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Sample records for psychotherapy ppt contrasts

  1. WELLFOCUS PPT - modified positive psychotherapy to improve well-being in psychosis: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Beate; Riches, Simon; Coggins, Tony; Rashid, Tayyab; Tylee, Andre; Slade, Mike

    2014-06-03

    The promotion of well-being is an important goal of recovery oriented mental health services. No structured, evidence-based intervention exists that aims to increase the well-being in people with severe mental illness such as psychosis. Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is a promising intervention for this goal. Standard PPT was adapted for use with people with psychosis in the UK following the Medical Research Council framework for developing and testing complex interventions, resulting in the WELLFOCUS Model describing the intended impact of WELLFOCUS PPT. This study aims to test the WELLFOCUS Model, by piloting the intervention, trial processes, and evaluation strategy. This study is a non-blinded pragmatic pilot RCT comparing WELLFOCUS PPT provided as an 11-session group therapy in addition to treatment as usual to treatment as usual alone. Inclusion criteria are adults (aged 18-65 years) with a main diagnosis of psychosis who use mental health services. A target sample of 80 service users with psychosis are recruited from mental health services across the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. Participants are randomised in blocks to the intervention and control group. WELLFOCUS PPT is provided to groups by specifically trained and supervised local therapists and members of the research team. Assessments are conducted before randomisation and after the group intervention. The primary outcome measure is well-being assessed by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Secondary outcomes include good feelings, symptom relief, connectedness, hope, self-worth, empowerment, and meaning. Process evaluation using data collected during the group intervention, post-intervention individual interviews and focus groups with participants, and interviews with trial therapists will complement quantitative outcome data. This study will provide data on the feasibility of the intervention and identify necessary adaptations. It will allow optimisation of trial processes

  2. WELLFOCUS PPT – modified positive psychotherapy to improve well-being in psychosis: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The promotion of well-being is an important goal of recovery oriented mental health services. No structured, evidence-based intervention exists that aims to increase the well-being in people with severe mental illness such as psychosis. Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is a promising intervention for this goal. Standard PPT was adapted for use with people with psychosis in the UK following the Medical Research Council framework for developing and testing complex interventions, resulting in the WELLFOCUS Model describing the intended impact of WELLFOCUS PPT. This study aims to test the WELLFOCUS Model, by piloting the intervention, trial processes, and evaluation strategy. Methods/Design This study is a non-blinded pragmatic pilot RCT comparing WELLFOCUS PPT provided as an 11-session group therapy in addition to treatment as usual to treatment as usual alone. Inclusion criteria are adults (aged 18–65 years) with a main diagnosis of psychosis who use mental health services. A target sample of 80 service users with psychosis are recruited from mental health services across the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. Participants are randomised in blocks to the intervention and control group. WELLFOCUS PPT is provided to groups by specifically trained and supervised local therapists and members of the research team. Assessments are conducted before randomisation and after the group intervention. The primary outcome measure is well-being assessed by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Secondary outcomes include good feelings, symptom relief, connectedness, hope, self-worth, empowerment, and meaning. Process evaluation using data collected during the group intervention, post-intervention individual interviews and focus groups with participants, and interviews with trial therapists will complement quantitative outcome data. Discussion This study will provide data on the feasibility of the intervention and identify necessary adaptations. It will

  3. Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians have a number of treatment options for dealing with the emotional ills of patients, including psychoeducation, psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy. However, after years of experience in the clinical field, we have recognized that these treatment options may not be sufficient to adequately address the problems of some patients. We have found that adding a metaphysical/spiritual component may be helpful, particularly for those patients with histories of childhood trauma. In this edition of The Interface, we discuss four metaphysical techniques for facilitating patient healing—1) refocusing on the present, 2) reframing adversity, 3) practicing surrender, and 4) meditation. These approaches can be mutually integrated and compliment a psychological treatment in either the psychiatric or primary care setting, regardless of whether or not the patient has formal religious beliefs. PMID:20104289

  4. 78 FR 48683 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Personal Protective Technology (PPT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Technology (PPT) Program; Framework Document for the Healthcare Worker Personal Protective Equipment Action... titled ``Framework for Setting the NIOSH PPT Program Action Plan for Healthcare Worker Personal... NIOSH personal protective technology (PPT) program publishes and periodically updates its research...

  5. [Inpatient psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, C; Rullkötter, N; Dally, A

    2016-01-01

    In German-speaking countries inpatient psychotherapy plays a major role in the mental healthcare system. Due to its characteristic features, i. e. multiprofessionalism, multimodality and method integration, the inpatient approach represents a unique and independent type of psychotherapy. In order to be helpful, the manifold verbal and non-verbal methods need to be embedded into an overall treatment plan. Additionally, the therapeutic milieu of the hospital represents an important effective factor and its organization requires a more active construction. The indications for inpatient psychotherapy are not only based on the mental disorder but also on illness, setting and healthcare system-related criteria. In integrative concepts, the multiprofessional team is a key component with many functions. The effectiveness of psychotherapeutic hospital treatment has been proven by meta-analysis studies; however, 20-30% of patients do not benefit from inpatient psychotherapy and almost 13% drop-out prematurely.

  6. Integrative psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica

    2008-09-01

    The main purposes of the article are to present the history of integration in psychotherapy, the reasons of the development integrative approaches, and the approaches to integration in psychotherapy. Three approaches to integration in psychotherapy exist: theoretical integration, theoretical eclecticism, and common factors in different psychotherapeutic trends. In integrative psychotherapy, the basic epistemology, theory, and clinical practice are based on the phenomenology, field theory, holism, dialogue, and co-creation of dialogue in the therapeutic relationship. The main criticism is that integrative psychotherapy suffers from confusion and many unresolved controversies. It is difficult to theoretically and methodologically define the clinically applied model that is based on such a different epistemological and theoretical presumptions. Integrative psychotherapy is a synthesis of humanistic psychotherapy, object relations theory, and psychoanalytical self psychology. It focuses on the dynamics and potentials of human relationships, with a goal of changing the relations and understanding internal and external resistances. The process of integrative psychotherapy is primarily focused on the developmental-relational model and co-creation of psychotherapeutic relationship as a single interactive event, which is not unilateral, but rather a joint endeavor by both the therapist and the patient/client. The need for a relationship is an important human need and represents a process of attunement that occurs as a response to the need for a relationship, a unique interpersonal contact between two people. If this need is not met, it manifests with the different feelings and various defenses. To meet this need, we need to have another person with whom we can establish a sensitive, attuned relationship. Thus, the therapist becomes this person who tries to supplement what the person did not receive. Neuroscience can be a source of integration through different therapies. We

  7. Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation: Treatment Development, Feasibility and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Christopher W; Spillane, Nichea S; Day, Anne; Clerkin, Elise; Parks, Acacia; Leventhal, Adam M; Brown, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Low positive and high negative affect predict low rates of smoking abstinence among smokers making a quit attempt. Positive Psychotherapy can both increase positive affect and decrease negative affect and therefore may be a useful adjunct to behavioral smoking counseling. The purpose of the present study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation (PPT-S) intervention that integrates standard smoking cessation counseling with nicotine patch and a package of positive psychology interventions. We delivered PPT-S to 19 smokers who were low in positive affect at baseline. Rates of session attendance and satisfaction with treatment were high, and most participants reported using and benefiting from the positive psychology interventions. Almost one-third of participants (31.6%) sustained smoking abstinence for 6 months after their quit date. Future studies to assess the relative efficacy of PPT-S compared to standard smoking cessation treatment are warranted.

  8. Psychotherapy And Phenomenology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    psychology and psychotherapy since its beginnings. ... accountability of psychological meaning are ... the whole of human being as entirely representative ..... approaches and range across the areas of personality psychology, psychotherapy, ...

  9. [Emotional stress psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnov, V E

    1989-01-01

    The concept of emotional stress psychotherapy (ESP) is based on the theoretical understanding of mental process as a system of cross-potentiating synergism of consciousness and the unconscious. Therefore, one can regard this kind of treatment as an appeal to the spiritual components of personality arousing its need of self-perfectioning. Owing to this, ESP turns the demands and higher interests creating a personality dominant to oppose the illness with ensuing depression and apathy. In a sense, this method is a qualitative contrast to S. Freud's psychoanalysis digging in the dark compartments of the soul. As a result of treatment of thousands of neurotic patients and those with psychosomatic disorders and alcoholism, the following techniques of ESP were elaborated: rational, shaped as a socratic dialogue; hypnosuggestive comprising individual or collective hypnosis, extremely loaded with emotions; autosuggestive like mental self-regulation and autogenic training filled with specific emotions.

  10. Recovery of market size Florida pompano, grown at 3 ppt salinity, from the effects of severe osmotic stress after increasing salinity to 12 ppt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culturing a saltwater fish, such as Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus, in near freshwater can lead to physiological changes that lead to slow growth, organ damage, and reduced survival. During a study to examine growth of pompano at different daily feed rates in low salinity (3 ppt) recirculati...

  11. Characterisation of the Candida albicans Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt2 as a Potential Antifungal Drug Target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine S Dobb

    Full Text Available Antifungal drugs acting via new mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat the increasing numbers of severe fungal infections caused by pathogens such as Candida albicans. The phosphopantetheinyl transferase of Aspergillus fumigatus, encoded by the essential gene pptB, has previously been identified as a potential antifungal target. This study investigated the function of its orthologue in C. albicans, PPT2/C1_09480W by placing one allele under the control of the regulatable MET3 promoter, and deleting the remaining allele. The phenotypes of this conditional null mutant showed that, as in A. fumigatus, the gene PPT2 is essential for growth in C. albicans, thus fulfilling one aspect of an efficient antifungal target. The catalytic activity of Ppt2 as a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and the acyl carrier protein Acp1 as a substrate were demonstrated in a fluorescence transfer assay, using recombinant Ppt2 and Acp1 produced and purified from E.coli. A fluorescence polarisation assay amenable to high-throughput screening was also developed. Therefore we have identified Ppt2 as a broad-spectrum novel antifungal target and developed tools to identify inhibitors as potentially new antifungal compounds.

  12. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  13. The Prostitution of Psychotherapy: A Feminist Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Betty

    1999-01-01

    Provides historical perspective of mainstream psychotherapy and contrasts it with feminist therapy. States the major difference between them is that feminist therapy emphasizes change rather than adjustment. Argues that traditional therapy is charged with reinforcing society's mystifications, and allowing itself to be used in the service of the…

  14. Making Psychotherapy Great Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2017-05-01

    Psychotherapy never stopped being as "great" as other treatments. This column explores the evidence base for both psychotherapy and medications, using depression as a specific example. The limitations are comparable for psychotherapy and medication, with much of the evidence based on small degrees of "statistically significant" rather than "clinically meaningful" change. Our field's biomedical emphasis leads to a false assumption that most patients present with single disorders, when comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception. This false assumption contributes to limitations in the evidence base and in our ability to treat patients optimally.

  15. Psychotherapy for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong Guan, Ng; Mohamed, Salina; Kian Tiah, Lai; Kar Mun, Teoh; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida

    2016-07-01

    Objective Psychotherapy is a common non-pharmacological approach to help cancer patients in their psychological distress. The benefit of psychotherapies was documented, but the types of psychotherapies proposed are varied. Given that the previous literature review was a decade ago and no quantitative analysis was done on this topic, we again critically and systematically reviewed all published trials on psychotherapy in cancer patients. Method We identified 17 clinical trials on six types of psychotherapy for cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE. Result There were four trials involved adjunct psychological therapy which were included in quantitative analysis. Each trial demonstrated that psychotherapy improved the quality of life and coping in cancer patients. There was also a reduction in distress, anxiety, and depression after a psychological intervention. However, the number and quality of clinical trials for each type of psychotherapy were poor. The meta-analysis of the four trials involved adjunct psychological therapy showed no significant change in depression, with only significant short-term improvement in anxiety but not up to a year-the standardized mean differences were -0.37 (95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.57, -0.16) at 2 months, -0.21 (95% CI = -0.42, -0.01) at 4 months, and 0.03 (95 % CI = -0.19, 0.24) at 12 months. Conclusion The evidence on the efficacy of psychotherapy in cancer patients is unsatisfactory. There is a need for more rigorous and well-designed clinical trials on this topic.

  16. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder. PMID

  17. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  18. Integrative Psychotherapy ‘Revisited’

    OpenAIRE

    Marye O’Reilly-Knapp

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits aspects of the theory and methods of Integrative Psychotherapy as written and discussed by Richard G. Erskine, PhD and others. A case study demonstrates the use of Integrative Psychotherapy as the basis for therapeutic interventions that allow the client to interpret early experiences of relational failures, via a relationally based psychotherapy. Revisiting the theory and methods of Integrative Psychotherapy served to further validate the core of IP and its value as a ...

  19. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  20. Informed consent in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beahrs, J O; Gutheil, T G

    2001-01-01

    The authors sought a rational approach to implementing informed consent within the practice of psychotherapy. The history of informed consent in psychotherapy was reviewed to define a common synthesis that maximizes the potential benefits and minimizes the potential hazards. The benefits of informed consent in psychotherapy include fostering a positive treatment outcome through enhancing patient autonomy, responsibility, and self-therapeutic activity; lessening the risks of regressive effects and therapist liability; and helping the practice of psychotherapy extend beyond particular parochialisms by providing checks and balances on therapist judgments. The hazards include the unpredictability of interactional outcomes and the possibilities of replacing positive expectancy with negative suggestion, replacing a therapeutic alliance with a legalistic stance, and misimplying that patients are passive recipients. Practical implementation of informed consent in psychotherapy must balance such tensions in service of optimal treatment. As a guiding principle, the authors recommend that psychotherapists convey to a prospective patient information that is material to the particular patient's decision. The level of detail needed in informed consent discussions varies directly with the cost and risks of the proposed treatment, the presence of viable alternatives and their relative grounding in scientific data and professional acceptance, and the presence of significant controversy. Unresolved is the question of how to address problematic or controversial psychotherapeutic trends that temporarily enjoy wide professional support.

  1. Psychotherapy in the aesthetic attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, John

    2010-04-01

    Drawing upon the writings of Jungian analyst Joseph Henderson on unconscious attitudes toward culture that patients and analysts may bring to therapy, the author defines the aesthetic attitude as one of the basic ways that cultural experience is instinctively accessed and processed so that it can become part of an individual's self experience. In analytic treatment, the aesthetic attitude emerges as part of what Jung called the transcendent function to create new symbolic possibilities for the growth of consciousness. It can provide creative opportunities for new adaptation where individuation has become stuck in unconscious complexes, both personal and cultural. In contrast to formulations that have compared depth psychotherapy to religious ritual, philosophic discourse, and renewal of socialization, this paper focuses upon the considerations of beauty that make psychotherapy also an art. In psychotherapeutic work, the aesthetic attitude confronts both analyst and patient with the problem of taste, affects how the treatment is shaped and 'framed', and can grant a dimension of grace to the analyst's mirroring of the struggles that attend the patient's effort to be a more smoothly functioning human being. The patient may learn to extend the same grace to the analyst's fumbling attempts to be helpful. The author suggests that the aesthetic attitude is thus a help in the resolution of both countertransference and transference en route to psychological healing.

  2. Introduction: attachment theory and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N

    2013-11-01

    In this introduction to the JCLP: In Session 69(11) issue on attachment theory and psychotherapy, the key points of attachment theory (Bowlby, , , 1981) and its relevance to psychotherapy are briefly described. The aim of this issue is to provide case illustrations of how an attachment theory perspective and principles can expand our understanding of psychotherapy practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assessing Attachment in Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I.F.

    2017-01-01

    The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy...... (cognitive–behavioural, cognitive–behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong...... inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis...

  4. Gratitude in cognitive psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Moyano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gratitude is a cognitive-affective state caused by the recognition that one has received a benefit from an external agent, due to the good intentions of this agent. Despite the evidence that associate gratitude with subjective well being, psychological well being, physical health and copping with stressful events, it is not enough taken in consideration in an academic level and in its interaction with psychotherapy instruments as well. In this article, the central concepts and information provided by the research are revised, intending to analyze possible ways to include gratitude into Cognitive Psychotherapy

  5. Integrative Psychotherapy ‘Revisited’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marye O’Reilly-Knapp

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits aspects of the theory and methods of Integrative Psychotherapy as written and discussed by Richard G. Erskine, PhD and others. A case study demonstrates the use of Integrative Psychotherapy as the basis for therapeutic interventions that allow the client to interpret early experiences of relational failures, via a relationally based psychotherapy. Revisiting the theory and methods of Integrative Psychotherapy served to further validate the core of IP and its value as a cohesive and comprehensive psychotherapy.

  6. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-06-01

    American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services.

  7. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328

  8. Piaget and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, T L

    1978-04-01

    It is difficult to apply Piaget's theory to psychotherapy because the place of affect in it is ambiguous. When the alternatives are considered, it seems most consistent with Piaget's ideas to regard both cognitive and affective phenomena as problem-solving organizations. Piaget's remarkable discoveries in the cognitive sphere are a consequence of the easy access in that sphere to the kind of problems that need solving, and the phasic development of solutions. But the nature of the problems to be solved or the values to be guarded by a patient in psychotherapy are not knowable independently of the patient's actual behavior. In one respect all that is left from Piaget's approach for psychotherapy generally is the truism that therapy fosters differentiation and integration. However, even if we cannot frame a peculiarly Piagetian paradigm of psychotherapy, Piaget is valuable in posing a subsidiary question, namely, what in therapy fosters problem-solving activity. A reading of Piaget suggests that a patient learns by acting on his therapist and tacitly interpreting the results of his actions, that difficulties in therapy are the material from which therapy proceeds, and that in order to grasp the situation of the patient, the therapist himself may need to act on him and not just think about him. An implied lesson for training would be that supervision should instill a professional identity that is reinforced rather than challenged by therapy difficulties, and does not rely solely on theoretical categorizing.

  9. Psychotherapy for Suicidal Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Reviews various systems of psychotherapy for suitability for suicidal clients. Discusses psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, primal therapy, transactional analysis, Gestalt therapy, reality therapy, person-centered therapy, existential analysis, and Jungian analysis in light of available treatment options. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  10. Personality Theory and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Joen; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This group of articles discusses various aspects of Gestalt Therapy including its major contributions, role in psychotherapy, and contributions of Gestalt psychology in general. There is some discussion of the philosophical background of Gestalt therapy along with Gestalt theory of emotion. A case study and an annotated bibliography are included…

  11. Psychotherapy and Women's Liberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Jean

    1976-01-01

    Personality theories and scientific data on women frequently contribute negatively to the psychotherapy of female clients. This paper examines some of the background factors which have shaped our information about women, and then reviews some contemporaneous approaches to the therapy of women. (Author)

  12. Nonverbal Synchrony in Psychotherapy: Coordinated Body Movement Reflects Relationship Quality and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…

  13. Expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200, and MAP-2 in cocultures of dissociated DRG neurons and skeletal muscle cells in administration of NGF or NT-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Both neurotrophins (NTs and target skeletal muscle (SKM cells are essential for the maintenance of the function of neurons and nerve-muscle communication. However, much less is known about the association of target SKM cells with distinct NTs on the expression of mRNAs for preprotachykinin (PPT, calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP, neurofilament 200 (NF-200, and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons. In the present study, a neuromuscular coculture model of dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and SKM cells was established. The morphology of DRG neurons and SKM cells in coculture was observed with an inverted phase contrast microscope. The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 on the expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200, and MAP-2 was analyzed by real time-PCR assay. The morphology of DRG neuronal cell bodies and SKM cells in neuromuscular coculture at different conditions was similar. The neurons presented evidence of dense neurite outgrowth in the presence of distinct NTs in neuromuscular cocultures. NGF and NT-3 increased mRNA levels of PPT, CGRP, and NF-200, but not MAP-2, in neuromuscular cocultures. These results offer new clues towards a better understanding of the association of target SKM cells with distinct NTs on the expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200 and MAP-2, and implicate the association of target SKM cells and NTs with DRG sensory neuronal phenotypes.

  14. Meaning in life in psychotherapy: The perspective of experienced psychotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E; Kanazawa, Yoshi; Knox, Sarah; Schauerman, Iris; Loureiro, Darren; James, Danielle; Carter, Imani; King, Shakeena; Razzak, Suad; Scarff, Melanie; Moore, Jasmine

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to explore the meaning experienced psychotherapists derive from providing psychotherapy, their beliefs about the role of meaning in life (MIL) in psychotherapy, how they worked with MIL with a client who explicitly presented concerns about MIL, and how they worked with a different client for whom MIL was a secondary and more implicit concern. Thirteen experienced psychotherapists were interviewed and data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. Therapists derived self-oriented meaning (e.g., feeling gratified, fulfilled, connected) and other-oriented meaning (helping others, making the world a better place) from providing psychotherapy. They believed that MIL is fundamental and underlies all human concerns, including those brought to therapy. In contrast to the clients who had implicit MIL concerns, clients who explicitly presented MIL concerns were reported to have more interpersonal problems and physical problems, but about the same amount of psychological distress and loss/grief. Therapists used insight-oriented interventions, support, action-oriented interventions, and exploratory interventions to work with MIL with both types of clients, but used more exploratory interventions with implicit than explicit MIL clients. MIL is a salient topic for experienced, existentially oriented psychotherapists; they work with MIL extensively with some clients in psychotherapy. We recommend that therapists receive training to work with MIL in therapy, and that they pay attention to MIL concerns when they conduct psychotherapy. We also recommend additional research on MIL in psychotherapy.

  15. Constructivism and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J; Granvold, Donald K

    2005-06-01

    Constructivism is a metatheoretical perspective that embraces diverse traditions in medicine, philosophy, psychology, and spiritual wisdom. Constructive psychotherapy emphasizes complex cycles in the natural ordering and reorganizing processes that characterize all development in living systems. Individuals are encouraged to view themselves as active participants in their lives. Within rich contexts of human relationship and symbol systems, people make new meanings as they develop. Techniques from many different traditions can help people find and refine their sense of balance as they develop.

  16. Metaphor in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis Lapsekili

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A metaphor is a figüre of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or an action that it does not literally denote in order to imply a resemblence. Metaphor has been an essential feature of human communication from time immemorial: fairy tales, parables, provers are all examples of metaphor. Human beings regularly use metaphors to communicate with each other, so it is reasonable to expect this figüre of speech to have a place in the process of communication we call psychotherapy. As well as carefully planned and developed majör metaphoric stories to achieve specific therapeutic goals, anectodes, similes, analogies, parables and other brief metaphorical statements, relationship metaphors, tasks with metaphorical meanings, objects can be used with their metaphorican meaning in psychotherapy. Stories when properly constucted and told, are usually more interesting than straight expositions of the points one wishws to make. Of course it is possible to construct boring stories or to tell good stories in a boring way. But well thought out and well narrated stories, told in the right context ca inspire people to undertake tasks and think about things they would not have considered before. Stories, because they deal indirectly with issues and have meanings that are in varying degrees veiled, tend to be less threatening and confronting than direct statements. Listeners are free to take stories at their face value, if their implicit meaning is unacceptable to them at the time. And this result will not damage the existing therapist-client rapport. Suggesting solutions to problems, helping people to recognize themselves, increasing motivation, reframing and redefining problems, reminding subjects of their own resources are all the benefits of clinical uses of metaphors in psychotherapy. In this text, the description of metaphor and usage of metaphor in psychotherapy will be reviewed with samples. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 116-125

  17. Power Politics of Family Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Carl A.

    It is postulated that the standard framework for psychotherapy, a cooperative transference neurosis, does not validly carry over to the successful psychotherapy of a two-generation family group. In many disturbed families, the necessary and sufficient dynamics for change must be initiated, controlled, and augmented by a group dynamic power-play,…

  18. Interpersonal psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, V V; Bulik, C M; McKenzie, J M; Luty, S E; Jordan, J

    2000-03-01

    This paper outlines the rationale for treating individuals with anorexia nervosa using interpersonal psychotherapy. We review theoretical, empirical, and psychotherapy literature relating to interpersonal functioning in anorexia nervosa. Etiological theories emphasize interpersonal and family dysfunction in the development of anorexia nervosa. Research supports the notion that families of individuals with anorexia nervosa have dysfunctional patterns of communication. The history of treatment for anorexia nervosa emphasizes the need for resolution of interpersonal dysfunction, within the traditions of psychodynamic, family therapy, and multidimensional therapies. Interpersonal psychotherapy is a time-limited psychotherapy based on the notion that regardless of etiology, interpersonal relationships are intertwined with symptomatology. The goals of the therapy are to improve interpersonal functioning and thereby decrease symptomatology. Factors identified as important in the development of anorexia nervosa are readily conceptualized within the interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas of grief, interpersonal disputes, interpersonal deficits, and role transitions. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  20. Group Psychotherapy in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lars Bo; Thygesen, Bente; Aagaard, Søren

    2015-10-01

    This is a short article on the history and training standards in the Institute of Group Analysis in Copenhagen (IGA-CPH). We describe theoretical orientations and influences in the long-term training program and new initiatives, like courses in mentalization-based group treatment and a dynamic short-term group therapy course, as well as research in group psychotherapy in Denmark. Some group analytic initiatives in relation to social issues and social welfare are presented, as well as initiatives concerning the school system and unemployment.

  1. Positronium behaviour in elongated PPT, rectangular MgO and spherical Si nanocavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijt, S.W.H.; Falub, C.V.; Mijnarends, P.E.; Veen, A. van

    2001-01-01

    The 2D-ACAR para-Ps (p-Ps) spectrum of PPT aramid fibres, which contain structural elongated open spaces in the unit cell, is compared with the spectrum calculated for a Ps wave function in a rectangular cavity. Helium ion implantation in MgO and Si single crystals creates thin layers of nanosize rectangular and spherical cavities, respectively. Depth-selective 2D-ACAR experiments at the positron centre Delft allow the extraction of the p-Ps contribution from the spectra. In both samples p-Ps is not thermalised and has an average energy of the order of a few eV. The energy and momentum distribution of the Ps atoms are extracted and compared with Maxwell distributions. (orig.)

  2. Positronium behaviour in elongated PPT, rectangular MgO and spherical Si nanocavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eijt, S.W.H.; Falub, C.V.; Mijnarends, P.E.; Veen, A. van [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    The 2D-ACAR para-Ps (p-Ps) spectrum of PPT aramid fibres, which contain structural elongated open spaces in the unit cell, is compared with the spectrum calculated for a Ps wave function in a rectangular cavity. Helium ion implantation in MgO and Si single crystals creates thin layers of nanosize rectangular and spherical cavities, respectively. Depth-selective 2D-ACAR experiments at the positron centre Delft allow the extraction of the p-Ps contribution from the spectra. In both samples p-Ps is not thermalised and has an average energy of the order of a few eV. The energy and momentum distribution of the Ps atoms are extracted and compared with Maxwell distributions. (orig.)

  3. Of God and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T Byram

    2015-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an instrument for remediation of psychological deficits and conflict resolution, as well as an instrument for growth and self-cultivation. In fact, psychotherapy is the finest form of life education. All of this is done without psychotherapists' playing a teacher, a minister, a priest, a rabbi, an imam, or a Buddhist monk, but by being familiar with what they know and more. That "more" is about understanding "the attributes" of gods and religions as they serve the all-too-human needs of believing and belonging. It is about the distillation of common psychological, sociological, moral, and philosophical attributes of religions, and the recognition that the attributes themselves are faith and God. Attributes that serve the affiliative needs define faith, for example, belonging is faith; attributes that serve the divine needs define God, for example, compassion is God. Those who have recovered from their primitive innocence need to formulate their ideas of God and religion, regardless of their affiliation with a religious community. One may need to resonate emotionally with the God of his or her religion, but intellectually need to transcend all its dogma and cultivate a personal concept of divinity free from any theological structure. Such an enlightened person achieves enduring equanimity by striving to own the attributes of Gods--to be godly. This is equally true for psychotherapists as it is for their patients.

  4. Psychotherapy for neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobday, Gabrielle S; Gabbard, Glen O

    2009-07-01

    Psychotherapy has traditionally been regarded as the purview of psychiatry rather than neurology. Yet, the doctor-patient relationship is fundamental to both specialties, and the principles that derive from psychotherapy theory and practice apply to that relationship regardless of the specialty. It is common knowledge that a large proportion of patients seen in the context of the practice of medicine have some kind of emotional disturbance. Moreover, patients with organic disease may also have significant emotional difficulties that complicate both the primary illness and its treatment. This experience inevitably has drawn attention to the need for the nonpsychiatric physician to have an understanding and proficiency in psychiatric diagnosis and psychotherapeutic principles. In this article, we consider basic psychotherapeutic principles that are useful in the everyday practice of neurologists and other nonpsychiatric physicians. These skills are important not only for practical reasons, but also because responsiveness to their emotional distress is essential to maintain empathy and caring as cornerstones of the art of medicine. With the use of clinical examples to illustrate these principles, we hope that readers can apply them to their own clinical experiences.

  5. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT in rural Indian medical institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSHAN BHAISARE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue. To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods: Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B. For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other batch was given lectures only. Crossover was done to avoid bias, all the lectures being given by the same presenter. At the end of each lecture, a short questionnaire of 10 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ was provided to the students. Mean scores were calculated for lectures with handouts and without handouts. Results: For a set of lectures, when batch A was provided with handouts, the mean score was 28.2; for batch B to which no handouts were given the mean score was 23.4. Similarly, for batch B when provided with handouts the mean score was 29.1, for batch A which was not provided with handouts the mean score was 24. There was an average increase of 4.2 marks. Actual gain when handouts were provided was 1.2 marks per lecture. It was more for the batch comprising of repeater students as compared to the batch of fresher students. Increase in attendance was also noted. Conclusion: Providing uncompleted handouts before a didactic lecture definitely results in increase in knowledge gain; repeater students benefit more with uncompleted handouts.

