to overdose (n=6,790 and 2 those who had not (n=4,950. All patients were followed up from 90 days before overdose until 365 days after discharge. Results: Overall, 15.3% of patients with recent psychiatric treatment had a recurrent overdose within 365 days, compared with 6.0% of those without psychiatric treatment. Psychosocial assessment during hospital admission had no significant effect on subsequent overdose, irrespective of treatment by psychiatrists before overdose. There was a dose–response relationship for the association of benzodiazepine prescription after overdose with subsequent overdose in either cohort, even after accounting for average daily dosage of benzodiazepines before overdose and other confounders. In patients with recent psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at 365 days was 27.7% for patients receiving excessive dosages of benzodiazepines, 22.0% for those receiving high dosages, 15.3% for those receiving normal dosages, and 7.6% for those receiving no benzodiazepines. In patients without psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at

  15. Evaluation of prescribing quality in nursing homes based on drug-specific indicators: The Bergen district nursing home (BEDNURS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Ruths

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine prescribing quality among nursing home patients. Methods: A cross sectional study in 23 nursing homes, based on drug charts. The evaluation of prescribing quality was based on selected drug-specific indicators established by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between prescribing indicators and predictors related to patient (age, gender, drug number and institution (nurse and physician staff time characteristics. Results: A total of 1513 nursing home patients (76% women, mean age 85 years were included in the study. On average, the patients used 5.1 (SD 2.5 standing medications. Laxatives were most commonly used (58%, followed by loop-diuretics (35%, antidepressants (31%, and anti-thrombotic agents (27%. Altogether 850 (56% patients used at least one potentially inappropriate prescription (PIP, including long-term use of contact laxatives without proper indication (25%, long-acting benzodiazepines (17%, and anticholinergic drugs (16%. The number of drugs used was the most important determinant for any PIP as well as for all individual indicators (p<0.001. Relatively younger patients were more likely to receive any PIP, and in particular anticholinergic drugs, multiple psychotropic drugs, and interacting drugs (p<0.05. Conclusion: Prescribing quality assessment by use of drug-specific indicators revealed great potentials for improving drug therapy in Norwegian nursing homes.

  16. An overview of the causes of current practices in Pratinidhi Dravyas (substitution of drugs) in Ayurveda including newer techniques for their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pravin R; Patel, Bhupesh R; Shukla, Vinay J

    2012-10-01

    Many Pratinidhi Dravyas in Ayurvedic classics are mentioned and certainly are based on a methodical approach, which involves many aspects. These principles on which Pratinidhis were decided are quoted nowhere; so both to understand the established Pratinidhis and to find new ones a rational approach is the need of the hour. This article is an effort in the direction to study this concept meticulously in light of modern techniques for its better understanding and application. As there are very few established parameters, which help for selection and evaluation of Pratinidhi Dravyas. A rational technique like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy may be incorporated to set a new dimension. As most of the routine analytical techniques are separation based, overall component load cannot be predicted. Thus, it is prime necessity to compare the drugs with a whole aspect, which goes in hand by hand with a holistic approach of Ayurveda "Treat the man as Whole - Take the drug as whole."

  17. OPPIDUM surveillance program: 20 years of information on drug abuse in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities.

  18. [Problems in clinical testing of a psychotropic substance examplified by L-5-HTP-ester (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastpar, M; Pühringer, W; Graw, P; Wirz-Justice, A; Lacoste, V

    1978-01-01

    An i.v. injectable form of the serotonin-precursor L-5-hydroxytyptophan (Ro 3-5940) was investigated for its acute psychotropic effect. The difficulties are presented which had to be overcome as it was not known which effects could be expected. It was shown that for the intensive psychotropic effect found, it was not possible to use a long and detailed self-rating scale. The problem of informed consent is discussed.

  19. Principales bases legales relacionadas con la expedición y uso de estupefacientes, psicotrópicos y otras sustancias tóxicas en Cuba Main legal bases related to the prescription and use of stupefacients, psychotropic drugs, and other toxicants in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Barreiro Ramos

    2006-06-01

    substances under international and national supervision, many of which may be used with non-medical ends. The legal basis established in laws, decrees, resolutions, and other standing documents are summarized in this document. The main aspects included in this juridical instruments are stressed. Many of them have influenced on the changes made in recent years in the Penal Code in connection with the control of narcotics trade, and the abuse of regulated and/or forbidden toxicants. Information gathered is presented by related subjects that are grouped according to content, including comments on considerations relevant to the Cuban situation.

  20. The evolutionary origins and significance of drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saah Tammy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By looking at drug addiction from an evolutionary perspective, we may understand its underlying significance and evaluate its three-fold nature: biology, psychology, and social influences. In this investigation it is important to delve into the co-evolution of mammalian brains and ancient psychotropic plants. Gaining an understanding of the implications of ancient psychotropic substance use in altering mammalian brains will assist in assessing the causes and effects of addiction in a modern-day context. By exploring addiction in this manner, we may move towards more effective treatment early prevention, treating the root of the issue rather than the symptoms.

  1. Music therapy for reducing agitation and psychotropic medication in nursing home residents with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a neurocognitive disease with a high risk of social isolation and agitation due to loss of cognitive functions. In nursing home residents with dementia, agitation is the most significant symptom causing patient distress and care- giver burden. Agitation is described as abuse or aggres...... without first trying the efficacy of psychosocial interventions. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of research on the effectiveness of music therapy on agitation and psychotropic medication....

  2. The poorly membrane permeable antipsychotic drugs amisulpride and sulpiride are substrates of the organic cation transporters from the SLC22 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Pereira, Joao N; Tadjerpisheh, Sina; Abu Abed, Manar; Saadatmand, Ali R; Weksler, Babette; Romero, Ignacio A; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Tzvetkov, Mladen V

    2014-11-01

    Variations in influx transport at the blood-brain barrier might affect the concentration of psychotropic drugs at their site of action and as a consequence might alter therapy response. Furthermore, influx transporters in organs such as the gut, liver and kidney may influence absorption, distribution, and elimination. Here, we analyzed 30 commonly used psychotropic drugs using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. Amisulpride and sulpiride showed the lowest membrane permeability (P e sulpiride by the organic cation transporters of the SLC22 family OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, OCTN1, and OCTN2 Amisulpride was found to be transported by all five transporters studied. In contrast, sulpiride was only transported by OCT1 and OCT2. OCT1 showed the highest transport ability both for amisulpride (CLint = 1.9 ml/min/mg protein) and sulpiride (CLint = 4.2 ml/min/mg protein) and polymorphisms in OCT1 significantly reduced the uptake of both drugs. Furthermore, we observed carrier-mediated uptake that was inhibitable by known OCT inhibitors in the immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amisulpride and sulpiride are substrates of organic cation transporters of the SLC22 family. SLC22 transporters may play an important role in the distribution of amisulpride and sulpiride, including their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

  3. Ontological disorders: nightmares, psychotropic drugs and evil spirits in southern Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonelli, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores several equivocations in the relationship between state healthcare workers and the Pehuenche population in southern Chile. In particular, it focuses on radical differences in understanding the body, personhood, sleeping and dreaming. In Alto Bío Bío, Chile, while healthcare

  4. World wide use of psychotropic drugs in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, J G; Wiggins, D M; Williams, E

    1995-05-01

    1. Questionnaires were mailed to child psychiatrists world wide to obtain more precise information on views and approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders. 2. Results indicated important problems related to the management of child psychiatry practice both overseas and in Canada. 3. The choice of medication was frequently restricted by lack of availability, and political or social attitudes. 4. A consensus on diagnosis and treatment guidelines in child and adolescent psychiatry remains an important issue.

  5. Ontological disorders: nightmares, psychotropic drugs and evil spirits in southern Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonelli, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores several equivocations in the relationship between state healthcare workers and the Pehuenche population in southern Chile. In particular, it focuses on radical differences in understanding the body, personhood, sleeping and dreaming. In Alto Bío Bío, Chile, while healthcare wor

  6. 78 FR 79465 - International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; Single Convention on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... is a central nervous system active analgesic agent that has mu ( ) opioid agonist properties and... analgesic that produces its primary opioid- like action through an active metabolite referred to as the M1... short diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. It is marketed...

  7. Use and analysis of outpatient prescription of psychotropic substancesⅡ in our hospital%我院门诊第二类精神药品处方使用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆永; 周利国; 许晓辉; 崔学

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application of psychotropic substances II in the outpatient service of our hospital and evaluate their rationality so as to provide a reference for clinical reasonable application and standardized management.Methods: The prescriptions of psychotropic substances II from January, 2012 to December, 2013 were selected, their deifned daily dose system (DDDs) and drug utilization index (DUI) were statistically analyzed by using deifned daily dose (DDD).Results: Estazolam tablets, clonazepam, tramadol hydrochloride capsules were in top three in the list of DDDs. DUI of all psychotropic substances II was less than 1.0.Conclusion: Benzodiazepines are primarily used in psychotropic substances II and their use is basically reasonable, but the use frequency is higher, which suggests that clinician should instruct individual patients in rational drug use, especially pay great attention to drug dependence caused by long term abuse of such drugs.%目的:了解我院门诊第二类精神药品的使用情况,评价其用药合理性,为合理用药和规范化管理精神药品提供参考。方法:选取我院2012年1月-2013年12月门诊第二类精神药品处方,采用限定日剂量法(deifned daily dose,DDD)对各药的用药频度(deifned daily dose system,DDDs)和药物利用指数(DUI)进行统计、分析。结果:在DDDs排序中,艾司唑仑片、氯硝西泮片和盐酸曲马多胶囊分列前3位。所有第二类精神药品DUI均小于1。结论:我院第二类精神药品以苯二氮䓬类药物为主,且使用基本合理,但是使用频度较高。提示临床医师应指导患者合理用药,尤其应高度重视个别患者长期、滥用此类药品导致的药物依赖。

  8. Determination of drugs in surface water and wastewater samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: Methods and preliminary results including toxicity studies with Vibrio fischeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, M.; Ferrer, I.; Ginebreda, A.; Figueras, M.; Olivella, L.; Tirapu, L.; Vilanova, M.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work a combined analytical method involving toxicity and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water samples. The drugs investigated were the analgesics: ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac, the decomposition product of the acetyl salicylic acid: salicylic acid and one lipid lowering agent, gemfibrozil. The selected compounds are acidic substances, very polar and all of them are analgesic compounds that can be purchased without medical prescription. The developed protocol consisted, first of all, on the use Microtox?? and ToxAlert??100 toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri for the different pharmaceutical drugs. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values and the toxicity units (TU) were determined for every compound using both systems. Sample enrichment of water samples was achieved by solid-phase extraction procedure (SPE), using the Merck LiChrolut?? EN cartridges followed by LC-ESI-MS. Average recoveries loading 1 l of samples with pH=2 varied from 69 to 91% and the detection limits in the range of 15-56 ng/l. The developed method was applied to real samples from wastewater and surface-river waters of Catalonia (north-east of Spain). One batch of samples was analyzed in parallel also by High Resolution Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HRGC-MS) and the results have been compared with the LC-ESI-MS method developed in this work. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Opinions of senior schoolchildren on drugs in the internet: results of a pilot research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Glukhova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the level of engagement of schoolchildren in the process of distribution of narcotic drugs psychotropic substances or their analogues via information and telecommunication networks of common use. Methods the dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods systematicstructural comparativelegal sociological. Results the analysis was made of the involvement of schoolchildren in the process of distribution of narcotic drugs psychotropic substances or their analogues through informationtelecommunication network on the territory of the Russian Federation by the example of Nizhny Novgorod region. The study revealed the existence of two groups of students a group with psychological protection against harmful habits and a risk group. Each group has its own characteristics depending on sex age relationship to the use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances social contacts of students frequency of using the informationtelecommunication networks of common use. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of data obtained as a result of the sociolegal studies the situation was reviewed concerning the distribution of narcotic drugs psychotropic substances or their analogues via information and telecommunication networks of common use among secondary schools students. The social characteristics of a group with psychological protection against harmful habits and a risk group were identified. The proposal was made aimed at reducing the level of engagement of schoolchildren in the process of distribution of narcotic drugs psychotropic substances or their analogues. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and teaching activities in addressing issues related to combating

  10. Drug: D01832 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01832 Drug Modafinil (JAN/USAN/INN); Provigil (TN) C15H15NO2S 273.0823 273.3501 D0...fecting nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D01832 Moda...D NOOTROPICS N06BA Centrally acting sympathomimetics N06BA07 Modafinil D01832 Modafinil (JAN/USAN/INN) USP d...rug classification [BR:br08302] Sleep Disorder Agents Sleep Disorders, Other Modafinil D01832 Moda

  11. Drug: D01448 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01448 Drug Trifluoperazine maleate (JAN); Trifluoperazine (TN) C21H24F3N3S. (C4H4O...stem 117 Psychotropics 1172 Phenothiazines D01448 Trifluoperazine maleate (JAN) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemi...IPSYCHOTICS N05AB Phenothiazines with piperazine structure N05AB06 Trifluoperazine D01448 Trifluoperazine ma...leate (JAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antipsychotics 1st Generation/Typical Trifluoperazine D01448 Trifluopera... G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Dopamine dopamine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Trifluopera

  12. Drug: D01176 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01176 Drug Blonanserin (JAN/INN); AD 5423 C23H30FN3 367.2424 367.5028 D01176.gif A...br08310] G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Dopamine dopamine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Blonanserin D01176 Blonans...erin (JAN/INN) Serotonin 5-HT2A-receptor [HSA:3356] [KO:K04157] Blonanserin D01176 Blonanserin...s affecting nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D01176 Blonans...erin (JAN/INN) Target-based classification of drugs [BR:

  13. Steering Organoids Toward Discovery: Self-Driving Stem Cells Are Opening a World of Possibilities, Including Drug Testing and Tissue Sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, stem cells' shape-shifting abilities have wowed scientists. With proper handling, a few growth factors, and some time, stem cells can be cooked up into specific cell types, including neurons, muscle, and skin.

