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Sample records for psychotic condition lifetime

  1. Lifetime Autism Spectrum Features in a Patient with a Psychotic Mixed Episode Who Attempted Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Simoncini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report of a young man who attempted suicide during a mixed episode with psychotic symptoms. The patient’s history revealed the lifetime presence of signs and features belonging to the autism spectrum realm that had been completely overlooked. We believe that this case is representative of an important and barely researched topic: what happens to children with nondiagnosed and nontreated subthreshold forms of autism when they grow old. The issue of early recognition of autism spectrum signs and symptoms is discussed, raising questions on the diagnostic boundaries between autism and childhood onset psychotic spectrums among patients who subsequently develop a full-blown psychotic disorder.

  2. Lifetime Prevalence and Correlates of Schizophrenia-Spectrum, Affective, and Other Non-affective Psychotic Disorders in the Chinese Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wing Chung; Wong, Corine Sau Man; Chen, Eric Yu Hai; Lam, Linda Chiu Wa; Chan, Wai Chi; Ng, Roger Man Kin; Hung, Se Fong; Cheung, Eric Fuk Chi; Sham, Pak Chung; Chiu, Helen Fung Kum; Lam, Ming; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chiang, Tin Po; Chan, Lap Kei; Lau, Gary Kar Wai; Lee, Allen Ting Chun; Leung, Grace Tak Yu; Leung, Joey Shuk Yan; Lau, Joseph Tak Fai; van Os, Jim; Lewis, Glyn; Bebbington, Paul

    2017-10-21

    Lifetime prevalence of psychotic disorders varies widely across studies. Epidemiological surveys have rarely examined prevalences of specific psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia, and the majority used a single-phase design without employing clinical reappraisal interview for diagnostic verification. The current study investigated lifetime prevalence, correlates and service utilization of schizophrenia-spectrum, affective, and other non-affective psychotic disorders in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese adult population aged 16-75 years (N = 5719) based on a territory-wide, population-based household survey for mental disorders in Hong Kong. The survey adopted a 2-phase design comprising first-phase psychosis screening and second-phase diagnostic verification incorporating clinical information from psychiatrist-administered semi-structured interview and medical record review to ascertain DSM-IV lifetime diagnosis for psychotic disorders. Data on sociodemographics, psychosocial characteristics and service utilization were collected. Our results showed that lifetime prevalence was 2.47% for psychotic disorder overall, 1.25% for schizophrenia, 0.15% for delusional disorder, 0.38% for psychotic disorder not otherwise specified, 0.31% for bipolar disorder with psychosis, and 0.33% for depressive disorder with psychosis. Schizophrenia-spectrum disorder was associated with family history of psychosis, cigarette smoking and variables indicating socioeconomic disadvantage. Victimization experiences were significantly related to affective psychoses and other non-affective psychoses. Around 80% of participants with any psychotic disorder sought some kind of professional help for mental health problems in the past year. Using comprehensive diagnostic assessment involving interview and record data, our results indicate that approximately 2.5% of Chinese adult population had lifetime psychotic disorder which represents a major public health concern.

  3. The serotonin transporter 5-HTTPR polymorphism is associated with current and lifetime depression in persons with chronic psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J; Hare, L; Camarena, B; Glahn, D; Dassori, A; Medina, R; Contreras, S; Ramirez, M; Armas, R; Munoz, R; Mendoza, R; Raventos, H; Ontiveros, A; Nicolini, H; Palmer, R; Escamilla, M

    2009-02-01

    Variation in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter region has been shown to influence depression in persons who have been exposed to a number of stressful life events. We evaluated whether genetic variation in 5-HTTLPR, influences current depression, lifetime history of depression and quantitative measures of depression in persons with chronic psychotic disorders. This is an association study of a genetic variant with quantitative and categorical definitions of depression conducted in the southwest US, Mexico and Costa Rica. We analyzed 260 subjects with a history of psychosis, from a sample of 129 families. We found that persons carrying at least one short allele had a statistically significant increased lifetime risk for depressive syndromes (P depression during the course of their illness.

  4. The health informatics cohort enhancement project (HICE: using routinely collected primary care data to identify people with a lifetime diagnosis of psychotic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Alexis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that routinely collected primary care data can be used to identify potential participants for trials in depression [1]. Here we demonstrate how patients with psychotic disorders can be identified from primary care records for potential inclusion in a cohort study. We discuss the strengths and limitations of this approach; assess its potential value and report challenges encountered. Methods We designed an algorithm with which we searched for patients with a lifetime diagnosis of psychotic disorders within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL database of routinely collected health data. The algorithm was validated against the "gold standard" of a well established operational criteria checklist for psychotic and affective illness (OPCRIT. Case notes of 100 patients from a community mental health team (CMHT in Swansea were studied of whom 80 had matched GP records. Results The algorithm had favourable test characteristics, with a very good ability to detect patients with psychotic disorders (sensitivity > 0.7 and an excellent ability not to falsely identify patients with psychotic disorders (specificity > 0.9. Conclusions With certain limitations our algorithm can be used to search the general practice data and reliably identify patients with psychotic disorders. This may be useful in identifying candidates for potential inclusion in cohort studies.

  5. The human resource conditions of lifetime extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aszodi, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: According to our present knowledge, the lifetime extension of the Hungarian NPP units will be feasible, in both the technological and economic aspects. It is far more difficult, however, to answer the question whether the human resources conditions of the further application of nuclear energetics in Hungary can be satisfied. Many urgent tasks will have to be solved regarding the informing of the public and the nuclear engineering education. The training of nuclear experts is in crisis in many developed industrial countries. The university departments work with a staff mainly consisting of old and quite often near-retirement trainers and the young generation is practically missing. A particularly grave problem is (see Germany) that in a number of countries hardly any student chooses nuclear technology/engineering. Moreover, several nuclear training and research facilities have been shut down. Although the situation in Hungary is not so critical at present, the rising of the new generation of professionals may easily get into a crisis without immediate intervention. The training reactor of BUTE celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2001 and the technical conditions allow some further 20 or 25 years of operation. On the other hand, however, the age distribution of the operating staff can not be sustained even on a few-year term: the average age is 55 years, while 44% of them are retired! Although, due to financing difficulties the rejuvenation of the operating personnel has not been possible for years, it is definitely vital to maintain and develop the reactor and the ongoing educational work. By analysing the age distribution of the workers of the Hungarian energetics one can conclude: 350 to 400 young engineers will have to start work up till 2020 (i.e. 15 to 20 per year), while only 2 to 8 students graduate from the Hungarian universities who acquire some level of nuclear knowledge during their studies. In a co-operation between BUTE and the Paks NPP we are

  6. Imagination in human social cognition, autism, and psychotic-affective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales and a number...... of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD....

  8. On conditional residual lifetime and conditional inactivity time of k-out-of-n systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavangar, Mahdi; Bairamov, Ismihan

    2015-01-01

    In designing structures of technical systems, the reliability engineers often deal with the reliability analysis of coherent systems. Coherent system has monotone structure function and all components of the system are relevant. This paper considers some particular models of coherent systems having identical components with independent lifetimes. The main purpose of the paper is to study conditional residual lifetime of coherent system, given that at a fixed time certain number of components have failed but still there are some functioning components. Different aging and stochastic properties of variables connected with the conditional residual lifetimes of the coherent systems are obtained. An expression for the parent distribution in terms of conditional mean residual lifetime is provided. The similar result is obtained for the conditional mean inactivity time of the failed components of coherent system. The conditional mean inactivity time of failed components presents an interest in many engineering applications where the reliability of system structure is important for designing and constructing of systems. Some illustrative examples with given particular distributions are also presented. - Highlights: • Comparisons of conditional residual lifetime of k-out-of-n systems are derived. • The behavior of the coherent system is explored for IHR distributions. • The parent distribution is expressed in terms of conditional MRL and MIT. • Some illustrative examples are given to clarify the results of the paper.

  9. Condition analysis and operating lifetime extension concepts for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeniewski, Thomas [GMA-Engineering GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Business Unit Wind Energy

    2014-11-01

    In Germany the basis for the expansion of wind energy was already laid at the beginning of the 1990s. Hence, the first wind turbines already started to reach the end of their permitted lifetime. At that time as today the different wind turbine types were engineered for an operational lifetime of 20 years. As reliable wind turbines types were already available in the 1990s, it is technically and commercially reasonable to consider the extension of their operational lifetime. Of particular interest is the lifetime extension of wind turbine types installed in the beginning of the 2000s. During that period many wind turbine types were launched which absolutely correspond to state-of-the-art technology.

  10. An exploratory study of the extent of social inclusion among people with psychosis and psychotic-related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Niall; Ferguson, Lisa; Hill, Michele; Nesbitt, Tara; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Mahony, Paul; Clarke, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Understanding social inclusion among at-risk populations will deepen our understanding of their specific needs. This study explored the level of social inclusion among people with psychotic-related conditions using a standardised interview. The Social Inclusion Interview Schedule was used in two research projects. People with psychosis participated in both studies and had been recruited as part of an Irish programme of research on psychotic conditions. Descriptive statistics were used to quantify participants' level of social exclusion. Data from 71 participants were available, 38 in one cohort and 33 in the other. The smaller cohort had a shorter mean duration of illness. Participants' mean age was 40. The majority lived in the community and were satisfied with their living arrangements. In each cohort, the same two areas of community integration emerged as problematic - having something productive to do and being close to someone in the community. There was a higher level of perceived stigma among the cohort with the longer duration of illness. While evidence of social inclusion was found among participants, there were areas of concern particularly with regard to integration into work and social connectedness.

  11. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S D; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales...... and a number of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD. METHOD: The psychometric properties of the rating scales were evaluated based on data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression. RESULTS: A rating scale consisting of the 6-item......'s correlation coefficient between change in HAMD-BPRS11 and Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I) scores = -0.74--0.78) and unidimensionality (Loevinger's coefficient of homogeneity = 0.41) in the evaluation of PD. The HAM-D6 fulfilled the same criteria, whereas the full 17-item Hamilton Depression...

  12. Psychotic experiences and disability: Findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hans; Koyanagi, Ai; Kelleher, Ian; DeVylder, Jordan

    2018-03-01

    Psychotic experiences are associated with a number of poor clinical outcomes, including multimorbid psychopathology, suicidal behavior, and poor treatment response. We wished to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and disability, including the following domains: cognition, mobility, self-care, social interaction, role functioning, and days out of role. We used three nationally representative and racially/ethnically diverse samples of the general US adult population: the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between lifetime psychotic experiences (visual and auditory hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideation; WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview psychosis screen) and 30-day impairments in functioning across disability domains (using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II). In all three samples, models were adjusted for socio-demographics and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In the NCS-R, models were also adjusted for chronic health conditions. Across all three studies, our adjusted models showed that people with disability had anywhere from about 1.5 to over 3 times the odds of reporting lifetime psychotic experiences, depending on the domain. This was true for each disability domain, except self-care in the NLAAS and in the NSAL. Psychotic experiences are markers of risk for disability across a wide range of domains. This may explain the elevated rates of service utilization among individuals who report psychotic experiences and supports the need to assess for and respond to psychotic experiences even in the absence of psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of the remaining lifetime of stainless steels under conditions of stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandler, M.; Vehovar, L.; Dolecek, V.; Rotnik, U.

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of the lifetime of metal structures and equipment under conditions of stress corrosion is very complicated because of the complexity of this process of degradation. Recently a new method, based on the so-called corrosion elongation curves, has been found, which can be used to predict the time to failure under these conditions. By upgrading of these curves (and thus obtaining Upgraded Corrosion Elongation Curves - UCEC's) it has been possible to obtain a precise definition of the time needed for the initiation of the corrosion crack, and for its stable growth. It is upon this basis that diagrams for the prediction of remaining lifetime (DPRL's) have been developed. DPRL's can also be used to predict the values of various critical parameters which have to be achieved if a stress corrosion crack is to occur. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  14. Risk based lifetime assessment of piping under creep-fatigue conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielak, O.; Bina, V.; Korous, J.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of the steam pipeline lifetime is based on: (i) technical procedures supplied by Nuclear Electric R5; (ii) random interpretation of material damage accumulation laws for creep and fatigue; (iii) a stochastic model of the creep process (creep rupture strength, deformation characteristics); (iv) probabilistic description of geometrical quantities of the steam pipeline. The probabilistic procedure results in the calculation of the crack initiation risks both for the critical localities and for the steam pipeline as a whole (its subsystems, if need be). The residual lifetime was calculated from the conditional (a posteriori) probabilities. The risks of crack initiation was calculated for different operating periods (inspection frequency), and the periods were optimised to meet (i) the minimum risk of crack initiation and (2) the operation and economy criteria. The method also involves calculation of the residual lifetime from the updated data (material properties, dimensions). In the standard service-life calculations there is no difference between the weld and BM, the justification being that the weld is exposed to axial stress caused by internal pressure, which is one half of the hoop stress. Thus, the low creep resistant properties of the weld were ignored, as well as the uneven state of stress and its redistribution. In a number of cases it is the welds that are a weak point and therefore should receive considerable attention. The probabilistic method of lifetime and reliability assessment was verified on over 29 piping systems in power and petrochemical plants

  15. Psychotic experiences and general medical conditions: a cross-national analysis based on 28 002 respondents from 16 countries in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kate M; Saha, Sukanta; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Degenhardt, Louisa; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep M; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Mneimneh, Zeina; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Sampson, Nancy A; Stagnaro, Juan Carlos; Kessler, Ronald C; McGrath, John J

    2018-02-26

    Previous work has identified associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and general medical conditions (GMCs), but their temporal direction remains unclear as does the extent to which they are independent of comorbid mental disorders. In total, 28 002 adults in 16 countries from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys were assessed for PEs, GMCs and 21 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate the associations between PEs and GMCs with various adjustments. After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders, temporally prior PEs were significantly associated with subsequent onset of 8/12 GMCs (arthritis, back or neck pain, frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and peptic ulcer) with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.5] to 1.9 (95% CI 1.4-2.4). In contrast, only three GMCs (frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain and asthma) were significantly associated with subsequent onset of PEs after adjustment for comorbid GMCs and mental disorders, with ORs ranging from 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) to 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.4). PEs were associated with the subsequent onset of a wide range of GMCs, independent of comorbid mental disorders. There were also associations between some medical conditions (particularly those involving chronic pain) and subsequent PEs. Although these findings will need to be confirmed in prospective studies, clinicians should be aware that psychotic symptoms may be risk markers for a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Whether PEs are causal risk factors will require further research.

  16. Durability study and lifetime prediction of baseline proton exchange membrane fuel cell under severe operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrony, M.; Quenet, S.; Aslanides, A. [European Institute for Energy Research, Emmy-Noether Strasse 11, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Barrera, R.; Ginocchio, S.; Montelatici, L. [Edison, Via Giorgio La Pira 2, 10028 Trofarello (Italy)

    2008-08-01

    Comparative studies of mechanical and electrochemical properties of Nafion{sup registered} - and sulfonated polyetheretherketone polymer-type membranes are carried out under severe fuel cell conditions required by industrials, within stationary and cycling electric load profiles. These membranes are proposed to be used in PEM between 70 and 90 C as fluorinated or non-fluorinated baseline membranes, respectively. Thus, though the performance of both membranes remains suitable, Nafion{sup registered} backbone brought better mechanical properties and higher electrochemical stabilities than sulfonated polyetheretherketone backbone. The performance stability and the mechanical strength of the membrane-electrode assembly were shown to be influenced by several intrinsic properties of the membrane (e.g., thermal pre-treatment, thickness) and external conditions (fuel cell operating temperature, relative humidity). Finally, a lifetime prediction for membranes under stationary conditions is proposed depending on the operation temperature. At equivalent thicknesses (i.e. 50 {mu}m), Nafion{sup registered} membranes were estimated able to operate into the 80-90 C range while sulfonated polyetheretherketone would be limited into the 70-80 C range. This approach brings baseline information about the capability of these types of polymer electrolyte membrane under fuel cell critical operations. Finally, it is revealed as a potential tool for the selection of the most promising advanced polymers for the ensuing research phase. (author)

  17. Effects of service condition on rolling contact fatigue failure mechanism and lifetime of thermal spray coatings—A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huawei; Cui, Xiufang; Wang, Haidou; Xing, Zhiguo; Jin, Guo

    2015-01-01

    The service condition determines the Rolling Contact Fatigue(RCF) failure mechanism and lifetime under ascertain material structure integrity parameter of thermal spray coating. The available literature on the RCF testing of thermal spray coatings under various condition services is considerable; it is generally difficult to synthesize all of the result to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the parameters which has a great effect on a thermal spray coating's resistance of RCF. The effects of service conditions(lubrication states, contact stresses, revolve speed, and slip ratio) on the changing of thermal spray coatings' contact fatigue lifetime is introduced systematically. The effects of different service condition on RCF failure mechanism of thermal spray coating from the change of material structure integrity are also summarized. Moreover, In order to enhance the RCF performance, the parameter optimal design formula of service condition and material structure integrity is proposed based on the effect of service condition on thermal spray coatings' contact fatigue lifetime and RCF failure mechanism. The shortage of available literature and the forecast focus in future researches are discussed based on available research. The explicit result of RCF lifetime law and parameter optimal design formula in term of lubrication states, contact stresses, revolve speed, and slip ratio, is significant to improve the RCF performance on the engineering application.

  18. Ethical and methodological issues in qualitative studies involving people with severe and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Ing-Marie; Blomqvist, Marjut; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2017-01-01

    Undertaking research studies in the field of mental health is essential in mental health nursing. Qualitative research methodologies enable human experiences to become visible and recognize the importance of lived experiences. This paper argues that involving people with schizophrenia in research is critical to promote their health and well-being. The quality of qualitative research needs scrutinizing according to methodological issues such as trustworthiness and ethical standards that are a fundamental part of qualitative research and nursing curricula. The aim of this study was to critically review recent qualitative studies involving people with severe and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions, regarding descriptions of ethical and methodological issues in data collection and analysis. A search for relevant papers was conducted in three electronic databases, in December 2016. Fifteen qualitative interview studies were included and reviewed regarding methodological issues related to ethics, and data collection and analysis. The results revealed insufficient descriptions of methodology regarding ethical considerations and issues related to recruitment and sampling in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness, putting trustworthiness at risk despite detailed descriptions of data analysis. Knowledge from the perspective of individuals with their own experience of mental illness is essential. Issues regarding sampling and trustworthiness in qualitative studies involving people with severe mental illness are vital to counteract the stigmatization of mental illness.

  19. Investigation of ageing status assessment and lifetime evaluation based on actual operation conditions of QNPC NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huilie, S.; Chun, G.; Hongyun, L.; Yinqiang, C.; Jun, T.; Wenbing, W.

    2009-01-01

    Qinshan NPP has been successfully operated for over 18 years with 30 year's design life. For 2nd PSR preparation and life extension strategies, a comprehensive status assessment and lifetime evaluation project is performed by NPP and SG research organization (CNPO). Assessment is subjects to main degradation mechanism of SG materials, including tube IGA/IGSCC tube pitting, fatigue of pressure boundary. Based on two primary functions of PWR steam generator, a comprehensive lifetime evaluation system and indicators has been established for keeping structural integrity of SG pressure boundary and thermal output performance. A series of specific assessment activities are implemented for defining actual ageing status and estimating safety and function margin of SG, including SG impurities hideout return analysis, fatigue evaluation of feedwater pipes based thermal stratification number simulation, fatigue evaluation of pressure boundary based on actual transition records, structure integrity assessment for lower chamber with defect, tube fouling analysis and trending etc. Assessment results shows, even extending operation to 50 years, SG would still keep sufficient safety and function margin, SG is not the neck of NPP life extension. (author)

  20. Personality and psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyette, L.L.N.J.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the current thesis is the contribution of normal personality traits as conceptualized by the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) to the manifestation of illness in patients with psychotic disorders. These studies were part of the Dutch national Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis

  1. Brief psychotic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as the cause of the symptoms. Treatment By definition, psychotic symptoms go away on their own in ... severely disrupt your life and possibly lead to violence and suicide. ... by: Timothy Rogge, MD, Medical Director, Family Medical Psychiatry Center, Kirkland, WA. Also reviewed by ...

  2. Psychotic experiences and religiosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovess-Masfety, V; Saha, S; Lim, C C W

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Religiosity is often associated with better health outcomes. The aim of the study was to examine associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and religiosity in a large, cross-national sample. METHODS: A total of 25 542 adult respondents across 18 countries from the WHO World Ment...

  3. Impact of creep-fatigue interaction on the lifetime of a dispersion strengthened copper alloy in unirradiated and irradiated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Toft, P.; Stubbins, J.F.

    2001-06-01

    Creep-fatigue interaction behaviour of a dispersion strengthened copper alloy was investigated at 22 and 250 deg. C. To determine the effect of irradiation a number of fatigue specimens were irradiated at 250 deg. C to a dose level of 0.3 dpa and were tested at 250 deg. C. The creep-fatigue interaction was simulated by applying a certain hold-time on both tension and compression sides of the cyclic loading with a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Hold-times of 0,2, 5, 10, 100 and 1000 seconds were used. For a given hold-time, the real lifetime and the number of cycles to failure were determined at different strain amplitudes. Post-deformation micro-structures and fracture surfaces were investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopes, respectively. The main results of these investigations are presented and their implications are briefly discussed in the present report. The central conclusion emerging from the present work is that a hold-time of 10 seconds or less causes a drastic decrease in the real lifetime as well as in the number of cycles to failure, particularly at low levels of strain amplitudes. A combination of higher temperature, higher strain amplitude and longer hold-time, on the other hand, may lead to an improvement in the lifetime. The irradiation at 250 deg. C to a dose level of 0.3 dpa does not play any significant role in determining the lifetime under creep-fatigue testing conditions. (au)

  4. Genetic conditions of joint Nordic genetic evaluations of lifetime competition performance in warmblood sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Å; Furre, S; Eriksson, S; Vangen, O; Philipsson, J

    2015-08-01

    Breeding programmes for warmblood sport horses are similar in the Nordic countries Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway, and stallions of same origin are used. The aim was to investigate whether a joint Nordic genetic evaluation based on lifetime competition performance is feasible and beneficial for breeding competitive sport horses in the Nordic countries. Results for almost 45,000 horses in show jumping and 30,000 horses in dressage were available. The larger populations in Sweden and Denmark contributed with 85% of the results. Heritabilities and genetic correlations between performances in the different countries were estimated, and comparisons of accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBVs) and number of stallions with EBVs based on national or joint data were studied. The heritabilities ranged between 0.25 and 0.42 for show jumping and between 0.14 and 0.55 for dressage. The genetic correlations between competition performances in the Nordic countries were estimated to 0.63-1.00. EBVs based on joint data increased accuracies for EBVs for stallions by 38-81% and increased the number of available stallions with EBVs by 40-288%, compared to EBVs based on national data only. A joint Nordic genetic evaluation for sport horses is recommended. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Extended coherence lifetimes in microcavities under angle-resonant pumping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Birkedal, Dan; Mizeikis, V.

    2001-01-01

    processes by the final-state polariton population. Strong enhancements of the scattering processes have been observed as a result of up to several 100 polaritons per final k-state under angle-resonant pumping conditions (Erland et al, 2000; Stevenson et al, 2000). Energy and wave vector are conserved...

  6. Machine and lubricant condition monitoring for extended equipment lifetimes and predictive maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukas, M; Anderson, D P [Spectro Incorporated, Littleton, Massachusetts (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Predictive maintenance has gained wide acceptance as a cost cutting strategy in modern industry. Condition monitoring by lubricant analysis is one of the basic tools of a predictive maintenance program along with vibration monitoring, performance monitoring and thermography. In today`s modern power generation, manufacturing, refinery, transportation, mining, and military operations, the cost of equipment maintenance, service, and lubricants are ever increasing. Parts, labor, equipment downtime and lubricant prices and disposal costs are a primary concern in a well run maintenance management program. Machine condition monitoring based on oil analysis has become a prerequisite in most maintenance programs. Few operations can afford not to implement a program if they wish to remain competitive, and in some cases, profitable. This presentation describes a comprehensive Machine Condition Monitoring Program based on oil analysis. Actual operational condition monitoring programs will be used to review basic components and analytical requirements. Case histories will be cited as examples of cost savings, reduced equipment downtime and increased efficiencies of maintenance programs through a well managed oil analysis program. (orig.)

  7. Machine and lubricant condition monitoring for extended equipment lifetimes and predictive maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukas, M.; Anderson, D.P. [Spectro Incorporated, Littleton, Massachusetts (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Predictive maintenance has gained wide acceptance as a cost cutting strategy in modern industry. Condition monitoring by lubricant analysis is one of the basic tools of a predictive maintenance program along with vibration monitoring, performance monitoring and thermography. In today`s modern power generation, manufacturing, refinery, transportation, mining, and military operations, the cost of equipment maintenance, service, and lubricants are ever increasing. Parts, labor, equipment downtime and lubricant prices and disposal costs are a primary concern in a well run maintenance management program. Machine condition monitoring based on oil analysis has become a prerequisite in most maintenance programs. Few operations can afford not to implement a program if they wish to remain competitive, and in some cases, profitable. This presentation describes a comprehensive Machine Condition Monitoring Program based on oil analysis. Actual operational condition monitoring programs will be used to review basic components and analytical requirements. Case histories will be cited as examples of cost savings, reduced equipment downtime and increased efficiencies of maintenance programs through a well managed oil analysis program. (orig.)

  8. [Psychotic parricide. Prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornic, F; Olié, J-P

    2006-01-01

    Parricide is a rare event. In France, statistics indicate that it accounts for 2 to 3% of all homicides. It also represents an appreciable part (up to 30%) of homicides committed by psychotic subjects. Many studies suggest a strong positive correlation between criminality and characterized mental illness. The correlation is better when there is a diagnosis of schizophrenia, an alcohol or drugs consumption and a past personal history of violence. Parricide is a crime mainly committed by males. The most frequent form of parricide is patricide committed by sons. However, considering only psychotic parricides, the number of mothers killed seems is equal or higher to the number of fathers killed. The typical profile of an adult committing parricide could be described as follows: a young single unemployed male, living with his victim, suffering from schizophrenia with comorbidity of alcohol or drug abuse and consumption, who stops his medication, and having a past history of medicolegal behaviours. The parricide act can be divided into three stages; first, the contention of the emergence of parricide ideas; second, the violence and brutality of the act; third, following a transient appeasement suicidal thoughts or attempts are frequently observed. Preventing parricides and homicides committed by psychotic subjects is a great challenge. Only a few studies aim to a better understanding of the underlying motivations of such criminals. According to theses studies, we can point out several warning signals. Psychiatrist should particularly increase their vigilance to persecutive delusions, history of a long lasting illness with history of violence during acute stages, threats against family or friends, suicidal thoughts, failures of help requests and attempt to escape.

  9. Lifetime Doctor-Diagnosed Mental Health Conditions and Current Substance Use Among Gay and Bisexual Men Living in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, Nathan J; Dulai, Joshun J S; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Rich, Ashleigh; Patterson, Thomas L; Corneil, Trevor T; Montaner, Julio S G; Roth, Eric A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M

    2017-05-12

    Studies have found that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) have higher rates of mental health conditions and substance use than heterosexual men, but are limited by issues of representativeness. To determine the prevalence and correlates of mental health disorders among GBM in Metro Vancouver, Canada. From 2012 to 2014, the Momentum Health Study recruited GBM (≥16 years) via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to estimate population parameters. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) collected demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral information, while nurse-administered structured interviews asked about mental health diagnoses and treatment. Multivariate logistic regression using manual backward selection was used to identify covariates for any lifetime doctor diagnosed: (1) alcohol/substance use disorder and (2) any other mental health disorder. Of 719 participants, 17.4% reported a substance use disorder and 35.2% reported any other mental health disorder; 24.0% of all GBM were currently receiving treatment. A lifetime substance use disorder diagnosis was negatively associated with being a student (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 0.27-0.99) and an annual income ≥$30,000 CAD (AOR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21-0.67) and positively associated with HIV-positive serostatus (AOR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.63-3.96), recent crystal methamphetamine use (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.69-4.40) and recent heroin use (AOR = 5.59, 95% CI: 2.39-13.12). Any other lifetime mental health disorder diagnosis was negatively associated with self-identifying as Latin American (AOR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.81), being a refugee or visa holder (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.05-0.65), and living outside Vancouver (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.82), and positively associated with abnormal anxiety symptomology scores (AOR = 3.05, 95% CI: 2.06-4.51). Mental health conditions and substance use, which have important implications for clinical and public health practice, were highly prevalent and co-occurring.

  10. The effect of geosphere conditions on the lifetimes of copper containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Kolar, M.

    1997-12-01

    The effects of variations in geosphere conditions and of the properties of the backfill material on the performance of the engineered barriers have been examined using a numerical Cu container failure model. The thickness of the exclusion zone between the vault and the nearest major water-bearing fracture has been varied between 1 and 50 m. The groundwater [O 2 ] has been varied between limits of 1 and 7360 ng·g -1 , the latter value being equivalent to the hypothetical situation of aerated saline groundwater at the ambient rock temperature of 17 degrees C. The properties of the excavation-disturbed zone (EDZ) have been varied to simulate both blast-induced and stress-induced damage. Finally, the effect of the particle size of crushed granite, of reduced heat output from the container and the effect of substituting pyrite for biotite on the performance of the backfill material has been determined. The impact of these variables on the corrosion rate, the extent of the four O 2 -consumption reactions and the fate of FE(II) dissolved from the biotite (or pyrite) in the backfill and EDZ has been examined. The results of the various simulations suggest that the engineered barriers (the container and the buffer and backfill materials) can isolate the fuel almost indefinitely, regardless of the geosphere conditions. Copper containers are predicted not to fail by corrosion within the analysis period of ∼10 5 a. The robustness of the engineered barriers is a result of (i) the low rates of mass transport in saturated buffer and backfill materials and (ii) the presence of an excess of redox-buffering FE(II) minerals in the backfill. (author)

  11. Implicit learning in psychotic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Kop, W. J.; Kuipers, T.; Bosveld, J.

    1992-01-01

    Implicit verbal learning of psychotic patients (n = 59) and non-psychotic control patients (n = 20) was studied using stem completion and association tasks in lexical and semantic priming paradigms. Performance on these tasks was contrasted with explicit memory on Rey's verbal learning test.

  12. Monitoring of atomic metastable state lifetimes by the laser-enhanced ionization technique--A new method for probing local stoichiometric combustive conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungberg, Peter; Malmsten, Yvonne; Axner, Ove

    1995-01-01

    The lifetimes of atomic metastable states in an acetylene/air flame have been investigated using the laser-enhanced ionization technique. The lifetimes were found to be several orders of magnitude less than the natural ones, which clearly shows that they are fully determined by the surrounding environment. The lifetime of a specific state has been investigated as a function of flame conditions. It was found that the lifetime is strongly dependent on the local flame composition, with a distinct maximum for stoichiometric conditions. For fuel-lean local conditions, the excess of O2 acts as an effective quencher of the metastable state, while for fuel-rich conditions the quenching is dominated by unburned fuel components. An acetylene/air flame has been probed both as a function of height in the flame, as well as a function of fuel/air composition fed to the burner. The experiments show clearly for which heights and fuel/air compositions that lean, stoichiometric or rich conditions prevail. This makes a monitoring of metastable state lifetimes a useful technique for combustion analysis

  13. Nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraca, J.M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of the results obtained in experiments of measurement of lifetimes for a detailed knowledge of nuclear structure is referred. Direct methods of measurement of nuclear lifetimes are described, namely, electronic methods, recoil-distance method, doppler shift atenuation method and blocking-method. A brief reference is made to indirect methods for measurement of life-times

  14. Lifetime assessment of thick-walled components made of nickel-base alloys under near-service loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueggenberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Until 2050 the renewable energies should provide 80% of the power in Germany according to Renewable Energy law. Due to that reason the conventional power plants are not used for base load, but rather for the supply of average and peak load. The change of the operating mode leads to shorter times at stationary temperatures and the number of faster start-ups/shut-downs of the power plants will increase. As a result of this the components are exposed to an interacting load of creep and fatigue which reduces the lifetimes. The aim of this thesis is the development and verification of a lifetime assessment procedure for components made of the nickel-base alloys Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 under creep fatigue loading conditions based on numerical phenomenological models and on the approaches of different standards/recommendations. The focus lies on two components of the high temperature material test rig II (HWT II), a header made of Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 as well as a formed part made of Alloy 617 mod. For the basis characterization of the HWT II melts, specimens of the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 are tested in uniaxial tensile tests, (creep-)fatigue tests, creep tests and charpy tests in a temperature range between 20 C and 725 C. From the comparisons of the test results and the material specifications respectively the results of the projects COORETEC DE4, MARCKO DE2 and MARCKO700 no deviations were obvious for both materials with the exception of the creep test results with Alloy 617 mod. material. The creep tests with Alloy 617 mod. material of the HWT II melt show differences regarding the deformation and damage behavior. In addition to the basis characterization tests some complex lab tests for the characterization of the material behavior under creep-fatigue and multiaxial loading conditions were conducted. The developments of the microstructure, the precipitations as well as the structure of dislocations are investigated in the light optical microscope

  15. Lifetime of organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren A.

    2015-01-01

    tests. Comparison of the indoor and outdoor lifetimes was performed by means of the o-diagram, which constitutes the initial steps towards establishing a method for predicting the lifetime of an organic photovoltaic device under real operational conditions based on a selection of accelerated indoor...

  16. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossan, D.B.; Warburton, E.K.

    1974-01-01

    Lifetime measurements are discussed, concentrating on the electronic technique, the recoil distance method (RDM), and the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). A brief review of several indirect timing techniques is given, and their specific advantages and applicability are considered. The relationship between lifetimes of nuclear states and the nuclear structure information obtained from them is examined. A short discussion of channeling and microwave methods of lifetime measurement is presented. (23 figures, 171 references) (U.S.)

  17. Psychotic Depression and Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Kristin J; Schoeyen, Helle K; Johannessen, Jan O; Walby, Fredrik A; Davidson, Larry; Schaufel, Margrethe A

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how severely depressed individuals experienced the relationship between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behavior. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of nine inpatients from a psychiatric university hospital between September 2012 and May 2013 fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a psychotic depressive episode as part of a unipolar or bipolar disorder. Analysis was conducted using systematic text condensation. Participants experienced (1) being directed to perform impulsive potentially fatal actions, (2) feeling hounded to death, (3) becoming trapped in an inescapable darkness, and (4) being left bereft of mental control. They described how impulsivity directed by delusions and hallucinations resulted in unpredictable actions with only moments from decision to conduct. Suicide was seen as an escape not only from life problems but also from psychotic experiences and intense anxiety. Participants reported being in a chaotic state, unable to think rationally or anticipate the consequences of their actions. Their ability to identify and communicate psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behavior was compromised, leaving them to struggle alone with these terrifying experiences. Suicide risk assessments based on verbal reports from individuals with psychotic depression may not always be valid due to potential impulsivity and underreporting of suicidal ideation. It may be important for clinicians to explore the delusional content of such patients' experiences to assess the possibility of suicide as a result of shame, guilt, remorse, or altruistic intentions to save others from harm.

  18. The association between psychotic experiences and disability: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Alonso, Jordi; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Saha, Sukanta; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Chatterji, Somnath; Degenhardt, Louisa; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep M.; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria E.; Ojagbemi, Akin; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Stagnaro, Juan Carlos; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McGrath, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective While psychotic experiences (PEs) are known to be associated with a range of mental and general medical disorders, little is known about the association between PEs and measures of disability. We aimed to investigate this question using the World Mental Health surveys. Method Lifetime occurrences of 6 types of PEs were assessed along with 21 mental disorders and 14 general medical conditions. Disability was assessed with a modified version of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between PEs and high disability scores (top quartile) with various adjustments. Results Respondents with PEs were more likely to have top quartile scores on global disability than respondents without PEs (19.1% vs. 7.5%; χ2 = 190.1, pmental or general medical disorders. PMID:28542726

  19. The association between psychotic experiences and disability: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, F; Alonso, J; Lim, C C W; Saha, S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Andrade, L H; Bromet, E J; Bruffaerts, R; Chatterji, S; Degenhardt, L; de Girolamo, G; de Jonge, P; Fayyad, J; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hu, C; Karam, E G; Kovess-Masfety, V; Lee, S; Medina-Mora, M E; Ojagbemi, A; Pennell, B-E; Piazza, M; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Stagnaro, J C; Xavier, M; Kendler, K S; Kessler, R C; McGrath, J J

    2017-07-01

    While psychotic experiences (PEs) are known to be associated with a range of mental and general medical disorders, little is known about the association between PEs and measures of disability. We aimed to investigate this question using the World Mental Health surveys. Lifetime occurrences of six types of PEs were assessed along with 21 mental disorders and 14 general medical conditions. Disability was assessed with a modified version of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between PEs and high disability scores (top quartile) with various adjustments. Respondents with PEs were more likely to have top quartile scores on global disability than respondents without PEs (19.1% vs. 7.5%; χ 2  = 190.1, P mental or general medical disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy predicts psychotic experiences via behaviour problems in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kim S; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jakob M; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy has been associated with later schizophrenia in offspring. We explore how prenatal stress and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in childhood associate to increase the risk of later psychotic experiences. Participants from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, pre-birth cohort study were examined for lifetime DSM-IV positive psychotic experiences at 21 years by a semi-structured interview (n = 2227). Structural equation modelling suggested psychotic experiences were best represented with a bifactor model including a general psychosis factor and two group factors. We tested for an association between prenatal stressful life events with the psychotic experiences, and examined for potential moderation and mediation by behaviour problems and cognitive ability in childhood. Prenatal stressful life events predicted psychotic experiences indirectly via behaviour problems at child age five years, and this relationship was not confounded by maternal stressful life events at child age five. We found no statistical evidence for an interaction between prenatal stressful life events and behaviour problems or cognitive ability. The measurable effect of prenatal stressful life events on later psychotic experiences in offspring manifested as behaviour problems by age 5. By identifying early abnormal behavioural development as an intermediary, this finding further confirms the role of prenatal stress to later psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in the symptom profile of methamphetamine-related psychosis and primary psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetin, Rebecca; Baker, Amanda L; Dawe, Sharon; Voce, Alexandra; Lubman, Dan I

    2017-05-01

    We examined the lifetime experience of hallucinations and delusions associated with transient methamphetamine-related psychosis (MAP), persistent MAP and primary psychosis among a cohort of dependent methamphetamine users. Participants were classified as having (a) no current psychotic symptoms, (n=110); (b) psychotic symptoms only when using methamphetamine (transient MAP, n=85); (c) psychotic symptoms both when using methamphetamine and when abstaining from methamphetamine (persistent MAP, n=37), or (d) meeting DSM-IV criteria for lifetime schizophrenia or mania (primary psychosis, n=52). Current psychotic symptoms were classified as a score of 4 or more on any of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale items of suspiciousness, hallucinations or unusual thought content in the past month. Lifetime psychotic diagnoses and symptoms were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Transient MAP was associated with persecutory delusions and tactile hallucinations (compared to the no symptom group). Persistent MAP was additionally associated with delusions of reference, thought interference and complex auditory, visual, olfactory and tactile hallucinations, while primary psychosis was also associated with delusions of thought projection, erotomania and passivity. The presence of non-persecutory delusions and hallucinations across various modalities is a marker for persistent MAP or primary psychosis in people who use methamphetamine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Psychotic versus non-psychotic firesetters : Similarities and differences in characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalhuisen, Lydia; Koenraadt, Frans; Liem, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    Firesetters with psychotic disorders constitute a distinct and important offender group. However, little is known about how psychotic firesetters differ from non-psychotic firesetters. More knowledge is required in order to treat this particular population effectively. Psychotic (n = 30) and

  3. The association of lifetime insight and cognition in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Zarzuela, Amalia; Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-03-01

    Poor insight has been related to poor course in psychosis. However, the role of cognition in insight remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of cognition and lifetime psychopathological dimensions on insight in psychosis. We followed up 42 patients with psychotic disorders over 10years. Lifetime psychopathological dimensions and cognitive performance were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups by lifetime patterns of insight and compared with 42 healthy volunteers. Lower IQ and poorer social cognition were associated with higher risks of poorer lifetime insight of feeling ill and global insight respectively. Lifetime negative symptoms were associated with a higher risk of poorer lifetime insight into symptoms. Lifetime lack of insight is independent of cognitive impairment in specific domains, except for social cognition. Higher IQ may contribute to better lifetime awareness of illness, while better ability to manage emotions is involved in lifetime global insight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The association between psychotic experiences and disability : Results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro-Mateu, F.; Alonso, J.; Lim, C. C. W.; Saha, S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; Bruffaerts, R.; Chatterji, S.; Degenhardt, L.; de Girolamo, G.; de Jonge, P.; Fayyad, J.; Florescu, S.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Hu, C.; Karam, E. G.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Lee, S.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ojagbemi, A.; Pennell, B. -E.; Piazza, M.; Posada-Villa, J.; Scott, K. M.; Stagnaro, J. C.; Xavier, M.; Kendler, K. S.; Kessler, R. C.; McGrath, J. J.

    Objective: While psychotic experiences (PEs) are known to be associated with a range of mental and general medical disorders, little is known about the association between PEs and measures of disability. We aimed to investigate this question using the World Mental Health surveys. Method: Lifetime

  5. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Handest, P; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions....... The purpose of this study is to explore frequency of qualitative, not-yet-psychotic, anomalies of subjective experience in patients with residual schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness in remission. METHOD: The patients were examined with the Danish version of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic...... differential diagnosis and therefore potentially useful in the preonset detection of the schizophrenia spectrum illness....

  6. The role that bond coat depletion of aluminum has on the lifetime of APS-TBC under oxidizing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renusch, D.; Schorr, M.; Schuetze, M. [Karl-Winnacker-Institut der DECHEMA e.V., D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Bond coat oxidation as well as bond coat depletion of Al are still believed to be a major degradation mechanism with respect to the lifetime of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. In this study the top coat lifetime is described as being limited by both bond coat depletion of Al and mechanical failure of the top coat. The empirical results are introduced by considering three spallation cases, namely, Al depletion failure, thermal fatigue failure, and thermal aging failure. Al depletion failure occurs when the Al content within the bond coat reaches a critical value. In this paper bond coat depletion of Al is modeled by considering the diffusion of Al into both the thermally grown oxide (TGO) and substrate. The diffusion model results are compared to Al concentration profiles measured with an electron beam microprobe. These measured results are from oxidized air plasma sprayed TBC systems (APS-TBC) with vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) bond coats for exposures up to 5000 h in the temperature range of 950-1100 C. This paper focuses on the Al depletion failure and how it relates to top coat spallation. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in experimental methods of measuring the lifetimes of excited nuclear states is reviewed in three main areas. (a) Doppler Shift Attenuation Measurements (DSAM) Times: 10 -14 - 10 -11 sec.; (b) Recoil Distance Measurements (RDM) Times: 10 -9 - 10 -12 sec.; (c) Direct Electronic Timing Times: down to 10 -10 sec.; A measurement of an excited state lifetime can answer a large number of different questions. Two examples are discussed: (a) The determination of the lifetime of an isomeric transition in 93 Tc and its use in determining an upper limit for the magnitude of the parity non-conserving matrix element - /Hsub(PN)/17/2 + >. (b) The dependence of the strength of M2 transitions on isospin in nuclei in the 1dsub(3/2) -1fsub(7/2) region. (author)

  8. The treatment of psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leadholm, Anne Katrine K; Rothschild, Anthony J; Nolen, Willem A

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a prevalent, severe, under-diagnosed and often inadequately treated mental disorder, which has received disproportionally little attention by clinicians, researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, the evidence base for optimal clinical practice regardi...... PD is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of consensus among international treatment guidelines on PD and to determine whether a potential lack of consensus would be reflected in the clinical practice of Danish psychiatrists....

  9. Cardiometabolic risk factors in people with psychotic disorders: the second Australian national survey of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Cherrie A; Foley, Debra L; Waterreus, Anna; Watts, Gerald F; Castle, David J; McGrath, John J; Mackinnon, Andrew; Morgan, Vera A

    2012-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in Australian adults with a psychotic disorder. Data were collected during the interview phase of the second Australian survey of psychosis, a population-based survey of Australians aged 18 to 64 years with a psychotic disorder. Body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured. Participants were asked about diagnoses of relevant medical conditions, medications, smoking and physical activity. Fasting blood samples were analysed for glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined using the harmonized criteria developed by the International Diabetes Federation and other bodies. A total of 1087 men (60%) and 738 women (40%) participated. Their mean age was 38.36 (SD 11.16) years; 773 (42%) were aged 18-34 years and 1052 (58%) 35-64 years. Three-quarters were overweight or obese and 82% had abdominal obesity. Almost half were hypertensive. Two-thirds were current smokers and 81% had a lifetime history of smoking. Levels of physical activity were very low. About 30% reported a diagnosis of hypertension or high cholesterol, 20% knew they had diabetes or high blood sugar and 18% had cardiovascular disease. Half of those with self-reported hypertension were taking antihypertensive drugs, and about 40% with hypercholesterolemia or hyperglycaemia were receiving medication for these conditions. Seventy per cent (N = 1286) of participants provided fasting blood samples. Abnormal levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were each found in almost half of participants and almost one-third had elevated fasting glucose. More than half of participants (54.8%) met criteria for metabolic syndrome. Australians living with psychosis have high rates of cardiometabolic risk factors. There are a number of obvious targets for prevention and treatment, including obesity (especially in women), smoking

  10. Sun Exposure and Psychotic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pilecka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSun exposure is considered the single most important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sun exposure and psychotic experiences (PEs in a general population sample of Swedish women.MethodsThe study population included participants from The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study. The 20-item community assessment of psychic experiences (CAPEs was administered between ages 30 and 50 to establish PEs. Sun exposure as measured by (1 sunbathing holidays and (2 history of sunburn was measured between ages 10 and 39. The association between sun exposure and PEs was evaluated by quantile regression models.Results34,297 women were included in the analysis. Women who reported no sunbathing holidays and 2 or more weeks of sunbathing holidays scored higher on the CAPE scale than women exposed to 1 week of sunbathing holidays across the entire distribution, when adjusting for age and education. Similarly, compared with women who reported a history of one sunburn, the women with none or two or more sunburns showed higher scores on the CAPE scale.ConclusionThe results of the present study suggest that, in a population-based cohort of middle aged women, both low and high sun exposure is associated with increased level of positive PEs.

  11. Effect of sulfide on the corrosion behavior of pure copper under anaerobic condition and possibility of super long lifetime for copper overpacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Naitou, Morimasa; Kawasaki, Manabu

    2007-03-01

    In general, copper is thermodynamically stable under anaerobic condition, so that corrosion due to water reduction can not be occurred on copper. In the presence of sulfide, however, this property of immunity to corrosion is lost and corrosion as copper sulfide is occurred. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the effect of sulfide on the corrosion behavior of copper for using the copper as a material for overpacks. In this study, immersion tests and stress corrosion cracking tests were carried out using synthetic seawater containing sodium sulfide. Based on the experimental results, the possibility of super long lifetime for copper overpacks was discussed. The results were summarized as follows; 1) As the results of the immersion tests of copper in buffer material for 2 years, the corrosion rates became large with increase in the concentration of sodium sulfide. The corrosion rates of copper in sodium sulfide of 0.001M, 0.005M and 0.1M were estimated to be 0.55μm/y, 2.2μm/y, 15μm/y respectively. 2) Corrosion product film with black or dark-gray was formed on the surface of copper specimens, and it was identified as Cu 2 S(Chalcocite) by the X-ray diffraction. 3) As the results of stress corrosion cracking experiments by means of slow strain rate technique, copper has little susceptibility to crack initiation for the specimen of the experiment under 0.001M-Na 2 S condition. Obvious cracks were observed for the specimens of the experiment over 0.005M Na 2 S condition. 4) According to the results of immersion tests and stress corrosion cracking tests, copper overpacks have a potential to accomplish super long lifetime far over 1000 years owing to very low corrosion rate and no stress corrosion cracking if the sulfide concentration in repository environment is promised to be less than 0.001M. (author)

  12. Sulfur deposition changes under sulfate geoengineering conditions: quasi-biennial oscillation effects on the transport and lifetime of stratospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Tuccella, Paolo; Curci, Gabriele

    2018-02-01

    Sustained injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the tropical lower stratosphere has been proposed as a climate engineering technique for the coming decades. Among several possible environmental side effects, the increase in sulfur deposition deserves additional investigation. In this study we present results from a composition-climate coupled model (University of L'Aquila Composition-Chemistry Model, ULAQ-CCM) and a chemistry-transport model (Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Transport Model, GEOS-Chem), assuming a sustained lower-stratospheric equatorial injection of 8 Tg SO2 yr-1. Total S deposition is found to globally increase by 5.2 % when sulfate geoengineering is deployed, with a clear interhemispheric asymmetry (+3.8 and +10.3 % in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH), due to +2.2 and +1.8 Tg S yr-1, respectively). The two models show good consistency, both globally and on a regional scale under background and geoengineering conditions, except for S-deposition changes over Africa and the Arctic. The consistency exists with regard to time-averaged values but also with regard to monthly and interannual deposition changes. The latter is driven essentially by the variability in stratospheric large-scale transport associated with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Using an externally nudged QBO, it is shown how a zonal wind E shear favors aerosol confinement in the tropical pipe and a significant increase in their effective radius (+13 % with respect to W shear conditions). The net result is an increase in the downward cross-tropopause S flux over the tropics with dominant E shear conditions with respect to W shear periods (+0.61 Tg S yr-1, +42 %, mostly due to enhanced aerosol gravitational settling) and a decrease over the extratropics (-0.86 Tg S yr-1, -35 %, mostly due to decreased large-scale stratosphere-troposphere exchange of geoengineering sulfate). This translates into S-deposition changes that are significantly

  13. A longitudinal twin study of the association between childhood autistic traits and psychotic experiences in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Mark J.; Robinson, Elise B.; Happ?, Francesca; Bolton, Patrick; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Background: This twin study investigated whether autistic traits during childhood were associated with adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods: Data were collected from a community sample of approximately 5000 twin pairs, which included 32 individuals with diagnosed autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Parents rated autistic traits in the twins at four points between ages 8–16 years. Positive, negative, and cognitive psychotic experiences were assessed at age 16 years using self- and parent-re...

  14. Positron lifetimes in deformed copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinode, Kenji; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Doyama, Masao

    1976-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements were performed for Cu samples with different densities of lattice defects. The lifetime spectra were successfully resolved into two components with the help of the well established analysis program. Obtained results were quite consistent with those expected from the trapping model. The positron trapping mechanism from free to trapped states and the initial condition of the model were especially checked. Deduced values obtained for tau sub(c) (lifetime of free positrons) and tau sub(t) (lifetime of trapped positrons) were 122+-5 psec and 176+-5 psec, respectively. (auth.)