  6. Efficacy of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for adult psychiatric disorders: a systematic overview of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Maximilian; Tardy, Magdolna; Spineli, Loukia Maria; Kissling, Werner; Förstl, Hans; Pitschel-Walz, Gabriele; Leucht, Claudia; Samara, Myrto; Dold, Markus; Davis, John M; Leucht, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    There is debate about the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments and whether pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy should be primarily used. To perform a systematic overview on the efficacy of pharmacotherapies and psychotherapies for major psychiatric disorders and to compare the quality of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy trials. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library (April 2012, with no time or language limit) for systematic reviews on pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy vs placebo, pharmacotherapy vs psychotherapy, and their combination vs either modality alone. Two reviewers independently selected the meta-analyses and extracted efficacy effect sizes. We assessed the quality of the individual trials included in the pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy meta-analyses with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The search yielded 45,233 results. We included 61 meta-analyses on 21 psychiatric disorders, which contained 852 individual trials and 137,126 participants. The mean effect size of the meta-analyses was medium (mean, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.41-0.59). Effect sizes of psychotherapies vs placebo tended to be higher than those of medication, but direct comparisons, albeit usually based on few trials, did not reveal consistent differences. Individual pharmacotherapy trials were more likely to have large sample sizes, blinding, control groups, and intention-to-treat analyses. In contrast, psychotherapy trials had lower dropout rates and provided follow-up data. In psychotherapy studies, wait-list designs showed larger effects than did comparisons with placebo. Many pharmacotherapies and psychotherapies are effective, but there is a lot of room for improvement. Because of the multiple differences in the methods used in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy trials, indirect comparisons of their effect sizes compared with placebo or no treatment are problematic. Well-designed direct comparisons, which are scarce, need public funding. Because patients often benefit

  7. Predicting Psychotherapy Dropouts: A Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Alexander F; Flückiger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The role of therapeutic processes in predicting premature termination of psychotherapy has been a particular focus of recent research. The purpose of this study was to contrast outpatients who completed therapy and those who dropped out with respect to their self-reported in-session experiences of self-esteem, mastery, clarification and the therapeutic alliance. The 296 patients with mixed disorders were treated with an integrative form of cognitive-behavioural therapy without pre-determined time limit (M = 20.2 sessions). Multilevel analyses indicated that patients who did not completetreatment reported, on average, lower levels of self-esteem, mastery and clarification and lower ratings of their therapeutic alliance in treatment in contrast to patients who completed therapy. Patient-reported change in self-esteem experiences over the course of treatment turned out to be the strongest predictor of dropout from psychotherapy or successful completion. When dropout occurred before the average treatment length was reached, patients reported fewer clarifying experiences as early as the first session and their ratings of the therapeutic alliance were characterized by an absence of positive development. Both of these aspects seem to be involved in patients' decisions to leave treatment early. The findings underscore the importance of the therapeutic process in understanding the mechanisms behind treatment dropout. Analyses data from 296 patients at a private outpatient clinic in a routine practice setting (CBT). Completer/dropout definition: presence or absence of measurement battery at post-assessment. Focuses on change in therapy processes by investigating post-session reports. Finds that positive changes in self-esteem experiences is the most robust predictor of dropout, followed by ratings of clarification experiences and the global alliance. In line with recent dropout research, these process indicators might help to detect therapeutic situations that are

  8. Should psychotherapy consider reincarnation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Julio F P

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the need to take into account the cultural environment and belief systems of psychotherapy patients because these values reflect basic assumptions about man's nature and the cognitive references used to cope with psychological difficulties. Currently accepted psychotherapeutic approaches take no account of the belief in life after death held by most of the world's population. The World Values Survey (http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org) showed that there are large numbers of reincarnationists around the world, and whatever the reasons for believing in reincarnation, psychotherapeutic approaches should not ignore this significant group of people. Respect for patient opinions and subjective realities is a therapeutic need and an ethical duty, even though therapists may not share the same beliefs. Guidelines are suggested for professionals to develop collaborative models that help patients mobilize their intrinsic intelligence to find solutions to their complaints.

  9. Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in intentionally self-harmful behaviors, or have Borderline Personality Disorder. DBT emphasizes taking responsibility for one's problems and ... is a form of psychotherapy where there are multiple patients led by one or more therapists. It ...

  10. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  12. Individual Psychotherapy and Changes in Self-Experience in Schizophrenia: A Qualitative Comparison of Patients in Metacognitively Focused and Supportive Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Belanger, Elizabeth; White, Dominique A; Buck, Kelly D; Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Leonhardt, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form complex ideas about self and others, may be a root cause of dysfunction in schizophrenia. Accordingly, forms of psychotherapy have been proposed to address metacognitive deficits. This study explored whether metacognitively focused individual psychotherapy can affect self-experience by conducting narrative interviews of patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder enrolled in either metacognitively oriented psychotherapy (n = 12) or supportive psychotherapy (n = 13) in a naturalistic setting. Participants in both groups completed a narrative interview consisting of questions that focused on perceptions and process of psychotherapy and its impact on outcomes. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded using an inductive process informed by grounded theory. Qualitative analyses revealed all participants reported psychotherapy led to improvements in self-esteem and the ability to think more clearly and set meaningful goals. The group receiving metacognitively oriented therapy, in contrast to those receiving supportive therapy, reported being able to integrate their current experiences into the larger narratives of their lives and an increased experience of sense of agency and the ability to understand and manage pain. Results provide evidence that metacognitively oriented psychotherapy may promote subjective forms of recovery.

  13. Psychotherapy Integration via Theoretical Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W. Tryon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Meaningful psychotherapy integration requires theoretical unification because psychotherapists can only be expected to treat patients with the same diagnoses similarly if they understand these disorders similarly and if they agree on the mechanisms by which effective treatments work. Tryon (in press has proposed a transtheoretic transdiagnostic psychotherapy based on an Applied Psychological Science (APS clinical orientation, founded on a BioPsychology Network explanatory system that provides sufficient theoretical unification to support meaningful psychotherapy integration. That proposal focused mainly on making a neuroscience argument. This article makes a different argument for theoretical unification and consequently psychotherapy integration. The strength of theories of psychotherapy, like all theory, is to focus on certain topics, goals, and methods. But this strength is also a weakness because it can blind one to alternative perspectives and thereby promote unnecessary competition among therapies. This article provides a broader perspective based on learning and memory that is consistent with the behavioral, cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, pharmacologic, and Existential/Humanistic/Experiential clinical orientations. It thereby provides a basis for meaningful psychotherapy integration.

  14. Advanced Psychotherapy Training: Psychotherapy Scholars' Track, and the Apprenticeship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E.; Yager, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Guided by ACGME's requirements, psychiatric residency training in psychotherapy currently focuses on teaching school-specific forms of psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive-behavioral, supportive, and psychodynamic psychotherapy). On the basis of a literature review of common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes and…

  15. Three Psychotherapies Examined: Ellis, Rogers, Perls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoten, J.; Goos, W.

    1974-01-01

    This study uses Bales' Interaction Process Analysis (I. P. A.) to identify significant process elements in counselling and psychotherapy. For this purpose, the film "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy" was analysed. (Editor)

  16. A common transport system for methionine, L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine (MSX), and phosphinothricin (PPT) in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind Kumar; Syiem, Mayashree B; Singh, Rajkumar S; Adhikari, Samrat; Rai, Amar Nath

    2008-05-01

    We present evidence, for the first time, of the occurrence of a transport system common for amino acid methionine, and methionine/glutamate analogues L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine (MSX) and phosphinothricin (PPT) in cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. Methionine, which is toxic to cyanobacterium, enhanced its nitrogenase activity at lower concentrations. The cyanobacterium showed a biphasic pattern of methionine uptake activity that was competitively inhibited by the amino acids alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, valine, glutamine, and asparagine. The methionine/glutamate analogue-resistant N. muscorum strains (MSX-R and PPT-R strains) also showed methionine-resistant phenotype accompanied by a drastic decrease in 35S methionine uptake activity. Treatment of protein extracts from these mutant strains with MSX and PPT reduced biosynthetic glutamine synthetase (GS) activity only in vitro and not in vivo. This finding implicated that MSX- and PPT-R phenotypes may have arisen due to a defect in their MSX and PPT transport activity. The simultaneous decrease in methionine uptake activity and in vitro sensitivity toward MSX and PPT of GS protein in MSX- and PPT-R strains indicated that methionine, MSX, and PPT have a common transport system that is shared by other amino acids as well in N. muscorum. Such information can become useful for isolation of methionine-producing cyanobacterial strains.

  17. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  18. Redefining Outcome Measurement: A Model for Brief Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinty, Everett; Nelson, John; Carlson, Alain; Crowther, Eric; Bednar, Dina; Foroughe, Mirisse

    2016-05-01

    The zeitgeist for short-term psychotherapy efficacy has fundamentally shifted away from evidence-based practices to include evidence-informed practices, resulting in an equally important paradigm shift in outcome measurement designed to reflect change in this short-term modality. The present article delineates a short-term psychotherapy structure which defines four fundamental stages that all brief therapies may have in common, and are represented through Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Solution-Focused Brief Therapy, Narrative Therapy, and Emotion-Focused Therapy. These four theoretical approaches were analyzed via a selected literature review through comparing and contrasting specific and common tasks as they relate to the process of psychotherapy and change. Once commonalities were identified within session, they were categorized or grouped into themes or general stages of change within the parameters of a four to six session model of short-term therapy. Commonalities in therapeutic stages of change may more accurately and uniformly measure outcome in short-term work, unlike the symptom-specific psychometric instruments of longer-term psychotherapy. A systematic framework for evaluating the client and clinician adherence to 20 specific tasks for these four short-term therapies is presented through the newly proposed, Brief Task Acquisition Scale (BTAS). It is further proposed that the client-clinicians' adherence to these tasks will track and ultimately increase treatment integrity. Thus, when the client-clinician relationship tracks and evaluates the three pillars of (1) stage/process change, (2) task acquisition, and (3) treatment integrity, the culmination of these efforts presents a new way of more sensitively measuring outcome in short-term psychotherapy. Data collection is suggested as a first step to empirically evaluate the testable hypotheses suggested within this current model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message The

  19. Group Analytic Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Carla; Castanho, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    Group analytic practice in Brazil began quite early. Highly influenced by the Argentinean Pichon-Rivière, it enjoyed a major development from the 1950s to the early 1980s. Beginning in the 1970s, different factors undermined its development and eventually led to its steep decline. From the mid 1980s on, the number of people looking for either group analytic psychotherapy or group analytic training decreased considerably. Group analytic psychotherapy societies struggled to survive and most of them had to close their doors in the 1990s and the following decade. Psychiatric reform and the new public health system have stimulated a new demand for groups in Brazil. Developments in the public and not-for-profit sectors, combined with theoretical and practical research in universities, present promising new perspectives for group analytic psychotherapy in Brazil nowadays.

  20. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding.

  1. Integrative dimensions of psychotherapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greben, Daniel H

    2004-04-01

    This paper investigates the influence of integrative factors on psychotherapy education. The broad relevance of integrative psychotherapy to residency training and continuing mental health education is discussed. Following a review of the existing literature on the education of integrative psychotherapists, the article systematically examines the integrative and pedagogic issues to be considered in planning psychotherapy training informed by integrative principles. The integrative issues are organized into 5 categories: attitudinal set, knowledge base, clinical techniques and skills, developmental tasks and challenges, and systemic institutional factors. The educational issues can be divided into 4 categories: content, format and process, sequence, and faculty development. Brief descriptions of actual educational interventions illustrate the implementation of such ideas. Specific recommendations are made regarding the development of integrative educational initiatives and future study of unresolved questions.

  2. Psychotherapy, consciousness, and brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eCollerton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purely psychological treatments for emotional distress produce lasting, measureable, and reproducible changes in cognitive and emotional consciousness and brain function. How these changes come about illustrates the interplay between brain and consciousness. Studies of the effects of psychotherapy highlight the holistic nature of consciousness. Pre and post treatment functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging localises the brain changes following psychotherapy to frontal, cingulate, and limbic circuits, but emphasise that these areas support a wide range of conscious experiences. Multivoxel Pattern Analysis of distributed changes in function across these brain areas may be able to provide the ability to distinguish between different states of consciousness.

  3. Integration in psychotherapy: Reasons and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvarez, Héctor; Consoli, Andrés J; Gómez, Beatriz

    2016-11-01

    Although integration has been formally influencing the field of psychotherapy since the 1930s, its impact gained significant momentum during the 1980s. Practical, theoretical, and scientific reasons help to explain the growing influence of integration in psychotherapy. The field of psychotherapy is characterized by many challenges which integration may change into meaningful opportunities. Nonetheless, many obstacles remain when seeking to advance integration. To appreciate the strength of integration in psychotherapy we describe an integrative, comprehensive approach to service delivery, research, and training. We then discuss the role of integration in the future of psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  5. Psychotherapy via Videoconferencing: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Research into the use of videoconferencing for clinical purposes, in particular psychotherapy, is gradually expanding. A number of case studies and case series have suggested that videoconferencing can be clinically effective and acceptable to patients. Nevertheless, there is a lack of methodologically rigorous studies with adequate sample sizes…

  6. Palmistry, tarot cards, and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Nicholas G

    2008-01-01

    The author summarizes his experience with palm and Tarot card readers in New Orleans. The history, practice, and psychodynamics of palmistry and Tarot are explored. It's postulated that these practices are forms of archaic psychotherapy, which employ supportive treatment and placebo. These tactics are used to elicit hope for its clients.

  7. Adsorption of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) to meet a MCL of 5 ppt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Roger W; Harada, Bryce K; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Tsubota, Korey T

    2018-02-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a groundwater contaminant in the drinking water aquifers in Hawaii and some other states. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has been used for 30 years to treat approximately 60 million gallons per day of TCP-contaminated groundwater in Hawaii. The State of Hawaii's current maximum contaminant level (MCL) for TCP is 600 ng/L (ppt), and consideration is being given to lower the MCL to 5 ppt. There is no EPA MCL for TCP. A study was conducted to determine if any GAC could meet a 5 ppt MCL for TCP, and if so, how many bedvolumes (BVs) could be treated prior to breakthrough. Constant Diffusivity-Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests (CD-RSSCTs) were performed to evaluate GAC adsorption of TCP. Three different groundwaters and six different GACs were utilized. The RSSCTs with the currently-utilized GAC were predictive of the performance of the GAC contactors (50,000 BVs to breakthrough). Any of the six GACs could meet a MCL of 5 ppt and some could do so for 150,000 or more BVs. No single GAC was optimal for all three well sites, indicating effects of subtle undefined differences in the water matrix and/or GAC physiochemical properties. The coal-based direct-activated carbon currently being used is the least optimal for all three well sites with respect to meeting a potential new TCP MCL of 5 ppt. The most effective GACs for Kunia were the Calgon coal-based GAC and the Siemens enhanced coconut shell GAC, while the most effective for Waipahu were the Siemens regular and enhanced coconut shell GACs, and the most effective for Mililani was the Calgon coal-based GAC. Choosing just one GAC for use at all three well sites (rather than the optimal for each site) would result in a reduction of treatment run time of 1 year at one well site (63% reduction). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Performance-Perceptual Test (PPT) and its relationship to aided reported handicap and hearing aid satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Forsline, Anna

    2006-06-01

    Results of objective clinical tests (e.g., measures of speech understanding in noise) often conflict with subjective reports of hearing aid benefit and satisfaction. The Performance-Perceptual Test (PPT) is an outcome measure in which objective and subjective evaluations are made by using the same test materials, testing format, and unit of measurement (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N), permitting a direct comparison between measured and perceived ability to hear. Two variables are measured: a Performance Speech Reception Threshold in Noise (SRTN) for 50% correct performance and a Perceptual SRTN, which is the S/N at which listeners perceive that they can understand the speech material. A third variable is computed: the Performance-Perceptual Discrepancy (PPDIS); it is the difference between the Performance and Perceptual SRTNs and measures the extent to which listeners "misjudge" their hearing ability. Saunders et al. in 2004 examined the relation between PPT scores and unaided hearing handicap. In this publication, the relations between the PPT, residual aided handicap, and hearing aid satisfaction are described. Ninety-four individuals between the ages of 47 and 86 yr participated. All had symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss and had worn binaural hearing aids for at least 6 wk before participating. All subjects underwent routine audiological examination and completed the PPT, the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly/Adults (HHIE/A), and the Satisfaction for Amplification in Daily Life questionnaire. Sixty-five subjects attended one research visit for participation in this study, and 29 attended a second visit to complete the PPT a second time. Performance and Perceptual SRTN and PPDIS scores were normally distributed and showed excellent test-retest reliability. Aided SRTNs were significantly better than unaided SRTNs; aided and unaided PPDIS values did not differ. Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that the PPDIS, the Performance SRTN, and age were

  9. Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Prakash B; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P

    2013-01-01

    The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of "traditional mental health promoting practices" was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a "mind control" as referred by Caraka, is achieved through "spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.

  10. Culture and demoralization in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M; Gostoli, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization. Copyright

  11. Psychotherapy Training: Residents' Perceptions and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Jessica G; Dubin, William R; Combs, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    This survey examined actual training hours in psychotherapy modalities as reported by residents, residents' perceptions of training needs, and residents' perceptions of the importance of different aspects of psychotherapy training. A brief, voluntary, anonymous, Internet-based survey was developed. All 14 program directors for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited programs in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware provided email addresses for current categorical residents. The survey inquired about hours of time spent in various aspects of training, value assigned to aspects of training, residents' involvement in their own psychotherapy, and overall resident wellness. The survey was e-mailed to 328 residents. Of the 328 residents contacted, 133 (40.5%) responded. Median reported number of PGY 3 and 4 performed versus perceived ideal hours of supportive therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and psychodynamic therapy did not differ. Answers for clinical time utilizing these modalities ranged from "none or less than 1 h" per month to 20+ h per month. PGY 3 and 4 residents reported a median of "none or less than 1 h" per month performed of interpersonal, dialectical behavior therapy, couples/family/group, and child therapies but preferred more time using these therapies. Residents in all years of training preferred more hours of didactic instruction for all psychotherapies and for medication management. Residents ranked teaching modalities in the following order of importance: supervision, hours of psychotherapy performed, personal psychotherapy, readings, and didactic instruction. Residents engaged in their own psychotherapy were significantly more likely to rank the experiential aspects of psychotherapy training (personal psychotherapy, supervision, and hours performed) higher than residents not in psychotherapy. Current psychotherapy training for psychiatry residents is highly variable, but overall, residents want more

  12. Bridge deck surface temperature monitoring by infrared thermography and inner structure identification using PPT and PCT analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of ISTIMES project was to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, we focused our research and development efforts on uncooled infrared camera techniques due to their promising potential level of dissemination linked to their relative low cost on the market. On the other hand, works were also carried out to identify well adapted implementation protocols and key limits of Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) processing methods to analyse thermal image sequence and retrieve information about the inner structure. So the first part of this research works addresses infrared thermography measurement when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey). In such context, it requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time, thanks to additional measurements. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed [1] with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The whole measurement system was implemented on the "Musmeci" bridge located in Potenza (Italy). No traffic interruption was required during the mounting of our measurement system. The infrared camera was fixed on top of a mast at 6 m elevation from the surface of the bridge deck. A small weather station was added on the same mast at 1 m under the camera. A GPS antenna was also fixed at the

  13. Existentially informed HIV-related psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Eugene W

    2009-09-01

    This article describes an existentially informed approach to conducting psychotherapy with individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Uses of existential concepts to guide a holistic conceptualization of the individual and illuminate core existential concerns and dilemmas in confronting HIV-related challenges are delineated. Applications of existential ideas regarding psychotherapy process and technique in HIV-related psychotherapy also are illustrated. It is concluded that existential psychotherapy offers a conceptual framework that is especially well suited to the work of psychotherapy with individuals living with HIV disease, although the approach has received only limited attention in the HIV-related psychotherapy literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Advances in Psychotherapy for Depressed Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Patrick J; McGovern, Amanda R; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Sirey, Jo Anne

    2017-09-01

    We review recent advances in psychotherapies for depressed older adults, in particular those developed for special populations characterized by chronic medical illness, acute medical illness, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk factors. We review adaptations for psychotherapy to overcome barriers to its accessibility in non-specialty settings such as primary care, homebound or hard-to-reach older adults, and social service settings. Recent evidence supports the effectiveness of psychotherapies that target late-life depression in the context of specific comorbid conditions including COPD, heart failure, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other acute conditions, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk. Growing evidence supports the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of psychotherapy modified for a variety of health care and social service settings. Research supports the benefits of selecting the type of psychotherapy based on a comprehensive assessment of the older adult's psychiatric, medical, functional, and cognitive status, and tailoring psychotherapy to the settings in which older depressed adults are most likely to present.

  15. Evidence-Based Psychotherapy: Advantages and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah C; Schwartz, Ann C; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2017-07-01

    Evidence-based psychotherapies have been shown to be efficacious and cost-effective for a wide range of psychiatric conditions. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent worldwide and associated with high rates of disease burden, as well as elevated rates of co-occurrence with medical disorders, which has led to an increased focus on the need for evidence-based psychotherapies. This chapter focuses on the current state of evidence-based psychotherapy. The strengths and challenges of evidence-based psychotherapy are discussed, as well as misperceptions regarding the approach that may discourage and limit its use. In addition, we review various factors associated with the optimal implementation and application of evidence-based psychotherapies. Lastly, suggestions are provided on ways to advance the evidence-based psychotherapy movement to become truly integrated into practice.

  16. Naikan psychotherapy for alcohol dependence syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    堀井, 茂男

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Naikan psychotherapy for alcohol dependence syndrome, a comparison was made between 31 patients who were treated with Naikan psychotherapy (Naikan group) and 34 patients who were not treated with Naikan psychotherapy (non-Naikan group) on the following profiles : general characteristics, social adaptation occuring 6 months to 2 years 6 months after discharge (short-term follow-up) and social adaptation occuring 3 years 5 months to 5 years 5 months after d...

  17. Reactor building pressure proof test (PPT) and leak rate test (LRT) of Qinshan phase III (CANDU) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jun; Shi Jinqi; Fan Fuping

    2004-12-01

    As the first reactor building (R/B) without stainless steel liner in china, TQNPC studied the containment characteristics, such as strong concrete absorb/release air effect, poor containment penetration. etc. And carefully prepared test scheme and emergency response, creatively introduced the instrument air self-supply system in reactor building, developed the special measurement and analysis system for PPT and LRT, organized work under high-pressure on large-scale in the test. Finally got the containment leak rate result and the test-cost-time value is the best in all same type tests. (authors)

  18. Otto Rank, the Rankian circle in Philadelphia, and the origins of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCarvalho, R J

    1999-05-01

    Otto Rank's will therapy helped shape the ideas and techniques of relationship therapy developed by the Philadelphia social workers Jessie Taft, Virginia Robinson, and Frederick Allen in the 1930s. Rank's work and these ideas and techniques in turn strongly influenced the formulation of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy. This article compares and contrasts will, relationship, and person-centered approaches to psychotherapy and discusses the social factors--primarily the professional conflicts between a male-dominated psychiatry and female social workers over the independent practice of psychotherapy--that were crucial in the dissemination of Rank's psychological thought and the early popularity of Rogers.

  19. Is IPT Time-Limited Psychodynamic Psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C.; Svartberg, Martin; Swartz, Holly A.

    1998-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has sometimes but not always been considered a psychodynamic psychotherapy. The authors discuss similarities and differences between IPT and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP), comparing eight aspects: 1) time limit, 2) medical model, 3) dual goals of solving interpersonal problems and syndromal remission, 4) interpersonal focus on the patient solving current life problems, 5) specific techniques, 6) termination, 7) therapeutic stance, and 8) empirical support. The authors then apply both approaches to a case example of depression. They conclude that despite overlaps and similarities, IPT is distinct from STPP.(The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1998; 7:185–195) PMID:9631340

  20. Evaluating the Comparability of PPT and CBT by Implementing the Compulsory Islamic Culture Course Test in Jordan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnaser Sanad Alakyleh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aims to determine whether the university students' scores in the compulsory Islamic culture course test on a selected sample differ across the paper-and pencil test (PPT & computer-based test (CBT versions, and to reveal the relationship between gender and the student's level of performance in the test. Therefore, the study evaluated the comparability of two versions of a compulsory Islamic culture course test (PPTs and (CBTs. The importance of conducting the study in Jordan stems from the fact that public and private universities have begun to move away from the traditional patterns of tests such (PPTs and went towards (CBTs. In addition to detecting which model gives the best in the output and has the characteristics of the psychometric test, furthermore, indicates whether there were any differences between males and females, the study sample consisted of 120 individuals, 67 females and 53 males from scientific, health and humanities colleges. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two versions provided to students CBT and PPT with 0.36 moderate correlation indicators in the pre-CBT test, no significant differences between the males and females in the CBT test results. Therefore, on the basis of the results of the present study, the CBT test is an option and a preferred alternative for regular students of the bachelor's level at the University of Jordan.

  1. The potential dangers of using MDMA for psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C

    2014-01-01

    MDMA has properties that may make it attractive for psychotherapy, although many of its effects are potentially problematic. These contrasting effects will be critically reviewed in order to assess whether MDMA could be safe for clinical usage. Early studies from the 1980s noted that MDMA was an entactogen, engendering feelings of love and warmth. However, negative experiences can also occur with MDMA since it is not selective in the thoughts or emotions it releases. This unpredictability in the psychological material released is similar to another serotonergic drug, LSD. Acute MDMA has powerful neurohormonal effects, increasing cortisol, oxytocin, testosterone, and other hormone levels. The release of oxytocin may facilitate psychotherapy, whereas cortisol may increase stress and be counterproductive. MDMA administration is followed by a period of neurochemical recovery, when low serotonin levels are often accompanied by lethargy and depression. Regular usage can also lead to serotonergic neurotoxicity, memory problems, and other psychobiological problems. Proponents of MDMA-assisted therapy state that it should only be used for reactive disorders (such as PTSD) since it can exacerbate distress in those with a prior psychiatric history. Overall, many issues need to be considered when debating the relative benefits and dangers of using MDMA for psychotherapy.

  2. Interpersonal Psychotherapy: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Markowitz, John C.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors briefly describe the origins, theory, and development of interpersonal psychotherapy: its roots in clinical outcome research, its spread from major depression to other psychiatric disorders and its increasing dissemination as an empirically validated clinical intervention included in treatment guidelines. They attempt to forecast research, organizational and training issues the growing interpersonal psychotherapy community may face in the future.

  3. The Effectiveness of Western Psychotherapy in treating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychotherapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of mental disorders in the western world but viewed as an alien method of treatment to Africans. Aim: To review the literature on the effectiveness of psychotherapy in sub- Saharan Africa. Method: A systematic search of Medline, PsychINFO, ...

  4. Practice Parameter for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with…

  5. Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

  6. Consequences of Psychotherapy Clients' Mental Health Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Len; Kirsch, Irving

    Current theoretical approaches to understanding emotional difficulties are dominated by the medical model of mental illness, which assumes that emotional dysfunction can be viewed the same way as physical dysfunction. To examine the relationship between psychotherapy clients' beliefs about the medical model of psychotherapy and their behavior…

  7. Genetic studies in Drosophila and humans support a model for the concerted function of CISD2, PPT1 and CLN3 in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. Jones

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wolfram syndrome (WFS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. WFS1 and WFS2 are caused by recessive mutations in the genes Wolfram Syndrome 1 (WFS1 and CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2 (CISD2, respectively. To explore the function of CISD2, we performed genetic studies in flies with altered expression of its Drosophila orthologue, cisd2. Surprisingly, flies with strong ubiquitous RNAi-mediated knockdown of cisd2 had no obvious signs of altered life span, stress resistance, locomotor behavior or several other phenotypes. We subsequently found in a targeted genetic screen, however, that altered function of cisd2 modified the effects of overexpressing the fly orthologues of two lysosomal storage disease genes, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1 in humans, Ppt1 in flies and ceroid-lipofuscinosis, neuronal 3 (CLN3 in humans, cln3 in flies, on eye morphology in flies. We also found that cln3 modified the effects of overexpressing Ppt1 in the eye and that overexpression of cln3 interacted with a loss of function mutation in cisd2 to disrupt locomotor ability in flies. Follow-up multi-species bioinformatic analyses suggested that a gene network centered on CISD2, PPT1 and CLN3 might impact disease through altered carbohydrate metabolism, protein folding and endopeptidase activity. Human genetic studies indicated that copy number variants (duplications and deletions including CLN3, and possibly another gene in the CISD2/PPT1/CLN3 network, are over-represented in individuals with developmental delay. Our studies indicate that cisd2, Ppt1 and cln3 function in concert in flies, suggesting that CISD2, PPT1 and CLN3 might also function coordinately in humans. Further, our studies raise the possibility that WFS2 and some lysosomal storage disorders might be influenced by common mechanisms and that the underlying genes might have previously unappreciated effects on

  8. Types of psychotherapy for pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Timothy W

    2005-05-01

    Several types of psychotherapy are currently used to treat pathological gamblers. These include Gambler's Anonymous, cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and family therapy. Research into which types of psychotherapy are the most effective for pathological gambling is limited but is a growing area of study. Group therapy, namely Gambler's Anonymous, provides peer support and structure. Cognitive behavior therapy aims to identify and correct cognitive distortions about gambling. Psychodynamic psychotherapy can help recovering gamblers address core conflicts and hidden psychological meanings of gambling. Family therapy is helpful by providing support and education and eliminating enabling behaviors. To date, no single type of psychotherapy has emerged as the most effective form of treatment. As in other addictive disorders, treatment retention of pathological gamblers is highly variable. Understanding the types of psychotherapy that are available for pathological gamblers, as well their underlying principles, will assist clinicians in managing this complex behavioral disorder.