  14. Regulatory and clinical aspects of psychotropic medicinal products bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałkowiec-Iskra, Ewa; Cessak, Grzegorz; Kuzawińska, Olga; Sejbuk-Rozbicka, Katarzyna; Rokita, Konrad; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara

    2015-07-01

    Introduction of generic medicinal products to the market has increased access to modern therapies but also enabled significant reduction in their cost, leading to containment of public expenditures on medicinal products reimbursement. The critical assessment of bioequivalence of any reference medicinal product and its counterpart is based on comparison of their rate and extent of absorption. It is assumed that two medicinal products are bioequivalent when their rate and extent of absorption do not show significant differences when administered at the same dose under similar experimental conditions. Bioequivalent medicinal products are declared to be also therapeutically equivalent and can be used interchangeably. However, despite regulatory declaration, switching from reference to generic drugs is often associated with concerns of healthcare providers about decreased treatment effectiveness or occurrence of adverse drug reactions. The aim of this article is to provide a description of rules that guide registration of generic medicinal products in the European Union and to analyze specific examples from the scientific literature concerning therapeutic equivalence of reference and generic antidepressant and antipsychotic medicinal products.

  15. Psychotropic medication exposure and age at onset of bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kiki D; Saxena, Kirti; Howe, Meghan; Simeonova, Diana

    2010-02-01

    Exposure to psychotropic medications before the onset of bipolar disorder (BD) in children may have profound effects on the course of illness. Both antidepressant and stimulant exposure have been proposed to hasten the course of BD development, whereas mood stabilizers have been proposed as protective. We sought to describe psychotropic medication exposure in a cohort of children at risk for BD and retrospectively determine the effect of medication exposure on age at onset (AAO) of BD. Subjects were 106 children and adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD. Of these, 63 had BD I or BD II and 43 had subsyndromal symptoms of BD. AAO was determined as nearest month of first manic or hypomanic episode. Past psychotropic medication exposure prior to AAO was determined through interview and chart review. Both groups had high rates of exposure to psychotropic medications. Antidepressant or stimulant exposure was not correlated with an earlier AAO of BD. However, mood stabilizer exposure was associated with a later AAO. Children with full or subsyndromal BD are frequently exposed to a variety of psychotropic medications before their first manic episode. Our findings do not support that early stimulant or antidepressant exposure leads to an earlier AAO of BD. However, early mood stabilizer exposure may be associated with delayed AAO. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify these results.

  16. Application analysis of valproate in psychotropic department%丙戊酸盐在精神科使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红锐; 张玉涛; 王艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand application conditions of valproate in inpatients with mental illness. Methods:By using one-day method, the application of psychotropic substances in our hospital in the patients with mental disorders was investigated. Re-sults:(1) The cases with combination applications of valproates accounted for 29. 6%, and sodium valproate was the most (56%). (2) The conditions of valproate combined with a variety of psychotropic drugs, as well as the average dose were all in a safety range. Conclusions:Valproate for schizophrenia, mania, depression and various mental disorders is valid, and could be used widely.%目的::了解丙戊酸盐在住院精神疾病患者中的使用情况。方法:采用一日法对住院精神疾病的患者精神药物应用状况进行调查。结果:①合并应用丙戊酸盐者占29.6%,以应用丙戊酸钠多(占56%);②丙戊酸盐与多种精神药物均有联用情况且多种药物的平均使用剂量均在安全范围。结论:丙戊酸盐对精神分裂、躁狂、抑郁以及各类精神障碍均有效,其应用范围广泛。

  17. 新生儿精神药物撤药综合征的研究进展%Research progress of neonatal psychotropic withdrawal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振晓

    2014-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy causes withdrawal symptoms in 20% ~ 30% of newborns.The main clinical features of neonatal psychotrpic withdrawal syndrome are neurologic excitability,gastrointestinal dysfunction,respiratory symptoms and autonomic nervous dysfunctions.Because the clinical features of neonatal psychotropic withdrawal syndrome are non-specific,it was easily misdiagnosed.We should get the details of disease history in mothers,especially medication using during pregnancy,closely observe clinical symptoms,assess patients by the neonatal drug withdrawal scoring system,make laboratory test and other accessory examination,exclude other diseases.Supportive treatment is essential to this disease,pharmacologic therapy (such as phenobarbital) could be adopted if necessary.%妊娠期应用精神药物可导致20%~30%的新生儿出现撤药症状,临床表现主要包括中枢神经系统兴奋症状、胃肠道功能失常症状、呼吸系统症状、自主神经方面症状体征等.由于新生儿精神药物撤药综合征临床表现无特异性,容易误诊,所以应详细询问母亲病史,特别是孕期用药史,严密观察临床症状,采用临床量表进行评定,进行有关的实验室及其他检查,并排除其他疾病.治疗上支持疗法至关重要,病情严重时可给予苯巴比妥等药物.

  18. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Scalese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females. Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: “thrill and adventure seeking,” within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; “boredom susceptibility” is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.

  19. Psychotropic and Anticonvulsant Drug Usage in Early Childhood Special Education Programs III. A Preliminary Report: Parent Interviews about Drug Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    Interviewed were 115 parents of children receiving medication for hyperactivity, convulsive disorders, or other reasons. Parents received a Children's Medication Chart (CMC) which contained life size pictures of 69 different products to aid parents in identifying medication. The telephone interview covered such aspects as frequency of…

  20. Exploring the link between organizational climate and the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Fois, Romano A; Chen, Timothy F

    Research concerning the overprescribing of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes suggests that organizational climate plays a significant role in the use of psychotropic medicines. Organizational climate refers to how members of the organization perceive their work environment as well as interactions with each other or outsiders. This study aimed to explore the key dimensions of organizational climate and their subsequent influence on the use of psychotropic medicines. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 on-site and visiting staff from eight nursing homes in Sydney, Australia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants representing a broad range of health disciplines and roles. Transcripts were content coded for participants' perceptions related to the work environment and descriptions of psychotropic medicines use. Thematic analysis was used to derive key concepts. Three salient dimensions of organizational climate were linked to the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: staffing, managerial expectations and teamwork among visiting and on-site staff. Inadequate staffing levels were perceived to influence on-site staff requests for initiation of psychotropic medicines to cope with high workload. Participants reported managers that prioritized the non-pharmacological management of behavioral disturbances led other on-site staff to have a reduced preference for psychotropic medicines. In addition, trust and open communication among on-site and visiting staff facilitated the cessation of psychotropic medicines. This study illustrates that organizational climate is an important factor influencing the use of psychotropic medicines. Furthermore, the study highlights what aspects of organizational climate need to be addressed to reduce the inappropriate prescribing of psychotropic medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2010-07-08

    Cannabis contains the psychoactive component delta⁸-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta⁸-THC), and the non-psychoactive components cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol, and cannabigerol. It is well-known that delta⁸-THC and other cannabinoid CB₁ receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury. Additionally, delta⁸-THC also mediates psychological effects through the activation of the CB₁ receptor in the central nervous system. In addition to the CB₁ receptor agonists, cannabis also contains therapeutically active components which are CB₁ receptor independent. Of the CB₁ receptor-independent cannabis, the most important is CBD. In the past five years, an increasing number of publications have focused on the discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD. In particular, CBD exerts positive pharmacological effects in ischemic stroke and other chronic diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB₁ receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity. Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance. In this review, we will discuss the therapeutic possibility of CBD as a cerebroprotective agent, highlighting recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms, and therapeutic time window of CBD in ischemic stroke.

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Fujiwara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis contains the psychoactive component delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC, and the non-psychoactive components cannabidiol (CBD, cannabinol, and cannabigerol. It is well-known that delta9-THC and other cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury. Additionally, delta9-THC also mediates psychological effects through the activation of the CB1 receptor in the central nervous system. In addition to the CB1 receptor agonists, cannabis also contains therapeutically active components which are CB1 receptor independent. Of the CB1 receptor-independent cannabis, the most important is CBD. In the past five years, an increasing number of publications have focused on the discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD. In particular, CBD exerts positive pharmacological effects in ischemic stroke and other chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB1 receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity. Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance. In this review, we will discuss the therapeutic possibility of CBD as a cerebroprotective agent, highlighting recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms, and therapeutic time window of CBD in ischemic stroke.

  3. USE OF NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS FOR THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS, MONITORING THEIR EFFICACY AND SAFETY (DRAFT GUIDELINES OF THE EXPERT SPONDYLOARTHRITIS DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Gaidukova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the draft guidelines elaborated  by the Expert Spondyloarthritis  Diagnosis and Treatment Group  by order of the Association of Rheumatologists  of Russia. The guidelines include the essentials of how to use nonsteroidal  anti-inflammatory drugs in axial spondyloarthrititides, including ankylosing spondylitis, contain  instructions  for how long they should be administered, and describe possible patient  management tactics in the most common  clinical situations and a preferential  algorithm for evaluating the efficiency and safety of treatment.

  4. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  5. Psychotropic Medication Prescribing in Iraq/Afghanistan Veterans and Vietnam Era Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvoda, Dolores; Stefanovics, Elina A; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2017-09-26

    A new generation of veterans from Iraq/Afghanistan wars is seeking psychotropic pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from the Veterans Health Administration, but little is known about differences in prescribing practices between this group and Vietnam era veterans with the same diagnosis. The Veterans Health Administration administrative data for fiscal year 2012 were used to compare prescribing for 155,631 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans and for 327,634 Vietnam era veterans diagnosed with PTSD. The proportion of veterans who were prescribed psychotropic medications (altogether and within five of seven medication classes) were not substantially different between veteran groups. Iraq/Afghanistan veterans were more frequently prescribed prazosin (p < 0.0001, relative risk = 1.51). However, the number of prescriptions for anxiolytics/sedatives/hypnotics as well as prazosin and opiates filled by this younger group was lower by a small magnitude (Cohen's d < 0.2). Iraq/Afghanistan veterans have good access to psychopharmacological treatment for PTSD but fill somewhat fewer prescriptions than Vietnam era veterans.

  6. Drug: D02208 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02208 Drug Sultopride hydrochloride (JAN); Sultopride monohydrochloride; Barnetil ...(TN) C17H26N2O4S. HCl 390.138 390.9253 D02208.gif Neuroleptic Therapeutic category: 1179 ATC code: N05AL02 B...sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D02208 Sultopride hy...3] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N05 PSYCHOLEPTICS N05A ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AL Benzamides N05AL02 Sultopride D02208 Sultopr...sin family Dopamine dopamine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Sultopride [ATC:N05AL02] D0220

  7. Drug: D01468 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01468 Drug Nemonapride (JAN/INN); Emilace (TN) C21H26ClN3O2 387.1714 387.903 D0146...ting central nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D01468 Nemonapride (JAN...e dopamine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Nemonapride D01468 Nemonapride (JAN/INN) dopamine D3-receptor ...[HSA:1814] [KO:K04146] Nemonapride D01468 Nemonapride (JAN/INN) dopamine D4-recep...tor [HSA:1815] [KO:K04147] Nemonapride D01468 Nemonapride (JAN/INN) CAS: 75272-39-8 PubChem: 7848531 LigandB

  8. Examination of the regulatory frameworks applicable to biologic drugs (including stem cells and their progeny) in Europe, the U.S., and Australia: part I--a method of manual documentary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Nina; Savic, Snezana; Siegel, Evan; Atkinson, Kerry; Tasic, Ljiljana

    2012-12-01

    Recent development of a wide range of regulatory standards applicable to production and use of tissues, cells, and other biologics (or biologicals), as advanced therapies, indicates considerable interest in the regulation of these products. The objective of this study was to analyze and compare high-tier documents within the Australian, European, and U.S. biologic drug regulatory environments using qualitative methodology. Cohort 1 of the selected 18 high-tier regulatory documents from the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) regulatory frameworks were subject to a manual documentary analysis. These documents were consistent with the legal requirements for manufacturing and use of biologic drugs in humans and fall into six different categories. Manual analysis included a terminology search. The occurrence, frequency, and interchangeable use of different terms and phrases were recorded in the manual documentary analysis. Despite obvious differences, manual documentary analysis revealed certain consistency in use of terminology across analyzed frameworks. Phrase search frequencies have shown less uniformity than the search of terms. Overall, the EMA framework's documents referred to "medicinal products" and "marketing authorization(s)," the FDA documents discussed "drug(s)" or "biologic(s)," and the TGA documents referred to "biological(s)." Although high-tier documents often use different terminology they share concepts and themes. Documents originating from the same source have more conjunction in their terminology although they belong to different frameworks (i.e., Good Clinical Practice requirements based on the Declaration of Helsinki, 1964). Automated (software-based) documentary analysis should be obtained for the conceptual and relational analysis.