  15. Associations between lifetime potentially traumatic events and chronic physical conditions in the South African Stress and Health Survey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Platt, Jonathan M; Basu, Archana; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Koenen, Karestan C

    2016-07-07

    This study examined the association between the type, and cumulative number of lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs), and chronic physical conditions, in a South African sample. PTE exposures have been associated with an increased risk for a wide range of chronic physical conditions, but it is unclear whether psychiatric disorders mediate this association. Given the established differences in trauma occurrence, and the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in South Africa relative to other countries, examining associations between PTEs and chronic physical conditions, particularly while accounting for psychiatric comorbidity is important. Data were drawn from the South African Stress and Health Study, a cross-sectional population-representative study of psychological and physical health of South African adults. Twenty-seven PTEs, based on the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0, DSM-IV PTSD module were grouped into seven PTE types (war events, physical violence, sexual violence, accidents, unexpected death of a loved one, network events, and witnessing PTEs). Five clusters of physical conditions (cardiovascular, arthritis, respiratory, chronic pain, and other health conditions) were examined. Logistic regressions assessed the odds of reporting a physical condition in relation to type and cumulative number of PTEs. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to examine dose-response effect of cumulative PTEs on physical conditions. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychiatric disorders, respondents with any PTE had increased odds of all assessed physical conditions, ranging between 1.48 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.07) for arthritis and 2.07 (95 % CI: 1.57-2.73) for respiratory conditions, compared to those without PTE exposure. Sexual violence, physical violence, unexpected death of a loved one, and network PTEs significantly increased the odds of all or nearly all the physical conditions

  16. Psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression compared to non-psychotic mania and non-psychotic bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Louise B; Horsdal, Henriette T; Mors, Ole; Gasse, Christiane; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-09-01

    An evidence base for the treatment of mania and bipolar depression with psychotic symptoms is lacking. Nevertheless, clinicians may have a preference for treating episodes of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic symptoms in different ways, which is likely to reflect notions of differential efficacy of treatments between these subtypes. This study aimed to investigate whether the psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic and non-psychotic episodes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, differs in clinical practice. We conducted a register-based study assessing the psychopharmacological treatment of all individuals receiving their first diagnosis of mania or bipolar depression between 2010 and 2012. The psychopharmacological treatment within 3 months following the time of diagnosis was considered. Potential differences in psychopharmacological treatment between the psychotic and non-psychotic subtypes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, were investigated by means of Pearson's χ 2 test and logistic regression adjusted for sex and age at diagnosis of bipolar disorder. A total of 827 patients were included in the analyses. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for treatment with an antipsychotic was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-2.48, Pbipolar depression. The aOR for treatment with the combination of an antipsychotic and an anticonvulsant was 1.60 (95% CI: 1.06-2.43, Pbipolar psychotic depression. It would be of interest to conduct studies evaluating whether antipsychotics represent the superior pharmacological treatment for psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Telephone versus face-to-face administration of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, for diagnosis of psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebi, Ahmad; Motevalian, Abbas; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Hefazi, Mitra; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Sharifi, Vandad

    2012-07-01

    The current study aims to compare telephone vs face-to-face administration of the version of Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, (SCID) for diagnosis of "any psychotic disorder" in a clinical population in Iran. The sample consisted of 72 subjects from 2 psychiatric outpatient services in Tehran, Iran. The subjects were interviewed using face-to-face SCID for the purpose of diagnosing psychotic disorders. A second independent telephone SCID was administered to the entire sample within 5 to 10 days, and the lifetime and 12-month diagnoses were compared. The positive likelihood ratio of telephone-administered SCID for diagnosis of "any lifetime psychotic disorder" was 5.1 when compared with the face-to-face SCID. The value for the primary psychotic disorders in the past 12 months was lower (2.3). The data indicate that telephone administration of the SCID is an acceptable method to differentiate between subjects with lifetime psychotic disorders and those who have had no psychotic disorders and provides a less resource-demanding alternative to face-to-face assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring treatment response in psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Meyers, Barnett S; Flint, Alastair J

    2014-01-01

    ). The response to the two regimens was compared using both a mixed effects model and effect size statistics on the total scores of three rating scales: the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), its 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6), and the 11-item PDAS consisting of the HAM-D6 plus five items......BACKGROUND: There is no established psychometric instrument dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new composite rating scale, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), covering both the psychotic...... and the depressive domains of PD, could detect differences in effect between two psychopharmacological treatment regimens. METHODS: We reanalyzed the data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression (STOP-PD), which compared the effect of Olanzapine+Sertraline (n=129) versus Olanzapine+Placebo (n=130...

  19. Post-psychotic depression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, M; Kulhara, P; Avasthi, A

    1993-01-01

    Post-psychotic depression (PPD) is defined as the development of depression during the phase of remission of schizophrenia. Two groups of DSM-III-R schizophrenics, one with PPD and the other without PPD (30 subjects in each group) were compared. Significantly more patients in PPD group belonged to nuclear families, had longer duration of psychotic phase of the illness, were hospitalised more frequently and had more sadness and anxiety-somatisation during florid illness phase. The PPD group also had more past history of depression. Although PPD patients had better premorbid personal-social adjustment in comparison with non-PPD group, they perceived themselves to be lacking in social support and had experienced more stressful life events. For patients in the PPD group, stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed age of onset, sadness during florid psychotic state, premorbid adjustment, social support and life events as significant determinants of severity of depression in the post-psychotic phase.

  20. A Dementia Case Presenting with Psychotic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a progressive clinical syndrome in which affected areas of brain function may be affected, such as memory, language, abstract thinking, problem solving and attention. Psychotic symptoms include auditory and visual hallucinations and delusions, which usually occur in the dementia. In this paper, a dementia case presenting with psychotic symptoms is presented. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 482-486

  1. Default mode network connectivity as a function of familial and environmental risk for psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Sanne C T; van de Ven, Vincent; Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Patel, Ameera X; Habets, Petra; Goebel, Rainer; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that altered interregional connectivity in specific networks, such as the default mode network (DMN), is associated with cognitive and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. In addition, frontal and limbic connectivity alterations have been associated with trauma, drug use and urban upbringing, though these environmental exposures have never been examined in relation to DMN functional connectivity in psychotic disorder. Resting-state functional MRI scans were obtained from 73 patients with psychotic disorder, 83 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 72 healthy controls. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed-based correlation analysis was used to estimate functional connectivity within the DMN. DMN functional connectivity was examined in relation to group (familial risk), group × environmental exposure (to cannabis, developmental trauma and urbanicity) and symptomatology. There was a significant association between group and PCC connectivity with the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the precuneus (PCu) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Compared to controls, patients and siblings had increased PCC connectivity with the IPL, PCu and MPFC. In the IPL and PCu, the functional connectivity of siblings was intermediate to that of controls and patients. No significant associations were found between DMN connectivity and (subclinical) psychotic/cognitive symptoms. In addition, there were no significant interactions between group and environmental exposures in the model of PCC functional connectivity. Increased functional connectivity in individuals with (increased risk for) psychotic disorder may reflect trait-related network alterations. The within-network "connectivity at rest" intermediate phenotype was not associated with (subclinical) psychotic or cognitive symptoms. The association between familial risk and DMN connectivity was not conditional on environmental exposure.

  2. Some Paths Towards Psychotic Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Franco

    2017-12-01

    In this paper I use the term alienation to describe the mind's detachment from psychic reality and its withdrawal into an alien world that leads to progressive dehumanization. In spite of this phenomenon having a psychodynamic nosography and descriptive models that effectively reveal it in detail, mental alienation is still mysterious and unsettling, especially when it manifests all of a sudden in clinical work. Alienating withdrawal into sensory fantasizing, which causes increasing loss of contact with human reality, is often preceded by a long period of time spent in a dissociated world that has gradually replaced psychic reality. However, prior to the human world being completely replaced by the alien world, both worlds coexisted for a considerable length of time in the patient's mind. My hypothesis is that the dissociation from psychic reality that underlies the future state of psychotic alienation occurs in psychic withdrawal that begins in infancy. This mental state is particularly obvious in small children who constantly live in a fantasy world.

  3. Lifetime assessment of thick-walled components made of nickel-base alloys under near-service loading conditions; Lebensdauerbewertung dickwandiger Bauteile aus Nickelbasislegierungen unter betriebsnahen Beanspruchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueggenberg, Daniel

    2015-11-06

    Until 2050 the renewable energies should provide 80% of the power in Germany according to Renewable Energy law. Due to that reason the conventional power plants are not used for base load, but rather for the supply of average and peak load. The change of the operating mode leads to shorter times at stationary temperatures and the number of faster start-ups/shut-downs of the power plants will increase. As a result of this the components are exposed to an interacting load of creep and fatigue which reduces the lifetimes. The aim of this thesis is the development and verification of a lifetime assessment procedure for components made of the nickel-base alloys Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 under creep fatigue loading conditions based on numerical phenomenological models and on the approaches of different standards/recommendations. The focus lies on two components of the high temperature material test rig II (HWT II), a header made of Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 as well as a formed part made of Alloy 617 mod. For the basis characterization of the HWT II melts, specimens of the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 are tested in uniaxial tensile tests, (creep-)fatigue tests, creep tests and charpy tests in a temperature range between 20 C and 725 C. From the comparisons of the test results and the material specifications respectively the results of the projects COORETEC DE4, MARCKO DE2 and MARCKO700 no deviations were obvious for both materials with the exception of the creep test results with Alloy 617 mod. material. The creep tests with Alloy 617 mod. material of the HWT II melt show differences regarding the deformation and damage behavior. In addition to the basis characterization tests some complex lab tests for the characterization of the material behavior under creep-fatigue and multiaxial loading conditions were conducted. The developments of the microstructure, the precipitations as well as the structure of dislocations are investigated in the light optical microscope

  4. Concomitant medication of psychoses in a lifetime perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vares, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Strålin, Pontus; Levander, Sten; Lindström, Eva; Jönsson, Erik G

    2011-01-01

    Objective Patients treated with antipsychotic drugs often receive concomitant psychotropic compounds. Few studies address this issue from a lifetime perspective. Here, an analysis is presented of the prescription pattern of such concomitant medication from the first contact with psychiatry until the last written note in the case history documents, in patients with a diagnosis of psychotic illness. Methods A retrospective descriptive analysis of all case history data of 66 patients diagnosed w...

  5. Study of the experimental conditions of measurement of the μ capture ratio in liquid hydrogen by mean of the lifetime method. Application to a total capture in lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    The method comparing μ+ and μ - lifetimes is shown to be a possible interesting method for measuring the capture rate of μ - in liquid hydrogen. The first part of the report is dealing with a study of the initial state of the μp system and a calculation of the capture rate, then with the μp system interaction with impurities, and the interest lying in a comparative study of neutron capture. The second part is dealing with the experimental unit: target, electron counters and neutron detectors. The total capture rates in two lithium isotopes were obtained by the method. The values obtained are 4678 +- 104 s -1 with 6 Li and 2260 +- 104s -1 for 7 Li. The interest of the method envisaged lies in the fact that it involves only time measurements on the nuon decay electrons and positrons. No precise knowledge of the neutron detector efficiency is required (an essential limitation to previous measurements). The 3% accuracy obtained for the capture rate is an important improvement. The initial condition investigation allowed the permissible impurity contaminations in liquid hydrogen to be determined, in the event of a measurement beginning 1.5 μs after the end of the beam pulse. Nitrogen and rare gases must not, overcome 8.10 -9 concentration (Pd filter). The deuterium concentration must be lower than 3.10 -6 (use of very pure hydrogen 'protium'). The system measured is the pμp molecule the event of an ortho-para transition of this molecule being badly known, a measurement of the time distribution of the capture neutrons makes the phenomenon clearer, without the neutron detector efficiency being accurately known [fr

  6. Direct Cost of Treating Acute Psychotic Episodes in Nnewi, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Major psychotic disorders such as the schizophrenias consume a high proportion of health budgets in developed countries. The economic implications of acute psychotic disorders in Nigeria have not been well documented. Aim: To estimate the direct cost of treating patients with acute psychotic episodes in a ...

  7. Clinicopathological significance of psychotic experiences in non-psychotic young people: evidence from four population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiological research has shown that hallucinations and delusions, the classic symptoms of psychosis, are far more prevalent in the population than actual psychotic disorder. These symptoms are especially prevalent in childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal research has demonstrated that psychotic symptoms in adolescence increase the risk of psychotic disorder in adulthood. There has been a lack of research, however, on the immediate clinicopathological significance of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

  8. [A case of shared psychotic disorder (folie à deux) with original aspects associated with cross-cultural elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoco, Valentina; Colletti, Chiara; Anastasia, Annalisa; Weisz, Filippo; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Shared psychotic disorder (folie à deux) is a rare condition characterized by the transmission of delusional aspects from a patient (the "dominant partner") to another (the "submissive partner") linked to the first by a close relationship. We report the case of two Moroccan sisters who have experienced a combined delusional episode diagnosed as shared psychotic disorder. In these circumstances, assessment of symptoms from a cross-cultural perspective is a key factor for proper diagnostic evaluation.

  9. Mentally Disordered Non-Psychotic Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background: By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures...

  10. An exploration of how psychotic-like symptoms are experienced, endorsed, and understood from the National Latino and Asian American Study and National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Tara R; Fortuna, Lisa Roxanne; Gao, Shan; Williams, David R; Neighbors, Harold; Takeuchi, David; Alegría, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    . To examine racial-ethnic differences in the endorsement and attribution of psychotic-like symptoms in a nationally representative sample of African-Americans, Asians, Caribbean Blacks, and Latinos living in the USA. Data were drawn from a total of 979 respondents who endorsed psychotic-like symptoms as part of the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). We use a mixed qualitative and quantitative analytical approach to examine sociodemographic and ethnic variations in the prevalence and attributions of hallucinations and other psychotic-like symptoms in the NLAAS and NSAL. The lifetime presence of psychotic-like symptoms was assessed using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) psychotic symptom screener. We used logistic regression models to examine the probability of endorsing the four most frequently occurring thematic categories for psychotic-like experiences by race/ethnicity (n > 100). We used qualitative methods to explore common themes from participant responses to open ended questions on their attributions for psychotic-like symptoms. African-Americans were significantly less likely to endorse visual hallucinations compared to Caribbean Blacks (73.7% and 89.3%, p supernatural, ghosts/unidentified beings, death and dying, spirituality or religiosity, premonitions, familial and other. Respondents differed by race/ethnicity in the attributions given to psychotic like symptoms. Findings suggest that variations exist by race/ethnicity in both psychotic-like symptom endorsement and in self-reported attributions/understandings for these symptoms on a psychosis screening instrument. Ethnic/racial differences could result from culturally sanctioned beliefs and idioms of distress that deserve more attention in conducting culturally informed and responsive screening, assessment and treatment.

  11. Psychotic experiences and aggression inoutpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some authors report that aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia is of heterogeneous sources, for example, aggression may be an impulsive action and even deliberate behaviour designed to intimidate others. Violence and aggressive behaviour may also be associated with psychotic experiences, such as delusions or hallucinations. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between psychotic experiences and the intensiveness of hostility and aggression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Material and method: Seventy outpatients (35 men and 35 women with paranoid schizophrenia were examined. Relevant scales, subscales and indices of the Polish version of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were used. Results: The analysis of correlation and the factor analysis revealed a number of statistically significant correlations between the scores of the scales assessing psychotic experiences and those assessing the intensiveness of hostility and aggression. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the presence of a number of relationships between psychotic experiences and felt hostility and aggression. Psychotic symptoms and indices of aggressiveness created five factors: “psychoticism,” “hostility,” “psychopathic aggression,” “poignancy,” “persecutory ideas.” Important for the felt hostility and aggressiveness in patients turned out to be experienced anxiety about their mental health because of the sense of the unreality of what is going on and because of the sense of alienation of their own thoughts. Another important factor turned out to be a sense of being wronged by life, misunderstood by others, and the belief that people have a grudge and try to harm. In contrast, characteristics, attitudes and behaviour which are the opposite of paranoid disorders, i.e. faith in people and optimistic attitude towards them, are an important factor for the inhibition of aggression.

  12. Environmental adversities and psychotic symptoms: The impact of timing of trauma, abuse, and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Breinlinger, Susanne; Hirt, Vanessa; Teicher, Martin H; Odenwald, Michael; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2017-11-13

    Trauma and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) occur more often in mental illness, including psychosis, than in the general population. Individuals with psychosis (cases) report a higher number and severity (dose) of adversities than healthy controls. While a dose-dependent increase of adversities has been related to more severe psychopathology, the role of type and timing is still insufficiently understood on the exacerbation of positive and negative psychotic symptoms. Moreover, dissociative symptoms were examined as potential mediator between adversities and severity of psychotic symptoms. Exposure to adversities were assessed by interviews in n=180 cases and n=70 controls. In cases, symptom severities were obtained for psychotic symptoms and dissociation. Conditioned random forest regression determined the importance of type and timing of ACE for positive and negative symptom severity, and mediator analyses evaluated the role of dissociative symptoms in the relationship between adversities and psychotic symptoms. Cases experienced substantially more abuse and neglect than controls. Adversities were related in a dose-dependent manner to psychotic disorder. An array of adversities was associated with more severe positive symptoms, while the conditioned random forest regression depicted neglect at age 10 as the most important predictor. Dissociative symptoms mediated the small relation of trauma load in childhood and positive symptoms. The role of trauma and ACE on psychotic symptoms can be specified by neglect during frontocortical development in the exacerbation of positive symptoms. The mediating role of dissociation is restricted to the relation of childhood trauma and positive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Predictive Coding Account of Psychotic Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Corlett, Philip R.

    2017-01-01

    The co-occurrence of psychotic and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms represents an important clinical challenge. Here we consider this problem in the context of a computational psychiatry approach that has been applied to both conditions--predictive coding. Some symptoms of schizophrenia have been explained in terms of a failure of top-down…

  14. A Network Approach to Environmental Impact in Psychotic Disorder : Brief Theoretical Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isvoranu, A.M.; Borsboom, D.; van Os, J.; Guloksuz, S.

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of psychotic disorder represents a multifactorial and heterogeneous condition and is thought to result from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. In the current paper, we analyze this interplay using network analysis, which has been recently proposed as a novel

  15. The KMO allele encoding Arg452 is associated with psychotic features in bipolar disorder type 1, and with increased CSF KYNA level and reduced KMO expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavebratt, C; Olsson, S; Backlund, L; Frisén, L; Sellgren, C; Priebe, L; Nikamo, P; Träskman-Bendz, L; Cichon, S; Vawter, M P; Osby, U; Engberg, G; Landén, M; Erhardt, S; Schalling, M

    2014-03-01

    The kynurenine pathway metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), modulating glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, is increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder type 1 with psychotic features. KYNA production is critically dependent on kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO). KMO mRNA levels and activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) are reduced in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that KMO expression in PFC would be reduced in bipolar disorder with psychotic features and that a functional genetic variant of KMO would associate with this disease, CSF KYNA level and KMO expression. KMO mRNA levels were reduced in PFC of bipolar disorder patients with lifetime psychotic features (P=0.005, n=19) or schizophrenia (P=0.02, n=36) compared with nonpsychotic patients and controls. KMO genetic association to psychotic features in bipolar disorder type 1 was studied in 493 patients and 1044 controls from Sweden. The KMO Arg(452) allele was associated with psychotic features during manic episodes (P=0.003). KMO Arg(452) was studied for association to CSF KYNA levels in an independent sample of 55 Swedish patients, and to KMO expression in 717 lymphoblastoid cell lines and 138 hippocampal biopsies. KMO Arg(452) associated with increased levels of CSF KYNA (P=0.03) and reduced lymphoblastoid and hippocampal KMO expression (P≤0.05). Thus, findings from five independent cohorts suggest that genetic variation in KMO influences the risk for psychotic features in mania of bipolar disorder patients. This provides a possible mechanism for the previous findings of elevated CSF KYNA levels in those bipolar patients with lifetime psychotic features and positive association between KYNA levels and number of manic episodes.

  16. The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries. N/A. The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissen, Aleida; van Os, Jim; Habets, Petra; Gronenschild, Ed; Marcelis, Machteld

    2017-01-01

    The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT). Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk]) and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent. T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 89 patients with a psychotic disorder, 95 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 87 healthy control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure CT. Developmental urban exposure was classified as low, medium, and high, reflecting the population density and the number of moves between birth and the 15th birthday, using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics and the equivalent database in Belgium. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between group, sex, and urban upbringing (as well as their interactions) and cortical CT as the dependent variable. CT was significantly smaller in the patient group compared to the controls (B = -0.043, p <0.001), but not in the siblings compared to the controls (B = -0.013, p = 0.31). There was no main effect of developmental urbanicity on CT (B = 0.001, p = 0.91). Neither the three-way group × urbanicity × sex interaction (χ2 = 3.73, p = 0.16), nor the two-way group × urbanicity interaction was significant (χ2 = 0.51, p = 0.77). The negative association between (familial risk for) psychotic disorder and CT was not moderated by developmental urbanicity, suggesting that reduced CT is not the outcome of familial sensitivity to the proxy environmental factor 'urban upbringing'.

  18. No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleida Frissen

    Full Text Available The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT. Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk] and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent.T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 89 patients with a psychotic disorder, 95 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 87 healthy control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure CT. Developmental urban exposure was classified as low, medium, and high, reflecting the population density and the number of moves between birth and the 15th birthday, using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics and the equivalent database in Belgium. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between group, sex, and urban upbringing (as well as their interactions and cortical CT as the dependent variable.CT was significantly smaller in the patient group compared to the controls (B = -0.043, p <0.001, but not in the siblings compared to the controls (B = -0.013, p = 0.31. There was no main effect of developmental urbanicity on CT (B = 0.001, p = 0.91. Neither the three-way group × urbanicity × sex interaction (χ2 = 3.73, p = 0.16, nor the two-way group × urbanicity interaction was significant (χ2 = 0.51, p = 0.77.The negative association between (familial risk for psychotic disorder and CT was not moderated by developmental urbanicity, suggesting that reduced CT is not the outcome of familial sensitivity to the proxy environmental factor 'urban

  19. Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-02-15

    Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21-2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01-2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94-1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28-7.20, P < .001) was substantially greater than for either exposure alone, highlighting a potential interaction between neighborhood conditions and crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = -0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially

  20. Immigration and psychotic experiences in the United States: Another example of the epidemiological paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hans; Abe, Jennifer; Negi, Nalini; DeVylder, Jordan

    2015-10-30

    In Europe, it is widely established that immigration increases risk for psychotic disorder. However, research has yet to confirm this association in the United States, where immigrants paradoxically report better health status than their native-born counterparts. Further, few studies have examined this topic with respect to sub-threshold psychotic experiences, which are more common than psychotic disorders in the general population. This study analyzes the (1) National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, (2) the National Latino and Asian American Survey, and (3) the National Survey of American Life, in order to determine whether generation status had any impact on risk for lifetime and 12-month PE, and whether these associations vary across racial/ethnic groups, adjusting for demographic variables and socioeconomic status. We found an absence of an immigration effect on PE across various ethnic groups and across various geographic areas, and found that immigration is actually protective among Latinos, supporting the idea that the epidemiological paradox extends to the psychosis phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Results: Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21–2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01–2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94–1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28–7.20, P crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = −0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Conclusions: Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially adverse neighborhoods. PMID:28535284

  2. Motives for offending among violent and psychotic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P J

    1985-11-01

    Two hundred and three male remanded prisoners were interviewed with respect to their current offence, mental state, and social and psychiatric histories. All but nine of the sub-group of 121 psychotic men showed active symptoms at the time of committing a criminal offence; 20% of the actively ill psychotics were directly driven to offend by their psychotic symptoms, and a further 26% probably so. If some of the indirect consequences of the psychosis were taken into account, 82% of their offences were probably attributable to the illness. Among the normal and neurotic men, none claimed psychotic motives for offending, but motives suggesting high emotional arousal such as panic or retaliation triggered the greatest violence. Within the psychotic group, those driven to offend by their delusions were most likely to have been seriously violent, and psychotic symptoms probably accounted directly for most of the very violent behaviour.

  3. Nuclear lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Georges

    Three direct techniques of lifetime measurement are emphasized: electronic methods and two methods based on the Doppler effect (the recoil distance methods or RDM, the Doppler shift attenuation methods or DSAM). Said direct methods are concerned with the direct measurement of the radioactive decay constants of nuclear excited states. They allow lifetimes of nucleus bound states whose deexcitations occur by electromagnetic transitions, to be determined. Other methods for measuring lifetimes are also examined: microwave techniques and those involving the blocking effect in crystals (direct methods) and also various indirect methods of obtaining lifetimes (γ resonance scattering, capture reactions, inelastic electron and nucleus scattering, and Coulomb deexcitation) [fr

  4. Attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and social anxiety: Along a psychotic continuum or different constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shanna; Klugman, Joshua; Heimberg, Richard G; Anglin, Deidre M; Ellman, Lauren M

    2016-01-30

    Social anxiety commonly occurs across the course of schizophrenia, including in the premorbid and prodromal phases of psychotic disorders. Some have posited that social anxiety may exist on a continuum with paranoia; however, empirical data are lacking. The study aim was to determine whether attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are related to social anxiety. Young adults (N=1378) were administered the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ), which measures attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS), and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), which measures a subset of social anxiety symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to address the extent to which social anxiety and APPS tap distinct dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses support the existence of a separate social anxiety factor scale and four separate, though interrelated, APPS factor domains (unusual thought content, paranoia/suspiciousness, disorganized thinking, and perceptual abnormalities). Additionally, social anxiety was significantly, but not differently related to each APPS domain, although the magnitude was reduced between social anxiety and distressing APPS. The current study suggests that social anxiety and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are separable constructs, but are significantly associated with each other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comorbidities and psychotic illness. Part 1: Philosophy and clinical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Aquilina, Francesca Falzon

    2014-11-01

    This article aims at addressing the implications of defining 'comorbidity' within the field of psychiatry. We have looked at the standard definition of comorbidity and then discussed whether this definition can be applied to comorbidities in psychiatry. While comorbidities in physical illness are clearly the coexistence of two independent illnesses, Comorbidities in Mental illness are the result of the polygenic nature of mental illnesses, especially in psychotic illness whether schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. As a consequence, often the comorbidities of psychiatric illness are caused by two conditions which have in common the presence of particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps), which regulate the metabolism of neurotransmitters or the presence of neurotrophic factors . Thus inevitably, many such comorbidities are inextricably linked. We discuss the consequences of this form of comorbidity for the description, classification, and risk profile of mental illness.

  6. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... diagnostic reliability and validity, but it is estimated to exclude about 2 % of patients currently diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia from fulfilling criteria for DSM-5 schizophrenia. It might generate a problem for future young patients if the changes concerning demands on characteristic symptoms turn out...

  7. [Trauma and psychosis--part 1. On the association of early childhood maltreatment in clinical populations with psychotic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive literature stresses a high percentage of severe childhood maltreatment in the history of many psychotically ill patients treated in mental health services. Early childhood abuse seems to be associated among other things with a more severe clinical state, a more chronic course of illness and a more unfavourable psychosocial adaptation. In order not to jump to unwarranted causal conclusions, several conceptual und methodological problems have to be clarified before. From a conceptual perspective psychotic disorders diagnosed according to conventional criteria define only a minor subgroup within a much broader psychosis continuum in general population. Early childhood abuse has to be differentiated according to type, severity, timing, and context. The rates of early childhood abuse are high in general population. The methods of measurement of psychotic symptoms on the one side, of early trauma on the other side have to be critically evaluated. There is an empirically well founded association of childhood maltreatment and psychological and psychosomatic morbidity during adult years in general. In order to establish a potential conditional link also to psychotic disorders, clinical populations have to be compared to adequate control groups at least. A systematic literature search shows a very small number of studies including control groups at all. These studies underline that early childhood abuse may be significantly associated to the risk of psychosis indeed. The conditional role of early childhood abuse, however, has to be investigated only within a multifactorial biopsychosocial model of psychotic illness.

  8. Psychotic experiences and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Glyn; Wiles, Nicola; Thompson, Andrew; Evans, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    Both adolescent psychotic experiences and poor social functioning precede psychotic disorder; however, whether poor social functioning is also a risk factor for rather than a consequence of adolescent psychotic experiences is not clear. We investigate this question as well as whether deterioration in social functioning confers the strongest risk of psychotic experiences and whether theory of mind ability mediates any association, in a large community sample. Measures of social functioning (peer problems and prosocial behaviour) at ages 7 and 11 and theory of mind ability and psychotic experiences at age 12 were collected in a large community sample (n = 3,592). The association between social functioning and psychotic experiences was examined using logistic regression models at each age and any additional impact of deterioration in social functioning between ages 7 and 11. The potential role of theory of mind as a mediator was also investigated. Peer problems at both ages were independently associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 (7 years OR 1.11 95 % CI 1.03, 1.20), (11 years OR 1.13 95 % CI 1.05, 1.22). Theory of mind ability did not mediate this association. The association was not restricted to those with deteriorating social functioning (interaction term; p = 0.49). Poor childhood social functioning precedes adolescent psychotic experiences. There was no evidence that those with deteriorating social functioning were at greatest risk.

  9. Hyper-Theory-of-Mind in Children with Psychotic Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemmensen, Lars; van Os, Jim; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Vaever, Mette; Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M. A.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Jeppesen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE). Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM) and PE in

  10. Psychotic symptoms among male adolescent detainees in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, Coby; Vermeiren, Robert; Wouters, Luuk F. J. M.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van den Brink, Wim

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among incarcerated boys as well as the relationship between these symptoms and violent offending and criminal recidivism. The presence of psychotic symptoms was assessed in a representative sample of 204 incarcerated boys aged 12-18 using

  11. How psychotic-like are paranormal beliefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Matteo; Vellante, Marcello; Preti, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Paranormal beliefs and Psychotic-like Experiences (PLE) are phenotypically similar and can occur in individuals with psychosis but also in the general population; however the relationship of these experiences for psychosis risk is largely unclear. This study investigates the association of PLE and paranormal beliefs with psychological distress. Five hundred and three young adults completed measures of paranormal beliefs (Beliefs in the Paranormal Scale), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), delusion (Peters et al. Delusions Inventory), and hallucination (Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale) proneness. The frequency and intensity of PLE was higher in believers in the paranormal compared to non-believers, however psychological distress levels were comparable. Regression findings confirmed that paranormal beliefs were predicted by delusion and hallucination-proneness but not psychological distress. The use of a cross-sectional design in a specific young adult population makes the findings exploratory and in need of replication with longitudinal studies. The predictive value of paranormal beliefs and experiences for psychosis may be limited; appraisal or the belief emotional salience rather than the belief per se may be more relevant risk factors to predict psychotic risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hadronization, spin and lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Yuval; Nachshon, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of lifetimes can be done in two ways. For very short lived particles, the width can be measured. For long lived ones, the lifetime can be directly measured, for example, using a displaced vertex. Practically, the lifetime cannot be extracted for particles with intermediate lifetimes. We show that for such cases information about the lifetime can be extracted for heavy colored particles that can be produced with known polarization. For example, a t-like particle with intermediate lifetime hadronizes into a superposition of the lowest two hadronic states, T* and T (the equivalent of B* and B). Depolarization effects are governed by time scales that are much longer than the hadronization time scale, Λ QCD -1 . After a time of order 1/Δm, with Δm≡m(T*)-m(T), half of the initial polarization is lost. The polarization is totally lost after a time of order 1/Γ γ , with Γ γ = Γ(T* → Tγ). Thus, by comparing the initial and final polarization, we get information on the particle's lifetime.

  13. Charmed particle lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Conventional estimates are reviewed for charmed particle lifetimes. Free-quark models give values of (a few) x 10 -13 sec to (a few) x 10 -12 sec. The shorter of these values also follows from an extrapolation based on D → Ke/sup nu/. Possible differences among the lifetimes and production rates of D 0 , D + , F + , C 0 + , the heavy lepton tau, and the fifth quark b are discussed. Extreme values of mixing angles in a six-quark model could extend charmed particle lifetimes by a factor of at most three from the above estimates, while shorter lifetimes than those predicted could occur for some species like D 0 or F + if their nonleptonic decays were enhanced. The predictions are discussed in the light of some current experimental results, and it is estimated that sigma(pp → charm) approx. = 10 μb at 400 GeV/c. 95 references

  14. Self- and other-directed forms of violence and their relationship with lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Kerridge, Bradley T; Grant, Bridget F

    2018-04-01

    A combined history of violence toward self and others has been reported in clinical and incarcerated populations. Psychiatric disorders have been implicated as risk factors. This study examines the lifetime prevalence of this combined violence in the general population and its associations with DSM-5 psychiatric disorders in comparison with other- and self-directed violence. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) were analyzed, including 36,309 U.S. adults ages 18 and older. Violent behavior was defined by suicide attempts; recurrent suicidal behavior; gestures, threats, or self-mutilating behavior (self-directed); and multiple items of violence toward others (other-directed) in four categories: none, self-directed only, other-directed only, and combined self-/other-directed. Multinomial logistic regression examined these violence categories in association with sociodemographics and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders. Results show that approximately 18.1% of adults reported violent behavior, including self-directed only (4.4%), other-directed only (10.9%), and combined self- and other-directed violence (2.8%). DSM-5 psychiatric disorders significantly associated with the violence typology include alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drug use disorders; mood disorders; posttraumatic stress disorder; and schizotypal, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Findings extend the clinical literature regarding the co-occurrence of self- and other-directed violent behaviors to the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. French version validation of the psychotic symptom rating scales (PSYRATS for outpatients with persistent psychotic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favrod Jerome

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most scales that assess the presence and severity of psychotic symptoms often measure a broad range of experiences and behaviours, something that restricts the detailed measurement of specific symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS is a clinical assessment tool that focuses on the detailed measurement of these core symptoms. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the French version of the PSYRATS. Methods A sample of 103 outpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders and presenting persistent psychotic symptoms over the previous three months was assessed using the PSYRATS. Seventy-five sample participants were also assessed with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results ICCs were superior to .90 for all items of the PSYRATS. Factor analysis replicated the factorial structure of the original version of the delusions scale. Similar to previous replications, the factor structure of the hallucinations scale was partially replicated. Convergent validity indicated that some specific PSYRATS items do not correlate with the PANSS delusions or hallucinations. The distress items of the PSYRATS are negatively correlated with the grandiosity scale of the PANSS. Conclusions The results of this study are limited by the relatively small sample size as well as the selection of participants with persistent symptoms. The French version of the PSYRATS partially replicates previously published results. Differences in factor structure of the hallucinations scale might be explained by greater variability of its elements. The future development of the scale should take into account the presence of grandiosity in order to better capture details of the psychotic experience.

  16. [Psychotic forms of atypical autism in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simashkova, N V

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine clinical borders of psychotic forms of atypical autism in children, its psychopathological and age-specific manifestations as well as nosological peculiarities and to specify its pathogenetic features. Eighty patients with childhood endogenous autism, Rett syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome have been studied during 14 years. The study showed that psychoses similar by symptoms and course, which are characterized by attacks and regressive-catatonic disorders, may develop in the course of atypical autism. These psychoses develop on the background of dysontogenesis with consequent replacement of the following stages: autistic, regressive, catatonic, with returning to the autistic stage between attacks. Psychopathological similarity of these psychoses in different disorders correlated with EEG changes of the same type (appearance of the marked I-rhythm at the regressive stage of psychosis).

  17. Skinner boxes for psychotics: operant conditioning at Metropolitan State Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named "Studies in Behavior Therapy," was renamed "Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory" in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis is discussed. A case is made for viewing Lindsley's early work as foundational for the subfield of the experimental analysis of human behavior that formally coalesced in the early 1980s. The laboratory's work is also contextualized with reference to the psychopharmacological revolution of the 1950s. Finally, a four-stage framework for studying the historical and conceptual development of behavior analysis is proposed.

  18. Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at Metropolitan state hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named “Studies in Behavior Therapy,” was renamed “Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory” in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavio...

  19. The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders among veterans: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon M; Goldstein, Rise B; Grant, Bridget F

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence, correlates and psychiatric comorbidity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (n = 3119 veteran respondents). The overall prevalence of lifetime PTSD was 6.9%. Lifetime PTSD prevalence was higher among veterans who were female (13.2%), aged 18-29 years (15.3%), Native American (24.1%) or Black (11.0%), previously or never married (9.6% and 11.2, respectively), had incomes less than $70,000 (7.2%-10.1%) and had >2 traumatic events (5.2%-14.7%). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity between lifetime PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was highest for any personality disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 11.1, 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7, 21.5), any mood disorder (AOR = 9.7, 95% CI, 4.6, 20.4) and any anxiety disorder (AOR = 9.6, 95% CI, 5.1, 17.7), followed by nicotine, drug, and alcohol use disorders (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI, 1.8, 6.5; AOR = 3.1, 95% CI, 2.0, 5.9; 2.1, 95% CI, 1.5, 3.1, respectively). Associations remained with any mood, anxiety, and personality disorders after controlling for other psychiatric disorders (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.2, 10.9; AOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 1.6, 7.4; AOR = 4.5, 95% CI, 2.3, 8.7, respectively). Veterans who sought treatment for PTSD had more comorbid conditions, although treatment was only associated with comorbid drug use disorder (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.0, 5.7). In U.S. veterans, PTSD is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Although many veterans remain untreated, comorbidity may influence treatment seeking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Disability and service use among homeless people living with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Helen; Evert, Helen; Harvey, Carol; Gureje, Oye; Pinzone, Tony; Gordon, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of psychosis and needs for care among homeless people were studied in inner Melbourne. This was a two-stage nested study within the Australian National Survey of People Living with Psychotic Illness. A screen for psychosis was administered to a representative sample of men and women living in marginal housing in a mental health service catchment area. A selected subsample of 82 screen-positive respondents was interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis (DIP), a semistructured, standardized interview with three modules: (i) demography, functioning and quality of life; (ii) diagnosis; and (iii) service use. An unexpectedly high prevalence of people living with psychotic disorders (estimated lifetime prevalence 42%, 95% CI=37-47%) may reflect a concentration of vulnerable people in the shrinking marginal housing supply in the inner city areas. Disability in everyday, occupational and social functioning is greater for this subgroup than for other people living with psychosis in Australia. Most people were single and unemployed, and many reported social isolation and feeling unsafe. Substance use disorders were common. Most people were using health services, including specialist mental health services, but few were receiving rehabilitation, vocational or housing support. Despite high levels of contact with a well-organized, sectorized mental health service in an affluent country, this pocket of several hundred people had high levels of persisting disability and needs. The literature and local experience suggest that changing this situation is likely to require co-ordinated policy and practice between the health, welfare and housing sectors.

  1. Early non-psychotic deviant behaviour as an endophenotypic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early non-psychotic deviant behaviour as an endophenotypic marker in ... probed into: social dysfunction, unprovoked aggression, extreme anxiety, ... Demographic data included: age, marital status, gender, and years of formal education.

  2. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of

  3. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  4. The Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Atypical Psychotic Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Devi

    2007-01-01

    Convulsive therapy and its progeny, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), were originally used for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia, and there is little doubt that ECT remains an effective intervention for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, current practice tends to favor the use of ECT in severe or treatment refractory affective disorders, and its use in schizophrenia and other nonaffective (atypical) psychotic disorders has become controversial. Case reports have suggested a role for ECT in two specific atypical psychotic disorders: Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. In this article, we review the atypical psychotic disorders and report a series of five case examples that signify the role of ECT in atypical psychotic presentations, particularly when the symptoms resemble those found in Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. PMID:20428309

  5. Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy: phenomenology and a comparison with schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Lappenschaar, G.A.; Nienhuis, F.J.; Furer, J.W.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Lammers, G.J.; Renier, W.O.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Overeem, S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with narcolepsy often experience pervasive hypnagogic hallucinations, sometimes even leading to confusion with schizophrenia. We aimed to provide a detailed qualitative description of hypnagogic hallucinations and other "psychotic" symptoms in patients with narcolepsy and

  6. Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy : phenomenology and a comparison with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuyn, Hal A. Droogleever; Lappenschaar, G. A.; Nienhuis, Fokko J.; Furer, Joop W.; Hodiamont, Paul P.; Rijnders, Cees A.; Lammers, Gert Jan; Renier, Willy O.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Overeem, Sebastlaan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Patients with narcolepsy often experience pervasive hypnagogic hallucinations, sometimes even leading to confusion with schizophrenia. We aimed to provide a detailed qualitative description of hypnagogic hallucinations and other "psychotic" symptoms in patients with narcolepsy and

  7. Hot and cold executive functions in youth with psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, L E; Patterson, V C; Zwicker, A; Drobinin, V; Fisher, H L; Abidi, S; Greve, A N; Bagnell, A; Propper, L; Alda, M; Pavlova, B; Uher, R

    2017-12-01

    Psychotic symptoms are common in children and adolescents and may be early manifestations of liability to severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia. SMI and psychotic symptoms are associated with impairment in executive functions. However, previous studies have not differentiated between 'cold' and 'hot' executive functions. We hypothesized that the propensity for psychotic symptoms is specifically associated with impairment in 'hot' executive functions, such as decision-making in the context of uncertain rewards and losses. In a cohort of 156 youth (mean age 12.5, range 7-24 years) enriched for familial risk of SMI, we measured cold and hot executive functions with the spatial working memory (SWM) task (total errors) and the Cambridge Gambling Task (decision-making), respectively. We assessed psychotic symptoms using the semi-structured Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia interview, Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, Funny Feelings, and Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument - Child and Youth version. In total 69 (44.23%) youth reported psychotic symptoms on one or more assessments. Cold executive functioning, indexed with SWM errors, was not significantly related to psychotic symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-2.17, p = 0.204). Poor hot executive functioning, indexed as decision-making score, was associated with psychotic symptoms after adjustment for age, sex and familial clustering (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.25-4.50, p = 0.008). The association between worse hot executive functions and psychotic symptoms remained significant in sensitivity analyses controlling for general cognitive ability and cold executive functions. Impaired hot executive functions may be an indicator of risk and a target for pre-emptive early interventions in youth.

  8. Psychotic-like Experiences and Substance Use in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-03-02

    Psychotic disorders, as well as psychotic-like experiences and substance use, have been found to be associated. The main goal of the present study was to analyse the relationship between psychoticlike experiences and substance use in college students. The simple comprised a total of 660 participants (M = 20.3 years, SD = 2.6). The results showed that 96% of the sample reported some delusional experience, while 20.3% reported at least one positive psychotic-like experience. Some substance use was reported by 41.1% of the sample, differing in terms of gender. Substance users reported more psychoticlike experiences than non-users, especially in the positive dimension. Also, alcohol consumption predicted in most cases extreme scores on measures of delusional ideation and psychotic experiences. The association between these two variables showed a differentiated pattern, with a stronger relationship between substance use and cognitive-perceptual psychotic-like experiences. To some extent, these findings support the dimensional models of the psychosis phenotype and contribute a better understanding of the links between psychoticlike experiences and substance use in young adults. Future studies should further explore the role of different risk factors for psychotic disorders and include models of the gene-environment interaction.

  9. Are Psychotic Experiences Related to Poorer Reflective Reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Mækelæ

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive biases play an important role in the formation and maintenance of delusions. These biases are indicators of a weak reflective mind, or reduced engaging in reflective and deliberate reasoning. In three experiments, we tested whether a bias to accept non-sense statements as profound, treat metaphorical statements as literal, and suppress intuitive responses is related to psychotic-like experiences.Methods: We tested deliberate reasoning and psychotic-like experiences in the general population and in patients with a former psychotic episode. Deliberate reasoning was assessed with the bullshit receptivity scale, the ontological confabulation scale and the cognitive reflection test (CRT. We also measured algorithmic performance with the Berlin numeracy test and the wordsum test. Psychotic-like experiences were measured with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experience (CAPE-42 scale.Results: Psychotic-like experiences were positively correlated with a larger receptivity toward bullshit, more ontological confabulations, and also a lower score on the CRT but not with algorithmic task performance. In the patient group higher psychotic-like experiences significantly correlated with higher bullshit receptivity.Conclusion: Reduced deliberate reasoning may contribute to the formation of delusions, and be a general thinking bias largely independent of a person's general intelligence. Acceptance of bullshit may be facilitated the more positive symptoms a patient has, contributing to the maintenance of the delusions.

  10. Precision lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Precision measurements of atomic lifetimes provide important information necessary for testing atomic theory. The authors employ resonant laser excitation of a fast atomic beam to measure excited state lifetimes by observing the decay-in-flight of the emitted fluorescence. A similar technique was used by Gaupp, et al., who reported measurements with precisions of less than 0.2%. Their program includes lifetime measurements of the low lying p states in alkali and alkali like systems. Motivation for this work comes from a need to test the atomic many-body-perturbation theory (MBPT) that is necessary for interpretation of parity nonconservation experiments in atomic cesium. The authors have measured the cesium 6p 2 P 1/2 and 6p 2 P 3/2 state lifetimes to be 34.934±0.094 ns and 30.499±0.070 ns respectively. With minor changes to the apparatus, they have extended their measurements to include the lithium 2p 2 P 1/2 and 2p 2 P 3/2 states

  11. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions

  12. Accelerated lifetime testing methodology for lifetime estimation of Lithium-ion batteries used in augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium-ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process can be used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model. In the proposed...... methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests are considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. The methodology proposes also a lifetime model verification stage, where Lithium-ion battery cells are tested at normal operating conditions using an application...

  13. Prodromal psychotic symptoms and psychological distress among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than half (55.3%) reported having had a lifetime experience of major life event (20.9% in the preceding 6 months) while 13.9% had experienced bullying or abuse (5.1% in the preceding 6 months). The prevalence of prodromal symptoms was 20.9% (95% CI 0.174–0.244). Abnormal scores in emotional and conduct ...

  14. On the lifetime of wall conditioning layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.; Schmid, K.; Eckstein, W.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the large-scale application of tungsten as first wall material in the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade, we performed a numerical study about the erosion behaviour of boron films from carbon and tungsten substrates using the Monte-Carlo code TRIDYN. We compared the erosion caused by monoenergetic ions as well as the case of a plasma with a temperature of 10 eV containing boron as an impurity. In both cases we obtained, that on tungsten substrates a pure tungsten surface film is formed with some boron inventory buried underneath. For a carbon substrate, however, the boron inventory depletes slowly due to ion beam mixing effects in the case of monoenergetic ion bombardment. In the case of a thermal plasma containing boron as an impurity, an equilibrium boron surface concentration is established at high fluences. This boron concentration is strongly enhanced as compared to the boron impurity concentration in the plasma

  15. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christina; Mason, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis. PMID:25811027

  16. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis.

  17. Protective Factors for Psychotic Symptoms Among Poly-victimized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Eloise; Arseneault, Louise; Jaffee, Sara R; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-04-06

    Experiencing victimization in early life has been repeatedly shown to be associated with the emergence of psychotic symptoms in childhood. However, most victimized children do not develop psychotic symptoms and why this occurs is not fully understood. This study investigated which individual, family-level, and wider community characteristics were associated with an absence of psychotic symptoms among children at risk for psychosis by virtue of their exposure to multiple victimization experiences (poly-victimization). Participants were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative cohort of 2232 UK-born twins. Exposure to maltreatment, bullying and domestic violence prior to age 12 was determined from interviews with mothers, children, and observations by research workers at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Protective factors were measured at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12. Childhood poly-victimization was associated with age-12 psychotic symptoms (OR = 4.61, 95% CI 2.82-7.52), but the majority of poly-victimized children did not report symptoms (80.7%). Having a relatively high IQ, more positive atmosphere at home, and higher levels of neighborhood social cohesion were found to be protective against childhood psychotic symptoms among poly-victimized children and also in the whole sample. However, "protected" poly-victimized children displayed elevated levels of other mental health problems compared to nonvictimized children. Children's characteristics, family context, and the wider community were all found to protect children from developing early psychotic symptoms, even when they were victimized multiple times. These findings indicate targets for multilevel preventive interventions.

  18. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  19. Prompt Neutron Lifetime for the NBSR Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.

    2012-06-24

    In preparation for the proposed conversion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, certain point kinetics parameters must be calculated. We report here values of the prompt neutron lifetime that have been calculated using three independent methods. All three sets of calculations demonstrate that the prompt neutron lifetime is shorter for the LEU fuel when compared to the HEU fuel and longer for the equilibrium end-of-cycle (EOC) condition when compared to the equilibrium startup (SU) condition for both the HEU and LEU fuels.

  20. Subclinical psychotic experiences and subsequent contact with mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Vishal; Maccabe, James H; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Boydell, Jane; McGuire, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Although psychotic experiences in people without diagnosed mental health problems are associated with mental health service use, few studies have assessed this prospectively or measured service use by real-world clinical data. To describe and investigate the association between psychotic experiences and later mental health service use, and to assess the role of symptoms of common mental health disorders in this association. We linked a representative survey of south-east London (SELCoH-1, n =1698) with health records from the local mental healthcare provider. Cox regression estimated the association of PEs with rate of mental health service use. After adjustments, psychotic experiences were associated with a 1.75-fold increase in the rate of subsequent mental health service use (hazard ratio (HR) 1.75, 95% CI 1.03-2.97) compared with those without PEs. Participants with PEs experienced longer care episodes compared with those without. Psychotic experiences in the general population are important predictors of public mental health need, aside from their relevance for psychoses. We found psychotic experiences to be associated with later mental health service use, after accounting for sociodemographic confounders and concurrent psychopathology. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

  1. Data Gathering Bias: Trait Vulnerability to Psychotic Symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catalan

    Full Text Available Jumping to conclusions (JTC is associated with psychotic disorder and psychotic symptoms. If JTC represents a trait, the rate should be (i increased in people with elevated levels of psychosis proneness such as individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD, and (ii show a degree of stability over time.The JTC rate was examined in 3 groups: patients with first episode psychosis (FEP, BPD patients and controls, using the Beads Task. PANSS, SIS-R and CAPE scales were used to assess positive psychotic symptoms. Four WAIS III subtests were used to assess IQ.A total of 61 FEP, 26 BPD and 150 controls were evaluated. 29 FEP were revaluated after one year. 44% of FEP (OR = 8.4, 95% CI: 3.9-17.9 displayed a JTC reasoning bias versus 19% of BPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 0.8-7.8 and 9% of controls. JTC was not associated with level of psychotic symptoms or specifically delusionality across the different groups. Differences between FEP and controls were independent of sex, educational level, cannabis use and IQ. After one year, 47.8% of FEP with JTC at baseline again displayed JTC.JTC in part reflects trait vulnerability to develop disorders with expression of psychotic symptoms.

  2. Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy: phenomenology and a comparison with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuyn, Hal A Droogleever; Lappenschaar, G A; Nienhuis, Fokko J; Furer, Joop W; Hodiamont, Paul P; Rijnders, Cees A; Lammers, Gert Jan; Renier, Willy O; Buitelaar, Jan K; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2009-01-01

    Patients with narcolepsy often experience pervasive hypnagogic hallucinations, sometimes even leading to confusion with schizophrenia. We aimed to provide a detailed qualitative description of hypnagogic hallucinations and other "psychotic" symptoms in patients with narcolepsy and contrast these with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. We also compared the prevalence of formal psychotic disorders between narcolepsy patients and controls. We used SCAN 2.1 interviews to compare psychotic symptoms between 60 patients with narcolepsy, 102 with schizophrenia and 120 matched population controls. In addition, qualitative data was collected to enable a detailed description of hypnagogic hallucinations in narcolepsy. There were clear differences in the pattern of hallucinatory experiences in narcolepsy vs. schizophrenia patients. Narcoleptics reported multisensory "holistic" hallucinations rather than the predominantly verbal-auditory sensory mode of schizophrenia patients. Psychotic symptoms such as delusions were not more frequent in narcolepsy compared to population controls. In addition, the prevalence of formal psychotic disorders was not increased in patients with narcolepsy. Almost half of narcoleptics reported moderate interference with functioning due to hypnagogic hallucinations, mostly due to related anxiety. Hypnagogic hallucinations in narcolepsy can be differentiated on a phenomenological basis from hallucinations in schizophrenia which is useful in differential diagnostic dilemmas.

  3. Oxytocin and Social Cognition in Affective and Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K.; Burdick, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders. PMID:25153535

  4. B Lifetimes and Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Harold G.

    2009-01-01

    The Tevatron experiments, CDF and D0, have produced a wealth of new B-physics results since the start of Run II in 2001. We've observed new B-hadrons, seen new effects, and increased many-fold the precision with which we know the properties of b-quark systems. In these proceedings, we will discuss two of the most fruitful areas in the Tevatron B-physics program: lifetimes and mixing. We'll examine the experimental issues driving these analyses, present a summary of the latest results, and discuss prospects for the future.