  9. Growth performance of pearl goldfish juvenile carassius auratus cultured in 3 ppt salinity with different exposure time of electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrowth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile Carassius auratus relatively slow to reach market size which will take approximately three months. To accelerate its growth can be done by providing exposure of the fish to low-power electric fields (10 V via 3 ppt salinity water, with the goal of providing the close isoosmotic conditions, and also to streamline the flow of electricity from the electrodes to the body of the fish. This study aims to calculate the survival and growth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile of S sizes (2‒4 cm of body length which were maintained at 3 ppt salinity water and treated by different exposure time of electric field (zero, two, four, and six minutes before feeding with 10 volt electric power. Fish were cultured at a density of 2 fish/L in the (20×30×20 cm3 aquaria in volume of 6 L of water. Test fish had an average body length of 4.11±0.05 cm and the average body weight of 2.89±0.05 g. Exposure time of electric field were zero, two, four, and six minutes before the fish are fed, performed every day as much as three times i.e. morning, afternoon, and evening. The research design used was completely randomized design with four treatments, namely 0, 2, 4, and 6 (time for exposure is zero/control, two, four, and six minute with three replications. The results show test fishes exposed to 10 volt electrical field for zero, two, four, and six minutes, have no significant effect on survival rate (P>0.05. For growth performance, four minute exposure treatment gives the best results compared to controls (P<0.05, supported by an increase in the percentage of the ratio of gut length to body length of the fish and higher feed efficiency.Keywords: long exposure to the electric field, growth performance, pearl goldfishABSTRAKPertumbuhan benih ikan hias maskoki mutiara Carassius auratus relatif lambat, karena untuk mencapai ukuran jual memerlukan waktu sekitar tiga bulan. Untuk mempercepat pertumbuhannya dapat dilakukan dengan

  10. Synchrony in Dyadic Psychotherapy Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    Synchrony is a multi-faceted concept used in diverse domains such as physics, biology, and the social sciences. This chapter reviews some of the evidence of nonverbal synchrony in human communication, with a main focus on the role of synchrony in the psychotherapeutic setting. Nonverbal synchrony describes coordinated behavior of patient and therapist. Its association with empathy, rapport and the therapeutic relationship has been pointed out repeatedly, yet close evaluation of empirical studies suggests that the evidence remains inconclusive. Particularly in naturalistic studies, research with quantitative measures of synchrony is still lacking. We introduce a new empirical approach for the study of synchrony in psychotherapies under field conditions: Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This is a video-based algorithm that quantifies the amount of movement in freely definable regions of interest. Our statistical analysis detects synchrony on a global level, irrespective of the specific body parts moving. Synchrony thus defined can be considered as a general measure of movement coordination between interacting individuals. Data from a sequence of N = 21 therapy sessions taken from one psychotherapy dyad shows a high positive relationship between synchrony and the therapeutic bond. Nonverbal synchrony can thus be considered a promising concept for research on the therapeutic alliance. Further areas of application are discussed.

  11. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  12. Psychotherapy of an aging transvestite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, T N

    1979-01-01

    Proper categorization of individuals with gender dysphoria allows rational psychotherapy. The treatment of an aging transvestite who requested sexual reassignment is presented to demonstrate the clinical features of the disorder and the course of the illness. The initial task was to place the patient into the proper clinical category of individuals with gender dysphorias. The clinical details of this disorder include an episoidic course with individuals who have previously had clear masculine identities. In the past they have been labeled secondary or marginal transsexuals as well as fetishtic cross-dressers. The patient, who had a long-standing history of cross-dressing, reacted to specific life stresses by the symptomatic wish for sexual reassignment. The individual psychotherapy consisted of phases of symptomatic expression, emerging depression, interpersonal awareness, symptom resolution and disavowel of the wish for sexual reassignment. The genesis of this perversion appears to be identification with a phallic maternal figure. Discussion of the descriptive and dynamic literature is reported in relation to the reported case. Identification of important losses in this patient's recent life allowed proper diagnosis and appropriate ongoing therapy to prevent the patient from irreversible surgery for a condition that was a symptom not an ingrained belief of gender dysphoria.

  13. [Body-centered psychotherapy IKP (Institute of Body-Centered Psychotherapy): holistic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Groeli, Y

    1996-03-01

    Body centered Psychotherapy IKP is treated in this article under the aspect of a holistic approach. First the theory and the system of science are summarised and shown as to which amount they are changing concerning knowledge of details and wholeness. It is pointed out that the actual paradigma "to the depth" has to be completed by that of "wideness". The way of holistic-multirelational thinking, stating a diagnosis and doing therapy is demonstrated along a case study going on at the background of a therapeutic encounter-relationship which is emotionally warm (Gestalt-approach).

  14. Two preliminary studies on sleep and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, W; Hopper, M; Corriere, R; Hart, J; Switzer, A

    1977-09-01

    Two preliminary studies were conducted to assess the effects of an intensive outpatient psychotherapy, Feeling Therapy, on sleep. This therapy was chosen because of its demonstrated ability to affect its patients' dreams. In the first study a newly entering female patient was recorded across the first three weeks of intensive daily therapy. In contrast to two control subjects recorded across a similar time period, she demonstrated low REM times and short REM latencies on the average, and considerably greater variability in nearly every parameter. In the second study, two patients were recorded across three days (the middle of which was the day of a therapy session) first when new in therapy and then again after two and one-half years of therapy. It was found that when new in therapy both subjects spent nights of significantly altered sleep the day of the therapy session. One subject showed no REM sleep whatsoever while the other showed a 10 min REM latency and low REM time. The significance of these findings and the direction of future research is discussed.

  15. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels

    2013-01-01

    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded....

  16. Psychotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Secure from the Department of Health and Human Services Understanding Mobile Apps from OnGuardOnline.gov Information on mobile ... Mental Health Office of Science Policy, Planning, and Communications 6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 6200, MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov The ...

  17. Psychotherapy - insights from bhagavad gita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M S

    2012-01-01

    Spoken and written commentary on Bhagavad Gita, the distilled spiritual essence of Vedas and Upanishads, is aplenty. Mahatma Gandhi was quoted as saying that whenever he had a problem Bhagavad Gita offered an answer and the solution. For a student of psychology Bhagavad Gita offers a valuable case study for lessons in psychotherapy - resolution of conflict and successful resumption of action from a state of acute anxiety and guilt laden depression that precipitated inaction. This presentation makes a humble attempt to discuss the therapy process involved in Bhagavad Gita in which Lord Krishna helped the grief-stricken Arjuna through dialogue and discussion. The focus would be on the conflict and diagnosis of patient, the background setting of the situation, personality of patient, technique of therapy, underlying psychological concepts/ principles/theories, the Guru - Sishya concept, etc.

  18. [Ethical foundations of institutional psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, N

    2006-01-01

    The idea behind this work is to have an ethical examination of the institutional psychotherapy movement which has long influenced French public psychiatry and which has progressively, since the 80s, been subject to growing doubts. In the first part, institutional psychotherapy is presented. It is a model for theoretical development and practice in psychiatric care. It came into being just following the end of the Second World War at the same time as modern medical ethics. Its principles come on the one hand, from recognition of asylums' pathogenic effects--which led to the crushing of the patient's being--and on the other, through recognition of the uniqueness of each person and the subjectivity of mental suffering. These elements gave rise to creativity within the world of medicine and, in the sector, generated the science of psychiatry which advocated for continuity in care (both inpatient and outpatient) and preventive work directed at the population. This movement called for the use of the institution in its dynamic aspect which promotes exchanges and allows patients to situate or resituate themselves in historic and symbolic dimensions. It privileges a high level of transversality, maximum communication, favouring speaking out loud and responsibility. It requires a permanent analysis of the institutional counter transference (emotional reactions of the caregivers involved, their interrelations and the social and material organization of the institution) which determines the therapeutic action itself. THEORICAL BASIS: In a second part, its theoretical foundations and its practice shall be investigated in light of the guiding concepts of medical ethics (justice, autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance). Institutional psychotherapy responds to the need for justice by considering the patient as a whole and by conceiving each patient as being like oneself despite the differences (associated with the mode of hospitalization, the social or diagnostic category). The

  19. Succession and survival in psychotherapy organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleelee, Olya

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the world of psychotherapy by applying a systemic and psychodynamic understanding of the family business as a way of understanding the dilemmas and challenges of leadership succession. Oedipal factors are explored as an important theme within the succession process. This exploration is set within the context of what function psychotherapy has performed in society over the last thirty years. The hypothesis is that the first generation of leaders aimed to provide containment for the individual citizen at a time of failed dependency in society. The suggestion is that this gave way to the primary task for the second generation, which has been to focus on the therapist in training. The challenge for the third generation is to develop a meaningful role for psychotherapy today and to ensure survival at a time when other shorter therapies such as CBT are gaining ascendancy over longer term psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

  20. Psychotherapy: from exorcism to cognitive theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durval Mazzei Nogueira Filho

    Full Text Available The author discusses aspects of psychotherapeutic action. He defends the rationality of the procedure, comments on the splintering of the field of psychotherapy and discusses the usefulness of applying the scientific methodology to this field of knowledge.

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapies: History and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapies are one of the most leading theories between current psychotherapies. As a psychotherapy school, besides sharing the common points reached collectively by the humanity throughout the history, it also achieved in integrating scientific and ampirical experiences into the psychotherapy practice. Having included mainstreams like Stoicism, Kantian philosopy in its historical roots, this approach has similarities with eastern philosophies, budism and sufism. Apart from its historical and cultural roots, cognitive approach integrated with behaviorism which applied scientific method in human psychology for the first time, and also implemented the scientific method in the cognitive field. Cognitive behavioral approaches shall make important contributions in the pathway that psychotherapies will cover. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 7-14

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapies: History and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapies are one of the most leading theories between current psychotherapies. As a psychotherapy school, besides sharing the common points reached collectively by the humanity throughout the history, it also achieved in integrating scientific and ampirical experiences into the psychotherapy practice. Having included mainstreams like Stoicism, Kantian philosopy in its historical roots, this approach has similarities with eastern philosophies, budism and sufism. Apart from its historical and cultural roots, cognitive approach integrated with behaviorism which applied scientific method in human psychology for the first time, and also implemented the scientific method in the cognitive field. Cognitive behavioral approaches shall make important contributions in the pathway that psychotherapies will cover.

  3. PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH THE PARENT EGO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruša Zaletel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In their article, the authors present the findings of the study in which they conceptualized the method of psychotherapy with the Parent ego state. Their aim was to explore whether this method could be divided into individual, content-wise separate chronological phases which can be observed with the majority of clients. By using a modified method of content analysis of five psychotherapy transcripts and a video recording of a psychotherapy session, nine chronological phases were identified. In order to illustrate the individual phases, excerpts from the transcripts and the video recording of psychotherapy have been included. The article proposes under what conditions can this method be used, and presents some of its limitations.

  4. Types of Psychotherapy for Pathological Gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Timothy W.

    2005-01-01

    Several types of psychotherapy are currently used to treat pathological gamblers. These include Gambler's Anonymous, cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and family therapy. Research into which types of psychotherapy are the most effective for pathological gambling is limited but is a growing area of study. Group therapy, namely Gambler's Anonymous, provides peer support and structure. Cognitive behavior therapy aims to identify and correct cognitive distor...

  5. Women, money, and psychodynamic group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motherwell, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Developmental concerns and sociocultural expectations may keep female patients and therapists from addressing financial issues openly in group psychotherapy. Interpersonal theory provides a different view of nurturing that may help women leaders deal better with financial discussions in group. This paper includes a review of the literature on group psychotherapy and fees; feminist literature relevant to leadership; money management in group therapy; countertransference; and case examples.

  6. NONVERBAL STORIES: THE BODY IN PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotional experience is stored within the amygdala and the limbic system of the brain as affect, visceral, and physiological sensation without symbolization and language. These significant memories are expressed in affect and through our bodily movements and gestures. Such body memories are unconscious non-symbolized patterns of self-in-relationship. Several methods of a body centered psychotherapy are described and clinical case examples illustrate the use of expressive methods within a relational psychotherapy.

  7. Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Issues and Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    Emphasis on identifying evidence-based therapies (EBTs) has increased markedly. Lists of EBTs are the rationale for recommendations for how psychotherapy provider training programs should be evaluated, professional competence assessed, and licensure and reimbursement policies structured. There are however methodological concerns that limit the external validity of EBTs. Among the most salient is the circularity inherent in randomized control trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy that constrains the manner in which the psychological problems are defined, psychotherapy can be practiced, and change evaluated. RCT studies favor therapies that focus of specific symptoms and can be described in a manual, administered reliably across patients, completed in relatively few sessions, and involve short-term evaluations of outcome. The epistemological assumptions of a natural science approach to psychotherapy research limit how studies are conducted and assessed in ways that that advantage symptom-focused approaches and disadvantage those approaches that seek to bring broad recovery-based changes. Research methods that are not limited to RCTs and include methodology to minimize the effects of "therapist allegiance" are necessary for valid evaluations of therapeutic approaches that seek to facilitate changes that are broader than symptom reduction. Recent proposals to adopt policies that dictate training, credentialing, and reimbursement based on lists of EBTs unduly limit how psychotherapy can be conceptualized and practiced, and are not in the best interests of the profession or of individuals seeking psychotherapy services.

  8. Cross-Mode Comparability of Computer-Based Testing (CBT) versus Paper-Pencil Based Testing (PPT): An Investigation of Testing Administration Mode among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Hosseini, Monirosadat; Toroujeni, Seyyed Morteza Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Advent of technology has caused growing interest in using computers to convert conventional paper and pencil-based testing (Henceforth PPT) into Computer-based testing (Henceforth CBT) in the field of education during last decades. This constant promulgation of computers to reshape the conventional tests into computerized format permeated the…

  9. Comparison of bNOS and chat immunohistochemistry in the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) and the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) of the mouse from brain slices prepared for electrophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veleanu, Maxime; Axen, Tina E; Kristensen, Morten P

    2016-01-01

    maintains that antibody staining for enzymes involved in synthesis or transport, of acetylcholine would be a more definitive marker and hence, preferable. NEW METHOD: Colocalization of bNOS and CHAT in the LDT/PPT, and presence of parvalbumin (PV), was examined in non-ideally prepared mouse brain slices...

  10. How Do Trainees Choose Their First Psychotherapy Training? The Case of Training in Psychotherapy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plchová, Romana; Hytych, Roman; Rihácek, Tomáš; Roubal, Jan; Vybíral, Zbynek

    2016-01-01

    Future trainees go through difficult decision-making processes when starting their first psychotherapy training. The choice of training in psychotherapy integration is a specific type of this process. In this study, qualitative data were obtained from the motivational letters, in-depth semi-structured interviews and e-mail questionnaires of 26…

  11. Outlook of natural gas thermal generation; A geracao termeletrica a gas natural e o PPT (Programa Prioritario de Termoeletricidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Makyo A.; Correia Junior, Clovis [Bahiagas - Companhia de Gas da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Garcia, Celestino B. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The national integrated system has always had hydroelectricity as its main source of energy supply. However, a long period of lack of investment in sector put the country in a complacent position in which there was an overabundance of energy supply. The subsequent power shortage of 2001, led to a long term strategy of assuring supply with perspective of attending demand quickly and guaranteeing the security of the system by exploiting a source of energy rarely used in the country: thermal energy using natural gas. For this reason, the federal government launched the PPT Program (Priority Program of Thermoelectricity) with the aim of stimulating investment in thermo electrical plants, utilizing natural gas which is cheaper and less polluting. However, investment by the private sector did not fulfill expectations even with regular production, financial incentives of the government and favourable points through thermal generation using natural gas. Therefore, PETROBRAS decided to assume the risk and form partnerships to assure investments in thermo electrical plants. In the strategy of implanting thermal plants, who would be responsible to carry out this process along with guarantees of supply, was not properly defined. The establishment of thermal plants without a regulatory framework and undefined investment plan, compromises the essence of its creation. It is from this angle, that evaluates the recent collapse of energy of the Northeast region and the effective implantation of thermoelectricity utilizing natural gas. (author)

  12. Mixed methods in psychotherapy research: A review of method(ology) integration in psychotherapy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Theodore T; Lockard, Allison J

    2018-06-13

    Mixed methods can foster depth and breadth in psychological research. However, its use remains in development in psychotherapy research. Our purpose was to review the use of mixed methods in psychotherapy research. Thirty-one studies were identified via the PRISMA systematic review method. Using Creswell & Plano Clark's typologies to identify design characteristics, we assessed each study for rigor and how each used mixed methods. Key features of mixed methods designs and these common patterns were identified: (a) integration of clients' perceptions via mixing; (b) understanding group psychotherapy; (c) integrating methods with cases and small samples; (d) analyzing clinical data as qualitative data; and (e) exploring cultural identities in psychotherapy through mixed methods. The review is discussed with respect to the value of integrating multiple data in single studies to enhance psychotherapy research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Psychotherapy Is Chaotic—(Not Only in a Computational World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter K. Schiepek

    2017-04-01

    contrast, restricted predictability and spontaneous changes challenge the usefulness of prescriptive treatment manuals or other predefined programs of psychotherapy.

  14. Psychotherapy Is Chaotic—(Not Only) in a Computational World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter K.; Viol, Kathrin; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Sungler, Katharina; Pincus, David; Schöller, Helmut J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this article is to outline the role of chaotic dynamics in psychotherapy. Besides some empirical findings of chaos at different time scales, the focus is on theoretical modeling of change processes explaining and simulating chaotic dynamics. It will be illustrated how some common factors of psychotherapeutic change and psychological hypotheses on motivation, emotion regulation, and information processing of the client's functioning can be integrated into a comprehensive nonlinear model of human change processes. Methods: The model combines 5 variables (intensity of emotions, problem intensity, motivation to change, insight and new perspectives, therapeutic success) and 4 parameters into a set of 5 coupled nonlinear difference equations. The results of these simulations are presented as time series, as phase space embedding of these time series (i.e., attractors), and as bifurcation diagrams. Results: The model creates chaotic dynamics, phase transition-like phenomena, bi- or multi-stability, and sensibility of the dynamic patterns on parameter drift. These features are predicted by chaos theory and by Synergetics and correspond to empirical findings. The spectrum of these behaviors illustrates the complexity of psychotherapeutic processes. Conclusion: The model contributes to the development of an integrative conceptualization of psychotherapy. It is consistent with the state of scientific knowledge of common factors, as well as other psychological topics, such as: motivation, emotion regulation, and cognitive processing. The role of chaos theory is underpinned, not only in the world of computer simulations, but also in practice. In practice, chaos demands technologies capable of real-time monitoring and reporting on the nonlinear features of the ongoing process (e.g., its stability or instability). Based on this monitoring, a client-centered, continuous, and cooperative process of feedback and control becomes possible. By contrast, restricted

  15. Psychotherapy Is Chaotic-(Not Only) in a Computational World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter K; Viol, Kathrin; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Sungler, Katharina; Pincus, David; Schöller, Helmut J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this article is to outline the role of chaotic dynamics in psychotherapy. Besides some empirical findings of chaos at different time scales, the focus is on theoretical modeling of change processes explaining and simulating chaotic dynamics. It will be illustrated how some common factors of psychotherapeutic change and psychological hypotheses on motivation, emotion regulation, and information processing of the client's functioning can be integrated into a comprehensive nonlinear model of human change processes. Methods: The model combines 5 variables (intensity of emotions, problem intensity, motivation to change, insight and new perspectives, therapeutic success) and 4 parameters into a set of 5 coupled nonlinear difference equations. The results of these simulations are presented as time series, as phase space embedding of these time series (i.e., attractors), and as bifurcation diagrams. Results: The model creates chaotic dynamics, phase transition-like phenomena, bi- or multi-stability, and sensibility of the dynamic patterns on parameter drift. These features are predicted by chaos theory and by Synergetics and correspond to empirical findings. The spectrum of these behaviors illustrates the complexity of psychotherapeutic processes. Conclusion: The model contributes to the development of an integrative conceptualization of psychotherapy. It is consistent with the state of scientific knowledge of common factors, as well as other psychological topics, such as: motivation, emotion regulation, and cognitive processing. The role of chaos theory is underpinned, not only in the world of computer simulations, but also in practice. In practice, chaos demands technologies capable of real-time monitoring and reporting on the nonlinear features of the ongoing process (e.g., its stability or instability). Based on this monitoring, a client-centered, continuous, and cooperative process of feedback and control becomes possible. By contrast, restricted

  16. Review of Self-disclosure in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Rachel A; Del Castillo, Darren M; Stiles, William B

    2007-09-01

    Reviews the book, Self-disclosure in psychotherapy by Barry A. Farber (see record 2006-11792-000). At one point or another, most therapists have wondered how much their patients are telling them and wrestled with how much they should reveal themselves to their patients. This book aims to provide an integrative and up-to-date review of the literature that has addressed these kinds of questions. By looking at patient, therapist, supervisee, and supervisor self-disclosure, Farber attempts to show both common and unique aspects of self-disclosure across the different parties involved in psychotherapy. Work from historical, clinical, research, and cultural perspectives comes together to provide readers with a multifaceted view of self-disclosure in psychotherapy. This book will be of interest to therapists, researchers, psychotherapy supervisors, and therapists-in-training. Farber's discussion of self-disclosure offers a nuanced perspective on the dilemmas involved in the psychotherapy process. By highlighting the features of self-disclosure across patients, therapists, supervisees, and supervisors, Farber enriches understanding of the phenomenon and encourages empathy for the perspectives of those in other psychotherapy roles. We believe that Farber has successfully synthesized work from various perspectives to create an illuminating review of self-disclosure in psychotherapy. The book condenses a broad range of literature into clearly organized and digestible chapters. The integration of research and theory with clinical vignettes, quotations from books and movies, and popular song lyrics make this work an unusually engaging and accessible read. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Book Review Psychotherapy and Phenomenology By Ian Rory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Psychotherapy and Phenomenology By Ian Rory Owen (2006) ... Psychotherapy and Phenomenology: On Freud, Husserl and Heidegger. New York: iUniverse. Soft Cover (352 ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  18. Psychotherapy Versus Pharmacotherapy of Depression: What's the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Steinert, Christiane; Hoyer, Jürgen

    Depression may be treated by psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy or their combination. There is an ongoing debate whether one of these approaches is possibly superior. A recent meta-analysis reported results in favour of pharmacotherapy. Individual studies and meta-analyses on the comparative efficacy of psychotherapy vs. pharmacotherapy were reviewed. Evidence suggests that psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are equally efficacious in the short-term, but psychotherapy is superior in the long-term. For the recently stated hypothesis that pharmacotherapy is superior to psychotherapy in studies without a pill placebo condition, which implies equally including a positive expectancy effect for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy no evidence was found. Depression may be treated by psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy with equivalent results in the short-term and advantages for psychotherapy in the long-term. As the rates of response and remission are still limited in both treatments, further improvement of treatments is required.

  19. PERSONALITY THEORY IN INTEGRATIVE PERSONALITY-ORIENTED RECONSTRUCTIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kurpatov

    2010-01-01

    approaches. V.N. Myasishchev's theory of personality relations in association with its universality, as well as pathogenetic psychotherapy may be the basis for the integration of other methods of psychotherapy

  20. CASE STUDIES IN INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY PART 2 (EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Announcement of the special issue of the International Journal of Integrative Psychotherapy, which is dedicated to the exploration and discussion of an integrative psychotherapy case study.

  1. INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY AND MINDFULNESS: THE CASE OF SARA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihael Černetič

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the relationship between Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness on a theoretical as well as practical level. Although mindfulness is not an explicit constituent of Integrative Psychotherapy, the two are arguably a natural fit. Mindfulness has the potential to enhance internal and external contact, a central concept in Integrative Psychotherapy, as well as strengthen a client’s Adult ego state. This article presents a case study whereby Integrative Psychotherapy is ana...

  2. Psychotherapies for adult depression: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned from the 400 randomized trials on psychotherapies for adult depression that have been conducted, but much is also still unknown. In this study some recent attempts to further reduce the disease burden of depression through psychotherapies are reviewed. In the past, many new psychotherapies have promised to be more effective than existing treatments, usually without success. We describe recent research on two new therapies, acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive bias modification, and conclude that both have also not shown to be more effective than existing therapies. A growing number of studies have also focused on therapies that may be successful in further reducing the disease burden, such as treatments for chronic depression and relapse prevention. Other studies are aimed at scaling up psychological services, such as the training of lay health counselors in low-income and middle-income countries, telephone-based, and internet-based therapies. Psychotherapies are essential tools in the treatment of adult depression. Randomized trials have shown that these treatments are effective, and by focusing on key issues, such as chronic depression, relapse, and scaling them up, psychotherapies contribute more and more to the reduction of the disease burden of depression.

  3. Obstacles to early career psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A; Plakun, Eric M; Lazar, Susan G; Mellman, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Though psychiatric residents are expected to be competent psychotherapists on graduation, further growth in skill and versatility requires continued experience in their ongoing career. Maturity as a psychotherapist is essential because a psychiatrist is the only mental health provider who, as a physician, can assume full responsibility for biopsychosocial patient care and roles as supervisor, consultant, and team leader. Graduating residents face an environment in which surveys show a steady and alarming decline in practice of psychotherapy by psychiatrists, along with a decline in job satisfaction. High educational debts, practice structures, intrusive management, and reimbursement policies that devalue psychotherapy discourage early career psychiatrists from a practice style that enables providing it. For the early-career psychiatrist there is thus the serious risk of being unable to develop a critical mass of experience or a secure identity as a psychiatric psychotherapist. Implementation of parity laws and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect the situation in unpredictable ways that call for vigilance and active response. Additional service and administrative demands may result from the ACA, creating ethical dilemmas about meeting urgent patient needs versus biopsychosocial standards of care. The authors recommend 1) vigorous advocacy for better payment levels for psychotherapy and freedom from disruptive management; 2) aggressive action against violations of the parity act, 3) active preparation of psychiatric residents for dealing with career choices and the environment for providing psychotherapy in their practice, and 4) post-graduate training in psychotherapy through supervision/consultation, continuing education courses, computer instruction, and distance learning.

  4. [Summary: Scientific evaluation of EMDR psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haour, F; de Beaurepaire, C

    2016-06-01

    The evaluation of psychotherapy methods is made difficult by their practical and theoretical diversities as well as the increasing number of available therapies. Evaluation based on scientific criteria in randomized control trials is providing the highest level of proof and recognition by Health Agencies. A recently described integrative psychotherapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), developed by F. Shapiro since 1989, has been confronted with the validation procedure used in pharmacological treatment. It was of interest to review the scientific validation steps carried out for this EMDR psychotherapy and for its mechanisms of action. The practical and methodological protocol of the EMDR psychotherapy for trauma integration is reviewed as well as clinical results and mechanisms. This EMDR therapy, focused on the resolutions of traumas, was started by treating patients with post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). The integrative EMDR protocol obtained the highest level of efficiency, for PTSD treatment, twenty years after its first publication. The efficiency of the protocol is now under study and scientific evaluation for troubles in which the trauma experiences are triggers or factors of maintenance of the troubles: anxiety, depression, phobia, sexual troubles, schizophrenia, etc. This new integrative psychotherapy follows the pathways and the timing observed for the evaluation and the validation of other therapies. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics and experience of the patient in psychotherapy and the psychotherapy's effectiveness. A structural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Agnieszka; Dobrenko, Kamila; Grzesiuk, Lidia

    2017-08-29

    The study concerns the relationship between three groups of variables presenting the patient's perspective: (1) "patient's characteristics" before psychotherapy, including "expectations of the therapy"; (2) "experience in the therapy", including the "psychotherapeutic relationship"; and (3) "assessment of the direct effectiveness of the psychotherapy". Data from the literature are the basis for predicting relationships between all of these variables. Measurement of the variables was conducted using a follow-up survey. The survey was sent to a total of 1,210 former patients of the Academic Center for Psychotherapy (AOP) in which the therapy is conducted mainly with the students and employees of the University of Warsaw. Responses were received from 276 people. 55% of the respondents were women and 45% were men, under 30 years of age. The analyses were performed using structural equations. Two models emerged from an analysis of the relationship between the three above-mentioned groups of variables. One concerns the relationship between (1) the patient's characteristics (2) the course of psychotherapy, in which -from the perspective of the patient - there is a good relationship with the psychotherapist and (3) psychotherapy is effective. The second model refers to (2) the patient's experience of poor psychotherapeutic relationship and (3) ineffective psychotherapy. Patient's expectations of the psychotherapy (especially "the expectation of support") proved to be important moderating variablesin the models-among the characteristics of the patient. The mathematical model also revealed strong correlation of variables measuring "the relationship with the psychotherapist" and "therapeutic interventions".

  6. Multicultural approaches in psychotherapy: A rejoinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Leach, Mark M; Wampold, Bruce; Rodolfa, Emil

    2010-12-20

    In this rejoinder, the authors address several issues raised by R. L. Worthington and F. R. Dillon (2011) and C. R. Ridley and M. Shaw-Ridley (2011) regarding (a) the measurement of multicultural competencies (MCCs), (b) sampling considerations in multicultural research, and (c) the conceptual frame of multicultural psychotherapy research. The authors challenge the wisdom of exploring MCCs in psychotherapy research and provide a different framework to understand therapists' multicultural effectiveness with clients based on their cultural race/ethnicity. Additionally, the concept of therapists' multicultural orientation or approach is introduced to illuminate the process of aligning with clients about salient cultural issues in psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Technology-enhanced human interaction in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Caperton, Derek D; Tanana, Michael; Atkins, David C

    2017-07-01

    Psychotherapy is on the verge of a technology-inspired revolution. The concurrent maturation of communication, signal processing, and machine learning technologies begs an earnest look at how these technologies may be used to improve the quality of psychotherapy. Here, we discuss 3 research domains where technology is likely to have a significant impact: (1) mechanism and process, (2) training and feedback, and (3) technology-mediated treatment modalities. For each domain, we describe current and forthcoming examples of how new technologies may change established applications. Moreover, for each domain we present research questions that touch on theoretical, systemic, and implementation issues. Ultimately, psychotherapy is a decidedly human endeavor, and thus the application of modern technology to therapy must capitalize on-and enhance-our human capacities as counselors, students, and supervisors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. THE FEMINIST APPROACH TO PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Božac Deležan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of Integrative Psychotherapy is to establish full inner and external contact (Moursund & Erskine, 2004. The most important goal in feminist therapy is the transformation of an individual as well as the transformation of the society as a whole (Herlihy & Corey, 2004. In my work I attempt to integrate both: to help the client establish inner and external contact, but also help him/her to become aware and recognize inner messages connected with his/her gender and replace them with constructive beliefs of his/her own, as well as for him/her to learn, regardless of his/her gender, to trust his/her intuition and experience. In this article I present my approach to integration in psychotherapy and the way I use feminist principles in Integrative Psychotherapy.