  9. [Outlines of interdisciplinary addiction research given by the example of medical imaging with PET, SPECT and fMRI regarding effects of psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M; Golaszewski, Stefan; Ertl, Markus; Riemer, Yvonne; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Ennemoser, Oswald; Rössler, Haimo; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2010-01-01

    The addiction phenomenon provides a fertile ground for the application of the tools of medical imaging which contribute to the development of scientific conceptualization of the effect of psychotropic substances. Medical imaging as for instance PET (Positron Emission Tomography), SPECT (Single Photon Emission Tomography) or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) are well established for the examination of functional activity in the living brain. Medical imaging permits the development of functional activation maps during perceptual, cognitive or emotional efforts with a high temporal and spatial resolution. Medical imaging devices have therefore also been used to help our understanding of many aspects of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of abused drugs. Because Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and cocaine continue to be the most commonly used illicit drugs, their effects on the brain function are of major interest. The cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist Delta(9)-THC as for instance has also been suggested for treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). This article provides an overview of present applications of medical imaging with PET, SPECT, and fMRI and its results regarding addiction-related research on Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and cocaine.

  10. Psychotropic Medications in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Synthesis for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Matthew; Beaulieu, Amy A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review, rating and synthesis of the empirical evidence for the use of psychotropic medications in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty-three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion and were coded and analyzed using a systematic evaluative…

  11. Regional distribution of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, in the rat brain at different time intervals and after chronic administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Van Wijngaarden, I.; Janssen, P.A.J.; Soudijn, W.

    1979-01-01

    Only a very small amount of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, structurally related to the butyrophenones, but with a different pharmacological and clinical profile, penetrates into the rat brain. The maximum concentration is reached between 1 and 2 hours after injection. Halopemide is evenly dis

  12. Using Analogue Functional Analysis to Measure Variations in Problem Behavior Rate and Function after Psychotropic Medication Changes: A Clinical Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Nelson, Samantha M.; Kuhle, Jennifer L.; Dierks, Abigail M.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities are often prescribed psychotropic medication to treat behaviors such as aggression and self-injury. Evaluation of these medications is often based on caregiver report or changes in frequency of behavior. The purpose of this research was to characterize the rate and function of problem…

  13. Using a treatment partner and text messaging to improve adherence to psychotropic medication: a qualitative formative study of service users and caregivers in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, S; Sibeko, G; Temmingh, H; Stein, D J; Milligan, P; Lund, C

    2013-09-01

    Poor adherence to medications, including psychotropic medications contributes to the burden of disease. Mental health service users (MHSU) may also not attend follow-up appointments at their health care facilities where they could discuss adherence with their health care provider. This paper reports on preliminary qualitative research preceding a randomised controlled trial that aims to improve adherence to psychotropic medication and to follow up treatment visits. The intervention will entail the support of individuals with serious mental disorder by a treatment partner and short message service (SMS) text messaging. The preliminary research reported in this paper aimed to extract views about the intervention from both mental health service users (MHSU) and caregivers through focus group discussions and individual interviews. Data were analysed using ATLAS TI qualitative software. The caregivers interviewed were all mothers of MHSU who took measures to encourage adherence. They held mixed opinions on whether the treatment partner should be a family member. Most participants expressed the view that due to living conditions, family members were natural treatment partners, but others stated that they would prefer a treatment partner who was not a family member. Similarly, while most MHSU supported the idea of a treatment partner, a minority were concerned that a treatment partner may potentially be too controlling and compromise their autonomy. The vast majority of participants supported SMS text messaging as a means of reminding MHSU to take their medication and attend follow-up appointments. One participant mentioned the importance of broader social inclusion issues that should be incorporated in the intervention. Qualitative research may provide useful insights for the design of interventions of this nature related to social inclusion randomised control trials with its focus on adherence.

  14. Can drugs induce or aggravate sleep apneas? A case-noncase study in VigiBase(®) , the WHO pharmacovigilance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linselle, Mélanie; Sommet, Agnès; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Moulis, Florence; Durrieu, Geneviève; Benevent, Justine; Rousseau, Vanessa; Chebane, Leila; Bagheri, Haleh; Montastruc, François; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2017-06-01

    The potential favorizing role of drugs in sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is unknown. This study investigates drugs associated with SAS in a pharmacovigilance database. SAS recorded as adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in VigiBase(®) , the WHO pharmacovigilance database (more than 11 million reports), from 1978 to 2015 was selected. The risk of SAS reports was estimated using the case-noncase method, with cases being SAS and noncases all other recorded ADRs. During this 37-year period, 3325 ADRs including the word SAS were registered (0.05% of the database). Mean age was 51.2 ± 16.9 years with 52% men. ADRs were 'serious' in around 82% of cases. The case-noncase study found an association between SAS and exposition with sodium oxybate, rofecoxib, quetiapine, and clozapine for individual drugs and coxibs, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and opium alkaloids for drug classes. The potential role of other drugs is discussed. This study suggests that SAS can be associated with some drugs (mainly psychotropics) that are able to reveal or aggravate such a disease. Physicians should take into account the role of drugs in the etiological appraisal and management of SAS. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Is the efficacy of psychopharmacological drugs comparable to the efficacy of general medicine medication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemüller Florian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an ongoing debate concerning the risk benefit ratio of psychopharmacologic compounds. With respect to the benefit, recent reports and meta-analyses note only small effect sizes with comparably high placebo response rates in the psychiatric field. These reports together with others lead to a wider, general critique on psychotropic drugs in the scientific community and in the lay press. In a recently published article, Leucht and his colleagues compare the efficacy of psychotropic drugs with the efficacy of common general medicine drugs in different indications according to results from reviewed meta-analyses. The authors conclude that, overall, the psychiatric drugs were generally not less effective than most other medical drugs. This article will highlight some of the results of this systematic review and discuss the limitations and the impact of this important approach on the above mentioned debate.

  16. Use of psychotropic medication among inpatients during focused efforts in prevention of coercion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Høgh, Lene; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    and reduced life expectancy. The aim of this study is therefore to quantify the use of psychotropic medication when implementing interventions to reduce coercion and restraint. Methods: Cohort study on patients in risk of agitation and coercion in a psychiatric ward operating without physical restraint......Objective: Department of Psychiatry in Aabenraa participates in a national Danish project supporting efforts to reduce coercion and restraint in psychiatry. Antipsychotic and anxiolytic medicine is widely used among agitated patients, but is also known to contribute to cardio-vascular disease...... the project period. Results: Data collection is carried out during autumn of 2016 and preliminary results will be presented at the meeting in Gothenburg. Conclusions: Data from this study will provide new information to the evaluation of initiatives towards reduction of restraint in psychiatry. It will also...

  17. Psychotropic medication from an object relations theory perspective: an analysis of vignettes from group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Dana Shindel; Sharon, Amos; Moscovici, Lucian; Schreiber, Shaul

    2008-07-01

    In this article we explore the content and dynamics of patients' verbalizations within a "living with medications" group. Patients' perceptions of their psychotropic medications are interpreted and classified within the framework of object relations theory. One's perception of the role of medication in one's life can serve as a gateway to one's inner world and the way that he or she perceives authority figures, peers, and oneself. We suggest that working through patients' relationships with their medications can help them to achieve better integration of internal object relations. Discussing patients' views about medications should therefore be seen as an important part of psychotherapy with many individuals. Such a discussion may enhance and improve efficacy of both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. It is of particular importance in group therapy, within milieu environments and with individuals reluctant to explicitly discuss interpersonal matters. Vignettes from the group sessions illustrate the way in which discussing medication advances group process.

  18. Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviello, Gabriella; Romano, Barbara; Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Gallo, Laura; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2012-08-01

    Colon cancer affects millions of individuals in Western countries. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of Cannabis sativa, exerts pharmacological actions (antioxidant and intestinal antinflammatory) and mechanisms (inhibition of endocannabinoid enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for colon carcinogenesis. Thus, we investigated its possible chemopreventive effect in the model of colon cancer induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in mice. AOM treatment was associated with aberrant crypt foci (ACF, preneoplastic lesions), polyps, and tumour formation, up-regulation of phospho-Akt, iNOS and COX-2 and down-regulation of caspase-3. Cannabidiol-reduced ACF, polyps and tumours and counteracted AOM-induced phospho-Akt and caspase-3 changes. In colorectal carcinoma cell lines, cannabidiol protected DNA from oxidative damage, increased endocannabinoid levels and reduced cell proliferation in a CB(1)-, TRPV1- and PPARγ-antagonists sensitive manner. It is concluded that cannabidiol exerts chemopreventive effect in vivo and reduces cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms.

  19. Cultural symbolism of fish and the psychotropic properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, L C; Hibbeln, J R

    2006-01-01

    Fish is a food with unique psychotropic properties. Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, rich in seafood, reduces depression, aggression and anger while improving mental well-being. We posit that symbols of fish have become linked to the emotional states induced by long-chain fatty acid by associative pairings, both conscious and unconscious. The limbic and hippocampal activity necessary for memory formation containing emotional content and the labeling of social context by cortical processes appears to be optimized by diets rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acid. In this critical literature survey, we find that fish have been culturally labeled as symbols of emotional well-being and social healing in religious and medical practices among independent cultures, for at least six millennia. This understanding of the perception of fish as a symbolically healing or purifying food can assist current messages improving public health.

  20. Neuroglialpharmacology: myelination as a shared mechanism of action of psychotropic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzokis, George

    2012-06-01

    Current psychiatric diagnostic schema segregate symptom clusters into discrete entities, however, large proportions of patients suffer from comorbid conditions that fit neither diagnostic nor therapeutic schema. Similarly, psychotropic treatments ranging from lithium and antipsychotics to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have been shown to be efficacious in a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders ranging from autism, schizophrenia (SZ), depression, and bipolar disorder (BD) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This apparent lack of specificity suggests that psychiatric symptoms as well as treatments may share aspects of pathophysiology and mechanisms of action that defy current symptom-based diagnostic and neuron-based therapeutic schema. A myelin-centered model of human brain function can help integrate these incongruities and provide novel insights into disease etiologies and treatment mechanisms. Available data are integrated herein to suggest that widely used psychotropic treatments ranging from antipsychotics and antidepressants to lithium and electroconvulsive therapy share complex signaling pathways such as Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) that affect myelination, its plasticity, and repair. These signaling pathways respond to neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, hormones, and nutrition, underlie intricate neuroglial communications, and may substantially contribute to the mechanisms of action and wide spectra of efficacy of current therapeutics by promoting myelination. Imaging and genetic technologies make it possible to safely and non-invasively test these hypotheses directly in humans and can help guide clinical trial efforts designed to correct myelination abnormalities. Such efforts may provide insights into novel avenues for treatment and prevention of some of the most prevalent and devastating human diseases.

  1. Drug: D02163 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in Japan [BR:br08301] 1 Agents affecting nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 117 Psychotrop...ics 1172 Phenothiazines D02163 Fluphenazine maleate (JAN) Anatomical Therapeutic Ch

  2. Psychoactive Drugs and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed on a representative sample of the Danish population in order to investigate the connection to the use of psychoactive drugs and quality of life (QOL by way of a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire was mailed in February 1993 to 2,460 persons aged between 18 and 88, randomly selected from the CPR (Danish Central Register, and 7,222 persons from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959–61.A total of 1,501 persons between the ages 18 and 88 years and 4,626 persons between the ages 31 and 33 years returned the questionnaire (response rates of 61.0% and 64.1%, respectively. Variables investigated in this study were ten different psychotropic drugs and quality of life.Our study showed that over half the Danish population had used illegal psychotropic drugs. The most commonly used was cannabis (marijuana though experience of this drug appeared not to co-vary with QOL to any significant extent. Cocaine, amphetamine, and psilocybin had been used by 1.2 to 3.3% of the population and this varied with QOL to a clear albeit small extent. LSD has been used by 1.2% of the population and the users had a QOL score 10% lower than those who had never used psychotropic drugs. The group with the lowest quality of life was found to be persons who had used heroin, morphine, methadone, and a mixture of alcohol and tranquilizers (10–20% below the group with the highest quality of life.

  3. Psychoactive drugs and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav

    2003-08-18

    This study was performed on a representative sample of the Danish population in order to investigate the connection to the use of psychoactive drugs and quality of life (QOL) by way of a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire was mailed in February 1993 to 2,460 persons aged between 18 and 88, randomly selected from the CPR (Danish Central Register), and 7,222 persons from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61. A total of 1,501 persons between the ages 18 and 88 years and 4,626 persons between the ages 31 and 33 years returned the questionnaire (response rates of 61.0% and 64.1%, respectively). Variables investigated in this study were ten different psychotropic drugs and quality of life. Our study showed that over half the Danish population had used illegal psychotropic drugs. The most commonly used was cannabis (marijuana) though experience of this drug appeared not to co-vary with QOL to any significant extent. Cocaine, amphetamine, and psilocybin had been used by 1.2 to 3.3% of the population and this varied with QOL to a clear albeit small extent. LSD has been used by 1.2% of the population and the users had a QOL score 10% lower than those who had never used psychotropic drugs. The group with the lowest quality of life was found to be persons who had used heroin, morphine, methadone, and a mixture of alcohol and tranquilizers (10-20% below the group with the highest quality of life).