  5. A study of acculturation in psychotic and non-psychotic immigrants living in Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonidakis, F; Lembesi, E; Kontaxakis, V P; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B J; Ploumpidis, D; Madianos, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2013-03-01

    Acculturation is the phenomenon that results when a group with one culture comes into continuous contact with a host culture. To investigate the correlation between acculturation and psychotic symptomatology in a group of immigrants suffering from psychosis and to explore differences in demographic factors related with the acculturation process between individuals with and without psychosis. Sixty-five patients and 317 non-psychotic immigrants were interviewed using the Immigrant Acculturation Scale (IAS) and a structured questionnaire for demographic data. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) were also administered to all immigrants suffering from psychosis. Total IAS scores, as well as IAS everyday life scores, were positively correlated with GAF scores. IAS everyday life score in the patient group related with religion, marital status, gender and years in Greece, while in the non-psychosis group it was related with gender and years in Greece. IAS wishful orientation/nostos (the strong desire for one's homeland) related with religion in both groups. The IAS identity in the psychosis group did not show any significant relation with any of the variables, while in the non-patient group, it was related with marital status, gender and years in Greece. Age, duration of residence in Greece and higher adoption of Greek ethnic identity were the variables that differentiated the two groups of immigrants. Acculturation in immigrants suffering from psychosis could be seen as a process that does not correlate strongly with the severity of the symptomatology but is probably influenced by different set of factors.

  6. LIVING WITH THE PSYCHOTIC IN THE FAMILIAR POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mariza Hildebrandt

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of people live situations of mental sickness, from psychotic character, that can cause sufferingboth for the sick and his family. We believe that try this situation means to live with limitations and wearings in thefamiliar everyday, what makes difficult the living with the psychotic person. Considering these aspects, thisresearch has the purpose of knowing the familiar perception about his living with a psychotic bearer person. It isabout a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study, developed in a northwest city of Rio Grande do Sul state,called Ijuí. The people of the investigation are composed of five psychotic’s parents, which frequent the socioterapygroup in Gloria district. The information collection happened trough open interviews, recorded and wrote out at all.The analysis of the obtained data followed MINAYO’s (2002 methodological proposition. By the containedinformation in the stud’s social actor’s declarations, emerged three thematic with a similar nucleus of thoughts. Onfirst thematic, we discussed about the difficulties faced by the familiars in the living with the psychotic in themoment he has the acute symptoms. On the second thematic, we talked about the medical question as bring atherapeutic element that helps the mental sick to keep stable., becoming better the familiars life. The third thematicshows the family conception about mental sickness. With this research we concluded that the living with a mentalsick person is taxing for the familiar and, sometimes, there are difficulties to understand the symptoms showed bythe sick person. Besides that, the family considers the medication one of the most important possibilities ofintervention in the psychotic’s therapy, what is reinforced by the health team that leads with these people.

  7. Psychotic disorder and educational achievement: a family-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Marcelis, Machteld; Drukker, Marjan; Delespaul, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Early social and cognitive alterations in psychotic disorder, associated with familial liability and environmental exposures, may contribute to lower than expected educational achievement. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) how differences in educational level between parents and their children vary across patients, their healthy siblings, and healthy controls (effect familial liability), and across two environmental risk factors for psychotic disorder: childhood trauma and childhood urban exposure (effect environment) and (2) to what degree the association between familial liability and educational differential was moderated by the environmental exposures. Patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (n = 629), 552 non-psychotic siblings and 326 healthy controls from the Netherlands and Belgium were studied. Participants reported their highest level of education and that of their parents. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Urban exposure, expressed as population density, was rated across five levels. Overall, participants had a higher level of education than their parents. This difference was significantly reduced in the patient group, and the healthy siblings displayed intergenerational differences that were in between those of controls and patients. Higher levels of childhood urban exposure were also associated with a smaller intergenerational educational differential. There was no evidence for differential sensitivity to childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity across the three groups. Intergenerational difference in educational achievements is decreased in patients with psychotic disorder and to a lesser extent in siblings of patients with psychotic disorder, and across higher levels of childhood urban exposure. More research is required to better understand the dynamics between early social and cognitive alterations in those at risk in relation to progress

  8. Lifetimes of heavy flavour particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty, R.

    1994-01-01

    The lifetimes of heavy-flavour hadrons are reviewed. After a brief discussion of the theoretical predictions, the problem of averaging lifetime measurements is discussed. The various experimental measurements are then presented and suitable averages performed. Charmed meson lifetimes are now measured to the few percent level, better that theory can predict, whilst for charmed baryons the lifetime hierarchy has been established for the first time. For beauty hadrons the lifetimes are measured at the 6-10 % level, and are in reasonable agreement with theoretical expectations. Beauty baryon studies ar just beginning. (author)

  9. Epidemiology, course and outcome of acute polymorphic psychotic disorder: implications for ICD-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proposed revision of the ICD-10 category of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders' (ATPDs), subsuming polymorphic, schizophrenic or predominantly delusional syndromes, would restrict their classification to acute polymorphic psychotic disorder, reminiscent of the clinical...

  10. Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral program for chronically psychotic forensic inpatients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the progress of four groups of chronically psychotic patients in treatment at De Kijvelanden Forensic Psychiatric Hospital. The psychotic patients were offered a cognitive-behavioral program, including psycho education, grief processing, stress management, functional

  11. Hyper-Theory-of-Mind in Children with Psychotic Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars; van Os, Jim; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE). Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM) and PE...... their theory of the minds of others in an incorrect or biased way. METHOD: Hypotheses were tested in two studies with two independent samples: (i) a general population sample of 1630 Danish children aged 11-12 years, (ii) a population-based sample of 259 Dutch children aged 12-13 years, pertaining to a case...

  12. Hyper-Theory-of-Mind in Children with Psychotic Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Clemmensen, Lars; van Os, Jim; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Vaever, Mette; Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M. A.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Jeppesen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE). Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM) and PE in children. Children with this type of alteration in ToM infer mental states when none are obviously suggested, and predict behaviour on the basis of these erroneous beliefs. Individuals with HyperT...

  13. Fluorescence lifetime based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is a robust intrinsic property and material constant of fluorescent matter. Measuring this important physical indicator has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a powerful and established technique for a variety of applications in drug discovery, medical diagnostics and basic biological research. This distinct trend was mainly driven by improved and meanwhile affordable laser and detection instrumentation on the one hand, and the development of suitable FLT probes and biological assays on the other. In this process two essential working approaches emerged. The first one is primarily focused on high throughput applications employing biochemical in vitro assays with no requirement for high spatial resolution. The second even more dynamic trend is the significant expansion of assay methods combining highly time and spatially resolved fluorescence data by fluorescence lifetime imaging. The latter approach is currently pursued to enable not only the investigation of immortal tumor cell lines, but also specific tissues or even organs in living animals. This review tries to give an actual overview about the current status of FLT based bioassays and the wide range of application opportunities in biomedical and life science areas. In addition, future trends of FLT technologies will be discussed.

  14. Risk factors for suicide among 34,671 patients with psychotic and non-psychotic severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leadholm, Anne Katrine K; Rothschild, Anthony J; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe unipolar depression is associated with increased risk of suicide, but it remains unknown whether the same risk factors are present in the non-psychotic (non-PD) and psychotic (PD) subtypes respectively. Therefore, this study aimed to identify risk factors for suicide in non......-PD and PD separately, and to investigate if the presence of psychotic symptoms is an independent risk factor for suicide in severe depression. METHODS: This register-based, nationwide, historical prospective cohort study used logistic regression analyses to ascertain risk factors for suicide among all...... adults diagnosed with severe depression at Danish psychiatric hospitals between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2010. The risk for suicide was expressed as adjusted odds ratios (AOR). RESULTS: A total of 34,671 individuals with severe depression (non-PD: n=26,106 and PD: n=12,101) were included...

  15. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  16. An approach for longer lifetime MCFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Tatsumi, Masahiko; Hayano, Takuro [MCFC Research Association, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    For entering into commercialization of MCFC power plants in the beginning of the 21st century, we will devote to research for increasing lifetime as long as 40,000 hours with cell performance decay rate of 0.25 %/1000hrs as the target in FY 1999. This paper will discuss on our approach for longer lifetime MCFCs through electrolyte-loss management and NiO precipitation management as well as micro-structural control of electrodes and matrix plates. Cell voltage decay rate will be estimated by simulation through series of experiments on accelerated conditions.

  17. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  18. B meson lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, M.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetime of hadrons containing b-quark has been the subject of extensive experimental work and theoretical speculation; its importance is due to implications on some of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model, such as the top quark mass and the mixing angles. Since the pioneer measurements of the MAC and MARK II collaborations at PEP in 1983 the progress has been impressive; but many issues still remain open and await further study. In this paper the field's present status is discussed. An overview of the theoretical motivations for this measurements in the Standard Model framework is done. Then the experimental techniques used are reviewed, emphasizing the most recent measurements. A comparison of the results obtained is done and systematic errors are discussed. In conclusion there are some remarks on the further developments foreseen in the near future

  19. Clinical and psychometric validation of the psychotic depression assessment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Pedersen, Christina H; Uggerby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), consisting of the 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and 5 psychosis items from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), is a valid measure for the ...

  20. Current and emerging somatic treatment strategies in psychotic major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Gonopolski, Yehudit; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder characterized by severe affective and neurovegetative symptoms together with the presence of delusions and/or hallucinations. It is a common disorder seen in a quarter of consecutively admitted depressed patients and is often associated with severe symptomatology, increased suicide risk, poor acute response to antidepressants and poor acute and long-term treatment outcome. It is possible that poor response in psychotic depression is caused by the fact that we have yet to identify the most efficacious treatment protocol for psychotic MDD. Multiple studies have shown that modifications in the treatment paradigm may increase treatment efficacy in psychotic MDD. It has been generally accepted that, during the acute treatment phase, antidepressant-antipsychotic drug combination therapy is more effective than either treatment alone, although this strategy has recently been challenged. The question of the optimal duration of pharmacotherapy in order to prevent relapse and improve long-term (i.e., 5-year) outcome is a focus of current investigation. This article will review currently recommended treatment strategies for the acute, continuation and maintenance phases of therapy. In particular, it will address the role of newer-generation antidepressants, the role of second-generation antipsychotics, the use of mood stabilizers and indications for electroconvulsive therapy. Other possible treatment strategies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, deep-brain stimulation and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists will be discussed. Current recommendations for the prevention of relapse and improvement of long-term outcome will be reviewed.

  1. Psychotic Symptomatology in a Juvenile Court Clinic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dorothy Otnow; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This report indicating an unexpectedly high incidence of psychotic symptomatology in a population of cases referred to the Juvenile Court Psychiatric Clinic of the Second District of Connecticut, manifests the necessity for juvenile court systems to be made aware of the possibility of psychosis in our delinquent populations. (CS)

  2. Cerebral correlates of psychotic syndromes in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2012-05-01

    Psychosis has been recognized as a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases and a core feature of dementia that worsens most clinical courses. It includes hallucinations, delusions including paranoia, aggressive behaviour, apathy and other psychotic phenomena that occur in a wide range of degenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, synucleinopathies (Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies), Huntington's disease, frontotemporal degenerations, motoneuron and prion diseases. Many of these psychiatric manifestations may be early expressions of cognitive impairment, but often there is a dissociation between psychotic/behavioural symptoms and the rather linear decline in cognitive function, suggesting independent pathophysiological mechanisms. Strictly neuropathological explanations are likely to be insufficient to explain them, and a large group of heterogeneous factors (environmental, neurochemical changes, genetic factors, etc.) may influence their pathogenesis. Clinico-pathological evaluation of behavioural and psychotic symptoms (PS) in the setting of neurodegenerative and dementing disorders presents a significant challenge for modern neurosciences. Recognition and understanding of these manifestations may lead to the development of more effective preventive and therapeutic options that can serve to delay long-term progression of these devastating disorders and improve the patients' quality of life. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and distinctive pathological features underlying the development of PS in neurodegenerative diseases may provide important insights into psychotic processes in general. © 2011 The Author Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Brief psychotic disorder in a middle aged Nigerian following the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report illustrates the sudden onset, brief course and remission of a psychotic illness in a middle-aged Nigerian starting soon after she heard about the terrorist attacks in America. Vulnerability factors including personality traits and other concurrent life events were identified in the patients. Common mental disorder ...

  4. Creating a Supportive Environment : Peer Support Groups for Psychotic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Davidson, Larry; van der Gaag, Mark

    People with psychotic disorders frequently experience significant mental and social limitations that may result in persisting social isolation. Research has shown that a supportive social environment is crucial for the process of personal recovery. Peer support groups can provide an opportunity to

  5. Creating a Supportive Environment: Peer Support Groups for Psychotic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; Davidson, L.; van der Gaag, M.

    2015-01-01

    People with psychotic disorders frequently experience significant mental and social limitations that may result in persisting social isolation. Research has shown that a supportive social environment is crucial for the process of personal recovery. Peer support groups can provide an opportunity to

  6. Interpersonal sensitivity and persistent attenuated psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masillo, Alice; Brandizzi, M; Valmaggia, L R; Saba, R; Lo Cascio, N; Lindau, J F; Telesforo, L; Venturini, P; Montanaro, D; Di Pietro, D; D'Alema, M; Girardi, P; Fiori Nastro, P

    2018-03-01

    Interpersonal sensitivity defines feelings of inner-fragility in the presence of others due to the expectation of criticism or rejection. Interpersonal sensitivity was found to be related to attenuated positive psychotic symptom during the prodromal phase of psychosis. The aims of this study were to examine if high level of interpersonal sensitivity at baseline are associated with the persistence of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and general psychopathology at 18-month follow-up. A sample of 85 help-seeking individuals (mean age = 16.6, SD = 5.05) referred an Italian early detection project, completed the interpersonal sensitivity measure and the structured interview for prodromal symptoms (SIPS) at baseline and were assessed at 18-month follow-up using the SIPS. Results showed that individuals with high level of interpersonal sensitivity at baseline reported high level of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (i.e., unusual thought content) and general symptoms (i.e., depression, irritability and low tolerance to daily stress) at follow-up. This study suggests that being "hypersensitive" to interpersonal interactions is a psychological feature associated with attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and general symptoms, such as depression and irritability, at 18-month follow-up. Assessing and treating inner-self fragilities may be an important step of early detection program to avoid the persistence of subtle but very distressing long-terms symptoms.

  7. Psychotic disorder and its characteristics in sex chromosome aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapia Verri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex chromosome anomalies have been associated with psychoses. We report a patient with XYY chromosome anomaly who developed a paranoid psychosis. The second case deal with a 51-year-old woman affected by Turner Syndrome and Psychotic Disorder, with a prevalent somatic and sexual focus.

  8. Yoruba world view and the nature of psychotic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugbile, O; Zachariah, M P; Kuyinu, A; Coker, A; Ojo, O; Isichei, B

    2009-05-01

    The Yoruba are an ethnic group in southern Nigeria. It is said that their world view centers around a continuous battle between forces of good and evil. Adverse events such as illness are due to the malevolence of enemies, using metaphysical means. Remedy often involves corrective metaphysical intervention, either exclusively or in addition to other methods, such as 'western Medicine'. This 'rule' is said to fit mental illness more than any other type of illness, although there is a lack of empirical data on the subject. This study is aimed at identifying elements of a Yoruba world view, and factors relevant to the perception and treatment of psychotic illness. 500 Yorubas in Lagos were randomly sampled (with a questionnaire), and 100 'home video' films were analyzed. Data were analyzed for: elements of world view; elements that pertain to illness in general; elements that pertain to psychotic illness; how such illness is to be treated. The world view has a significant influence on perception of psychotic illness. It is necessary to understand a people's world view in order to understand (and influence) attitudes towards psychotic illness in themselves and other people.

  9. The Development of Pronoun Usage in the Psychotic Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Joyanna L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-three psychotic children, ranging in age from 5 to 16, were interviewed in half-hour play sessions designed to elicit statements using the pronouns "I,""you," and "he" to express the concepts of possession, action, and description. (Author/SBH)

  10. Pattern of Serum Electrolytes Changes among Non Psychotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Serum electrolytes, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, were measured in 30 depressed patients at the Neuropsychiatric Hospital Rumuigbo, Port Harcourt before therapy commenced and after four (4) weeks of amitriptyline. Thirty (30) known non psychotic disordered subjects matched for age and sex were used as control.

  11. A Psychotic Reaction in a Sex-Chromatin Negative Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuropsychiatric disorders found in association with Turner's syndrome (gonadal agenesis) are unusual. The case report describes a patient with Turner's syndrome who suffered an acute psychotic reaction. A brief review of the literature concerning this association is surveyed. S. Afr. Med. J., 47, 146 (1973) ...

  12. Correlates of Suicidality among Patients with Psychotic Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Flint, Alastair J.; Smith, Eric; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Szanto, Katalin; Peasley-Miklus, Catherine; Heo, Moonseong; Papademetriou, Eros; Meyers, Barnett S.

    2008-01-01

    The independent association of age and other factors with suicidality in patients with major depression with psychotic features was examined. Of the 183 study participants, 21% had a suicide attempt during the current episode. Male gender, Hispanic background, past suicide attempt, higher depression scores, and higher cognitive scores were each…

  13. Improving, characterizing and predicting the lifetime of organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren A.; Heckler, Ilona Maria; Bundgaard, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes the recent progress in the stability and lifetime of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). In particular, recently proposed solutions to failure mechanisms in different layers of the device stack are discussed comprising both structural and chemical modifications. Upscaling...... characterization reported recently. Lifetime testing and determination is another challenge in the field of organic solar cells and the final sections of this review discuss the testing protocols as well as the generic marker for device lifetime and the methodology for comparing all the lifetime landmarks in one...... common diagram. These tools were used to determine the baselines for OPV lifetime tested under different ageing conditions. Finally, the current status of lifetime for organic solar cells is presented and predictions are made for progress in the near future....

  14. Concurrent Koro and Cotard syndromes in a Spanish male patient with a psychotic depression and cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, P; Puente, V M; Blasco, M J; Salgado, P; Merino, A; Bulbena, A

    2012-01-01

    Koro and Cotard syndromes are uncommon conditions described in a variety of psychiatric and medical disorders. The authors report the third case of a simultaneous presentation of both syndromes, in a 62-year-old inpatient Spanish male with major depressive disorder with psychotic features, parkinsonism and cognitive impairment. A discussion of the literature and the possible relationship between both syndromes and other neuropsychiatric disorders are presented. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  17. Accelerated Lifetime Testing Methodology for Lifetime Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries used in Augmented Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process were used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model, which is able to predict...... both the capacity fade and the power capability decrease of the selected Lithium-ion battery cells. In the proposed methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests were considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the proposed methodology...

  18. Counterfactual Reasoning in Non-psychotic First-Degree Relatives of People with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auria eAlbacete

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Counterfactual thinking (CFT is a type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Previous research has found this cognitive feature to be disrupted in schizophrenia. At the same time, the study of cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of people with schizophrenia has significantly increased, supporting its potential endophenotypic role in this disorder. Using an exploratory approach, the current study examined CFT for the first time in a sample of non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (N=43, in comparison with schizophrenia patients (N=54 and healthy controls (N=44. A series of tests that assessed the causal order effect in CFT and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences using the Counterfactual Inference Test was completed. Associations with variables of basic and social cognition, levels of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in addition to clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were also explored. Findings showed that first-degree relatives generated a lower number of counterfactual thoughts than controls, and were more adept at counterfactually deriving inferences, specifically in the scenarios related to regret and to judgements of avoidance in an unusual situation. No other significant results were found. These preliminary findings suggest that non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients show a subtle disruption of global counterfactual thinking compared with what is normally expected in the general population. Because of the potential impact of such deficits, new treatments targeting CFT improvement might be considered in future management strategies.

  19. Trauma and psychotic experiences: transnational data from the World Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John J; Saha, Sukanta; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas de Almeida, José M; Cardoso, Graça; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep M; Kawakami, Norito; Koenen, Karestan C; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; McLaughlin, Katie A; Medina-Mora, Maria E; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Ojagbemi, Akin; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate M; Tachimori, Hisateru; Ten Have, Margreet; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-12-01

    Background Traumatic events are associated with increased risk of psychotic experiences, but it is unclear whether this association is explained by mental disorders prior to psychotic experience onset. Aims To investigate the associations between traumatic events and subsequent psychotic experience onset after adjusting for post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders. Method We assessed 29 traumatic event types and psychotic experiences from the World Mental Health surveys and examined the associations of traumatic events with subsequent psychotic experience onset with and without adjustments for mental disorders. Results Respondents with any traumatic events had three times the odds of other respondents of subsequently developing psychotic experiences (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 2.7-3.7), with variability in strength of association across traumatic event types. These associations persisted after adjustment for mental disorders. Conclusions Exposure to traumatic events predicts subsequent onset of psychotic experiences even after adjusting for comorbid mental disorders. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  20. Lifetime of Mechanical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, K.

    1999-07-01

    The gas plant at Kaarstoe was built as part of the Statpipe gas transport system and went on stream in 1985. In 1993 another line was routed from the Sleipner field to carry condensate, and the plant was extended accordingly. Today heavy additional supply- and export lines are under construction, and the plant is extended more than ever. The main role of the factory is to separate the raw gas into commercial products and to pump or ship it to the markets. The site covers a large number of well-known mechanical equipment. This presentation deals with piping, mechanical and structural disciplines. The lifetime of mechanical equipment is often difficult to predict as it depends on many factors, and the subject is complex. Mechanical equipment has been kept in-house, which provides detailed knowledge of the stages from a new to a 14 years old plant. The production regularity has always been very high, as required. The standard of the equipment is well kept, support systems are efficient, and human improvisation is extremely valuable.

  1. Interaction between cannabis consumption and childhood abuse in psychotic disorders: preliminary findings on the role of different patterns of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideli, Lucia; Fisher, Helen L; Murray, Robin M; Sallis, Hannah; Russo, Manuela; Stilo, Simona A; Paparelli, Alessandra; Wiffen, Benjamin D R; O'Connor, Jennifer A; Pintore, Sonia; Ferraro, Laura; La Cascia, Caterina; La Barbera, Daniele; Morgan, Craig; Di Forti, Marta

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have suggested that lifetime cannabis consumption and childhood abuse synergistically contribute to the risk for psychotic disorders. This study aimed to extend existing findings regarding an additive interaction between childhood abuse and lifetime cannabis use by investigating the moderating role of type and frequency of cannabis use. Up to 231 individuals presenting for the first time to mental health services with psychotic disorders and 214 unaffected population controls from South London, United Kingdom, were recruited as part of the Genetics and Psychosis study. Information about history of cannabis use was collected using the Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire. Childhood physical and sexual abuse was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Neither lifetime cannabis use nor reported exposure to childhood abuse was associated with psychotic disorder when the other environmental variable was taken into account. Although the combination of the two risk factors raised the odds for psychosis by nearly three times (adjusted OR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.44-6.02, P = 0.003), no evidence of interaction was found (adjusted OR = 1.46, 95% CI: -0.54 to 3.46, P = 0.152). Furthermore, the association of high-potency cannabis and daily consumption with psychosis was at least partially independent of the effect of childhood abuse. The heavy use of high-potency cannabis increases the risk of psychosis but, in addition, smoking of traditional resin (hash) and less than daily cannabis use may increase the risk for psychosis when combined with exposure to severe childhood abuse. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  3. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OLANZAPINE AND QUETIAPINE IN PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bithorai Basumatary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Psychotic disorders are a group of chronic debilitating psychiatric illness characterised by loss in touch with reality and disorders of thought, behaviour, appearance and speech. The second generation atypical antipsychotic olanzapine has been reported to be the commonly prescribed antipsychotic. However, olanzapine can cause adverse effects like weight gain, hyperglycaemia, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. Quetiapine, another second generation antipsychotic has good efficacy and has become well established in the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes. There are reports on adverse effects of hyperglycaemia and diabetes with quetiapine, but these are comparatively lesser than olanzapine. The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and quetiapine in patients with psychotic disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was an unicentric, open label, prospective and comparative clinical study. Subjects (n=80 who were diagnosed with psychotic disorder were randomly assigned to receive olanzapine (group 1 or quetiapine (group 2. The efficacy of the two drugs was assessed on the basis Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores at baseline, 1 week and 6 weeks. UKU scale (Udvalg Kliniske Undersogelser and laboratory investigations were used to assess the safety profile. RESULTS The two study groups had comparable sociodemographic profile. Both the groups showed significant reduction in psychotic symptoms as compared from baseline to 1 week and 6 weeks (p<0.001. The intergroup comparison of the efficacy of the two groups did not show any statistically significant results. There was statistically insignificant differences in the occurrence of adverse effects in both the groups. Sedation (50% in both the groups was the most common adverse effect in both the groups. The use of concomitant medications was comparable in both the groups. Benzodiazepines (56.3% in the olanzapine group and 51.9% in the quetiapine group

  5. Light Emitting Diode (LED) circular traffic signal lifetime management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this research is to build lifetime curves for red, yellow, and green LED circular traffic signals through 20,000-hr. accelerated stress testing of samples operating under Louisianas environmental conditions.

  6. An update on the epigenetics of psychotic diseases and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleky, Hamid Mostafavi; Zhou, Jin-Rong; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The examination of potential roles of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of psychotic diseases have become an essential alternative in recent years as genetic studies alone are yet to uncover major gene(s) for psychosis. Here, we describe the current state of knowledge from the gene-specific and genome-wide studies of postmortem brain and blood cells indicating that aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and dysregulation of micro-RNAs are linked to the pathogenesis of mental diseases. There is also strong evidence supporting that all classes of psychiatric drugs modulate diverse features of the epigenome. While comprehensive environmental and genetic/epigenetic studies are uncovering the origins, and the key genes/pathways affected in psychotic diseases, characterizing the epigenetic effects of psychiatric drugs may help to design novel therapies in psychiatry.

  7. [Swan Song: The Advent of the Psychotic Nucleus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Fernando Muñoz

    2012-09-01

    Different forms of artistic expression, such as literature and cinema, constitute an inexhaustible source for the study of mental illness. The use of psychodynamic models may contribute to a better understanding of the spectrum between personality disorders and the psychosis spectrum, thus enriching the phenomenological approach in the psychiatric clinical practice. To examine from psychodynamic standpoints the main character of the American film Black Swan, and the nature of her psychotic symptoms. Reviewing of sources and relevant theoretical currents. Analysis shows the usefulness of a psychodynamically- oriented dimensional model for understanding the so-called psychotic breaks as well as the applicability of psychoanalytic psychosis theories in general psychiatric practice, as they may provide a more flexible clinical approach, closer to the patient's subjective experience. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Cerebral correlates of psychotic syndromes in neurodegenerative diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Psychosis has been recognized as a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases and a core feature of dementia that worsens most clinical courses. It includes hallucinations, delusions including paranoia, aggressive behaviour, apathy and other psychotic phenomena that occur in a wide range of degenerative disorders including Alzheimer?s disease, synucleinopathies (Parkinson?s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies), Huntington?s disease, frontotemporal degenerations, motoneuron and prion...

  9. LIVING WITH THE PSYCHOTIC IN THE FAMILIAR POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Nasi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A lot of people live situations of mental sickness, from psychotic character, that can cause suffering both for the sick and his family. We believe that try this situation means to live with limitations and wearings in the familiar everyday, what makes difficult the living with the psychotic person. Considering these aspects, this research has the purpose of knowing the familiar perception about his living with a psychotic bearer person. It is about a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study, developed in a northwest city of Rio Grande do Sul state, called Ijuí. The people of the investigation are composed of five psychotic’s parents, which frequent the socioterapy group in Gloria district. The information collection happened trough open interviews, recorded and wrote out at all. The analysis of the obtained data followed MINAYO’s (2002 methodological proposition. By the contained information in the stud’s social actor’s declarations, emerged three thematic with a similar nucleus of thoughts. On first thematic, we discussed about the difficulties faced by the familiars in the living with the psychotic in the moment he has the acute symptoms. On the second thematic, we talked about the medical question as bring a therapeutic element that helps the mental sick to keep stable., becoming better the familiars life. The third thematic shows the family conception about mental sickness. With this research we concluded that the living with a mental sick person is taxing for the familiar and, sometimes, there are difficulties to understand the symptoms showed by the sick person. Besides that, the family considers the medication one of the most important possibilities of intervention in the psychotic’s therapy, what is reinforced by the health team that leads with these people. KEY WORDS: Family; Mental Illness; Nursing.

  10. [Psychotic parricide: clinical and analytic study of 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhlaoui, Olfa; Khémiri, Omar; Gaha, Nesrine; Ridha, Rym; Haffani, Fakhreddine

    2009-12-01

    The parricide is defined as "murder of the father or the mother or any other legitimate ascendant." It represents 1 to 5% of all homicides and 20 to 30% of psychotic homicides. In Tunisia, few studies have focused on this issue. We propose in this work to describe the profile of psychotic parricide. We tried to identify risk factors in order to prevent this acting out. Our study is retrospective we observed 16 male patients diagnosed with schizophrenia hospitalized between June 1979 and March 2008 in the forensic psychiatry department at the psychiatric hospital in Tunis, discharged for no ground for prosecution following parricide. They accounted for 20.8% of psychotic homicides hospitalized during the same period (16/77) and approximately 30% of homicides committed by schizophrenic patients. We found as many as patricide as matricide. The main factors that have emerged through our study are an early age (28 years), being single (70%), the socio-cultural poverty, unemployment, paranoid delusions, hallucinations and recent treatment interruption. All these factors have been cited by many authors including Millaud et al, they also cited history of violence and violent behavior and alcohol or drug abuse. One important point is that some signs of this imminent gesture are often present but misunderstood, such a sense of situational impasse, a request for help, or reluctance during interview. It is essential to identify risk factors, even to actively seek some warning signs, which often are not spontaneously reported by the psychotic patient. Hospitalization under constraint in psychiatry should be the appropriate response if these dangerousness signals are noticed by the psychiatrist.

  11. Self-Amputation in Two Non-Psychotic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanian, Hamid; Petrou, Nikoletta A; Sarfraz, M Aamer

    2015-09-01

    Self-amputation, the extreme form of self-mutilation, is uncommon. The vast majority of cases are associated with psychosis, with a small number being assigned the controversial diagnosis of body identity integrity disorder. In this article, we report two cases of non-psychotic self-amputation and their similarities with a view to highlighting the risk factors and formulating an appropriate management plan.

  12. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  13. Lifetime costs of cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs....... social care costs and productivity costs associated with CP point to a potential gain from labour market interventions that benefit individuals with CP.......This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs...... in 2000. The prevalence of CP in eastern Denmark was approximately 1.7 per 1000. Information on productivity and the use of health care was retrieved from registers. The lifetime cost of CP was about euro860 000 for men and about euro800 000 for women. The largest component was social care costs...

  14. Past 12-month and lifetime comorbidity and poly-drug use of ecstasy users among young adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Martins, Silvia S.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecstasy use is prevalent among young people and often co-occurs with other drug use, but little is known about the past 12-month and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity and specific additional drug abuse among young adult ecstasy users in the general population. To provide this information, we compared current ecstasy users to former users, other illicit drug users, and non-illicit drug users. Method Data were gathered in a face-to-face survey of the United States conducted in the 2001–2002 (NESARC). Participants were household and group quarters residents aged 18–29 years (n = 8666). We measured current ecstasy use defined as any use in the past year; former ecstasy use as use prior to the past year only; other lifetime drug use included any drug other than ecstasy; lifetime non-illicit drug use as no illicit drug use. Associations were determined for nine other classes of illicit drugs, eight personality disorders, and seven mood and anxiety disorders. Results Of current ecstasy users, 44% used >3 other classes of illicit drugs in the past year, compared to 1.6% of non-ecstasy drug users. Current ecstasy use was associated with current anxiety (OR = 3.7), specifically panic disorder (OR = 7.7) and specific phobia (OR = 4.1), also alcohol abuse (OR = 21.6) and dependence (OR = 4.1) and any personality disorder (OR = 5.1) compared to non-illicit drug users. Conclusions Results indicate important differences in comorbidities of current and former ecstasy users compared to other drug users and lifetime non-illicit drug users that may affect phenotype definitions and etiologic studies. Ecstasy use may represent a distinct population of drug users for which unique treatments may be necessary. PMID:18524499

  15. Adult onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease with psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle-López, Pilar; Pérez-García, Rosa; Sanguino-Andrés, Rosa; González-Pablos, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare neurological disorder characterized by pyramidal and extrapyramidal manifestations, dysarthria and dementia. Its onset is usually in childhood and most patients have a fatal outcome in few years. A high percentage of cases are hereditary with a recessive autosomal pattern. In the majority of the patients reported, a mutation of the gene that encodes the pantothenate kinase (PANK2) located in the 20p13-p12.3 chromosome that causes iron storage in the basal ganglia of the brain has been found. Its diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms as well as specific MRI imaging findings. The most common psychiatric features are cognitive impairment as well as depressive symptoms. There are few documented cases with psychotic disorders. We present the case of a patient with late onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease and psychotic symptoms that preceded the development of neurological manifestations. The pathophysiology and the treatment of psychotic symptomatology are presented and discussed. Key words: Psicosis, Hallervorden-Spatz, late onset, Basal ganglia.

  16. Psychotic disorders in DSM-5 and ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Falko; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) was published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 2013, and the Work Group on the Classification of Psychotic disorders (WGPD), installed by the World Health Organization (WHO), is expected to publish the new chapter about schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders in 2017. We reviewed the available literature to summarize the major changes, innovations, and developments of both manuals. If available and possible, we outline the theoretical background behind these changes. Due to the fact that the development of ICD-11 has not yet been completed, the details about ICD-11 are still proposals under ongoing revision. In this ongoing process, they may be revised and therefore have to be seen as proposals. DSM-5 has eliminated schizophrenia subtypes and replaced them with a dimensional approach based on symptom assessments. ICD-11 will most likely go in a similar direction, as both manuals are planned to be more harmonized, although some differences will remain in details and the conceptual orientation. Next to these modifications, ICD-11 will provide a transsectional diagnostic criterion for schizoaffective disorders and a reorganization of acute and transient psychotic and delusional disorders. In this manuscript, we will compare the 2 classification systems.

  17. [Analysis of the Structure of Acute Psychotic Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, Téllez R; Ricardo, Sánchez P; Luis, Eduardo Jaramillo

    2012-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a clinically heterogeneous disorder. A multifactorial structure of this syndrome has been described in previous reports. The aim of this study was to evaluate what are the possible diagnostic categories in patients having acute psychotic symptoms, studying their clinical characteristics in a cross-sectional study. An instrument for measuring psychotic symptoms was created using previous scales (SANS, SAPS, BPRS, EMUN, Zung depression scale). Using as criteria statistical indexes and redundance of items, the initial instrument having 101 items has been reduced to 57 items. 232 patients with acute psychotic symptoms, in most cases schizophrenia, attending Clínica Nuestra Señora de la Paz in Bogotá and Hospital San Juan de Dios in Chía have been evaluated from April, 2008 to December, 2009. Multivariate statistical methods have been used for analyzing data. A six-factor structure has been found (Deficit, paranoid-aggressive, disorganized, depressive, bizarre delusions, hallucinations). Cluster analysis showed eight subtypes that can be described as: 1) bizarre delusions-hallucinations; 2) deterioration and disorganized behavior; 3) deterioration; 4) deterioration and paranoid-aggressive behavior; 5) bizarre delusions; 6) paranoia-anxiety- aggressiveness; 7) depressive symptoms and bizarre delusions; 8) paranoia and aggressiveness with depressive symptoms These subtypes allow a more exhaustive characterization that those included in standard classification schemes and should be validated in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Electricite de France: Lifetime Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, Jean-Pierre

    1991-01-01

    Electricite de France produces almost 80% of its electricity by means of standardized PWR nuclear power stations. Starting in 1986, therefore, a project known as the 'Lifetime Project' was developed, whose aim was initially to ensure that the lifetime defined at design stage (40 years in general) could be attained without major difficulty (follow up of the aging process). It then became apparent that it would be useful to know just how far it would be technically and economically possible to go. As a result, the project is now working towards increasing the lifetime of power stations. (author)

  19. Self-Reported Visual Perceptual Abnormalities Are Strongly Associated with Core Clinical Features in Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Keane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPast studies using the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (hereafter, Bonn Scale have shown that self-reported perceptual/cognitive disturbances reveal which persons have or will soon develop schizophrenia. Here, we focused specifically on the clinical value of self-reported visual perceptual abnormalities (VPAs since they are underexplored and have been associated with suicidal ideation, negative symptoms, and objective visual dysfunction.MethodUsing the 17 Bonn Scale vision items, we cross-sectionally investigated lifetime occurrence of VPAs in 21 first-episode psychosis and 22 chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA patients. Relationships were probed between VPAs and illness duration, symptom severity, current functioning, premorbid functioning, diagnosis, and age of onset.ResultsIncreased VPAs were associated with: earlier age of onset; more delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and depressive symptoms; and worse premorbid social functioning, especially in the childhood and early adolescent phases. SZ/SA participants endorsed more VPAs as compared to those with schizophreniform or psychotic disorder-NOS, especially in the perception of color, bodies, faces, object movement, and double/reversed vision. The range of self-reported VPAs was strikingly similar between first-episode and chronic patients and did not depend on the type or amount of antipsychotic medication. As a comparative benchmark, lifetime occurrence of visual hallucinations did not depend on diagnosis and was linked only to poor premorbid social functioning.ConclusionA brief 17-item interview derived from the Bonn Scale is strongly associated with core clinical features in schizophrenia. VPAs hold promise for clarifying diagnosis, predicting outcome, and guiding neurocognitive investigations.

  20. Time variation of fluorescence lifetime in enhanced cyan fluorescence protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soonhyouk; Kim, Soo Yong; Park, Kyoungsook; Jeong, Jinyoung; Chung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sok Won

    2010-01-01

    The lifetime variations of enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in relatively short integration time bins were studied via time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurement. We observed that minimum photon counts are necessary for the lifetime estimation to achieve a certain range of variance. The conditions to decrease the variance of lifetime were investigated and the channel width of the measurement of TCSPC data was found to be another important factor for the variance of lifetime. Though the lifetime of ECFP is best fit by a double exponential, a mono exponential fit for the same integration time is more stable. The results may be useful in the analysis of photophysical dynamics for ensemble molecules in short measurement time windows.

  1. The bi-directional associations between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John J.; Saha, Sukanta; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Browne, Mark Oakley; Caldas de Almeida, Jose M.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Have, Margreet ten; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Sampson, Nancy; Posada-Villa, José; Kendler, Kenneth; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective While it is now recognized that psychotic experiences (PEs) are associated with an increased risk of later mental disorders, we lack a detailed understanding of the reciprocal time-lagged relationships between first onsets of PEs and mental disorders. Methods The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of PEs and 21 common DSM-IV mental disorders among 31,261 adult respondents from 18 countries. Results Temporally primary PEs were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of 8 of the 21 mental disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, adult separation anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse), with ORs (95%CI) ranging from 1.3 (1.2–1.5; major depressive disorder) to 2.0 (1.5–2.6; bipolar disorder). In contrast, 18 of 21 primary mental disorders were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of PEs, with ORs (95% CI) ranging from 1.5 (1.0–2.1; childhood separation anxiety disorder) to 2.8 (1.0–7.8; anorexia nervosa). Conclusions While temporally primary PEs are associated with an elevated risk of several subsequent mental disorders, we found that most mental disorder are associated with an elevated risk of subsequent PEs. Further investigation of the underlying factors accounting for these time-order relationships might shed light on the etiology of PEs. PMID:26988628

  2. Practices of prolongation of the I and C equipment lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoylov, O.B.; Pronin, V.S.; Savelov, I.D.; Bogomazov, V.A.; Drumov, V.V.; Chudin, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    The lifetime of nuclear power plants (NPP) always exceeds the operational time of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems. Ageing of I and C equipment in NPPs have many aspects. Research of these aspects is being performed in OKB Mechanical Engineering. Under condition of fast development of I and C systems and applying more stringent safety requirements, modernization of the equipment irrespective of its operational condition is getting important. However, an equipment of I and C systems operated in Russia was designed and manufactured applying highest requirements for a reliability of their work during its whole operational time. Therefore, in many cases it is not necessary to replace them in spite of expiration of their specified lifetime. During operation this equipment is maintained in a proper operation condition by a special service procedures stipulated by its development. When the equipment lifetime approaches to its end, lifetime extension for the certain period should be considered. (author)

  3. Measurement of Charm Meson Lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Greene, R.; Perera, L.P.; Zhou, G.J.; Chan, S.; Eigen, G.; Lipeles, E.; Schmidtler, M.; Shapiro, A.; Sun, W.M.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Wuerthwein, F.; Jaffe, D.E.; Masek, G.; Paar, H.P.; Potter, E.M.; Prell, S.; Sharma, V.; Asner, D.M.; Eppich, A.; Gronberg, J.; Hill, T.S.; Korte, C.M.; Lange, D.J.; Morrison, R.J.; Nelson, H.N.; Nelson, T.K.; Roberts, D.; Tajima, H.; Behrens, B.H.; Ford, W.T.; Gritsan, A.; Krieg, H.; Roy, J.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.P.; Baker, R.; Bebek, C.; Berger, B.E.; Berkelman, K.; Boisvert, V.; Cassel, D.G.; Crowcroft, D.S.; Dickson, M.; Dombrowski, S. von; Drell, P.S.; Dumas, D.J.; Ecklund, K.M.; Ehrlich, R.; Foland, A.D.; Gaidarev, P.; Gibbons, L.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Henderson, S.; Hopman, P.I.; Katayama, N.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Meyer, T.O.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Ogg, M.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Soffer, A.; Thayer, J.G.; Thies, P.G.; Valant-Spaight, B.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.; Athanas, M.; Avery, P.; Jones, C.D.; Lohner, M.; Prescott, C.; Rubiera, A.I.; Yelton, J.; Zheng, J.; Brandenburg, G.; Briere, R.A.; Ershov, A.; Gao, Y.S.; Kim, D.Y.; Wilson, R.; Browder, T.E.; Li, Y.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Ernst, J.; Gladding, G.E.; Gollin, G.D

    1999-01-01

    We report measurements of the D 0 , D + , and D + s meson lifetimes using 3.7 fb -1 of e + e - annihilation data collected near the Υ(4S) resonance with the CLEO detector. The measured lifetimes of the D 0 , D + , and D + s mesons are 408.5±4.1 +3.5 -3.4 fs , 1033.6±22.1 +9.9 -12.7 fs , and 486.3±15.0 +4.9 -5.1 fs . The precision of these lifetimes are comparable to those of the best previous measurements, and the systematic errors are very different. In a single experiment we find that the ratio of the D + s and D 0 lifetimes is 1.19±0.04 . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  4. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, L.; Ortega Villafuerte, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  5. Fluvoxamine monotherapy for psychotic depression: the potential role of sigma-1 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto Kenji

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic depression is a clinical subtype of major depressive disorder. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the combination of an antidepressant (for example, a tricyclic antidepressant or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI and an atypical antipsychotic or electroconvulsive therapy in treating psychotic depression. In some cases, the clinician or patient may prefer to avoid antipsychotic drugs altogether because of the risk of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS in patients with psychotic depression treated with these drugs. Methods We report five cases where fluvoxamine monotherapy was effective in the patients with psychotic depression. Results The scores on the Hamilton Depression (HAM-D scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS in the five patients with psychotic depression were reduced after fluvoxamine monotherapy. Conclusion Doctors should consider fluvoxamine monotherapy as an alternative approach in treating psychotic depression because it avoids the risk of EPS from antipsychotic drugs.

  6. Extending the Lifetime of Sensor Networks through Adaptive Reclustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Ferrari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the lifetime of clustered sensor networks with decentralized binary detection under a physical layer quality-of-service (QoS constraint, given by the maximum tolerable probability of decision error at the access point (AP. In order to properly model the network behavior, we consider four different distributions (exponential, uniform, Rayleigh, and lognormal for the lifetime of a single sensor. We show the benefits, in terms of longer network lifetime, of adaptive reclustering. We also derive an analytical framework for the computation of the network lifetime and the penalty, in terms of time delay and energy consumption, brought by adaptive reclustering. On the other hand, absence of reclustering leads to a shorter network lifetime, and we show the impact of various clustering configurations under different QoS conditions. Our results show that the organization of sensors in a few big clusters is the winning strategy to maximize the network lifetime. Moreover, the observation of the phenomenon should be frequent in order to limit the penalties associated with the reclustering procedure. We also apply the developed framework to analyze the energy consumption associated with the proposed reclustering protocol, obtaining results in good agreement with the performance of realistic wireless sensor networks. Finally, we present simulation results on the lifetime of IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks, which enrich the proposed analytical framework and show that typical networking performance metrics (such as throughput and delay are influenced by the sensor network lifetime.

  7. Extending the Lifetime of Sensor Networks through Adaptive Reclustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Gianluigi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the lifetime of clustered sensor networks with decentralized binary detection under a physical layer quality-of-service (QoS constraint, given by the maximum tolerable probability of decision error at the access point (AP. In order to properly model the network behavior, we consider four different distributions (exponential, uniform, Rayleigh, and lognormal for the lifetime of a single sensor. We show the benefits, in terms of longer network lifetime, of adaptive reclustering. We also derive an analytical framework for the computation of the network lifetime and the penalty, in terms of time delay and energy consumption, brought by adaptive reclustering. On the other hand, absence of reclustering leads to a shorter network lifetime, and we show the impact of various clustering configurations under different QoS conditions. Our results show that the organization of sensors in a few big clusters is the winning strategy to maximize the network lifetime. Moreover, the observation of the phenomenon should be frequent in order to limit the penalties associated with the reclustering procedure. We also apply the developed framework to analyze the energy consumption associated with the proposed reclustering protocol, obtaining results in good agreement with the performance of realistic wireless sensor networks. Finally, we present simulation results on the lifetime of IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks, which enrich the proposed analytical framework and show that typical networking performance metrics (such as throughput and delay are influenced by the sensor network lifetime.

  8. [The Psychotic Thinking of Patrick Bateman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Muñoz

    2012-06-01

    Literature is an inexhaustible source of study regarding mental illness which allows the academic exercise, whether dynamic oriented or not, that may help to understand the patient's inner world in the psychiatric clinical practice. Freudian, Post-Freudian and analytical examination of the main character in the U.S.A. novel AMERICAN PSYCHO. Review of sources and relevant theoretical currents. Analysis highlights the official nosologic classification boundaries, for conditions where symptoms are scattered across the spectrum of personality disorders and psychosis spectrum; usefulness and applicability of psychoanalytic concepts in psychiatric practice are also pointed out, thus granting flexibility to the clinical approach in order to justify its use. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Concordance of child self-reported psychotic experiences with interview- and observer-based psychotic experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Steffie V; Goodman, Robert; Clemmensen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    the online PE-section of DAWBA and the following face-to-face interview and assessment of PE. The DAWBA-PE-section asks the child 10 questions covering auditory and visual hallucinations, delusional ideas and subjective thought disturbances ever in life; and attributions to sleep, fever, illness or drug....... The current study aimed to investigate the concurrent validity of DAWBA-based self-reported PE (PE-S) with regard to interview-based measures of PE (PE-I). METHODS: Participants were 1571 (47.8% male) children of age 11 to 12 years from the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 (CCC2000) with complete data from both...... intake. The interview-based assessment of PE was performed by trained professionals using 22 items from The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). The two assessments were completed independently. RESULTS: The prevalence of PE...

  10. Secondary psychotic features in refugees diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mette Kathrine; Sonne, Charlotte Kærgaard; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    at Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP) were examined, and all the PTSD patients were divided into two groups; one group with secondary psychotic features (PTSD-SP group) and one without (PTSD group). A categorisation and description of the secondary psychotic features was undertaken. RESULTS......-SP prevalence in a clinical refugee population with PTSD. The study points to the difficulties distinguishing psychotic features from flashbacks and the authors call for attention to psychotic features in PTSD patients in order to improve documentation and understanding of the disorder....

  11. [Use of methadone in the treatment of psychotic patients with heroin dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, F A; Borg, P; Eikeseth, P H; Neegaard, E; Kjerpeseth, K; Bruvik, S; Waal, H

    2000-01-20

    Comorbidity of psychosis and substance abuse has gained increased attention for some time. However, pharmacological treatment for opioid dependence among psychotic patients is seldom described. We present the treatment of four opioid dependent psychotic patients with methadone and antipsychotic medication. Three of the four patients had initially a period of increased psychotic symptoms, but all four patients have shown marked improvement following the introduction of methadone. Compliance with treatment has increased, they have had enduring non-psychotic periods and a markedly reduced use of illegal substances. The results should obviously be interpreted with caution, given the small number of subjects. Further research is therefore important.

  12. Empirical membrane lifetime model for heavy duty fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Natalia; Watson, Mark; Lauritzen, Michael; Knights, Shanna; Wang, G. Gary; Kjeang, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Heavy duty fuel cells used in transportation system applications such as transit buses expose the fuel cell membranes to conditions that can lead to lifetime-limiting membrane failure via combined chemical and mechanical degradation. Highly durable membranes and reliable predictive models are therefore needed in order to achieve the ultimate heavy duty fuel cell lifetime target of 25,000 h. In the present work, an empirical membrane lifetime model was developed based on laboratory data from a suite of accelerated membrane durability tests. The model considers the effects of cell voltage, temperature, oxygen concentration, humidity cycling, humidity level, and platinum in the membrane using inverse power law and exponential relationships within the framework of a general log-linear Weibull life-stress statistical distribution. The obtained model is capable of extrapolating the membrane lifetime from accelerated test conditions to use level conditions during field operation. Based on typical conditions for the Whistler, British Columbia fuel cell transit bus fleet, the model predicts a stack lifetime of 17,500 h and a membrane leak initiation time of 9200 h. Validation performed with the aid of a field operated stack confirmed the initial goal of the model to predict membrane lifetime within 20% of the actual operating time.

  13. A lifetime prediction method for LEDs considering mission profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaohui; Wang, Huai; Zhan, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    and to benchmark the cost-competitiveness of different lighting technologies. The existing lifetime data released by LED manufacturers or standard organizations are usually applicable only for specific temperature and current levels. Significant lifetime discrepancies may be observed in field operations due...... to the varying operational and environmental conditions during the entire service time (i.e., mission profiles). To overcome the challenge, this paper proposes an advanced lifetime prediction method, which takes into account the field operation mission profiles and the statistical properties of the life data...

  14. Interlaboratory comparison of positron and positronium lifetimes in polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastlund, C.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Maurer, F.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    A comparison of the results of a series of positron annihilation lifetime measurements performed in 12 laboratories is presented. The measurements were conducted on three different polymer samples, all prepared in one laboratory under standard conditions. The objective of the work was to gain...... insight into the variation in derived positron and positronium lifetimes and intensities measured in the different laboratories on identical specimens. Lifetime data were collected at room temperature by each laboratory following their own standard measurement and data evaluation procedures. The polymers...

  15. Study of variables for accelerating lifetime testing of SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploner, Alexandra; Hagen, Anke; Hauch, Anne

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications require lifetimes of several years on the system level. A big challenge is to proof/confirm/demonstrate such exceptionally long lifetimes.Accelerated or compressed testing are possible methods. Activities in this area have been carried out without arriving...... at different current load cycling profiles revealed a strong deviation between predicted and measured lifetime [3].In this study, we present a detailed analysis of durability results for degradation mechanisms of single SOFC components as function of operating conditions. Electrochemical impedance data...