  9. The influence of psychotherapy on marriage typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniszewski Mirosław

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the influence of psychotherapeutic group work on matrimonial relations. Such questions are put up in the research as if participating of one of the married couples in a group psychotherapy could indirectly influence the other partner, and also if the type of matrimony could change under the influence of psychotherapy, for example from hierarchical to the partner’s. The article generalizes the classification of marriage types and pays special attention on the types that can be subject to the positive changes as a result of psychotherapeutic influence. Actuality and value of this research lay in estimation of the ability of psychotherapy to influence the matrimony on the whole in case when only one of the partners takes part in the therapy.

  10. [Psychotherapy of depression in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtler, C

    2013-02-01

    Depression in old age is common and also dangerous due to somatic comorbidity and suicide; however, it is often not recognized and not adequately treated. Psychotherapy is almost never offered to the elderly. However, clinical experience, single-case studies and some controlled trials show effectiveness--at least to the age of 75. The psychotherapist must be aware of unusual transference and countertransference between a younger therapist and elderly patient. Psychotherapy in old age requires some modifications, especially concerning special interest in biography and history, strong empathy, "container function", and focusing. In the future, psychotherapy for the elderly should be both investigated and educated more. In addition, it is hoped that psychotherapists offer to treat elderly people with depression and that more older patients accept this professional help.

  11. Narrative research in psychotherapy: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdi, Evrinomy; Georgaca, Eugenie

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a review of studies which utilise the notion of narrative to analyse psychotherapy. Its purpose is to systematically present this diverse field of research, to highlight common themes and divergences between different strands and to further the development and integration of narrative research in psychotherapy. The paper reviews studies which employ an applied textual analysis of narratives produced in the context of psychotherapy. Criteria for inclusion of studies are, firstly, the analysis of therapeutic and therapy-related texts and, secondly, the adoption of a narrative psychological perspective. The studies were examined on the basis of the notion of narrative they employ and the aspects of client narratives they focus on, and were grouped accordingly in the review. The majority of the studies reviewed assume a constructivist approach to narrative, adopt a representational view of language, focus primarily on client micro-narratives and relate to cognitive-constructivist and process-experiential psychotherapeutic approaches. A smaller group of studies assume a social constructionist approach to narrative and a functional view of language, focus on micro-narratives, highlight the interactional and wider social aspects of narrative and relate to postmodern trends in psychotherapy. The range of conceptualisations of narrative in the studies reviewed, from a representational psychological view to a constructionist social view, reflects tensions within narrative psychology itself. Moreover, two trends can be discerned in the field reviewed, narrative analysis of therapy, which draws from narrative theory and utilises the analytic approaches of narrative research to study psychotherapy, and analyses of narrative in therapy, which study client narratives using non-narrative qualitative methods. Finally, the paper highlights the need for integration of this diverse field of research and urges for the development of narrative studies of psychotherapy

  12. New parity, same old attitude towards psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2010-03-01

    Full parity of health insurance benefits for treatment of mental illness, including substance use disorders, is a major achievement. However, the newly-published regulations implementing the legislation strongly endorse aggressive managed care as a way of containing costs for the new equality of coverage. Reductions in "very long episodes of out-patient care," hospitalization, and provider fees, along with increased utilization, are singled out as achievements of managed care. Medical appropriateness as defined by expert medical panels is to be the basis of authorizing care, though clinicians are familiar with a history of insurance companies' application of "medical necessity" to their own advantage. The regulations do not single out psychotherapy for attention, but long-term psychotherapy geared to the needs of each patient appears to be at risk. The author recommends that the mental health professions strongly advocate for the growing evidence base for psychotherapy including long-term therapy for complex mental disorders; respect for the structure and process of psychotherapy individualized to patients' needs; awareness of the costs of aggressive managed care in terms of money, time, administrative burden, and interference with the therapy; and recognition of the extensive training and experience required to provide psychotherapy as well as the stresses and demands of the work. Parity in out-of-network benefits could lead to aggressive management of care given by non-network practitioners. Since a large percentage of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals stay out of networks, implementation of parity for out-of-network providers will have to be done in a way that respects the conditions under which they would be willing and able to provide services, especially psychotherapy, to insured patients. The shortage of psychiatrists makes this an important access issue for the insured population in need of care.

  13. [Dropout behavior during inpatient psychotherapy ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ute; Rempel, Irene; Zipfel, Stephan; Enck, Paul; Teufel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dropouts result in far-reaching consequences for the individual patient, fellow patients, therapists, and the clinic. This study was aimed at early identification of patients with a dropout risk. Data from patients of the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy of the Medical University Clinic of Tübingen (Germany) were analyzed retrospectively in a case-control study (matched). Differences in the results of various questionnaires (SCL-90-R, IIP-D, SF-36) regarding reasons for dropout and sociodemographic data were analyzed. A total of 59 dropouts, 50 females and 9 males, were included. They were split into 28 early dropouts and 31 late dropouts. The data were compared between early and late dropouts and control group. Early dropouts were significantly younger than late dropouts; they tended to live with their parents or on their own, and suffered more frequently from eating disorders. Late dropouts lived together with partners and suffered from somatoform disorders more frequently than early dropouts. The reasons given for dropout did not differ between the groups. No differences between dropouts and the controls were found with respect to psychopathology (SCL- 90-R) and quality of life (SF-36). Late dropouts did show significantly lower scores on the scale "autocracy/dominance" than the controls (IIP). Therapy dropout is a multifactorial occurrence. It is generally not predictable, though it may be predicted with different instruments on the basis of a diagnosis, especially with respect to interpersonal behavior patterns. In further studies, targeted interventions should be developed and tested which enable procedures to minimize the risk of dropout and to achieve complete treatment according to patients' intentions.

  14. The Sociology of Regulation: The Case of Psychotherapy and Counselling and the Experience of the Arts Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Diane; Guthrie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on insights from the sociology of professions to explore the regulatory debate in the psychotherapy and counselling field contrasted with the regulation of arts therapists (art, drama and music therapists). A partial explanation is offered, illustrating the applicability of theory to these groups, but with adaptations to reflect…

  15. The Networks of Genes Encoding Palmitoylated Proteins in Axonal and Synaptic Compartments Are Affected in PPT1 Overexpressing Neuronal-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pezzini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CLN1 disease (OMIM #256730 is an early childhood ceroid-lipofuscinosis associated with mutated CLN1, whose product Palmitoyl-Protein Thioesterase 1 (PPT1 is a lysosomal enzyme involved in the removal of palmitate residues from S-acylated proteins. In neurons, PPT1 expression is also linked to synaptic compartments. The aim of this study was to unravel molecular signatures connected to CLN1. We utilized SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells overexpressing wild type CLN1 (SH-p.wtCLN1 and five selected CLN1 patients’ mutations. The cellular distribution of wtPPT1 was consistent with regular processing of endogenous protein, partially detected inside Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2 (LAMP2 positive vesicles, while the mutants displayed more diffuse cytoplasmic pattern. Transcriptomic profiling revealed 802 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in SH-p.wtCLN1 (as compared to empty-vector transfected cells, whereas the number of DEGs detected in the two mutants (p.L222P and p.M57Nfs*45 was significantly lower. Bioinformatic scrutiny linked DEGs with neurite formation and neuronal transmission. Specifically, neuritogenesis and proliferation of neuronal processes were predicted to be hampered in the wtCLN1 overexpressing cell line, and these findings were corroborated by morphological investigations. Palmitoylation survey identified 113 palmitoylated protein-encoding genes in SH-p.wtCLN1, including 25 ones simultaneously assigned to axonal growth and synaptic compartments. A remarkable decrease in the expression of palmitoylated proteins, functionally related to axonal elongation (GAP43, CRMP1 and NEFM and of the synaptic marker SNAP25, specifically in SH-p.wtCLN1 cells was confirmed by immunoblotting. Subsequent, bioinformatic network survey of DEGs assigned to the synaptic annotations linked 81 DEGs, including 23 ones encoding for palmitoylated proteins. Results obtained in this experimental setting outlined two affected functional modules (connected to

  16. The ethics of providing hope in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Justine Sarah; Clemens, Norman A

    2013-07-01

    The instillation of hope is a common factor in most psychotherapies. A considerable literature exists on the ethics of providing false or positively biased hope in non-psychiatric medical settings, and ethicists have generally concluded that this practice is unethical. However, the literature on the ethics of encouraging hope in psychotherapy, especially in the case of treatment-resistant mental illness, is sparse. The author explores two clinical cases with the intention of examining the nature of hope, false hope, positive illusions, and denial, as they relate to our definitions of mental health and psychotherapy. The cases highlight the ethics of balancing an acknowledgment of likely treatment futility with a desire to hope. Clinical psychological studies on depressive realism and optimistic bias indicate that some degree of positive bias, referred to by some authors as "the optimal margin of illusion," is in fact necessary to promote what we define as "good mental health;" conversely, stark realism is correlated with mild to moderate depression. An examination of the existential literature, including Ernest Becker's work, The Denial of Death, indicates that without the defense mechanism of denial, human beings tend to experience paralytic despair as a result of being fallible, mortal creatures in a frightening world. The combination of these diverse bodies of literature, along with the surprising outcomes of our case examples, leads to an unexpected conclusion: it may occasionally be ethical to encourage some degree of optimistic bias, and perhaps even positive illusion, when treating patients in psychotherapy.

  17. Paradoxical psychotherapy in a case of transvestism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, M J

    1987-09-01

    Paradoxical psychotherapy succeeded in removing the compulsive element and reducing the guilt attached to transvestism in a male transvestite patient. Cross-dressing at home became acceptable to him and the temptation to cross-dress in public ended. Data suggested three independent motivational systems in this patient.

  18. Analytic and Systemic Specialized Incest Group Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Henriette Kiilsholm; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    PURPOSE: Women with long-term sequalae of child sexual abuse (CSA) were randomly assigned to analytic (Group A) or systemic group psychotherapy (Group S). Pre-post-analysis indicated that both therapies led to significant improvement, but overall Group S had significantly better outcome than Group...

  19. Bentuhua: culturing psychotherapy in postsocialist China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2014-06-01

    The breathless pace of market reform in China has brought about profound ruptures in socioeconomic structures and increased mental distress in the population. In this context, more middle-class urbanites are turning to nascent psychological counseling to grapple with their problems. This article examines how Chinese psychotherapists attempt to "culture" or indigenize (bentuhua) three imported psychotherapy models in order to fit their clients' expectations, desires, and sensibilities: the Satir family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sandplay therapy. It addresses three interrelated questions: What is the role of culture in adopting, translating, and recasting psychotherapy in contemporary China? How is cultural difference understood and mobilized by therapists in the therapeutic encounter? What kind of distinct therapeutic relationship is emerging in postsocialist China? Data presented here are drawn from my semistructured interviews and extensive participant observation at various counseling offices and psychotherapy workshops in the city of Kunming. My ethnographic account suggests that it is through constant dialog, translation, and re-articulation between multiple regimes of knowledge, cultural values, and social practices that a new form of talk therapy with "Chinese characteristics" is emerging. Finally, I reflect upon what this dialogic process of transformation means for psychotherapy as a form of globally circulating knowledge/practice.

  20. Teaching psychotherapy by use of brief typescripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepecs, J G

    1977-07-01

    A typescript of a 10-minute segment of a taped therapeutic interview, coded by using a modification of the Gottshalk scales, quite clearly demonstrates the patient's current focal conflict. Recognition of the current focal conflict is thus taught, and this is used as an organizing principle in supervision of psychotherapy.

  1. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Dr Cuijpers and Colleagues Reply To the Editor: We thank Dr Gaudiano and colleagues for their contribution to the discussion about psychotherapy for dysthymia. We agree very much with Gaudiano et al that we should be careful about drawing definite conclusions about the comparative efficacy of

  2. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  3. A Decade of Feminist Influence on Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Annette M.

    1980-01-01

    Last decade has seen some major impacts of feminism on institution of psychotherapy regarding theories, treatment techniques, and assessment instruments. Changes in attitudes toward women as therapists and as clients have reflected general advances of women's movement. Presented at American Psychological Association Convention, Toronto, Canada,…

  4. Toward a Neurobiology of Child Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jerald

    2009-01-01

    Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that psychotherapy alters brain structure and function. Learning and memory, both implicit and explicit, play central roles in this process through the creation of new genetic material that leads to increased synaptic efficiency through the creation of new neuronal connections. Although there is substantial…

  5. Multicultural Approaches in Psychotherapy: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Leach, Mark M.; Wampold, Bruce; Rodolfa, Emil

    2011-01-01

    In this rejoinder, the authors address several issues raised by R. L. Worthington and F. R. Dillon (2011) and C. R. Ridley and M. Shaw-Ridley (2011) regarding (a) the measurement of multicultural competencies (MCCs), (b) sampling considerations in multicultural research, and (c) the conceptual frame of multicultural psychotherapy research. The…

  6. A Delay Discounting Model of Psychotherapy Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Joshua K.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Delay discounting (DD) procedures are emerging as an important new method for psychotherapy researchers. In this paper a framework for conceptualizing existing, seemingly discrepant, research findings on termination is introduced and new directions for research are described. To illustrate the value of a DD framework, the common psychotherapy…

  7. Existential psychotherapy of students as learning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    According to parts of the existential psychology and psychotherapy the individual's exploration and compliance of his or her life project is central to the experience of living a meaningful life. In many ways, becoming a fully adult individual is about identifying and taking responsibility for th...

  8. Psychotherapy: The Listening Voice. Rogers and Erickson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leva, Richard A.

    The views of Carl Rogers and Milton H. Erickson are combined in this book on psychotherapy. The first section focuses on belief systems, views of man, new views of the unconscious, and a philosophy for change. Erickson and his relationship to myth, the nature of man and the goal of counseling, trance, and a radical view of the unconscious are…

  9. Serious Games for Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus

    2017-06-01

    In the evolving digital age, media applications are increasingly playing a greater role in the field of psychotherapy. While the Internet is already in the phase of being established when it comes to the care of mental disorders, experimentation is going on with other modern media such as serious games. A serious game is a game in which education and behavior change is the goal, alongside with entertainment. The objective of the present article was to provide a first empirical overview of serious games applied to psychotherapy and psychosomatic rehabilitation. Therefore, a systematic literature search, including the terms "serious game" or "computer game" and "psychotherapy" or "rehabilitation" or "intervention" or "mental disorders" in the databases Medline and PsycINFO, was performed. Subsequently, an Internet search was conducted to identify studies not published in journals. Publications not providing empirical data about effectiveness were excluded. On the basis of this systematic literature review, the results of N = 15 studies met inclusion criteria. They utilized primarily cognitive behavioral techniques and can be useful for treating a range of mental disorders. Serious games are effective both as a stand-alone intervention or part of psychotherapy and appeal to patients independent of age and sex. Included serious games proved to be an effective therapeutic component. Nonetheless, findings are not conclusive and more research is needed to further investigate the effectiveness of serious games for psychotherapeutic purposes.

  10. Deconstructing Risk Management in Psychotherapy Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Jerome; Radden, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    In the ongoing controversy over how much regulation and standardization to impose on clinical practice and research, it is not surprising that the activity of psychotherapy supervision should be swept up in the drive for uniformity. The managers amongst us want to regulate and institutionalize all aspects of practice. In opposition, many clinicians resist the relentless march toward the safety of uniformity travel alongside managerial imposition of regulations. Psychotherapy supervision's method of a close apprenticeship relationship between supervisor and trainee and its focus on the process and ethics of professional interaction stand at the humanistic core of what is otherwise becoming an increasingly mechanistic model of providing care to persons with mental illness. Our commentary picks up on these themes as it reviews the work by Mehrtens et al about strengthening awareness of liability in psychiatry residency training programs. We argue that the practice of psychiatry is overburdened by documentation requirements. In imposing further record-keeping on psychotherapy supervision, we lose much more than we gain. We recommend that the supervisory process focus on the characterological virtues essential to functioning as an ethical therapist. We also argue that self-protective rules place restraints on possibilities for imaginative insights and innovations in psychotherapy. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  11. Review of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papouchis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Reviews the book, Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide by Nancy McWilliams (see record 2004-16060-000). Nancy McWilliams' book on analytic therapy is her latest contribution to the training needs of young clinicians. The book is organized into chapters that address fundamental issues clinical trainees typically face as they work with patients. To establish the context for describing psychoanalytic work, the first chapter defines what she means by psychoanalytic therapy. The three chapters that follow address what McWilliams means by a psychoanalytic sensibility: how the therapist may be prepared for doing therapy and how the client may be prepared for the experience of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The next three chapters address the maintenance of boundaries and basic therapy processes. Two case examples follow in chapters eight and nine, and each example is a richly evocative description of the complexity of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The last three chapters of the book deal with the ancillary lessons of psychoanalytic therapy, the occupational hazards and gratifications of the work, and a final chapter on self-care. This is an excellent book, but it should be read together with other texts on psychoanalytic psychotherapy that describe the treatment process systematically in more technical terms. This is a book written for clinicians in training or for experienced clinicians to use in working with clinical trainees. In this sense, Nancy McWilliams has more than achieved her goal of writing a book that will introduce clinical trainees to the psychoanalytic sensibility of doing psychoanalytic psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Changes in brain activity of somatoform disorder patients during emotional empathy after multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greck, Moritz; Bölter, Annette F.; Lehmann, Lisa; Ulrich, Cornelia; Stockum, Eva; Enzi, Björn; Hoffmann, Thilo; Tempelmann, Claus; Beutel, Manfred; Frommer, Jörg; Northoff, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Somatoform disorder patients show a variety of emotional disturbances including impaired emotion recognition and increased empathic distress. In a previous paper, our group showed that several brain regions involved in emotional processing, such as the parahippocampal gyrus and other regions, were less activated in pre-treatment somatoform disorder patients (compared to healthy controls) during an empathy task. Since the parahippocampal gyrus is involved in emotional memory, its decreased activation might reflect the repression of emotional memories (which—according to psychoanalytical concepts—plays an important role in somatoform disorder). Psychodynamic psychotherapy aims at increasing the understanding of emotional conflicts as well as uncovering repressed emotions. We were interested, whether brain activity in the parahippocampal gyrus normalized after (inpatient) multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy. Using fMRI, subjects were scanned while they shared the emotional states of presented facial stimuli expressing anger, disgust, joy, and a neutral expression; distorted stimuli with unrecognizable content served as control condition. 15 somatoform disorder patients were scanned twice, pre and post multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy; in addition, 15 age-matched healthy control subjects were investigated. Effects of psychotherapy on hemodynamic responses were analyzed implementing two approaches: (1) an a priori region of interest approach and (2) a voxelwise whole brain analysis. Both analyses revealed increased hemodynamic responses in the left and right parahippocampal gyrus (and other regions) after multimodal psychotherapy in the contrast “empathy with anger”—“control.” Our results are in line with psychoanalytical concepts about somatoform disorder. They suggest the parahippocampal gyrus is crucially involved in the neurobiological mechanisms which underly the emotional deficits of somatoform disorder patients. PMID:23966922

  13. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is mixed with water before administration liquid paste tablet When iodine-based and barium-sulfate contrast materials ... for patients with kidney failure or allergies to MRI and/or computed tomography (CT) contrast material. Microbubble ...

  14. Groups as a part of integrated treatment plans : Inpatient psychotherapy for outpatients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, H

    2005-01-01

    Group psychotherapy in Germany is well established as part of an integrative treatment plan in inpatient treatment. Outpatient group psychotherapy, however, is conceptualized as a separate treatment option in competition with individual therapy. German guidelines for outpatient psychotherapy exclude

  15. INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY AND MINDFULNESS: THE CASE OF SARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Černetič

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness on a theoretical as well as practical level. Although mindfulness is not an explicit constituent of Integrative Psychotherapy, the two are arguably a natural fit. Mindfulness has the potential to enhance internal and external contact, a central concept in Integrative Psychotherapy, as well as strengthen a client’s Adult ego state. This article presents a case study whereby Integrative Psychotherapy is analysed from the perspective of mindfulness. Within the course of therapy, parallels were observed between the client's increased mindfulness, improved internal and external contact, strengthened Adult ego state, mastery of introjections, as well as diminished feelings of guilt, improved mood, self care and ability to engage in appropriate separation and individuation. These gains support the conclusion that Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness are inherently related and that explicit incorporation of mindfulness may enhance the therapeutic process of Integrative Psychotherapy.

  16. Study of the (p,pd), (p,pt) and (p,p3He) reactions on 12C and 16O at 75MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossiord, J.Y.; Bedjidian, M.; Guichard, A.; Gusakow, M.; Pizzi, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The (p,pd), (p,pt) and (p,p 3 He) quasi-free scattering reactions have been studied on 12 C and 16 O targets at 75MeV. The low lying excitation levels of the residual nuclei have been observed. The appearance of T=1 states in 10 B and 14 N and of positive parity states in 13 N and 13 C can only be explained by reaction mechanisms more complex than a simple quasi-free scattering. A comparison of relative values of experimental spectroscopic factors with theoretical calculations has been made in the case of the most populated states [fr

  17. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  18. The many secure knowledge bases of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Raymond M

    2006-01-01

    Psychotherapeutic practice, while it has benefited greatly from scientific research, rests on many further secure epistemic foundations. In the present article, this thesis is argued in two stages. First, a brief review of some elementary epistemological findings is presented. In this review, the generally acknowledged degree of certainty attributed to different knowledge sources, and thus the confidence with which we may believe and act upon them, are recounted. Second, an extended analysis of the ways in which each of these knowledge sources enter into the practice of psychotherapy is developed. In the end, what is proffered here is a demonstration that well conducted psychotherapy is an activity whose judgments and decisions rest on many secure foundations.

  19. Self and its anxieties in existential psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Mircea Adrian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a self and the imperative of knowing it have gone through philosophy from its beginning until today. Existentialism, starting with Kierkegaard and continuing with Heidegger, relate the scope of the authentic self to that of anxiety. Once the scope of the anxiety of self has been formulated, it entered the sphere of psychological theories. The prolific encounter between existentialism and psychology materializes into the influent contemporary psychological school, named existential psychotherapy. Our analysis wishes to describe the nodal points of this encounter, having as reference points the scope of self and its anxieties. In the first part of the analysis we look into the philosophical premises, referring to the two above mentioned names, while in the second part we present the taking-ups and the applicative adjustments brought up by existential psychotherapy.

  20. Psychotherapy with people with developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zafošnik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available People with developmental disabilities can experience any psychological abnormalitiy and psychiatric illness as do people without developmental disabilities. Due to different diagnostic criteria, assessment procedures and instruments, we lack definite prevalence rates for people with developmental disabilities, also suffering from mental health problems, eventhough most studies place the rate at 20 to 40%. One of the possible treatment alternatives for augmenting psychological well-being is psychotherapy, but is extremely rarely used for people with severe and profound disabilities, where speech cannot be the main therapeutic medium. So, those that are included in the psychotherapuetic process are predominantly clients with mild developmental disabilities, and they are mostly in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Recently, two models of (psychotherapy for persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities were developed: developmental-dynamic relationship therapy and attachment-based behaviour therapy for children. Conceptually, they both originate form developmental psychoanalytic theories.

  1. USING BACH FLOWER IN HOLISTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a narrative review from scientific literature that aimed to describe concepts and approaches for indications of the therapeutic use of Bach flower remedies in holistic psychotherapy. The review was developed in February 2016 from books, official documents and articles indexed in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Bach flower remedies is a therapeutic method that aims to restore the balance of human being, restoring its vital energy through holistic care. Because the flower essences act on psychic and emotional dimension of individual, when employed in holistic psychotherapy can provide greater autonomy, self-care and effectiveness compared to other alternative methods. The literature indicated that flower essence therapy is a safe practice and can be used in a complementary to health care, but should be performed by qualified professionals. It has also shown to be a promising and important area for nursing professional, but it still requires greater investment in research in the area to support the practice.

  2. Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C

    2014-10-01

    This article briefly summarizes the empirical and clinical literature underlying a contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism. Unlike the DSM Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), this clinical model identifies and differentiates between two phenotypic themes of dysfunction-narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability-that can be expressed both overtly and covertly in patients' ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, and participating in treatment. Clinical recognition that narcissistic patients can and often do present for psychotherapy in vulnerable states of depression, anxiety, shame, and even suicidality increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. This article provides case examples derived from psychotherapies with narcissistic patients to demonstrate how narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability concurrently present in patients who seek treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Current Risk Management Practices in Psychotherapy Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtens, Ilayna K; Crapanzano, Kathleen; Tynes, L Lee

    2017-12-01

    Psychotherapy competence is a core skill for psychiatry residents, and psychotherapy supervision is a time-honored approach to teaching this skill. To explore the current supervision practices of psychiatry training programs, a 24-item questionnaire was sent to all program directors of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-approved adult psychiatry programs. The questionnaire included items regarding adherence to recently proposed therapy supervision practices aimed at reducing potential liability risk. The results suggested that current therapy supervision practices do not include sufficient management of the potential liability involved in therapy supervision. Better protections for patients, residents, supervisors and the institutions would be possible with improved credentialing practices and better documentation of informed consent and supervision policies and procedures. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  4. [Psychotherapy with Immigrants and Traumatized Refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erim, Yesim; Morawa, Eva

    2016-09-01

    In view of the growing proportion of immigrants and refugees in the population of Germany the knowledge on the influence of culture and migration on identity, and mental health presents a substantial basis for effective therapy. This article addresses important topics of psychotherapy with immigrants in general and with refugees in particular. Following issues selected according to their relevance and actuality are highlighted: definition of persons with migration background, migrants and refugees, facts on immigration to Germany, main results and theories on mental health of immigrants, social psychological aspects of intercultural psychotherapy (individualism vs. collectivism, stereotypes, discrimination etc.), psychosomatic diagnostics in intercultural context, diversity management in institutions, language and use of translators, living conditions of immigrants - stress and protective factors in immigrant mental health, post traumatic stress disorders among refugees: their prevalence, risk factors, diagnostics, course, multimodal psychosocial interventions in consulting centers, trauma focused interventions, trauma pedagogics, education and prevention of the volunteers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Validation of the body in psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Leijssen, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Psychotherapists can improve verbal psychotherapy by adding a bodily perspective. Different approaches can be situated on a continuum from verbal to nonverbal, and body-oriented interventions can be directed to different aspects of the body. The body as sensed from inside is one source of information. This is different from working with the body as perceived from outside and paying attention to nonverbal communication. In the next stage, major methods are working with the body in action and i...

  6. Recognition of psychotherapy effectiveness: the APA resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Norcross, John C; Vasquez, Melba J T; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2013-03-01

    In August 2012, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives voted overwhelmingly to adopt as APA policy a Resolution on the Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness. This invited article traces the origins and intentions of that resolution and its protracted journey through the APA governance labyrinth. We summarize the planned dissemination and projected results of the resolution and identify several lessons learned through the entire process.

  7. Applied philosophy and psychotherapy: Heraclitus as case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Beukes

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates a recent attempt to apply philosophy within the discipline of psychotherapy and to investigate the somewhat undefined realm of philosophical counselling. After introducing the claims of this interdisciplinary exercise and after addressing the problems involved in crossing the boundaries between philosophy and psychotherapy, the article elaborates on  Alex Howard’s (2000 [Philosophy for counselling and psychotherapy: Pythagoras to post-modernism. London: Macmillan] attempt to make explicit use of philosophy in psychotherapy, using his interpretation and application of Heraclitus’ philosophy as case study.

  8. [Psychanalitic psychotherapy: practice and indications in the aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudel, Bertrand

    2004-09-01

    Use of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for the elderly remains an issue. Even though regular psychoanalysis cure is contraindicated for elderly patients in most cases, yet, face-to-face psychotherapies can prove useful. The methods used for psychoanalytic psychotherapy for elderly patients are different from those applicable to middle age patients. These methods take into account the mourning process experienced by the elderly patient in three spheres: loss of object, loss of function and loss of oneself. Indications concerning psychoanalytic psychotherapy for the elderly have to be carefully assessed and will be detailed throughout the paper.

  9. Clients' and therapists' stories about psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jonathan M

    2013-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the emerging field of research on clients' stories about their experiences in psychotherapy. The theory of narrative identity suggests that individuals construct stories about their lives in order to provide the self with a sense of purpose and unity. Psychotherapy stories serve both psychological functions. Focusing on the theme of agency as a vehicle for operationalizing purpose and coherence as a way of operationalizing unity, this article will describe the existing scholarship connecting psychotherapy stories to clients' psychological well-being. Results from cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative studies as well as longitudinal research indicate a connection between the stories clients tell about therapy and their psychological well-being, both over the course of treatment and after it is over. In addition, a preliminary analysis of therapists' stories about their clients' treatment is presented. These analyses reveal that the way therapists recount a particular client's therapy does not impact the relationships between clients' narratives and their improvement. The article concludes with a discussion of how this body of scholarship might be fruitfully applied in the realm of clinical practice. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  11. The Arts, Crafts, and Sciences of Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lorna Smith

    2015-11-01

    Contemporary training and practice of psychotherapy and the research that supports it is the subject of this review. I discuss it in the light of what I value most from my own professional training, which was, in my opinion, highly privileged by comparison with what is offered today. A minimal hoped-for outcome is that younger readers will find valuable tidbits here and there that will be useful in their own versions of psychotherapy. A maximal hope is that a few individuals who choose to maintain clinical skills as well as emphasize psychotherapy research might be encouraged to follow their instincts toward excellence. They would allow their curiosity to bloom and their work to be creative and more adherent to the rules of natural science than time allows in these days of dashboards that count funding associated with numbers of publications, grants, teaching, and service hours. Admittedly, that path less well traveled would be risky, because what truly is new takes time to develop and implement and the outcomes when research truly can disconfirm hypotheses (as distinct from fail to confirm them) are, well, uncertain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Neural stem cells for disease modeling and evaluation of therapeutics for infantile (CLN1/PPT1) and late infantile (CLN2/TPP1) neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Ni; Li, Rong; Huang, Wei; Xu, Miao; Beers, Jeanette; Zou, Jizhong; Titus, Steven; Ottinger, Elizabeth A; Marugan, Juan J; Xie, Xing; Zheng, Wei

    2018-04-10

    Infantile and late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are lysosomal storage diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The infantile NCL (INCL) is caused by mutations in the PPT1 gene and late-infantile NCL (LINCL) is due to mutations in the TPP1 gene. Deficiency in PPT1 or TPP1 enzyme function results in lysosomal accumulation of pathological lipofuscin-like material in the patient cells. There is currently no small-molecular drug treatment for NCLs. We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from three patient dermal fibroblast lines and further differentiated them into neural stem cells (NSCs). Using these new disease models, we evaluated the effect of δ-tocopherol (DT) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) with the enzyme replacement therapy as the control. Treatment with the relevant recombinant enzyme or DT significantly ameliorated the lipid accumulation and lysosomal enlargement in the disease cells. A combination therapy of δ-tocopherol and HPBCD further improved the effect compared to that of either drug used as a single therapy. The results demonstrate that these patient iPSC derived NCL NSCs are valid cell- based disease models with characteristic disease phenotypes that can be used for study of disease pathophysiology and drug development.