  4. Prevalence of medicinal drugs in suspected impaired drivers and a comparison with the use in the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Karlijn D B; Smink, Beitske E; van Maanen, Rianne; Verschraagen, Miranda; de Gier, Johan J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of psychotropic medicines in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of medicinal and illicit drugs in The Netherlands and to compare the prevalence of selected impairing medicines with the use of these medicines in the general Dutch p

  5. Aberrant Behaviors and Co-occurring Conditions as Predictors of Psychotropic Polypharmacy among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah L; Carpenter, Laura; Leslie, R Scott; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Hunt, Kelly J; Charles, Jane; Nicholas, Joyce S

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify rates and predictors of psychotropic medication polypharmacy among Medicaid-eligible children in South Carolina with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from 2000 to 2008. Population-based surveillance data were linked with state Medicaid records to obtain a detailed demographic, behavioral, educational, clinical, and diagnostic data set for all Medicaid-eligible 8-year-old children (n=629) who were identified and diagnosed with ASD using standardized criteria. Polypharmacy was defined as having interclass psychotropic medication claims overlapping for ≥30 consecutive days at any time during the 2-year study period. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model predictors of any polypharmacy, and for the three most common combinations. Overall, 60% (n=377) used any psychotropic medication, and 41% (n=153) of those had interclass polypharmacy. Common combinations were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications with an antidepressant (A/AD), antipsychotic (A/AP) or a mood stabilizer (A/MS). Black children had lower odds of any polypharmacy, as did those eligible for Medicaid because of income or being foster care versus those eligible because of disability. There were no significant associations between polypharmacy and social deficits in ASD for any combination, although children with communication deficits diagnostic of ASD had lower odds of any polypharmacy and A/AP polypharmacy. Children with argumentative, aggressive, hyperactive/impulsive, or self-injurious aberrant behaviors had higher odds of polypharmacy, as did children with diagnosed co-occurring ADHD, anxiety or mood disorders, or conduct/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in Medicaid records. Future research is warranted to investigate how child-level factors impact combination psychotropic medication prescribing practices and outcomes in ASD.

  6. Drug use during early pregnancy: cross-sectional analysis from the Childbirth and Health Study in Primary Care in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsdottir, Thury O; Sigurdsson, Emil L; Gudmundsdottir, Anna M; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sigurdsson, Johann A

    2014-09-01

    To analyse drug use in early pregnancy with special focus on socio-demographic factors associated with psychotropic and analgesic drug use. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1765 women were invited via their local health care centres, and 1111 participated at 11-16 weeks of pregnancy by filling out a postal questionnaire concerning socio-demographic and obstetric background, stressful life events, and drug use. Drug use prior to and early on in pregnancy, socio-demographic factors, smoking, and adverse life events were investigated. Drug categories screened for were psychotropics (collective term for antidepressants, relaxants, and sleep medication), analgesics, hormones, nicotine, vitamins/minerals, and homeopathic medicine. Drug use from the aforementioned drug categories, excluding vitamins/minerals and homeopathic medicine, was reduced by 18% during early pregnancy, compared with six months prior to conception (49% vs. 60%). Psychotropic drug use during early pregnancy was associated with elementary maternal education (p pregnancy (p pregnancy (p pregnancy. Our results indicate that lack of a support network, stressful life events, and lower status in society may predispose women to more drug use. GPs and midwives responsible for maternity care could take this into account when evaluating risk and gain for women and foetuses in the primary care setting.

  7. Some pharmacological aspects of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesher, G B

    1975-12-06

    The self-administration of drugs to achieve altered states of consciousness is recognized as normal human behaviour. Community attitudes towards drug use vary according to the drug and often bear little relationship to the known pharmacological and toxicological effects of the drug. For an objective assessment of the potential dangers associated with drug use, a distinction is made between drug use and drug abuse. It is stressed that the progression from drug use to drug abuse involves social and psychological factors in addition to the pharmacological factors which are outlined in this paper. The sequential development of drug dependency is described under the headings: Induction; continued consumption; compulsive consumption; withdrawal; abstinence; reinduction. Man uses psychotropic drugs because he finds the effects rewarding. Some experimental models to explore the neurophysiological basis of the reward are described. Experiments employing inhibitors of protein synthesis suggest that the phenomena of tolerance and physical dependence involve the synthesis of new protein. It has been suggested that the new protein might be new receptor molecules for the drug or neurotransmitter substances. These new receptors might constitute a "drug memory" and provide a possible explanation for high relapse rate of drug dependent subjects. A pharmacological basis for the methadone maintenance programme of management of narcotic dependent subjects is briefly outlined.

  8. [Medical drug abuse and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubukpo, Philippe; Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Drug addiction is often underestimated among the aged. Opiate drugs (mostly pain killers) are the most frequently implicated in drug addiction after benzodiazepines (BZD) in the aged. The subjects aged of 65 years or more are the most represented among the BZD users in France. Frequency of BZD use varies according to various studies from 39 to 55% in this age group. Leading a lonely life is associated with the use of psychotropic drugs among retired people (OR=1.7). Vulnerability at this age must take into account not only polypathology, but also the faster aging of a minority of the population under opiate drugs substitution treatment (OST), more subjects to drugs interaction. Drug addiction among elderly often reflects the drift of "lawful" doctor's instructions that leads to an increase in drugs use. The difficulty has to do with a lack of specificity of diagnosis of addiction at this age, but perhaps also with physicans'instructions in the aged. Some authors suggest that continued and prolonged use should be considered the main criterion for BZD addiction at this age, with or without increase in doses and failed attempt at cessation. Besides, the prescription of BZD increases after retirement and loneliness.

  9. Drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry for improved efficacy and safety of psychopharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fegert Jörg M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most psychotropic drugs used in the treatment of children and adolescents are applied "off label" with a direct risk of under- or overdosing and a delayed risk of long-term side effects. The selection of doses in paediatric psychiatric patients requires a consideration of pharmacokinetic parameters and the development of central nervous system, and warrants specific studies in children and adolescents. Because these are lacking for most of the psychotropic drugs applied in the Child and Adolescent and Psychiatry, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM is a valid tool to optimise pharmacotherapy and to enable to adjust the dosage of drugs according to the characteristics of the individual patient. Multi-centre TDM studies enable the identification of age- and development-dependent therapeutic ranges of blood concentrations and facilitate a highly qualified standardized documentation in the child and adolescent health care system. In addition, they will provide data for future research on psychopharmacological treatment in children and adolescents, as a baseline for example for clinically relevant interactions with various co-medications. Therefore, a German-Austrian-Swiss "Competence Network on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" was founded 1 introducing a comprehensive internet data base for the collection of demographic, safety and efficacy data as well as blood concentrations of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents.

  10. [Psychotropic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: what are the arguments?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesure, G; Fallet, A; Chevalier, J F

    1995-01-01

    The authors report a case of acute mania induced by perindopril (Coversyl) in a 57 year old man with no prior history of mental illness. This Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACEI) had been introduced eight days prior to the first signs of excitation, in order to treat recently diagnosed arterial hypertension. Without proof of reintroduction, and on the basis of clinical observations, the attribution appears plausible. Similar observations have been made for other molecules in this class of medication, such as captopril (Lopril). A review of literature regroups recent data concerning psychotropic effects of ACEIs. Several reports claim that captopril clearly acts as an antidepressant. Studies on the mood or the quality of life of treated hypertensive patients show ACEIs to have an euphoric-type positive effect compared to other anti-hypertensive treatments. Captopril and perindopril also act like potential antidepressants in experimental models of antidepression. Furthermore, pharmacologic data confirm that the most lipophilic ACEIs penetrate the central nervous system and argue in favor of the role of these molecules in activating central opioides. As these data provide evidence of mood swing in some patients, but also of an overall benefit in hypertensive populations, the clinical importance of the antidepressant effect of ACEIs needs further investigations.

  11. [Descriptive study of psychotropic use in the 20-35 age adults with autism in Languedoc-Roussillon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Gonnier, V; Valancogne, F; Aussilloux, C

    2005-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders complications can lead to an important life long handicap. There is an important literature about autism, but in most cases, specifically concerning children and adolescents problems. We wished to focus our attention on adults, in order to describe, on one hand their socio-adaptive profile, and on the other hand, the necessity to resort to a psycho-active treatment. The geographic zone chosen in order to carry out this, was Languedoc-Roussillon, and the applied method was a descriptive study of psychotropic use in the 20-35 age adults with autism. The instruments used were standardized and validated. The diagnosis was confirmed using ICD 10 criteria checklist and individual characteristics including adaptive profile estimated on the Vineland scale, were collected. Moreover the prescriber's global impressions were collected on the CGI scale. Out of 165 case files collected, the sex-ratio was 3 men for 2 women, 45% showed associated somatic disorders (of which 24% epileptic), 66% -benefited from a psycho-active treatment; 85% had been admitted in institutions during childhood or adolescence. The admittance framework being respectfully, MAS 21.8%, community homes 35.2%, CAT 17.6% and psychiatric services 20.6%. Mean equivalent age, in the three Vineland adaptive domains, were from 21 months in Communication to 43 months in Autonomy in daily life Skills and 17 months in Socialization. The development quotient showed adaptive retardation in 100% of cases. The 110 persons benefiting from a medicinal treatment, were treated for aggressiveness in 62.7% of cases, agitation in 43.6% of cases and anxiety in 48.2% of cases. The therapeutic categories used were, in majority, antipsychotics in 85% of cases, anxiolitics in 40.2% of cases; hypnotics as well as anti-depressants or mood-regulators, each representing 10% of prescriptions. Associations of several molecules representing 83% of cases. The therapeutic effect was considered

  12. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  13. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. The efficacy and safety of treatments for acute gout: results from a series of systematic literature reviews including Cochrane reviews on intraarticular glucocorticoids, colchicine, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and interleukin-1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechalekar, Mihir D; Vinik, Ophir; Moi, John H Y; Sivera, Francisca; van Echteld, Irene A A M; van Durme, Caroline; Falzon, Louise; Bombardier, Claire; Carmona, Loreto; Aletaha, Daniel; Landewé, Robert B; van der Heijde, Désirée M F M; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-09-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of glucocorticoids (GC), colchicine, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID), interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitors, and paracetamol to treat acute gout. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to September 2011. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) or quasi-RCT in adults with acute gout that compared GC, colchicine, NSAID, IL-1 inhibitors, and paracetamol to no treatment, placebo, another intervention, or combination therapy were included. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Primary endpoints were pain and adverse events. Data were pooled where appropriate. Twenty-six trials evaluating GC (N = 5), NSAID (N = 21), colchicine (N = 2), and canakinumab (N = 1) were included. No RCT assessed paracetamol or intraarticular (IA) GC. No RCT compared systemic GC with placebo. Moderate quality evidence (3 trials) concluded that systemic GC were as effective as NSAID but safer. Low quality evidence (1 trial) showed that both high- and low-dose colchicine were more effective than placebo, and low-dose colchicine was no different to placebo with respect to safety but safer than high-dose colchicine. Low quality evidence (1 trial) showed no difference between NSAID and placebo with regard to pain or inflammation. No NSAID was superior to another. Moderate quality evidence (1 trial) found that 150 mg canakinumab was more effective than a single dose of intramuscular GC (40 mg triamcinolone) and equally safe. GC, NSAID, low-dose colchicine, and canakinumab all effectively treat acute gout. There was insufficient evidence to rank them. Systemic GC appeared safer than NSAID and lower-dose colchicine was safer than higher-dose colchicine.

  16. Nonprescribed use of tranquilizers and use of other drugs among Brazilian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emérita S. Opaleye

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe patterns of nonprescribed use of tranquilizers by students aged 10 to 18 years and assess the sociodemographic characteristics of these adolescents and their use of other substances. Methods: A randomized and stratified sample of 47,979 students from state and private schools of the 27 Brazilian state capitals completed a self-report questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the associations between tranquilizer use and sociodemographic factors, as well as the use of other psychotropic substances. Results: The lifetime prevalence of nonprescribed use of tranquilizers was 3.9%. Use was most common among girls, wealthier adolescents, and those from private schools. An association was found between use of tranquilizers and lifetime use of alcohol (prevalence ratio [PR] = 3.15; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 2.58-3.85, tobacco (PR = 2.61; 95%CI 2.31-2.95, illicit drugs (PR = 3.70; 95%CI 3.19-4.29, and other prescription drugs (PR = 7.03; 95%CI 6.18-7.99. As the number of substances adolescents reported having used increased, so did the nonprescribed use of tranquilizers. Conclusions: Nonprescribed use of tranquilizers by adolescents might indicate the use of other substances, including high-risk combinations such as tranquilizers and alcohol. The risks of this association should be addressed during the early stages of drug prevention programs.