  16. Schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms in families of two American Indian tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaugh Bernard

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of schizophrenia is thought to be higher in population isolates that have recently been exposed to major and accelerated cultural change, accompanied by ensuing socio-environmental stressors/triggers, than in dominant, mainstream societies. We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of schizophrenia in 329 females and 253 males of a Southwestern American Indian tribe, and in 194 females and 137 males of a Plains American Indian tribe. These tribal groups were evaluated as part of a broader program of gene-environment investigations of alcoholism and other psychiatric disorders. Methods Semi-structured psychiatric interviews were conducted to allow diagnoses utilizing standardized psychiatric diagnostic criteria, and to limit cultural biases. Study participants were recruited from the community on the basis of membership in pedigrees, and not by convenience. After independent raters evaluated the interviews blindly, DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned by a consensus of experts well-versed in the local cultures. Results Five of the 582 Southwestern American Indian respondents (prevalence = 8.6 per 1000, and one of the 331 interviewed Plains American Indians (prevalence = 3.02 per 1000 had a lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. The lifetime prevalence rates of schizophrenia within these two distinct American Indian tribal groups is consistent with lifetime expectancy rates reported for the general United States population and most isolate and homogeneous populations for which prevalence rates of schizophrenia are available. While we were unable to factor in the potential modifying effect that mortality rates of schizophrenia-suffering tribal members may have had on the overall tribal rates, the incidence of schizophrenia among the living was well within the normative range. Conclusion The occurrence of schizophrenia among members of these two tribal population groups is consistent with prevalence rates reported for

  17. Occupational risk and lifetime exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Any lowering of annual radiation limits for occupational exposure should be based on industry experience with lifetime doses and not on a worst case career exposure of 47 years. Two decades of experience show a lifetime accumulation of less than 1.5 rem for workers with measurable exposure. This is 5% of the normal lifetime exposure of Americans to natural and medical radiation. Any epidemiology of the US nuclear power workforce's two decade long exposure would have to focus on excess leukemia. Application of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer mortality shows that too few leukemias would be expressed to permit a feasible epidemiology. Ionizing radiation appears to be a mild carcinogen as compared to physical and chemical agents presented in the occupational environment. A realistic factor in determining any change in occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation should take into account the past performance of the licensee and potential health effects applicable to the workplace. Specifically, the lifetime exposure data for workers at nuclear power plants and naval shipyards should be considered. The nuclear industry and the US Navy have detailed data on the annual exposure of workers with a combined collective exposure approaching 1 million worker-rem. The lifetime dose for naval personnel and shipyard workers averages 1.1 rem J 1990. Shipyard workers have an annual dose of 0.28 rem per work-year and a mean exposure time of 4.4 years. The data apply to workers with measurable dose

  18. Shared Psychotic Disorder (Folie à Deux in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Cinemre

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Shared psychotic disorder or folie à deux is a rare and relatively unknown syndrome. Large case series are needed to find out and clarify the etiological factors and the phenomenology of shared psychotic disorder by comparing the cases from different society and cultures. In this study, we reviewed all reported cases of shared psychotic disorder that had been published or presented in Turkey since 1962. To reach this aim, we have searched Pubmed/Medline, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Ulakbim Turkish Medical Index, Turkish Psychiatric Index databases for published records originating from Turkey. We have also manually searched poster abstract books of congresses held in Turkey between 1962 and 2009. All cases eligible for inclusion into this study have been evaluated one by one and grouped as primary or secondary cases. The features of these cases were investigated for a number of variables including age, sex, educational level, occupation, the presence of shared delusion and hallucinations, diagnosis, management, onset of illness, family history, IQ, social isolation, the nature of the relationship and classification system used for diagnosis. The results have showed that the syndrome is more frequently observed among women, within same family members and between sisters. Social isolation was the most common risk factor in these patients and most patients shared hallucinations with their partners along with their delusions. Several secondary cases required antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of their symptoms. Though these features were inline with literature findings, the present findings from Turkish population were different from previous studies with regards to the presence of olfactory hallucinations, absence of grandiose delusions and the number of affected family members. The results mostly supported the challenges and discussions in western countries. To understand this most pathological form of interpersonal relationships

  19. Homicide of Strangers by People with a Psychotic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielssen, Olav; Bourget, Dominique; Laajasalo, Taina; Liem, Marieke; Labelle, Alain; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helina; Koenraadt, Frans; Large, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The homicide of strangers by people with psychosis, referred to here as “stranger homicides,” are rare and tragic events that generate adverse publicity for mental health services and have resulted in significant changes in mental health policy and law. Aim: To estimate the incidence of stranger homicides, using data from previously published studies, and to compare the characteristics of psychotic offenders who killed strangers with the characteristics of those who killed a close relative. Method: Meta-analysis of the population-based studies of homicide by persons suffering from a psychosis in which the number of subjects who killed strangers was also reported. Characteristics of stranger homicide and family homicide offenders were examined in a multicenter case–control study of homicide during psychotic illness in four high-income countries. Results: A pooled estimate of 1 stranger homicide per 14.3 million people per year (95% confidence interval, 1 in 18.9 million to 1 in 11.5 million people per year) was calculated by meta-analysis of 7 studies. The characteristics of the 42 stranger homicide offenders from New South Wales [NSW], Quebec and Eastern Ontario, Finland, and the Netherlands were identified. Twenty seven (64%) of these had never previously received treatment with antipsychotic medication. The stranger homicide offenders were more likely to be homeless, have exhibited antisocial conduct, and had fewer negative symptoms than those who killed family members. The victims of stranger homicide were mostly adult males and the homicides rarely occurred in the victim’s home or workplace. Conclusions: Stranger homicide in psychosis is extremely rare and is even rarer for a patient who has received treatment with antipsychotic medication. A lack of distinguishing characteristics of stranger homicide offenders and an extremely low base rate of stranger-homicide suggests that risk assessment of patients known to have a psychotic illness will

  20. ADVANCES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS OF THE PSYCHOTIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring recent advances developed in the assessment of negative symptoms in psychotic spectrum disorders and related conditions to the professional psychologist. First, we briefly discuss the historical development of negative symptoms, their conceptualisation, and their impact on clinical practice and research. Second, the tools available for the assessment of negative symptoms are mentioned. The discussion focuses on the newly constructed tools and mentions their psychometric characteristics. Additionally, the measuring instruments for the assessment of negative symptoms as an expression of risk or vulnerability to psychosis are shown, within both the paradigm of high clinical risk and the psychometric paradigm. Third, and finally, we review and consider some conclusions, guidelines and possible future developments in this area of study.

  1. Randomised controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention among smokers with psychotic disorders: Outcomes to 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amanda L; Richmond, Robyn; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Filia, Sacha L; Castle, David; Williams, Jill M; Lewin, Terry J; Clark, Vanessa; Callister, Robin; Palazzi, Kerrin

    2018-03-01

    People living with psychotic disorders (schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders) have high rates of cardiovascular disease risk behaviours, including smoking, physical inactivity and poor diet. We report cardiovascular disease risk, smoking cessation and other risk behaviour outcomes over 36 months following recruitment into a two-arm randomised controlled trial among smokers with psychotic disorders. Participants ( N = 235) drawn from three sites were randomised to receive nicotine replacement therapy plus (1) a Healthy Lifestyles intervention delivered over approximately 9 months or (2) a largely telephone-delivered intervention (designed to control for nicotine replacement therapy provision, session frequency and other monitoring). The primary outcome variables were 10-year cardiovascular disease risk and smoking status, while the secondary outcomes included weekly physical activity, unhealthy eating, waist circumference, psychiatric symptomatology, depression and global functioning. Significant reductions in cardiovascular disease risk and smoking were detected across the 36-month follow-up period in both intervention conditions, with no significant differences between conditions. One-quarter (25.5%) of participants reported reducing cigarettes per day by 50% or more at multiple post-treatment assessments; however, few (8.9%) managed to sustain this across the majority of time points. Changes in other health behaviours or lifestyle factors were modest; however, significant improvements in depression and global functioning were detected over time in both conditions. Participants experiencing worse 'social discomfort' at baseline (e.g. anxiety, mania, poor self-esteem and social disability) had on average significantly worse global functioning, lower scores on the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey physical scale and significantly greater waist circumference. Although the telephone-delivered intervention was designed as a comparison condition, it

  2. Lifetime and performance of NSLS storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halama, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron light sources is measured primarily in terms of beam lifetime, beam size, and the recovery of normal operation after a section of the machine has been brought to atmospheric pressure. The beam lifetime and the beam size depend on the following phenomena: Beam gas interaction which can be either elastic or inelastic scattering on residual gas nuclei or electrons. With the exception of low energy machines, this phenomenon represents the main limiting factor on lifetime; Beam interaction with trapped ions causing both beam loss and defocussing. Residual gas molecules are ionized both by circulating beam and synchrotron radiation. The cross sections for both processes are comparable. The effects of this phenomenon are most troublesome at low energies. The problem can be eliminated by switching to positron beams. Installing clearing electrodes has also been successful; Intrabeam scattering (Touschek effect) is caused by Coulomb scattering among electrons of the same bunch as they execute betatron oscillations. The Touschek effect is strongly dependent on energy and in general is a problem only in low energy machines; and Various instabilities causing both slow and fast beam decay which have been observed in both NSLS rings. A special case due to dust particles that fall into the electron beam is commonly observed in early stages of conditioning. Coherent collective instabilities will not be discussed in this paper. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Lifetime and performance of NSLS storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halama, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron light sources is measured primarily in terms of beam lifetime, beam size, and the recovery of normal operation after a section of the machine has been brought to atmospheric pressure. The beam lifetime and the beam size depend on the following phenomena: Beam gas interaction which can be either elastic or inelastic scattering on residual gas nuclei or electrons. With the exception of low energy machines, this phenomenon represents the main limiting factor on lifetime; Beam interaction with trapped ions causing both beam loss and defocussing. Residual gas molecules are ionized both by circulating beam and synchrotron radiation. The cross sections for both processes are comparable. The effects of this phenomenon are most troublesome at low energies. The problem can be eliminated by switching to positron beams. Installing clearing electrodes has also been successful; Intrabeam scattering (Touschek effect) is caused by Coulomb scattering among electrons of the same bunch as they execute betatron oscillations. The Touschek effect is strongly dependent on energy and in general is a problem only in low energy machines; and Various instabilities causing both slow and fast beam decay which have been observed in both NSLS rings. A special case due to dust particles that fall into the electron beam is commonly observed in early stages of conditioning. Coherent collective instabilities will not be discussed in this paper. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Visual integration dysfunction in schizophrenia arises by the first psychotic episode and worsens with illness duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Brian P; Paterno, Danielle; Kastner, Sabine; Silverstein, Steven M

    2016-05-01

    Visual integration dysfunction characterizes schizophrenia, but prior studies have not yet established whether the problem arises by the first psychotic episode or worsens with illness duration. To investigate the issue, we compared chronic schizophrenia patients (SZs), first episode psychosis patients (FEs), and well-matched healthy controls on a brief but sensitive psychophysical task in which subjects attempted to locate an integrated shape embedded in noise. Task difficulty depended on the number of noise elements co-presented with the shape. For half of the experiment, the entire display was scaled down in size to produce a high spatial frequency (HSF) condition, which has been shown to worsen patient integration deficits. Catch trials-in which the circular target appeared without noise-were also added so as to confirm that subjects were paying adequate attention. We found that controls integrated contours under noisier conditions than FEs, who, in turn, integrated better than SZs. These differences, which were at times large in magnitude (d = 1.7), clearly emerged only for HSF displays. Catch trial accuracy was above 95% for each group and could not explain the foregoing differences. Prolonged illness duration predicted poorer HSF integration across patients, but age had little effect on controls, indicating that the former factor was driving the effect in patients. Taken together, a brief psychophysical task efficiently demonstrates large visual integration impairments in schizophrenia. The deficit arises by the first psychotic episode, worsens with illness duration, and may serve as a biomarker of illness progression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. DSM-IV "criterion A" schizophrenia symptoms across ethnically different populations: evidence for differing psychotic symptom content or structural organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Duncan; Thara, Rangaswamy; John, Sujit; Barrett, Robert; Loa, Peter; McGrath, John; Mowry, Bryan

    2014-09-01

    There is significant variation in the expression of schizophrenia across ethnically different populations, and the optimal structural and diagnostic representation of schizophrenia are contested. We contrasted both lifetime frequencies of DSM-IV criterion A (the core symptom criterion of the internationally recognized DSM classification system) symptoms and types/content of delusions and hallucinations in transethnic schizophrenia populations from Australia (n = 776), India (n = 504) and Sarawak, Malaysia (n = 259), to elucidate clinical heterogeneity. Differences in both criterion A symptom composition and symptom content were apparent. Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported negative symptoms more frequently than other sites, whereas individuals from Sarawak reported disorganized symptoms more frequently. Delusions of control and thought broadcast, insertion, or withdrawal were less frequent in Sarawak than Australia. Curiously, a subgroup of 20 Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported no lifetime delusions or hallucinations. These findings potentially challenge the long-held view in psychiatry that schizophrenia is fundamentally similar across cultural groups, with differences in only the content of psychotic symptoms, but equivalence in structural form.

  6. Familial liability to psychosis is a risk factor for multimorbidity in people with psychotic disorders and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Khan, M F H; Quee, P J; Snieder, H; van den Heuvel, E R; Bruggeman, R; Alizadeh, B Z

    2017-09-01

    Multimorbidity may impose an overwhelming burden on patients with psychosis and is affected by gender and age. Our aim is to study the independent role of familial liability to psychosis as a risk factor for multimorbidity. We performed the study within the framework of the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) project. Overall, we compared 1024 psychotic patients, 994 unaffected siblings and 566 controls on the prevalence of 125 lifetime diseases, and 19 self-reported somatic complaints. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more complaints/diseases in the same individual. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) were used to investigate the effects of gender, age (adolescent, young, older) and familial liability (patients, siblings, controls) and their interactions on multimorbidity. Familial liability had a significant effect on multimorbidity of either complaints or diseases. Patients had a higher prevalence of multimorbidity of complaints compared to siblings (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.79-2.69, Psiblings, had significantly higher prevalence than controls. Similar finding were observed for multimorbidity of lifetime diseases, including psychiatric diseases. Significant results were observed for complaints and disease multimorbidity across gender and age groups. Multimorbidity is a common burden, significantly more prevalent in patients and their unaffected siblings. Familial liability to psychosis showed an independent effect on multimorbidity; gender and age are also important factors determining multimorbidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Lifetime results from heavy quark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitriou, V.

    1997-11-01

    We present the latest measurements of weakly decaying b-hadrons from experiments at e + e - and p anti p colliders. These measurements include the average lifetime of b-hadrons, lifetimes of the B - , B 0 and B 0 s mesons, the average lifetime of b-baryons and lifetimes of the Λ b and Ξ b baryons

  8. A randomised multicentre trial of integrated versus standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of integrated treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness.......To evaluate the effects of integrated treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness....

  9. Ethnic variations in psychotic disorders in the criminal justice system: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denzel, A.D.; van Esch, A.Y.M.; Harte, J.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between ethnicity, psychotic disorders and criminal behavior by investigating differences in prevalence rates of psychotic disorders between detainees from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups and non-BME detainees. Method A systematic review of all empirical

  10. Semi-metric analysis of the functional brain network: Relationship with familial risk for psychotic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Peeters

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: The results are suggestive of more dispersed network communication in patients with psychotic disorder, with some evidence for trait-based network alterations in high-schizotypy individuals. Dispersed communication may contribute to the clinical phenotype in psychotic disorder. In addition, higher SMP may contribute to neuro- and social cognition, independent of psychosis risk.

  11. The fragmented self : imbalance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-networks in psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Aleman, Andre

    Self-disturbances are among the core features of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. The basic structure of the self could depend on the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing. We discuss studies on self-related processing in psychotic disorders that provide converging

  12. Psychotic symptoms in refugees diagnosed with PTSD: a series of case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Ekstrøm, Morten; Jensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In our clinical work, we treat refugees who have been exposed to trauma and who subsequently develop psychotic symptoms. However, the literature does not address the relationship between refugees with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms. Therefore...

  13. Psychotic symptoms in refugees diagnosed with PTSD: a series of case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Jensen, Mette; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2011-01-01

    In our clinical work, we treat refugees who have been exposed to trauma and who subsequently develop psychotic symptoms. However, the literature does not address the relationship between refugees with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms. Therefore the aim...

  14. Brief Report: Major Depressive Disorder with Psychotic Features in Williams Syndrome--A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Francisca; Keary, Christopher J.; Mullett, Jennifer E.; Palumbo, Michelle L.; Waxler, Jessica L.; Pober, Barbara R.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    Descriptions of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychotic features have not appeared in the literature. In addition to reviewing previous reports of psychotic symptoms in persons with WS, this paper introduces clinical histories and therapeutic management strategies for three previously…

  15. Psychotic reactions to daily life stress and dopamine function in people with severe hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevonden, M. J.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van den Brink, W.; van Os, J.; Selten, J. P.; Booij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Minor stresses measured in daily life have repeatedly been associated with increased momentary psychotic experiences, both in individuals with psychotic disorders and in persons who are genetically at an increased risk for these disorders. Severe hearing impairment (SHI) is an environmental risk

  16. Relationship between cognition, clinical and cognitive insight in psychotic disorders : A review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, Akshay; Palmer, Emma Claire; Aleman, Andre; David, Anthony S.

    The neurocognitive theory of insight posits that poor insight in psychotic illnesses is related to cognitive deficits in cognitive self-appraisal mechanisms. In this paper we perform a comprehensive meta-analysis examining relationships between clinical insight and neurocognition in psychotic

  17. Aberrant salience, self-concept clarity, and interview-rated psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C; Docherty, Anna R; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Kerns, John G

    2015-02-01

    Many social-cognitive models of psychotic-like symptoms posit a role for self-concept and aberrant salience. Previous work has shown that the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity is associated with self-reported psychotic-like experiences. In the current research with two structured interviews, the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found to be associated with interview-rated psychotic-like experiences. The interaction was associated with psychotic-like experiences composite scores, delusional ideation, grandiosity, and perceptual anomalies. In all cases, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with psychotic-like experiences at high levels of aberrant salience, but unassociated with psychotic-like experiences at low levels of aberrant salience. The interaction was specific to positive psychotic-like experiences and not present for negative or disorganized ratings. The interaction was not mediated by self-esteem levels. These results provide further evidence that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity play an important role in the generation of psychotic-like experiences.

  18. Obesity and psychotic disorders: uncovering common mechanisms through metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Orešič

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary obesity and psychotic disorders are similar with respect to the associated changes in energy balance and co-morbidities, including metabolic syndrome. Such similarities do not necessarily demonstrate causal links, but instead suggest that specific causes of and metabolic disturbances associated with obesity play a pathogenic role in the development of co-morbid disorders, potentially even before obesity develops. Metabolomics – the systematic study of metabolites, which are small molecules generated by the process of metabolism – has been important in elucidating the pathways underlying obesity-associated co-morbidities. This review covers how recent metabolomic studies have advanced biomarker discovery and the elucidation of mechanisms underlying obesity and its co-morbidities, with a specific focus on metabolic syndrome and psychotic disorders. The importance of identifying metabolic markers of disease-associated intermediate phenotypes – traits modulated but not encoded by the DNA sequence – is emphasized. Such markers would be applicable as diagnostic tools in a personalized healthcare setting and might also open up novel therapeutic avenues.

  19. Using biological indices to classify schizophrenia and other psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponheim, S R; Iacono, W G; Thuras, P D; Beiser, M

    2001-07-01

    Although classification of mental disorders using more than clinical description would be desirable, there is scant evidence that available laboratory tests (i.e. biological indices) would provide more valid classifications than current diagnostic systems (e.g. DSM-IV). We used cluster analysis of four biological variables to classify 163 psychotic patients and 83 nonpsychiatric comparison subjects. Analyses revealed a three-cluster solution with the first cluster reflecting electrodermal deviance, the second cluster representing nondeviant biological function, and the third cluster reflecting increased nailfold plexus visibility and ocular motor dysfunction. To assess the construct validity of proband clusters we examined ocular motor performance in 156 first-degree relatives as a function of proband cluster membership. First-degree relatives of third cluster probands exhibited worse ocular motor performance than relatives of other cluster probands. Additionally, better classification sensitivity and specificity were obtained for the relatives when they were grouped by proband cluster than by proband DSM-IV diagnosis. When a single proband characteristic (i.e. eyetracking performance) was used to group relatives, classification sensitivity and specificity failed to significantly increase over grouping by proband DSM-IV diagnosis. Multivariate biologically defined clusters may offer an advantage over DSM-IV classification when examining nosology and etiology of psychotic disorders.

  20. Psychotic Experiences and Overhasty Inferences Are Related to Maladaptive Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Stuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical accounts suggest that an alteration in the brain's learning mechanisms might lead to overhasty inferences, resulting in psychotic symptoms. Here, we sought to elucidate the suggested link between maladaptive learning and psychosis. Ninety-eight healthy individuals with varying degrees of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences performed a probabilistic reasoning task that allowed us to quantify overhasty inferences. Replicating previous results, we found a relationship between psychotic experiences and overhasty inferences during probabilistic reasoning. Computational modelling revealed that the behavioral data was best explained by a novel computational learning model that formalizes the adaptiveness of learning by a non-linear distortion of prediction error processing, where an increased non-linearity implies a growing resilience against learning from surprising and thus unreliable information (large prediction errors. Most importantly, a decreased adaptiveness of learning predicted delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences. Our current findings provide a formal description of the computational mechanisms underlying overhasty inferences, thereby empirically substantiating theories that link psychosis to maladaptive learning.

  1. Dreams and fantasies in psychodynamic group psychotherapy of psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restek-Petrović, Branka; Orešković-Krezler, Nataša; Grah, Majda; Mayer, Nina; Bogović, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate

    2013-09-01

    Work with dreams in the group analysis represents an important part of the analytical work, with insight into unconscious experiences of the individual dreamer, and his transferrential relations with the therapist, other members of the group, and with the group as a whole. The way dreams are addressed varies from one therapist to another, and in line with that, members of the group have varying frequency of dreams. In groups of psychotic patients dreams are generally rarely discussed and interpreted by the group, with analysis mainly resting on the manifested content. This paper describes a long-term group of psychotic patients which, after sharing the dreams of several members and daydreams of one female patient, their interpretation and reception in the group achieved better cohesion and improved communication and interaction, i.e. created a group matrix. Furthermore, through the content of dreams in the group, traumatic war experiences of several of the group members were opened and discussed, which brought with it recollections of the traumatic life situations of other group members. In expressing a daydream, a female member of the group revealed the background for her behaviour which was earlier interpreted as a negative symptom of the illness.

  2. The advantages of "Dance-group" for psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Romina; Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Nemoianni, Eugenio

    2014-11-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation and in particular group dances allow the recovery of lost or compromised ability of patients with mental illness, and they facilitate their reintegration into the social context. The dance group has enabled users of the Day Centre of the Unit of Mental Health Torre del Greco ASL NA 3 south to achieve the objectives of rehabilitation such as: taking care of themselves, of their bodies and their interests, improving self-esteem , the management of pathological emotions, socialization and integration, overcoming the psychotic closing and relational isolation. In particular, patients with schizophrenia, psychotic and mood disorders had a concrete benefit from such rehabilitation activities, facilitating interpersonal relationships, therapy compliance and significantly improved mood, quality of life, providing them with the rhythm and the security in their relationship with each other. The dance group and for some individuals, also psychotherapy and drug therapy, have facilitated social inclusion, improved the quality of life and cured their diseases. The work is carrying out in a group with patients, practitioners, family members, volunteers, social community workers, following the operating departmental protocols. Using the chorus group "Sing that you go" as an operational tool for psychosocial rehabilitation and therapeutic element we promote the psychological well-being and the enhancement of mood.

  3. The Assessment of Comunication and Interaction Skills in Psychotic Patiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Khoushabi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective at study was to assess the communication and interaction of psychotic patient above age of 18 in 2000. Materials & Methods: The study sample consist of 80 psychotic patients (38 female and 42 male from Razi and Imam Hossein Hospital and Raad and Sina outpatient clinic, selected based on occupational therapist using the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills Questionnaire (ACIS. Statistical analyses of information have done by spearman coefficient correlation, Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. Results: Spearman of correlation, mann-and wilcoxon Findings indicate: 1-The average grade of ACIS test in the group of schizophrenic patients were significantly lower than the group schizoaffective patients (P<0.00l. 2-The average of ACIS test in the group of inpatient was lower than the group of outpatient (p<0.00l. 3-No significant difference was found for the average grade of ACIS test in the group of male & female. Conclusion: The obtained results show the weakness of communication and interaction skills in schizophrenic patient and also inpatients. The obtained results of this investigation give useful information about the communication and interaction skill of patient to the occupational therapists but application of this instrument needs more studies.

  4. RDM lifetime measurement in 167Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohilla, Aman; Gupta, C.K.; Chamoli, S.K.; Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S.; Ashok Kumar; Govil, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are presenting the experiment performed for measuring lifetime in 167 Lu, which provides the measurement of the structural behavior of the nuclei due to single particle excitation. The enhanced γ-ray detection GDA setup present at IUAC was used and the data was acquired in the singles mode with the condition when any two of the BGO's element fire in coincidence with a Ge detector. The online data acquisition program CANDLE was used for data acquire in conjunction with CAMAC based data acquisition hardware

  5. Lifetime evaluation of Bohunice NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupca, L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discuss some aspects of the main primary components lifetime evaluation program in Bohunice NPP which is performed by Nuclear Power Plant Research Institute (NPPRI) Trnava in cooperation with Bohunice and other organizations involved. Facts presented here are based on the NPPRI research report which is regularly issued after each reactor fuel campaign under conditions of project resulted from the contract between NPPRI and Bohunice NPP. For the calculations, there has been used some computer codes adapted (or made) by NPPRI and the results are just the conclusive and very brief, presented here in Tables (Figures). (authors)

  6. [Psychotic disorder induced by Fahr's syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hechmi, S; Bouhlel, S; Melki, W; El Hechmi, Z

    2014-06-01

    Fahr's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of calcium in areas of the brain that control movement, including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex associated with many neurological and psychiatric abnormalities such as a rigid hypokinetic syndrome, mood disorders and cognitive impairment. Fahr's syndrome is secondary to some disorders, such as hypoparathyroidism. We report the case of a 56 year-old man, with a history of cataract, who was admitted to our psychiatric hospital for the first time in his life because of psychotic symptoms associated with irritability and aggressiveness. Since the age of 38 the patient had become nervous, 10 years later he developed tonic-clonic seizures. Two months ago, he began expressing delusions of persecution against his wife and sons and making fugues. According to his family during this period, he was agitated, aggressive, and suffered from insomnia and anorexia. The general and psychiatric examination showed an upright and bronzed patient with neglected hygiene. He was indifferent to his environment and expressed poor mimics and gestures. He was anxious, suspicious and not very talkative. He was conscious but his attention was slightly decreased. Moreover, he was not aware of his problems. The neurological examination showed extrapyramidal syndrome with postural tremor and cerebellar ataxia. A cranial computed tomography brain scan found bilateral, symmetric basal ganglia calcifications, in favour of Fahr's syndrome. Phosphocalcic investigations revealed low concentration of serum calcium at 1.01mmol/L (normal 2.15 to 2.57mmol/L) and hyperphosphoremia at 2.69mmol/L (normal 0.81 to 1.55mmol/L). He also had low concentrations of 25-OH vitamin as well as decreased urinary levels of phosphate and calcium. The blood level of parathyroid hormone was 0ng/L. The diagnosis of Fahr's syndrome, revealing a hypoparathyroidism was posed. He was supplemented with calcium and alpha cholecalciferol and treated

  7. Lifetime value in business process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Souček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on lifetime value assessment and its implementation and application in business processes. The lifetime value is closely connected to customer relationship management. The paper presents results of three consecutive researches devoted to issues of customer relationship management. The first two from 2008 and 2010 were conducted as quantitative ones; the one from 2009 had qualitative nature. The respondents were representatives of particular companies. The means for data collection was provided by ReLa system. We will focus on individual attributes of lifetime value of a customer, and relate them to approaches of authors mentioned in introduction. Based on the qualitative research data, the paper focuses on individual customer lifetime value parameters. These parameters include: the cost to the customer relationship acquisition and maintenance, profit generated from a particular customer, customer awareness value, the level of preparedness to adopt new products, the value of references and customer loyalty level. For each of these parameters, the paper provides specific recommendations. Moreover, it is possible to learn about the nature of these parameter assessments in the Czech environment.

  8. Lifetime of heavy flavour particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1985-10-01

    Recent measurements of the lifetime of the tau leptons and charm and beauty hadrons are reviewed and their significance for the couplings of the charged weak current, flavour mixing, and models relating quarks to hadron decay are discussed. 70 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Sibutramine-associated psychotic symptoms and zolpidem-induced complex behaviours: implications for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiglusz, Mariusz S; Cubała, Wiesław Jerzy; Nowak, Paweł; Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Katarzyna; Landowski, Jerzy; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2013-09-01

    Sibutramine is a weight loss agent recently withdrawn from the European market due to cardiovascular risk concerns. It was used for long-term obesity treatment. Zolpidem is a short acting hypnotic agent commonly used in the treatment of insomnia. A number of case reports describing psychotic reaction to sibutramine were reported in the literature. We present a case of a 61-year-old Caucasian woman who developed two psychotic episodes related to sibutramine treatment. The second psychotic episode was complicated with complex behaviours after zolpidem use due to insomnia. Sibutramine and zolpidem discontinuation resulted in rapid resolution of psychotic symptoms. This case suggests a possibility of incidence of psychotic symptoms and complex behaviour disturbances in patients prescribed sibutramine or other monoaminergic reuptake inhibitors.

  10. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelif, Rabia; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Chaoui, Kamel

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature

  11. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelif, Rabia [LaMI-UBP and IFMA, Campus de Clermont-Fd, Les Cezeaux, BP 265, 63175 Aubiere Cedex (France); LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: rabia.khelif@ifma.fr; Chateauneuf, Alaa [LGC-University Blaise Pascal, Campus des Cezeaux, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France)], E-mail: alaa.chateauneuf@polytech.univ-bpclermont.fr; Chaoui, Kamel [LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: chaoui@univ-annaba.org

    2007-12-15

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature.

  12. Predicting sample lifetimes in creep fracture of heterogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Juha; Ovaska, Markus; Miksic, Amandine; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J.

    2016-08-01

    Materials flow—under creep or constant loads—and, finally, fail. The prediction of sample lifetimes is an important and highly challenging problem because of the inherently heterogeneous nature of most materials that results in large sample-to-sample lifetime fluctuations, even under the same conditions. We study creep deformation of paper sheets as one heterogeneous material and thus show how to predict lifetimes of individual samples by exploiting the "universal" features in the sample-inherent creep curves, particularly the passage to an accelerating creep rate. Using simulations of a viscoelastic fiber bundle model, we illustrate how deformation localization controls the shape of the creep curve and thus the degree of lifetime predictability.

  13. Heritability of lifetime ecstasy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Treur, Jorien L; Vreeker, Annabel; Brunt, Tibor M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2017-09-01

    Ecstasy is a widely used psychoactive drug that users often take because they experience positive effects such as increased euphoria, sociability, elevated mood, and heightened sensations. Ecstasy use is not harmless and several immediate and long term side effects have been identified. Lifetime ecstasy use is likely to be partly influenced by genetic factors, but no twin study has determined the heritability. Here, we apply a classical twin design to a large sample of twins and siblings to estimate the heritability of lifetime ecstasy use. The sample comprised 8500 twins and siblings aged between 18 and 45 years from 5402 families registered at the Netherlands Twin Registry. In 2013-2014 participants filled out a questionnaire including a question whether they had ever used ecstasy. We used the classical twin design to partition the individual differences in liability to ecstasy use into that due to genetic, shared environmental, and residual components. Overall, 10.4% of the sample had used ecstasy during their lifetime, with a somewhat higher prevalence in males than females. Twin modelling indicated that individual differences in liability to lifetime ecstasy use are for 74% due to genetic differences between individuals, whereas shared environmental and residual factors explain a small proportion of its liability (5% and 21%, respectively). Although heritability estimates appeared to be higher for females than males, this difference was not significant. Lifetime ecstasy use is a highly heritable trait, which indicates that some people are genetically more vulnerable to start using ecstasy than others. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Bullying Mediates Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Psychotic Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2012-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms occur more frequently in the general population than psychotic disorder and index risk for psychopathology. Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of these symptoms using self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews but there is a lack of consensus about the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among children and adolescents.

  16. Effect of Junction Temperature Swing Durations on a Lifetime of a Transfer Molded IGBT Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jorgensen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    results under 6 different conditions and it may improve a lifetime model for lifetime prediction of IGBT modules under various mission profiles of converters. The power cycling tests are performed by an advanced power cycling test setup which enables tested modules to be operated under more realistic......In this paper, the effect of junction temperature swing duration on the lifetime of a transfer molded Intelligent Power IGBT Module is studied and a relevant lifetime factor is modeled. A temperature swing duration dependent lifetime factor is defined based on 38 accelerated power cycling test...

  17. Lifetime measurements by open circuit voltage decay in GaAs and InP diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhimnathwala, H.G.; Tyagi, S.D.; Bothra, S.; Ghandhi, S.K.; Borrego, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Minority carrier lifetimes in the base of solar cells made in GaAs and InP are measured by open circuit voltage decay method. This paper describes the measurement technique and the conditions under which the minority carrier lifetimes can be measured. Minority carrier lifetimes ranging from 1.6 to 34 ns in InP of different doping concentrations are measured. A minority carrier lifetime of 6 ns was measured in n-type GaAs which agrees well with the lifetime of 5.7 ns measured by transient microwave reflection

  18. Lifetime of a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlitz, R.D.; Willey, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    We study the constraints placed by quantum mechanics upon the lifetime of a black hole. In the context of a moving-mirror analog model for the Hawking radiation process, we conclude that the period of Hawking radiation must be followed by a much longer period during which the remnant mass (of order m/sub P/) may be radiated away. We are able to place a lower bound on the time required for this radiation process, which translates into a lower bound for the lifetime of the black hole. Particles which are emitted during the decay of the remnant, like the particles which comprise the Hawking flux, may be uncorrelated with each other. But each particle emitted from the decaying remnant is correlated with one particle emitted as Hawking radiation. The state which results after the remnant has evaporated is one which locally appears to be thermal, but which on a much larger scale is marked by extensive correlations

  19. Luminosity lifetime in the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.; Finley, D.; Johnson, R.P.; Kerns, Q.; McCarthy, J.; Siemann, R.; Zhang, P.

    1988-01-01

    Since the inauguration of colliding proton-antiproton operations in 1987, the Tevatron has exhibited luminosity lifetimes shorter than expected. During a typical colliding beam storage period, called a store, luminosity is calculated periodically by measuring the charge and emittances of each bunch. The growth of the transverse bunch emittances is the dominant cause of luminosity deterioration. Throughout, this period, the position spectrum of the bunches exhibited betatron signals larger than expected from Schottky noise. A model assuming externally driven betatron oscillations explains both the betatron signals and the emittance growth. A program is underway to improve the Tevatron luminosity lifetime. The abort kickers have been identified as sources of emittance growth, and some quadrupole power supplies are further candidates. Because the horizontal dispersion through the RF cavities is nonzero, RF phase noise has been investigated. Noise in the main dipole regulation circuit has also been studied. 13 refs., 4 figs

  20. Angular distributions as lifetime probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Grossman, Yuval [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    If new TeV scale particles are discovered, it will be important to determine their width. There is, however, a problematic region, where the width is too small to be determined directly, and too large to generate a secondary vertex. For a collection of colored, spin polarized particles, hadronization depolarizes the particles prior to their decay. The amount of depolarization can be used to probe the lifetime in the problematic region. In this paper we apply this method to a realistic scenario of a top-like particle that can be produced at the LHC. We study how depolarization affects the angular distributions of the decay products and derive an equation for the distributions that is sensitive to the lifetime.

  1. Lifetime-management and lifetime-extension at PAKS nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, Tamas; Ratkai, Sandor; Janosi, Agnes Biro

    2002-01-01

    core might be necessary with 50% probability. Annealing is not a cost critical method and it has been successfully applied in the practice of VVER plants (i.e. Finland and Slovakia). The study indicates that the steam generators are very important and critical equipment at VVER/440/213 type units. Stress corrosion cracking of heat-transfer tubes shall be considered also in case of steam generators. Considering the effects of already implemented measures, e.g. main turbine-condenser replacement, copper removing, protecting the secondary side of steam generators, replacement of steam generators can be excluded also in case of 50 years of operation. However, local corrosion effects appearing on the secondary side shall be monitored even in case of high PH water regime, transport of erosion products into the steam generator shall be minimised, for example by means of correct selection of the structural materials during replacement of high pressure preheaters. Business model of the lifetime extension covered incomes, expenses and financing. The costs of plant life management and lifetime extension have been estimated conservatively. The market conditions, including liberalisation of the electrical power market have been taken into account. The business analysis shows that the plant lifetime extension is a reasonable business decision. Based on the results of the feasibility study and the public acceptance of extended operation NPP Paks launched a project to elaborate on the plant lifetime management programme and preparation of the necessary licence renewal. The current ageing-management programme of the Paks NPP shall be reviewed and extended to the required scope of SSC (passive long living items). Programme for maintaining the environmental qualification of equipment has to be elaborated on and implemented. Simultaneous to the preparation of the license renewal new requirements shall be implemented in the field of maintenance, also. The plant lifetime extension might

  2. [Tunisian mothers' beliefs about their child's first psychotic episode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgou, S; Halayem, S; Bouden, A; Halayem, M B

    2012-12-01

    Initiating psychiatric treatment depends on several factors including clinical, personal, familial and economic factors. In the case of a first psychotic episode in an adolescent, parents, especially mothers, have a critical role in initiating psychiatric treatment for their child. In this study, we investigated mothers' beliefs about their child's first psychotic episode. Participants were adolescents consulting the department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the Razi hospital in Tunisia. They were aged from 12 to 19 years at the onset of their medical follow-up. Their diagnoses were schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and schizophreniform disorder according to DSM-IV. A questionnaire was submitted to patients' mothers after their approval. It was divided into two parts. The first part was used to collect information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the mothers and their children. The second part was composed of the following four questions in Tunisian dialect: (1) what did you think was the matter when you first noticed psychotic symptoms in your child? (2) what was the main reason for which you thought psychiatric treatment was necessary? (3) what obstacles did you perceive in initiating psychiatric treatment? (4) do you have any advice or suggestions for caregivers on how they could facilitate an early start of treatment? Twenty-two mothers were included. The mean age of the mothers at onset of the follow-up of their child was 42 years (SD: 4.81). Ten mothers had never been schooled, five had primary school level, four had secondary school level, three had bachelor's degree and two had a diploma of doctorate; 63.6% of the mothers were housewives. The mean age of patients was 13.77 years at the start of their medical follow-up (SD= ± 2.14). Most of the patients were male (14 males for eight girls). Most patients were diagnosed as having schizophrenia (91%); 4.5% were diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder and 4.5% with

  3. Psychotic experiences and hyper-theory-of-mind in preadolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, L; van Os, J; Drukker, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the risk mechanisms of psychotic experiences (PE) is still limited. The aim of this population-based study was to explore developmental markers of PE with a particular focus on the specificity of hyper-theory-of-mind (HyperToM) as correlate of PE as opposed to correlate...... psychiatric liability; parental mental illness during early child development; change in family composition; low family income; regulatory problems in infancy; onset of puberty; bullying; concurrent mental disorder; and HyperToM. When estimating the adjusted effects, only low family income, concurrent mental...... disorder, bullying and HyperToM remained significantly associated with PE. Further analyses of the specificity of these correlates with regard to outcome revealed that HyperToM was the only variable specifically associated with PE without concurrent mental disorder. Finally, HyperToM did not share any...

  4. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2011-03-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  5. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  6. Borderline personality pathology in young people at ultra high risk of developing a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jaymee; Graham, Anne; Nelson, Barnaby; Yung, Alison

    2017-06-01

    The association between borderline personality disorder and the ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis state is unclear. The following study aimed to investigate the type of attenuated psychotic symptoms and prevalence of borderline personality pathology in a sample of UHR young people. Additionally, the study aimed to explore whether borderline personality pathology influenced the transition rate to psychosis. Medical records from Orygen Youth Health between 2007 and 2009 were examined. There were 180 patients who met UHR criteria and were included for analysis. Most patients were females (62.8%) and age ranged from 15 to 24 years. A quarter (25.2%) of UHR patients endorsed items consistent with borderline personality pathology. UHR patients with borderline personality pathology experienced a range of attenuated psychotic symptoms and could not be statistically differentiated from UHR patients with less significant or without borderline personality pathology. Borderline personality pathology did not increase or decrease the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. The absence of depression was the only predictor of psychosis. Many UHR patients present with concurrent borderline personality features. The psychotic experiences reported by UHR patients with borderline personality features were not limited to paranoid ideation, supporting the idea that borderline personality disorder may include a wider range of psychotic symptoms than previously thought. It is further possible that the psychotic symptoms experienced in this group could also be indicative of an emerging psychotic disorder. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The lifetime of the nuclear alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillard, J.M.; Guigues, B.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetime of an alternator, used in the nuclear domain, is investigated. The preventive actions, concerning the stresses (electrical mechanical or thermal), adopted during the fabrication processes and the severity and frequency of unordinary operating conditions, are analyzed. The aging modes of the alternator main units are studied. The procedures that can be applied to detect the beginning of the degradation, and to avoid an accident during operation are discussed. The turboalternators aging mechanisms are reviewed. It is shown that the mechanical or thermal fatigue, due to regime changements during operation and successive starts, are the main sources of problems. The alternator aging depends on the periodic inspections, on the preventive maintenance, and on the operating conditions [fr

  8. Effect of virtual reality exposure therapy on social participation in people with a psychotic disorder (VRETp): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Geraets, Chris; van der Gaag, Mark

    2016-01-13

    Many patients with a psychotic disorder participate poorly in society. When psychotic disorders are in partial remission, feelings of paranoia, delusions of reference, social anxiety and self-stigmatization often remain at diminished severity and may lead to avoidance of places and people. Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an evidence-based treatment for several anxiety disorders. For patients with a psychotic disorder, the VRETp was developed to help them experience exposure to feared social situations. The present study aims to investigate the effects of VRETp on social participation in real life among patients with a psychotic disorder. The study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial with two conditions: the active condition, in which participants receive the virtual reality treatment together with treatment as usual (TAU), and the waiting list condition, in which participants receive TAU only. The two groups are compared at baseline, at 3 months posttreatment and at 6 months follow-up. All participants on the waiting list are also offered the virtual reality treatment after the follow-up measurements are completed. The primary outcome is social participation. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, interaction anxiety, depression and social functioning in general. Moderator and mediator analyses are conducted with stigma, cognitive schemata, cognitive biases, medication adherence, simulator sickness and presence in virtual reality. If effective, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Results from the posttreatment measurement can be considered strong empirical indicators of the effectiveness of VRETp. The 6-month follow-up data may provide reliable documentation of the long-term effects of the treatment on the outcome variables. Data from pre-treatment and mid-treatment can be used to reveal possible pathways of change. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN12929657 . Date of registration: 8 September 2015.

  9. Comorbid Diagnosis of Psychotic Disorders in Borderline Personality Disorder: Prevalence and Influence on Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Slotema

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA diagnosis of psychotic disorder is traditionally considered incompatible with borderline personality disorder (BPD, even though patients sometimes fulfill the diagnostic criteria for both disorders. How often this happens is barely known, as is the influence of comorbid psychotic disorders on the outcome of BPD. Since studies on isolated auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with BPD indicate that these perceptual symptoms have severe consequences and are associated with suicidal behavior and hospitalization, patients with comorbid psychotic disorders are unlikely to fare better.ObjectiveTo examine the point prevalence of psychotic disorders in patients with BPD, their association with the outcome of BPD, and their predictive value for outcome.MethodsIn a cross-sectional design, 84 female outpatients diagnosed with BPD were interviewed with the aid of the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to establish the point prevalence of comorbid psychotic and other comorbid disorders. After termination of their treatment at a specialized outpatient clinic, the type of referral was considered to be a “good” outcome when they were referred to their general practitioner or to basic psychiatric care for noncomplex patients, and a “poor” outcome when referred to a specialized psychiatric department or to a psychiatric district team for patients with severe psychiatric disorders.ResultsPsychotic disorders were present in 38% of the patients with BPD. With a prevalence of 20%, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (NOS was the most common subtype; the least common types were schizophrenia (2%, substance-induced psychotic disorder (2%, and brief psychotic disorder (1%. Among six types of comorbid disorders, only psychotic disorders were associated with a poor outcome; they were also predictors for a poor outcome, along with comorbid mood disorders, eating disorders, and somatoform disorders, as well as the severity of BPD

  10. Usher syndrome with psychotic symptoms: two cases in the same family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Ying; Chiu, Chih-Chiang

    2006-10-01

    Usher syndrome is a heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hearing and visual sensory impairment. Retinitis pigmentosa is essential for its diagnosis. There are only a few reports describing patients with Usher syndrome presenting with psychotic features and the etiology of its psychiatric manifestation is still unknown. Herein, the authors report variable congenital hearing impairment and progressive visual loss occurring in five of seven family members and two of them meeting the diagnostic criteria of Usher syndrome with psychotic features. Furthermore, the authors compare their psychiatric symptoms with other reports and the possible etiologies of psychotic symptoms are discussed.

  11. Maintenance engineering of lifetime management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervia Ruperez, F.

    1997-01-01

    The complexity of nuclear power plants obliges to stablish the adecuated management of its lifetime. This article describes the methodologies and the improvement the evaluation of lifetime programs and specially in Garona and Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  12. Hippocampal Volume Is Reduced in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder But Not in Psychotic Bipolar I Disorder Demonstrated by Both Manual Tracing and Automated Parcellation (FreeSurfer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Sara J. M.; Ivleva, Elena I.; Gopal, Tejas A.; Reddy, Anil P.; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Sacco, Carolyn B.; Francis, Alan N.; Tandon, Neeraj; Bidesi, Anup S.; Witte, Bradley; Poudyal, Gaurav; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Sweeney, John A.; Clementz, Brett A.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Tamminga, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined hippocampal volume as a putative biomarker for psychotic illness in the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) psychosis sample, contrasting manual tracing and semiautomated (FreeSurfer) region-of-interest outcomes. The study sample (n = 596) included probands with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 71), schizoaffective disorder (SAD, n = 70), and psychotic bipolar I disorder (BDP, n = 86); their first-degree relatives (SZ-Rel, n = 74; SAD-Rel, n = 62; BDP-Rel, n = 88); and healthy controls (HC, n = 145). Hippocampal volumes were derived from 3Tesla T1-weighted MPRAGE images using manual tracing/3DSlicer3.6.3 and semiautomated parcellation/FreeSurfer5.1,64bit. Volumetric outcomes from both methodologies were contrasted in HC and probands and relatives across the 3 diagnoses, using mixed-effect regression models (SAS9.3 Proc MIXED); Pearson correlations between manual tracing and FreeSurfer outcomes were computed. SZ (P = .0007–.02) and SAD (P = .003–.14) had lower hippocampal volumes compared with HC, whereas BDP showed normal volumes bilaterally (P = .18–.55). All relative groups had hippocampal volumes not different from controls (P = .12–.97) and higher than those observed in probands (P = .003–.09), except for FreeSurfer measures in bipolar probands vs relatives (P = .64–.99). Outcomes from manual tracing and FreeSurfer showed direct, moderate to strong, correlations (r = .51–.73, P schizoaffective disorder, but not for psychotic bipolar I disorder, and may reflect a cumulative effect of divergent primary disease processes and/or lifetime medication use. Manual tracing and semiautomated parcellation regional volumetric approaches may provide useful outcomes for defining measurable biomarkers underlying severe mental illness. PMID:24557771

  13. Associations between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and psychotic experiences in patients with psychotic disorders, their siblings and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Verweij, Kim; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2013-12-15

    Earlier studies indicated that personality characteristics contribute to symptomatic outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to further explore this connection by examining the relationship between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and a dimensional liability for psychosis. FFM traits according to the NEO-FFI and levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms according to the CAPE were assessed in 217 patients with psychotic disorders, 281 of their siblings and 176 healthy controls. Psychotic symptoms according to the PANSS were assessed in the patient group. Patients differed from siblings and controls on four of the five FFM traits, all but Openness. Siblings reported higher levels of Neuroticism than controls, but lower levels than patients. Particularly lower Agreeableness, and to a lesser degree, higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion were associated with more severe symptoms in patients. Furthermore, higher Neuroticism and higher Openness were associated with higher levels of subclinical psychotic experiences in all three groups. Associations were strongest in patients. Our findings suggest that levels of Neuroticism increase with the level of familial risk for psychosis. Levels of Openness may reflect levels of impairment that distinguish clinical from subclinical symptomatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  15. Review of charm and beauty lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Harry W. K.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the latest experimental results on charm and beauty particle lifetimes is presented together with a brief summary of measurement methods used for beauty particle lifetime measurements. There have been significant updates to the D s + /D 0 , B + /B d 0 and Λ b 0 /B d 0 lifetime ratios which have some theoretical implications. However more precise measurements are still needed before one can make conclusive statements about the theory used to calculate the particle lifetimes

  16. On luminescence lifetimes in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chithambo, M.L.; Galloway, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present results of investigations concerning the time dependence of luminescence emission relative to the time of stimulation in quartz. Measurements of time-resolved spectra were performed on a new versatile pulsed light emitting diode system using 525 nm stimulation, an 11 μs duration pulse, a repetition rate of 11 kHz and a 64 μs dynamic range. Effects on luminescence lifetime resulting from sample treatments such as optical stimulation, irradiation, and preheating, are reported

  17. Lifetime measurement in 144Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.J.; Gast, W.; Georgiev, A.; Jaeger, H.M.; Lieder, R.M.; Utzelmann, S.; Gierlik, M.; Morek, T.; Przestrzelska, K.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Dewald, A.; Kuehn, R.; Meier, C.; Ender, C.; Haertlein, T.

    1996-01-01

    The lifetime measurements of excited states in 144 Gd were carried out using the Koeln RDM-plunger together with the 2 x 3 CLUSTER detector setup in Heidelberg. The nucleus was populated in the 100 Mo( 48 Ti,4n) 144 Gd reaction at a beam energy of 205 MeV giving a recoil velocity of v/c = 2.6 %. Three and higher fold γ-ray coincidences were measured at 12 target-stopper distances ranged from 0 to 400 μm. Both the dipole and quadrupole bands in 144 Gd have been observed. The analysis is in progress

  18. Lifetime of superheated steam components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklossa, K.H.; Oude-Hengel, H.H.; Kraechter, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The current evaluation schemes in use for judging the lifetime expectations of superheated steam components are compared with each other. The influence of pressure and temperature fluctuations, the differences in the strength of the wall, and the spread band of constant-strainrates are critically investigated. The distribution of these contributory effects are demonstrated in the hight of numerous measuring results. As an important supplement to these evaluation schemes a newly developed technique is introduced which is designed to calculate failure probabilities. (orig./RW) [de

  19. The mass-lifetime relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2018-05-01

    In a recent "AstroNote," I described a simple exercise on the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars as an example of exposing students in a general education science course of lower mathematical level to the use of quantitative skills such as collecting and analyzing data. Here I present another attempt at a meaningful experience for such students that again involves both the gathering and analysis of numerical data and comparison with accepted result, this time on the relationship of the mass and lifetimes of main sequence stars. This experiment can stand alone or be used as an extension of the previous mass-luminosity relationship experiment.

  20. The puzzle of neutron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the role of the neutron lifetime and discuss the present status of measurements. In view of the large discrepancy observed by the two most precise individual measurements so far we describe the different techniques and point out the principle strengths and weaknesses. In particular we discuss the estimation of systematic uncertainties and its correlation to the statistical ones. In order to solve the present puzzle, many new experiments are either ongoing or being proposed. An overview on their possible contribution to this field will be given.