  13. Attitudes of psychotherapists towards pharmacotherapy in the course of psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Murawiec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In contrast to the reality of clinical practice, in which psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are frequently combined, the attitudes of psychotherapists towards the use of pharmacotherapy in conjunction with psychotherapy have to date been rarely studied. Method: A special questionnaire was designed for the purpose of the study. An electronic format allowing for anonymous online responses was sent to psychotherapists from two selected mental health institutions in Warsaw. The results were analysed statistically. Results: One hundred six psychotherapists returned a completed questionnaire. They were classified into three groups depending on the length of psychotherapeutic practice as well as into groups of  cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic/psychoanalytic and  systemic/integrative psychotherapists. Although cognitive-behavioural therapists do not treat more patients than therapists of other modalities, they encounter significantly more patients who receive medications (p = 0.001 and the number of their patients receiving combined treatment is  increasing during psychotherapy. The  highest knowledge of  drug names was reported in  the group of psychodynamic/psychoanalytic therapists. Integrative and systemic therapists more often declared their positive attitude towards combining psychotherapy with pharmacotherapy (Chi-squared test, χ2; p = 0.04. Psychotherapists declaring a neutral attitude towards pharmacotherapy – regardless of the therapeutic modality – had generally more patients in therapy than therapists by whom the use of drugs in the course of psychotherapy was perceived positively or negatively (p < 0.05. Conclusions: The use of medications in the course of psychotherapy is a result of an interplay between many factors, including patients’ preferences, psychotherapeutic modality and the age of a psychotherapist.

  14. Ethical Issues for Direct-to-Consumer Digital Psychotherapy Apps: Addressing Accountability, Data Protection, and Consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Martin, Nicole; Kreitmair, Karola

    2018-04-23

    This paper focuses on the ethical challenges presented by direct-to-consumer (DTC) digital psychotherapy services that do not involve oversight by a professional mental health provider. DTC digital psychotherapy services can potentially assist in improving access to mental health care for the many people who would otherwise not have the resources or ability to connect with a therapist. However, the lack of adequate regulation in this area exacerbates concerns over how safety, privacy, accountability, and other ethical obligations to protect an individual in therapy are addressed within these services. In the traditional therapeutic relationship, there are ethical obligations that serve to protect the interests of the client and provide warnings. In contrast, in a DTC therapy app, there are no clear lines of accountability or associated ethical obligations to protect the user seeking mental health services. The types of DTC services that present ethical challenges include apps that use a digital platform to connect users to minimally trained nonprofessional counselors, as well as services that provide counseling steered by artificial intelligence and conversational agents. There is a need for adequate oversight of DTC nonprofessional psychotherapy services and additional empirical research to inform policy that will provide protection to the consumer. ©Nicole Martinez-Martin, Karola Kreitmair. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 23.04.2018.

  15. Psychotherapy: a profile of current occupational therapy practice in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Sandra E; Tryssenaar, Joyce; Good, Colleen R; Detwiler, Lisa M

    2013-12-01

    Psychotherapy can be an important part of psychosocial occupational therapy practice; however, it requires specialized training to achieve and maintain competence. Regulation varies by province, and in Ontario, occupational therapists were recently authorized to perform psychotherapy. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychotherapy practice, training, and support needs of Ontario occupational therapists. An online survey was sent to occupational therapists who had clients with mental health or chronic pain issues, asking about their expertise and support needs in relation to nine psychotherapy approaches. Of the 331 therapists who responded, there were variations in the nature and frequency of psychotherapy practice. Experienced therapists in outpatient settings were more likely to practice psychotherapy, and cognitive-behaviour therapy, motivational interviewing, and mindfulness were the most common approaches. Supervision and training varied, with many therapists interested in occupational therapy-specific training. Recommendations for a framework of support include education about the nature of psychotherapy, training and supervision guidelines, and advocacy for occupational therapy and psychotherapy.

  16. Exploring Psychotherapy Clients' Independent Strategies for Change While in Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Psychotherapy research usually describes how client change is caused by therapist interventions. This article describes how clients change by continuing to use and revising the strategies for change that they bring with them when they first enter therapy. This article presents data from a qualitative diary study of psychotherapy. Three cases…

  17. Characteristics of Patients Involved in Psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Alispahić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of Bosnian and Herzegovinian patients involved in psychotherapeutic treatments in order to explore the current situation of psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The study included 213 patients (154 women and 47 men undergoing diverse psychotherapeutic treatments. Data about demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by questionnaire. Following characteristics were documented: age, sex, education, employment status, marital status, specific problem that got the client involved in psychotherapy, type of psychotherapy, and use of psychopharmacology.Results: Majority of the patients undergoing psychotherapy are age up to 40 and female. They are by vast majority holding a university degree and are employed. Nearly equal number of patients is living in partnership or marriage compared to single or never been married. Most frequent reasons for getting involved in the psychotherapy treatment are of the intrapersonal nature (depression, anxiety and panic attacks. Majority of the patients were involved in gestalt and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, and at the same time majority of those were not prescribed medicaments.Conclusions: We point out and overview some of the most prominent socio-demographic traits of patients undergoing psychotherapy, the ones that could be important in the future research with the higher degree of control. In the terms of personal initiative, psychotherapy stops being a taboo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, there is still a long path until it reaches integration in daily life of the people.

  18. Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; van Straten, A.; Schuurmans, J.; van Oppen, P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and

  19. Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Schuurmans, J.; Oppen, van P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic

  20. Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; van Straten, A.; Schuurmans, J.; van Oppen, P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and

  1. Using Media to Teach How Not to Do Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen; Horowitz, Mardi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article describes how using media depictions of psychotherapy may help in teaching psychiatric residents. Methods: Using the HBO series "In Treatment" as a model, the authors suggest how boundary transgressions and technical errors may inform residents about optimal psychotherapeutic approaches. Results: The psychotherapy vignettes…

  2. Treatment preferences of psychotherapy patients with chronic PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C; Meehan, Kevin B; Petkova, Eva; Zhao, Yihong; Van Meter, Page E; Neria, Yuval; Pessin, Hayley; Nazia, Yasmin

    2016-03-01

    Patient treatment preference may moderate treatment effect in major depressive disorder (MDD) studies. Little research has addressed preference in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); almost none has assessed actual patients' PTSD psychotherapy preferences. From a 14-week trial of chronic PTSD comparing prolonged exposure, relaxation therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy, we report treatment preferences of the 110 randomized patients, explore preference correlates, and assess effects on treatment outcome. Patients recruited between 2008 and 2013 with chronic DSM-IV PTSD (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] score ≥ 50) received balanced, scripted psychotherapy descriptions prerandomization and indicated their preferences. Analyses assessed relationships of treatment attitudes to demographic and clinical factors. We hypothesized that patients randomized to preferred treatments would have better outcomes, and to unwanted treatment worse outcomes. Eighty-seven patients (79%) voiced treatment preferences or disinclinations: 29 (26%) preferred prolonged exposure, 29 (26%) preferred relaxation therapy, and 56 (50%) preferred interpersonal psychotherapy (Cochran Q = 18.46, P psychotherapy (Cochran Q = 22.71, P psychotherapy preferences to outcome. Despite explanations emphasizing prolonged exposure's greater empirical support, patients significantly preferred interpersonal psychotherapy. Preference subtly affected psychotherapy outcome; depression appeared an important moderator of the effect of unwanted treatment on outcome. Potential biases to avoid in future research are discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00739765. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Therapy 101: A Psychotherapy Curriculum for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Fotouh, Frieda; Asghar-Ali, Ali Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This pilot project, designed and taught by a resident, created a curriculum to introduce medical students to the practice of psychotherapy. Medical students who are knowledgeable about psychotherapy can become physicians who are able to refer patients to psychotherapeutic treatments. A search of the literature did not identify a…

  4. The Grandmaternal Transference in Parent-Infant/Child Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugmore, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The psychic significance of the figure of the grandmother in psychodynamic psychotherapy has received scant attention. This paper develops the concept of the "grandmaternal transference" in parent-infant psychotherapy and explores its identification, its possible functions and its therapeutic significance. The grandmaternal transference has…

  5. Conceptual Frame for Selecting Individual Psychotherapy in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tammy L.; Theodore, Lea A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a service-delivery that is provided for both general and special education students. This manuscript examines a conceptual framework for determining when to employ psychotherapy within the school-based setting. Decisions are informed by the relationship between problem behavior, therapeutic techniques, short-term outcomes, and…

  6. Use of Psychotherapy by Rural and Urban Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jeffrey A.; Jameson, John P.; Phillips, Laura L.; Kunik, Mark E.; Fortney, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether differences exist between rural and urban veterans in terms of initiation of psychotherapy, delay in time from diagnosis to treatment, and dose of psychotherapy sessions. Methods: Using a longitudinal cohort of veterans obtained from national Veterans Affairs databases (October 2003 through September 2004), we extracted…

  7. Is There Room for Criticism of Studies of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Jewett, Lisa R.; Bassel, Marielle

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler. Shedler declared unequivocally that "empirical evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy" (p. 98). He did not mention any specific criticisms that have been made of evidence on psychodynamic psychotherapies or address possible distinctions…

  8. The current status of psychotherapy | Gureje | West African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fundamental understanding about the mechanisms of action of psychotherapy is a promising new development that is emanating from modern techniques of neurosciences and neuroimaging. Whether such understanding will lead to a renaissance in the clinical utility of psychotherapy is still early to say. However, there is ...

  9. Psychiatric Residents' Views of Quality of Psychotherapy Training and Psychotherapy Competencies: A Multisite Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Christina; Sciolla, Andres; Zisook, Sidney; Bitner, Robin; Tuttle, Jeffrey; Dunn, Laura B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Few studies of residents' attitudes toward psychotherapy training exist. The authors examined residents' perceptions of the quality of their training, support for training, their own competence levels, and associations between self-perceived competence and perceptions of the training environment. Methods: An anonymous, web-based…

  10. Prediction and moderation of improvement in cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic psychotherapy for panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara; Porter, Eliora; Gallop, Robert; McCarthy, Kevin S; Graf, Elizabeth; Rudden, Marie; Sharpless, Brian A; Barber, Jacques P

    2017-08-01

    To identify variables predicting psychotherapy outcome for panic disorder or indicating which of 2 very different forms of psychotherapy-panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy (PFPP) or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-would be more effective for particular patients. Data were from 161 adults participating in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) including these psychotherapies. Patients included 104 women; 118 patients were White, 33 were Black, and 10 were of other races; 24 were Latino(a). Predictors/moderators measured at baseline or by Session 2 of treatment were used to predict change on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS). Higher expectancy for treatment gains (Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire d = -1.05, CI 95% [-1.50, -0.60]), and later age of onset (d = -0.65, CI 95% [-0.98, -0.32]) were predictive of greater change. Both variables were also significant moderators: patients with low expectancy of improvement improved significantly less in PFPP than their counterparts in CBT, whereas this was not the case for patients with average or high levels of expectancy. When patients had an onset of panic disorder later in life (≥27.5 years old), they fared as well in PFPP as CBT. In contrast, at low and mean levels of onset age, CBT was the more effective treatment. Predictive variables suggest possibly fruitful foci for improvement of treatment outcome. In terms of moderation, CBT was the more consistently effective treatment, but moderators identified some patients who would do as well in PFPP as in CBT, thereby widening empirically supported options for treatment of this disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Group Supervision in Psychotherapy. Main Findings from a Swedish Research Project on Psychotherapy Supervision in a Group Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marie-Louise; Sundin, Eva C.

    2009-01-01

    Psychotherapy supervision is considered crucial for psychotherapists in training. During the last decades, group supervision has been a frequently used format in many countries. Until recently, very few studies had evaluated the small-group format for training of beginner psychotherapists and psychotherapy supervisors. This article aims to…

  12. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  13. An Integrative Psychotherapy of Postpartum Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merle-Fishman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a mother is a time of transition, transformation and sometimes trauma. The immediacy of meeting the needs of an infant, combined with the immediacy of becoming a mother, often collide to produce depression, anxiety and stress. Shame, confusion, isolation and cultural expectations often prevent women from seeking the postpartum support they need, which may result in long lasting depression, anxiety and unresolved trauma. Integrative Psychotherapy, Transactional Analysis and Attachment Theory offer ways to understand postpartum adjustment as well as methodologies for addressing this unique developmental event in the life of women.

  14. Feminism and group psychotherapy: an ethical responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, J

    1992-10-01

    In response to Martin Lakin's (1991) IJGP article, "Some Ethical Issues in Feminist-Oriented Therapy Groups for Women," this article examines recent developments in feminist theory and proposes that a feminist perspective is both ethical and can make significant contributions to the practice of group psychotherapy. The overview of feminist theory focuses on (1) the importance of the social context, (2) contributions and challenges to psychoanalytic and developmental theory, (3) attention to power relations, (4) the connection between the personal and political, and (5) recognition and integration of diversity and difference. Clinical examples illustrate ways in which male and female group therapists can take a feminist perspective and become "ethical advocates."

  15. THE FEMINIST APPROACH TO PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Božac Deležan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of Integrative Psychotherapy is to establish full inner and external contact (Moursund & Erskine, 2004). The most important goal in feminist therapy is the transformation of an individual as well as the transformation of the society as a whole (Herlihy & Corey, 2004). In my work I attempt to integrate both: to help the client establish inner and external contact, but also help him/her to become aware and recognize inner messages connected with his/her gender and replace them with con...

  16. Use of a horror film in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, J M; Derdeyn, A P

    1990-11-01

    Modern improvements in the technology of cinematic special effects have ushered in a new genre of vivid and graphic horror film. The numerous sequels of these films attest to their popularity among adolescents and young adults. Considerable concern has arisen on the part of parents, professionals, and policymakers regarding adverse effects of these films upon children. The authors discuss the meaning of a horror film to a troubled 13-year-old boy and describe the use of the film in his psychotherapy. The modern horror film serves many of the same functions for the adolescent that the traditional fairy tale serves for the younger child.

  17. Orexin receptor activation generates gamma band input to cholinergic and serotonergic arousal system neurons and drives an intrinsic Ca2+-dependent resonance in LDT and PPT cholinergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru eIshibashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the waking state is a shift in EEG power to higher frequencies with epochs of synchronized intracortical gamma activity (30-60 Hz - a process associated with high-level cognitive functions. The ascending arousal system, including cholinergic laterodorsal (LDT and pedunculopontine (PPT tegmental neurons and serotonergic dorsal raphe (DR neurons, promotes this state. Recently, this system has been proposed as a gamma wave generator, in part, because some neurons produce high-threshold, Ca2+-dependent oscillations at gamma frequencies. However, it is not known whether arousal-related inputs to these neurons generate such oscillations, or whether such oscillations are ever transmitted to neuronal targets. Since key arousal input arises from hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin neurons, we investigated whether the unusually noisy, depolarizing orexin current could provide significant gamma input to cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, and whether such input could drive Ca2+-dependent oscillations. Whole-cell recordings in brain slices were obtained from mice expressing Cre-induced fluorescence in cholinergic LDT and PPT, and serotonergic DR neurons. After first quantifying reporter expression accuracy in cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, we found that the orexin current produced significant high frequency, including gamma, input to both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons. Then, by using a dynamic clamp, we found that adding a noisy orexin conductance to cholinergic neurons induced a Ca2+-dependent resonance that peaked in the theta and alpha frequency range (4 - 14 Hz and extended up to 100 Hz. We propose that this orexin current noise and the Ca2+ dependent resonance work synergistically to boost the encoding of high-frequency synaptic inputs into action potentials and to help ensure cholinergic neurons fire during EEG activation. This activity could reinforce thalamocortical states supporting arousal, REM sleep and intracortical

  18. [Healthier after Psychotherapy? Analysis of Claims Data (Lower Saxony, Germany) on Sickness Absence Duration before and after Outpatient Psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Jelena; de Zwaan, Martina; Geyer, Siegfried

    2017-11-17

    Introduction In employed populations sickness absence can be used as a good indicator of health status. In the present study, it was examined how periods of sickness absence are developing within one year before and after psychotherapy under comparison of three types of psychotherapy (behavior therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis), all fully covered by statutory health insurance. Methods and data The analyses were performed with pseudonymized claims data from the AOK Niedersachsen, a statutory health insurance (N=2,900,065 insured). Certified sickness absences before and after psychotherapy were examined for 9,916 patients. Parallelized controls were used to build a comparison of the length of sickness absences. Analyses were performed separately for women and for men. Results Within one year before starting psychotherapy, patients had longer sickness absences than controls on average. There was a reduction in the length of sickness absence of 20 days (median) within one year before to 12 days (median) within one year after the psychotherapy. The obtained differences between types of psychotherapy were considerable. Discussion Differences in terms of sickness absences may in part be explained by socio-demographic differences. Patients who underwent psychoanalysis were younger and had higher educational levels. However, it remains unclear why the differences of sickness absence periods were that high. It has to be discussed whether self-selection of patients with better health into psychoanalysis had occurred. Conclusions Patients undergoing psychoanalysis differ from patients who underwent other types of psychotherapy in terms of their duration of sickness absence as well as socio-demographic profile. Thus, due to differences in the composition of patients future research in psychotherapy will have to differentiate by type of psychotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and urban poverty in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, Maria Esther

    2016-12-01

    Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, this paper examines the views of social actors on the psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy focused on marginalized populations. From Foucault's perspective on the forms of truth-telling, the aim of this paper is to analyze, as a preliminary research report, treatments according to the native ways of speaking and listening, which dominate the description of therapeutic experiences of patients who come to the treatment without any professional intermediation. The neoliberal transformations of the past decades in Argentina changed both the landscape of the public health system and the daily lives of marginalized people. Considering such changes, this paper examines the ways in which verbal actions (speaking and listening) take place in psychotherapy and mark the course not only of treatments but also the temporal rhythms of their development, and their various levels of efficacy. Finally, the discussion focuses on how ways of speaking and listening in treatments are modeled not only by institutional dynamics but also by the characteristics these verbal activities take in everyday life under the logics of power that prevail over them.

  20. Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadda, Rakesh K; Deb, Koushik Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Indian society is collectivistic and promotes social cohesion and interdependence. The traditional Indian joint family, which follows the same principles of collectivism, has proved itself to be an excellent resource for the care of the mentally ill. However, the society is changing with one of the most significant alterations being the disintegration of the joint family and the rise of nuclear and extended family system. Although even in today's changed scenario, the family forms a resource for mental health that the country cannot neglect, yet utilization of family in management of mental disorders is minimal. Family focused psychotherapeutic interventions might be the right tool for greater involvement of families in management of their mentally ill and it may pave the path for a deeper community focused treatment in mental disorders. This paper elaborates the features of Indian family systems in the light of the Asian collectivistic culture that are pertinent in psychotherapy. Authors evaluate the scope and effectiveness of family focused psychotherapy for mental disorders in India, and debate the issues and concerns faced in the practice of family therapy in India.

  1. Use of interpreters in individual psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, H; Cheng, L Y

    1996-02-01

    This paper was written after one of the authors treated a case by individual therapy using an interpreter, as patient and therapist spoke different languages. There is little literature on this subject, and this paper describes our findings and recommendations for using this approach. A 15-year-old Chinese, Cantonese-speaking in-patient in Hong Kong was treated with individual psychodynamic psychotherapy by an English-speaking Caucasian psychotherapist. The Chinese interpreter attended each session, and therapy was supervised by a bilingual Chinese supervisor. The alternative was to not carry out any therapy, as there was no other therapist available. The patient was treated for a total of 32 sessions. Issues involving language and culture differences between therapist and patient, issues of therapy in a triadic situation involving group dynamics, and specific therapy difficulties raised by the presence of the interpreter are discussed. Therapy was not as effective as hoped, but the patient made some improvements. Finding a suitable interpreter is difficult and their role must be well defined. A bilingual supervisor is also needed to monitor the translation as well as supervising the therapist. Psychotherapy through an interpreter is feasible but not ideal.

  2. [New Developments in Video Games for Psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    A literature survey on new developments in the area of video games and psychotherapy of children and adolescents was conducted. Despite the omnipresence of computers and the internet, development of therapeutic games seems rather slow. The video game Treasure Hunt was introduced in 2008 to support treatment of children with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Camp Cope-A-Lot was developed for treatment of anxious children, whereas the self-help game SPARX is directed at depressed adolescents. Rage-Control is a biofeedback game for children with anger problems. The game Zoo U aims to assess and train social skills of primary school children. Ricky and the Spider for young children with obsessive compulsive disorder is meant to support the cognitive-behavioural treatment of these patients. Clash- Back is a French game for adolescents with externalizing problems. Possible reasons for the relatively slow development of therapeutic games are the high methodological demands concerning an evaluation as well as the high costs of game development. Nonetheless, computers and the internet are bound to influence psychotherapy with children and adolescents in the long run.

  3. Establishing psychiatric registrars' competence in psychotherapy: a portfolio based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, T; Ramlall, S

    2008-11-01

    During most of the latter part of the last century, South Africa has followed international trends in the training of psychiatrists. Training programmes have become increasingly focused on the neurobiological aspects of psychiatric disorders with less attention being paid to psychotherapy. This is consistent with developments in psychiatric research. In the clinical arena this manifests as a focus on pharmacological and medically based interventions and a resulting relative inattention to non-pharmacological interventions, most especially psychotherapy. In an effort to address this imbalance there has been an international initiative, over the past two decades, to establish an acceptable level of competence in psychotherapy in the training of psychiatrists. A South African programme is needed that can take account of international trends and adapt them for the local context. In order to produce a programme for establishing competence in psychotherapy for psychiatric registrars at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, the authors examine directives for the development of psychotherapy skills from international regulatory bodies for graduate medical training and their application. Defining and setting preliminary standards for competence is emphasized. A programme based on five core psychotherapy components using a portfolio based model to facilitate learning and assessment of competence in psychotherapy, is proposed.

  4. Contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decazes, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    The Guerbet firm, which holds 69% of the capital on the contrast media for medical imagery, could sale about 20% of this capital in order to accelerate its development in the United States, one of its next market with the Japan. (O.M.)

  5. Medical psychotherapy of schizophrenia--a dynamic/supportive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Richard B

    2004-01-01

    Split psychiatric treatment-a psychiatrist prescribing medication while a nonphysician provides or coordinates psychosocial treatments-is common practice, especially in the managed care setting. This influence, along with a focus on the biology of mental illness, has shifted the emphasis in psychiatric education and practice away from psychotherapy. In particular, "psychotherapy" of schizophrenia has gotten short shrift. Since our drugs for schizophrenia do not cure, but only ameliorate, it would be unfortunate if psychiatrists were to become marginalized in a largely prescriptive role. This paper discusses medical psychotherapy of schizophrenia-an integrated treatment in which the psychiatrist provides the comprehensive care that such a chronic biopsychosocial illness requires.

  6. Attachment style and readiness for psychotherapy among psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Tsai, Michelle; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2017-06-01

    Ninety-two adults attending outpatient mental health services completed measures of attachment style and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. Correlation and linear regression analyses found anxious attachment to be positively associated with treatment-seeking distress and found avoidant attachment to be negatively associated with openness to personal disclosure in the therapy relationship. Insecure attachment may influence prospective patients' readiness for psychotherapy. Patients with an avoidant attachment style may need assistance in preparing for the relational aspects of psychotherapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Psychotherapy, psychopathology, research and practice: pathways of connections and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes three pathways of connections between different communities of knowledge seekers: integration of psychotherapeutic approaches, integration of psychotherapy and psychopathology, and integration of science and practice. Some of the issues discussed involve the delineation and investigation of common factors (e.g., principles of change), improvement of major forms of psychotherapy, clinical implications of psychopathology research, as well as current and future directions related to practice-research networks. The aim of this paper is to suggest that building bridges across theoretical orientations, scientific fields, professional experiences, and epistemological views may be a fruitful strategy to improve our understanding and the impact of psychotherapy.

  8. The self is an illusion: a conceptual framework for psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevicius, Steve

    2017-06-01

    To explain the illusory nature of the self and explore its implications for psychotherapy. Our usual experience of the self is an illusion. Rather than a discrete entity, it is a network of processes that maintains apparent irreducible unity via alterations of perceptions, beliefs, intentions and memories. By providing an efficient summary of an individual and its surroundings, the self-illusion allows one to predict, experience and interact with the world efficiently. Targeting mechanisms that preserve the self-illusion could provide a focus for psychotherapy. Viewing the self as a complex network offers a valuable conceptual framework for psychotherapy.

  9. Reluctance to change and end psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Berg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reluctance to change therapy has clinical and economic implications. Therapists are expected to deliver treatment in a oneto- one setting ending up with patient improvement. Such an achievement is difficult to overview. There is great uncertainty as to what works in psychotherapies despite research efforts. Prolonged treatment duration with little positive effect may be caused by factors inherent in therapist and patient and the external environment. Two cases are discussed illustrating the need for better surveillance of what happens in the therapy room. Responsibility for the progress in therapy rests on the shoulders of the therapist. When therapy becomes detrimental to patient and therapist, we do not have a comprehensive system to interfere or help. Delayed recovery emanates as an increase in costs to society and the family. This is the case when return to work after treatment is partly or completely retarded.

  10. The Use of Dreams in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Bohusch, Claudia; Kahl, Johanna; Mader, Andrea; Somesan, Alexandra

    2000-01-01

    Since the publication of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, dream interpretation has been a standard technique often used in psychotherapy. However, empirical studies about the frequency of working on dreams in therapy are lacking. The present study elicited, via a self-developed questionnaire, various aspects of work on dreams applied by psychotherapists in private practice. The findings indicate that dreams were often used in therapy, especially in psychoanalysis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of the therapists' working on their own dreams and frequency of work on dreams in therapy. Because work on dreams was rated as beneficial for the clients, further studies investigating the effectiveness and the process of working on dreams will be of interest. PMID:10793127

  11. Analysis of transference in Gestalt group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, J E

    1990-04-01

    In Gestalt therapy, transference is viewed as a contact boundary disturbance which impairs the patient's ability to accurately perceive the present therapy situation. The boundary disturbances in Gestalt therapy most closely related to the analytic notion of transference are projection, introjection, and confluence. In Gestalt group psychotherapy, group members interfere with the process of need identification and satisfaction by distorting their contact with each other through projecting, introjecting, and being confluent. The Gestalt group therapist uses interventions directed to individuals and to the group to increase participants' awareness of these boundary disturbances and of the present contact opportunities available to them when these disturbances are resolved. In formulating interventions, the leader is mindful of the function of boundary disturbances to the group-as-a-whole as well as to individuals.

  12. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  13. Introduction: Science, Sexuality, and Psychotherapy: Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Armand R

    2017-08-01

    This introduction presents an overview of the current issue (73, 8) of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session. This issue features a series of articles, with clinical cases, each presented to illustrate the challenges faced by individuals and couples whose sexual and gender identities and expressions do not comport with traditional and cultural norms. These articles also document the challenges to the therapists who treat them. Considered individually, each article underscores the need to recognize the importance of evidence in guiding psychotherapy in cases involving sexuality. The discussions in each article offer recommendations meant to help and guide psychotherapists. Considered collectively, they raise important questions and considerations about shifting paradigms of human sexuality. Implications for assessment and treatment of cases involving sexuality and gender identity are discussed and recommended. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The right brain is dominant in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses how recent studies of the right brain, which is dominant for the implicit, nonverbal, intuitive, holistic processing of emotional information and social interactions, can elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the relational foundations of psychotherapy. Utilizing the interpersonal neurobiological perspective of regulation theory, I describe the fundamental role of the early developing right brain in relational processes, throughout the life span. I present interdisciplinary evidence documenting right brain functions in early attachment processes, in emotional communications within the therapeutic alliance, in mutual therapeutic enactments, and in therapeutic change processes. This work highlights the fact that the current emphasis on relational processes is shared by, cross-fertilizing, and indeed transforming both psychology and neuroscience, with important consequences for clinical psychological models of psychotherapeutic change. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The Psychotherapy Process with Adolescents: A First Pilot Study and Preliminary Comparisons between Different Therapeutic Modalities Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkova, Tetyana; Hillman, Saul; Midgley, Nick; Schneider, Celeste

    2011-01-01

    An innovative methodology is presented for describing the therapeutic processes involved in five types of adolescent treatments: psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, mentalisation-based treatment and interpersonal psychotherapy. Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set" (APQ), 18 experienced clinicians…

  16. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Eugenie Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  17. Training Psychiatry Residents in Psychotherapy: The Role of Manualized Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Joshua; Kyle, Brandon N; Johnson, Toni L; Saeed, Sy Atezaz

    2017-06-01

    Evidence-based treatment and manualized psychotherapy have a recent but rich history. As interest and research have progressed, defining the role of treatment manuals in resident training and clinical practice has become more important. Although there is not a universal definition of treatment manual, most clinicians and researchers agree that treatment manuals are an essential piece of evidence-based therapy, and that despite several limitations, they offer advantages in training residents in psychotherapy. Requirements for resident training in psychotherapy have changed over the years, and treatment manuals offer a simple and straightforward way to meet training requirements. In a search limited to only depression, two treatment manuals emerged with the support of research regarding both clinical practice and resident training. In looking toward the future, it will be important for clinicians to remain updated on further advances in evidence based manualized treatment as a tool for training residents in psychotherapy, including recent developments in online and smartphone based treatments.