  17. 2013-2015年天津市肿瘤医院第二类精神药品使用情况分析%Analysis on use of second class psychotropic substances in Tianjin Cancer Hospital from 2013 to 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜俊; 谷振坤; 杜晓琅; 王晨; 张洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the usage and variation tendency of second class psychotropic substances in Tianjin Cancer Hospital, in order to provide reference for rational drug use in clinic.Methods The utilization, consumption sums, frequency of drug use (DDDs), defined daily cost (DDC), and drug sequence ratio (B/A) of second class psychotropic substances in Tianjin Cancer Hospital during 2013 to 2015 were calculated and analyzed.Results The consumption sums of second class psychoactive substances increased rapidly year by year from 2013 to 2015. The consumption sums of Pentazocine Injection, Dezocine Injection, and Midazolam Injection ranked first. DDDs of second class psychoactive substances increased year by year from 2013 to 2015, and DDDs of Dezocine Injection and Pentazocine Injection ranked the first and the second in 2015. In 2013 and 2014, DDC of second class psychotropic substances was basically stable, and DDDs of Pentazocine Injection ranked the first. DDC of all the second class psychotropic substances were lower than 10 Yuan in 2015. B/A of most second class psychotropic substances was closed to 1.00 in 2015.Conclusion The utilization of second class psychotropic substances in Tianjin Cancer Hospital is rational on the whole, but there are still some problems.%目的:分析天津市肿瘤医院第二类精神药品的使用情况和变化趋势,为促进临床合理用药提供依据。方法对2013—2015年天津市肿瘤医院第二类精神药品的销售量、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均药费(DDC)、药品排序比(B/A)进行统计和分析。结果2013—2015年,第二类精神药品的销售金额逐年增长,喷他佐辛注射液、地佐辛注射液、咪达唑仑注射液销售金额排名始终居前。第二类精神药物的DDDs逐年增长,地佐辛注射液、喷他佐辛注射液DDDs排名跃居前2位。2013—2014年各种精神药品的DDC基本相同,喷他佐辛注射液

  18. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  19. Assessment of competitive and mechanism-based inhibition by clarithromycin: use of domperidone as a CYP3A probe-drug substrate and various enzymatic sources including a new cell-based assay with freshly isolated human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Veronique; Turgeon, Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Clarithromycin is involved in a large number of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. Discrepancies are observed between the magnitude of drug interactions predicted from in vitro competitive inhibition studies and changes observed clinically in the plasma levels of affected CYP3A substrates. The formation of metabolic-intermediate complexes has been proposed to explain these differences. The objectives of our study were: 1) to determine the competitive inhibition potency of clarithromycin on the metabolism of domperidone as a CYP3A probe drug using human recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 isoenzymes, human liver microsomes and cultured human hepatocytes; 2) to establish the modulatory role of cytochrome b5 on the competitive inhibition potency of clarithromycin; 3) to demonstrate the clarithromycin-induced formation of CYP450 metabolic-intermediate complexes in human liver microsomes; and 4) to determine the extent of CYP3A inhibition due to metabolic-intermediate complex formation using human liver microsomes and cultured human hepatocytes. At high concentrations (100 µM), clarithromycin had weak competitive inhibition potency towards CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Inhibition potency was further decreased by the addition of cytochrome b5 (9-19%). Clarithromycin-induced metabolic-intermediate complexes were revealed by spectrophotometry analysis using human liver microsomes while time- and concentration-dependent mechanism-based inhibitions were quantified using isolated hepatocytes. These results indicate that mechanism-based but not competitive inhibition of CYP3As is the major underlying mechanism of drug-drug interactions observed clinically with clarithromycin. Drug interactions between clarithromycin and several CYP3A substrates are predicted to be insidious; the risk of severe adverse events should increase over time and persist for a few days after cessation of the drug.

  20. Risk of recurrent overdose associated with prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after nonfatal overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to estimate risk of recurrent overdose associated with psychosocial assessment by psychiatrists during hospitalization for nonfatal overdose and prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after discharge. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a nationwide claims database in Japan. We classified patients aged 19–64 years hospitalized for nonfatal overdose between October 2012 and September 2013 into two cohorts: 1) those who had consulted a psychiatrist prior to overdose (n=6,790) and 2) those who had not (n=4,950). All patients were followed up from 90 days before overdose until 365 days after discharge. Results Overall, 15.3% of patients with recent psychiatric treatment had a recurrent overdose within 365 days, compared with 6.0% of those without psychiatric treatment. Psychosocial assessment during hospital admission had no significant effect on subsequent overdose, irrespective of treatment by psychiatrists before overdose. There was a dose–response relationship for the association of benzodiazepine prescription after overdose with subsequent overdose in either cohort, even after accounting for average daily dosage of benzodiazepines before overdose and other confounders. In patients with recent psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at 365 days was 27.7% for patients receiving excessive dosages of benzodiazepines, 22.0% for those receiving high dosages, 15.3% for those receiving normal dosages, and 7.6% for those receiving no benzodiazepines. In patients without psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at 365 days was 24.3% for patients receiving excessive dosages of benzodiazepines, 18.0% for those receiving high dosages, 9.0% for those receiving normal dosages, and 4.1% for those receiving no benzodiazepines. Conclusion Lower dose of benzodiazepines after overdose is associated with lower risk of subsequent overdose. PMID:28293108

  1. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors anre closely related to number of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    by changes in sales of the benzodiazepines and SSRIs. We found a decline in the sales of benzodiazepines after a peak in 1986, likely due to the recognition that they cause dependence. From a low level in 1992, we found that the sales of SSRIs increased almost linearly by a factor of 18, up to 44 DDD per......BACKGROUND: Prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has increased dramatically. OBJECTIVE: To compare the sales of benzodiazepines and SSRIs within the primary care sector in Denmark and relate changes in usage to number of indications and products on the market. METHODS: We...

  2. A comparison of locomotor responses to some psychotropic drugs and cerebral receptors in the Acomys cahirinus and the laboratory mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marona-Lewicka, D; Michaluk, J; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, L; Vetulani, J

    1987-01-01

    Comparative studies of the laboratory mouse and Acomys cahirinus have shown differences in their motor activity patterns and motor responses to morphine, apomorphine and clonidine. The two species also differed in respect of the density of cerebral alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, but no significant differences between other types of receptors (alpha 1-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, opiate mu and delta, and spiroperidol binding sites) were found. It is suggested that the high excitability of the Acomys may be related to a deficit in the inhibitory noradrenergic transmission in the central nervous system.

  3. Effect of psychotropic drugs on gastric ulcers induced by immobilization: Increased protective effect of amitriptyline caused by chlordiazepoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J. E.; Huerlimann, A.

    1980-01-01

    Amitriptyline, but not chlordiazepoxide, protects rats from the occurrence of gastric erosions and ulcers following immobilization. When, however, chlordiazepoxide is given together with amitriptyline the protective effect of the latter is markedly increased.

  4. Changes in antipsychotics and other psychotropic drugs during a 30-month lifestyle intervention among outpatients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Elliott, Anja Friis; Madsen, Nikolaj Juul

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have high risk of early death from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, partly because of poor lifestyle and partly because of long-lasting exposure to antipsychotic treatment. AIMS: To investigate the influence of a lifestyle intervention program on chang...... of antipsychotic medication during the study period. Many patients were subject to antipsychotic polypharmacy. The extent of participation in the lifestyle intervention program did not correlate with the changes in dosing of antipsychotic medication....

  5. Drug therapy in autism: a present and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Baldeep; Prakash, Ajay; Sewal, Rakesh K; Medhi, Bikash; Modi, Manish

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder, with a multifactorial etiology, characterized by severe abnormalities in communications, social awareness and skills, and the presence of restrictive and stereotyped patterns of behaviors. It is traditionally considered a "static" encephalopathic disorder without any specific cure and few effective biomedical interventions. There are various factors which are involved in the etiopathogenesis of autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) such as impaired immune responses, neuroinflammation, abnormal neurotransmission, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, environmental toxins and stressors. The autism is often associated with a number of genetic disorders such as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy and Down syndrome. The recent approaches to autism treatment included various non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapy such as food supplementation, detoxification, treatment of neuroinflammation, immunologic treatments and psychotropic medications, which are found to be effective in treating various behavioral symptoms of autism. In current practice, there is no curative treatment for autism but the recommended treatment for autism involves educational therapies: speech therapy, sensory integration therapy, auditory therapy. There are classes of different pharmacological agents which are found to be effective in improving behavioral symptoms of ASD such as neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine), tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine), anticonvulsants (lamotrigine), atypical antipsychotics (clozapine), acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine), etc. New classes of drugs with novel mechanisms of action should be there so that this disorder will become less prevalent in the future.

  6. Prevalence and Prescription of Antidepressants in Depression with Somatic Comorbidity in Asia: The Research on East Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Chen; Tian-Mei Si; Yu-Tao Xiang; Gabor S Ungvari; Chuan-Yue Wang; Yan-Ling He; Ee-Heok Kua

    2015-01-01

    Background:Depression is often comorbid with chronic somatic diseases.Few previous studies have investigated the prevalence of somatic diseases in depression or the prescription pattern of antidepressants in comorbidly depressed patients in Asia.This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of somatic comorbidity (SC) in depression and compared the prescriptions of antidepressants in depressed patients with and without SC.Methods:A total of 2320 patients treated with antidepressants in 8 Asian countries were examined,and a diagnosis was based on the International Classification of Disease,10th revision.We listed 17 common chronic somatic diseases.Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and psychotropic drug prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure.Results:Of the patients examined,1240 were diagnosed with depression and 30% of them (n =375) had SC.The most common comorbid condition was diabetes (23.7%).The patients with SC were more likely to seek help at a general hospital (74.7% vs.47.2%),and had a higher incidence of symptoms involving sadness,disturbed sleep,and poor appetite.Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant was prescribed more for patients with SC than for those without SC (30.4% vs.22.9%).Conclusions:SC is common in depressed Asian patients.It is important to strengthen the recognition of depression,especially in general hospitals and when patients report some somatic discomfort.It is also a matter of urgency to establish evidence-based guidelines for the use of new antidepressants in depressed patients with SC.

  7. Toxicological screening of basic drugs in whole blood using UPLC-TOF-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Rasmussen, Brian Schou; Müller, Irene Breum

    2012-01-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) was established for toxicological screening of basic drugs in whole blood and tested on authentic samples. Whole blood samples (0.2 ml) were extracted using a Gilson apparatus equipped with Bond...... Elut Certify columns. Screening was performed for 175 compounds (psychotropic, cardiovascular, designer, and abused drugs). The drugs were separated in 15 min using a UPLC system (Waters ACQUITY BEH C18, 1.7 µm, 2.1 mm × 100 mm column) coupled to an LCT Premier XE (Waters) instrument. Data were...... and effective screening method for basic drugs in whole blood....

  8. Drug: D01101 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01101 Drug Bromperidol (JAN/USAN/INN); Impromen (TN) C21H23BrFNO2 419.0896 420.3152 D01101...cting central nervous system 117 Psychotropics 1179 Others D01101 Bromperidol (JAN/USAN/INN) Anatomical Ther...TICS N05A ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AD Butyrophenone derivatives N05AD06 Bromperidol D01101 Bromperidol (JAN/USAN/IN...opamine D2-receptor [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Bromperidol [ATC:N05AD06] D01101 Bromp...eridol (JAN/USAN/INN) CAS: 10457-90-6 PubChem: 7848164 LigandBox: D01101 NIKKAJI: J10.460D ATOM 26 1 C1b C 1

  9. Alter Ego. Drug and brain--information to prevent. Compared analysis of opinions, knowledge and habits among a multicentric sample of secondary school students about drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, M; Gentile, A; Langiano, E; De Vito, E; La Torre, G; Ricciardi, G

    2006-03-01

    Repression and control have been shown to be inadequate for drug addiction issues. Recent history, however has proved that information is one of the most effective measures against the spread of drugs. The wide range of drug circulation and the need for the spread of correct information on the effects of drugs in man, especially his brain, have led the Center for Scientific Culture Diffusion of Cassino University, to widen the scope of "Alter Ego. Drugs and the brain", a touring educational exhibition, which opened in 1994, by dedicating more attention to socially accepted drugs, such as alcohol and tobacco, and to new substances like ecstasy and similar drugs. Concurrently with the Alter Ego touring exhibition, a study was undertaken to obtain information on public awareness of the dangers of psychotropic drug abuse and to assess the effectiveness of the exhibition as an instrument of scientific information about drug addiction among its visitors, during its tour of over 60 Italian towns.

  10. The impact of non-urologic drugs on sexual function in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Fusco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunctions have commonly been reported as the resulting side effects of many drugs. To understand the impact of a single drug, the mechanism of action of the most commonly prescribed drugs and the physiological mechanisms of sexual function have to be taken into dual consideration. Psychotropic drugs (Antidepressants, Antipsychotics and Antiepileptic in particular result in both short and long-term effects on sexual function. Antihypertensive drugs have also produced evidence certifying their role in determining sexual dysfunction. Patients affected with sexual dysfunction are often aged and assume several drugs and, while Iatrogenic sexual dysfunction is prevalent in men, urological drugs are not the only drugs to be held accountable. Many different drugs acting on different sites and with several mechanisms of action can induce sexual dysfunction. The drug classes involved are widely diffused and frequently assumed in combination therapies.