  1. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of personality traits and IQ on lifetime earnings of the men and women of the Terman study, a high-IQ U.S. sample. Age-by-age earnings profiles allow a study of when personality traits affect earnings most, and for whom the effects are strongest. I document...... a concave life-cycle pattern in the payoffs to personality traits, with the largest effects between the ages of 40 and 60. An interaction of traits with education reveals that personality matters most for highly educated men. The largest effects are found for Conscientiousness, Extraversion...

  2. Lifetime measurement in 136Pm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toney, D.; Zhong, Q.; De Angelis, G.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the electromagnetic transition probabilities in the doublet bands of 136 Pm. These two bands have been observed up to Iπ = (21 + ). Contrary to the case of 134 Pr, the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios take similar values within the error bars in 136 Pm. This is a strong indication that there is considerable difference between the two nuclei. However, a lifetime measurement in 136 Pm is needed to shed light on the scale and the origin of the difference

  3. The use of electroconvulsive therapy in atypical psychotic presentations: a case review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, John H; Vasu, Devi

    2007-10-01

    Convulsive therapy and its progeny, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), were originally used for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia, and there is little doubt that ECT remains an effective intervention for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, current practice tends to favor the use of ECT in severe or treatment refractory affective disorders, and its use in schizophrenia and other nonaffective (atypical) psychotic disorders has become controversial.CASE REPORTS HAVE SUGGESTED A ROLE FOR ECT IN TWO SPECIFIC ATYPICAL PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. In this article, we review the atypical psychotic disorders and report a series of five case examples that signify the role of ECT in atypical psychotic presentations, particularly when the symptoms resemble those found in Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis.

  4. Clozapine and obsessions in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.; Gorsira, R.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increase or emergence of obsessions was compared in young patients with recent-onset schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders taking clozapine and other antipsychotic drugs. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Subjects were 121 consecutively admitted patients

  5. Neurocognitive functioning before and after the first psychotic episode: does psychosis result in cognitive deterioration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, H. E.; Nieman, D. H.; Wiltink, S.; Dingemans, P. M.; van de Fliert, J. R.; Velthorst, E.; de Haan, L.; van Amelsvoort, T. A.; Linszen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is considered to be a core characteristic of schizophrenia. The relationship between psychosis and cognitive deterioration, however, remains unclear. This longitudinal study investigated the neuropsychological functioning of patients before and after their first psychotic

  6. Understanding and improving treatment adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: Review and a proposed intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A.B.P.; Mulder, C.L.; van der Gaag, M.; Selten, J.P.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Hengeveld, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Non-adherence to treatment of patients with psychotic disorders is related to higher rates of relapse, hospitalization, and suicide. Important predictors of non-adherence include poor social structure, cognitive deficits, negative medication attitude, side effects, depression, a

  7. Understanding and improving treatment adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: A review and a proposed intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B.P. Staring (Anton); C.L. Mulder (Niels); M. van der Gaag (Mark); J.-P. Selten (Jean-Paul); A.J.M. Loonen (Anton); M.W. Hengeveld (Michiel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractNon-adherence to treatment of patients with psychotic disorders is related to higher rates of relapse, hospitalization, and suicide. Important predictors of non-adherence include poor social structure, cognitive deficits, negative medication attitude, side effects, depression, a

  8. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    of intelligence, executive functions, memory, attention and processing speed was global or specific. First-episode psychotic adolescents (N = 39) between the ages 11 and 17 years were included, 18 of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 21 with other non-organic, non-affective psychoses, using ICD-10...... of attention, executive functions, reaction time, and memory in the schizophrenic and psychotic adolescent groups. However, analyses of WISC-III factor profiles suggested that early onset schizophrenia patients may have more global IQ deficits than non-organic, non-affective psychoses when examined recently...... the profile and severity of cognitive impairments in first-episode early onset psychotic patients who received the schizophrenia diagnosis to those diagnosed with other non-organic, non-affective psychotic disorders. The secondary purpose was to examine whether the profile of cognitive deficits, in terms...

  9. Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henquet, C.J.; Krabbendam, L.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Kaplan, C.; Lieb, R.; Wittchen, H.U.; Os, J. van

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms in individuals with above average predisposition for psychosis who first used cannabis during adolescence. DESIGN: Analysis of prospective data from a population based sample. Assessment of substance use,

  10. Hyper-theory-of-mind in children with Psychotic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Lars; van Os, Jim; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Væver, Mette; Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M A; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Jeppesen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE). Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM) and PE in children. Children with this type of alteration in ToM infer mental states when none are obviously suggested, and predict behaviour on the basis of these erroneous beliefs. Individuals with HyperToM do not appear to have a conceptual deficit (i.e. lack of representational abilities), but rather they apply their theory of the minds of others in an incorrect or biased way. Hypotheses were tested in two studies with two independent samples: (i) a general population sample of 1630 Danish children aged 11-12 years, (ii) a population-based sample of 259 Dutch children aged 12-13 years, pertaining to a case-control sampling frame of children with auditory verbal hallucinations. Multinomial regression analyses were carried out to investigate the associations between PE and ToM and HyperToM respectively. Analyses were adjusted for gender and proxy measures of general intelligence. Low ToM score was significantly associated with PE in sample I (OR = 1.6 95%CI 1.1-2.3 χ2(4) = 12.42 p = 0.010), but not in sample II (OR = 0.9 95%CI 0.5-1.8 χ2(3) = 7.13 p = 0.816). HyperToM was significantly associated with PE both in sample I (OR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2-2.7 χ2(3) = 10.11 p = 0.006) and II (OR = 4.6, 95%CI 1.3-16.2 χ2(2) = 7.56 p = 0.018). HyperToM was associated particularly with paranoid delusions in both sample I (OR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1-3.7% χ2(4) = 9.93 p = 0.021) and II (OR = 6.2 95%CI: 1.7-23.6% χ2(4) = 9.90 p = 0.044). Specific alterations in ToM may be associated with specific types of psychotic experiences. HyperToM may index risk for developing psychosis and paranoid delusions in particular.

  11. Hyper-theory-of-mind in children with Psychotic Experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Clemmensen

    Full Text Available Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE. Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM and PE in children. Children with this type of alteration in ToM infer mental states when none are obviously suggested, and predict behaviour on the basis of these erroneous beliefs. Individuals with HyperToM do not appear to have a conceptual deficit (i.e. lack of representational abilities, but rather they apply their theory of the minds of others in an incorrect or biased way.Hypotheses were tested in two studies with two independent samples: (i a general population sample of 1630 Danish children aged 11-12 years, (ii a population-based sample of 259 Dutch children aged 12-13 years, pertaining to a case-control sampling frame of children with auditory verbal hallucinations. Multinomial regression analyses were carried out to investigate the associations between PE and ToM and HyperToM respectively. Analyses were adjusted for gender and proxy measures of general intelligence.Low ToM score was significantly associated with PE in sample I (OR = 1.6 95%CI 1.1-2.3 χ2(4 = 12.42 p = 0.010, but not in sample II (OR = 0.9 95%CI 0.5-1.8 χ2(3 = 7.13 p = 0.816. HyperToM was significantly associated with PE both in sample I (OR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2-2.7 χ2(3 = 10.11 p = 0.006 and II (OR = 4.6, 95%CI 1.3-16.2 χ2(2 = 7.56 p = 0.018. HyperToM was associated particularly with paranoid delusions in both sample I (OR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1-3.7% χ2(4 = 9.93 p = 0.021 and II (OR = 6.2 95%CI: 1.7-23.6% χ2(4 = 9.90 p = 0.044.Specific alterations in ToM may be associated with specific types of psychotic experiences. HyperToM may index risk for developing psychosis and paranoid delusions in particular.

  12. Psychotic-spectrum symptoms, cumulative adversity exposure and substance use among high-risk girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Plante, Wendy Y; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Golshan, Shahrokh; Beck, Audrey N

    2018-02-01

    Psychotic-spectrum symptoms are linked to trauma, substance/alcohol use (SAU), criminality/violence and poor functional outcomes, supporting the need for early detection in vulnerable populations. To better understand high-risk girls' mental health, we assessed: (1) psychotic-spectrum symptoms; (2) cumulative trauma, adversity and loss exposures (C-TALE) and adversity-indicators (symptoms, maladaptive coping, stressor-reactivity); and SAU risk-factors; and (3) relationships among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, adversity-indicators and SAU risk-factors. We administered the Structured Clinical Interviews for Psychotic Spectrum, and Trauma and Loss Spectrum to 158 adolescent delinquent girls. Girls' psychotic-spectrum profiles were similar to previously reported adult psychotic patients and characterized by typical symptoms (hallucinations/delusions, reported largely SAU-independent), interpersonal sensitivity, schizoid traits and paranoia (over-interpretation, anger over-reactivity, hypervigilance). Auditory/visual hallucinations (55.7%), delusions (92.4%), ideas of reference (96.8%) and adversity (90.0% ≥10/24 C-TALE-types) were common. Mean loss (4) and trauma (8) onset-age occurred before SAU-onset (12). Significant positive correlations were found among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, stressor-reactivity, C-TALE, adversity-indicators; and number of SAU-types; and a negative correlation occurred between psychotic-spectrum symptoms and earlier alcohol use onset. After controlling for number of SAU-types, stressor-reactivity and adversity-related numbing individually had the largest associations with total psychotic-spectrum symptoms (b = 2.6-4.3). Girls averaged more than 4 maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., 24.8% attempted suicide) in response to adversity, amplifying potential health-disparities. No racial/ethnic differences emerged on psychotic-spectrum symptoms. This symptom constellation during adolescence likely interferes with social and academic

  13. Measurement of b-flavoured hadron lifetimes at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Ilieva, Simona Ilieva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this Student Project Note is to describe precise lifetime measurements of b-flavored hadrons at LHCb. The analysis is based on Monte Carlo data simulating Run2 2015 conditions. Decay-time biases introduced at every step of the reconstruction, trigger and selection of candidates are studied. Several methods to correct for Lower acceptance are presented.

  14. Uncertainties in the proton lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Rudaz, S.; Gaillard, M.K.

    1980-04-01

    We discuss the masses of the leptoquark bosons m(x) and the proton lifetime in Grand Unified Theories based principally on SU(5). It is emphasized that estimates of m(x) based on the QCD coupling and the fine structure constant are probably more reliable than those using the experimental value of sin 2 theta(w). Uncertainties in the QCD Λ parameter and the correct value of α are discussed. We estimate higher order effects on the evolution of coupling constants in a momentum space renormalization scheme. It is shown that increasing the number of generations of fermions beyond the minimal three increases m(X) by almost a factor of 2 per generation. Additional uncertainties exist for each generation of technifermions that may exist. We discuss and discount the possibility that proton decay could be 'Cabibbo-rotated' away, and a speculation that Lorentz invariance may be violated in proton decay at a detectable level. We estimate that in the absence of any substantial new physics beyond that in the minimal SU(5) model the proton lifetimes is 8 x 10 30+-2 years

  15. Genome-wide analysis of adolescent psychotic-like experiences shows genetic overlap with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Oliver; Dudbridge, Frank; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Lu, Yi; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ronald, Angelica

    2018-03-31

    This study aimed to test for overlap in genetic influences between psychotic-like experience traits shown by adolescents in the community, and clinically-recognized psychiatric disorders in adulthood, specifically schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. The full spectra of psychotic-like experience domains, both in terms of their severity and type (positive, cognitive, and negative), were assessed using self- and parent-ratings in three European community samples aged 15-19 years (Final N incl. siblings = 6,297-10,098). A mega-genome-wide association study (mega-GWAS) for each psychotic-like experience domain was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability of each psychotic-like experience domain was estimated using genomic-relatedness-based restricted maximum-likelihood (GREML) and linkage disequilibrium- (LD-) score regression. Genetic overlap between specific psychotic-like experience domains and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression was assessed using polygenic risk score (PRS) and LD-score regression. GREML returned SNP-heritability estimates of 3-9% for psychotic-like experience trait domains, with higher estimates for less skewed traits (Anhedonia, Cognitive Disorganization) than for more skewed traits (Paranoia and Hallucinations, Parent-rated Negative Symptoms). Mega-GWAS analysis identified one genome-wide significant association for Anhedonia within IDO2 but which did not replicate in an independent sample. PRS analysis revealed that the schizophrenia PRS significantly predicted all adolescent psychotic-like experience trait domains (Paranoia and Hallucinations only in non-zero scorers). The major depression PRS significantly predicted Anhedonia and Parent-rated Negative Symptoms in adolescence. Psychotic-like experiences during adolescence in the community show additive genetic effects and partly share genetic influences with clinically-recognized psychiatric disorders, specifically schizophrenia and

  16. Psychotic Symptoms Associated with the use of Dopaminergic Drugs, in Patients with Cocaine Dependence or Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, Carlos; Abad, Alfonso C; Padilla-Mata, Antonio; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Barral, Carmen; Casas, Miquel; Grau-López, Lara

    2017-01-01

    In the field of dual diagnosis, physicians are frequently presented with pharmacological questions. Questions about the risk of developing psychotic symptoms in cocaine users who need treatment with dopaminergic drugs could lead to an undertreatment. Review the presence of psychotic symptoms in patients with cocaine abuse/dependence, in treatment with dopaminergic drugs. Systematic PubMed searches were conducted including December 2014, using the keywords: "cocaine", dopaminergic drug ("disulfuram-methylphenidate-bupropion-bromocriptine-sibutramineapomorphine- caffeine") and ("psychosis-psychotic symptoms-delusional-paranoia"). Articles in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Italian were included. Articles in which there was no history of cocaine abuse/dependence, absence of psychotic symptoms, systematic reviews, and animal studies, were excluded. 313 papers were reviewed. 7 articles fulfilled the inclusion-exclusion criteria. There is a clinical trial including 8 cocaine-dependent patients using disulfiram in which 3 of them presented psychotic symptoms and 6 case-reports: disulfuram (1), methylphenidate (1), disulfiram with methylphenidate (2), and bupropion (2), reporting psychotic symptoms, especially delusions of reference and persecutory ideation. Few cases have been described, which suggests that the appearance of these symptoms is infrequent. The synergy of dopaminergic effects or the dopaminergic sensitization in chronic consumption are the explanatory theories proposed by the authors. In these cases, a relationship was found between taking these drugs and the appearance of psychotic symptoms. Given the low number of studies found, further research is required. The risk of psychotic symptoms seems to be acceptable if we compare it with the benefits for the patients but a closer monitoring seems to be advisable.

  17. Functional limitations and quality of life in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Viertiö, Satu

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of the decreased functional capacity, especially everyday functioning, of people with psychotic disorder in clinical settings, but little research about it in the general population. The aim of the present study was to provide information on the magnitude of functional capacity problems in persons with psychotic disorder compared with the general population. It estimated the prevalence and severity of limitations in vision, mobility, everyday functioning and qual...

  18. A TWIN STUDY OF SCHIZOAFFECTIVE-MANIA, SCHIZOAFFECTIVE-DEPRESSION AND OTHER PSYCHOTIC SYNDROMES

    OpenAIRE

    Cardno, Alastair G; Rijsdijk, Frühling V; West, Robert M; Gottesman, Irving I; Craddock, Nick; Murray, Robin M; McGuffin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The nosological status of schizoaffective disorders remains controversial. Twin studies are potentially valuable for investigating relationships between schizoaffective-mania, schizoaffective-depression and other psychotic syndromes, but no such study has yet been reported. We ascertained 224 probandwise twin pairs (106 monozygotic, 118 same-sex dizygotic), where probands had psychotic or manic symptoms, from the Maudsley Twin Register in London (1948–1993). We investigated Research Diagnosti...

  19. Autistic traits and positive psychotic experiences modulate the association of psychopathic tendencies with theory of mind in opposite directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Steven M; Mitchell, Ian J; Abu-Akel, Ahmad M

    2017-07-25

    Various clinical disorders, including psychopathy, and autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, have been linked with impairments in Theory of Mind (ToM). However, although these conditions can co-occur in the same individual, the effect of their inter-play on ToM abilities has not been investigated. Here we assessed ToM abilities in 55 healthy adults while performing a naturalistic ToM task, requiring participants to watch a short film and judge the actors' mental states. The results reveal for the first time that autistic traits and positive psychotic experiences interact with psychopathic tendencies in opposite directions to predict ToM performance-the interaction of psychopathic tendencies with autism traits was associated with a decrement in performance, whereas the interaction of psychopathic tendencies and positive psychotic experiences was associated with improved performance. These effects were specific to cognitive rather than affective ToM. These results underscore the importance of the simultaneous assessment of these dimensions within clinical settings. Future research in these clinical populations may benefit by taking into account such individual differences.

  20. [Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in DSM-5: summary of the changes compared to DSM-IV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulzen, M; Schneider, F

    2014-05-01

    With the introduction of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) numerous changes in the area of the schizophrenia spectrum and psychotic disorders have been implemented. Establishing a metastructure based on the characteristics of the spectrum of psychopathological disturbances should improve clarity. The classical subtypes of schizophrenia were eliminated and specific psychopathological dimensions for the assessment of disease severity were added. The special role of Schneiderian first rank symptoms was abandoned and a higher delineation towards schizoaffective disorders is made. The nosological status of catatonia is clarified and occurs together with a consistent use of catatonic disturbances over all chapters. The attenuated psychosis syndrome is added as a new condition for further study. The shared psychotic disorder in the sense of a folie à deux is no longer maintained. However, the initial goal to integrate more disorder-specific etiopathogenetic information into the reconceptualization could not be achieved. Contemporaneously to the development process of DSM-5 the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) carried out the research domain criteria project (RDoC) attempting to incorporate the current growth in knowledge of genetics, neurocognitive and cognitive sciences in future diagnostic systems. This article gives an overview of the changes that have been made within the revision process from DSM-IV to DSM-5.

  1. The projected hand illusion: component structure in a community sample and association with demographics, cognition, and psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kyran T; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T; Holmes, Nicholas P; Waters, Flavie A

    2015-01-01

    The projected hand illusion (PHI) is a variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), and both are commonly used to study mechanisms of self-perception. A questionnaire was developed by Longo et al. (2008) to measure qualitative changes in the RHI. Such psychometric analyses have not yet been conducted on the questionnaire for the PHI. The present study is an attempt to validate minor modifications of the questionnaire of Longo et al. to assess the PHI in a community sample (n = 48) and to determine the association with selected demographic (age, sex, years of education), cognitive (Digit Span), and clinical (psychotic-like experiences) variables. Principal components analysis on the questionnaire data extracted four components: Embodiment of "Other" Hand, Disembodiment of Own Hand, Deafference, and Agency-in both synchronous and asynchronous PHI conditions. Questions assessing "Embodiment" and "Agency" loaded onto orthogonal components. Greater illusion ratings were positively associated with being female, being younger, and having higher scores on psychotic-like experiences. There was no association with cognitive performance. Overall, this study confirmed that self-perception as measured with PHI is a multicomponent construct, similar in many respects to the RHI. The main difference lies in the separation of Embodiment and Agency into separate constructs, and this likely reflects the fact that the "live" image of the PHI presents a more realistic picture of the hand and of the stroking movements of the experimenter compared with the RHI.

  2. Ethnic variations regarding clinical profiles and symptom representation in prisoners with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzel, A Dorina; Harte, Joke M; van den Bergh, Mattis; Scherder, Erik J A

    2018-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups are known to have higher prevalences of psychotic disorders and are over-represented in western penitentiaries and forensic psychiatric institutions. Research from regular mental healthcare settings suggests that they could show different and more severe psychotic symptoms. Aims To explore ethnic variations in severity of symptomatology of BME and non-BME detainees with psychotic disorders. In this study, 824 patients with psychotic disorders from seven different ethnic groups, imprisoned in a penitentiary psychiatric centre in the Netherlands, were compared on symptom severity and symptom representation using the BPRS-E clinical interview. Data were analysed by means of a multilevel analysis. BME patients with psychotic disorders are over-represented in forensic psychiatry, and symptom profiles of prisoners with psychotic disorders vary by ethnicity. Additionally, severity levels of overall psychopathology differ between ethnic groups: patients with an ethnic majority status show more severe levels of psychopathology compared with BME patients. There are differences in symptom severity and symptom profiles between BME patients and non-BME patients. Disregarding these differences could have an adverse effect on the outcome of the treatment. Possible explanations and clinical impact are discussed. Declaration of interest None.

  3. Determining the effectiveness of the third person interview in the level of insight psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Mahsa; Rezaei, Omid; Dolatshahi, Behrouz

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the third person interview in increasing the level of insight and cooperation in psychotic patients. We used a quasi-experimental posttest design with an alternative method group. A number of 40 individuals with a definite diagnosis of psychosis were selected using a simple random sampling, and were put randomly in an experimental group (third person interview) and an alternative control group (clinical interview). The results indicated that using the third person interview, the insight level of the psychotic patients increased in all dimensions of insight, except awareness of flat or blunted affect and awareness of unsociability. The results of the independent t-test samples showed no significant difference in cooperation between the two groups of psychotic patients. It seems that the ability to consider one's mental viewpoint from other's, is dependent on the relative ability of psychotic patients to represent other's mental states (theory of mind). But, psychotic patients have severe impairment in the ability to represent their own mental states, resulting in an impairment in the recognition of their mental disorder, psychotic symptoms, the need for therapy, and social consequences of their mental disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Risperidone in psychotic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica; Pivac, Nela; Mück-Seler, Dorotea; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2005-07-01

    Psychotic symptoms that frequently occur in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) complicate its pharmacotherapy. We hypothesized that war veterans with psychotic PTSD, resistant to prior antidepressant treatment, would respond well to 6 weeks of treatment with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone, given as a monotherapy. Twenty-six male war veterans with psychotic PTSD (DSM-IV) completed the 6-week inpatient treatment with risperidone (2-4 mg/day) during the period from November 1999 through December 2002. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to endpoint (6 weeks) in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscale scores. Secondary outcome measures were changes in PTSD Interview (PTSD-I) and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S) total and subscale scores. Clinical improvement was assessed by CGI-S, CGI-Improvement scale, and Patient Global Impression of Improvement scale, while adverse events were recorded by Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale. Treatment with risperidone for either 3 or 6 weeks in an open trial significantly reduced total and subscales scores on the PANSS and on the PTSD-I and CGI-S when compared to baseline scores in patients with psychotic PTSD. Our preliminary data from the open trial indicate that risperidone decreased most of the psychotic and PTSD symptoms. Psychotic PTSD patients, unresponsive to antidepressant treatment, improved significantly after treatment for either 3 or 6 weeks with risperidone.

  5. A Lifetime Prediction Method for LEDs Considering Real Mission Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaohui; Wang, Huai; Zhan, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    operations due to the varying operational and environmental conditions during the entire service time (i.e., mission profiles). To overcome the challenge, this paper proposes an advanced lifetime prediction method, which takes into account the field operation mission profiles and also the statistical......The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) has become a very promising alternative lighting source with the advantages of longer lifetime and higher efficiency than traditional ones. The lifetime prediction of LEDs is important to guide the LED system designers to fulfill the design specifications...... properties of the life data available from accelerated degradation testing. The electrical and thermal characteristics of LEDs are measured by a T3Ster system, used for the electro-thermal modeling. It also identifies key variables (e.g., heat sink parameters) that can be designed to achieve a specified...

  6. An improved $\\pi$K atom lifetime measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Yazkov, V

    2016-01-01

    This note describes details of analysis of data samples collected by DIRAC experiment on a Pt target in 2007 and Ni targets in 2008–2010 in order to estimate the lifetime of πK atoms. Experimental results consist of eight distinct data samples: both charge combinations ( π + K − and K + π − atoms) obtained in different experimental conditions corresponding to each year of data taking. Estimations of systematic errors are presented. Taking into account both statistical and systematic uncertainties, the lifetime of πK atoms is estimated by the maximum likelihood method. The above sample comprises the total statistics, available for the analysis, thus the improvement over the previous estimation [1,3] of the πK atom lifetime is achieved.

  7. [Neuropsychological approach to elucidating delusion and psychotic symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Motoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological symptom-oriented approach is a critical method to elucidate delusion and psychotic symptoms in patients with focal brain damages and schizophrenia. In Capgras delusion (CD), the delusional misidentification of familiar people disguised as others, the patients with right amygdala damage and bilateral ventromedial prefrontal lesions have a deficient or reduced emotional valence of the person with intact configurational processes of the face. Reduplicative paramnesia (RP) is a specific phenomenon characterized by subjective certainty that a familiar place or person has been duplicated. Clinical evidences indicated that the patient with RP following right prefrontal damages showed the lack of emotional valence for the present hospital. This abnormal sense of familiarity triggered the deficits of the orientation of self to the outside world, that is, double orientation, resulting in the development of geographical reduplicative paramnesia. In line with the pathogenesis of CD and RP after brain damages, the delusion in schizophrenia may have a germ as developmental origins, which include the aberrant or salient perceptual experiences and abnormal sense of agency, and might be further aggravated by the impairment of causal reasoning process such as the jumping-to-conclusions bias.

  8. Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize network lifetime and balance energy consumption when sink nodes can move, maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink nodes (MLMS is researched. The movement path selection method of sink nodes is proposed. Modified subtractive clustering method, k-means method, and nearest neighbor interpolation method are used to obtain the movement paths. The lifetime optimization model is established under flow constraint, energy consumption constraint, link transmission constraint, and other constraints. The model is solved from the perspective of static and mobile data gathering of sink nodes. Subgradient method is used to solve the lifetime optimization model when one sink node stays at one anchor location. Geometric method is used to evaluate the amount of gathering data when sink nodes are moving. Finally, all sensor nodes transmit data according to the optimal data transmission scheme. Sink nodes gather the data along the shortest movement paths. Simulation results show that MLMS can prolong network lifetime, balance node energy consumption, and reduce data gathering latency under appropriate parameters. Under certain conditions, it outperforms Ratio_w, TPGF, RCC, and GRND.

  9. What Is the Optimal and Sustainable Lifetime of a Mine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich-Wilhelm Wellmer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The first stage of the circular economy, mining, is examined from the perspective of sustainability. The authors discuss how to maximize the use of phosphate rock, a primary commodity. To attract investment capital in a market economy system, a mine has to operate profitably, i.e., its lifetime must be optimized under economic conditions, for example, according to Taylor’s Rule. From a sustainability perspective, however, the lifetime should extend as long as possible and the grades mined be as low as possible. The authors examine methods for optimizing a mine’s lifetime under economic conditions according to practical experience and learning effects to optimize exploration and exploitation. With the condition of sustainability, a recently developed concept of cut-off grade for a layered phosphate deposit is examined and considerations for prolonging a mine’s lifetime are discussed. As there are big losses from the current and potential future value chains above and below the current cut-off grade, we argue that the losses and use efficiency of phosphorus are key parts of a circular economy.

  10. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Talented individuals are seen as drivers of long-term growth, but how do they realize their full potential? In this paper, I show that lifetime earnings of high-IQ men and women are substantially influenced by their personality traits, in addition to intelligence and education. Personality traits......, as identified in a factor model, significantly affect earnings, but not for young workers. The effects are furthermore heterogeneous by educational attainment. For women, personality traits do not affect family earnings in the same way as own earnings. Personality and IQ also influence earnings indirectly...... through education, which has sizeable positive rates of return for men in this sample. Women’s returns to education past a bachelor’s degree are lowered through worse marriage prospects, which offset gains to education in terms of own earnings. The causal effect of education is identified through matching...

  11. Measurement of the BS lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siccama, I.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the B s lifetime using 3 million hadronic Z decays collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP from 1991 to 1994. Decays of B s mesons are tagged by the reconstruction of a D s - →φπ - or D s - →K *0 K - decay (including the charge conjugated states of these decay modes). The decay time is obtained by reconstructing both the B s momentum and the B s flight distance. The combined result for the D s -lepton and D s -hadron samples is: τ(B s )=1.54±0.31±0.15 ps where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. (orig./HSI)

  12. Lifetime Extension Report: Progress on the SAVY-4000 Lifetime Extension Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Cynthia F.; Smith, Paul Herrick; Weis, Eric M.; Blair, Michael W.; Stone, Timothy Amos; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Reeves, Kirk Patrick; Karns, Tristan; Oka, Jude M.; Keller, Jennie; Meincke, Linda Jeanne; Torres, Joseph Angelo; Herman, Matthew Joseph; Weaver, Brian Phillip; Adams, Jillian Cathleen; Trautschold, Olivia Carol

    2016-01-01

    The 3-year accelerated aging study of the SAVY-4000 O-ring shows very little evidence of significant degradation to samples subjected to aggressive elevated temperature and radiation conditions. Whole container thermal aging studies followed by helium leakage testing and compression set measurements were used to establish an estimate for a failure criterion for O-ring compression set of ?65 %. The whole container aging studies further show that the air flow and efficiency functions of the filter do not degrade significantly after thermal aging. However, the degradation of the water-resistant function leads to water penetration failure after four months at 210°C, but does not cause failure after 10 months at 120°C (130°C is the maximum operating temperature for the PTFE membrane). The thermal aging data for O-ring compression set do not meet the assumptions of standard time-temperature superposition analysis for accelerated aging studies. Instead, the data suggest that multiple degradation mechanisms are operative, with a reversible mechanism operative at low aging temperatures and an irreversible mechanism dominating at high aging temperatures. To distinguish between these mechanisms, we have measured compression set after allowing the sample to physically relax, thereby minimizing the effect of the reversible mechanism. The resulting data were analyzed using two distinct mathematical methods to obtain a lifetime estimate based on chemical degradation alone. Both methods support a lifetime estimate of greater than 150 years at 80°C. Although the role of the reversible mechanism is not fully understood, it is clear that the contribution to the total compression set is small in comparison to that due to the chemical degradation mechanism. To better understand the chemical degradation mechanism, thermally aged O-ring samples have been characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), and

  13. Lifetime Extension Report: Progress on the SAVY-4000 Lifetime Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Cynthia F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Process Infrastructure; Weis, Eric M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Process Infrastructure; Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Manufacturing Engineering and Technology; Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Process Infrastructure; Karns, Tristan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Process Infrastructure; Oka, Jude M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Process Infrastructure; Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Meincke, Linda Jeanne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Torres, Joseph Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Herman, Matthew Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Weaver, Brian Phillip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences. Statistical Sciences; Adams, Jillian Cathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Trautschold, Olivia Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials

    2016-09-20

    The 3-year accelerated aging study of the SAVY-4000 O-ring shows very little evidence of significant degradation to samples subjected to aggressive elevated temperature and radiation conditions. Whole container thermal aging studies followed by helium leakage testing and compression set measurements were used to establish an estimate for a failure criterion for O-ring compression set of ≥65 %. The whole container aging studies further show that the air flow and efficiency functions of the filter do not degrade significantly after thermal aging. However, the degradation of the water-resistant function leads to water penetration failure after four months at 210°C, but does not cause failure after 10 months at 120°C (130°C is the maximum operating temperature for the PTFE membrane). The thermal aging data for O-ring compression set do not meet the assumptions of standard time-temperature superposition analysis for accelerated aging studies. Instead, the data suggest that multiple degradation mechanisms are operative, with a reversible mechanism operative at low aging temperatures and an irreversible mechanism dominating at high aging temperatures. To distinguish between these mechanisms, we have measured compression set after allowing the sample to physically relax, thereby minimizing the effect of the reversible mechanism. The resulting data were analyzed using two distinct mathematical methods to obtain a lifetime estimate based on chemical degradation alone. Both methods support a lifetime estimate of greater than 150 years at 80°C. Although the role of the reversible mechanism is not fully understood, it is clear that the contribution to the total compression set is small in comparison to that due to the chemical degradation mechanism. To better understand the chemical degradation mechanism, thermally aged O-ring samples have been characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC

  14. Determination of surface recombination velocity and bulk lifetime in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derhacobian, N.; Fine, P.; Walton, J.T.; Wong, Y.K.; Rossington, C.S.; Luke, P.N.

    1993-10-01

    Utility of a noncontact photoconductive decay (PCD) technique is demonstrated in measuring bulk lifetime, τ B , and surface recombination velocity, S, in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals. We show that the simple analytical equations which relate the observed effective lifetimes in PCD transients to τ B and S have a limited range of applicability. The noncontact PCD technique is used to determine the effect of several surface treatments on the observed effective lifetimes in Si and Ge. A degradation of the effective lifetime in Si is reported as result of the growth of a thin layer of native oxide at room temperature under atmospheric conditions

  15. Associations between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and psychotic experiences in patients with psychotic disorders, their siblings and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Verweij, Kim; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Ca Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies indicated that personality characteristics contribute to symptomatic outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to further explore this connection by examining the relationship between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and a

  16. Ethnic identity, racial discrimination and attenuated psychotic symptoms in an urban population of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lui, Florence; Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren

    2018-06-01

    Studies suggest strong ethnic identity generally protects against negative mental health outcomes associated with racial discrimination. In light of evidence suggesting racial discrimination may enhance psychosis risk in racial and ethnic minority (REM) populations, the present study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) and whether ethnic identity moderates the association between racial discrimination and these symptoms. A sample of 644 non-help-seeking REM emerging adults was administered self-report inventories for psychosis risk, experiences of discrimination and ethnic identity. Latent class analysis was applied to determine the nature and number of ethnic identity types in this population. The direct association between ethnic identity and APPS and the interaction between ethnic identity and racial discrimination on APPS were determined in linear regression analyses. Results indicated three ethnic identity classes (very low, moderate to high and very high). Ethnic identity was not directly related to APPS; however, it was related to APPS under racially discriminating conditions. Specifically, participants who experienced discrimination in the moderate to high or very high ethnic identity classes reported fewer symptoms than participants who experienced discrimination in the very low ethnic identity class. Strong ethnic group affiliation and connection may serve a protective function for psychosis risk in racially discriminating environments and contexts among REM young adults. The possible social benefits of strong ethnic identification among REM youth who face racial discrimination should be explored further in clinical high-risk studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Lifetime of Organic Photovoltaics: Status and Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Roth, Bérenger

    2016-01-01

    The results of a meta-analysis conducted on organic photovoltaics (OPV) lifetime data reported in the literature is presented through the compilation of an extensive OPV lifetime database based on a large number of articles, followed by analysis of the large body of data. We fully reveal the prog......The results of a meta-analysis conducted on organic photovoltaics (OPV) lifetime data reported in the literature is presented through the compilation of an extensive OPV lifetime database based on a large number of articles, followed by analysis of the large body of data. We fully reveal...... the progress of reported OPV lifetimes. Furthermore, a generic lifetime marker has been defi ned, which helps with gauging and comparing the performance of different architectures and materials from the perspective of device stability. Based on the analysis, conclusions are drawn on the bottlenecks...

  18. Psychotic experiences and suicide attempt risk in common mental disorders and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, I; Ramsay, H; DeVylder, J

    2017-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated a strong relationship between psychotic experiences and suicidal behaviour. No research to date, however, has investigated the role of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in this relationship, despite the fact that BPD is highly comorbid with common mental disorders and is associated with both recurrent suicidal behaviour and psychotic experiences. This paper examined the relationship between psychotic experiences and suicide attempts, including interrelationships with BPD and common mental disorders. We used the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Study, a stratified, multistage probability sample of households in England, which recruited a nationally representative sample aged 16 years and older. Participants were assessed for common mental disorders, BPD (clinical and subclinical), suicidal behaviour, and psychotic experiences. Approximately 4% of the total sample (n = 323) reported psychotic experiences. Psychotic experiences were associated with increased odds of suicide attempts in individuals with BPD (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.03-4.85), individuals with a common mental disorder (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37-4.43), individuals without a common mental disorder (OR = 3.99, 95% CI = 2.47-6.43), and individuals with neither a common mental disorder nor BPD (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.71-5.98). Psychotic experiences are associated with high odds of suicidal behaviour in individuals with and without psychopathology. This relationship is not explained by clinical or subclinical BPD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Neurological Soft Signs In Psychoses A Comparison Between Schizophrenia & Other Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsavand. E. Noroozian. M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most important and disabling mental disorders in the world. Males and females are equally affected. Diagnosis is a very difficult problem in this disorder. Because the diagnostic systems such as ICD-10 and DSM-IV are mainly subjective, they are not valid and reliable. Essentially, in the future, we will need to more objective criteria in psychiatry especially in diagnosis of schizophrenia. Neurological soft signs are an example of these objective criteria. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of neurological soft signs in schizophrenic patients and compared it with the prevalence of these signs in other psychotic patients (except mood disorders with psychotic features and normal subjects."nMethods: We compared the neurological soft signs (sensory motor integration, motor. Coordination, consequent complex motor acts, primary reflexes, and eye movements in 30 schizophrenic patients, 30 other psychotic patients (other than mood disorders with psychotic features and 30 normal subjects. Diagnosis of schizophrenia and also other psychoses were based on DSM-IN criteria. Normal subjects have been selected form the staff of Roozbeh hospital randomly."nResults: The difference between the means of motor coordination subscale of neurological soft signs in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (other than mood disorders with psychotic features were significant (P value < 0.04. There were no significant differences between the means of other subscales of neurological soft signs in two groups of patients."nConclusion: There are some disturbances of motor coordination subscale of neurological soft signs in patients with schizophrenia. It seems that, these disturbances are evidence of involvements of basal ganglia, motor cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. So it may be suggested that motor coordination as a marker can be used in differentiation between the schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  20. Anti-social personality characteristics and psychotic symptoms: Two pathways associated with offending in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; Barendregt, Marko; Van Beveren, Nico M; De Beurs, Edwin; Van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2015-07-01

    Several research groups have shown that people with schizophrenia who offend do not form a homogenous group. A three-group model claimed by Hodgins proposes distinguishing between people who start offending before the onset of psychosis (early starters), after psychosis onset but at age 34 years or under (late starters) and after psychosis onset but at age 35 years or older (late first offenders). This study aimed to test the hypotheses (1) that the personality of early starters and non-psychotic offenders would be similar, but different from either late-starter group; (2) that the late-starter groups would be more likely to have positive psychotic symptoms than non-criminal patients with schizophrenia; and (3) that symptom types would differentiate the psychotic groups. A retrospective file study was conducted on cases of 97 early starters, 100 late starters and 26 late first offenders all drawn from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology (NIFP) archives 1993-2008, 115 non-psychotic offenders from 2005-2008 NIFP archives and 129 patients with schizophrenia and no criminal history from one general service in Rotterdam. Early starters closely resembled the non-psychotic offenders in their premorbid anti-social personality characteristics. The two late-onset offending psychosis groups were more likely to have persecutory and/or grandiose delusions than non-offenders with psychosis, but so were the early starters. In a first study to compare subgroups of offenders with psychosis directly with non-psychotic offenders and non-offenders with psychosis, we found such additional support for a distinction between early and late starters with psychosis that different treatment strategies would seem indicated, focusing on personality and substance misuse for the former but psychotic symptoms for all. It remains to be seen whether the higher rate of alcohol misuse amongst late first offenders is a fundamental distinction or a function of age

  1. Neurocognitive profile in psychotic versus nonpsychotic individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Ronnie; Yi, James; Calkins, Monica; Guri, Yael; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Zackai, Elaine H; Ruparel, Kosha; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Gothelf, Doron

    2016-10-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with increased rates of psychotic disorders and cognitive deficits, but large scale studies are needed to elucidate their interaction. The objective of this two-center study was to identify the neurocognitive phenotype of individuals with 22q11DS and psychotic disorders. We hypothesized that psychotic 22q11DS individuals compared to nonpsychotic deleted individuals would have more severe neurocognitive deficits, especially in executive function and social cognition. These deficits would be present when compared to IQ- matched individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS). Three groups were ascertained from the Tel Aviv and Philadelphia centers: 22q11DS individuals with a psychotic disorder (n=31), nonpsychotic 22q11DS (n=86) and typically-developing controls (TD, n=828). In Tel Aviv a group of individuals with WS (n=18) matched in IQ to the 22q11DS psychotic group was also included. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) was used to assess a wide-range of cognitive functions and all patients underwent structured psychiatric evaluations. 22q11DS individuals performed poorly on all CNB domains compared to TD. Participants with 22q11DS and psychosis, compared to nonpsychotic 22q11DS, had more severe deficits in global neurocognitive performance (GNP), executive function, social cognition and episodic memory domains. The primary deficits were also significant when comparing the Tel Aviv 22q11DS psychotic group to IQ-matched individuals with WS. In conclusion, 22q11DS individuals with a psychotic disorder have specific neurocognitive deficits that are reliably identified cross nationality using the CNB. These cognitive dysfunctions should be further studied as potential endophenotypes of psychosis in 22q11DS and as targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood: evidence from a 35-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, J M; van Stockum, S; Horwood, L J; Fergusson, D M

    2016-04-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in possible causal linkages between exposure to bullying victimization and later psychotic symptomatology. Prior research in this area has had several limitations which make it difficult to ascertain causality, and to determine the extent to which these effects extend beyond adolescence. Data were obtained from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 35-year study of a longitudinal birth cohort. This investigation used generalized estimating equation modelling to estimate the associations between bullying victimization (ages 13-16 years) and psychotic symptoms (ages 18-35 years), before and after controlling for possible confounding factors, including: gender; childhood socio-economic status; child intelligence quotient; exposure to sexual abuse in childhood; anxious/withdrawn behaviour and attention problems (ages 7-9 years); and adolescent psychotic symptoms and paranoid ideation (ages 15-16 years). There was a significant (p bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood. Successive models controlling for covariation reduced this association to statistical non-significance. After controlling for covariates, those with the highest level of bullying victimization had rates of psychotic symptoms that were 1.21 (95% confidence interval 0.73-1.99) times higher than those who were not victimized. The association between bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood could be largely explained by childhood behavioural problems, and exposure to sexual abuse in childhood. The results suggest that bullying victimization was unlikely to have been a cause of adult psychotic symptoms, but bullying victimization remained a risk marker for these symptoms.

  3. Concurrent and Sustained Cumulative Effects of Adolescent Marijuana Use on Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Hipwell, Alison; Lewis, David A; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents who regularly use marijuana may be at heightened risk of developing subclinical and clinical psychotic symptoms. However, this association could be explained by reverse causation or other factors. To address these limitations, the current study examined whether adolescents who engage in regular marijuana use exhibit a systematic increase in subclinical psychotic symptoms that persists during periods of sustained abstinence. The sample comprised 1,009 boys who were recruited in 1st and 7th grades. Self-reported frequency of marijuana use, subclinical psychotic symptoms, and several time-varying confounds (e.g., other substance use, internalizing/externalizing problems) were recorded annually from age 13 to 18. Fixed-effects (within-individual change) models examined whether adolescents exhibited an increase in their subclinical psychotic symptoms as a function of their recent and/or cumulative history of regular marijuana use and whether these effects were sustained following abstinence. Models controlled for all time-stable factors (default) and several time-varying covariates as potential confounds. For each year adolescent boys engaged in regular marijuana use, their expected level of subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms rose by 21% and their expected odds of experiencing subsequent subclinical paranoia or hallucinations rose by 133% and 92%, respectively. The effect of prior regular marijuana use on subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms persisted even when adolescents stopped using marijuana for a year. These effects were after controlling for all time-stable and several time-varying confounds. No support was found for reverse causation. These results suggest that regular marijuana use may significantly increase the risk that an adolescent will experience persistent subclinical psychotic symptoms.

  4. The Role of Aberrant Salience and Self-Concept Clarity in Psychotic-Like Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C.; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Docherty, Anna R.; Kerns, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of psychotic-like experiences posit the involvement of social-cognitive mechanisms. The current research examined the relations between psychotic-like experiences and two social-cognitive mechanisms, high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity. In particular, we examined whether aberrant salience, or the incorrect assignment of importance to neutral stimuli, and low self-concept clarity interacted to predict psychotic-like experiences. The current research included three large samples (n = 667, 724, 744) of participants and over-sampled for increased schizotypal personality traits. In all three studies, an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found such that participants with high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity had the highest levels of psychotic-like experiences. In addition, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity interacted to predict a supplemental measure of delusions in Study 2. In Study 3, in contrast to low self-concept clarity, neuroticism did not interact with aberrant salience to predict psychotic-like experiences, suggesting that the relation between low self-concept clarity and psychosis may not be due to neuroticism. Additionally, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity did not interact to predict to other schizotypal personality disorder criteria, social anhedonia or trait paranoia, which suggests the interaction is specific to psychotic-like experiences. Overall, our results are consistent with several social-cognitive models of psychosis suggesting that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity might be important mechanisms in the occurrence of psychotic-like symptoms. PMID:22452775

  5. Transdiagnostic neural markers of emotion-cognition interaction in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amri; Szekely, Akos; Kotov, Roman; Mukherjee, Prerona; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Barch, Deanna M; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2016-10-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and emotion processing are prominent impairments in psychotic disorders, and have been linked to reduced quality of life and real-world functioning. Translation of knowledge regarding the neural circuitry implementing these deficits into improved diagnosis and targeted treatments has been slow, possibly because of categorical definitions of disorders. Using the dimensional Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework, we investigated the clinical and practical utility of transdiagnostic behavioral and neural measures of emotion-related WM disruption across psychotic disorders. Behavioral and functional MRI data were recorded while 53 participants with psychotic disorders and 29 participants with no history of psychosis performed a modified n-back task with fear and neutral distractors. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that psychotic symptoms entered after diagnosis accounted for unique variance in fear versus neutral accuracy and activation in the ventrolateral, dorsolateral, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, but diagnostic group entered after psychotic symptoms did not. These results remained even after controlling for negative symptoms, disorganized symptoms, and dysphoria. Finally, worse accuracy and greater prefrontal activity were associated with poorer social functioning and unemployment across diagnostic groups. Present results support the transdiagnostic nature of behavioral and neuroimaging measures of emotion-related WM disruption as they relate to psychotic symptoms, irrespective of diagnosis. They also provide support for the practical utility of these markers in explaining real-world functioning. Overall, these results elucidate key aspects of the RDoC construct of WM maintenance by clarifying its transdiagnostic importance and clinical utility in psychotic disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Susquehanna plant lifetime excellence program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Susquehanna plant lifetime excellence program (SPLEX) blends many of the objectives of a new managing for excellence program with plant life extension objectives to achieve excellence in the lifetime operation and availability of the two-unit Susquehanna steam electric station. Investments in lifetime excellence improvements will provide near-term, as well as plant life extension, benefits. A high-quality lifetime experience record, together with extensive, periodic technical assessments and cost-benefit analyses, will provide conclusive justification for future extensions of the unit operating licenses

  7. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Alexandrov, Yuri; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using two photon microscopy (TPM) have been used to study tissue autofluorescence in ex vivo skin cancer samples. A commercially available system (DermaInspect®) was modified to collect fluorescence intensity and lifetimes in two spectral channels using time correlated single photon counting and depth-resolved steady state measurements of the fluorescence emission spectrum. Uniquely, image segmentation has been used to allow fluorescence lifetimes to be calculated for each cell. An analysis of lifetime values obtained from a range of pigmented and non-pigmented lesions will be presented.

  8. Relative Effectiveness of Operant Conditioning and Play Therapy in Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Philip G.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study designed to examine the relative effectiveness of operant conditioning and play therapy in improving the communication and social functioning of psychotic children was presented and discussed. (Author)

  9. Fusion-component lifetime analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1982-09-01

    A one-dimensional computer code has been developed to examine the lifetime of first-wall and impurity-control components. The code incorporates the operating and design parameters, the material characteristics, and the appropriate failure criteria for the individual components. The major emphasis of the modeling effort has been to calculate the temperature-stress-strain-radiation effects history of a component so that the synergystic effects between sputtering erosion, swelling, creep, fatigue, and crack growth can be examined. The general forms of the property equations are the same for all materials in order to provide the greatest flexibility for materials selection in the code. The individual coefficients within the equations are different for each material. The code is capable of determining the behavior of a plate, composed of either a single or dual material structure, that is either totally constrained or constrained from bending but not from expansion. The code has been utilized to analyze the first walls for FED/INTOR and DEMO and to analyze the limiter for FED/INTOR

  10. Aspects of silicon bulk lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, P. T.

    1985-01-01

    The best lifetimes attained for bulk crytalline silicon as a function of doping concentrations are analyzed. It is assumed that the dopants which set the Fermi level do not contribute to the recombination traffic which is due to the unknown defect. This defect is assumed to have two charge states: neutral and negative, the neutral defect concentration is frozen-in at some temperature T sub f. The higher doping concentrations should include the band-band Auger effect by using a generalization of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism. The generalization of the SRH mechanism is discussed. This formulation gives a straightforward procedure for incorporating both band-band and band-trap Auger effects in the SRH procedure. Two related questions arise in this context: (1) it may sometimes be useful to write the steady-state occupation probability of the traps implied by SRH procedure in a form which approximates to the Fermi-Dirac distribution; and (2) the effect on the SRH mechanism of spreading N sub t levels at one energy uniformly over a range of energies is discussed.

  11. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been found to be prevalent in early onset schizophrenia. Whether these deficits also characterise other early onset psychotic disorders to a similar degree is unclear, as very few comparative studies have been done. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the prof......Cognitive deficits have been found to be prevalent in early onset schizophrenia. Whether these deficits also characterise other early onset psychotic disorders to a similar degree is unclear, as very few comparative studies have been done. The primary purpose of this study was to compare...... the profile and severity of cognitive impairments in first-episode early onset psychotic patients who received the schizophrenia diagnosis to those diagnosed with other non-organic, non-affective psychotic disorders. The secondary purpose was to examine whether the profile of cognitive deficits, in terms...... of intelligence, executive functions, memory, attention and processing speed was global or specific. First-episode psychotic adolescents (N = 39) between the ages 11 and 17 years were included, 18 of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 21 with other non-organic, non-affective psychoses, using ICD-10...

  12. Assessing Social Networks in Patients with Psychotic Disorders: A Systematic Review of Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siette, Joyce; Gulea, Claudia; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social networks of patients with psychotic disorders influence symptoms, quality of life and treatment outcomes. It is therefore important to assess social networks for which appropriate and preferably established instruments should be used. To identify instruments assessing social networks in studies of patients with psychotic disorders and explore their properties. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted to identify studies that used a measure of social networks in patients with psychotic disorders. Eight instruments were identified, all of which had been developed before 1991. They have been used in 65 studies (total N of patients = 8,522). They assess one or more aspects of social networks such as their size, structure, dimensionality and quality. Most instruments have various shortcomings, including questionable inter-rater and test-retest reliability. The assessment of social networks in patients with psychotic disorders is characterized by a variety of approaches which may reflect the complexity of the construct. Further research on social networks in patients with psychotic disorders would benefit from advanced and more precise instruments using comparable definitions of and timescales for social networks across studies.

  13. S248. RELATION BETWEEN CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnaout, Amine; Nefzi, Rahma; Aissa, Amina; Trabelsi, Rouaa; Hechmi, Zouhaier El

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background There is renewed interest in the relationship between early childhood trauma and risk of psychosis in adulthood. Trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence are known to be more prevalent among individuals with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders than in the general population. Furthermore, other findings support the role of childhood trauma as a socio-environmental risk factor for psychotic symptoms, and research on the potential etiological relationship between trauma/stressful events in childhood/adolescence and psychotic disorders is evolving. The aim of the current study was to examine relations among all items and domains of childhood trauma and schizophrenic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The relationship between types of trauma and their association with psychotic symptoms was analysed. Methods In this study, we collected data from 50 schizophrenic patients (39 males and 11 females). All patients met the DSM 5 criteria for schizophrenia. Psychotic symptoms were measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results We found significant correlations between emotional and sexual abuse, emotional neglect and denial scale in CTQ with positive symptoms of the PANSS (pagressive behaviours was also described in litterature. These results went along with the stress sensitization model where the HPA axis is over-active and excessively reactive to the subsequent environemental stressors causing positive symptoms of the disease.