  18. Lost in Transition: Examining Transitions in Psychotherapy Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Adrienne; Philipp, Diane; Malat, Jan; Feder, Victor; Kulkarni, Chetana; Lawson, Andrea; So, Vivien; Ravitz, Paula

    2015-10-01

    Disruptions are inevitable during psychiatry residency training and can affect resident learning and patient care. This exploratory study examined the nature and impact of transitions in psychotherapy training. PGY2-5 residents (45/150; 30% response rate) and psychotherapy supervisors (46/247; 18.6% response rate) were surveyed about transitional events during residency training in psychotherapy. Supervisors and residents ranked the frequency of occurrence of transitional events and their impact very similarly, as well as the "feed forward" items when transitioning to a new supervisor. Residents feeling confused or overwhelmed with the balancing of learning differing models with differing levels of comfort or knowledge was ranked as the issue that occurred most frequently by both supervisors and residents. This study highlights issues that arise at transitions during psychotherapy training in psychiatry residency. Strategies for managing these periods are discussed, with a focus on resident learning and improved continuity of patient care.

  19. The Use of Propensity Score Methods in Psychotherapy Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bartak (Anna); M.D. Spreeuwenberg (Marieke); H. Andrea (Helene); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); M.A. Croon (Marcel); R. Verheul (Roel); P.M.G. Emmelkamp (Paul); Th. Stijnen (Theo)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials are considered the best scientific proof of effectiveness. There is increasing concern, though, about their feasibility in psychotherapy research. We discuss a quasi-experimental study design for situations in which a randomized

  20. The Rational Unconscious: Implications for Mental Illness and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2018-05-15

    Rational and reality-congruent unconscious processes facilitate adaptive functioning and have implications for mental illness and psychotherapy. With this knowledge, psychotherapists can more effectively guide interventions to improve mental health.

  1. [New Paradigms? Current Trends within National and International Psychotherapy Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This article is devoted to the question which paradigms currently determine psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, and if there are indicators of paradigm changes in this field. The question of the efficacy and effectiveness (including the effectiveness of a transfer of psychotherapeutic knowledge to service) is specifically focussed as well as the question of the central therapeutic factors and the significance of the person of the therapist. It is argued that there are really some signals of a paradigm switch, with a turn away from controlled outcome research, representing only a minor part of patients in need of psychotherapy, towards a more specific process oriented research, also considering differential effects of the therapist. The most prominent indicator of a paradigm change is reflected by an increasing influence of patient oriented psychotherapy research which - consequently - should also be supported by the insurances as well as the funding organisations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Competency in integrative psychotherapy: perspectives on training and supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F; Nelson, Dana L; Nordberg, Samuel S; McAleavey, Andrew A; Castonguay, Louis G

    2010-03-01

    Increasingly, many psychotherapists identify with an integrative approach to psychotherapy. In recent years, more attention has been directed toward the operationalization and evaluation of competence in professional psychology and health care service delivery. Aspects of integrative psychotherapy competency may differ from competency in other psychotherapy orientations, although convergence is more often the case. Despite the potential differences, there exist very few formal training programs or guidelines to systematically guide clinicians in developing a competent integrative practice. This paper attempts to distill the essential elements of competent integrative psychotherapy practice and focuses on how these might be developed in training and supervision. We address most of these complex issues from a specific integrative perspective: principle-based assimilative integration. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Scientific Letter: Gestalt psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Gestalt psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of borderline personality disorder: a case report. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  5. The Effects of Brief Psychotherapy of Coping with Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCaul, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    .... Our novel approach tested the effects of brief psychotherapy provided by phone. The final sample included 61 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer who were randomly assigned to either the phone treatment or a "standard treatment" condition...

  6. Momentary assessment of interpersonal process in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Woody, Erik; Ethier, Nicole; Sadler, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate how a novel computer joystick coding method can illuminate the study of interpersonal processes in psychotherapy sessions, we applied it to Shostrom's (1966) well-known films in which a client, Gloria, had sessions with 3 prominent psychotherapists. The joystick method, which records interpersonal behavior as nearly continuous flows on the plane defined by the interpersonal dimensions of control and affiliation, provides an excellent sampling of variability in each person's interpersonal behavior across the session. More important, it yields extensive information about the temporal dynamics that interrelate clients' and therapists' behaviors. Gloria's 3 psychotherapy sessions were characterized using time-series statistical indices and graphical representations. Results demonstrated that patterns of within-person variability tended to be markedly asymmetric, with a predominant, set-point-like interpersonal style from which deviations mostly occurred in just 1 direction (e.g., occasional submissive departures from a modal dominant style). In addition, across each session, the therapist and client showed strongly cyclical variations in both control and affiliation, and these oscillations were entrained to different extents depending on the therapist. We interpreted different patterns of moment-to-moment complementarity of interpersonal behavior in terms of different therapeutic goals, such as fostering a positive alliance versus disconfirming the client's interpersonal expectations. We also showed how this method can be used to provide a more detailed analysis of specific shorter segments from each of the sessions. Finally, we compared our approach to alternative techniques, such as act-to-act lagged relations and dynamic systems and pointed to a variety of possible research and training applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Internet and video technology in psychotherapy supervision and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Abraham W

    2011-06-01

    The seven articles in this special section on the use of Internet and video technology represent the latest growth on one branch of the increasingly prolific and differentiated work in the technology of psychotherapy. In addition to the work presented here on video and the Internet applications to supervision and training, information technology is changing the field of psychotherapy through computer assisted therapies and virtual reality interventions.

  8. Counselling/psychotherapy and older people in medical settings.

    OpenAIRE

    Trethewey-Spurgeon, Celia.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the nature of the need for counselling/psychotherapy for older people who suffer a debilitating physical injury or illness. This topic is investigated within a medical setting where the emphasis is on physical rehabilitation. The relevance of this inquiry is highlighted by the paucity of literature about the individual impact of such an event and the need for counselling/psychotherapy in these situations. Theories, on the ageing process, the body, and the self, are used to...

  9. HELPFUL ASPECTS OF THE THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP IN INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Urška Modic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a qualitative study of helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship in Integrative Psychotherapy. Participants of the study were sixteen clients who were in the process of Integrative Psychotherapy for at least a year. Participants were interviewed with the adapted version of the Change Interview (Elliott, 1999, which involves a semi-structured empathic exploration of the client's experience in therapy. The analysis of the clients’ experience of Integrative Psychotherapy revealed six categories of helpful aspects of therapeutic relationship: the therapist’s empathic attunement, the therapist’s acceptance, the match between the client and the therapist, feelings of trust and safety, feeling of connection, and experience of a new relational experience. Based on results of the research, we developed a model of the healing relationship in integrative psychotherapy. This model describes the interrelatedness of these six helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship. The categories of empathic attunement and acceptance proved to be the most important categories relating to the therapist’s contribution to the healing therapeutic relationship. Clients described that the therapist’s empathic attunement and acceptance influenced the development of safety and trust, feelings of connection and promotion of new relational experiences. The results of this study are discussed in relation to the theories of Integrative Psychotherapy and research regarding the therapeutic relationship in psychotherapy.

  10. [Transference Focused Psychotherapy for Borderline-Adolescents in a Day Clinic Treatment Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Maya; Ponton-Rodriguez, Tamara; Gooran, Ghazal Rostami; Bender, Stephan

    2017-07-01

    Transference Focused Psychotherapy for Borderline-Adolescents in a Day Clinic Treatment Program This paper focuses on the concept of transference focused psychotherapy (TFP) modified for juvenile borderline patients. Adolescents with borderline developmental personality disorder (bpd) have an essential deficit in their personality structure that leads to oscillations in their self-esteem and in a "split" perception of the world. They suffer from a variety of symptoms and severe impairments on their own and their families' quality of life. Their fragmented perception of themselves and others make relationships almost unbearable for them. Relationships are mostly marked by severe anxiety of resentment and rejection. For these patients this causes intolerable trouble at school where every day conflicts take place. Self-mutilation and suicidal thoughts often seem the only way out. By now, there is an agreement that an early specialized assessment and treatment is necessary in order to stop the typical consequences of their self-mutilative and dysfunctional behavior. Still, in contrast to adult age, empirical evidence is missing which proves the effectiveness of treating adolescent borderline patients. In this paper we present a research project on the effectiveness of transference focused psychotherapy with adolescent borderline patients (TFP-A) in a day clinic setting, combining TFP with group skills training as known from dialectic behavior therapy (DBT). Furthermore, we give first results on analyzing the effectiveness of our day clinic treatment program based on TFP-A, focusing on improving core symptoms such as affective problems, aggressive behavior against self and others and interpersonal problems.

  11. Are studies of psychotherapies for depression more or less generalizable than studies of antidepressants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Zimmerman, Mark; Cuijpers, Pim

    Background: The generalizability of findings from studies exploring the efficacy of psychotherapy and antidepressants has been called into question in part because studies exclude many patients. Despite this, the frequency with which psychotherapy and antidepressant studies use specific inclusion

  12. Male erectile dysfunction: integrating psychopharmacology and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Eugene F; Trinidad, Anton C

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED), defined as the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance, is the most common sexual problem in men. ED arises when there is disruption of the complex interplay between vascular, neurologic, hormonal and psychologic factors necessary for normal erectile function. It may have a significant effect on quality of life and portend undetected cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for development of ED include advancing age, tobacco use, a history of pelvic irradiation or surgery and antipsychotic use (Table 1) [1]. Treatment guidelines continue to evolve for optimal management of ED. In this article, we review diagnostic and treatment strategies for ED relevant to psychiatrists. We present an integrative approach to the treatment of ED based on a review of the urologic and psychiatric literature. ED is multifactorial in origin and responsive to a variety of therapeutic interventions, including psychopharmacology and psychotherapy in which cognitive underpinnings of poor sexual performance, including diminished self-esteem, lack of confidence and perceived failures in the male role, are examined. Psychiatrists can readily perform a basic workup for ED as they integrate both a medical and therapeutic model when confronted with such patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of iodine at ppt level in a nitric acid medium by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry: influence of the chemical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlois, B.

    2001-01-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP/SFMS) was used to determine several chemical forms of iodine, at ppt level, in a nitric acid media. Ascorbic acid was added as a reducing agent in order to maintain iodine as iodide. In a preliminary approach, the influence of the chemical form was studied by comparing inorganic iodine (NaI) and organic iodine (CH3I). Different signal responses were observed. With a conventional sample introduction system, sensitivities obtained for iodo-methane could differ by a factor of 5. This was not caused by a problem of atomization or by a change in the ionization efficiency of the iodo-compound into the plasma. The low volatilization temperature of iodo-methane (315.5 K) seemed to be the main explanation of this phenomena. Actually, nebulization resulted in the volatilization of a 2% nitric acid solution containing iodo-methane. As a result, the transport efficiency of iodo-methane between the nebulizer and the torch was approaching 100%. A Direct Injection High Efficiency Nebulizer (DIHEN) allowed us to minimize the behavior difference between the two iodine species, but the sensitivity ratio was inverted and still differed by 20 - 40%. Moreover, the association of a guard electrode and the direct injection system was studied in order to apply these equipments to the determination of iodine. This association allowed us to improve the sensitivity by a factor of 10 and to minimize memory effects, when compared with a conventional system. Further studies indicated that signal responses obtained with different iodine-containing species, except for iodo-methane, were found to be similar. (author)

  14. Clinical outcomes of psychotherapy dropouts: does dropping out of psychotherapy necessarily mean failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo T. Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A large proportion of psychotherapy patients remain untreated, mostly because they drop out. This study compares the short- and long-term outcomes of patients who dropped out of psychotherapy to those of therapy completers. Methods: The sample included 63 patients (23 dropouts and 40 completers from a controlled clinical trial, which compared narrative therapy vs. cognitive-behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder. Patients were assessed at the eighth session, post-treatment, and at 31-month follow-up. Results: Dropouts improved less than completers by the last session attended, but continued to improve significantly more than completers during the follow-up period. Some dropout patients improved with a small dose of therapy (17% achieved a clinically significant change before abandoning treatment, while others only achieved clinically significant change after a longer period (62% at 31-month follow-up. Conclusion: These results emphasize the importance of dealing effectively with patients at risk of dropping out of therapy.Patients who dropped out also reported improvement of depressive symptoms without therapy, but took much longer to improve than did patients who completed therapy. This might be attributable to natural remission of depression. Further research should use a larger patient database, ideally gathered by meta-analysis.

  15. Benefits of Combining Massage Therapy with Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy in Prenatally Depressed Women

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Tiffany; Deeds, Osvelia; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Gauler, Andy; Sullivan, Susan; Wilson, Donna; Nearing, Graciela

    2009-01-01

    One hundred twelve pregnant women who were diagnosed depressed were randomly assigned to a group who received group Interpersonal Psychotherapy or to a group who received both group Interpersonal Psychotherapy and massage therapy. The group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (one hour sessions) and massage therapy (30 minute sessions) were held once per week for six weeks. The data suggested that the group who received psychotherapy plus massage attended more sessions on average, and a greater perce...

  16. Applications of Mindfulness in Psychotherapy – Contemporary Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut ŠKODLAR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness has without doubt been the fastest spreading and most popular concept in psychotherapy in the last two decades. Its influence exceeds that of any other individual concept or approach in modern psychotherapy. However, there are many dilemmas, open questions and controversies related to this rapid, almost fanatic spread, which obviously compensates for a certain lack in modern Euro- and Americo-centric societies. Similarly, we are witnessing in the West a lack of reflection, a process of limitless idealization, and the search for a panacea. This all flows with a tint of colonialism, presumptuously taking over ideas, concepts and techniques without a proper study of the primary sources, and with all the accompanying negative side-effects: profiteering, self-promotion, unethical conduct, empty promises of instant rewards, and so on. In the present paper, the development of interest in mindfulness in psychotherapy, as well as the research findings and dilemmas, and concepts and mechanisms of applying mindfulness in psychotherapy, will be reviewed. The main purpose of the paper is to contribute to the critical reflection in studying and applying mindfulness in psychotherapy.

  17. Mobile Phone-Based Mood Ratings Prospectively Predict Psychotherapy Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Aguilera, Adrian; Schueller, Stephen M

    2017-09-01

    Psychotherapy nonattendance is a costly and pervasive problem. While prior research has identified stable patient-level predictors of attendance, far less is known about dynamic (i.e., time-varying) factors. Identifying dynamic predictors can clarify how clinical states relate to psychotherapy attendance and inform effective "just-in-time" interventions to promote attendance. The present study examines whether daily mood, as measured by responses to automated mobile phone-based text messages, prospectively predicts attendance in group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Fifty-six Spanish-speaking Latino patients with elevated depressive symptoms (46 women, mean age=50.92years, SD=10.90years), enrolled in a manualized program of group CBT, received daily automated mood-monitoring text messages. Patients' daily mood ratings, message response rate, and delay in responding were recorded. Patients' self-reported mood the day prior to a scheduled psychotherapy session significantly predicted attendance, even after controlling for patients' prior attendance history and age (OR=1.33, 95% CI [1.04, 1.70], p=.02). Positive mood corresponded to a greater likelihood of attendance. Our results demonstrate the clinical utility of automated mood-monitoring text messages in predicting attendance. These results underscore the value of text messaging, and other mobile technologies, as adjuncts to psychotherapy. Future work should explore the use of such monitoring to guide interventions to increase attendance, and ultimately the efficacy of psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Affirmative LGBT psychotherapy: Outcomes of a therapist training protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepping, Christopher A; Lyons, Anthony; Morris, Eric M J

    2018-03-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people seek psychotherapy at high rates, and the importance of providing culturally appropriate and LGBT-affirmative psychotherapy has been widely acknowledged. Despite this, remarkably little research has investigated the effects of therapist training in LGBT-affirmative psychotherapy. Here we examined the effectiveness of a training protocol for LGBT-affirmative psychotherapy with 96 mental health professionals, ranging in therapeutic experience from LGBT clients following the training. Therapists also displayed reductions in homo-negativity and trans-negativity. Therapists' characteristics did not influence the extent to which they benefited from training. Specifically, years of clinical experience, therapist religiosity, and therapist psychological flexibility were unrelated to changes in attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The results of this study clearly suggest that providing training in LGBT-affirmative psychotherapy can enhance therapists' attitudes, knowledge, and skills. Of particular importance is that the benefits associated with such training appear to hold regardless of therapists' characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Integrative Treatment of Personality Disorder. Part I: Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Mirjana Divac; Svrakic, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we outline the concept of integrative therapy of borderline personality, also referred to as fragmented personality, which we consider to be the core psychopathology underlying all clinical subtypes of personality disorder. Hence, the terms borderline personality, borderline disorder, fragmented personality, and personality disorder are used interchangeably, as synonyms. Our integrative approach combines pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, each specifically tailored to accomplish a positive feedback modulation of their respective effects. We argue that pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy of personality disorder complement each other. Pharmacological control of disruptive affects clears the stage, in some cases builds the stage, for the psychotherapeutic process to take place. In turn, psychotherapy promotes integration of personality fragments into more cohesive structures of self and identity, ultimately establishing self-regulation of mood and anxiety. We introduce our original method of psychotherapy, called reconstructive interpersonal therapy (RIT). The RIT integrates humanistic-existential and psychodynamic paradigms, and is thereby designed to accomplish a deep reconstruction of core psychopathology within the setting of high structure. We review and comment the current literature on the strategies, goals, therapy process, priorities, and phases of psychotherapy of borderline disorders, and describe in detail the fundamental principles of RIT.

  20. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, Jolien; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility study, we examined the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Incremental costs and effects were estimated by means of cross-sectional measurements in a cohort design (psychoanalysis, n = 78; psychoanalytic psychotherapy, n = 104). Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for each treatment strategy using the SF-6D. Total costs were calculated from a societal perspective (treatment costs plus other societal costs) and discounted at 4 percent. Psychoanalysis was more costly than psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but also more effective from a health-related quality of life perspective. The ICER--that is, the extra costs to gain one additional QALY by delivering psychoanalysis instead of psychoanalytic psychotherapy--was estimated at 52,384 euros per QALY gained. Our findings show that the cost-utility ratio of psychoanalysis relative to psychoanalytic psychotherapy is within an acceptable range. More research is needed to find out whether cost-utility ratios vary with different types of patients. We also encourage cost-utility analyses comparing psychoanalytic treatment to other forms of (long-term) treatment.

  1. Feeling and time: the phenomenology of mood disorders, depressive realism, and existential psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2007-01-01

    Phenomenological research suggests that pure manic and depressive states are less common than mixtures of the two and that the two poles of mood are characterized by opposite ways of experiencing time. In mania, the subjective experience of time is sped up and in depression it is slowed down, perhaps reflecting differences in circadian pathophysiology. The two classic mood states are also quite different in their effect on subjective awareness: manic patients lack insight into their excitation, while depressed patients are quite insightful into their unhappiness. Consequently, insight plays a major role in overdiagnosis of unipolar depression and misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. The phenomenology of depression also is relevant to types of psychotherapies used to treat it. The depressive realism (DR) model, in contrast to the cognitive distortion model, appears to better apply to many persons with mild to moderate depressive syndromes. I suggest that existential psychotherapy is the necessary corollary of the DR model in those cases. Further, some depressive morbidities may in fact prove, after phenomenological study, to involve other mental states instead of depression. The chronic sub-syndromal depression that is often the long-term consequence of treated bipolar disorder may in fact represent existential despair, rather than depression proper, again suggesting intervention with existential psychotherapeutic methods.

  2. Feeling and Time: The Phenomenology of Mood Disorders, Depressive Realism, and Existential Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    2007-01-01

    Phenomenological research suggests that pure manic and depressive states are less common than mixtures of the two and that the two poles of mood are characterized by opposite ways of experiencing time. In mania, the subjective experience of time is sped up and in depression it is slowed down, perhaps reflecting differences in circadian pathophysiology. The two classic mood states are also quite different in their effect on subjective awareness: manic patients lack insight into their excitation, while depressed patients are quite insightful into their unhappiness. Consequently, insight plays a major role in overdiagnosis of unipolar depression and misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. The phenomenology of depression also is relevant to types of psychotherapies used to treat it. The depressive realism (DR) model, in contrast to the cognitive distortion model, appears to better apply to many persons with mild to moderate depressive syndromes. I suggest that existential psychotherapy is the necessary corollary of the DR model in those cases. Further, some depressive morbidities may in fact prove, after phenomenological study, to involve other mental states instead of depression. The chronic subsyndromal depression that is often the long-term consequence of treated bipolar disorder may in fact represent existential despair, rather than depression proper, again suggesting intervention with existential psychotherapeutic methods. PMID:17122410

  3. Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supervision in Danish Psychiatry: Training the Next Generation of Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lasse M; Foli-Andersen, Nina J

    2017-02-01

    Psychotherapy training is mandatory for physicians to qualify as psychiatrists in Denmark. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapy has increased, and psychotherapy is increasingly included in international treatment guidelines. The authors investigated how psychiatrists in training in Denmark evaluate the opportunities to practice psychotherapy in their training and the quality of the supervision they receive in psychotherapy training, particularly for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The authors conducted a survey regarding psychotherapy training and CBT supervision among psychiatrists in training at Danish psychiatric specialist training courses. They investigated respondents' interest and experience in psychotherapy and respondents' views on the relevance and feasibility of performing psychotherapy and receiving supervision in their psychiatry training. Eighty-eight percent of the psychiatrists in training found psychotherapy to be a relevant part of their training; however, 77 % found it difficult to find time to practice psychotherapy and 44 % felt that practicing psychotherapy was a strain on their employer. Thirty-six percent and 53 %, respectively, had difficulties securing psychodynamic and CBT supervision. In CBT supervision, more than 60 % reported supervision that appeared to be below the expected CBT supervision standard and often so much below it might not qualify as CBT supervision. There is a need to focus on how to better integrate psychotherapy and supervision in the Danish psychiatric training program. Good CBT supervision may be lacking, and a way to ensure high-quality supervision is required.

  4. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  5. Reflections on Individual Psychotherapy with University Students: What Seems to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Rolffs; Talley, Joseph E.; Cooper, Stacie L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors offer reflections on what seems to work in individual psychotherapy with university students. Discussion centers around the topics of triage and disposition, referral, crisis intervention, stress management, open-ended psychotherapy, extratherapeutic factors, and the psychotherapy relationship. These observations are not intended to be…

  6. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Multilevel Model, Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Culturally adapted psychotherapy has potential to improve psychotherapy outcomes for ethnic and racial minorities and solve a decades-long conundrum that alteration of specific ingredients does not improve psychotherapy outcomes. Adaptation of the cultural explanation of illness, known as the anthropological Myth in universal healing practices…

  7. A New Language for Child Psychotherapy: A Response to Jerald Kay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James J.; Borden, William

    2009-01-01

    Jerald Kay's article in this issue reviews important research in the areas of adult psychotherapy and neuroscience, and their implications for child psychotherapy. We respond by exploring some of the strengths and limitations of these lines of research and their implications for child psychotherapy development and research. The paper closes with…

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy as group psychotherapy for chronically depressed inpatients: a naturalistic multicenter feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaß, Lena; Padberg, Frank; Normann, Claus; Engel, Vera; Konrad, Carsten; Helmle, Kristina; Jobst, Andrea; Worlitz, Andrew; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta

    2017-09-27

    The Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) is a relatively new approach in the treatment of chronic depression (CD). Adapted as group psychotherapy for inpatients, CBASP is attracting increasing attention. In this naturalistic multicenter trial, we investigated its feasibility after 10 sessions of CBASP group therapy over a treatment time of at least 5 to a maximum of 10 weeks. Treatment outcome was additionally assessed. Across four centers, 116 inpatients with CD (DSM-IV-TR) attended CBASP group psychotherapy. Feasibility was focused on acceptance, and evaluated for patients and therapists after five (t1) and ten sessions (t2) of group psychotherapy. Observer- and self-rating scales (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 items, HDRS 24 ; Beck Depression Inventory-II, BDI-II; World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment, WHOQOL-BREF) were applied before group psychotherapy (t0) and at t2. Dropouts were low (10.3%). Patients' evaluation improved significantly from t1 to t2 with a medium effect size (d = 0.60). Most of the patients stated that the group had enriched their treatment (75.3%), that the size (74.3%) and duration (72.5%) were 'optimal' and 37.3% wished for a higher frequency. Patients gave CBASP group psychotherapy an overall grade of 2 ('good'). Therapists' evaluation was positive throughout, except for size of the group. Outcome scores of HDRS 24 , BDI-II, and WHOQOL-BREF were significantly reduced from t0 to t2 with medium to large effect sizes (d = 1.48; d = 1.11; d = 0.67). In this naturalistic open-label trial, CBASP, when applied as inpatient group psychotherapy, was well accepted by patients and therapists. The results point towards a clinically meaningful effect of inpatient treatment with CBASP group psychotherapy on depression and quality of life. Other potential factors that could have promoted symptom change were discussed. A future controlled study could investigate the safety and efficacy of CBASP

  9. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy and Postpartum Depression: The Fathers Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena da Rosa Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.

  10. Multiple attachments and group psychotherapy: implications for college counseling centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2009-10-01

    A large body of literature has supported the application of attachment theory to the understanding of college student development and the process of individual psychotherapy. Despite group treatment being one of the major methods of intervention in college counseling centers, there has been very little research guided by attachment theory that has been applied to the area of group psychotherapy. Many current assessment instruments used in college counseling centers can be supported with attachment theory, and many group therapy interventions are aimed at facilitating secure working models of self, other, and groups. This paper explores the importance of personal and group attachments in group psychotherapy and specifically addresses implications for clinical training and research in university counseling centers.

  11. RELATIONAL GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY: THE HEALING OF STRESS, NEGLECT AND TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 4th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, April 17, 2009. In speaking to the conference theme of “Acute Trauma, Cumulative Neglect, and Chronic Stress” the article describes some of the principles of Relational Group Psychotherapy. The theory of methods is based on the concept that the healing of trauma, neglect and stress occurs through a contactful therapeutic relationship. Relational group psychotherapy draws from several developments in group therapy, particularly the cybernetic feedback and other-centered models. It emphasizes the healing power of relationships between group members and the importance of phenomenological inquiry, affective attunement, identification, and relational-needs. The leader’s tasks are to stimulate the flow of contactful dialogue and to teach about human needs and healthy relationships.

  12. Psychotherapy in Argentina: a clinical case from an integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Beatriz

    2007-08-01

    The article describes psychotherapy practice in Argentina. It outlines the main features of training and regulation of clinical psychologists. A brief description of the main treatment approaches and the major current challenges is presented. Subsequently it delineates the probable treatment locations and options for a 30-year-old woman, Mrs. A, seeking psychological help in Argentina. The case is then considered from an integrative perspective starting with the intake process, which includes a comprehensive pretreatment assessment followed by the treatment plan. Its course is described as composed of four stages: (1) psychoeducational initial intervention, (2) psychotherapy for symptom alleviation, (3) marital treatment, and (4) psychoeducational final intervention. Posttreatment evaluation and possible outcome and prognosis are presented, as well as factors that might prevent improvement. The article ends with a hopeful view of the future role of psychotherapy in Argentina. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effects of trauma-focused psychotherapy upon war refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Johannes; Joksimovic, Ljiljana; Cavka, Majda; Wöller, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Norbert

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a trauma-focused psychotherapy upon war refugees from Bosnia. Seventy refugees who met the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and somatoform disorders were included. The first 35 refugees were offered psychotherapy and the following 35 refugees received usual care. Outcome variables were changes in self-reported PTSD symptoms, psychological symptoms, and health status. At 12-month follow-up, participants in the intervention group reported significantly lower scores on the PTSD scale and the measure of psychological symptoms than the comparison group participants. Our results suggest that psychotherapy reduces symptoms of PTSD and somatoform disorders among war refugees even in the presence of insecure residence status.