  11. Mono- and combination drug therapies in hospitalized patients with bipolar depression. Data from the European drug surveillance program AMSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeberle Anne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression several guidelines exist. It is largely unknown, to what extent the prescriptions in daily clinical routine correspond to these evidence based recommendations and which combinations of psychotropic drugs are frequently used. Methods The prescriptions of psychotropic drugs were investigated of all in-patients with bipolar depression (n = 2246; time period 1994–2009 from hospitals participating in the drug surveillance program AMSP. For the drug use in 2010, 221 cases were analysed additionally. Results From 1994 to 2009, 85% of all patients received more than one class of psychotropic substances: 74% received antidepressants in combination therapy, 55% antipsychotics, 48% anticonvulsants and 33% lithium. When given in combination, lithium is the most often prescribed substance for bipolar depression (33%, followed by valproic acid (23%, mirtazapine and venlafaxine (16% each, quetiapine (15%, lamotrigine (14% and olanzapine (13%. Both, lithium and valproic acid are often combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, but also with mirtazapine und venlafaxine. Combinations of more than one antidepressant occur quite often, whereby combinations with bupropion, paroxetine, fluoxetine or fluvoxamine are very rare. In 2010, quetiapine (alone and combined was the most frequently prescribed drug (39%; aripiprazole was administered in 10%. Conclusion Combinations of antidepressants (SSRI, mirtazapine, venlafaxine with mood stabilizers (lithium, valproic acid, lamotrigine and / or atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine, olanzapine are common. Of most of those combinations the efficacy has not been studied. The use of aripiprazole and the concomitant use of two or three antidepressants contrast the guidelines.

  12. Lessons Learned from Our Elders: How to Study Polypharmacy in Populations with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stortz, Jessica N.; Lake, Johanna K.; Cobigo, Virginie; Ouellette-Kuntz, Hélène M. J.; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    "Polypharmacy" is the concurrent use of multiple medications, including both psychotropic and non-psychotropic drugs. Although it may sometimes be clinically indicated, polypharmacy can have a number of negative consequences, including medication nonadherence, adverse drug reactions, and undesirable drug--drug interactions. The objective…

  13. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  14. Drug Utilization Pattern In Psychiatry Outdoor Patients At Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Of Bastar Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tabish

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychotropic drugs have had a remarkable impact in psychiatric practice. However, their utilization in actualClinical practice, effectiveness and safety in real life situation need continuous study.Aim: To evaluate the utilization pattern of antipsychotics drugs in the OPD of Psychiatry department.Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was     undertaken for a period of three months.   The total number of prescriptions that were analyzed were 264. Patients of all ages and both sexes were included in the study while inpatients,Referred patients and patients of epilepsy were excluded.Results: Out of 264 patients, 180(68.18% were males and84 (31.81% were females. Depression (30.6% was the commonest psychotic ailment. Fluoxetine (34% was the most common antidepressant prescribed for its treatment.Anxiety comprised the second commonest category of psychotic disorder (24.4% followed by Schizophrenia (22%. Lorazepam (43.4% was the most prescribed anxiolytic whereas      Risperidone (46.6% was used to treat it.Conclusion:  Depression was the commonest psychotic ailment followed by anxiety and schizophrenia. Polypharmacy was found in 45% of prescriptions. Risperidone + Trihexyphenidyl was the commonest fixed dose combination used for Schizophrenia and Psychosis followed by amitriptyline+Chlordiazepoxide for anxiety and depression.

  15. Evidence for involvement of the insula in the psychotropic effects of THC in humans: a double-blind, randomized pharmacological MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, van H.H.; Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Kristo, G.; Osch, M.J.P.; Zelaya, F.; Kahn, R.S.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    The main reason for recreational use of cannabis is the ‘high’, the primary psychotropic effect of ¿9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This psychoactive compound of cannabis induces a range of subjective, physical and mental reactions. The effect on heart rate is pronounced and complicates

  16. Evidence for involvement of the insula in the psychotropic effects of THC in humans: a double-blind, randomized pharmacological MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, van H.H.; Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Kristo, G.; Osch, M.J.P.; Zelaya, F.; Kahn, R.S.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    The main reason for recreational use of cannabis is the ‘high’, the primary psychotropic effect of ¿9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This psychoactive compound of cannabis induces a range of subjective, physical and mental reactions. The effect on heart rate is pronounced and complicates bloodflow-base

  17. The use of health care services and psychotropic medication in a community sample of 9-year-old schoolchildren with ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tremmery, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Steyaert, J.; Molenberghs, G.; Feron, F.J.M.; Kalff, A.C.; Hurks, P.P.; Hendriksen, J.G.M.; Vles, J.S.; Jolles, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of the use of health care services and psychotropic medication within a community sample (N = 283) of 9-year-old school children and, more specifically, to evaluate the use of prescribed stimulants. METHODS: Data from the second follow-up phase of the "Study of

  18. Psychotropic Medication Use among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders within the Simons Simplex Collection: Are Core Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mire, Sarah S.; Nowell, Kerri P.; Kubiszyn, Thomas; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.

    2014-01-01

    Psychotropic medication use and its relationship to autism spectrum core features were examined in a well-characterized but nonstratified North American sample (N = 1605) of children/adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders utilizing the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule" and the "Autism Diagnostic…

  19. Drugs: Shatter the Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ML. Tobacco, alcohol, and other risk behaviors in film: how well do MPAA ratings distinguish content? J ... about drugs and drug abuse. NDFW includes local school and community events and Drug Facts Chat Day, ...

  20. Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulants Stimulants include amphetamines, meth (methamphetamine), cocaine and methylphenidate (Ritalin). They are often used and abused in ... a medication, talk to your doctor. Preventing drug abuse in children and teenagers Take these steps to ...

  1. Prescribing of psychotropic medications to the elderly population of a Canadian province: a retrospective study using administrative databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alessi-Severini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychotropic medications, in particular second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs and benzodiazepines, have been associated with harm in elderly populations. Health agencies around the world have issued warnings about the risks of prescribing such medications to frail individuals affected by dementia and current guidelines recommend their use only in cases where the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. This study documents the use of psychotropic medications in the entire elderly population of a Canadian province in the context of current clinical guidelines for the treatment of behavioural disturbances. Methods. Prevalent and incident utilization of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and related medications (zopiclone and zaleplon were determined in the population of Manitobans over age 65 in the time period 1997/98 to 2008/09 fiscal years. Comparisons between patients living in the community and those living in personal care (nursing homes (PCH were conducted. Influence of sociodemographic characteristics on prescribing was assessed by generalized estimating equations. Non-optimal use was defined as the prescribing of high dose of antipsychotic medications and the use of combination therapy of a benzodiazepine (or zopiclone/zaleplon with an antipsychotic. A decrease in intensity of use over time and lower proportions of patients treated with antipsychotics at high dose or in combination with benzodiazepines (or zopiclone/zaleplon was considered a trend toward better prescribing. Multiple regression analysis determined predictors of non-optimal use in the elderly population. Results. A 20-fold greater prevalent utilization of SGAs was observed in PCH-dwelling elderly persons compared to those living in the community. In 2008/09, 27% of PCH-dwelling individuals received a prescription for an SGA. Patient characteristics, such as younger age, male gender, diagnoses of dementia (or use of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor or psychosis in the

  2. 4-IBP, a σ1 Receptor Agonist, Decreases the Migration of Human Cancer Cells, Including Glioblastoma Cells, In Vitro and Sensitizes Them In Vitro and In Vivo to Cytotoxic Insults of Proapoptotic and Proautophagic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Mégalizzi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the molecular function of cr receptors has not been fully defined and the natural ligand(s is still not known, there is increasing evidence that these receptors and their ligands might play a significant role in cancer biology. 4-(N-tibenzylpiperidin-4-yl-4iodobenzamide (4-IBP, a selective σ1, agonist, has been used to investigate whether this compound is able to modify: 1 in vitro the migration and proliferation of human cancer cells; 2 in vitro the sensitivity of human glioblastoma cells to cytotoxic drugs; and 3 in vivo in orthotopic glioblastoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC models the survival of mice coadministered cytotoxic agents. 4-IBP has revealed weak anti proliferative effects on human U373-MG glioblastoma and C32 melanoma cells but induced marked concentration-dependent decreases in the growth of human A549 NSCLC and PC3 prostate cancer cells. The compound was also significantly antimigratory in all four cancer cell lines. This may result, at least in U373-MG cells, from modifications to the actin cytoskeleton. 4-IBP modified the sensitivity of U373-MG cells in vitro to proapoptotic lomustin and proautophagic temozolomide, and markedly decreased the expression of two proteins involved in drug resistance: glucosylceramide synthase and Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor. In vivo, 4-IBP increased the antitumor effects of temozolomide and irinotecan in immunodeficient mice that were orthotopically grafted with invasive cancer cells.

  3. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and ...

  13. Association between antipsychotic/antidepressant drug treatments and hospital admissions in schizophrenia assessed using a mental health case register

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Nature Publishing Group via http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npjschz.2015.35 Background: The impact of psychotropic drug choice upon admissions for schizophrenia is not well understood. Aims: To examine the association between antipsychotic/antidepressant use and time in hospital for patients with schizophrenia. Methods: We conducted an observational study, using 8 years? admission records and electronically gene...

  14. Bioanalysis of new designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    Since the late 1990s the illicit drug market has undergone considerable change: along with the traditional drugs of abuse that still dominate, more than 100 psychotropic substances designed to bypass controlled substances legislation have appeared and led to intoxications and fatalities. Starting from the huge class of phenylalkylamines, containing many subgroups, the spectrum of structures has grown from tryptamines, piperazines, phenylcyclohexyl derivates and pyrrolidinophenones to synthetic cannabinoids and the first synthetic cocaine. Due to the small prevalence and high number of unknown substances, the detection of new designer drugs is a challenge for clinical and forensic toxicologists. Standard screening procedures might fail because a recently discovered or yet unknown substance has not been incorporated in the library used. Nevertheless, many metabolism studies, case reports, screening methods and substance-profiling papers concentrating on single compounds have been published. This review provides an overview of the developed bioanalytical and analytical methods, the matrices used, sample-preparation procedures, concentration of analytes in case of intoxication and also gives a résumé of immunoassay experiences. Additionally, six screening methods for biological matrices with a larger spectrum of analytes are described in more detail.

  15. Rational Use of Drugs: Pharmaceutical Aspects of the Drug Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya B. Rostova, PhD, ScD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the problems encountered in the rational use of drugs are discussed, one of the areas of optimization of drug supply being the rational choice of drugs, particularly, a regulatory activity regarding the approach to the selection of standardized drug lists (drug formulary for public drug supply, according to government guarantees and programs. The clinical aspects of the drug selection are expounded in detail. The characteristics of the drugs (original or generic drug (generics, the origin of drugs and the breadth of therapeutic index, have been taken into account. Certain stages have been analyzed, particularly drug use in individual diseases, drug selection, expert drug evaluation, and expert recommendations to include specific drugs in the drug list. Organizational steps have been proposed to implement the rational choice of drugs to be included in the drug formulary.

  16. Delayed drug interactions in psychiatry: armodafinil and risperidone as a potential case in point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-12-01

    Modafinil or armodafinil (ar/mod) augmentation of antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia patients may be considered with a view to reduce negative symptoms associated with the illness or excessive daytime drowsiness due to any cause. The available data suggest that there is no role for ar/mod in reducing negative symptom burden. A recent pharmacokinetic (PK) study suggested that armodafinil (250 mg/d) reduces key PK parameters of risperidone by about 50%, and key PK parameters of 9-hydroxyrisperidone (paliperidone) by about 20%-30%, probably through induction of CYP3A4. Ar/mod augmentation is therefore best avoided in patients receiving risperidone or paliperidone (and most other atypical antipsychotic drugs, as well, because most atypical antipsychotics are metabolized by enzymes that ar/mod induce). If the ar/mod-antipsychotic drug combination is necessary, for whatever reason, then the dose of the atypical antipsychotic drug may need to be appropriately raised. If this is not done, relapse may occur; because the relapse may postdate the introduction of ar/mod by many months, the causal role of a metabolic drug interaction may not be suspected, and physicians may attribute the relapse to the natural course of the illness. Physicians need to be aware that any agent that induces the metabolism of psychotropic drugs that are used in maintenance therapy may, through lowered psychotropic drug levels, result in a delayed drug interaction that is characterized by illness relapse.