  14. The use of olanzapine in Huntington disease accompanied by psychotic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer Alhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. The disease begins between the ages of 30-50, including motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and is characterized by progressive dementia. Common psychiatric disorders of Huntington’s disease include mood and anxiety disorders, behavior and personality changes. Psychosis is relatively rare. Here, a patient is present, who has Huntington’s disease, which is associated with psychotic symptoms. 61-year-old male patient who were followed for Huntington disease for 25 years was admitted for complaints of thinking of poisoning and refuse to eat something. Patient was started on olanzapine at dose of 5 mg/day. In follow up psychotic symptoms disappeared. Emerging psychotic symptoms in Huntington disease is created a need for antipsychotic treatment. Atypical antipsychotic agents should be preferred in the treatment and as in the case olanzapine may be used as a treatment option should be kept in mind to control both involuntary movements and psychotic symptoms in Huntington's disease with psychotic features. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 326-328

  15. Structural and functional perspectives on classification and seriation in psychotic and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, L; Cowan, P A

    1984-02-01

    This study describes a strategy for examining cognitive functioning in psychotic and normal children without the usual confounding effects of marked differences in cognitive structure that occur when children of the same age are compared. Participants were 14 psychotic children, 12 males and 2 females, mean age 9-2, matched with normal children at preoperational and concrete operational stage levels on a set of Piagetian classification tasks. The mean age of the normal children was 6-4, replicating the usually found developmental delay in psychotic samples. Participants were then compared on both structural level and functional abilities on a set of tasks involving seriation of sticks; the higher-level children were also administered a seriation drawing task. Analysis of children's processes of seriating and seriation drawings indicated that over and above the structural retardation, psychotic children at all levels showed functional deficits, especially in the use of anticipatory imagery. The implications for general developmental theory are that progress in structural development is not sufficient for imaginal development, and that structural development of logical concepts is relatively independent of the development of imagery. It was suggested that "thought disorder" may not be a disordered structure of thinking or a retardation in psychotic populations but rather a mismatch between higher-level logical structures and lower-level functions.

  16. Plasma homovanillic acid and family history of psychotic disorders in bipolar I patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumárraga, Mercedes; Dávila, Ricardo; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrue, Aurora; Goienetxea, Biotza; González-Torres, Miguel Angel; Guimón, José

    2009-04-01

    It has been suggested that the family history of psychotic disorders is useful in defining homogeneous groups of bipolar patients. The plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations have been related to the effect of antipsychotic treatment in psychotic patients. We have studied the influence of a positive family history of psychotic disorders both on the variation of pHVA levels and on the relation between pHVA concentrations and the clinical response to treatment. Clinical status and pHVA levels were assessed in 58 medication free patients before and after 4 weeks of treatment with olanzapine and lithium. Clinical improvement correlated positively with pHVA levels on the 28th day of treatment only in the patients having first degree relatives with psychotic disorders. The pHVA levels did not decrease after 28 days of treatment. Our results reinforce the idea that a positive family history of psychosis in psychotic bipolar disorders may constitute a good basis for sub-grouping these patients.

  17. Executive Functioning in Men with Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorders. Influence of Lifetime Suicide Attempts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Adan

    Full Text Available Lifetime suicide attempts in patients with comorbidity between psychotic disorders and Substance Use Disorder (SUD, known as dual diagnosis, was associated with a worse clinical and cognitive state, poor prognosis and premature death. However, to date no previous study has examined the cognitive performance of these patients considering as independent the presence or absence of lifetime suicide attempts.We explore executive functioning differences between suicide attempters and non-attempters in dual schizophrenia (DS patients and the possible related factors for both executive performance and current suicide risk. Fifty DS male patients in remission of SUD and clinically stables, 24 with and 26 without lifetime suicide attempts, were evaluated. We considered Z scores for all neuropsychological tests and a composite summary score for both premorbid IQ and executive functioning.DS patients showed low performance in set-shifting, planning and problem solving tasks. Those with suicide attempts presented lower composite summary scores, together with worse problem solving skills and decision-making, compared with non-attempters. However, after controlling for alcohol dependence, only differences in decision-making remained. Executive functioning was related to the premorbid intelligence quotient, and several clinical variables (duration, severity, months of abstinence and relapses of SUD, global functioning and negative symptoms. A relationship between current suicide risk, and first-degree relatives with SUD, insight and positive symptoms was also found.Our results suggest that problem solving and, especially, decision-making tasks might be sensitive to cognitive impairment of DS patients related to presence of lifetime suicide attempts. The assessment of these executive functions and cognitive remediation therapy when necessary could be beneficial for the effectiveness of treatment in patients with DS. However, further research is needed to expand

  18. Proton radioactivity lifetimes using Skyrme interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routray, T.R.; Tripathy, S.K.; Mishra, Abhishek; Basu, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomena of proton radioactivity is recent and has been possible with the advent of the radioactive ion beams facilities. The neutron deficient nuclei lying above the proton drip line has positive Q values for protons and are spontaneous proton emitters. This limits the possibilities of the creation of ever more exotic nuclei in the proton rich side of the β stability valley. Limited number of works have been done in calculating the half lives of proton emitting nuclei using different models. But calculation of lifetimes of the proton emitting nuclei using Skyrme interaction has not yet been reported. More than 110 Skyrme sets are available, constructed for different purposes, all having the common feature of giving finite nuclei ground state properties and saturation conditions in nuclear matter. Skyrme sets constructed in the late 90's, particularly the construction of SLy sets and others Skyrme sets developed thereafter, have additional care in constraining the parameters for applications to nuclear matter under extreme conditions. Stone et al. have analyzed the Skyrme sets on the basis of available constraints and have sorted out finally 27 Skyrmes sets which can be admitted for calculation of isospin rich dense nuclear matter. The objective of the work is to examine the predictions of the Skyrme sets on the half lives of the proton emitters

  19. Prevalence of psychotic and non-psychotic disorders in relatives of patients with a first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, Kia; Pawliuk, Nicole; King, Suzanne; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok K

    2009-10-01

    Family members of individuals with schizophrenia suffer from elevated rates of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) and other forms of psychopathology. However, few studies have examined familial psychopathology in probands with a first episode of psychosis (FEP). We systematically evaluated family history in patients experiencing an affective or non-affective FEP. The Family Interview for Genetic Studies was used to obtain diagnostic information on all first- and second-degree relatives of probands admitted to a specialized FEP program. Probands were 94 previously untreated patients suffering from a first-episode of affective or schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, aged 14 to 30. The interview ascertained diagnoses of psychotic disorders, affective disorders, substance-use disorders (SUD), and schizophrenia-related personality disorders. One in five probands (19.1%) had a history of psychosis among their first-degree relatives, while 34.0% had any relative with psychosis. Fewer probands had a family history of SSD (7.4% with a first-degree history and 18.1% with a history among any relatives). Over half (53.2%) of probands had a first-degree relative with Major Depressive Disorder, and 38.3% had a first-degree relative with a SUD. Overall, 69.9% of probands had a first-degree relative with a mental disorder. The proportion of probands with a family history of any of these diagnoses did not vary by proband diagnosis (affective or SS Psychosis), though probands with co-morbid SUD were more likely to have a family history of substance abuse. Diverse psychopathology is commonly present in families of FEP patients and may imply a generalized vulnerability to psychiatric disorders to be greater in such families compared to specific vulnerability to SS or affective psychosis. These findings may also have implications for provision of care for the probands.

  20. Baselines for Lifetime of Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Ciammaruchi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The process of accurately gauging lifetime improvements in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) or other similar emerging technologies, such as perovskites solar cells is still a major challenge. The presented work is part of a larger effort of developing a worldwide database of lifetimes that can help...

  1. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the

  2. FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE LIFETIMES AND CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Berger, Lieselotte; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2017-11-01

    To quantify retinal fluorescence lifetimes in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and to identify disease specific lifetime characteristics over the course of disease. Forty-seven participants were included in this study. Patients with central serous chorioretinopathy were imaged with fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) and compared with age-matched controls. Retinal autofluorescence was excited using a 473-nm blue laser light and emitted fluorescence light was detected in 2 distinct wavelengths channels (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm). Clinical features, mean retinal autofluorescence lifetimes, autofluorescence intensity, and corresponding optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were further analyzed. Thirty-five central serous chorioretinopathy patients with a mean visual acuity of 78 ETDRS letters (range, 50-90; mean Snellen equivalent: 20/32) and 12 age-matched controls were included. In the acute stage of central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal fluorescence lifetimes were shortened by 15% and 17% in the respective wavelength channels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that fluorescence lifetimes were significantly influenced by the disease duration (P autofluorescence lifetimes, particularly in eyes with retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, were associated with poor visual acuity. This study establishes that autofluorescence lifetime changes occurring in central serous chorioretinopathy exhibit explicit patterns which can be used to estimate perturbations of the outer retinal layers with a high degree of statistical significance.

  3. Fluorescence lifetime imaging using light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Gordon T; Munro, Ian; Poher, Vincent; French, Paul M W; Neil, Mark A A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Elson, Daniel S [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hares, Jonathan D [Kentech Instruments Ltd, Unit 9, Hall Farm Workshops, South Moreton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 9AG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gordon.kennedy@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-05-07

    We demonstrate flexible use of low cost, high-power light emitting diodes as illumination sources for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques have been implemented at wavelengths spanning the range 450-640 nm. Additionally, we demonstrate optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging by combining structured illumination with frequency-domain FLIM.

  4. Abnormal frontoparietal synaptic gain mediating the P300 in patients with psychotic disorder and their unaffected relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Álvaro; Ranlund, Siri; Pinotsis, Dimitris; Calafato, Stella; Shaikh, Madiha; Hall, Mei-Hua; Walshe, Muriel; Nevado, Ángel; Friston, Karl J; Adams, Rick A; Bramon, Elvira

    2017-06-01

    The "dysconnection hypothesis" of psychosis suggests that a disruption of functional integration underlies cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms. Impairments in the P300 potential are well documented in psychosis. Intrinsic (self-)connectivity in a frontoparietal cortical hierarchy during a P300 experiment was investigated. Dynamic Causal Modeling was used to estimate how evoked activity results from the dynamics of coupled neural populations and how neural coupling changes with the experimental factors. Twenty-four patients with psychotic disorder, twenty-four unaffected relatives, and twenty-five controls underwent EEG recordings during an auditory oddball paradigm. Sixteen frontoparietal network models (including primary auditory, superior parietal, and superior frontal sources) were analyzed and an optimal model of neural coupling, explaining diagnosis and genetic risk effects, as well as their interactions with task condition were identified. The winning model included changes in connectivity at all three hierarchical levels. Patients showed decreased self-inhibition-that is, increased cortical excitability-in left superior frontal gyrus across task conditions, compared with unaffected participants. Relatives had similar increases in excitability in left superior frontal and right superior parietal sources, and a reversal of the normal synaptic gain changes in response to targets relative to standard tones. It was confirmed that both subjects with psychotic disorder and their relatives show a context-independent loss of synaptic gain control at the highest hierarchy levels. The relatives also showed abnormal gain modulation responses to task-relevant stimuli. These may be caused by NMDA-receptor and/or GABAergic pathologies that change the excitability of superficial pyramidal cells and may be a potential biological marker for psychosis. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3262-3276, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Psychotic-like experiences and happiness in the English general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Ai

    2017-11-01

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) have been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes but how they affect happiness in individuals with PLE is unknown. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the association between PLEs and happiness, and the factors that may influence this association. Nationally representative data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey including adults aged ≥ 16 years was analyzed. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire was used to assess past 12-month PLE. Individuals who endorsed at least one of the following were considered to have any PLE: thought control, paranoia, strange experiences, auditory hallucinations. Happiness (3-point scale) was assessed with a validated question with higher scores indicating lower levels of happiness. The association between PLE and happiness was assessed by multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Mediation analysis was also performed. Among the 7363 individuals included in the analysis, the prevalence of any PLE increased with decreasing levels of happiness [very happy (2.3%), fairly happy (5.4%), not too happy (14.9%)]. This was also shown in the multivariable analysis adjusted for sociodemographic factors and stressful life events (from very happy to not too happy: OR = 2.41; 95%CI = 1.86-3.12). Mediation analysis showed that anxiety disorders explained the largest proportion of the association (38.8%) followed by depressive episode (28.5%), insomnia (21.9%), disability (16.5%), pain (12.5%), social support (10.0%), and physical health conditions (6.0%). The cross-sectional design limits causal inference. Interventions to identify and address conditions that may have a negative impact on happiness in individuals with PLE may be important to improve their well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of the period of psychotic episode in individual schizophrenics by simulation-data construction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Loh, El-Wui

    2010-10-01

    Although schizophrenia can be treated, most patients still experience inevitable psychotic episodes from time to time. Precautious actions can be taken if the next onset can be predicted. However, sufficient information is always lacking in the clinical scenario. A possible solution is to use the virtual data generated from limited of original data. Data construction method (DCM) has been shown to generate the virtual felt earthquake data effectively and used in the prediction of further events. Here we investigated the performance of DCM in deriving the membership functions and discrete-event simulations (DES) in predicting the period embracing the initiation and termination time-points of the next psychotic episode of 35 individual schizophrenic patients. The results showed that 21 subjects had a success of simulations (RSS) ≥70%. Further analysis demonstrated that the co-morbidity of coronary heart diseases (CHD), risks of CHD, and the frequency of previous psychotic episodes increased the RSS.

  7. Platform for systems medicine research and diagnostic applications in psychotic disorders-The METSY project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Elisabeth; Maier, Dieter; Pajula, Juha

    2018-01-01

    with detailed metabolic characterisation and multi-variate network analysis is essential in order to identify how lipid dysregulation may contribute to psychotic disorders. A decision support system, integrating clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data, was also developed in order to aid clinical......Psychotic disorders are associated with metabolic abnormalities including alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism. A major challenge in the treatment of psychosis is to identify patients with vulnerable metabolic profiles who may be at risk of developing cardiometabolic co...... these endocannabinoid abnormalities relate to metabolic changes in psychosis. Here we review recent research in the field of metabolic co-morbidities in psychotic disorders as well as the methods to study them and potential links to the endocannabinoid system. We also describe the bioinformatics platforms developed...

  8. Complex Diagnostic and Treatment Issues in Psychotic Symptoms Associated with Narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Narcolepsy is an uncommon chronic, neurological disorder characterized by abnormal manifestations of rapid eye movement sleep and perturbations in the sleep-wake cycle. Accurate diagnosis of psychotic symptoms in a person with narcolepsy could be difficult due to side effects of stimulant treatment (e.g., hallucinations) as well as primary symptoms of narcolepsy (e.g., sleep paralysis and hypnagogic and/or hypnapompic hallucinations). Pertinent articles from peer-reviewed journals were identified to help understand the complex phenomenology of psychotic symptoms in patients with narcolepsy. In this ensuing review and discussion, we present an overview of narcolepsy and outline diagnostic and management approaches for psychotic symptoms in patients with narcolepsy. PMID:19724760

  9. Psychotic Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Analysis of the MTA Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Perez Algorta, Guillermo; Arnold, L Eugene; Howard, Andrea L; Stehli, Annamarie; Molina, Brooke S G

    2017-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among youths (14-25 years of age) with a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined type. Participants in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) and a local normative comparison group (LNCG) were systematically assessed 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years after the original enrollment at a mean age of 8.5 years. Trained research assistants administered a psychosis screener, and positive screens were referred to study clinicians to confirm or exclude psychosis. Possible associations between screening positive and alcohol or substance use were assessed. Data were available from 509 MTA participants (88% of original MTA sample; mean age 25.1 years) and 276 LNCG participants (96% of original sample; mean age 24.6 years) at year 16. Twenty-six MTA participants (5%; 95% CI 3-7) and 11 LNCG participants (4%; 95% CI 2-6) screened positive for at least 1 psychotic symptom (p = .60). Most psychotic symptoms were transient. The prevalence of clinician-confirmed psychotic symptoms was 1.1% (95% CI 0.2-2.1) in the MTA group and 0.7% (0-1.7) in the LNCG (p = .72). Greater cannabis use was reported by those who screened positive (p ADHD increased the risk for psychotic symptoms. In the ADHD and normative comparison groups, more frequent cannabis use was associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing psychotic symptoms, thus supporting the recommendation that youth should not use cannabis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Are genetic risk factors for psychosis also associated with dimension-specific psychotic experiences in adolescence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Sieradzka

    Full Text Available Psychosis has been hypothesised to be a continuously distributed quantitative phenotype and disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder represent its extreme manifestations. Evidence suggests that common genetic variants play an important role in liability to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we tested the hypothesis that these common variants would also influence psychotic experiences measured dimensionally in adolescents in the general population. Our aim was to test whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk scores (PRS, as well as specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs previously identified as risk variants for schizophrenia, were associated with adolescent dimension-specific psychotic experiences. Self-reported Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive Disorganisation, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and Parent-rated Negative Symptoms, as measured by the Specific Psychotic Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ, were assessed in a community sample of 2,152 16-year-olds. Polygenic risk scores were calculated using estimates of the log of odds ratios from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium GWAS stage-1 mega-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The polygenic risk analyses yielded no significant associations between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder PRS and the SPEQ measures. The analyses on the 28 individual SNPs previously associated with schizophrenia found that two SNPs in TCF4 returned a significant association with the SPEQ Paranoia dimension, rs17512836 (p-value = 2.57×10⁻⁴ and rs9960767 (p-value = 6.23×10⁻⁴. Replication in an independent sample of 16-year-olds (N = 3,427 assessed using the Psychotic-Like Symptoms Questionnaire (PLIKS-Q, a composite measure of multiple positive psychotic experiences, failed to yield significant results. Future research with PRS derived from larger samples, as well as larger adolescent validation samples, would improve the predictive power to test

  11. AKT1 moderation of cannabis-induced cognitive alterations in psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkel, Ruud; van Beveren, Nico J M; Simons, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    Genetic variation in AKT1 may be associated with sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effects of cannabis as well as with increased risk for psychotic disorder following cannabis use. Investigation of the effect of this interaction on relevant intermediate phenotypes for psychosis, such as cognition, may help to clarify the underlying mechanism. Thus, verbal memory (visually presented Word Learning Task), sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test, CPT), AKT1 rs2494732 genotype, and cannabis use were examined in a large cohort of patients with psychotic disorder. No evidence was found for AKT1 × cannabis interaction on verbal memory. Cannabis use preceding onset of psychotic disorder did interact significantly with AKT1 rs2494732 genotype to affect CPT reaction time (β=8.0, SE 3.9, p=0.037) and CPT accuracy (β=-1.2, SE 0.4, p=0.003). Cannabis-using patients with the a priori vulnerability C/C genotype were slower and less accurate on the CPT, whereas cannabis-using patients with the T/T genotype had similar or better performance than non-using patients with psychotic disorder. The interaction was also apparent in patients with psychotic disorder who had not used cannabis in the 12 months preceding assessment, but was absent in the unaffected siblings of these patients and in healthy controls. In conclusion, cannabis use before onset of psychosis may have long-lasting effects on measures of sustained attention, even in the absence of current use, contingent on AKT1 rs2494732 genotype. The results suggest that long-term changes in cognition may mediate the risk-increasing effect of the AKT1 × cannabis interaction on psychotic disorder.

  12. Hypothesis: grandiosity and guilt cause paranoia; paranoid schizophrenia is a psychotic mood disorder; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Charles Raymond

    2008-11-01

    Delusional paranoia has been associated with severe mental illness for over a century. Kraepelin introduced a disorder called "paranoid depression," but "paranoid" became linked to schizophrenia, not to mood disorders. Paranoid remains the most common subtype of schizophrenia, but some of these cases, as Kraepelin initially implied, may be unrecognized psychotic mood disorders, so the relationship of paranoid schizophrenia to psychotic bipolar disorder warrants reevaluation. To address whether paranoia associates more with schizophrenia or mood disorders, a selected literature is reviewed and 11 cases are summarized. Comparative clinical and recent molecular genetic data find phenotypic and genotypic commonalities between patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder lending support to the idea that paranoid schizophrenia could be the same disorder as psychotic bipolar disorder. A selected clinical literature finds no symptom, course, or characteristic traditionally considered diagnostic of schizophrenia that cannot be accounted for by psychotic bipolar disorder patients. For example, it is hypothesized here that 2 common mood-based symptoms, grandiosity and guilt, may underlie functional paranoia. Mania explains paranoia when there are grandiose delusions that one's possessions are so valuable that others will kill for them. Similarly, depression explains paranoia when delusional guilt convinces patients that they deserve punishment. In both cases, fear becomes the overwhelming emotion but patient and physician focus on the paranoia rather than on underlying mood symptoms can cause misdiagnoses. This study uses a clinical, case-based, hypothesis generation approach that warrants follow-up with a larger representative sample of psychotic patients followed prospectively to determine the degree to which the clinical course observed herein is typical of all such patients. Differential diagnoses, nomenclature, and treatment implications are

  13. 'Earning and learning' in those with psychotic disorders: the second Australian national survey of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Geoffrey; Saha, Sukanta; Harvey, Carol; Morgan, Vera A; Waterreus, Anna; Bush, Robert; Castle, David; Galletly, Cherrie; Stain, Helen J; Neil, Amanda L; McGorry, Patrick; McGrath, John J

    2012-08-01

    Participation in mainstream education and employment facilitates both the recovery and the social inclusion of people with psychotic disorders. As part of the second Australian survey of psychosis, we assessed labour force activity and participation in formal education among working age adults with psychotic disorders. Data were drawn from a large national community prevalence survey of adults with psychotic disorders. Known as the Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP), it was conducted in seven Australian catchment areas during March to December 2010. Current and past year labour force activity, current employment, past year participation in formal education and vocational training, and key clinical and demographic characteristics were examined in a sample of 1825 participants. Only 22.4% of people with psychotic disorders were found to be employed (either full-time or part-time) in the month prior to the survey. In the previous 12 months, 32.7% were employed at some time. Of those in competitive employment, the majority worked part-time (63.9%), while a quarter worked 38 or more hours per week (23.4%). In terms of educational attainment, 18.4% reported difficulties with reading or writing, while 31.9% completed high school, which represents 12 years of formal education. The proportion currently employed has remained stable at 22% since the last national survey in 1997. Policy makers and service providers could do more to ensure people with psychotic disorders obtain access to more effective forms of assistance with respect to both their continuing education and employment. More effective vocational and educational interventions for people with psychotic disorders appear to be urgently needed.

  14. Neural markers of emotional face perception across psychotic disorders and general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amri; Kotov, Roman; Szekely, Akos; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Barch, Deanna M; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2017-07-01

    There is considerable variation in negative and positive symptoms of psychosis, global functioning, and emotional face perception (EFP), not only in schizophrenia but also in other psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. However, EFP impairment and its association with worse symptoms and global functioning have been examined largely in the domain of schizophrenia. The present study adopted a dimensional approach to examine the association of behavioral and neural measures of EFP with symptoms of psychosis and global functioning across individuals with schizophrenia spectrum (SZ; N = 28) and other psychotic (OP; N = 29) disorders, and never-psychotic participants (NP; N = 21). Behavioral and functional MRI data were recorded as participants matched emotional expressions of faces and geometrical shapes. Lower accuracy and increased activity in early visual regions, hippocampus, and amygdala during emotion versus shape matching were associated with higher negative, but not positive, symptoms and lower global functioning, across all participants. This association remained even after controlling for group-related (SZ, OP, and NP) variance, dysphoria, and antipsychotic medication status, except in amygdala. Furthermore, negative symptoms mediated the relationship between behavioral and brain EFP measures and global functioning. This study provides some of the first evidence supporting the specific relationship of EFP measures with negative symptoms and global functioning across psychotic and never-psychotic samples, and transdiagnostically across different psychotic disorders. Present findings help bridge the gap between basic EFP-related neuroscience research and clinical research in psychosis, and highlight EFP as a potential symptom-specific marker that tracks global functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Psychosomatic regularities of psychotic disorders of women in involution (pathogenesis, clinics, psychodynamic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Pustovoyt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of psychotic disorders with onset in the age of involution from broader perspective, guided by modern multidimensional paradigm, was never discussed before. Involutional psychosis is considered as a constellation of the biological changes that are irrefutable in this age period. Certain personality traits and coping strategies can be predisposing to psychotic response, as well as typical features of the “life curve” and external stressors that can run a psychotic reaction. The paper presents the result of our study. This study pays much attention to study of premorbid personality, with emphasis on characteristic features, peculiarities of the emotional reaction and motivation-behavioral area, which completely coincided with characteristics of the narcissistic personality disorder listed in DSM-V (2013. Aim: To explore the psychosomatic pathogenetic connections inherent involutionary psychosis, given pathogenic and pathoplastic impact of premorbid personality structure their syndromic form and dynamics, determine their place on the psychosomatic continuum and develop adequate and pathogenetic justified method of therapy. Methods. Data obtained by the clinical method were confirmed by the results of experimental psychological and neuropsychological researches. Results. Clinical characteristics of psychotic disorders in the patient population showed in the structure of psychosis the existence of two oppositely directed continuums: affective (depressive and delusional. This allows to allocate four main clinical forms of psychosis and their tendency to unite in two clusters that differed each other by the features, and also by their response to therapy and, therefore, by the prognosis. Conclusions: The psychodynamic approach to understanding the involutional psychosis, that was introduced by the author, got natural development in the proposed method of treatment that included complex medication and psychotherapy. The schemes of

  16. Catalyst deterioration over the lifetime of small utility engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Nicholas J; Reisel, John R

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the deterioration of catalysts in small, four-stroke, spark-ignition engines is described. The laboratory testing performed followed a proven test method that mimics the lifetime of a small air-cooled utility engine operating under normal field conditions. The engines used were single-cylinder, 6.5-hp, side-valve engines. These engines have a nominal 125-hr lifetime. The effectiveness of the catalysts was determined by testing exhaust emissions before and after the catalyst to determine the catalyst's efficiency. This was done several times during the lifetime of the engines to determine the deterioration in the performance of the catalysts at lowering pollutant emissions. Additional testing was performed on the catalysts to determine wear patterns, contamination, and recoverable activity. The results indicate that considerable catalyst deterioration is occurring over the lifetime of the engine. The results reveal that soot buildup, poisons, and active surface loss appear to be the contributing factors to the deterioration. These results were determined after analyzing the exhaust emissions data, scanning electron microscope results analysis, and the impact of regeneration attempts. An ANOVA statistical analysis was performed, and it was determined that the emissions are also impacted, to some degree, by time and the engine itself.

  17. Study of straw chamber lifetime with argon ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cheu, E.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Odian, A.; Pitman, D.; Stockhausen, W.; Toki, W.; Wadley, W.; Wood, C.; Mir, R.

    1989-01-01

    We present detailed laboratory measurements of the lifetime of a small test chamber, simulating the Mark III straw vertex chamber conditions. The tests were carried out with an argon-ethane 50/50 gas mixture at 3 atm absolute pressure and 3.9 kV applied to the wires. After the accumulation of ≅ 0.02 C/cm on a single straw, continuous discharges began. The addition of alcohol or water vapor to the gas mixture was found to extend the lifetime of the straws. Continuous flow of the gas mixture with water vapor through the straws prolonged the lifetime significantly. We present results on the effects of changing the gas mixture inside the straws at regular time intervals. Adding a small percentage of water vapor to the argon-ethane gas and flowing the gas mixture in the straws can improve the lifetime by more than an order of magnitude. An accumulated charge of 1.0 C/cm on a single straw has been obtained. (orig.)

  18. Integrated tool for NPP lifetime management in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francia, L. [UNESA, Madrid (Spain); Lopez de Santa Maria, J. [ASCO-Vandellos 2 NPPs l' Hospitalet de l' Infant, Tarragona (Spain); Cardoso, A. [Tecnatom SA, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The project for the Integrated Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management System SIGEVI (Sistema Integrado de GEstion de VIda de Centrales Nucleares) was initiated in April 1998 and finalized in December 2000, the main objective of the project being to develop a computer application facilitating the assessment of the condition and lifetime of nuclear power plant components. This constituted the second phase of a further-reaching project on NPP Lifetime Management. During the first phase of this project, carried out between 1992 and 1995, the methodology and strategy for the lifetime management of the Spanish NPP's were developed. Among others, degradation phenomena were assessed and the most adequate methods for their monitoring were defined. The SIGEVI Project has been performed under the management of UNESA (Spanish Electricity Association) and with the collaboration of different engineering firms and research institutes (Tecnatom, Empresarios Agrupados, Ufisa, Initec and IIT), with Vandellos II as the pilot plant. The rest of the Spanish NPP's have also actively participated through the Project Steering Committee. The following sections describe the scope, the structure and the main functionalities of the system SIGEVI. (authors)

  19. Integrated tool for NPP lifetime management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, L.; Lopez de Santa Maria, J.; Cardoso, A.

    2001-01-01

    The project for the Integrated Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management System SIGEVI (Sistema Integrado de GEstion de VIda de Centrales Nucleares) was initiated in April 1998 and finalized in December 2000, the main objective of the project being to develop a computer application facilitating the assessment of the condition and lifetime of nuclear power plant components. This constituted the second phase of a further-reaching project on NPP Lifetime Management. During the first phase of this project, carried out between 1992 and 1995, the methodology and strategy for the lifetime management of the Spanish NPP's were developed. Among others, degradation phenomena were assessed and the most adequate methods for their monitoring were defined. The SIGEVI Project has been performed under the management of UNESA (Spanish Electricity Association) and with the collaboration of different engineering firms and research institutes (Tecnatom, Empresarios Agrupados, Ufisa, Initec and IIT), with Vandellos II as the pilot plant. The rest of the Spanish NPP's have also actively participated through the Project Steering Committee. The following sections describe the scope, the structure and the main functionalities of the system SIGEVI. (authors)

  20. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, psychotic and severe non-psychotic depression and healthy controls. Results of the schizophrenia and affective psychoses (SAP) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salokangas, R K R; Cannon, T; Van Erp, T; Ilonen, T; Taiminen, T; Karlsson, H; Lauerma, H; Leinonen, K M; Wallenius, E; Kaljonen, A; Syvälahti, E; Vilkman, H; Alanen, A; Hietala, J

    2002-09-01

    Structural brain abnormalities are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. To study how regional brain volumes and their ratios differ between patients with schizophrenia, psychotic depression, severe non-psychotic depression and healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain on first-episode patients and on healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia had a smaller left frontal grey matter volume than the other three groups. Patients with psychotic depression had larger ventricular and posterior sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes than controls. Patients with depression had larger white matter volumes than the other patients. Left frontal lobe, especially its grey matter volume, seems to be specifically reduced in first-episode schizophrenia. Enlarged cerebral ventricles and sulcal CSF volumes are prevalent in psychotic depression. Preserved or expanded white matter is typical of non-psychotic depression.

  1. First wall lifetime of the near term fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matera, R.; Botti, S.; Cerrai, G.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of the influence of the operating conditions and of the design parameters over the first wall lifetime was performed by means of the computer program smile. In the range of operating conditions typical of an experimental fusion reactor like NET/INTOR and for a type AISI 316 stainless steel structural material, fatigue damage and fatigue crack growth are the limiting failure mechanisms of the first wall. The analysis shows in graphical form the limits of the allowable range of operating conditions or of design parameters

  2. Severity of Illness and Adaptive Functioning Predict Quality of Care of Children Among Parents with Psychotic Disorders : A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, L.; Hanlon, M.--C.; Cherrie, G.; Harvey, C.; Stain, H. J.; Cohen, M.; van Ravenzwaaij, D.; Brown, S. D.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Parenthood is central to the personal and social identity of many people. For individuals with psychotic disorders, parenthood is often associated with formidable challenges. We aimed to identify predictors of adequate parenting among parents with psychotic disorders. METHODS: Data

  3. Intermediate phenotype analysis of patients, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls identifies VMAT2 as a candidate gene for psychotic disorder and neurocognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, C.J.; van Winkel, R.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R.S.; Krabbendam, L.; Linzen, D.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J; Wiersma, D.

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic disorders are associated with neurocognitive alterations that aggregate in unaffected family members, suggesting that genetic vulnerability to psychotic disorder impacts neurocognition. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selected schizophrenia candidate single

  4. Treatment of unipolar psychotic depression : a randomized, double-blind study comparing imipramine, venlafaxine, and venlafaxine plus quetiapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, J.; Burger, H.; van den Broek, W. W.; Birkenhager, T. K.; Janzing, J. G. E.; Boks, M. P. M.; Bruijn, J. A.; van der Loos, M. L. M.; Breteler, L. M. T.; Ramaekers, G. M. G. I.; Verkes, R. J.; Nolen, W. A.

    Objective: It remains unclear whether unipolar psychotic depression should be treated with an antidepressant and an antipsychotic or with an antidepressant alone. Method: In a multi-center RCT, 122 patients (18-65 years) with DSM-IV-TR psychotic major depression and HAM-D-17 >= 18 were randomized to

  5. Treatment of unipolar psychotic depression: a randomized, double-blind study comparing imipramine, venlafaxine, and venlafaxine plus quetiapine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, J.; Burger, H.; Broek, W.W. van den; Birkenhäger, T.K.; Janzing, J.G.E.; Boks, M.P.; Bruijn, J.A.; Loos, M.L. van der; Breteler, L.M.; Ramaekers, G.M.; Verkes, R.J.; Nolen, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether unipolar psychotic depression should be treated with an antidepressant and an antipsychotic or with an antidepressant alone. METHOD: In a multi-center RCT, 122 patients (18-65 years) with DSM-IV-TR psychotic major depression and HAM-D-17 > or = 18 were

  6. Stability and development of psychotic symptoms and the use of antipsychotic medication - long-term follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, D R; Wils, R S; Hjorthøj, C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the development in the use of antipsychotic medication and psychotic symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis on a long-term basis. Our objective was to investigate how psychotic symptoms and the use of antipsychotic medication changed over a 10-yea...

  7. An Open Trial of a New Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment for Major Depression with Psychotic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Nowlan, Kathryn; Brown, Lily A.; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that cognitive and behavioral therapies produce significant benefits over medications alone in the treatment of severe, nonpsychotic major depression or primary psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, previous research has not demonstrated the efficacy of psychotherapy for major depression with psychotic features. In…

  8. Increased psychophysiological parameters of attention in non-psychotic individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Oranje, Bob; Abramovic, Lucija

    2010-01-01

    with an auditory oddball paradigm in 18 non-psychotic individuals with AVH and 18 controls. RESULTS: P300 amplitude was increased in the AVH group as compared to controls, reflecting superior effortful attention. A trend in the same direction was found for processing negativity. No significant differences were...... found for mismatch negativity. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our expectations, non-psychotic individuals with AVH show increased rather than decreased psychophysiological measures of effortful attention compared to healthy controls, refuting a pivotal role of decreased effortful attention...

  9. Excess mortality of acute and transient psychotic disorders: comparison with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate mortality and causes of death of short-lived psychotic disorders, by carrying out a comparison with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Method: Record linkage study to the official register of causes of death of all cases aged 15–64 years who were listed for the first time...... in the Danish Psychiatric Register between 1995 and 2008 with an ICD-10 diagnosis of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders’ (ATPDs; n = 4157), bipolar disorder (n = 3200) and schizophrenia (n = 4576). Results: A total of 232 patients (5.6%) with ATPDs, 172 (5.4%) with bipolar disorder and 233 (5...

  10. The main objectives of lifetime management of reactor unit components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragunov, Y.; Kurakov, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of the work concerned with life management of reactor components in Russian Federation are as follows: development of regulations in the field of NPP components ageing and lifetime management; investigations of ageing processes; residual life evaluation taking into account the actual state of NPP systems, real loading conditions and number of load cycles, results of in-service inspections; development and implementation of measures for maintaining/enhancing the NPP safety

  11. A probabilistic approach to assessing radioactive waste container lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.M.; Naish, C.C.; Sharland, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology has been developed to make assessments of the lifetime of specific radioactive waste container designs in a repository environment. The methodology employs a statistical approach, which aims to reflect uncertainty in the corrosion rates, and the evolution of the environmental conditions. In this paper, the methodology is demonstrated for an intermediate-level waste (ILW) container in the anticipated UK repository situation

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  13. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  15. Lifetime measurement of ATF damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okugi, T.; Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Naito, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Zimmermann, F.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the ATF damping ring is the development of technologies for producing a low emittance beam required in future linear colliders such as JLC. The lifetime of the damping ring is very short (typically a few minutes). It is limited by elastic beam-gas scattering along with a small dynamic aperture, and by single intra-beam scattering (Touschek effect). The Touschek lifetime strongly depends upon the charge density of the beam, especially, the size of the vertical emittance. In this paper, the authors report the results of beam lifetime measurements in the ATF damping ring and the estimation of the vertical emittance from these measurements

  16. Lifetime of B hadrons from CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Ting.

    1996-08-01

    A review of the lifetimes of B hadrons measured by the CDF collaboration at Fermilab is presented. The data corresponds to 110 pb -1 of p anti p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV. The inclusive B hadron lifetime is measured using a high statistics sample of B → J/ΨΧ decays. Species specific lifetimes of the B + , B 0 , B 0 s , and Λ 0 b are determined using both fully reconstructed decays and partially reconstructed decays consisting of a lepton associated with a charm hadron

  17. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  18. Statistical Models and Methods for Lifetime Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition"An indispensable addition to any serious collection on lifetime data analysis and . . . a valuable contribution to the statistical literature. Highly recommended . . ."-Choice"This is an important book, which will appeal to statisticians working on survival analysis problems."-Biometrics"A thorough, unified treatment of statistical models and methods used in the analysis of lifetime data . . . this is a highly competent and agreeable statistical textbook."-Statistics in MedicineThe statistical analysis of lifetime or response time data is a key tool in engineering,

  19. Study on lifetime of C stripping foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongbin; Lu Ziwei; Zhao Yongtao; Li Zhankui; Xu Hushan; Xiao Guoqing; Wang Yuyu; Zhang Ling; Li Longcai; Fang Yan

    2007-01-01

    The carbon stripping foils can be prepared with the AC and DC arc discharge methods, or even sandwiched with AC-DC alternative layers. The lifetime of the carbon stripping foils of 19 μg/cm 2 prepared with different methods and/or structures was measured. The factors affecting the bombarding lifetime of the carbon stripping foils, especially the method of the foil preparation and the structure of the carbon stripping foils, were discussed. It is observed that the foils prepared with the DC arc discharge method have a longer bombarding lifetime than those prepared with the AC arc discharge method. (authors)

  20. Measurement of minority carrier lifetime in silicon solar cells using an a. c. light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, A.; Gupta, R.S.; Srivastava, G.P. (Delhi Univ., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Electronic Sciences); Jain, V.K. (Solid State Physics Lab., Delhi (India)); Chilana, G.S. (Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics)

    1990-06-01

    A simple technique for the measurement of minority carriers lifetimes is proposed. It is based on the modification of the junction structure by the addition of a d.c. bias to the a.c. source. This always keeps the solar cell in the forward biased condition and also keeps it in the operating range. This method provides a direct measurement of minority carriers lifetimes. The lifetime is found to increase from 2.89 {mu}s at 30deg C to 4.55 {mu}s at 120deg C. The lifetime reduces to 1.45 {mu}s at liquid air temperature. Based on these lifetime measurements, the diffusion length of the carriers has also been calculated. (orig.).

  1. Quantum-electrodynamic influences on the lifetime of metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, G.

    2007-01-01

    High-precision lifetime measurements of the metastable 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 P 0 3/2 level in boronlike Ar XIV and the 3s 2 2p 2 P 0 3/2 level in aluminumlike Fe XIV were performed at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap (HD-EBIT). The lifetimes were inferred by monitoring their optical decay curves resulting from the magnetic dipole (M1) transition 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 P 0 3/2 - 2 P 0 1/2 and 3s 2 3p 2 P 0 3/2 - 2 P 0 1/2 to the ground state configuration with transition wavelengths of 441.256 nm and 530.29 nm, respectively. Possible systematic error sources were investigated by studying the dependence of the decay times of the curves on various trapping conditions with high statistical significance. A new trapping scheme for lifetime measurements at an EBIT has been applied and allowed to reach an unprecedented precision in the realm of lifetime determinations on highly charged ions. The results of 9.573(4)( +12 -5 ) ms (stat)(syst) for Ar XIV and 16.726(10)(+17) ms (stat)(syst) for Fe XIV with a relative accuracy of 0.14% and 0.13%, respectively, make these measurements for the first time sensitive to quantum electrodynamic effects like the electron anomalous magnetic moment (EAMM). The results, improving the accuracy of previous measurements by factors of 10 and 6, respectively, show a clear discrepancy of about 3σ and 4σ to the trend of existing theoretical models, which in almost all cases predict a shorter lifetime, when adjusted for the EAMM. The obvious disagreement between experimental results and the predictions points at the incompleteness of the theoretical models used. (orig.)

  2. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  3. RDM lifetime measurements in 187Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamoli, S.K.; Joshi, P.; Kumar, A.; Govil, I.M.; Mukherjee, G.; Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to study the shape changes in 187 Tl through a measurement of electromagnetic transition probabilities of the high spin states. The Doppler shifted recoil distance technique was used to measure the lifetimes

  4. Improved b lifetime measurement from MAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.T.

    1984-03-01

    Two recent publications, from the MAC and Mark II collaborations, have reported the somewhat surprising result that the lifetime of particles made up of b quarks is in the 1 to 2 picosecond range, or somewhat longer than the lifetimes of charm particles. Although the charm decays are favored transitions while those of b particles depend upon off-diagonal elements of the weak flavor mixing matrix, the smallness of the b decay rates in face of the large available phase space indicates that the off-diagonal elements are indeed very small. The possibility for complete determination of the mixing matrix was brought significantly nearer by the availability of the lifetime information; what is needed now is to reduce the uncertainty of the measurements, which was about 33% for both experiments. We describe here an extension of the b lifetime study with the MAC detector, incorporating some new data and improvements in the analysis. 12 references

  5. Lifetime measurements of excited Co I levels

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, W D; Gobel, L H

    1977-01-01

    In the region of 3500 AA the lifetimes of eight excited Cobalt I levels have been measured by means of the zero field level crossing method. The measured lifetimes belong to the odd configurations 3d/sup 7/4s4p and 3d/sup 8/4p and are of the accuracy of about 5%. The hyperfine structure of levels with I not=J has to be taken into account in evaluating lifetimes from level crossing data, because the nuclear spin of the natural isotope /sup 59/Co is I=7/2. Therefore the influence of the line profile of the exciting resonance lines on the lifetimes has been investigated. The results are compared with those of other authors. Furthermore absolute oscillator strengths were calculated with known branching ratios and a new absolute scale has been established. (23 refs).

  6. Quantum lifetime in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1977-02-01

    One of the mechanisms which contribute to beam lifetime in electron storage rings is the quantum emission of energetic photons causing particles to be lost from the rf bucket. This quantum lifetime is among other things important in defining the required aperture in a storage ring. An approximate expression of quantum lifetime, predicted by a one-dimensional model which takes into account only the betatron motion, has been used in most storage ring designs. If the beam is aperture-limited at a position with nonzero dispersion, both the betatron and synchrotron motions have to be included and a two-dimensional model must be used. An exact expression of quantum lifetime for the one-dimensional case and an approximate expression for the two-dimensional case are given

  7. Quantum lifetime in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    One of the mechanisms which contributes to beam lifetime in electron storage rings is the quantum emission of energetic photons causing particles to be lost from the rf bucket. This quantum lifetime is among other things important in defining the required aperture in a storage ring. An approximate expression of quantum lifetime, predicted by a one-dimensional model which takes into account only the betatron motion, has been used in most storage ring designs. If the beam is aperture-limited at a position with nonzero dispersion, both the betatron and synchrotron motions have to be included, and a two-dimensional model must be used. An exact expression of quantum lifetime for the one-dimensional case and an approximate expression for the two-dimensional case are given

  8. Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver to NASA an innovative, portable, and power efficient Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer...

  9. Lifetime measurements of hadrons containing heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forden, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent lifetime measurements of heavy particles at PETRA and PEP are reviewed. A comparison of the methods used is given. The world averages for the lifetimes of the D 0 and D +- mesons are found to be (tau/dub D/ 0 ) - 3.97 +/- 0.3 x 10 -13 sec and (tau/dub D +-/) = 8.6 +/- 0.7 x 10 -13 sec. This difference in lifetimes is discussed in light of recent information about exclusive decays. The world average for the lifetime of bottom hadrons is determined to be (tau/sub b/) = 11.0 +/- 1.5 x 10 -13 sec and new estimates for the b quark mixing elements, absolute value V/sub bu/ and absolute value V/sub bc/, are given

  10. Penitentiary Resocialization – three conditionings of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Machel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Penitentiary resocialization, its form, content, organization and effectiveness depends on many conditionings. Among the most important are: the penitentiary system which makes the general decisions, conditions characteristic for the particular penitentiary, including social conditions of the prison and the human material (convicts’ community which as a subject are both within the scope of interest of those conducting the resocialization and are included in the penitentiary treatment. The goal of this treatment is to yield the expected effectiveness of resocialization. That is why the penitentiary system which is the most important to produce the expected effect has to take many conditionings under consideration and, foremost, factors characteristic for the particular penitentiary and the human material (convicts’ community which is the subject of penitentiary treatment. As many research show the nature of the penitentiary doesn’t work in favour of the process of resocialization. The interaction of conflict, the subculture of the penitentiary and other factors, including troubles of penitentiary isolation, often occurring disorders between the prisoner and his family or his close relatives amount to the reduction in the influence of the resocialization. Another of the three important conditionings described here that stymie the process are certain categories of prisoners. The subject in question are the ones addicted to alcohol and drugs, showing non-psychotic personality disorders, psychopaths and those connected with organized crime, kidnappers, assassins and hit-men and terrorists. Separate category of convicts who are hard to resocialize are those convicted of sexual offences, including paedophiles. So far no effective psycho-correction methods have been formed, especially for paedophiles. Certain difficulties are also experienced when dealing with long-term convicts: sentenced for 25 years or lifetime – sometimes it is not clear

  11. Lifetime measurement in {sup 195}Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, T.; Page, R.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Dewald, A.; Jolie, J.; Melon, B.; Pissulla, T. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Greenlees, P.T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Saren, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kroell, T.; Kruecken, R.; Maierbeck, P. [TU Muenchen, Physik-Department E12, Garching (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The lifetime of the 17/2{sup +} yrast state in {sup 195}Po has been measured using the recoil distance Doppler-shift technique to be {tau}=43(11) ps. The lifetime was extracted from the singles {gamma}-ray spectra obtained by using the recoil-decay tagging method. The present work provides more information of the coupling schemes, shapes and configuration mixing in neutron-deficient odd-mass Po nuclei. (orig.)

  12. The measurement of subnanosecond nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.C.S.

    1974-01-01

    This research dealt with the measurement of subnanosecond nuclear lifetimes using the pulsed beam delayed-coincidence technique. Measurements were performed on isotopes in the f7/2 shell and specifically the isotopes of titanium and vanadium. Experimental investigations were also pursued in 59 Ni and 65 Zn. Several new lifetimes were determined and confirmation was obtained for some previous values which were measured with different techniques. More information was also obtained on certain levels where previous results are in disagreement. (author)

  13. Masses and lifetimes of B hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kkkroll, I.J.

    1996-02-01

    The latest measurements of the masses and lifetimes of weakly decaying B hadrons from experiments at e + e - and p bar p colliders are presented. These measurements include the lifetimes of the bar B o , bar B o s , B - and b baryons, as well as searches for the B c meson. The observation of B*, p-wave B mesons (B**), and excited b baryons using inclusive and exclusive B hadron reconstruction are discussed. Results on b quark flavour tagging are given

  14. Fluorescence lifetime measurement of radical ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Nobuyuki; Kinugasa, Jun-ichiro; Hagiri, Masahide; Nakayama, Toshihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Maki; Daido, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    One-photonic excitation of a charge transfer complex of hexamethoxybenzene (HMB) and nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate (NO + BF 4 - ) in acetonitrile afforded fluorescences emission from excited radical cation of HMB (HMB + *). Lifetime of the excited radical ion species was measured to be 7 ps by the pump-probe transient absorption technique. The lifetime was much shorter than that of free radical ion (63 ps), indicating the presence of an interaction between HMB + * and NO in the excited complex. (author)

  15. Λc photoproduction and lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bizetti, A.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Raso, G.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Beck, G.A.; Bologna, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Picchi, P.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Milotti, E.; Rolandi, L.; Carter, J.; Green, M.G.; Landon, M.P.J.; March, P.V.; Sacks, L.; Sanjari, A.H.; Strong, J.A.; Ciocci, M.A.; Enorini, M.; Fabbri, F.L.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Simonelli, L.; Spillantini, P.; Zallo, A.

    1987-01-01

    A measurement of the lifetime of the Λ c baryon photoproduced coherently of a germanium-silicon target is presented. A signal of Λ c → ΔΚ * → pKππ 0 has been observed and the two different decay diagrams for this process are compared. A sample of 9 Λ c decays give a lifetime of 1.1(+0.8-0.4)10 13 s. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of the Omega0(c) lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iori, M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a precise measurement of the (Omega) c 0 lifetime. The data were taken by the SELEX (E781) experiment using 600 GeV/c Σ - , π - and p beams. The measurement has been made using 83 ± 19 reconstructed (Omega) c 0 in the (Omega) - π - π + π + and (Omega) - π + decay modes. The lifetime of the (Omega) c 0 is measured to be 65 ± 13(stat) ± 9(sys) fs

  17. The total lifetime costs of smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.R.; Prescott, E.; Sørensen, T.I.A.

    2004-01-01

    Net costs of smoking in a lifetime perspective and, hence, the economic interests in antismoking policies have been questioned. It has been proposed that the health-related costs of smoking are balanced by smaller expenditure due to shorter life expectancy.......Net costs of smoking in a lifetime perspective and, hence, the economic interests in antismoking policies have been questioned. It has been proposed that the health-related costs of smoking are balanced by smaller expenditure due to shorter life expectancy....

  18. Positron lifetime studies on thorium oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, D.D.; Muraleedharan, R.V.; Sharma, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Positron lifetime spectra have been studied for ThO 2 powders, calcined at different temperatures and having different particle sizes. Three lifetime components could be resolved, the longest component being of low intensity. An observed strong dependence on the particle size of the annihilation process and the variation of positronium diffusion constant is explained on the basis of defect density variations in these powders. (author)

  19. Robust D-optimal designs under correlated error, applicable invariantly for some lifetime distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Rabindra Nath; Kim, Jinseog; Park, Jeong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    In quality engineering, the most commonly used lifetime distributions are log-normal, exponential, gamma and Weibull. Experimental designs are useful for predicting the optimal operating conditions of the process in lifetime improvement experiments. In the present article, invariant robust first-order D-optimal designs are derived for correlated lifetime responses having the above four distributions. Robust designs are developed for some correlated error structures. It is shown that robust first-order D-optimal designs for these lifetime distributions are always robust rotatable but the converse is not true. Moreover, it is observed that these designs depend on the respective error covariance structure but are invariant to the above four lifetime distributions. This article generalizes the results of Das and Lin [7] for the above four lifetime distributions with general (intra-class, inter-class, compound symmetry, and tri-diagonal) correlated error structures. - Highlights: • This paper presents invariant robust first-order D-optimal designs under correlated lifetime responses. • The results of Das and Lin [7] are extended for the four lifetime (log-normal, exponential, gamma and Weibull) distributions. • This paper also generalizes the results of Das and Lin [7] to more general correlated error structures

  20. [Relationship between subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive performance in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, Alberto; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Valcárcel, César; Díez, Álvaro; Grau, Adriana; Domínguez, Cristina; Gallardo, Ricardo; Molina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated to negative life outcomes in the general population, but their relationship with cognitive performance is still not well understood. Assessing the relationship between performance in cognitive domains and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population may also help understand the handicap attributed to clinical psychosis, in which these alterations are present. Subclinical and cognitive assessments were obtained in 203 participants from the general population by means of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The positive and negative subclinical symptoms and their relationship with age and cognition were examined, followed by assessing the influence of subclinical depression scores on the possible relationships between those subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. Inverse relationships were found between frequency in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences positive dimension and motor speed, and frequency and distress in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences negative dimension and motor speed. A direct relationship was also found between distress scores of the positive dimension and executive functions. Both positive and negative subclinical symptoms were related to depression scores. Psychotic symptoms, similar to those in the clinical population, may be associated with cognitive deficits in the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Positive life change and remission of non-psychotic mental illness - A competing outcomes approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J

    Background: Episode duration in non-psychotic mental illness is associated with personal characteristics of patients, like age or personality. Part of these links may be mediated by life change, a predictor of episode duration in its own right. Methods: In 170 primary care patients who suffered 4171

  2. Impact on the psychotic vulnerability of the therapeutic approachin the Prison Psychiatric Hospital in Seville (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé-García, P; Lamas-Bosque, F J; Massé-Palomo, A

    2017-06-01

    to analyze changes in psychotic vulnerability following the implementation of a program of prison psychiatric treatment, recidivism after the release and various descriptive variables of criminological interest. review of a sample consisting of 50 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia admitted to the Prison Psychiatric Hospital of Seville. there was a statistically significant reduction of psychotic vulnerability according to an assessment using the Frankfurt psychopathological inventory (FBF-3), after conducting a complete psychiatric, psychological, social and rehabilitation approach in the prison environment. The core symptoms relating to complex perception and language also decreased significantly. The reduction is particularly noticeable in the number of patients categorized as medium-high and high severity. Recidivism in the follow-up of release of patients in the study sample is low (6%) and there were no cases of serious felony or grievous bodily harm. Recidivism, when it occurs, is not immediate. Although there is some criminal versatility, it is limited. The most frequent victims are parents with a previous relationship with the patient. Most of the patients in the sample, and all recidivists, have comorbid substance abuse (dual diagnosis). we need more comprehensive studies to establish causal relationships between the decrease in psychotic vulnerability and an integrated psychiatric, psychological, social and rehabilitation approach in prisons; or to attribute the low rate of recidivism to the decline of psychotic vulnerability.