  14. Playing off the beat: Applying the jazz paradigm to psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David Read

    2018-02-01

    A jazz paradigm is applied to traditional psychotherapy practice, illuminating the links between psychotherapy and the Romantic aesthetic tradition, primarily in the centrality of concepts such as attunement. Modernist disruptions of realism during the early 20 th century, such as jazz, elaborated dissonant and improvisational artistic impulses that brought new vitality to their art forms. The psychotherapeutic relationship also has potential avenues for multilevel and discrepant communication that open possibilities of freedom. However, the limitations imposed by the single channel nature of comprehended language, compared with the capacity of artistic media to express multiple sensory information simultaneously, remain the most significant obstacle to dimensionalizing the psychotherapeutic dialogue. Psychotherapy may have much to gain from embracing some of the concepts underlying the jazz aesthetic. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Brief Psychotherapy for Maternal Depression: Impact on Mothers and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Holly A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Cheng, Yu; Zuckoff, Allan; Brent, David A; Markowitz, John C; Martin, Stacy; Amole, Marlissa C; Ritchey, Fiona; Frank, Ellen

    2016-06-01

    Two-generation studies demonstrate that treating maternal depression benefits school-age children. Although mothers prefer psychotherapy to medication, little is known about how psychotherapy for maternal depression affects offspring, especially in very high-risk families in which both mothers and children concurrently meet syndromal criteria for psychiatric disorders. This trial evaluated the effects of 2 brief psychotherapies for maternal depression on very high-risk families. Mothers with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to 9 sessions of either brief interpersonal psychotherapy for mothers (IPT-MOMS; n = 85) or brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP; n = 83). Independent assessors evaluated mothers and their children, ages 7 to 18 years, diagnosed with at least 1 internalizing disorder, every 3 months over the course of 1 year. Symptoms and functioning of mothers and children improved significantly over time, with no between-group differences. However, children of mothers assigned to BSP had more outpatient mental health visits and were more likely to receive antidepressant medication. Mothers reported greater satisfaction with IPT-MOMS than BSP. Improvement in mothers' depressive symptoms was associated with improvement in child functioning in time-lagged fashion, with children improving 3 to 6 months after mothers improved. Antidepressant medication use and number of mental health visits received by children did not affect outcomes. IPT-MOMS and BSP demonstrated comparable beneficial effects on maternal depression. Children's functioning improved following maternal improvement, independent of youths' treatment. Children of mothers randomized to IPT-MOMS, compared with BSP, achieved comparable outcomes despite less follow-up treatment. Observation of lagged association between maternal improvement and change in child functioning should influence treatment planning for families. Clinical trial registration information-Psychotherapy for Depressed

  16. The outpatient psychotherapy of the borderline patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, R D

    1993-01-01

    This paper discussed common problems in the outpatient psychotherapy of borderline patients, especially their rage, seductiveness, and abrupt negative shifts. The definition of "borderline" is not settled. Even DSM-III-R mixes it up with other personality disorders. There are no pathognomonic symptoms, no specific personality constellations, and no compelling evidence for a definitive stage in infant development when this disorder is fixed; all stages are involved, from faulty foundational to oedipal periods. It is a descriptive diagnosis and typical presentations of such patients are reviewed. In the psychotherapeutic approach, limits must be set first, but these must be flexible and reasonable. Medications are used rarely and with care. We attempt to form an alliance by (a) getting the patient to join us in a study of himself or herself, especially a study of when rage and maladaptive behavior emerges, and (b) providing a consistent and reasonable ambience. The ultimate aim is uncovering and interpreting when the patient is ready for it, more and more approximating psychoanalytic treatment as the patient's pathology permits. The special phenomena of the self-object (Kohut), transitional object (Modell), and disruptive extreme erotic or raging (Kernberg) transferences were reviewed, as well as the pitfalls of therapist anxiety and impatience in dealing with them. While archaic transferences predominate, we serve as an auxiliary microscopic ego and appeal to the rational adult part of the patient's ego in a phenomenological investigation. We interpret early only if we cannot get the patient to examine what has led to the explosions and when distortions or projection without insight continues to predominate. The dangers of early transference interpretations are discussed. Therapy is long, tedious, and requires the willingness to patiently catalyze the patient's resumed development and endure the periodic disruptions. Countertransference problems and what to do about

  17. The concept of presence in group psychotherapy: an operational definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane-Okada, Rebecca

    2012-07-01

    The paper aims to operationally define the concept of presence, as developed and exhibited by the therapist leading a psychotherapy group, and illustrated with case examples. A group therapist, who addresses tangible, basic group survival needs, while integrating knowledge of psychotherapeutic processes, authentic and effective interpersonal communications, and genuine concern for individual members and the group as a whole, is best situated to enact presence in the context of group psychotherapy. Establishing presence can be achieved in a systematic way with an understanding of the meaning of being present at each step in the development of the group psychotherapeutic process. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Fundamental dilemmas in contemporary psychotherapy: a transtheoretical concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturo, Douglas J

    2002-01-01

    The transtheoretical nature of fundamental dilemmas in contemporary psychotherapy is explored. The basic distinction between technical and ethical dilemmas in clinical practice is discussed, as well as the ramifications for the psychotherapist. Clinical dilemmas identified by survey research studies and interviews with master psychotherapists are reviewed. In addition to dilemmas relevant to circumscribed areas of psychotherapy, such as brief therapy, managed mental health care, sexual questions, feminist therapy, dilemmas fundamental to the psychotherapeutic process as a whole are examined. Finally, clinical examples are provided that include such issues as hospitalization of the suicidal patient, dealing with known contraindications, treating the intractable patient, and self-care of the psychotherapist.

  19. Psychosis and the dynamics of the psychotherapy process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment of the 's......The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment...

  20. Psychotherapy: Adaptation or Walking Together? (A Roadside Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bychkova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns psychotherapeutic work in the perspective of existential approach. Two trends are discerned in modern psychotherapy regardless of the known division into different schools – the adaptation therapy, and the one viewing a person in the context of his Personal being in the world. Therapy here is understood as the Way of mutual personal growth of both the therapist and the client. Distinction is singled out as one of the central points in forming the meanings, essential for both the normal development of a child and in psychotherapy, and remaining significant for spiritual growth in adults. 

  1. [Institutional psychotherapy, caring for patients and the place of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogoul, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Institutional psychotherapy was developed in the specific context of the "assassination" of the Spanish revolution. There are two distinct movements or two periods. The first, based around Georges Daumézon and Henri Ey gave birth to the sector. The second, around FrançoisTosquelles and Jean Oury emphasised the asylum as the place of care. The function of institutional psychotherapy is to care not only for the patients but also the place of treatment. To fulfil this function, it has a tool box: transfer, the fight against the overvaluation of hierarchy as well as the function of the therapeutic club.

  2. Deset těžkých hříchů psychoterapie (Ten Severe Sins of Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Růžička

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Author points out some thematic spheres that are being ignored in psychotherapy and threaten its peculiarity as well as determination. They are as follows: 1. Truthfulness, frankness and honesty towards oneself as a way to recovery in contrast to only disappearance of mental illness symptoms and their elimination. 2. Reduction of a human being and his illness to natural-scientifically defined organism opposed to complete and direct understanding of a human who lives the life in original world of his/her authentic experience. 3. Insufficient consideration of moral aspects of mental illness. 4. Subordination to natural science paradigms and abstract universalities in contrast to the science of the singular. 5. Alienation of psychotherapeutic languages from immediate experience and from its result in expressing in colloquial language of given culture. 6. Explanation working as deepening and understanding opposed to explanation reducing to something predetermined, final and in a similar way closed theoretical systems. 7. Banalization of psychotherapy by those closed and artificial systems and its opposite of newness and freshness of open everydayness. 8. Human destinies, events and moments considered as only external effects of powers, laws and rules standing „behind“ or „under“ or out of this reality in contrast to immediate and actual reality that is exhausting source of anthropological determinations. 9. Not understanding of culture as natural human environment which is regarded as untouched nature opposed to culture as essential determination of human. 10. Forgetting own roots of psychotherapy arising from spiritual tradition of Western civilization and whimsical and immature ingratitude towards the good and values that our ancestors discovered and introduced into everyday life.

  3. DYNAMICS OF THE ANXIETY DISORDERS IN THE COURSE OF SHORT-TERM PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Hmylova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.

  4. Terror management theory applied clinically: implications for existential-integrative psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam M

    2014-01-01

    Existential psychotherapy and Terror Management Theory (TMT) offer explanations for the potential psychological effects of death awareness, although their respective literatures bases differ in clarity, research, and implications for treating psychopathology. Existential therapy is often opaque to many therapists, in part due to the lack of consensus on what constitutes its practice, limited published practical examples, and few empirical studies examining its efficacy. By contrast, TMT has an extensive empirical literature base, both within social psychology and spanning multiple disciplines, although previously unexplored within clinical and counseling psychology. This article explores the implications of a proposed TMT integrated existential therapy (TIE), bridging the gap between disciplines in order to meet the needs of the aging population and current challenges facing existential therapists.

  5. Psychotherapy for Peace and Conflict Resolution | Olowu | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychotherapy is any form of psychological treatment for behavioural or emotional problems. Peace and Conflict resolution are current and relevant issues in contemporary societies. This paper attempts to present psychotherapeutic techniques for dealing with hostility, resentment, manipulation, sexual harassment, ...

  6. Addressing Anger Using Sensorimotor Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    A young woman initiated counselling services at a community agency to address her explosive anger that was a remnant of childhood physical and emotional abuse. Sensorimotor psychotherapy was used to help this client learn how to monitor and regulate her sensorimotor processes. In conjunction with this approach, Cognitive behavioural therapy was…

  7. The Practice of Psychotherapy in Mexico: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Marcella D.; Frels, Rebecca K.; Chavez, Rafael Reyes; Sharma, Bipin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the history of psychotherapy in Mexico and describes past and current practices of psychological services, training, and supervision for Mexican international students in the United States. Sample curricula, texts, and universities in Mexico are listed. Implications for training underscore the importance of collaboration and…

  8. Growth in Emotional Intelligence. Psychotherapy with a Learning Disabled Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantrell, Sue

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the once-weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a girl, called Ellie, aged eight at the start of her treatment. Ellie had a learning disability and displayed difficult behaviour at school and at home. In her therapy, Ellie grew in emotional intelligence, more in touch with and able to express her feelings. Her behaviour…

  9. Implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy in a Psychiatry Residency Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Haller, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression is a brief, well researched treatment for acute major depression. This article describes the implementation of IPT as an evidence-based treatment for depression in a psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors tracked the implementation process over 5 years as interpersonal…

  10. Changing Attitudes in Underprivileged Adolescents Participating in Group Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Julia

    Group psychotherapy was used with socio-economically deprived adolescents whose capacity for self-expression was promising. Non-psychotic acting out characters and passive inadequate personalities participated, and discussion, role playing, and psychodrama were the techniques utilized. After one year the following changes were seen: (1) increased…

  11. Client Experience in Psychotherapy: What Heals and What Harms?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    therapy. They were over 21 years of age. The counselling or psychotherapy attended must have ..... programs for addiction from alcohol and ..... A conceptual framework and methodological criteria for family therapy process ... Tagar,Y. and Sherwood, P. (2000) Experience Awareness Tools for Preventing Burnout in Nurses.

  12. Brief Adlerian psychodynamic psychotherapy: theoretical issues and process indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, S; Amianto, F; Ferrero, A

    2008-06-01

    Brief psychotherapy is gaining interest worldwide, because of its good cost/effectiveness ratio and proved efficacy. The aim of the paper was to describe the brief Adlerian psychodynamic psychotherapy (B-APP): a brief, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy referring to the individual psychology (IP). The B-APP theory refers to the following paradigms: 1) the individual represents a psychosomatic unity integrated in the social context; 2) the individual needs to build and regulate the image of the self; 3) bond patterns regulate human relationships and represent the symbolic ''fil rouge'' connecting the elements of the life-style. Its objectives are: 1) an at least partial resolution of the focus problem; 2) a decrease or a non-increase of symptoms; 3) a global increase of quality of life. The results depend on intrapsychic and relational changes. Indications are more relative than absolute. The possibility of identifying a meaningful focus is fundamental. The treatment scheme includes 15 sessions subdivided into 5 phases. B-APP offers a technical approach to brief psychotherapy which is suitable in many fields of psychiatry and liaison medicine such as preventive interventions in at-risk subjects, somatopsychic disorders and liaison psychiatry, personality and eating disorders, and treatment of emotionally disturbed children. It was applied as psychotherapeutic approach in some clinical outcome studies about eating disorders and severe personality disorders displaying a good efficacy.

  13. Equifinality in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Different Strokes for Different Folks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Dalto, Georgia; Follette, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is an interpersonal behavior therapy that relies on a therapist's ability to contingently respond to in-session client behavior. Valued behavior change in clients results from the therapist shaping more effective client interpersonal behaviors by providing effective social reinforcement when these behaviors…

  14. Integrating Spirituality into Counselling and Psychotherapy: Theoretical and Clinical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, spirituality has become a prominent focus of psychological inquiry. As research begins to elucidate the role of spiritual beliefs and behaviours in mental health and the influences of spirituality in psychotherapy, developing therapist competency in this domain has increased in importance. This article will first situate…

  15. Making connections and thinking through emotions: between geography and psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bondi, Liz

    2005-01-01

    The current upsurge of interest in emotions within geography has the potential to contribute to critical perspectives that question conventional limits to scholarship. Three precursors of emotional geographies are discussed in this context (humanistic, feminist and non-representational geographies). Connections between emotional geographies and psychotherapy are explored with a view to resisting the equation of emotion with individualised subjective experience, and developing s...

  16. A Feminist Theory of Psychotherapy Based on Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Claire M.

    In a "direct" approach to psychotherapy, the therapist generally uses herself as a model and communicates her own values, thereby influencing the gender roles of her clients, particularly her female clients. In this approach, the therapist is seen as more authentic by the client, especially by clients from diverse cultural and social backgrounds.…

  17. Methods and Mechanisms in the Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler. Shedler summarized a large body of research that shows psychodynamic therapy to have a substantial effect size, comparable to that for many empirically supported treatments. This is an important finding, in part refuting the concerns raised by Bornstein…

  18. Positive Group Psychotherapy Modified for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasulo, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disorders are considerably more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population, yet research on psychotherapy for people with dual diagnosis is scarce. However, there is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and…

  19. Changes in Studying Abilities as Perceived by Students Attending Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkäpää, Kristiina; Junttila, Outi; Lindfors, Olavi; Järvikoski, Aila

    2014-01-01

    In rehabilitative psychotherapy, the goal is to support and improve the person's working and studying capacity and to secure his/her staying in or entering the workforce. In this qualitative study, the aim was to describe the changes students experienced in their studying ability and the advancement of their studies as a result of the therapy…

  20. The present moment and implicit communication in group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, Kathleen Hubbs

    2011-04-01

    The importance of the concepts of present moment and implicit communication to group psychotherapy is discussed in relation to the articles by Gans and by Counselman and Abernethy and to the life work of Anne Alonso. Clinical examples are used to illustrate the discussion.

  1. Patient Characteristics and Outcome in Psychotherapy and Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, R. Bruce; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Psychoneurotic or personality disordered patients (N=94) received four months of analytically oriented psychotherapy, behavior therapy, or waiting list treatment. Neither active treatment was more effective than the other with any type of symptom (including affective ones), although both were more consistently effective than the waiting list.…

  2. Counselling and Psychotherapy in Dialogue with Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, John

    2011-01-01

    Counselling and psychotherapy is attracting government interest and intervention, for instance the proposal to regulate the profession by the Health Professions Council. Many therapists see this as a threat to its fundamental principles due to the fact that government policy is influenced by the medical model and managerialism. This article looks,…

  3. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Halder; Akash Kumar Mahato

    2009-01-01

    Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  4. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  5. [Systemic therapies--a contribution to psychotherapy integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter

    2012-06-01

    Some converging lines from neuroscience, neurobiological psychotherapy research, process-outcome-research, internet-based change monitoring and the systems and complexity sciences actually allow for an open and generic definition of systemic therapies. The "family" of systemic therapies as designed here is not restricted to the field of psychotherapy. It is a scientifically founded and engaged, bio-psycho-social multi-level approach to a common or integrative psychotherapy, not restricted to a psychotherapeutic confession or exclusively to family or couples therapy. A core element of systemic therapy is the support of self-organizing processes and the use of data-driven feedback tools. The conclusion goes to a modified concept of evidence-based practice and, vice versa, practice-based evidence, to an integration of the medical model and the common factors model into a self-organization theory of human change processes, and to a list of criteria for scientifically based practice in psychotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Psychotherapy of Depression: A Self-Confirmation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Concepts of self-confirmation, interpersonal diagnosis, and prototype construction are used to integrate research and clinical findings concerning depression. Various theoretical accounts and bodies of data that fit within this integrative conceptual framework are examined, and implications for psychotherapy are discussed. (SLD)

  7. The Intersystem Model of Psychotherapy: An Integrated Systems Treatment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Gerald R.; Cross, Chad L.

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the intersystem model of psychotherapy and discusses its utility as a truly integrative and comprehensive approach. The foundation of this conceptually complex approach comes from dialectic metatheory; hence, its derivation requires an understanding of both foundational and integrational constructs. The article provides a…

  8. Integrating Expressive Methods in a Relational-Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic Involvement is an integral part of all effective psychotherapy.This article is written to illustrate the concept of Therapeutic Involvement in working within a therapeutic relationship – within the transference -- and with active expressive and experiential methods to resolve traumatic experiences, relational disturbances and life shaping decisions.

  9. Child Psychotherapy, Child Analysis, and Medication: A Flexible, Integrative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    For children with moderate to severe emotional or behavioral problems, the current approach in child psychiatry is to make an assessment for the use of both psychotherapy and medication. This paper describes integration of antidepressants and stimulants with psychoanalytically oriented techniques.

  10. Inherent Self, Invented Self, Empty Self: Constructivism, Buddhism, and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Spencer A.

    2010-01-01

    Constructivist and Buddhist approaches to counseling and psychotherapy share increasing popularity as well as similar epistemological assumptions and understanding of human dysfunction and its amelioration. These approaches can be seen as consistent with postmodern psychology, which is distinguished from a realist or foundationalist view. This…

  11. The role of identification in dynamic psychiatry and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Richard B

    2011-01-01

    Identification-a psychic process in which a person takes on characteristics of another-is a concept important to the understanding of human nature. It plays an important role in how our personalities develop, in our ability to deal with life's stresses, and in how we interact with other people. Knowledge of its manifestations is essential to dynamic psychiatry and to its applications in psychotherapy. This article defines identification and reviews its role in development and as a defense. It discusses its role in the psychopathology of disorders commonly encountered in psychotherapy practice-depression and anxiety states reactive to losses in life, and borderline states. Clinical vignettes illustrate how identification functions in these conditions, and also how identifications reveal themselves in the transference and are utilized in psychotherapy. A teaching vignette illustrates how important it is that residents learning the art of psychotherapy appreciate the therapeutic potential of identification. The article maintains that, although it often goes unrecognized, identification with the therapist is one of the most effective therapeutic devices in the transference.

  12. Content Coding of Psychotherapy Transcripts Using Labeled Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaut, Garren; Steyvers, Mark; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Smyth, Padhraic

    2017-03-01

    Psychotherapy represents a broad class of medical interventions received by millions of patients each year. Unlike most medical treatments, its primary mechanisms are linguistic; i.e., the treatment relies directly on a conversation between a patient and provider. However, the evaluation of patient-provider conversation suffers from critical shortcomings, including intensive labor requirements, coder error, nonstandardized coding systems, and inability to scale up to larger data sets. To overcome these shortcomings, psychotherapy analysis needs a reliable and scalable method for summarizing the content of treatment encounters. We used a publicly available psychotherapy corpus from Alexander Street press comprising a large collection of transcripts of patient-provider conversations to compare coding performance for two machine learning methods. We used the labeled latent Dirichlet allocation (L-LDA) model to learn associations between text and codes, to predict codes in psychotherapy sessions, and to localize specific passages of within-session text representative of a session code. We compared the L-LDA model to a baseline lasso regression model using predictive accuracy and model generalizability (measured by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic curve). The L-LDA model outperforms the lasso logistic regression model at predicting session-level codes with average AUC scores of 0.79, and 0.70, respectively. For fine-grained level coding, L-LDA and logistic regression are able to identify specific talk-turns representative of symptom codes. However, model performance for talk-turn identification is not yet as reliable as human coders. We conclude that the L-LDA model has the potential to be an objective, scalable method for accurate automated coding of psychotherapy sessions that perform better than comparable discriminative methods at session-level coding and can also predict fine-grained codes.

  13. Psychiatric and psychotherapeutic literacy: attitudes to, and knowledge of, psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian

    2009-11-01

    Whereas there is now a rapidly emerging literature on psychiatric literacy (Jorm, 2000), there is much less work on the public's knowledge of, and beliefs about the purpose of, and processes involved in, psychotherapy. This study looked at what lay people think happens during psychotherapy; what the processes and aims are; and the aetiology, treatment and prognosis for a mood and psychotic (bipolar, schizophrenia) and two neurotic (depression, obsessive-compulsive) disorders. In total 185 British adults, recruited by a market research company, completed a four-part questionnaire, lasting about 20 minutes. Participants were generally very positive about psychotherapy believing the experience to be highly beneficial. Schizophrenia was seen to have a biological basis; depression and bipolar disorder were perceived to have family, work and other stress-related causal issues; obsessive-compulsive disorder was seen to be caused by stress and family-related issues. Participants thought psychotherapy a very effective treatment but drug treatments more effective for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. 'Talking it over' was judged highly relevant, specifically to depression. Participants believed that depression had a good chance of cure, and remission, but that neither schizophrenia nor bipolar disorder had much chance of an effective cure. Lay people show a curious pattern on insight, ignorance and naivety with regard to the cause and cure of mental disorders. They appear to have a modestly realistic but somewhat naive view of the process and efficacy of psychotherapy. This may influence how they react to their own and others' mental illness. It has clear implications for education in psychiatric literacy.

  14. Advancing psychotherapy and evidence-based psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelkamp, Paul M G; David, Daniel; Beckers, Tom; Muris, Peter; Cuijpers, Pim; Lutz, Wolfgang; Andersson, Gerhard; Araya, Ricardo; Banos Rivera, Rosa M; Barkham, Michael; Berking, Matthias; Berger, Thomas; Botella, Christina; Carlbring, Per; Colom, Francesc; Essau, Cecilia; Hermans, Dirk; Hofmann, Stefan G; Knappe, Susanne; Ollendick, Thomas H; Raes, Filip; Rief, Winfried; Riper, Heleen; Van Der Oord, Saskia; Vervliet, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Psychological models of mental disorders guide research into psychological and environmental factors that elicit and maintain mental disorders as well as interventions to reduce them. This paper addresses four areas. (1) Psychological models of mental disorders have become increasingly transdiagnostic, focusing on core cognitive endophenotypes of psychopathology from an integrative cognitive psychology perspective rather than offering explanations for unitary mental disorders. It is argued that psychological interventions for mental disorders will increasingly target specific cognitive dysfunctions rather than symptom-based mental disorders as a result. (2) Psychotherapy research still lacks a comprehensive conceptual framework that brings together the wide variety of findings, models and perspectives. Analysing the state-of-the-art in psychotherapy treatment research, "component analyses" aiming at an optimal identification of core ingredients and the mechanisms of change is highlighted as the core need towards improved efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy, and improved translation to routine care. (3) In order to provide more effective psychological interventions to children and adolescents, there is a need to develop new and/or improved psychotherapeutic interventions on the basis of developmental psychopathology research taking into account knowledge of mediators and moderators. Developmental neuroscience research might be instrumental to uncover associated aberrant brain processes in children and adolescents with mental health problems and to better examine mechanisms of their correction by means of psychotherapy and psychological interventions. (4) Psychotherapy research needs to broaden in terms of adoption of large-scale public health strategies and treatments that can be applied to more patients in a simpler and cost-effective way. Increased research on efficacy and moderators of Internet-based treatments and e-mental health tools (e.g. to support

  15. [Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy: differences and similarities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler-Schülein, Hemma; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette

    2013-01-01

    Psychoanalysis as well as Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy derived from Psychoanalysis are efficient methods offered by the Austrian health care system in the treatment for anxiety, depression, personality disorders, neurotic and somatoform disorders. In both methods similar basic treatment techniques are applied. Therefore differentiation between both treatment options often is made pragmatically by the frequency of sessions or the use of the couch and seems to be vague in the light of empirical studies. This overview focuses a potential differentiation-the objective and subjective dimensions of the indication process. Concerning the latter it is to investigate, if reflective functioning and ego-integration can be enhanced in the patient during the interaction process between patient and psychoanalyst. Empirical data underline the necessity to investigate to which extent externalizing defence processes are used and to integrate such factors into the decision and indication process. Differing treatment aims display another possibility to differentiate psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy aims for example more at circumscribed problem-foci, the capability for self-reflexion is one of the most prominent treatment effects in psychoanalysis that results in on-going symptom reduction and resilience. The most prominent differentiation lies in the utilization of technical neutrality. Within Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy neutrality has sometimes to be suspended in order to stop severe acting out. Empirical evidence is given concerning the differentiation between psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy, that treatment efficacy is not correlated with the duration of the treatment, but with the frequency of sessions. Results give support to the assumption that the dosage of specific and appropriate psychoanalytic techniques facilitates sustained therapeutic change.

  16. Correlations of Male College Students' Verbal Response Mode Use in Psychotherapy with Measures of Psychological Disturbance and Psychotherapy Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Susan H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared verbal response mode use by male students with measures of clients' psychological distress, disturbance, and change. Results indicated more distressed clients used a higher percentage of disclosures and lower percentage of edifications, clients who improved more participated more, no relationship between improvement in psychotherapy and…

  17. [Interpersonal psychotherapy from research to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahioui, H; Blecha, L; Bottai, T; Depuy, C; Jacquesy, L; Kochman, F; Meynard, J-A; Papeta, D; Rammouz, I; Ghachem, R

    2015-04-01

    Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is a brief, structured psychotherapy initially intended to treat adult depression that was developed in the 1970s and manualized in 1984 by G. Klerman and his team. Two main theories served as a basis for its design: Bowlby's attachment theory and communication theory. Klerman theorized that tensions and problems in interpersonal relationships (i.e. disputes) cause psychological distress in vulnerable individuals that may lead to a major depressive episode. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that an insecure attachment style is strongly associated with lifetime depression. Severe depressive episodes have been correlated with avoidant attachment in women. IPT is based on the hypothesis that recent or ongoing disturbances in interpersonal relationships either trigger or follow the onset of mood disorder. In practice, IPT assists patients in analysing their interpersonal relationship modes, correlating their relational states with their mood and in learning to use better communication. Resolving difficulties in interpersonal relationships through the use of better communication skills promotes the improvement of depressive symptoms. Klerman identified four interpersonal areas that seem to be highly correlated with depressive episodes: grief (a close and important personal relation who has died), interpersonal disputes (conflicts with significant people such as a spouse or another close family member), role transition (significant life changes such as retirement, parenthood or chronic and invalidating illness) and interpersonal deficits (patients who have limited social contacts and few interpersonal relations). Classically, IPT is planned around 12-16 weekly sessions. During the initial sessions, the therapist will explore all existing interpersonal relations and any significant dysfunctions, both recent and ongoing. Following this interview, the area the patient considers as driving the current depressive episode will be

  18. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Depression is associated with poor social problem solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for…

  19. [Meaning in life and mental health: personal meaning systems of psychotherapists and psychotherapy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Sabine; Knappe, Rainer; Joraschky, Peter; Pöhlmann, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the personal meaning systems of psychotherapists and psychotherapy patients as well as correlations between meaning in life and mental health. We qualitatively assessed the content and structure of the personal meaning systems of 41 psychotherapists and 77 psychotherapy patients. In addition, the participants completed questionnaires measuring meaning in life (LRI-r-d), sense of coherence (SOC-9L), self-esteem (RSES), satisfaction with life (SWLS), self-efficacy (SWK), and depression (BDI). The personal meaning systems of psychotherapists were more complex and coherent compared to psychotherapy patients. In the group of psychotherapy patients, a more elaborate structure of the personal meaning system correlated with the subjective sense of meaning. We were able to confirm correlations between meaning in life and mental health for most of the instances. Psychotherapists had more elaborate and coherent meaning systems than psychotherapy patients. Especially for psychotherapy patients elaborate and coherent meaning systems turned out to be important for mental health.

  20. Individual psychotherapy for schizophrenia: trends and developments in the wake of the recovery movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jay A; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H

    2013-01-01

    Although the role and relative prominence of psychotherapy in the treatment of schizophrenia has fluctuated over time, an analysis of the history of psychotherapy for schizophrenia, focusing on findings from the recovery movement, reveals recent trends including the emergence of the development of integrative psychotherapy approaches. The authors suggest that the recovery movement has revealed limitations in traditional approaches to psychotherapy, and has provided opportunities for integrative approaches to emerge as a mechanism for promoting recovery in persons with schizophrenia. Five approaches to integrative psychotherapy for persons with schizophrenia are presented, and a shared conceptual framework that allows these five approaches to be compatible with one another is proposed. The conceptual framework is consistent with theories of recovery and emphasizes interpersonal attachment, personal narrative, and metacognitive processes. Implications for future research on integrative psychotherapy are considered.

  1. Individual psychotherapy for schizophrenia: trends and developments in the wake of the recovery movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jay A; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H

    2013-01-01

    Although the role and relative prominence of psychotherapy in the treatment of schizophrenia has fluctuated over time, an analysis of the history of psychotherapy for schizophrenia, focusing on findings from the recovery movement, reveals recent trends including the emergence of the development of integrative psychotherapy approaches. The authors suggest that the recovery movement has revealed limitations in traditional approaches to psychotherapy, and has provided opportunities for integrative approaches to emerge as a mechanism for promoting recovery in persons with schizophrenia. Five approaches to integrative psychotherapy for persons with schizophrenia are presented, and a shared conceptual framework that allows these five approaches to be compatible with one another is proposed. The conceptual framework is consistent with theories of recovery and emphasizes interpersonal attachment, personal narrative, and metacognitive processes. Implications for future research on integrative psychotherapy are considered. PMID:23950665

  2. Is Exposure Necessary? A Randomized Clinical Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C.; Petkova, Eva; Neria, Yuval; Van Meter, Page E.; Zhao, Yihong; Hembree, Elizabeth; Lovell, Karina; Biyanova, Tatyana; Marshall, Randall D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to trauma reminders has been considered imperative in psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). No treatment benefits all patients, however. We tested Interpersonal Psychotherapy, which has demonstrated antidepressant efficacy and showed promise in pilot PTSD research, as a non-exposure-based, non-cognitive behavioral PTSD treatment. Methods A randomized, fourteen-week trial compared Interpersonal Psychotherapy; Prolonged Exposure, an exposure-based exemplar; and Relaxation Therapy, an active control psychotherapy. Subjects were 110 unmedicated patients having DSM-IV chronic PTSD and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score >50. Randomization stratified for comorbid major depression. We hypothesized Interpersonal Psychotherapy would be no more than minimally inferior (CAPS difference 30% CAPS improvement) were: Interpersonal Psychotherapy 63%, Prolonged Exposure 47%, Relaxation Therapy 38% (n.s.). Interpersonal psychotherapy and Prolonged Exposure CAPS outcome differed by 5.5 points (n.s.); the null hypothesis of more than minimal Interpersonal Psychotherapy inferiority was rejected (p=0.035). Patients with comorbid major depression dropped out from Prolonged Exposure nine times more than non-depressed Prolonged Exposure patients. Interpersonal Psychotherapy and Prolonged Exposure improved quality of life and social functioning more than Relaxation Therapy. Conclusions This first controlled study of individual Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD demonstrated non-inferiority to the “gold standard” PTSD treatment. Interpersonal Psychotherapy had (non-significantly) lower attrition and higher response rates than Prolonged Exposure. Contradicting a widespread clinical belief, PTSD treatment may not require cognitive behavioral exposure to trauma reminders. Moreover, as differential therapeutics, patients with comorbid major depression may fare better in Interpersonal Psychotherapy than Prolonged Exposure. PMID:25677355

  3. Practice Study Outpatient Psychotherapy - Switzerland (PAP-S) : Study design and feasibility (Revised edition)

    OpenAIRE

    Wyl, Agnes von; Crameri, Aureliano; Koemeda, Margit; Tschuschke, Volker; Schulthess, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Revised edition of Von Wyl, A., Crameri, A., Koemeda, M., Tschuchke, V. & Schulthess, P. (2013). The PAP-S (Practice of Ambulant Psychotherapy-Study), Switzerland: Study Design and Feasibility. Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Zurich. The original article was published in German: von Wyl, A., Crameri, A., Koemeda, M., Tschuschke, V. & Schulthess, P. (2013). Praxisstudie ambulante Psychotherapie Schweiz (PAP-S): Studiendesign und Machbarkeit. Psychotherapie-Wissenschaft, 1, 6-22; op...