  17. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  18. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  19. ["Legal highs" from the German internet--"bath salt drugs" on the rise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, Frank; Hottmann, Lidia; Hess, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of dangerous and insufficiently studied designer drugs has increased substantially within the last few years. Mixtures containing centrally active compounds are often declared as "bath salt", "incense", "plant food", "bong cleaners" and are marketed in head shops and on the Internet. As the majority of the ingredients of such products are not subject to regulations of the German Narcotics Law (Betäubungsmittelgesetz, BtMG), the vendors and consumers mistake the sale of such products for legal. An alternative possibility to prosecute the distribution of so-called "legal highs" arises from the regulations of the German Medicinal Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz, AMG). Indicating a private address, several products were purchased via the Internet. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry using computer-assisted database search and potential hits were checked for plausibility. The analysis of 100 samples revealed centrally acting compounds (including caffeine) in 98 % (75 % of all samples positive for caffeine). In 16 % of the samples, drugs subject to the BtMG at the time of purchase (end of 2011) were found including 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, amphetamine, etilamphetamine, N-benzylpiperazine, mephedrone, methcathinone, and phenobarbital. In 55 % of the samples, drugs subject to the current BtMG were found (after its amendment on 20 July 2012). In 37 % of the samples, substances subject to the AMG were found (e.g. ephedrine). In 35 % of the samples, drugs with a potential psychotropic effect were found. In 57.3 % of the positive samples, more than one active ingredient was determined and in some cases up to five active components were found. Other interesting pharmacologically active ingredients found were 4-methylcathinone (n=13), flephedrone (n=8), trifluoromethylphenyl-piperazine (n=7), methylone (n=5), butylone (n=2), hordenine (n=2), and harmane (n=2). Most of the substances not covered by the BtMG can be

  20. Drugs as an existential threat: an analysis of the international securitization of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Emily

    2012-09-01

    The stated intention behind the establishment of the global drug prohibition regime was to protect the world from the dangers of drugs. At different points in history, drug production, use and supply have all been presented as threats to security whether human, national or international security. The international relations theory of securitization can be used as a way of explaining how and why the 'drugs as an existential threat' discourse holds so much power, even today. Speech acts such as the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the UN Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and Russia's 'Rainbow-2 Plan' clearly illustrate the development of the 'drugs as an existential threat' discourse at a global level with particular reference to mankind, the State and global peace and security, respectively. Analysis of these speech acts also shows how the power of the security narrative means that the global drug prohibition regime continues to remain pre-eminent despite the wealth of unintended consequences that it causes.

  1. Can coffee help fighting the drug problem? Preliminary results of a Brazilian youth drug study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darcy R LIMA; Gladis B FLORES; Femanda ANDRADE

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION At different times and at different places many plants have been domesticated, and the development of agriculture was an intensification by man of his food extractive process. Simultaneous to the agricultural development, the selection of psychotropic plants has always been one of the most tempting and determined activities of mankind in its history. Behaviorally active drugs have captured and control human behaviour in susceptible individuals. Nowadays the most consumed plants worldwide are legal ones such as coffee and tobacco and illegal ones such as cocaine, opium and cannabis. And little is known about the potential of plants as new and major sources of drugs, foods, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, herbal medicines and soft drinks, among other profitable/healthy byproducts.

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn Children Drug Use Hurts Your Health Drug Use Hurts ... Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Prevent Drug Use Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn ...

  4. Divorce and changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use: a register-based longitudinal study among middle-aged Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2013-10-01

    The annual prevalence of psychotropic medication use exceeds 10 percent in Europe and the United States, the prevalence being higher among the divorced than the married. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to divorce, sex, medication type and socio-demographic characteristics, using register-data on 304,111 Finns between 25 and 64 years of age, of whom 23,956 divorced between 1995 and 2003 and 142,093 were continuously married from 1995 to 2004. Five years before divorce, men and women already displayed about one percentage point higher prevalence of psychotropic medication use than those who continued their marriage. The excess prevalence increased with approaching divorce and peaked six to nine months before divorce, reaching 7.3 percent (95% CI 6.8-8.0) among divorcing men and 8.1 percent (95% CI 7.5-8.8) among divorcing women. The peak was followed by an 18-month decline, after which the excess compared to the continuously married settled at nearly three percentage points. The excess was not due to being socio-economically disadvantaged, and socio-demographic factors also seemed to have few modifying effects. The changes in prevalence were largest for antidepressants and almost non-existent for antipsychotics. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use among the divorced results both from selective factors already present five years before divorce and the acute and long-term causal effects of becoming and being divorced. Counselling is needed for individuals in the process of divorce, rather than economic support for divorced individuals.

  5. Internet snapshot survey: A novel methodology to monitor novel psychotropic substances and its need in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Ananya; Sharma, Pawan

    2016-06-01

    Recently there has been upsurge in the use of novel psychoactive substances, commonly known as legal highs. There is limited data available on the use and availability of these substances. Internet snapshot methodology has been successfully used in Europe and America to understand rapidly adapting internet based drug market but no data is available from Asian region. Hence there is need of application of similar methodology in Asia to explore and gauge the problem statement about these substances.

  6. First household survey on drug abuse in São Paulo, Brazil, 1999: principal findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In order to establish prevention programs regarding psychotropic drug use that are adapted to specific populations it is, first of all, important to have data on the realities of such consumption. Single data points are not enough for drawing up a profile of society in relation to drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this household survey was to determine the incidence of illegal drug, alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication use, and thus the number of persons dependent on drugs, alcohol and nicotine, and to evaluate their perception regarding how easy it is to obtain psychotropic drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: Epidemiological survey. SETTING: All of the 24 cities in the State of Sao Paulo with more 200,000 inhabitants participated in the study. METHOD: The sampling was constructed from weighted probabilistic stratified conglomerates obtained via two-stage selection. In each municipality sampled, census sectors (generally 200-300 households were first selected. Then, households and a respondent were selected to provide information from his/her point of view. The SAMHSA questionnaire (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Public Health was used, after translation and adaptation to Brazilian conditions. RESULTS: A total of 2,411 persons aged 12-65 years old were interviewed, of whom 39.9% weremen. Lifetime use of any psychotropic drug other than alcohol and tobacco was 11.6%: much less than in the U.S. (34.8%. The alcohol dependence rate was 6%, similar to findings from other countries. Marijuana was the illegal drug most cited as used daily (6.6%: a prevalence much lower than in the U.S. (32.0%. Inhalant use was next in frequency of use (2.7%: about 10 times less than in the United Kingdom (20%. Cocaine use (2.1% was about 5 times less than in the U.S. (10.6%. There was no report of heroin use, although there was a surprisingly high perception regarding the ease of obtaining heroin: 38.3% said it was

  7. Neural basis for the ability of atypical antipsychotic drugs to improve cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Higuchi, Yuko; Uehara, Takashi

    2013-10-16

    Cognitive impairments are considered to largely affect functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia, other psychotic illnesses, or mood disorders. Specifically, there is much attention to the role of psychotropic compounds acting on serotonin (5-HT) receptors in ameliorating cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. It is noteworthy that atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g., clozapine, melperone, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, perospirone, blonanserin, and lurasidone, have variable affinities for these receptors. Among the 5-HT receptor subtypes, the 5-HT1A receptor is attracting particular interests as a potential target for enhancing cognition, based on preclinical and clinical evidence. The neural network underlying the ability of 5-HT1A agonists to treat cognitive impairments of schizophrenia likely includes dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons. A novel strategy for cognitive enhancement in psychosis may be benefited by focusing on energy metabolism in the brain. In this context, lactate plays a major role, and has been shown to protect neurons against oxidative and other stressors. In particular, our data indicate chronic treatment with tandospirone, a partial 5-HT1A agonist, recover stress-induced lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of a rat model of schizophrenia. Recent advances of electrophysiological measures, e.g., event-related potentials, and their imaging have provided insights into facilitative effects on cognition of some AAPDs acting directly or indirectly on 5-HT1A receptors. These findings are expected to promote the development of novel therapeutics for the improvement of functional outcome in people with schizophrenia.

  8. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully developed. As a result, the brains of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs include Amphetamines Anabolic ... better to prevent drug abuse in the first place. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

  9. [Ethical, technical and legal procedures of the medical doctor responsibility to accomplish the road enforcement law about driving under the influence of alcohol and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Nunes, Rui; Carvalho, Félix; Santos, Agostinho; Teixeira, Helena; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The forensic toxicology (TF) is a science of analytical basis, aiming to clarify legal issues related to poisoning, whether or not fatal, within the various areas of law (criminal, civil, labor, etc.). The analysis that are more often requested (with a tendency to increase and gaining rising attention) are those concerning the procedures involving supervision of driving under the influence of alcohol and psychotropic substances, in the living individual and in the cadaver. The key players in this process, are: (a) the police agents carrying out the screening and quantification of alcohol on the exhaled breath and the screening of psychotropic and stupefacient substances in saliva; (b) the public health services that perform qualitative analysis of these substances in urine (if the test was not previously performed in saliva); (c) the doctor that collects blood samples from the living, or the dead victim; (d) the forensic toxicologist who conducts toxicological analysis in blood (or, eventually in another biological sample) and (e) the magistrate prosecutors that ultimately will receive the toxicological report to apply the law. Therefore it is important to understand and be acquainted with the road law enforcement of driving under the influence of alcohol and psychotropic substances, particularly in what concerns to the role of the medical doctor. Consequently, this paper aimed to review these topics, namely highlighting the necessary information to clarify the interested parties about the technical, ethical and legal procedures to consider.

  10. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  11. A review of the differences and similarities between generic drugs and their originator counterparts, including economic benefits associated with usage of generic medicines, using Ireland as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Suzanne; Shannon, Bill; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter

    2013-01-05

    Generic medicines are those where patent protection has expired, and which may be produced by manufacturers other than the innovator company. Use of generic medicines has been increasing in recent years, primarily as a cost saving measure in healthcare provision. Generic medicines are typically 20 to 90% cheaper than originator equivalents. Our objective is to provide a high-level description of what generic medicines are and how they differ, at a regulatory and legislative level, from originator medicines. We describe the current and historical regulation of medicines in the world's two main pharmaceutical markets, in addition to the similarities, as well as the differences, between generics and their originator equivalents including the reasons for the cost differences seen between originator and generic medicines. Ireland is currently poised to introduce generic substitution and reference pricing. This article refers to this situation as an exemplar of a national system on the cusp of significant health policy change, and specifically details Ireland's history with usage of generic medicines and how the proposed changes could affect healthcare provision.

  12. Employees' drug purchases before and after organizational downsizing: a natural experiment on the Norwegian working population (2004-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Silje L; Pape, Kristine; Carlsen, Fredrik; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Bjorngaard, Johan Håkon

    2017-07-01

    Objectives This study investigated the association between organizational downsizing and purchases of prescribed drugs by private sector employees in Norway. Methods A natural experiment was constructed using individual-level employer and employee data linked to the national prescription database for the period 2004-2012. The study population comprised 144 089 employees who had been exposed to major downsizing in the same period. Random effects logistic regression models were used to investigate relative changes in drug purchases (antidepressants, hypnotics/sedatives, anxiolytics, and anti-psychotics, as well as anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular, and thyroid drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and analgesics/antipyretics) in the five-year-period before and after exposure to downsizing. Results Compared with the situation three years before exposure, the odds ratios (OR) of purchasing psychotropic drugs one year after exposure increased for antidepressants (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.34-1.55), hypnotics/sedatives (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.29-1.49), anxiolytics (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.22-1.43), and antipsychotics (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.19-1.52). Similar associations were found for cardiovascular, anti-diabetic, and thyroid drugs. Stratified analyses showed that the odds of purchasing psychotropic, anti-diabetic, and cardiovascular drugs in the years around downsizing was more pronounced in men compared with women. Elevated odds were also found for employees in the oldest age group and those with less than tertiary education. Conclusions Exposure to organizational downsizing increased the odds of purchasing prescribed psychotropic, cardiovascular, anti-diabetic, and thyroid drugs. The clinical implications of these results might be systematic involvement from medical personnel and occupational health services in workforce reduction processes.

  13. Parasuicide and drug self-poisoning: analysis of the epidemiological and clinical variables of the patients admitted to the Poisoning Treatment Centre (CAV, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfré Sergio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiological knowledge of parasuicides and drug self-poisoning is still limited by a lack of data. A number of preliminary studies, which require further analysis, evidenced that parasuicidal acts occur more often among females, that the peak rate is generally recorded between the ages of 15 and 34 years and psychotropic medications seems to be the most frequently used. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical variables of a sample of subjects admitted to the Posisoning Treatment Centre (CAV, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan, following drug self-poisoning. Furthermore, this study is aimed to identify the risk factors associated to parasuicidal gestures, with special care for the used drugs, the presence of psychiatric or organic disorders, alcoholism and drug addiction. The study included the 201 patients attending the CAV in 1999 and 2000 who satisfied the criteria of self-poisoning attempts: 106 cases in 1999 and 95 in 2000. The sample had a prevalence of females (64%. The peak rates of parasuicides from drug self-poisoning were reached between 21 and 30 years among the females, and 31 and 40 years among the males. 81.6% of the patients used one or more psychoactive drugs, the most frequent being the benzodiazepines (58.7%, classic neuroleptics (16.9% and new-generation antidepressants (SSRIs, SNRIs, NARIs (12.9%. The prevalence of mood disorders was higher among females (64% vs 42%, whereas schizophrenia was more frequently diagnosed in males (22% vs 10%. 61% (33% had a history of previous attempted suicides. The presence of clinically relevant organic diseases was observed in 24.9% of the sample.