  3. Ethnicity, social disadvantage and psychotic-like experiences in a healthy population based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C; Fisher, H; Hutchinson, G; Kirkbride, J; Craig, T K; Morgan, K; Dazzan, P; Boydell, J; Doody, G A; Jones, P B; Murray, R M; Leff, J; Fearon, P

    2009-03-01

    We sought to investigate the prevalence and social correlates of psychotic-like experiences in a general population sample of Black and White British subjects. Data were collected from randomly selected community control subjects, recruited as part of the AESOP study, a three-centre population based study of first-episode psychosis. The proportion of subjects reporting one or more psychotic-like experience was 19% (n = 72/372). These were more common in Black Caribbean (OR 2.08) and Black African subjects (OR 4.59), compared with White British. In addition, a number of indicators of childhood and adult disadvantage were associated with psychotic-like experiences. When these variables were simultaneously entered into a regression model, Black African ethnicity, concentrated adult disadvantage, and separation from parents retained a significant effect. The higher prevalence of psychotic-like experiences in the Black Caribbean, but not Black African, group was explained by high levels of social disadvantage over the life course.

  4. How do General Practitioners experience providing care for their psychotic patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slooff Cees J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, GPs usually provide care for patients with chronic diseases according to professional guidelines. However, such guidelines are not available in the Netherlands for patients with recurring psychoses. It seems that the specific difficulties that GPs experience in providing care for these patients hinder the development and implementation of such guidelines. This study aims to explore the chances and problems GPs meet when providing care for patients susceptible for recurring psychoses, including schizophrenia and related disorders, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. Methods A qualitative study of focus group discussions with practising GPs in both town and rural areas. Transcripts from three focus groups with 19 GPs were analysed with the computer program 'Kwalitan'. Theoretical saturation was achieved after these three groups. Results Analysis showed that eight categories of factors influenced the GPs' care for psychotic patients: patient presentation (acute vs. chronic phase, emotional impact, expertise, professional attitude, patient related factors, patient's family, practice organization, and collaboration with psychiatric specialists. Conclusion Current primary care for psychotic patients depends very much on personal characteristics of the GP and the quality of local collaboration with the Mental Health Service. A quantitative study among GPs using a questionnaire based on the eight categories mentioned above would determine the extent of the problems and limitations experienced with this type of care. From the results of this quantitative study, new realistic guidelines could be developed to improve the quality of care for psychotic patients.

  5. Subclinical psychotic experiences and bipolar spectrum features in depression : association with outcome of psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigman, J. T. W.; van Os, J.; Abidi, L.; Huibers, M. J. H.; Roelofs, J.; Arntz, A.; Kelleher, I.; Peeters, F. P. M. L.

    Background Subthreshold psychotic and bipolar experiences are common in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unknown if effectiveness of psychotherapy is altered in depressed patients who display such features compared with those without. The current paper aimed to investigate the impact

  6. The association between social anhedonia, withdrawal and psychotic experiences in general and high-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthorst, Eva; Meijer, Carin

    2012-07-01

    Social anhedonia (SA) and withdrawal are clinically relevant phenomena in schizophrenia. To examine the nature of the overlap between SA, withdrawal and positive symptoms, we investigated whether the co-occurrence of these phenotypes is more prominent in siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder compared to healthy controls, and if this association is independent of the amount of distress caused by psychotic experiences (PEs). Data were derived from 646 unaffected siblings and 326 healthy controls who were included in the Dutch Genetic Risk and Outcome in Psychosis (GROUP) study. PEs were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences and the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised was used to examine social anhedonia and withdrawal. Our results show relatively small but significant cross-sectional associations between SA, withdrawal and PEs in unaffected siblings and none in the control group, irrespective of the level of distress caused by PEs. The findings of the present study suggest that the overlap between SA, withdrawal and psychotic symptoms often reported in schizophrenia patients, may at least partly reflect a shared genetic vulnerability, instead of merely being either a state marker of - or reaction to - acute psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Symptomatological features of patients with and without Ecstasy use during their first psychotic episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Fabio; Bacciardi, Silvia; Rovai, Luca; Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Deltito, Joseph; Dell'osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2012-07-01

    Ecstasy use is generally chosen by adolescents and young adults for its entactogenic properties (the production of feelings of empathy, love, and emotional closeness to others.) Despite this desired and frequently realized outcome, Ecstasy use has often resulted in the genesis of psychotic symptoms and aggressive behaviors, particularly after chronic and/or intensive use. To explore the negative consequences of Ecstasy use and to examine the aggressive nature oftentimes seen in many Ecstasy users we employed a case-control study model. We compared, by means of validated psychometric tests, the psychopathological symptoms (BPRS), the aggressiveness (OAS) and the social adjustment (DSM-GAF) of psychotic patients with (n = 23) and without (n = 46) recent user of Ecstasy, during their first psychotic episode and hospitalization. All 23 Ecstasy users were Ecstasy users only. Almost all of the psychotic symptoms were of similar severity in both groups. Blunted affect was milder in users than in non-users, whereas hostility and aggressive behavior was significantly more severe in users than in non-users. psychosis with a high level of aggressiveness and violence constitutes an important 'side-effect' that surely runs counter to the expected entactogenic action of Ecstasy. At a patient psycho-educational level, this study suggests that the use of Ecstasy may be counterproductive with respect to user expectations.

  8. Psychotic experiences and hyper-theory-of-mind in preadolescence - a birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemmensen, L.; van Os, J.; Drukker, M.; Munkholm, A.; Rimvall, M. K.; Vaever, M.; Rask, C. U.; Bartels-Velthuis, A. A.; Skovgaard, A. M.; Jeppesen, P.

    Background. Knowledge on the risk mechanisms of psychotic experiences (PE) is still limited. The aim of this population-based study was to explore developmental markers of PE with a particular focus on the specificity of hyper-theory-of-mind (HyperToM) as correlate of PE as opposed to correlate of

  9. Insight in psychotic disorder: relation with psychopathology and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atmesh; Sharma, Pranjal; Das, Shyamanta; Nath, Kamal; Talukdar, Uddip; Bhagabati, Dipesh

    2014-01-01

    Through conceptualising poor insight in psychotic disorders as a form of anosognosia, frontal lobe dysfunction is often ascribed a vital role in its pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the relation of insight in patients with psychotic illness to that of psychopathology and frontal lobe function. Forty patients with psychotic disorder were selected from those attending the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The evaluation of insight was carried out using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), that of frontal lobe function by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and psychopathology by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The correlation coefficients were determined. A negative correlation between SAI and BPRS scores means that the BPRS score is opposite to SAI scores. When the SAI total score was compared with the FAB total score, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a positive correlation. Better insight predicted lesser psychopathology and also that poor insight would exist with greater psychopathology. Better insight predicted a higher functional status of frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex in particular. Insight deficits in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses are multidimensional. Integration of different aetiological factors like biological, psychopathological, environmental ones and others are necessary for a better understanding of insight in psychosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Mentally disordered non-psychotic criminal offenders--treatment instead of punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Ejnar Alex

    2013-01-01

    By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures as sanctions...

  11. Understanding and improving treatment adherence in patients with psychotic disorders : A review and a proposed intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, Anton B.P.; van der Gaag, Mark; Selten, Jean-Paul; Loonen, Anton J.M.; Hengeveld, Michiel W.; Mulder, Cornelis L.

    2006-01-01

    Non-adherence to treatment of patients with psychotic disorders is related to higher rates of relapse, hospitalization, and suicide. Important predictors of non-adherence include poor social structure, cognitive deficits, negative medication attitude, side effects, depression, a sealing-over

  12. The relation of vitamin D, metabolic risk and negative symptom severity in people with psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, J.; Jörg, F.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Corpeleijn, E.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Pijnenborg, G.H.M.; Bruggeman, R.

    2018-01-01

    People with psychotic disorders have an increased metabolic risk and their mean life expectancy is reduced with circa 28 years (Olfson et al., 2015).Predictors of this increased metabolic risk are genetic predisposition (Liu et al., 2013), lifestyle factors such as unhealthy diet, physical

  13. AKT1 Moderation of Cannabis-Induced Cognitive Alterations in Psychotic Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkel, R.; van Beveren, N.J.; Simons, C.; Kahn, R.S.; Linszen, D.H.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Krabbendam, L.; Myin-Germeys, I.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation in AKT1 may be associated with sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effects of cannabis as well as with increased risk for psychotic disorder following cannabis use. Investigation of the effect of this interaction on relevant intermediate phenotypes for psychosis, such as cognition,

  14. AKT1 moderation of cannabis-induced cognitive alterations in psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkel, Ruud; van Beveren, Nico J. M.; Simons, Claudia; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don H.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation in AKT1 may be associated with sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effects of cannabis as well as with increased risk for psychotic disorder following cannabis use. Investigation of the effect of this interaction on relevant intermediate phenotypes for psychosis, such as cognition,

  15. Feasibility and Efficacy of Prolonged Exposure for PTSD among Individuals with a Psychotic Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk L. Grubaugh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Few empirical studies have examined the feasibility of trauma-focused treatment among individuals with schizophrenia. This lack of research is important given the substantial overlap of trauma exposure and subsequent PTSD with psychotic spectrum disorders, and the potential for PTSD to complicate the course and prognosis of schizophrenia and other variants of severe mental illness.Method: As part of a larger study, 14 veterans with a psychotic spectrum disorder were enrolled to receive prolonged exposure (PE for PTSD within a single arm open trial study design. Patient reactions and responses to PE were examined using feasibility indices such as attrition, survey reactions, and treatment expectancy; pre and post-changes in PTSD severity and diagnostic status; and thematic interviews conducted post-intervention.Results: Quantitative and qualitative data indicate that implementation of PE is feasible, subjectively well-tolerated, and may result in clinically significant reductions in PTSD symptoms in patients with psychotic spectrum disorders.Conclusion: Consistent with treatment outcome data in clinical populations with a broader range of severe mental illnesses, the current results support the use of PTSD exposure-based interventions, such as PE, for individuals with psychotic spectrum disorders.

  16. Brain germinoma presenting as a first psychotic episode in an adolescent male

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Brain germinoma presenting as a first psychotic episode in an adolescent male phone: +34-93-2275477 (Undurraga, Juan) (Undurraga, Juan) Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona - Servicio de Psiquiatria (Escalera 9, Planta 6), Calle Villarroel, 170 - 08036 - Barcelona - SPAIN (Undurraga, Juan) Department of Child and Adolescent Psychology and Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona - Barc...

  17. Social Cognitive Impairments and Psychotic Symptoms: What is the Nature of Their Association?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fett, A.J.; Maat, A.; Kahn, R.S.; Linszen, D.H.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Krabbendam, L.; Myin-Germeys, I.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive deficits are associated with psychotic symptoms, but the nature of this association remains unknown. This study uses a genetically sensitive cross-trait cross-sibling design to investigate the nature of the overlap between both phenotypes. A sample of 1032 patients, 1017 of their

  18. Cannabis use and childhood trauma interact additively to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harley, M

    2010-10-01

    Adolescent cannabis use has been shown in many studies to increase the risk of later psychosis. Childhood trauma is associated with both substance misuse and risk for psychosis. In this study our aim was to investigate whether there is a significant interaction between cannabis use and childhood trauma in increasing the risk for experiencing psychotic symptoms during adolescence.

  19. Individualized prediction of illness course at the first psychotic episode: a support vector machine MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mourao-Miranda, J

    2012-05-01

    To date, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made little impact on the diagnosis and monitoring of psychoses in individual patients. In this study, we used a support vector machine (SVM) whole-brain classification approach to predict future illness course at the individual level from MRI data obtained at the first psychotic episode.

  20. Impact on the psychotic vulnerability of the therapeutic approachin the Prison Psychiatric Hospital in Seville (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Massé-García

    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze changes in psychotic vulnerability following the implementation of a program of prison psychiatric treatment, recidivism after the release and various descriptive variables of criminological interest. Materials and methods: review of a sample consisting of 50 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia admitted to the Prison Psychiatric Hospital of Seville. Results: there was a statistically significant reduction of psychotic vulnerability according to an assessment using the Frankfurt psychopathological inventory (FBF-3, after conducting a complete psychiatric, psychological, social and rehabilitation approach in the prison environment. The core symptoms relating to complex perception and language also decreased significantly. The reduction is particularly noticeable in the number of patients categorized as medium-high and high severity. Recidivism in the follow-up of release of patients in the study sample is low (6% and there were no cases of serious felony or grievous bodily harm. Recidivism, when it occurs, is not immediate. Although there is some criminal versatility, it is limited. The most frequent victims are parents with a previous relationship with the patient. Most of the patients in the sample, and all recidivists, have comorbid substance abuse (dual diagnosis. Discussion: we need more comprehensive studies to establish causal relationships between the decrease in psychotic vulnerability and an integrated psychiatric, psychological, social and rehabilitation approach in prisons; or to attribute the low rate of recidivism to the decline of psychotic vulnerability.

  1. Integrative psychotherapy model for treatment of Depressive Recurrent disorder without psychotic symptoms effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín F. Márquez Pérez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation shows the results of the application of an integrative psychotherapy model in the treatment of Depressive Recurrent disorder without psychotic symptoms. The use of a design of a qualitative Investigation - Action was necessary for finding the psychological mechanism that explain different levels of effectiveness.

  2. Ethnic density of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders among immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Susser, Ezra; van Os, Jim; Mackenbach, Johan P; Selten, Jean-Paul; Hoek, Hans W

    OBJECTIVE: A high incidence of psychotic disorders has been reported in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. Some studies suggest that ethnic density may influence the incidence of schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether this increased incidence among immigrants depends on the ethnic

  3. The interplay between environmental factors and DNA methylation in psychotic disorders : Environmental orchestration of the epigenome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, LC

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Environmental exposures during early- life increase the risk of developing a psychotic disorder, but it remains unclear how early life events can have such persistent later life consequences. DNA methylation is the addition of a methyl group to a DNA base and is part of a group of

  4. Validity of 'post-traumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features': a review of the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, M. H.; Kortmann, F. A. M.; van den Brink, W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence from empirical studies regarding the validity of 'post-traumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features' (PTSD-SP) as a separate diagnostic entity. METHOD: The authors performed a review tracing publications between 1980 and January 2008. RESULTS:

  5. Aspects of Piaget's cognitive developmental psychology and neurobiology of psychotic disorders - an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; Grant, Phillip; von Georgi, Richard; Huber, Martin T

    2008-09-01

    Psychological, neurobiological and neurodevelopmental approaches have frequently been used to provide pathogenic concepts on psychotic disorders. However, aspects of cognitive developmental psychology have hardly been considered in current models. Using a hypothesis-generating approach an integration of these concepts was conducted. According to Piaget (1896-1980), assimilation and accommodation as forms of maintenance and modification of cognitive schemata represent fundamental processes of the brain. In general, based on the perceived input stimuli, cognitive schemata are developed resulting in a conception of the world, the realistic validity and the actuality of which is still being controlled and modified by cognitive adjustment processes. In psychotic disorders, however, a disproportion of environmental demands and the ability to activate required neuronal adaptation processes occurs. We therefore hypothesize a failure of the adjustment of real and requested output patterns. As a consequence autonomous cognitive schemata are generated, which fail to adjust with reality resulting in psychotic symptomatology. Neurobiological, especially neuromodulatory and neuroplastic processes play a central role in these perceptive and cognitive processes. In conclusion, integration of cognitive developmental psychology into the existing pathogenic concepts of psychotic disorders leads to interesting insights into basic disease mechanisms and also guides future research in the cognitive neuroscience of such disorders.

  6. Measurements of heavy quark and lepton lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaros, J.A.

    1985-02-01

    The PEP/PETRA energy range has proved to be well-suited for the study of the lifetimes of hadrons containing the b and c quarks and the tau lepton for several reasons. First, these states comprise a large fraction of the total interaction rate in e + e - annihilation and can be cleanly identified. Second, the storage rings have operated at high luminosity and so produced these exotic states copiously. And finally, thanks to the interplay of the Fermi coupling strength, the quark and lepton masses, and the beam energy, the expected decay lengths are in the 1/2 mm range and so are comparatively easy to measure. This pleasant coincidence of cleanly identified and abundant signal with potentially large effects has made possible the first measurements of two fundamental weak couplings, tau → nu/sub tau/W and b → cW. These measurements have provided a sharp test of the standard model and allowed, for the first time, the full determination of the magnitudes of the quark mixing matrix. This paper reviews the lifetime studies made at PEP during the past year. It begins with a brief review of the three detectors, DELCO, MAC and MARK II, which have reported lifetime measurements. Next it discusses two new measurements of the tau lifetime, and briefly reviews a measurement of the D 0 lifetime. Finally, it turns to measurements of the B lifetime, which are discussed in some detail. 18 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  7. Lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, G.; Dornan, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Major breakthroughs have been achieved in the determination of the lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons. Much larger data samples than previously have become available and new experimental devices and techniques have been developed and employed. The lifetimes of all weakly decaying singly charmed hadrons have been measured, some with an accuracy of a few percent. The difference in the shortest lifetime - τ(Ω c ) - and the longest one - τ(D + ) - is given by a factor of close to ten. The experimental status of beauty lifetimes, while less complete, has still reached a new level of quality and is now better than 5% for the commoner states. New theoretical tools, based mainly on heavy quark expansions, have been developed; they incorporate as well as transcend earlier phenomenological descriptions. The observed pattern in the charm lifetime ratios is reproduced in a semi-quantitative manner as well as could be expected; as far as the beauty lifetime ratios are concerned some problems may well be emerging. The maturity level achieved in the measurements bodes quite well for future challenges where reliable and efficient tracking of the decay vertices will be crucial. (orig.)

  8. Psychotic Experiences and Neuropsychological Functioning in a Population-based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, Josephine; David, Anthony S; Morgan, Craig; Frissa, Souci; Glahn, David; Pilecka, Izabela; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    Psychotic experiences in early life are associated with neuropsychological impairment and the risk for later psychiatric disorders. Psychotic experiences are also prevalent in adults, but neuropsychological investigations spanning adulthood are limited, and confounding factors have not been examined rigorously. To characterize neuropsychological functioning in adults with psychotic experiences while adjusting for important sociodemographic characteristics and familial factors and investigating the effect of age. The South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study is a population-based household survey of physical and mental health in individuals 16 years or older conducted from June 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010, in 2 London boroughs. The study included 1698 participants from 1075 households. Data were analyzed from May 6, 2014, to April 22, 2015. Psychotic experiences measured using the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Neuropsychological functioning measured using tests assessing verbal knowledge (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading), working memory (Spatial Delayed Response Task), memory (Visual Object Learning Task), and processing speed (digit symbol coding task). A composite IQ score of general cognitive ability was calculated. A total of 1677 participants with a mean (SD) age of 40 (17) years were included in the analysis. Compared with the group without psychotic experiences, the 171 (9.7%) adults with psychotic experiences did not show a statistically significant impairment on mean (SD) measures of IQ (95.25 [16.58] vs 100.45 [14.77]; Cohen d, -0.22; P = .06) or processing speed (40.63 [13.06] vs 42.17 [13.79]; Cohen d, -0.03; P = .73) but were impaired on measures of verbal knowledge (31.36 [15.78] vs 38.83 [12.64]; Cohen d, -0.37; P = .003), working memory (20.97 [4.12] vs 22.51 [3.26]; Cohen d, -0.34; P = .005), and memory (43.80 [8.45] vs 46.53 [7.06]; Cohen d, -0.28; P = .01). Only participants 50 years and older with psychotic

  9. A Personalized Risk Stratification Platform for Population Lifetime Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowd, Ali; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abusharekh, Ashraf; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. It is well understood that if modifiable risk factors are targeted, most chronic diseases can be prevented. Lifetime health is an emerging health paradigm that aims to assist individuals to achieve desired health targets, and avoid harmful lifecycle choices to mitigate the risk of chronic diseases. Early risk identification is central to lifetime health. In this paper, we present a digital health-based platform (PRISM) that leverages artificial intelligence, data visualization and mobile health technologies to empower citizens to self-assess, self-monitor and self-manage their overall risk of major chronic diseases and pursue personalized chronic disease prevention programs. PRISM offers risk assessment tools for 5 chronic conditions, 2 psychiatric disorders and 8 different cancers.

  10. Statistical estimation of fast-reactor fuel-element lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proshkin, A.A.; Likhachev, Yu.I.; Tuzov, A.N.; Zabud'ko, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of a statistical analysis, the main parameters having a significant influence on the theoretical determination of fuel-element lifetimes in the operation of power fast reactors in steady power conditions are isolated. These include the creep and swelling of the fuel and shell materials, prolonged-plasticity lag, shell-material corrosion, gap contact conductivity, and the strain diagrams of the shell and fuel materials obtained for irradiated materials at the corresponding strain rates. By means of deeper investigation of these properties of the materials, it is possible to increase significantly the reliability of fuel-element lifetime predictions in designing fast reactors and to optimize the structure of fuel elements more correctly. The results of such calculations must obviously be taken into account in the cost-benefit analysis of projected new reactors and in choosing the optimal fuel burnup. 9 refs

  11. Care provided by general practitioners to patients with psychotic disorders: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slooff Cees J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients suffering from psychotic disorders have an increased risk of comorbid somatic diseases such as cardiovascular disorders and diabetes mellitus. Doctor-related factors, such as unfamiliarity with these patients, as well as patient-related factors, such as cognitive disturbance and negative symptoms, contribute to suboptimal health care for these patients. General practitioners (GPs could play a key role in diagnosing and treating this somatic comorbidity as in the Netherlands, almost all residents are registered at a general practice. This study aims to find out whether there are any differences between the levels of health care provided by GPs to patients with psychotic disorders, compared to other types of patients. Methods A cohort of patients with an ICPC code of psychosis and two matched control groups, one consisting of patients with other mental problems and the other one of patients without any mental problems, were followed over a period of 5 years. Results Patients with psychotic disorders (N = 734 contacted the GP practice more often than patients in the control groups. These patients, both adults (p = 0.051 and the elderly (p 65 years old (p = 0.007. With regard to chronic illnesses, elderly psychosis patients had fewer contacts related to cardiovascular diseases or chronic lung diseases. Conclusion Patients with psychotic disorders contact the GP practice more frequently than other types of patients. Adult psychosis patients with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases or chronic lung diseases receive the same amount of health care for these diseases as other primary care patients. The finding that older patients with psychotic disorders are diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases and obstructive lung diseases less frequently than other types of elderly patients requires further study.

  12. Care provided by general practitioners to patients with psychotic disorders: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Marian J T; Schuling, Jan; Groenier, Klaas H; Verhaak, Peter F M; Slooff, Cees J; Dekker, Janny H; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    2010-11-25

    Patients suffering from psychotic disorders have an increased risk of comorbid somatic diseases such as cardiovascular disorders and diabetes mellitus. Doctor-related factors, such as unfamiliarity with these patients, as well as patient-related factors, such as cognitive disturbance and negative symptoms, contribute to suboptimal health care for these patients.General practitioners (GPs) could play a key role in diagnosing and treating this somatic comorbidity as in the Netherlands, almost all residents are registered at a general practice. This study aims to find out whether there are any differences between the levels of health care provided by GPs to patients with psychotic disorders, compared to other types of patients. A cohort of patients with an ICPC code of psychosis and two matched control groups, one consisting of patients with other mental problems and the other one of patients without any mental problems, were followed over a period of 5 years. Patients with psychotic disorders (N = 734) contacted the GP practice more often than patients in the control groups. These patients, both adults (p = 0.051) and the elderly (p 65 years old (p = 0.007). With regard to chronic illnesses, elderly psychosis patients had fewer contacts related to cardiovascular diseases or chronic lung diseases. Patients with psychotic disorders contact the GP practice more frequently than other types of patients. Adult psychosis patients with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases or chronic lung diseases receive the same amount of health care for these diseases as other primary care patients. The finding that older patients with psychotic disorders are diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases and obstructive lung diseases less frequently than other types of elderly patients requires further study.

  13. The association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences is explained by general neuropsychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlöf, Martin; Pettersson, Erik; Sariaslan, Amir; Larsson, Henrik; Östberg, Per; Kelleher, Ian; Långström, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Lundström, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Studies suggest associations between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences. However, recent research suggests that a general neuropsychiatric problems factor predicts adverse outcomes better than specific diagnostic entities. To examine if the alleged association between autistic traits and psychotic experiences could rather be explained by a general neuropsychiatric problems factor comprising symptoms of ADHD, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and learning disorder, we conducted a prospective cohort study based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. In addition, we examined the genetic and environmental influences on the associations. A total of 9,282 twins with data on childhood autistic traits and other neuropsychiatric problems, and follow-up data on psychotic experiences at ages 15 and/or 18 years were included. First, psychotic experiences were regressed on autistic traits and second, the general neuropsychiatric problems factor was added to the model. Auditory hallucinations were analyzed separately from the other psychotic experiences. Finally, twin analyses were employed to disentangle genetic from environmental influences in the observed associations. Replicating prior research, significant associations were found between autistic traits in childhood and auditory hallucinations at ages 15 and 18. However, after controlling for the general neuropsychiatric problems factor, the associations between autistic traits and auditory hallucinations disappeared, whereas the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations persisted after controlling for autistic traits. Twin analyses revealed that the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations was driven by shared genetic influences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Neighbourhood level social deprivation and the risk of psychotic disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Brian; Roche, Eric; Lane, Abbie

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of psychotic disorders varies according to the geographical area, and it has been investigated whether neighbourhood level factors may be associated with this variation. The aim of this systematic review is to collate and appraise the literature on the association between social deprivation and the incidence or risk for psychotic disorders. A systematic review was conducted, and studies were included if they were in English, provided a measure of social deprivation for more than one geographically defined area and examined either the correlation, rate ratio or risk of psychotic disorder. A defined search strategy was undertaken with Medline, CINAHL Plus and PsychInfo databases. A total of 409 studies were identified in the search, of which 28 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, four examined the association between social deprivation at the time of birth, three examined the putative prodrome of psychosis or those at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, and 23 examined the time at presentation with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) (one study examined two time points and one study included both UHR and FEP). Three of the studies that examined the level of social deprivation at birth found an association with a higher risk for psychotic disorders and increased social deprivation. Seventeen of the 23 studies found that there was a higher risk or rate of psychotic disorders in more deprived neighbourhoods at the time of presentation; however, adjusting for individual factors tended to weaken this association. Limited research has been conducted in the putative prodromal stage and has resulted in conflicting findings. Research conducted to date has not definitively identified whether the association is a result of social causation or social drift; however, the findings do have significant implications for service provision, such as the location and access of services.

  15. Risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine adjunctive treatments in major depression with psychotic features: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Gabriel Departments of Psychiatry and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of novel antipsychotics in the treatment of psychotic depression. Method: Consecutive patients who were admitted (n = 51 with a confirmed diagnosis of major depression with psychotic features (delusions or hallucinations or both participated in this open-label, naturalistic study. All patients were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs (citalopram or venlafaxine extended release [XR], and atypical antipsychotic agents were added, as tolerated, during the first week of initiating the citalopram or venlafaxine. There were patients (n = 16 who received risperidone, who received quetiapine (n = 20, and who received olanzapine (n = 15, as an adjunctive treatment to either citalopram or venlafaxine for at least 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impression-Severity subscale (CGI-S, as the primary outcome measure, as well as the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-21 item (HAM-D21 and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. Tolerance to treatments and weight changes were monitored over the period of the trial. Results: All patients completed the trial with no drop outs. At 8 weeks, there was a statistically significant (P 0.01 in the olanzapine group. Conclusion: Quetiapine, risperidone, and olanzapine, given as adjunctive treatment with SSRIS or SNRIs can significantly and equally improve depressive and psychotic symptoms, in the short-term treatment of major depression with psychotic features. The author recommends that large controlled trials be conducted to examine the differences in long-term efficacy and tolerance between the atypical antipsychotic agents, in the treatment of major depression with or without psychotic features. Keywords: depression, novels

  16. Khat use, PTSD and psychotic symptoms among Somali refugees in Nairobi - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eWidmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In East-African and Arab countries, khat leaves are traditionally chewed in social settings. They contain the amphetamine-like alkaloid cathinone. Especially among Somali refugees khat use has been associated with psychiatric symptoms. We assessed khat use patterns and psychiatric symptoms among male Somali refugees living in a disadvantaged urban settlement area in Kenya, a large group that has not yet received scientific attention. We wanted to explore consume patterns and study the associations between khat use, traumatic experiences and psychotic symptoms.Using privileged access sampling we recruited 33 healthy male khat chewers and 15 comparable non-chewers. Based on extensive preparatory work, we assessed khat use, khat dependence according to DSM-IV, traumatic experiences, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and psychotic symptoms using standardized diagnostic instruments that had been adapted to the Somali language and culture.Hazardous use patterns like chewing for more than 24 hours without interruption were frequently reported. All khat users fulfilled the DSM-IV-criteria for dependence and eighty-five percent reported functional khat-use, i.e. that khat helps them to forget painful experiences. We found that the studied group was heavily burdened by traumatic events and posttraumatic symptoms. Khat users had experienced more traumatic events and had more often PTSD than non-users. Most khat users experience khat-related psychotic symptoms and in a quarter of them we found true psychotic symptoms. In contrast, among control group members no psychotic symptoms could be detected.We found first evidence for the existence and high prevalence of severely hazardous use patterns, comorbid psychiatric symptoms and khat use as a self-medication of trauma-consequences among male Somali refugees in urban Kenyan refugee settlements. There is a high burden by psychopathology and adequate community-based interventions urgently need to be developed.

  17. Major depressive disorder with psychotic features may lead to misdiagnosis of dementia: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerhardt S; McClintock, Shawn M; Rosenquist, Peter B; McCall, W Vaughn; Kahn, David A

    2011-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychotic features is relatively frequent in patients with greater depressive symptom severity and is associated with a poorer course of illness and greater functional impairment than MDD without psychotic features. Multiple studies have found that patients with psychotic mood disorders demonstrate significantly poorer cognitive performance in a variety of areas than those with nonpsychotic mood disorders. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Dementia Rating Scale, Second Edition (DRS-2) are widely used to measure cognitive functions in research on MDD with psychotic features. Established total raw score cut-offs of 24 on the MMSE and 137 on the DRS-2 in published manuals suggest possible global cognitive impairment and dementia, respectively. Limited research is available on these suggested cut-offs for patients with MDD with psychotic features. We document the therapeutic benefit of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which is usually associated with short-term cognitive impairment, in a 68-year-old woman with psychotic depression whose MMSE and DRS-2 scores initially suggested possible global cognitive impairment and dementia. Over the course of four ECT treatments, the patient's MMSE scores progressively increased. After the second ECT treatment, the patient no longer met criteria for global cognitive impairment. With each treatment, depression severity, measured by the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, improved sequentially. Thus, the suggested cut-off scores for the MMSE and the DRS-2 in patients with MDD with psychotic features may in some cases produce false-positive indications of dementia.

  18. Psychotic relapse and associated factors among patients attending health services in Southwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikreyesus, Mahlet; Soboka, Matiwos; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu

    2016-10-20

    Psychotic relapse leads to repeated hospitalization and negatively affects the clinical prognosis of the patients. Information on prevalence of relapse among patients with psychotic disorders in Ethiopian setting is scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of relapse among patients with psychotic disorders attending services in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaire. We used medication adherence rating scale (MARS) to assess compliance to medication and abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS) to detect medication side effects. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of psychotic relapse. All variables with P-value value higher when compared to those who have never experienced medication side effects (aOR = 1.83, 95 % CI = 1.01, 3.31). The high prevalence of relapse among patients with psychotic disorder needs special attention. Clinicians need to pay attention to medication side effects the patient faces. Intervening noncompliance to medication and appropriately managing medication side effects may help in preventing psychotic relapse that may result because of non-compliance. The provision of counseling, psycho education, psycho social support may help patients in improving compliance to medication and reducing psychotic relapse. Developing and strengthening community based rehabilitation services should be emphasized as part of mental healthcare services.

  19. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-11-01

    Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children's risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children's mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16-2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15-2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University

  20. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.

    1986-01-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed in fall 1983 to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. The chamber had to be placed within the existing central drift chamber, making access for repairs difficult and costly. Therefore for detector elements thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes (straws) were used because of their simplicity and robustness. The diameter of the drift tubes was 6.9 mm. The radial extent of the proposed chamber was from 3 cm to 10 cm, the inner wall of the central drift. It was clear that radiation levels, from synchrotron x-rays and overfocussed electrons, were potentially high. Since the drift distance is short in the straws, it was desirable to operate them at the highest possible gas gain, to achieve the best spatial resolution. There was a likelihood of drawing large currents in the chamber and thus causing radiation damage. Therefore a study of radiation hardness under the conditions of their proposed design was undertaken. In tests, argon-hydrocarbon mixtures consistently became unusable at ∼0.05 C/cm collected charge, due to anode buildup. Argon-CO 2 mixtures, while underquenched, were operational to 0.25 C/cm, at which point loss of cathode material became intolerable. Argon-xenon-CO 2 proved to be quenched as well as argon-hydrocarbons, but was limited by cathode damage. The MAC vertex chamber has operated at a distance of 4.6 cm from the e + e - interaction point at PEP for two years and has shown no aging effects

  1. Effects of Lifetime Occupational Pesticide Exposure on Postural Control Among Farmworkers and Non-Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwook, Kim; Nussbaum, Maury A; Quandt, Sara A; Laurienti, Paul J; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess potential chronic effects of pesticide exposure on postural control, by examining postural balance of farmworkers and non-farmworkers diverse self-reported lifetime exposures. Balance was assessed during quiet upright stance under four experimental conditions (2 visual × 2 cognitive difficulty). Significant differences in baseline balance performance (eyes open without cognitive task) between occupational groups were apparent in postural sway complexity. When adding a cognitive task to the eyes open condition, the influence of lifetime exposure on complexity ratios appeared different between occupational groups. Removing visual information revealed a negative association of lifetime exposure with complexity ratios. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers may use different postural control strategies even when controlling for the level of lifetime pesticide exposure. Long-term exposure can affect somatosensory/vestibular sensory systems and the central processing of sensory information for postural control.

  2. Plant lifetime management at Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jorge; Garcia, Piedad

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained during the development and implementation of the Jose Cabrera NPP Lifetime Management Program according to the methodology applied in the Plant. The implementation of the Lifetime Management Program began in 1995 with the elaboration of the annual revision document 'Lifetime Management Plan', which describes the level of development of the Lifetime Management activities, the results that have been obtained during the implementation of the Program, and the schedule of the upcoming activities. The drawing up of a weighted list of 135 important components and the elaboration of 17 dossiers integrating the ageing mechanisms analysis and its corresponding evaluation, control and mitigation methods, were the result of the activities completed during 1996. A group of 62 component/degradation phenomena pairs with a high degradation risk classification has been considered within the scope of the activity 'Assessment of Maintenance Practices. Improvement Proposal', performed by the plant during 1997 and the first term of 1998 in parallel with other Lifetime Management related activities. The results obtained within this activity have revealed for the components included in the scope of the assessment that the associated degradation phenomena are practically covered by the current maintenance, inspection and testing practices. Recommendations and improvements of the maintenance practices have been particularly proposed from a technical, supporting, proceeding and documentary point of view, and currently an analysis is being made in relation to the feasibility of implementing them at the Jose Cabrera NPP. (author)

  3. Positron lifetime studies of electron irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadnagy, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    Single-crystal copper was irradiated with 4.5-MeV electrons producing simple Frenkel defects as well as a significant concentration of divacancies. Mean positron lifetime characteristics, which are sensitive to the presence of vacancies and multivacancies in copper, was monitored after isochronal anneals between 80 and 800 0 K to determine the relative change of characteristic mean lifetimes and their associated intensities. Also a study of the dependence of the mean positron lifetime on the total electron fluence was made and compared with existing theories relating these lifetimes to vacancy or multivacancy concentrations. Numerical data from curve fitting procedures using a conventional trapping model for defect-induced changes in positron lifetimes indicate that upon irradiation with 4.5-MeV electrons at 80 0 K, about 8 percent of the defects produced are divacancy units. Divacancy units appear to be several times more effective in trapping positrons than are monovacancies. Further, the experimental data suggest that the stage III annealing processes in electron-irradiated copper most probably involve the motion and removal of both monovacancies and divacancies. A conglomerate (multivacancy) unit appears to exist as a stable entity even after annealing procedures are carried out at temperatures slightly above the stage III region. Such a stable unit could serve as a nucleation center for the appearance of voids

  4. Association Between Psychotic Experiences and Subsequent Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors: A Cross-National Analysis From the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Nock, Matthew K; Saha, Sukanta; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Borges, Guilherme; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Degenhardt, Louisa; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep M; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Mneimneh, Zeina; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Ojagbemi, Akin; Posada-Villa, José; Sampson, Nancy A; Scott, Kate M; Stagnaro, Juan C; Viana, Maria C; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C; McGrath, John J

    2017-11-01

    Community-based studies have linked psychotic experiences (PEs) with increased risks of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). However, it is not known if these associations vary across the life course or if mental disorders contribute to these associations. To examine the temporal association between PEs and subsequent STBs across the life span as well as the influence of mental disorders (antecedent to the STBs) on these associations. A total of 33 370 adult respondents across 19 countries from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were assessed for PEs, STBs (ie, ideation, plans, and attempts), and 21 DSM-IV mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations of PEs with subsequent onset of STBs. Prevalence and frequency of STBs with PEs, and odds ratios and 95% CIs. Of 33 370 included participants, among those with PEs (n = 2488), the lifetime prevalence (SE) of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts was 28.5% (1.3), 10.8% (0.7), and 10.2% (0.7), respectively. Respondents with 1 or more PEs had 2-fold increased odds of subsequent STBs after adjusting for antecedent or intervening mental disorders (suicidal ideation: odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8-2.6; suicide plans: odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.7-2.6; and suicide attempts: odds ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5). There were significant dose-response relationships of number of PE types with subsequent STBs that persisted after adjustment for mental disorders. Although PEs were significant predictors of subsequent STB onset across all life stages, associations were strongest in individuals 12 years and younger. After adjustment for antecedent mental disorders, the overall population attributable risk proportions for lifetime suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts associated with temporally prior PEs were 5.3%, 5.7%, and 4.8%, respectively. Psychotic experiences are associated with elevated odds of subsequent STBs across the life course that cannot be

  5. Lifetime Model of the Inverter-fed Motors Secondary Insulation by using a Design of Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoud, Nadine; Nguyen, Manh Quan; Maussion, Pascal; Malec, David; Mary, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Numerous parameters (environmental conditions, material and equipments design) affect the ageing (and consequently the lifetime) of the Electrical Insulation System (EIS) of motors supplied by static converters. In order to find a modeling of the lifetime of such materials, accelerated tests have to be considered. The problem is that if we consider all the relevant parameters, these tests become costly and take a lot of time. Consequently the topic of this study i...

  6. Ionized carbon investigation (spectroscopic terms, radiative lifetimes) using ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchet-Poulizac, M.-C.

    1974-01-01

    The spectra of carbon in all its ionization states were studied by the beam-foil technique, from the far ultraviolet (30A) to 6000A. This excitation process gives the spectra of strongly charged ions with great intensity and favours population of the high levels of these ions. It has led to new identifications, mainly in the CIV, CV, and CVI spectra. The results of radiative lifetime measurements are given for many levels of C II, C III, C IV and C V. The chief cause of error on these measurements is the cascade phenomenon. Various methods of decay curve analysis accounting for these processes were examined and showed that lifetime values of precision better than 10% can be obtained. The transition probabilities were estimated from the lifetime measurements whenever possible. The spectra obtained in the laboratory were compared with those observed in the Wolf-Rayet stars of the carbon sequence. The similarities and dissimilarities which appear yield information on the physical conditions prevailing in the atmosphere of these stars [fr

  7. Improved lifetime of microchannel-plate PMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, A., E-mail: lehmann@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Physikalisches Institut IV, Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Uhlig, F. [Physikalisches Institut IV, Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Höhler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The charged particle identification at the PANDA experiment will be mainly performed with DIRC detectors. Because of their advantageous properties the preferred photon sensors are MCP-PMTs. However, until recently these devices showed serious aging problems which resulted in a diminishing quantum efficiency (QE) of the photo cathode. By applying innovative countermeasures against the aging causes, the manufacturers recently succeeded in drastically improving the lifetime of MCP-PMTs. Especially the application of an ALD coating technique to seal the material of the micro-channels proves very powerful and results in a lifetime of ≈6C/cm{sup 2} integrated anode charge without a substantial QE degradation for the latest PHOTONIS XP85112. This paper will present a comparative measurement of the lifetime of several older and recent MCP-PMTs demonstrating this progress.

  8. Measurement of the $\\tau$ lepton lifetime

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    The mean lifetime of the \\tau lepton is measured in a sample of 25700 \\tau pairs collected in 1992 with the ALEPH detector at LEP. A new analysis of the 1-1 topology events is introduced. In this analysis, the dependence of the impact parameter sum distribution on the daughter track momenta is taken into account, yielding improved precision compared to other impact parameter sum methods. Three other analyses of the one- and three-prong \\tau decays are updated with increased statistics. The measured lifetime is 293.5 \\pm 3.1 \\pm 1.7 \\fs. Including previous (1989--1991) ALEPH measurements, the combined \\tau lifetime is 293.7 \\pm 2.7 \\pm 1.6 \\fs.

  9. Lifetime for the Ti X spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jagjit; Jha, A K S; Mohan, M

    2010-01-01

    We present configuration interaction calculations for the lifetime of 294 fine-structure levels of the Ti X spectrum in the LSJ coupling scheme. The calculations include all the major correlation effects. The relativistic effects are included by adding the mass correction term, Darwin term and spin-orbit interaction term to the non-relativistic Hamiltonian in the Breit-Pauli approximation. The calculated lifetime values are in very close agreement with other available experimental and theoretical results. We have predicted new lifetime results for levels belonging to 3p 2 3d, 3s 2 4p, 3s3p4s, 3s3p4p and various other configurations of Ti X, where no other theoretical and experimental results are available.

  10. The neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, Wolfgang [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: PENeLOPE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The neutron lifetime τ{sub n}=880.3±1.1 s is an important parameter in the Standard Model of particle physics and in Big Bang cosmology. Several systematic corrections of previously published results reduced the PDG world average by several σ in the last years and call for a new experiment with complementary systematics. The experiment PENeLOPE, currently under construction at the Physik-Department of Technische Universitaet Muenchen, aims to determine the neutron lifetime with a precision of 0.1 s. It will trap ultra-cold neutrons in a magneto-gravitational trap using a large superconducting magnet and will measure their lifetime by both neutron counting and online proton detection. This presentation gives an overview over the latest developments of the experiment.

  11. Vibrational lifetimes of protein amide modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.A.; Rella, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of the lifetimes of vibrational modes in proteins has been achieved with a single frequency infrared pump-probe technique using the Stanford Picosecond Free-electron Laser, These are the first direct measurements of vibrational dynamics in the polyamide structure of proteins. In this study, modes associated with the protein backbone are investigated. Results for the amide I band, which consists mainly of the stretching motion of the carbonyl unit of the amide linkage, show that relaxation from the first vibrational excited level (v=1) to the vibrational ground state (v=0) occurs within 1.5 picoseconds with apparent first order kinetics. Comparison of lifetimes for myoglobin and azurin, which have differing secondary structures, show a small but significant difference. The lifetime for the amide I band of myoglobin is 300 femtoseconds shorter than for azurin. Further measurements are in progress on other backbone vibrational modes and on the temperature dependence of the lifetimes. Comparison of vibrational dynamics for proteins with differing secondary structure and for different vibrational modes within a protein will lead to a greater understanding of energy transfer and dissipation in biological systems. In addition, these results have relevance to tissue ablation studies which have been conducted with pulsed infrared lasers. Vibrational lifetimes are necessary for calculating the rate at which the energy from absorbed infrared photons is converted to equilibrium thermal energy within the irradiated volume. The very fast vibrational lifetimes measured here indicate that mechanisms which involve direct vibrational up-pumping of the amide modes with consecutive laser pulses, leading to bond breakage or weakening, are not valid

  12. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Handest, P; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions. The...

  13. Permeability log using new lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, D.J.; Boyd, J.F.; Fuchs, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Comparative measurements of thermal neutron decay time are obtained for a formation after irradiation with a pulsed neutron source. Chloride ions in formation fluids are concentrated by the electrosmosis effect using charged poles on a well logging sonde. The formation is irradiated with fast neutrons and a first comparative measure of the thermal neutron decay time or neutron lifetime is taken. The chloride ions are then dispersed by acoustic pumping with a magnetostrictive transducer. The formation is then again irradiated with fast neutrons and a comparative measure of neutron lifetime is taken. The comparison is a function of the variation in chloride concentration between the two measurements which is related to formation permeability

  14. Lifetimes of some b-flavored hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.

    2014-06-01

    Recent measurements of lifetimes of some b-flavored hadrons are presented and interpreted in the context of theoretical models, especially the Heavy Quark Expansion. Decay widths and decay width differences in the B s 0 - B-bar s 0 system are discussed from the studies of decays into the final states J/ψK + K - , J/ψπ + π - , D s + D s - , K + K - and D s ± π ± . Lifetime measurements of the baryons Λ b 0 , Ξ b - , Ξ b 0 , and Ω b - are also shown. (author)

  15. Positron lifetime in vanadium oxide bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryzek, J.; Dryzek, E.

    2003-01-01

    The positron lifetime (PL) and Doppler broadening (DB) of annihilation line measurements have been performed in vanadium oxide bronzes M x V 2 O 5 . The dependence of these annihilation characteristics on the kind and concentration of the metal M donor has been observed. In the PL spectrum only one lifetime component has been detected in all studied bronzes. The results indicate the positron localization in the structural tunnels present in the crystalline lattice of the vanadium oxide bronzes. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Quantum system lifetimes and measurement perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najakov, E.

    1977-05-01

    The recently proposed description of quantum system decay in terms of repeated measurement perturbations is modified. The possibility of retarded reductions to a unique quantum state, due to ineffective localization of the decay products at initial time measurements, is simply taken into account. The exponential decay law is verified again. A modified equation giving the observed lifetime in terms of unperturbed quantum decay law, measurement frequency and reduction law is derived. It predicts deviations of the observed lifetime from the umperturbed one, together with a dependence on experimental procedures. The influence of different model unperturbed decay laws and reduction laws on this effect is studied

  17. Extension of the nuclear power plant lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramsi, Alain

    2011-01-01

    After a presentation of the French nuclear context (history of the reactor fleet, choice of reactor type, PWR operation principle, competitiveness, environmental performance), this Power Point presentation addresses the context and challenges of the operation lifetime (average fleet age in different countries, examples of extensions, case of the United States, what is at stake with lifetime extension, decennial visits, EDF strategy), discusses the EDF's safety objectives (definition of the three main safety functions, impact of the operation duration and of the coexistence of two generations for the safety functions), discusses how to manage the ageing phenomenon for replaceable and non-replaceable components

  18. Lifetime, money and cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes briefly many methods for explicit or implicit valuation of the loss of lifetime expectancy due to radiation exposures or other hazards. The health gain from investment in protection is compared with the health gain from a general increase in wealth. It is concluded that in many instances lifetime is valued at 1 to 10 times the gross national product produced in this time. This seems to be reasonable for rich countries whereas it may be questionable for poorer countries. Here, any investment that raises the level of living of the poorer segment of the population may have a greater effect on life expectancy. (author)

  19. Lifetimes for some excited states of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Campos, J.

    1979-01-01

    The lifetimes of some s,p and d levels of sodium have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, using a single-photon counting technique. The results are compared with the calculated values of the present work, and with other results. The lifetimes of the ns, np, and levels up to n10; of the nf levels up to n-9;and of the ng, nh,n1 and nk levels up to n-8, have been calculated and the transition probabilities of lines with origin in these levels are given. (Author) 38 refs

  20. Magnon lifetimes in terbium at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerrum Moeller, H.; Mackintosh, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    The lifetimes of magnons propagating in the c-direction of Tb at 4.2 K have been measured by inelastic neutron scattering. In contrast to the behaviour at higher temperatures, where magnon-magnon scattering predominates, the broadening of the magnons increases towards the boundary of the single Brillouin zone, both in the acoustic and optical branches. This suggests that the scattering of the magnons by conduction electrons is important, and the observed lifetimes are consistent with a recent estimate of the magnitude of this effect. The acoustic magnons of very long wavelength behave anomalously, presumably due to dipolar interactions

  1. Measurement of the Bs0 lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Mattison, T.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Fouque, G.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Karger, C.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Ross, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kimfn 19, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Valassi, A.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1994-02-01

    The lifetime of the Bs0 has been measured in a data sample of 8890000 hadronic events recorded with the ALEPH detector at LEP. After background subtraction 30.8 ± 6.9 events are attributed to the semileptonic decay of the Bs0 to a Ds- and an opposite-sign lepton. A maximum-likelihood fit to the distribution of the proper times of these events yields a Bs0 lifetime of τBs = 1.92 -0.35+0.45 ± 0.04 ps.

  2. [A multidiscipline clinical and biological approach to the study of psychotic types of autistic spectrum disorders in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simashkova, N V; Iakupova, L P; Kliushnik, T P; Koval'-Zaĭtsev, A A

    2013-01-01

    The current problem of heterogeneity of psychotic types of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) is reviewed. The authors present results of a multidiscipline psychopathological, pathopsychological, neurophysiological and immunological examination of 87 patients, aged from 3 to 14 years, with psychotic types of ASD: childhood psychosis (CP) and atypical childhood psychosis (ACP). Significant differences in clinical presentations of CP and ACP that were correlated with pathopsychological, neurophysiological and immunological disorders were found. These findings support different nosological entities of these types of ASD.