  14. Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force. Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on the Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force in the Mid-Atlantic Region Which Would Coordinate Government Agencies, Including U.S. Attorneys, the FBI, DEA, Customs Service, BATF, and the IRS. Dover, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document presents testimony and proceedings from the Congressional hearings on organized crime and drug enforcement in the Mid-Atlantic region, and government efforts to solve these problems. Opening statements are presented from Senators Strom Thurmond and Joseph Biden. Testimony is also presented from the United States attorneys for the…

  15. [Taking care of drug addict in odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay, Philippe; Pirnay, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    In the dental surgery practice, a drug addicted patient declares suffering from high pain and asks with insistence to be examined in emergency. The clinical examination shows a pity overall dental status: an important dental deterioration, a periodontal disease. At the end of the examination, the patient suffering withdrawal syndrome, asks with a high demand up to physical threat, to get a prescription of psychotropic medicines, and especially opiates (high dose buprenorphine). In front of this situation, the dental surgeon will face two aspects: first of all, clinical issues, as taking care of the odontological pathologies, management of the pain and of the withdrawal syndrome and second of all, the legislation issues related to its responsibility of prescription writer and the specific attitude to adjust in front of a patient with withdrawal syndrome at the dental surgery practice.

  16. Regulation of BDNF and trkB mRNA in rat brain by chronic electroconvulsive seizure and antidepressant drug treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibuya, M; Morinobu, S; Duman, R S

    1995-11-01

    The influence of chronic electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) or antidepressant drug treatments on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, trkB, was examined by in situ hybridization and Northern blot. In frontal cortex, acute ECS increased BDNF mRNA approximately twofold, an effect significantly augmented by a prior course of chronic ECS treatment (10 d). In the hippocampus, the influence of chronic ECS varied between the major subfields. In the dentate gyrus granule cell layer, chronic ECS decreased the acute induction of BDNF and trkB mRNA by approximately 50%, but prolonged their expression: levels remained elevated two- to threefold 18 hr later after the last chronic ECS treatment, but returned to control 18 hr after acute ECS. In CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cell layers, chronic ECS significantly elevated the acute induction of BDNF, and tended to prolong the expression of BDNF and trkB mRNA. A similar effect was observed in layer 2 of the piriform cortex, where chronic ECS significantly increased the acute induction and prolonged the expression of BDNF and trkB mRNA. Chronic (21 d), but not acute (1 d), administration of several different antidepressant drugs, including tranylcypromine, sertraline, desipramine, or mianserin, significantly increased BDNF mRNA and all but mianserin increased trkB mRNA in hippocampus. In contrast, chronic administration of nonantidepressant psychotropic drugs, including morphine, cocaine, or haloperidol, did not increase levels of BDNF mRNA. Furthermore, chronic administration of ECS or antidepressant drugs completely blocked the down-regulation of BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus in response to restraint stress. The enhanced induction and prolonged expression of BDNF in response to chronic ECS and antidepressant drug treatments could promote neuronal survival, and protect neurons from the damaging effects of stress.

  17. Prescribing Pattern of Antidepressants in Children and Adolescents: Findings from the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, K Y; Tripathi, A; Avasthi, A; Chong, M Y; Xiang, Y T; Sim, K; Kanba, S; He, Y L; Lee, M S; Chiu, H F K; Yang, S Y; Kuga, H; Udomratn, P; Tanra, A J; Maramis, M M; Grover, S; Mahendran, R; Kallivayalil, R A; Shen, W W; Shinfuku, N; Tan, C H; Sartorius, N

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacotherapy of depression in children and adolescents is complex. In the absence of research into the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in this group of patients, their off-label prescription is common. This paper aimed to illustrate the prescription pattern of antidepressants in children and adolescents from major psychiatric centres in Asia. The Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription Pattern on Antidepressants worked collaboratively in 2013 to study the prescription pattern of antidepressants in Asia using a unified research protocol and questionnaire. Forty psychiatric centres from 10 Asian countries / regions participated and 2321 antidepressant prescriptions were analysed. A total of 4.7% antidepressant prescriptions were for children and adolescents. Fluoxetine, sertraline, and escitalopram were the most common antidepressants prescribed for children and adolescents. Almost one-third (30.3%) of prescriptions were for diagnoses other than depressive and anxiety disorders. There was less antidepressant polypharmacy and concomitant use of benzodiazepine, but more concomitant use of antipsychotics in children and adolescents compared with adults. Off-label use of antidepressants in children and adolescents was reported by 40 Asian psychiatric institutions that participated in the study. In-service education and regulatory mechanisms should be reinforced to ensure efficacy and safety of antidepressants in children and adolescents.

  18. Antineoplastic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antineoplastic drugs is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction? Addiction Risk Factors Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts Families Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn ...

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use Hurts Unborn Children Drug Use Hurts Your Health Drug Use Hurts Bodies Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  1. Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction? Addiction Risk Factors Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts Families Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? ... and Family Can Help Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Prevent Drug Use Help Children and Teens Stay Drug- ...

  4. The mental health sector and the social sciences in post- World War II USA. Part 2: The impact of federal research funding and the drugs revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    The second of two linked papers examining the interactions of psychiatry and the social sciences since World War II examines the role of NIMH on these disciplines. It analyses the effects of the prominence and the decline of psychoanalysis, and the impact of the psychotropic drugs revolution and the associated rise of biological psychiatry on relations between psychiatry and clinical psychology; and it explores the changing relationships between psychiatry and sociology, from collaboration to conflict to mutual disdain.

  5. 2016 New Drug Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2016-04-01

    Six new drugs marketed within the last year, which are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly, have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are discussed, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating. The drugs include a hypnotic, an anticoagulant, two drugs for heart failure, and two drugs to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  6. Behaviours of psychotropic substances in indoor and outdoor environments of Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    The intensive campaign conducted in March 2013 in Rome, Italy, at one coffee bar, one primary school and two homes revealed that in indoor environments, drugs can reach concentration levels exceeding orders of magnitude those recorded outdoors, even when the same substances are not consumed there. At homes, the gross average of cocaine reached 0.13 ng/m3 indoors and 0.09 ng/m3 outdoors (ratio~1.6); Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was 6.6 ng/m3 indoors and 1.1 ng/m3 outdoors (ratio~7); cannabidiol reached 0.30 and 0.07 ng/m3, respectively (ratio~6); and cannabinol 2.3 ng/m3 indoors and 0.7 ng/m3 outdoors (ratio~3). At the coffee bar, the average drug burdens were even higher, namely 0.33, 4.7, 14.3 and 2.5 ng/m3, respectively, for cocaine, cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol. The school presented a special behaviour: the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios of cocaine, cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol accounting for ~1.5, ~0, ~4 and ~0.5, in the order. Cocaine was more abundant on weekdays at all sites except one home indoors, whilst total cannabinoids prevailed on weekends at the other home and the school. Using the regional network stations as reference, all indoor locations except one were more contaminated by cocaine by a factor≥1.5, whilst cannabinoids were, aside from the school, up to 100 times higher.

  7. Drugs@FDA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about FDA-approved brand name and generic prescription and over-the-counter human drugs and biological therapeutic products. Drugs@FDA includes most of...

  8. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  9. Drug-induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    Drug-induced status epilepticus (SE) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon, probably accounting for less than 5% of all SE cases, although limitations in case ascertainment and establishing causation substantially weaken epidemiological estimates. Some antiepileptic drugs, particularly those with sodium channel or GABA(γ-aminobutyric acid)-ergic properties, frequently exacerbate seizures and may lead to SE if used inadvertently in generalized epilepsies or less frequently in other epilepsies. Tiagabine seems to have a particular propensity for triggering nonconvulsive SE sometimes in patients with no prior history of seizures. In therapeutic practice, SE is most commonly seen in association with antibiotics (cephalosporins, quinolones, and some others) and immunotherapies/chemotherapies, the latter often in the context of a reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Status epilepticus following accidental or intentional overdoses, particularly of antidepressants or other psychotropic medications, has also featured prominently in the literature: whilst there are sometimes fatal consequences, this is more commonly because of cardiorespiratory or metabolic complications than as a result of seizure activity. A high index of suspicion is required in identifying those at risk and in recognizing potential clues from the presentation, but even with a careful analysis of patient and drug factors, establishing causation can be difficult. In addition to eliminating the potential trigger, management should be as for SE in any other circumstances, with the exception that phenobarbitone is recommended as a second-line treatment for suspected toxicity-related SE where the risk of cardiovascular complications is higher anyways and may be exacerbated by phenytoin. There are also specific recommendations/antidotes in some situations. The outcome of drug-induced status epilepticus is mostly good when promptly identified and treated, though less so in the context of overdoses. This article is

  10. QT interval prolongation related to psychoactive drug treatment: a comparison of monotherapy versus polytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccinelli Marco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several antipsychotic agents are known to prolong the QT interval in a dose dependent manner. Corrected QT interval (QTc exceeding a threshold value of 450 ms may be associated with an increased risk of life threatening arrhythmias. Antipsychotic agents are often given in combination with other psychotropic drugs, such as antidepressants, that may also contribute to QT prolongation. This observational study compares the effects observed on QT interval between antipsychotic monotherapy and psychoactive polytherapy, which included an additional antidepressant or lithium treatment. Method We examined two groups of hospitalized women with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Schizoaffective Disorder in a naturalistic setting. Group 1 was composed of nineteen hospitalized women treated with antipsychotic monotherapy (either haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone or clozapine and Group 2 was composed of nineteen hospitalized women treated with an antipsychotic (either haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine with an additional antidepressant (citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, mirtazapine, venlafaxine or clomipramine or lithium. An Electrocardiogram (ECG was carried out before the beginning of the treatment for both groups and at a second time after four days of therapy at full dosage, when blood was also drawn for determination of serum levels of the antipsychotic. Statistical analysis included repeated measures ANOVA, Fisher Exact Test and Indipendent T Test. Results Mean QTc intervals significantly increased in Group 2 (24 ± 21 ms however this was not the case in Group 1 (-1 ± 30 ms (Repeated measures ANOVA p Conclusions No significant prolongation of the QT interval was found following monotherapy with an antipsychotic agent, while combination of these drugs with antidepressants caused a significant QT prolongation. Careful monitoring of the QT interval is suggested in patients taking a

  11. CONCEPT OF DRUG INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nidhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR, and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug. Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or actual clinical effect. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and, in particular, rifampin are common precipitant drugs prescribed in primary care practice. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range or low therapeutic index are more likely to be the objects for serious drug interactions. Object drugs in common use include warfarin, fluoroquinolones, antiepileptic drugs, oral contraceptives, cisapride and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Many other drugs, act as precipitants or objects, and a number of drugs act as both. The aim of present review is to throw light on the concept of drug interaction.

  12. Impact and Roles of Drug Information in Drug Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstadt, Michael S.

    1975-01-01

    Evidence is presented elucidating the role of knowledge about drugs in facilitating or impeding drug use. The issues considered include (1) the role of drug information in previous "education" programs, (2) the source and uses of drug information, (3) the impact of this information, and (4) the alternative roles for drug information. (Author)

  13. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  14. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  15. Not robots: children's perspectives on authenticity, moral agency and stimulant drug treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ilina

    2013-06-01

    In this article, I examine children's reported experiences with stimulant drug treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in light of bioethical arguments about the potential threats of psychotropic drugs to authenticity and moral agency. Drawing on a study that involved over 150 families in the USA and the UK, I show that children are able to report threats to authenticity, but that the majority of children are not concerned with such threats. On balance, children report that stimulants improve their capacity for moral agency, and they associate this capacity with an ability to meet normative expectations. I argue that although under certain conditions stimulant drug treatment may increase the risk of a threat to authenticity, there are ways to minimise this risk and to maximise the benefits of stimulant drug treatment. Medical professionals in particular should help children to flourish with stimulant drug treatments, in good and in bad conditions.

  16. Drugs and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Robert, Comp.; And Others.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Drugs and drug abuse. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several sections, each of which is in outline or list form. It is xeroxed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The major portion of the guide contains a…

  17. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  18. Mucoactive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balsamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucus hypersecretion is a clinical feature of severe respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Airway mucosal infection and/or inflammation associated with these diseases often gives rise to inflammatory products, including neutrophil-derived DNA and filamentous actin, in addition to bacteria, apoptotic cells and cellular debris, that may collectively increase mucus production and viscosity. Mucoactive agents have been the medication of choice for the treatment of respiratory diseases in which mucus hypersecretion is a clinical complication. The main purpose of mucoactive drugs is to increase the ability to expectorate sputum and/or decrease mucus hypersecretion. Many mucoactive drugs are currently available and can be classified according to their putative mechanism of action. Mucoactive medications include expectorants, mucoregulators, mucolytics and mucokinetics. By developing our understanding of the specific effects of mucoactive agents, we may result in improved therapeutic use of these drugs. The present review provides a summary of the most clinically relevant mucoactive drugs in addition to their potential mechanism of action.

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences ... behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug ... and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... late 1980s, research has shown that treating drug abuse is an effective way to prevent the spread of HIV. Drug abusers in treatment stop or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug treatment programs also serve an important ...