  3. Evaluation of primary health workers training program to provide psychoeducation to family caregivers of persons with psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Marchira, Carla Raymondalexas; Puspitasari, Warih Andan; Rochmawati, Ida; Mulyani, Siti

    2016-01-01

    ABTRACT Many persons suffering psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia, are largely untreated in low income countries. In these settings, most persons with severe mental illness live with their families. Thus, families play a particular critical role in determining whether a person with a psychotic illness will receive treatment and what the quality of treatment. Psychoeducation has proven to be extremely effective in helping families develop the knowledge and skills which is necessar...

  4. Neurosyphilis with psychotic symptoms and Parkinsonism in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin L

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Li Yin,* Shoukang Zou,* Yi Huang Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A 15-year-old girl with neurosyphilis was misdiagnosed as having viral encephalitis with psychotic symptoms and Parkinsonism. We found that she was experiencing visual hallucinations, persecutory delusions, flattening of affect, poorness of thought, tremors, four-limb rigidity, and restlessness, and she was unable to communicate with others. The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory serum test and further lumbar puncture enabled us to diagnose her with neurosyphilis. After antibiotic treatment, her psychotic symptoms and Parkinsonism were relieved. From this case, we believe that it is important to keep organic psychosis in mind during the diagnostic workup, and we argue that routine syphilis screening is necessary in psychiatry clinical practice. Keywords: syphilis, encephalitis, organic psychosis

  5. Antipsychotic medication and remission of psychotic symptoms 10 years after a first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wils, Regitze Sølling; Gotfredsen, Ditte Resendal; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    medication for a period of time. This study investigated the long-term outcome and characteristics of patients in remission of psychotic symptoms with no use of antipsychotic medication at the 10-year follow-up. METHODS: The study was a cohort study including 496 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia...... spectrum disorders (ICD 10: F20 and F22-29). Patients were included in the Danish OPUS Trial and followed up 10years after inclusion, where patient data was collected on socio-demographic factors, psychopathology, level of functioning and medication. FINDINGS: 61% of the patients from the original cohort...... attended the 10-year follow up and 30% of these had remission of psychotic symptoms at the time of the 10-year follow up with no current use of antipsychotic medication. This outcome was associated with female gender, high GAF-F score, participation in the labour market and absence of substance abuse...

  6. HPA-axis hyperactivity and mortality in psychotic depressive disorder: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, William; Fiedorowicz, Jess; Zimmerman, Mark; Young, Elizabeth

    2008-06-01

    The excess mortality associated with depressive disorders has been most often attributed to risks for suicide but diverse findings indicate that depressive disorders also increase risks for cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Among the possible mediators is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis hyperactivity that characterizes many cases of relatively severe depressive disorder and severity is characteristic of psychotic depressive disorder. The following describes a 17-year mortality follow-up of 54 patients with Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) psychotic major depression or schizoaffective, mainly affective, depression. All had baseline assessments that included a 1mg dexamethasone suppression test with post-dexamethasone samples at 8 a.m., 4 p.m. and 11 p.m. Regression analyses showed that both greater age and higher maximum post-dexamethasone cortisol concentrations predicted deaths due to CV causes (t=4.01, pdepressive disorder to CV mortality.

  7. [Correction of acute psychotic states in schizophrenia by rispolept solution per os].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, G P; Korenev, A N; Barkhatova, A N

    2004-01-01

    To stop acute psychotic states during the first episode or relapses of schizophrenia, 37 patients were treated with rispolept solution per os during 2 weeks. A procedure of a fast transition to optimal daily doses of the drug after 1 day of treatment (searching period) with a following stabilization of mean daily doses (5.02-5.7 mg) at the stage of 14 day treatment course was used. Positive therapeutic effect by PANSS total score reduction, along with minor side-effects, were found in 91.9% patients. Stopping effect of rispolept on acute psychotic states, emerging from day 1 of the treatment, and general antipsychotic and therapeutic action, beginning from day 2-3 and increasing to day 14, were stated out. Efficacy of the drug in syndromes differing by psychopathological structure is emphasized.

  8. Differences in social cognition between male prisoners with antisocial personality or psychotic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Salvador Bertone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to discriminate between different neurocognitive circuits involved in empathy, one of them linked to emotional processing and the other associated with cognitive function. This is evaluated through the use of neuropsychological tools (Hinting Task, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and Cambridge Mind Reading Test empathic cognition and empathic emotion. In this study, 57 male prisoners were divided into three groups: psychotic patients (20, antisocial patients (17, and a control group (20. Patients with psychosis were found to have significantly lower scores than the antisocial and control groups in a social reasoning test, but using tests of emotional recognition, we found that both psychotic patients and antisocial subjects scored significantly lower than the control group.

  9. Brain structure in schizophrenia vs. psychotic bipolar I disorder: A VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic, Igor; Maitra, Raka; Langbein, Kerstin; Dietzek, Maren; Lorenz, Carsten; Smesny, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2015-07-01

    While schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been assumed to share phenotypic and genotypic features, there is also evidence for overlapping brain structural correlates, although it is unclear whether these relate to shared psychotic features. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) in 34 schizophrenia patients, 17 euthymic bipolar I disorder patients (with a history of psychotic symptoms), and 34 healthy controls. Our results indicate that compared to healthy controls schizophrenia patients show grey matter deficits (pright dorsolateral prefrontal, as well as bilaterally in ventrolateral prefrontal and insular cortical areas, thalamus (bilaterally), left superior temporal cortex, and minor medial parietal and parietooccipital areas. Comparing schizophrenia vs. bipolar I patients (pleft dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left cerebellum. Compared to healthy controls, the deficits in bipolar I patients only reached significance at prights reserved.

  10. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome and psychotic disorders: Implications for psychiatric genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, W.C.; Bassett, A.S.; Weksberg, R. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-06-15

    Psychiatric disorders have been reported in over 10% of patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) in long-term follow-up. To further explore the behavioral and psychiatric findings associated with VCFS in adulthood, detailed clinical histories of two patients - one with VCFS who developed a psychotic illness, and one with schizophrenia who was found to have dysmorphological features associated with VCFS - are described in the current report. The observed overlap of physical and psychiatric symptoms in these two patients suggests that VCFS and psychotic disorders may share a pathogenetic mechanism. This could be consistent with a contiguous gene model for VCFS and psychosis, suggesting chromosome 22q11 as a possible candidate region for genetic studies of schizophrenia. 26 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Enhancing SOEC system lifetime by controlling inlet gas composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In a method for enhancing the lifetime of a solid oxide electrolysis cell system by counteracting nitridation of the threads of the in-line electrical heaters of the system, the start-up, shut-down and trip operations are done in a humidified nitrogen atmosphere on the fuel side to achieve a dew ...... point between -70 DEG C and 23 DEG C, and in air or in carbon dioxide on the oxygen side, securing that sufficiently oxidizing conditions are always present across the whole surface of the cells on the oxygen side in the stack....

  12. Photoconductance-calibrated photoluminescence lifetime imaging of crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlufsen, Sandra; Schmidt, Jan; Hinken, David; Bothe, Karsten; Brendel, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    We use photoluminescence (PL) measurements by a silicon charge-coupled device camera to generate high-resolution lifetime images of multicrystalline silicon wafers. Absolute values of the excess carrier density are determined by calibrating the PL image by means of contactless photoconductance measurements. The photoconductance setup is integrated in the camera-based PL setup and therefore identical measurement conditions are realised. We demonstrate the validity of this method by comparison with microwave-detected photoconductance decay measurements. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Fissile fuel doubling time characteristics for reactor lifetime fuel logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindler, M.; Harms, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The establishment of nuclear fuel requirements and their efficient utilization requires a detailed knowledge of some aspects of fuel dynamics and processing during the reactor lifetime. It is shown here that the use of the fuel stockpile inventory concept can serve effectively for this fuel management purpose. The temporal variation of the fissile fuel doubling time as well as nonequilibrium core conditions are among the characteristics which thus become more evident. These characteristics - rather than a single figure-of-merit - clearly provide an improved description of the expansion capacity and/or fuel requirements of a nuclear reactor energy system

  14. The effects of crisis plans for patients with psychotic and bipolar disorders: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosenschoon BJ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crises and (involuntary admissions have a strong impact on patients and their caregivers. In some countries, including the Netherlands, the number of crises and (involuntary admissions have increased in the last years. There is also a lack of effective interventions to prevent their occurrence. Previous research has shown that a form of psychiatric advance statement – joint crisis plan – may prevent involuntary admissions, but another study showed no significant results for another form. The question remains which form of psychiatric advance statement may help to prevent crisis situations. This study examines the effects of two other psychiatric advance statements. The first is created by the patient with help from a patient's advocate (Patient Advocate Crisis Plan: PACP and the second with the help of a clinician only (Clinician facilitated Crisis Plan: CCP. We investigate whether patients with a PACP or CCP show fewer emergency visits and (involuntary admissions as compared to patients without a psychiatric advance statement. Furthermore, this study seeks to identify possible mechanisms responsible for the effects of a PACP or a CCP. Methods/Design This study is a randomised controlled trial with two intervention groups and one control condition. Both interventions consist of a crisis plan, facilitated through the patient's advocate or the clinician respectively. Outpatients with psychotic or bipolar disorders, who experienced at least one psychiatric crisis during the previous two years, are randomly allocated to one of the three groups. Primary outcomes are the number of emergency (after hour visits, (involuntary admissions and the length of stay in hospital. Secondary outcomes include psychosocial functioning and treatment satisfaction. The possible mediator variables of the effects of the crisis plans are investigated by assessing the patient's involvement in the creation of the crisis plan, working alliance

  15. Lifetime Reliability Assessment of Concrete Slab Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    A procedure for lifetime assesment of the reliability of short concrete slab bridges is presented in the paper. Corrosion of the reinforcement is the deterioration mechanism used for estimating the reliability profiles for such bridges. The importance of using sensitivity measures is stressed....... Finally the produce is illustrated on 6 existing UK bridges....

  16. SIRTF thermal design modifications to increase lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    An effort was made to increase the predicted lifetime of the SIRTF dewar by lowering the exterior shell temperature, increasing the radiated energy from the vapor cooled shields and reconfiguring the vapor cooled shields. The lifetime increases can be used to increase the scientific return from the mission and as a trade-off against mass and cost. This paper describes the configurations studied, the steady state thermal model used, the analytical methods and the results of the analysis. Much of the heat input to the outside dewar shell is radiative heat transfer from the solar panel. To lower the shell temperature, radiative cooled shields were placed between the solar panel and the dewar shell and between the bus and the dewar shell. Analysis showed that placing a radiator on the outer vapor cooled shield had a significant effect on lifetime. Lengthening the distance between the outer shell and the point where the vapor cooled shields are attached to the support straps also improved lifetime.

  17. Updated measurement of the $\\tau$ lepton lifetime

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Becker, U; Bazarko, A O; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Turnbull, R M; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G

    1997-01-01

    A new measurement of the mean lifetime of the tau lepton is presented. Three different analysis methods are applied to a sample of 90000 tau pairs, collected in 1993 and 1994 with the ALEPH detector at LEP. The average of this measurement and those previously published by ALEPH is tau_tau = 290.1 +- 1.5 +- 1.1 fs.

  18. Lifetime measurements of the rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahnke, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    The lifetime of excited energy levels of Praseodymium, Neodymium, Gadolinium, Holmium and Erbium are measured. The measurements were done on atomic beams excited by laser radiation. The experimental results allow an interpretation of the electronic structure of the rare earths. (BEF)

  19. Materials Education: Opportunities over a Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Schwartz, Lyle H.; Faber, Katherine T.; Cargill III, G. Slade; Houston, Betsy

    2003-10-28

    A report, in the form of abbreviated notes, of the 17th Biennial Conference on National Materials Policy ''Materials Education: Opportunities over a Lifetime'' held May 20-21, 2002 in College Park, MD, sponsored by the Federation of Materials Societies and the University Materials Council.

  20. Smoking expands expected lifetime with musculoskeletal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud

    2003-01-01

    By indirect estimation of mortality from smoking and life table methods we estimated expected lifetime without musculoskeletal diseases among never smokers, ex-smokers, and smokers. We found that although life expectancy of a heavy smoker is 7 years shorter than that of a never smoker, heavy...

  1. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…

  2. Lifetime and spin measurements in 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southon, J.

    1976-01-01

    Lifetimes of levels in 40 Ar populated by the 40 Ar(p,p') reaction have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method with a p-γ coincidence technique. A solid argon target was used. The lifetimes determined were (in psec.): 1461 keV level, 1.95 +- 0.15; 2121 keV, >25; 2524 keV, 0.53 +- 0.06; 2893 keV, 4.4 [+2.6,-1.3]; 3208 keV, 0.27. A comprehensive set of branching ratios was also derived and the spins and parities of the 3208 and 4481 keV states were determined to be 2 + and 1 +- respectively. Some of these results suggest that 2 particle -2 hole and 4 particle - 4 hole components are strongly mixed in the low-lying positive parity states in a manner similar to the 2 particle and 4 particle - 2 hole mixing that occurs in 42 Ca. An additional lifetime measurement for the recently discovered high spin state at 3464 keV was carried out using direct electronic timing. The level was excited by the 37 Cl(α,p) reaction and was found to have a lifetime of 1.00 +- 0.03 nsec, which taken together with other evidence indicates that its spin and parity are 6 + . The E2 transition strengths of the 40 Ar 6 + - 4 + - 2 + - 0 + cascade can be simply interpreted in terms of a weak coupling model. (author)

  3. A measurement of the Ds lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Gerhards, R.; Kirschfink, F.J.; Martyn, H.U.; Rosskamp, P.; Kolanoski, A.; Balkwill, C.; Bowler, M.G.; Burrows, P.N.; Cashmore, R.J.; Dauncey, P.; Heath, G.P.; Mellor, D.J.; Ratoff, P.; Tomalin, I.; Yelton, J.M.; Baranko, G.; Caldwell, A.; Cherney, M.; Izen, J.M.; Muller, D.; Ritz, S.; Storm, D.; Takashima, M.; Wicklung, E.; Wu Saulan; Zobernig, G.

    1987-01-01

    The lifetime of the D S meson has been measured using the TASSO detector at PETRA and found to be (5.7 (+3.6-2.6)±0.9) x 10 -13 s. The method used was to reconstruct fully the decay vertex of the channel D s → φπ ± , φ → K + K - . (orig.)

  4. Updated measurement of the τ lepton lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALEPH Collaboration; Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Becker, U.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Buchmüller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zobernig, G.

    1997-11-01

    A new measurement of the mean lifetime of the τ lepton is presented. Three different analysis methods are applied to a sample of 90 000 τ pairs, collected in 1993 and 1994 with the ALEPH detector at LEP. The average of this measurement and those previously published by ALEPH is ττ=290.1+/-1.5+/-1.1 fs.

  5. Cosmological constraints on the neutron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, L.; Pagano, L.; Melchiorri, A. [Physics Department, Università di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Consiglio, R., E-mail: laura.salvati@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: rconsiglio@na.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it [Physics Department, Università di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-03-01

    We derive new constraints on the neutron lifetime based on the recent Planck 2015 observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. Under the assumption of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, we show that Planck data constrains the neutron lifetime to τ{sub n} = (907±69) [s] at 68% c.l.. Moreover, by including the direct measurements of primordial Helium abundance of Aver et al. (2015) and Izotov et al. (2014), we show that cosmological data provide the stringent constraints τ{sub n} = (875±19) [s] and τ{sub n} = (921±11) [s] respectively. The latter appears to be in tension with neutron lifetime value quoted by the Particle Data Group (τ{sub n} = (880.3±1.1) [s]). Future CMB surveys as COrE+, in combination with a weak lensing survey as EUCLID, could constrain the neutron lifetime up to a ∼ 6 [s] precision.

  6. Increasing the lifetime of fuel cell catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I discuss a novel idea of fuel cell catalyst regeneration to increase lifetime of the PEM fuel cell electrode/catalyst operation and, therefore, reduce the catalyst costs. As many of the catalyst degradation mechanisms are difficult to avoid, the regeneration is alternative option to

  7. Lifetime oriented maintenance planning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we set up a framework for lifetime oriented maintenance planning as an outcome and input for strategic housing stock management. The maintenance planning holds maintenance activities and costs in the longer term. We consider the maintenance planning as a tool to calculate and implement

  8. Determination of the D mesons lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa Mutuberria, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    The results from the experiment NA27, performed in the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN are presented. The experimental set up was the small, high resolution, rapid cyling bubble chamber LEBC coupled with the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS). More than 2 millions pictures were taken, with 1015000 in teractions in hydrogen. The stastistical sensitivity of the experiment was 38.5 events/μb. A clean sample of 700 charm particle decays was obtained. Estimators with minimal systematic and statistical errors are developed for the determination of the lifetimes of short-lived particles whose individual momenta are unknown. These estimators make use of the measured decay lengths and the a priori known production characteristics. In this way, it is possible to include identified but not fully reconstructed charm decays in the sample to determine their lifetime. The properties of these estimators were extensively studied by means of Montecarlo simulation. The detection of the short-lived particles through the impact parameter of their charged decay products leads to additional complications which are taken into account. The biases and statistical errors inherent in using simpler approximate lifetime estimators are also discussed. These estimators are applied to determine the lifetime of the D o and D +- mesons using the charm data sample from NA27. (Author)

  9. Platform for systems medicine research and diagnostic applications in psychotic disorders-The METSY project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Elisabeth; Maier, Dieter; Pajula, Juha; Suvitaival, Tommi; Borgan, Faith; Butz-Ostendorf, Markus; Fischer, Alexander; Hietala, Jarmo; Howes, Oliver; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Janssen, Joost; Laurikainen, Heikki; Moreno, Carmen; Suvisaari, Jaana; Van Gils, Mark; Orešič, Matej

    2018-04-01

    Psychotic disorders are associated with metabolic abnormalities including alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism. A major challenge in the treatment of psychosis is to identify patients with vulnerable metabolic profiles who may be at risk of developing cardiometabolic co-morbidities. It is established that both central and peripheral metabolic organs use lipids to control energy balance and regulate peripheral insulin sensitivity. The endocannabinoid system, implicated in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, has been shown to be dysregulated in psychosis. It is currently unclear how these endocannabinoid abnormalities relate to metabolic changes in psychosis. Here we review recent research in the field of metabolic co-morbidities in psychotic disorders as well as the methods to study them and potential links to the endocannabinoid system. We also describe the bioinformatics platforms developed in the EU project METSY for the investigations of the biological etiology in patients at risk of psychosis and in first episode psychosis patients. The METSY project was established with the aim to identify and evaluate multi-modal peripheral and neuroimaging markers that may be able to predict the onset and prognosis of psychiatric and metabolic symptoms in patients at risk of developing psychosis and first episode psychosis patients. Given the intrinsic complexity and widespread role of lipid metabolism, a systems biology approach which combines molecular, structural and functional neuroimaging methods with detailed metabolic characterisation and multi-variate network analysis is essential in order to identify how lipid dysregulation may contribute to psychotic disorders. A decision support system, integrating clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data, was also developed in order to aid clinical decision making in psychosis. Knowledge of common and specific mechanisms may aid the etiopathogenic understanding of psychotic and metabolic disorders

  10. Incidence of psychotic disorders among first-generation immigrants and refugees in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kelly K; Cheng, Joyce; Susser, Ezra; McKenzie, Kwame J; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-06-16

    Evidence suggests that migrant groups have an increased risk of psychotic disorders and that the level of risk varies by country of origin and host country. Canadian evidence is lacking on the incidence of psychotic disorders among migrants. We sought to examine the incidence of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders in first-generation immigrants and refugees in the province of Ontario, relative to the general population. We constructed a retrospective cohort that included people aged 14-40 years residing in Ontario as of Apr. 1, 1999. Population-based administrative data from physician billings and hospital admissions were linked to data from Citizenship and Immigration Canada. We used Poisson regression models to calculate age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for immigrant and refugee groups over a 10-year period. In our cohort (n = 4,284,694), we found higher rates of psychotic disorders among immigrants from the Caribbean and Bermuda (IRR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29-1.98). Lower rates were found among immigrants from northern Europe (IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.91), southern Europe (IRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.90) and East Asia (IRR 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.78). Refugee status was an independent predictor of risk among all migrants (IRR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.56), and higher rates were found specifically for refugees from East Africa (IRR 1.95, 95% CI 1.44-2.65) and South Asia (IRR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.12). The differential pattern of risk across ethnic subgroups in Ontario suggests that psychosocial and cultural factors associated with migration may contribute to the risk of psychotic disorders. Some groups may be more at risk, whereas others are protected. © 2015 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  11. Psychotic-like symptomatology and reward responsivity in chronic ketamine and cannabis users

    OpenAIRE

    Joye, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses psychotic-like symptomatology and reward responsivity in chronic users of two illicit drugs, cannabis and ketamine. As use of these drugs is steadily increasing, with cannabis being the most widely used drug worldwide (following alcohol, caffeine and tobacco) and the recent proliferation of ketamine misuse in parts of Asia, Europe and the United States, it is important to examine the effects of their habitual use. While research has linked cannabis use to sub-clinical psy...

  12. Psychotic-Like Experiences at the Healthy End of the Psychosis Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Unterrassner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence pointing toward a continuous distribution of psychotic symptoms and accompanying factors between subclinical and clinical populations. However, for the construction of continuum models, a more detailed knowledge of different types of psychotic-like experiences (PLE and their associations with distress, functional impairment, and demographic variables is needed. We investigated PLE in a sample of healthy adults (N = 206 incorporating the recently developed revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire (PAGE-R. For the first time, the PAGE-R was cross validated with PLE, disorganized-, and negative-like symptoms [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS]. We subjected the PAGE-R to exploratory factor analyses and examined the resulting subtypes of EE for specific associations with contextual factors, valence ratings, socio-demographic variables, and general psychological burden (Revised Symptom-Checklist-90. Correlational cross-validation suggested that the PAGE-R measures facets of PLE. Importantly, we (1 identified three types of exceptional experiences (EE: Odd beliefs, dissociative anomalous perceptions, and hallucinatory anomalous perceptions. Further, the results suggested that even in healthy individuals (2 PLE and EE are indicative of reduced functioning, as reflected by increased psychological burden and lower educational achievement. Moreover, (3 similar sex-differences might exist as in psychotic patients with women reporting more positive-like symptoms and EE but less disorganized-like symptoms than men. Importantly, (4 EE might be differentially implicated in psychological functioning. We suggest that the PAGE-R holds the potential to complement the current assessment of sub-clinical psychosis. However, whereas our results might point toward a continuity of psychotic symptoms with EE and normal experiences, they require replication in larger samples as well as equivalence

  13. Dopaminergic function in cannabis users and its relationship to cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Michael A P; Morgan, Celia J A; Egerton, Alice; Kapur, Shitij; Curran, H Valerie; Howes, Oliver D

    2014-03-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug globally, and users are at increased risk of mental illnesses including psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Substance dependence and schizophrenia are both associated with dopaminergic dysfunction. It has been proposed, although never directly tested, that the link between cannabis use and schizophrenia is mediated by altered dopaminergic function. We compared dopamine synthesis capacity in 19 regular cannabis users who experienced psychotic-like symptoms when they consumed cannabis with 19 nonuser sex- and age-matched control subjects. Dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as the influx rate constant [Formula: see text] ) was measured with positron emission tomography and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine ([(18)F]-DOPA). Cannabis users had reduced dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum (effect size: .85; t36 = 2.54, p = .016) and its associative (effect size: .85; t36 = 2.54, p = .015) and limbic subdivisions (effect size: .74; t36 = 2.23, p = .032) compared with control subjects. The group difference in dopamine synthesis capacity in cannabis users compared with control subjects was driven by those users meeting cannabis abuse or dependence criteria. Dopamine synthesis capacity was negatively associated with higher levels of cannabis use (r = -.77, p < .001) and positively associated with age of onset of cannabis use (r = .51, p = .027) but was not associated with cannabis-induced psychotic-like symptoms (r = .32, p = .19). These findings indicate that chronic cannabis use is associated with reduced dopamine synthesis capacity and question the hypothesis that cannabis increases the risk of psychotic disorders by inducing the same dopaminergic alterations seen in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. COMT genetic variation confers risk for psychotic and affective disorders: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencz Todd

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in the COMT gene has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic, affective and anxiety disorders. The majority of these studies have focused on the functional Val108/158Met polymorphism and yielded conflicting results, with limited studies examining the relationship between other polymorphisms, or haplotypes, and psychiatric illness. We hypothesized that COMT variation may confer a general risk for psychiatric disorders and have genotyped four COMT variants (Val158Met, rs737865, rs165599, and a SNP in the P2 promoter [-278A/G; rs2097603] in 394 Caucasian cases and 467 controls. Cases included patients with schizophrenia (n = 196, schizoaffective disorder (n = 62, bipolar disorder (n = 82, major depression (n = 30, and patients diagnosed with either psychotic disorder NOS or depressive disorder NOS (n = 24. Results SNP rs2097603, the Val/Met variant and SNP rs165599 were significantly associated (p = 0.004; p = 0.05; p = 0.035 with a broad "all affected" diagnosis. Haplotype analysis revealed a potentially protective G-A-A-A haplotype haplotype (-278A/G; rs737865; Val108/158Met; rs165599, which was significantly underrepresented in this group (p = 0.0033 and contained the opposite alleles of the risk haplotype previously described by Shifman et al. Analysis of diagnostic subgroups within the "all affecteds group" showed an association of COMT in patients with psychotic disorders as well as in cases with affective illness although the associated variants differed. The protective haplotype remained significantly underrepresented in most of these subgroups. Conclusion Our results support the view that COMT variation provides a weak general predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease including psychotic and affective disorders.

  15. Visual integration dysfunction in schizophrenia arises by the first psychotic episode and worsens with illness duration

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Brian P.; Paterno, Danielle; Kastner, Sabine; Silverstein, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Visual integration dysfunction characterizes schizophrenia, but prior studies have not yet established whether the problem arises by the first psychotic episode or worsens with illness duration. To investigate the issue, we compared chronic schizophrenia patients (SZs), first episode psychosis patients (FEs), and well-matched healthy controls on a brief but sensitive psychophysical task in which subjects attempted to locate an integrated shape embedded in noise. Task difficulty depended on th...

  16. Exposure to conflict and disaster: A national survey on the prevalence of psychotic experiences in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keraite, Arune; Sumathipala, Athula; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Recent research conducted in high-income countries suggests psychotic experiences are common in the general population, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) remains limited. Sri Lanka is a LMIC affected by three decades of civil conflict and, in 2004, a devastating tsunami. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychotic experiences in a general population sample in Sri Lanka and associations with conflict- and tsunami-related trauma. This is a first National Mental Health Survey conducted in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional, multi-stage, cluster sampling design was used to estimate the prevalence of psychotic symptoms. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, conflict- and tsunami-related trauma, and psychotic experiences were collected using culturally validated measures in a sample of 5927 participants. The weighted prevalence of psychotic symptoms was 9.7%. Exposure to one or more conflict-related events (adj. OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.40-2.31, pconflict (adj. OR, 1.83, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, pconflicts and natural disasters may be important socio-environmental factors in the development of psychotic experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic specificity of poor premorbid adjustment: comparison of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and mood disorder with psychotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbox, Sarah I; Brown, Leslie H; Haas, Gretchen L

    2012-10-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have significant deficits in premorbid social and academic adjustment compared to individuals with non-psychotic diagnoses. However, it is unclear how severity and developmental trajectory of premorbid maladjustment compare across psychotic disorders. This study examined the association between premorbid functioning (in childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) and psychotic disorder diagnosis in a first-episode sample of 105 individuals: schizophrenia (n=68), schizoaffective disorder (n=22), and mood disorder with psychotic features (n=15). Social and academic maladjustment was assessed using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Worse social functioning in late adolescence was associated with higher odds of schizophrenia compared to odds of either schizoaffective disorder or mood disorder with psychotic features, independently of child and early adolescent maladjustment. Greater social dysfunction in childhood was associated with higher odds of schizoaffective disorder compared to odds of schizophrenia. Premorbid decline in academic adjustment was observed for all groups, but did not predict diagnosis at any stage of development. Results suggest that social functioning is disrupted in the premorbid phase of both schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but remains fairly stable in mood disorders with psychotic features. Disparities in the onset and time course of social dysfunction suggest important developmental differences between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Widespread brain dysconnectivity associated with psychotic-like experiences in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Orr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that psychosis occurs along a continuum. At the high end are formal psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and at the low-end are individuals who experience occasional psychotic symptoms, but are otherwise healthy (non-clinical psychosis, NCP. Schizophrenia has been shown to be marked by altered patterns of connectivity between brain regions, but it is not known if such dysconnectivity exists in NCP. In the current study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare resting-state functional connectivity in NCP individuals (n = 25 and healthy controls (n = 27 for four brain networks of interest (fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular, default mode, and cerebellar networks. NCP individuals showed reduced connectivity compared to controls between regions of the default mode network and frontal regions, and between regions in all of the networks and the thalamus. NCP individuals showed greater connectivity compared to controls within regions of frontal control networks. Further, positive symptom scores in NCP individuals were positively correlated with connectivity between the cingulo-opercular network and the visual cortex, and were negatively correlated with connectivity between the cerebellar network and the posterior parietal cortex and dorsal premotor cortex. Connectivity was not correlated with positive symptom scores in controls. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that a spectrum of abnormal connectivity underlies the psychosis continuum, and that individuals with sub-clinical psychotic experiences represent a key population for understanding pathogenic processes.

  19. Symptom Profile and Severity in a Sample of Nigerians with Psychotic versus Nonpsychotic Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Increase Ibukun Adeosun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic strategies in managing patients with psychotic major depression (PMD differ from those with non-psychotic major depression (NMD, because of differences in clinical profile and outcome. However, there is underrecognition of psychotic symptoms in depressed patients. Previous studies in Western population suggest that certain symptom patterns, apart from psychosis which may be concealed, can facilitate the discrimination of PMD from NMD. These studies may have limited applicability to sub-Saharan Africa due to cross-cultural differences in the phenomenology of depression. This study compared the rates and severity of depressive symptoms in outpatients with PMD (n=129 and NMD (n=117 using the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. Patients with PMD had statistically significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, and reduced appetite. Patients with NMD were more likely to manifest psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms. PMD was associated with greater symptom severity. On logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation, psychomotor disturbances, insomnia, and somatic symptoms were predictive of diagnostic status. The presence of these symptoms clusters may increase the suspicion of occult psychosis in patients with depression, thereby informing appropriate intervention strategies.

  20. Perfectionistic Self-Presentation and Suicide in a Young Woman with Major Depression and Psychotic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A woman in her midtwenties with a history of major depressive disorder and a recent major depressive episode with mood-congruent psychotic features died by suicide. Two weeks before her death, she demonstrated exceptional elevations on the nondisplay of imperfection factor of Hewitt and Flett’s Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale. Perfectionism and especially perfectionistic self-presentation have been strongly associated with suicide across several populations, accounting for unique variance in suicidality beyond depression and hopelessness. Yet interpersonal facets of perfectionism are not recognized as clinical risk factors for suicide. There is also a paucity of research on perfectionism in relation to psychotic symptoms. This case account illustrates the role of perfectionistic self-presentation in suicides that occur seemingly without warning and, to our knowledge, this is the first examination of perfectionistic self-presentation and suicide in a case where psychotic features occurred. This study, though single case-based, draws attention to perfectionism and perfectionistic self-presentation and their potential roles in suicide, especially when accompanied by other risk factors. Future research in this area may elucidate the role of perfectionism in suicide, singularly and in the context of a comprehensive clinical risk assessment, demonstrating whether perfectionism confers information about suicide risk beyond known clinical risk factors.

  1. A systematic review on definitions and assessments of psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kit-Wai; Chan, Kit-Wa; Chang, Wing-Chung; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Hui, Christy Lai-Ming; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai

    2016-02-01

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) or subclinical psychotic experiences have received increased attention as some studies have suggested continuity between PLEs and psychotic disorders. However, epidemiological and correlational studies of PLEs showed mixed findings - it is observed that different studies use a wide variety of definitions of PLEs, as well as different assessment tools that are designed to capture such described experiences. The differences in definitions and assessment tools adopted could contribute to the discrepancy of findings. The current review aims to examine the definitions and assessment tools adopted in the studies of PLEs. Literature search was conducted between October 2013 and February 2014 using three search engines: Medline, Web of Science and PubMed. A total of 76 papers met the selection criteria and were included in the current review. It is found that the majority of papers reviewed defined PLEs quantitatively using assessment tools and do not have a specific phenomenological definition, whereas assessment tools adopted have a wide variety. Furthermore, phenomenological studies of PLEs were rare. The variations in definitions and assessment tools of PLEs might contribute to mixed findings in researches. Reaching to a consensus through the study of phenomenology of PLEs is essential to further advancement of the research in this area. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. The fragmented self: imbalance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-networks in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Aleman, André

    2016-08-01

    Self-disturbances are among the core features of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. The basic structure of the self could depend on the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing. We discuss studies on self-related processing in psychotic disorders that provide converging evidence for disrupted communication between neural networks subserving the so-called intrinsic self and extrinsic self. This disruption might be mainly caused by impaired integrity of key brain hubs. The intrinsic self has been associated with cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing, autobiographical memory, and emotional evaluation. Additionally, we highlight central aspects of the extrinsic self in its interaction with the environment using sensorimotor networks, including self-experience in sensation and actions. A deficient relationship between these self-aspects because of disrupted between-network interactions offers a framework to explain core clinical features of psychotic disorders. In particular, we show how relative isolation and reduced modularity of networks subserving intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing might trigger the emergence of hallucinations and delusions, and why patients with psychosis typically have difficulties with self-other relationships and do not recognise mental problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnic density as a buffer for psychotic experiences: findings from a national survey (EMPIRIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Bécares, Laia; Boydell, Jane E; Dewey, Michael E; Morgan, Craig; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Prince, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    Aetiological mechanisms underlying ethnic density associations with psychosis remain unclear. To assess potential mechanisms underlying the observation that minority ethnic groups experience an increased risk of psychosis when living in neighbourhoods of lower own-group density. Multilevel analysis of nationally representative community-level data (from the Ethnic Minorities Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community survey), which included the main minority ethnic groups living in England, and a White British group. Structured instruments assessed discrimination, chronic strains and social support. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire ascertained psychotic experiences. For every ten percentage point reduction in own-group density, the relative odds of reporting psychotic experiences increased 1.07 times (95% CI 1.01-1.14, P = 0.03 (trend)) for the total minority ethnic sample. In general, people living in areas of lower own-group density experienced greater social adversity that was in turn associated with reporting psychotic experiences. People resident in neighbourhoods of higher own-group density experience 'buffering' effects from the social risk factors for psychosis.

  4. Perfectionistic Self-Presentation and Suicide in a Young Woman with Major Depression and Psychotic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    A woman in her midtwenties with a history of major depressive disorder and a recent major depressive episode with mood-congruent psychotic features died by suicide. Two weeks before her death, she demonstrated exceptional elevations on the nondisplay of imperfection factor of Hewitt and Flett's Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale. Perfectionism and especially perfectionistic self-presentation have been strongly associated with suicide across several populations, accounting for unique variance in suicidality beyond depression and hopelessness. Yet interpersonal facets of perfectionism are not recognized as clinical risk factors for suicide. There is also a paucity of research on perfectionism in relation to psychotic symptoms. This case account illustrates the role of perfectionistic self-presentation in suicides that occur seemingly without warning and, to our knowledge, this is the first examination of perfectionistic self-presentation and suicide in a case where psychotic features occurred. This study, though single case-based, draws attention to perfectionism and perfectionistic self-presentation and their potential roles in suicide, especially when accompanied by other risk factors. Future research in this area may elucidate the role of perfectionism in suicide, singularly and in the context of a comprehensive clinical risk assessment, demonstrating whether perfectionism confers information about suicide risk beyond known clinical risk factors. PMID:25328746

  5. Canadian Schizophrenia Guidelines: Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders with Coexisting Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockford, David; Addington, Donald

    2017-09-01

    Persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders frequently have coexisting substance use disorders that require modifications to treatment approaches for best outcomes. The objectives of this review were to identify evidence-based practices best practices that improve outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia and substance used disorders. We reviewed guidelines that were published in the last 5 years and that included systematic reviews or meta-analyses. Most of our recommendations came from 2 publications from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE): the 2011 guidance titled Coexisting Severe Mental Illness (Psychosis) and Substance Misuse: Assessment and Management in Healthcare Settings and the 2014 guidance titled Psychosis and Schizophrenia in Adults: Prevention and Management. We placed these recommendations into the Canadian context to create this guideline. Evidence supports the inclusion of individuals with coexisting substance use disorders in first-episode psychosis programs. The programs should integrate psychosis and substance use treatments, emphasizing ongoing monitoring of both substance use and patterns and symptoms. The best outcomes are achieved with combined use of antipsychotic medications and addiction-based psychosocial interventions. However, limited evidence is available to recommend using one antipsychotic medication over another or one psychosocial intervention over another for persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders with coexisting substance use disorders. Treating persons who have schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders with coexisting substance use disorders can present clinical challenges, but modifications in practice can help engage and retain people in treatment, where significant improvements over time can be expected.

  6. Stress Sensitivity and Psychotic Experiences in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Koyanagi, Ai; Unick, Jay; Oh, Hans; Nam, Boyoung; Stickley, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Stress has a central role in most theories of psychosis etiology, but the relation between stress and psychosis has rarely been examined in large population-level data sets, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We used data from 39 countries in the World Health Survey (n = 176 934) to test the hypothesis that stress sensitivity would be associated with psychotic experiences, using logistic regression analyses. Respondents in low-income countries reported higher stress sensitivity (P countries. Greater stress sensitivity was associated with increased odds for psychotic experiences, even when adjusted for co-occurring anxiety and depressive symptoms: adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) = 1.17 (1.15-1.19) per unit increase in stress sensitivity (range 2-10). This association was consistent and significant across nearly every country studied, and translated into a difference in psychotic experience prevalence ranging from 6.4% among those with the lowest levels of stress sensitivity up to 22.2% among those with the highest levels. These findings highlight the generalizability of the association between psychosis and stress sensitivity in the largest and most globally representative community-level sample to date, and support the targeting of stress sensitivity as a potential component of individual- and population-level interventions for psychosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Childhood maltreatment, adult attachment and psychotic symptomatology: a study in patients, siblings and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, D S; Korver-Nieberg, N; Velthorst, E; Meijer, C J; de Haan, L

    2014-11-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment (ChM) and psychotic disorders is well established. However, there is an ongoing debate about which factors account for this relationship. One explanation is that the relationship between ChM and psychosis is mediated by adult attachment style. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether adult attachment style mediates the relationship between ChM and positive and negative symptomatology. We investigated the relation between ChM and psychotic symptoms, taking into account levels of (insecure) attachment, in 131 patients with psychotic illness, 123 siblings and 72 controls. ChM was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Attachment dimensions of anxiety and avoidance were measured using the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM). In both patients and siblings, ChM predicted positive symptoms and this relationship was partly mediated by attachment style. This relationship was found to be stronger for siblings than for patients. ChM predicted negative symptoms in patients and siblings. In the patient sample, attachment style did not mediate the relationship between ChM and negative symptoms, whereas attachment style was found to be a mediator in the sibling sample. ChM was associated with positive and negative symptomatology in both patients and siblings. Particularly in siblings, the relationship between ChM and psychosis seems to be mediated by adult attachment style. Perhaps attachment style may play a more prominent role on a subclinical level.

  8. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. The Association of Salvia divinorum and Psychotic Disorders: A Review of the Literature and Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Joseph; Sahakian, Nayiri

    2015-01-01

    The association of substance abuse and psychotic disorders is of interest to clinicians, academics, and lawmakers. Commonly abused substances, such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, and alcohol, have all been associated with substance-induced psychosis. Hallucinogens can induce desired psychedelic effects and undesirable psychomimetic reactions. These are usually transient and resolve once the duration of action is over. Sometimes, these effects persist, causing distress and requiring intervention. This article focuses on the hallucinogenic substance Salvia divinorum, the use of which has been observed, particularly among youth worldwide. We present background information based on a review of the literature and on our own clinical encounters, as highlighted by two original case reports. We hypothesize that consumption of Salvia divinorum could be associated with the development of psychotic disorders. We propose that clinicians routinely inquire about the use of Salvia in patients with substance use disorders or psychotic illnesses. More research is required to assess any relationship between Salvia divinorum and psychosis. Additionally, we advocate increased public and medical awareness of this substance and other emerging drugs of abuse.

  10. Left-Handedness Among a Community Sample of Psychiatric Outpatients Suffering From Mood and Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadon R. Webb

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain develops asymmetrically, such that certain cognitive processes arise predominantly from the left or right side. It has been proposed that variations in this laterality contribute to certain forms of mental illness, such as schizophrenia. A convenient measure of brain laterality is hand dominance, and prior work has found that patients with schizophrenia are more likely to be left-handed than the general population. This finding is not consistent, however, and fewer studies have directly compared handedness between psychiatric diagnoses. We assessed hand dominance in 107 patients presenting to an outpatient psychiatric clinic with diagnoses of a mood or psychotic disorder. The prevalence of left-handedness was 11% for mood disorders, which is similar to the rate in the general population. It was 40% in those with psychotic disorders (adjusted odds ratio = 7.9, p < .001. The prevalence of left-handedness was much higher in psychotic disorders compared with mood disorders in this community mental health sample.

  11. [Association between the violence in the community and the aggressive behaviors of psychotics during their hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothärmel, M; Poirier, M-F; Levacon, G; Kazour, F; Bleher, S; Gastal, D; Lazareth, S; Lebain, P; Olari, M; Oukebdane, R; Rengade, C-E; Themines, J; Abbar, M; Dollfus, S; Gassiot, A; Haouzir, S; Januel, D; Millet, B; Olié, J-P; Stamatiadis, L; Terra, J-L; Bénichou, J; Campion, D; Guillin, O

    2017-10-01

    Violence is a common issue in psychiatry and has multiple determiners. The aim of this study is to assess the psychotic inpatients' violence in association with the violence of the neighborhood from which the patients are drawn and to estimate the impact of this environmental factor with regard to other factors. A prospective multicenter study was led in nine French cities. Eligible patients were psychotic involuntary patients hospitalized in the cities' psychiatric wards. During their treatments, any kind of aggressive behavior by the patients has been reported by the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). From June 2010 to May 2011, 95 patients have been included. Seventy-nine per cent of the patients were violent during their hospitalizations. In a bivariate analysis, inpatient violence was significantly associated with different factors: male gender, patient violence history, substance abuse, manic or mixed disorder, the symptoms severity measured by the BPRS, the insight degree and the city crime rate. In a multivariate analysis, the only significant factors associated with the patients' violence were substance abuse, the symptoms severity and the crime rates from the different patients' cities. These results suggest that violence within the psychotic patients' neighborhood could represent a risk of violence during their treatments. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Lifetime measurements using the Jefferson Lad Load-Lock Electron Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Grames; P. Adderley; M. Baylac; J. Brittian; D. Charles; J. Clark; J. Hansknecht; M. Poelker; M. Stutzman; K. Surles-Law

    2000-01-01

    Lifetime measurements of bulk GaAs using a 100 kV load-lock electron gun and beam line were made. Initial tests used anodized samples to study lifetime under various conditions (gun vacuum, laser spot location, activated area). Subsequent tests used a mechanical mask to limit the active area and included improved monitoring of the gun chamber and beam line vacuum pressure. Results of these measurements support claims made at past workshops, namely photocathode lifetime improves when gun vacuum is enhanced and when electron emission from the edge of the photocathode is eliminated. The dependence upon laser spot location is less certain. Tests studying lifetime at higher beam intensity (I ∼ 8 mA) have begun

  13. A Humidity-Dependent Lifetime Derating Factor for DC Film Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    accelerated testing of film capacitors under different humidity conditions, enabling a more justified lifetime prediction of film capacitors for DC-link applications under specific climatic environments. The analysis of the testing results and the detailed discussion on the derating factor with different......Film capacitors are widely assumed to have superior reliability performance than Aluminum electrolytic capacitors in DC-link design of power electronic converters. However, the assumption needs to be critically judged especially for applications under high humidity environments. This paper proposes...... a humidity-dependent lifetime derating factor for a type of plastic-boxed metallized DC film capacitors. It overcomes the limitation that the humidity impact is not considered in the state-of-the-art DC film capacitor lifetime models. The lifetime derating factor is obtained based on a total of 8,700 hours...

  14. Irradiation creep lifetime analysis on first wall structure materials for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Bing; Peng, Lei, E-mail: penglei@ustc.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiansheng; Shi, Jingyi; Zhan, Jie

    2017-05-15

    Fusion reactor first wall services on the conditions of high surface heat flux and intense neutron irradiation. For China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) with high duty time factor, it is important to analyze the irradiation effect on the creep lifetime of the main candidate structure materials for first wall, i.e. ferritic/martensitic steel, austenite steel and oxide dispersion strengthened steel. The allowable irradiation creep lifetime was evaluated with Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP) model and finite element method. The results show that the allowable irradiation creep lifetime decreases with increasing of surface heat flux, first wall thickness and inlet coolant temperature. For the current CFETR conceptual design, the lifetime is not limited by thermal creep or irradiation creep, which indicated the room for design parameters optimization.

  15. The Lifetime of a beautiful and charming meson: Bc lifetime measured using the D0 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty-Rieger, Leah Christine

    2008-01-01

    Using approximately 1.3 fb -1 of data collected by the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the lifetime of the B c ± meson is studied in the B c ± → J/ψμ ± + X final state. Using an unbinned likelihood simultaneous fit to J/ψ + μ invariant mass and lifetime distributions, a signal of 810 ± 80(stat.) candidates is estimated and a lifetime measurement made of: τ(B c ± ) = 0.448 -0.036 +0.038 (stat) ± 0.032(sys) ps

  16. Khat use as risk factor for psychotic disorders: A cross-sectional and case-control study in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of khat-induced psychotic disorders in East African countries, where the chewing of khat leaves is common. Its main psycho-active component cathinone produces effects similar to those of amphetamine. We aimed to explore the prevalence of psychotic disorders among the general population and the association between khat use and psychotic symptoms. Methods In an epidemiological household assessment in the city of Hargeisa, North-West Somalia, trained local interviewers screened 4,854 randomly selected persons from among the general population for disability due to severe mental problems. The identified cases were interviewed based on a structured interview and compared to healthy matched controls. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the items of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview and quantified with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale. Statistical testing included Student's t-test and ANOVA. Results Local interviewers found that rates of severe disability due to mental disorders were 8.4% among males (above the age of 12 and differed according to war experiences (no war experience: 3.2%; civilian war survivors: 8.0%; ex-combatants: 15.9%. The clinical interview verified that in 83% of positive screening cases psychotic symptoms were the most prominent manifestations of psychiatric illness. On average, cases with psychotic symptoms had started to use khat earlier in life than matched controls and had been using khat 8.6 years before positive symptoms emerged. In most cases with psychotic symptoms, a pattern of binge use (> two 'bundles' per day preceded the onset of psychotic symptoms, in contrast to controls of the same age. We found significant correlations between variables of khat consumption and clinical scales (0.35 to 0.50; p Conclusion Evidence indicates a relationship between the consumption of khat and the onset of psychotic symptoms among the male

  17. Responses to stress in patients with psychotic disorders compared to persons with varying levels of vulnerability to psychosis, persons with depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Köther, Ulf; Hartmann, Maike; Kempkensteffen, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    An experimental design was used to test whether self-reported, psychophysiological and symptomatic stress-responses increase as a function of the underlying vulnerability to psychosis as proposed by vulnerability-stress-models. Stress-responses of participants with psychotic disorders (PSY, n = 35) were compared to those of participants with attenuated positive symptoms (AS, n = 29), first-degree relatives of persons with psychotic disorders (REL, n = 26), healthy controls (HC, n = 28) and controls with depression (DEP, n = 30). Using a repeated measures design, participants were assigned to a noise stressor, a social stressor and a no stress condition in random order. Stress-responses were assessed via self-report, salivary cortisol levels, heart rate and skin conductance levels. State-paranoia and depression were assessed with clinical scales. PSY reported to be significantly more stressed than HC, AS and REL across all conditions which went along with increased heart rate and decreased overall cortisol release. In contrast, AS showed elevated levels of cortisol. PSY showed a stronger response of self-reported stress to the noise condition compared to the no stress condition than HC, but no stronger response than the other samples. Furthermore, the stressors did not trigger stronger psychophysiological responses or symptom-increases in PSY. The social stressor was brief and not individualized and did not have an effect on cortisol. The findings support the notion that subjective stress-responsiveness increases with vulnerability, but not the assumption that symptoms arise directly as a function of stress and vulnerability. Also, the generally high levels of arousal seem to be more relevant to psychosis than the responsiveness to specific stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low cycle lifetime assessment of Al2024 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shehzad Saleem

    2012-07-01

    The 2024-T351 aluminium alloy is extensively used for fabricating aircraft parts. This alloy shows a relatively low ductility at room temperature and is generally heat treated in various conditions to suit particular applications. The present study experimentally and numerically analyses the damage mechanism of the aforementioned alloy subjected to multi-axial stress states. The purpose of this work is to predict the cyclic lifetime of the considered alloy, based on the local approach of damage evolution using continuum damage modelling (CDM). The experimental program involves different kinds of specimens and loading conditions. According to the experimental observations, the material response of Al2024 is highly direction-dependent showing a material behaviour between ductile and brittle. In particular, in its corresponding (small transversal) S-direction, the material behaviour can be characterised as quasi-brittle. For the modelling of such a mechanical response, a novel, fully coupled isotropic ductile-brittle continuum damage mechanics model is proposed. Since the resulting model shows a large number of material parameters, an efficient, hybrid parameter identification strategy is discussed. Within this strategy, as many parameters as possible have been determined a priori by exploiting analogies to established theories (like Paris law), while the remaining free unknowns are computed by solving an optimisation problem. Comparisons between the experimentally observed and the numerically simulated lifetimes reveal the prediction capability of the proposed model. (orig.)

  19. RDM lifetime measurements in 107Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andgren, K; Ashley, S F; Regan, P H

    2005-01-01

    Lifetimes for decays linking near-yrast states in 107 Cd have been measured using the recoil distance method (RDM). The nucleus of interest was populated via the 98 Mo( 12 C,3n) 107 Cd fusion-evaporation reaction at an incident beam energy of 60 MeV. From the measured lifetimes, transition probabilities have been deduced and compared with the theoretical B(E2) values for limiting cases of harmonic vibrational and axially deformed rotational systems. Our initial results suggest a rotor-like behaviour for the structure based on the unnatural-parity, h 11/2 orbital in 107 Cd, providing further evidence for the role of this 'shape-polarizing' orbital in stabilizing the nuclear deformation in the A ∼ 100 transitional region

  20. RDM lifetime measurements in 107Cd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andgren, K.; Ashley, S. F.; Regan, P. H.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zamfir, N. V.; Amon, L.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Clark, R. M.; Gürdal, G.; Keyes, K. L.; Meyer, D. A.; Erduran, M. N.; Papenberg, A.; Pietralla, N.; Plettner, C.; Rainovski, G.; Ribas, R. V.; Thomas, N. J.; Vinson, J.; Warner, D. D.; Werner, V.; Williams, E.

    2005-10-01

    Lifetimes for decays linking near-yrast states in 107Cd have been measured using the recoil distance method (RDM). The nucleus of interest was populated via the 98Mo(12C,3n)107Cd fusion-evaporation reaction at an incident beam energy of 60 MeV. From the measured lifetimes, transition probabilities have been deduced and compared with the theoretical B(E2) values for limiting cases of harmonic vibrational and axially deformed rotational systems. Our initial results suggest a rotor-like behaviour for the structure based on the unnatural-parity, h11/2 orbital in 107Cd, providing further evidence for the role of this 'shape-polarizing' orbital in stabilizing the nuclear deformation in the A ~ 100 transitional region.