  4. Psychosis and the dynamics of the psychotherapy process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment of the 's......The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment......-subjective process, a therapeutic relationship is disrupted and a therapeutic alliance is not assured. Therapists have to pay particular attention to the empathic aspects of the interaction as they attempt to integrate affects to restore meaning to the inner life of the patient. The psychodynamics of this process...

  5. Effect of depression on processing interactions in group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slife, B D; Sasscer-Burgos, J; Froberg, W; Ellington, S

    1989-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the possibility of individual differences in the ability of inpatients to process interactions in group psychotherapy. The first was a pilot study conducted on groups of major depressive patients and matched normal subjects. Subjects were asked to give process comments after viewing simulations of typical group therapy interactions. These comments were later rated on the extent to which they reflected process qualities and accuracy. These data led to a more rigorous and extensive study that included more appropriate control groups as well as measures of potential confounding factors, such as simulation realism, verbal ability, and interaction comprehension. Results indicated that major depressives suffer from deficits in the ability to process group interactions, relative to three types of control groups, including normals. These differences in processing were not significantly positively correlated with any of the potential confounding factors. The implications for understanding interactional processing and group psychotherapy are discussed.

  6. Social Integration as Professional Field: Psychotherapy in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Johnsson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes and analyses the emergence and development of a professional field called social integration. Ideas, theories, and occupational practices forming this field are explored, particularly those related to the development of a new discipline, that of psychotherapy. The development of three occupations (psychiatry, psychology and social work and their professionalisation is described through their qualitative and quantitative take‑offs in particular historical periods. Three periods are identified: formation, 1850-1920, when psychiatry was defined as a medical sub-discipline; consolidation, 1920-1945, with the institutionalisation of psychiatric care, and with psychoanalysis and mental hygiene as qualitatively new cognitive bases for practitioners; and professionalisation, 1945-1980, with the deinstitutionalisation of psychiatric care and the professionalisation of psychologists and social workers. New ideas on subjectivity and individualism, new welfare state institutions, as well as collaborative professionalism all favoured the creation of psychotherapy as professional knowledge, and a possible new profession of psychotherapists.

  7. Using Alba Emoting™ to work with emotions in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalawski, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Alba Emoting™ is a physical method to help recognize, induce, express and regulate the basic emotions. This is achieved through specific breathing, postural and facial behaviours. Alba Emoting is based on psychophysiological research by Susana Bloch and her collaborators, who have applied this method mainly to train actors. Alba Emoting can be used in psychotherapy to facilitate emotion awareness, regulation and transformation. It can also help therapists better recognize their own and their clients' emotions. The application of Alba Emoting in psychotherapy is illustrated with a case example. Alba Emoting is a physical, scientific method for working with emotions. Alba Emoting can help therapists better recognize their own and their clients' emotions. Alba Emoting can help clients achieve better emotional awareness and regulation. Alba Emoting can also help clients experience and express emotions they may normally inhibit. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Adding Group Psychotherapy to Medication Treatment in Dysthymia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, David J.; Little, Suzanne A. S.; Samstag, Lisa Wallner; Batchelder, Sarai; Muran, J. Christopher; Fedak, Michael; Kreditor, David; Rosenthal, Richard N.; Winston, Arnold

    2001-01-01

    Patients with dysthymia have been shown to respond to treatment with antidepressant medications, and to some degree to psychotherapy. Even patients successfully treated with medication often have residual symptoms and impaired psychosocial functioning. The authors describe a prospective randomized 36-week study of dysthymic patients, comparing continued treatment with antidepressant medication (fluoxetine) alone and medication with the addition of group therapy treatment. After an 8-week trial of fluoxetine, medication-responsive subjects were randomly assigned to receive either continued medication only or medication plus 16 sessions of manualized group psychotherapy. Results provide preliminary evidence that group therapy may provide additional benefit to medication-responding dysthymic patients, particularly in interpersonal and psychosocial functioning. PMID:11264333

  9. Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: an attachment theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Philip J

    2010-10-01

    This article selectively highlights relevant areas of neuroscience research which have direct application for attachment theory and group psychotherapy. Emerging evidence from the neurosciences is revealing that the developing brain of the infant, sculpted by the earliest attachment relationships, continues to be malleable in adulthood and can be profoundly influenced by ongoing relationships throughout one's lifespan. Advances in the neurosciences are also supporting the idea that strong attachment bonds and external interpersonal interactions that arise within the context of these attachments are registered as a person's neurophysiology and neurobiology. Attachment theory in particular provides a common language and conceptual framework from which the contributions from the neurosciences can be made applicable to group psychotherapy.

  10. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  11. Utilizing technological innovations to enhance psychotherapy supervision, training, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jeffrey E

    2011-06-01

    Recent technological advances in the use of the Internet and video technologies has greatly impacted the provision of psychotherapy and other clinical services as well as how the training of psychotherapists may be conducted. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. Specific ethical challenges and pitfalls are discussed and recommendations are made for the ethical use of these technologies. Additionally, innovative practices from the seven articles in the special section that follows are highlighted and reviewed. These articles present a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy training, research, supervision, and treatment forward toward increased effectiveness. Recommendations for integrating these innovations into ongoing practices are provided and for additional research to build on the important work of the authors in this special section are provided.

  12. [Psychotherapies for the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Katherine; Aranda, Mariana

    The phantom limb pain has been described as a condition in which patients experience a feeling of itching, spasm or pain in a limb or body part that has been previously amputated. Such pain can be induced by a conflict between the representation of the visual and proprioceptive feedback of the previously healthy limb. The phantom limb pain occurs in at least 42 to 90% of amputees. Regular drug treatment of phantom limb pain is almost never effective. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in Medline and Cochrane using the MESH terms "phantom limb pain" and "psychotherapy", published in the last 10 years, in English and Spanish, finding 49 items. After reviewing the abstracts, 25 articles were excluded for not being related to the objective of the research. Additionally cross references of included articles and literature were reviewed. To describe the psychotherapies used in the management of phantom limb pain, their effectiveness and clinical application reported in the literature. The mechanisms underlying phantom limb pain were initially explained, as were the published studies on the usefulness of some psychotherapies such as mirror visual feedback and immersive virtual reality, visual imagery, desensitization and reprocessing eye movements and hypnosis. The phantom limb pain is a complex syndrome that requires pharmacological and psychotherapeutic intervention. The psychotherapies that have been used the most as adjuvants in the treatment of phantom limb pain are mirror visual feedback, desensitization and reprocessing eye movements, imagery and hypnosis. Studies with more representative samples, specifically randomized trials are required. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychoeducation et attitude phenomenologique en psychotherapie de groupe

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Resume Nous pensons que la psychotherapie de groupe peut etre un moyen de faire concilier les recommandations en matiere de prophylaxie visees par les mesures psychoeducatrices, la dimension vivante de l?experience retrouvee dans l?attitude phenomenologique et les aspects tournes vers le monde communautaire de la mediation therapeutique. Pour articuler ces differents domaines, nous abordons les principes de la psychoeducation, les risques que celle-ci peut comporter et les apports ...

  14. Between Christianity and secularity: counselling and psychotherapy provision in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Bondi, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Counselling and psychotherapy services have become increasingly prominent within modern urban welfare. Although often perceived to be intrinsically secular, since psychoanalytic thinking and practice arrived in Scotland it has been shaped by the Christian culture it encountered. Early Scottish-born contributors to psychoanalytic theory, including Ian Suttie and W.R.D. Fairbairn, reframed Freud’s ideas in ways that incorporated Scottish Presbyterian understandings of what it is to be human. A ...

  15. The application of attachment theory to a psychotherapy case

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the psychotherapeutic use of Attachment Theory. Attachment Theory is an interpersonal theory which refers to the way an individual internalises an emotional-cognitive model of his relationships with his various attachment figures. These models of ways of relating are reflected in the way an individual speaks. The methodology of the study entailed conducting the semi-structured Adult Attachment Interview to elicit a psychotherapy client's narr...

  16. Investigating Links Between Intimacy and Violence in Intensive Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Trice, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This research examines links between intimacy and violence within the transference relationship of a three year old boy during intensive psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic clinical findings are used to examine triggers to violence that initially appeared to link with moments of emotional warmth. The research uses a retrospective single case study design. The clinical data cover a period of transition in the child's life from being a 'looked after child' in foster care to being adopted. There was a...

  17. Practical tips for sexual counseling and psychotherapy in premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David; Cooper, Stewart

    2011-10-01

    A number of milestones in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) have occurred over the past five decades, including the development of various behavioral and cognitive techniques as well as pharmacotherapies that modify neurophysiological processes involved in ejaculation. Nevertheless, the notion that sexual responses such as PE are influenced by physiological, psychobehavioral, cultural, and relationship factors is as valid now as it was 50 years ago, and therefore, interventions should consider all such domains in the development of effective treatment strategies. Provide an overview of which patients with PE are suitable to receive psychosexual treatment and the psychological approaches for managing this disorder. Review of the literature. Psychosexual treatments that integrate behavioral, psychological, and relationship functioning. PE is typically a couple's problem and, therefore, psychotherapy is best when the partner is involved. Before embarking on psychotherapy, the clinician should obtain a medical history pertaining to sexual-, psychological-, and relationship-related factors, so that the treatment strategy can be tailored to the needs of the individual. General strategies underpinning integrative, "process-oriented" elements of psychotherapy most relevant to PE are: developing the therapist-patient relationship; expressing empathy, genuineness, and positive regard; motivational interviewing, i.e., developing motivation to change; developing discrepancy; working through resistance; identifying PE-related affect, cognitions, and behaviors (including interaction with partners); and supporting self-efficacy. The four main domains that encompass psychotherapy techniques specific to the treatment of PE are: behavioral; cognitive; affective; and relational. Sustained positive outcomes in PE may be obtained using a combination treatment strategy that addresses all elements of PE, including psychological and biological factors. Psychosexual treatments

  18. Psychotherapy of the child with true brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Adolph E

    1978-07-01

    Psychotherapy of the child with true brain damage presents special problems and requires special approaches. Those who are cognitively primitive--at the sensorimotor or preoperational stage of development--require a crisis approach; those at the concrete or formal operational stage can be treated with a modified insight-oriented approach. Development of a therapeutic alliance, establishment of workable defense mechanisms, identification and clarification of unalterable cognitive defects and issues of termination unique to this special population are discussed.

  19. The effect of interpersonal psychotherapy on marriage adaptive and postpartum depression in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hajiheidari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of this research confirm marriage interpersonal psychotherapy on the depression recovery and the increasing marriage satisfaction of women suffering from postpartum depression.

  20. “Gold Standards,” Plurality and Monocultures: The Need for Diversity in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Abbass, Allan; Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Luyten, Patrick; Munder, Thomas; Rabung, Sven; Steinert, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    For psychotherapy of mental disorders, presently several approaches are available, such as interpersonal, humanistic, systemic, psychodynamic or cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Pointing to the available evidence, proponents of CBT claim that CBT is the gold standard. Some authors even argue for an integrated CBT-based form of psychotherapy as the only form of psychotherapy. CBT undoubtedly has its strengths and CBT researchers have to be credited for developing and testing treatments for many mental disorders. A critical review, however, shows that the available evidence for the theoretical foundations of CBT, assumed mechanisms of change, quality of studies, and efficacy is not as robust as some researchers claim. Most important, there is no consistent evidence that CBT is more efficacious than other evidence-based approaches. These findings do not justify regarding CBT as the gold standard psychotherapy. They even provide less justification for the idea that the future of psychotherapy lies in one integrated CBT-based form of psychotherapy as the only type of psychotherapy. For the different psychotherapeutic approaches a growing body of evidence is available. These approaches have their strengths because of differences in their respective focus on interpersonal relationships, affects, cognitions, systemic perspectives, experiential, or unconscious processes. Different approaches may be suitable to different patients and therapists. As generally assumed, progress in research results from openness to new ideas and learning from diverse perspectives. Thus, different forms of evidence-based psychotherapy are required. Plurality is the future of psychotherapy, not a uniform “one fits all” approach. PMID:29740361

  1. Review: Mäder, Maya (2017: Selbsterfahrung in der Psychotherapie (Self experience in Psychotherapy, Die Bedeutung für den Kompetenzerwerb in der Aus- und Weiterbildung zum transaktionalytischen Psychotherapeuten (The significance for getting competence in training of transactional psychotherapy Münster: Waxmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Mohr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Review: Mäder, Maya (2017: Selbsterfahrung in der Psychotherapie (Self experience in Psychotherapy, Die Bedeutung für den Kompetenzerwerb in der Aus- und Weiterbildung zum transaktionalytischen Psychotherapeuten (The significance for getting competence in training of transactional psychotherapy Münster: Waxmann   Citation - APA format: Mohr, G. (2017. Review: Mäder, Maya (2017: Selbsterfahrung in der Psychotherapie (Self experience in Psychotherapy, Die Bedeutung für den Kompetenzerwerb in der Aus- und Weiterbildung zum transaktionalytischen Psychotherapeuten (The significance for getting competence in training of transactional psychotherapy Münster: Waxmann. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 8(2, 49-50.

  2. [Multiprofessional inpatient psychotherapy of depression in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanel, N; Kundermann, B; Franz, M; Müller, M J

    2017-11-01

    Depression is common in old age but is often underdiagnosed and inadequately treated. Although psychotherapy is considered effective for treating elderly patients with depression, it is rarely applied in inpatient settings. Furthermore, treatment on inpatient units specialized for elderly patients and implementation of a psychotherapeutic treatment approach are currently more the exception. From this background, a multiprofessional inpatient behavioral treatment program (MVT) for elderly depressed patients was developed at a specialized unit of a university-affiliated regional psychiatric hospital. The MVT is based on specific and modularized group therapies accompanied by individual therapeutic interventions. While the provision of group therapies (such as psychotherapy, social skills training, relaxation training, euthymic and mindfulness-based methods, exercise and occupational therapy as well as psychoeducational sessions for relatives) is assigned to specific professional groups, a joint multiprofessional treatment planning is of central relevance. First evaluations of different treatment components support the high acceptability of the MVT and highlight that psychotherapeutic inpatient treatment programs for the elderly are feasible. Further research is required to investigate the clinical efficacy of psychotherapy in elderly depressive inpatients.

  3. [Psychotherapy of Depression as Neurobiological Process - Evidence from Neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubart, Antonie; Hohagen, Fritz; Zurowski, Bartosz

    2018-06-01

    Research on neurobiological effects of psychotherapy in depression facilitates the improvement of treatment strategies. The cortico-limbic dysregulation model serves as a framework for numerous studies on neurobiological changes in depression. In this model, depression is described as hypoactivation of dorsal cortical brain regions in conjunction with hyperactivation of ventral paralimbic regions. This assumption has been supported by various studies of structural and functional brain abnormalities in depression. However, also regions not included in the original cortico-limbic dysregulation model, such as the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, seem to play an important role in depression. Functional connectivity studies of depression have revealed an enhanced connectivity within the so-called default mode network which is involved in self-referential thinking. Studies also point to a normalization of limbic and cortical brain activity, especially in the anterior cingulate cortex, during psychotherapy. Some neurobiological markers like the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum and insula as well as hippocampal volume have been proposed to predict treatment response on a group-level. The activity of the anterior insula appears to be a candidate bio-marker for differential indication for psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. The cortico-limbic dysregulation model and following research have inspired new forms of treatment for depression like deep brain stimulation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, neurofeedback and attention training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  5. How Can Geography and Mobile Phones Contribute to Psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrás, Carlos; García, Yolanda; Aguilera, Adrián; Rocha, Álvaro

    2017-06-01

    Interdisciplinary relationships between Geography and Psychotherapy are an opportunity for innovation. Indeed, scientific works found on bibliographic databases and concerning this theme are scarce. Geographical sub-fields, such as the Geography of Emotions or Psychoanalytical Geography have started to emerge, theorizing about and interpreting feelings, emotions, moods, sufferings, of the chronically ill or diversified social groups and sites. But a less theoretical and more practical approach, in the sense of proposing, predicting and intervening, is lacking; as well as research into the possibilities offered by communication technologies and mobile phones. In the present work, we present the results of a review of the most relevant scientific works published internationally; we reflect on the contributions of Geography and mobile phones to psychosocial therapies and define the orientation and questions that should be posed in future research, from the point of view of geography and regarding psychotherapy. We conclude that the production of georeferenced data via mobile phones concerning the daily lives of people opens great possibilities for cognitive behavioural therapy and mental health. They allow for the development of personalized mood maps that locate the places where a person experiences greater or lesser stress on a daily basis; they allow for a cartography of emotions, a cognitive cartography of the places we access physically or through the Internet, of our feelings and psychosocial experiences. They open the door to the possibility of offering personalized psychotherapy treatments focusing on the ecological-environmental analysis of the places frequented by the person on a daily basis.

  6. AN INTEGRATIVE GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN. THE WIZARDING SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria Popescu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tendencies in child psychotherapy is the integration of various psychotherapeutic approaches and technical interventions belonging to different orientations. Based on the Harry Potter stories, the „Wizarding School” structured group therapy program is a 12-step integratively oriented program applicable in personal development, individual and group therapy for children aged 6 to 13 (at present being adapted for adult psychotherapy. The program takes place within a fairy tale, being therefore a type of informal hypnotic trance. The interventions are drawn from the lessons described in Harry Potter’s story at Hogwarts, based on the fundamental principles of child psychotherapy and including elements of play therapy, art therapy, hypnotherapy, cognitive- behavioural therapy, transactional analysis, supportive therapy, family therapy and person centred therapy. From a theoretical point of view the program is based on elements from a number of psychotherapeutic approaches, the main concept being that we need to create a therapeutic myth that is acceptable to a child. The program is not suitable for children with structural deficits, who have difficulties in making the difference between fantasy and reality.

  7. [Integrative approach in the psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years six psychotherapy methods have been developed specifically for borderline personality disorder. Solid RCT evidences suggests the efficacy of all the methods. Roughly equivalent improvement was obtained from the different types of psychotherapies. Today we have reached a new phase of the borderline "psychotherapy boom", the integrative approach. According to the integrative treatment advocates we should not choose among these effective treatments but we can incorporate in the therapy all the components that work. The integrative approach uses general factors common to all effective therapies, combined with specific treatment techniques taken from different therapies in order to treat the given patient's psychopathology. These common factors are: coherent framework; attention to strategies for building strong positive alliance and maintaining patient motivation; creating a safe and structured therapeutic environment; clear treatment frame; transparency of the goals and roles; focus upon presenting problems; higher level therapeutic activity; here-and-now focus; and facilitating self-reflection. Treatment focuses on change while maintaining a validating and supportive stance. General strategies can be supplemented by more specific techniques such as cognitive-behavioral interventions for reducing maladaptive behavior, training for developing emotion regulation skills and interpersonal skills coming from dialectical behavior therapy. Methods drawn from psychodynamic approaches can be used for the modification of underlying interpersonal cognitive-emotional schemas.

  8. Incorporation of massage into psychotherapy: an integrative and conjoint approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Parekh-Bhurke, Sheetal

    2011-02-01

    This article presents the potential integration of psychotherapy and massage when considering the essence of their beneficial effects. The essence of this model of practice is multifaceted, combining principles from anatomy, physiology and neuroscience with psychotherapy to benefit patient care. It has been advocated that possessing multidisciplinary knowledge from these areas of science enhances psychotherapists' holistic care of their depressive patients. A narrative review of the literatures and a qualitative, conceptual synthesis has been performed to create a new theoretical-pragmatic construct. This article introduces the concept of massage practice as a part of psychotherapy practice and presents the potential integration of psychotherapeutic knowledge with clinical decision-making and the management of depressive symptoms. The authors emphasize the usefulness of multi- and interdisciplinary knowledge in the psychotherapeutic process and explain how this knowledge might be extrapolated and incorporated into theoretical and practical settings to benefit depressive patients. The justification for this concept is also presented. The principles set out in this article may be a useful source of information for psychotherapists concerned about their patients' holistic well-being in addition to the psychopathology for which they have sought treatment. Researchers and psychotherapists can obtain valuable and additional knowledge through cross-fertilization of ideas across the arguments presented here.

  9. The State of the Art of Group Psychotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Taboada, Cristina; Amutio, Alberto; Elgorriaga, Edurne; Arnoso, Ainara

    2015-10-01

    (1) What is the history and the theoretical orientation of group therapy in Spain? (2) How is training organized? (3) What role does group psychotherapy play in the health system in Spain? (4) What is the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice in Spain? (5) What topics can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Spain? (6) How are group-related issues important within the social background of Spain? and (7) What does group work hold for the future? Although not even a century has passed since the birth of this discipline, there have already been many events associated with the management of power and knowledge, the development of a sense of community, and the evolution of the political and social life of our country. Group therapy training is still evolving and is properly supported and accredited by prestigious institutions. In the 2013 Symposium of the Spanish Society of Group Psychotherapy and Group Techniques (SEPTG), the need for joint group theories and techniques within the profession's activities was clearly highlighted. Further, the enthusiasm of group psychotherapists to open themselves to specific social perspectives (health, education, community prevention, organizations) is a way of encouraging society to untangle conscious and unconscious knots that are created in social interaction.

  10. Development of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.

    1993-01-01

    Description of all contrast media (ionic and nonionic monomers, ionic and nonionic dimers) was presented. Chemotoxicity, osmolality and viscosity of some contrast agents were analyzed. The main adverse reactions to ionic and nonionic contrast media were described

  11. NICE recommendations for psychotherapy in depression: Of limited clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, D; Smith, P St John

    2015-01-01

    In 2009/10 NICE partially updated its guidelines on the treatment and management of depression in adults. Due to methodological shortcomings the recommendations for psychotherapy must be treated with caution. Despite recognising the heterogeneous and comorbid nature of depression, and the limitations of depression as a unitary diagnostic category, NICE treats depression as if it were a unitary entity differentiated only by severity. The guidance ignores important aetiological factors such as trauma, loss and maltreatment, personality and interpersonal difficulties. It excludes the largest naturalistic studies on clinical populations treated in the National Health Service on the grounds that they are observational studies conducted in heterogeneous groups with mixed neurotic disorders. It unquestioningly accepts that the "brand" of psychotherapy has construct validity, and ignores psychotherapy process research indicating significant commonalities, and overlap, between treatment modalities and evidence that individual practitioner effects are larger than the differences between treatment modalities. It fails to consider patient differences and preferences, which are known to influence uptake, completion and response. It takes an exclusively short-term perspective on a chronic relapsing disorder. It does not consider the evidence for longer-term treatments. It is of special concern that NICE misrepresents the findings of its own systematic review by implying that CBT and IPT are superior treatments. NICE's systematic review actually found no evidence of superiority between CBT, IPT, psychodynamic psychotherapy, or counselling. Based on the exclusion of much clinically relevant research demonstrating the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy and counselling many commentators have alleged a bias towards CBT in the guidance. With regard to service delivery NICE proposes the replacement of psychiatric assessment and individualised treatment plans, with an unproven

  12. Place of psychotherapy in psychology movement toward cognitivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychology striving to make us more aware of our own nature dominantly, if not exclusively, is realized through psychotherapy. Psychotherapy as a praxis of psychology, which only follows the psychological theory and without it we can hardly call it that, is largely dependent on the prevailing social trends and the dominant form of pathology that can occur in them. That theoretical aspects of many forms of pathology are not completely understood and not give the right to cancel the search for the unconscious forces that determine the subject. Dominant tendencies in contemporary psychology not only do not favor psychotherapy, but are directly aimed against it. At least against that psychotherapy which is based on the split subject, the interior space in which the physical and perceptual sensations, moral rules, mood depression and everything else that we call 'mental'. The great danger that is above psycho­therapy activity comes by pharmacology and cognitivism (lat. Cognitio 'knowledge' and the intellectual soul. Equating the mind and the brain makes psychotherapy unnecessary in relation to the pharmacology whose power impact becomes decisive on each deviation and every suffering. The fact that in the psychology shortens the long and uncertain path of mental knowledge that does not correspond to the nature of 'psychological' seems to be replaced by those efforts which are only concerned with the question of science. The fact that there is no comprehensive theory of emotions that can not be resolved by cognitivism which is opposite to emotional. Rorty's cynicism towards such efforts, which emphasize that the spirit is the same as that stimulate the brain and that the theorem symphonies and excreted in the same way that the spleen is excreted dark juices (Rorty 1990: 54 exhorts the psychology of the fact that instead of being which has a spirit, that is different from the 'physical body', 'matter', the central nervous system, has been the

  13. Radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, K.; Holtz, E.; Almen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast media are used in diagnostic radiology to enhance the X-ray attenuation between a body structure of interest and the surrounding tissue. A detail becomes perceptible on a roentgenogram only when its contrast exceeds a minimum value in relation to the background. Small areas of interest must have higher contrast than the background. The contrast effect depends on concentration of the contrast media with the body. A high contrast media concentration difference thus gives rise to more morphological details in the radiographs. Contrast media can be divided into negative contrast media such as air and gas which attenuate X-rays less than the body tissues, and positive contrast materials which attenuate X-rays more than the body tissues. The positive contrast media all contain either iodine (atomic number 53) or barium (atomic number 56) and can be divided into water-insoluble and water-soluble contrast media

  14. Predictive value of object relations for therapeutic alliance and outcome in psychotherapy for depression: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Henricus L; Hendriksen, Mariëlle; Schoevers, Robert A; Peen, Jaap; Abraham, Robert A; Dekker, Jack

    2008-09-01

    The concept of object relations has been shown to be relevant for the process and outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapies. However, little is known about its relevance for the psychotherapeutic treatment of depression. In this study, we explored the predictive value of object relational functioning (ORF) for the therapeutic alliance and outcome of short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy in patients with mild to moderately severe depression. The ORF of 81 patients was rated by using the Developmental Profile. The overall maturity of ORF measured at baseline was higher in patients who showed a better treatment response. In multiple regression analysis, the adaptive level of individuation appeared to be specifically predictive of outcome. Patients with a recurrent depression showed less mature levels of ORF, lower adaptive levels and a higher score on the symbiotic level. No association was found between ORF and therapeutic alliance during treatment. In contrast to the single measure of alliance early in therapy, the growth of the alliance was related to outcome. The study indicated the relevance of ORF for depression and established that it is distinctive from the actual therapeutic alliance.

  15. The role of emotional intelligence in symptom reduction after psychotherapy in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Schalken, P.; Meertens, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Emotional intelligence of the patient has been claimed to potentially be an important factor in psychotherapy. Empirical studies are largely lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine if (i) pre-intervention emotional intelligence predicts outcome of psychotherapy and (ii) change

  16. Zen Buddhism and the Psychotherapy of Milton Erickson: A Transcendence of Theory and Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susan Kelly; Forman, Bruce D.

    1989-01-01

    Compares Zen Buddhism and psychotherapy of Milton Erickson. Explores their similarities with respect to theory, change relationship between teacher/student and therapist/client, and acceptance of nature. Compares Ericksonian psychotherapy with Zen-based Morita therapy to concretize philosophical underpinnings of both systems. (Author/ABL)

  17. Can Independent Judges Recognize Different Psychotherapies? An Experience with Manual-Guided Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luborsky, Lester; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested whether independent judges could recognize three different manual-guided psychotherapies, drug counseling, supportive-expressive psychotherapy, and cognitive-behavioral using a special rating form containing scales for the characteristic aspects of each type. Results indicated that manual-guided therapies can be reliably recognized.…

  18. A Review of Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Considerations for School-Based Mental Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkelback, Emily A.; Reese, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating psychotherapeutic outcome is an important endeavor given psychology's focus on identifying effective treatments. There is ample evidence to suggest that psychotherapy interventions for children and adolescents are effective. Unfortunately, the child and adolescent psychotherapy outcome literature lags behind the adult-focused outcome…

  19. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A): A Case Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Elisabeth Baerg; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the treatment of a depressed adolescent (15 years of age) boy using Interpersonal Psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). IPT-A is an empirically supported psychosocial intervention for adolescents suffering from a depressive episode. It is delivered as an individual psychotherapy with a minimum of parental…

  20. Interpersonal Psychotherapy with a Parenting Enhancement Adapted for In-Home Delivery in Early Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, Linda S.; Schwartz, Todd A.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia; Matsuda, Yui

    2014-01-01

    Formidable barriers prevent low-income mothers from accessing evidence-based treatment for depressive symptoms that compromise their ability to provide sensitive, responsive parenting for their infant or toddler. interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), an evidence-based psychotherapy for depression, was tailored for in-home delivery to mothers…

  1. Psychotherapy use in bipolar disorder: Association with functioning and illness severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Louisa G; Thase, Michael E; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Salcedo, Stephanie; Brody, Benjamin; Kinrys, Gustavo; Kemp, David; Shelton, Richard C; McElroy, Susan L; Kocsis, James H; Bobo, William V; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin; Friedman, Edward; Tohen, Mauricio; Bowden, Charles L; Ketter, Terence A; Singh, Vivek; Calabrese, Joseph; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Rabideau, Dustin J; Elson, Constance M; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2015-05-01

    This study examines characteristics of individuals with bipolar disorder who sought psychotherapy versus those who did not. Bipolar CHOICE was an 11-site comparative effectiveness study of lithium versus quetiapine in symptomatic outpatients (N = 482) with bipolar disorder. At baseline, participants' psychotherapy use within the past 3 months, mood, functioning, and overall health were assessed. Logistic regressions were used to test whether psychotherapy users and non-users differed on various demographic and clinical variables at baseline. Mixed-effects regression was used to determine whether psychotherapy groups differed on response to treatment over the 6-month study. Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank tests were employed to test whether there were any differences in time to recovery (CGI-BP ≤ 2 for at least 8 weeks) between the groups. Thirty one percent of participants reported using psychotherapy services. Psychotherapy users reported greater medication side effect burden than non-users and were more likely to have moderate to high suicide risk and at least one anxiety disorder. Participants not utilizing medications or psychotherapy had greater mania symptom severity, were younger, and less educated than medication only users. Medication only users were more likely to be married than the other participants. These data suggest that a minority of individuals with bipolar disorder attend psychotherapy services, and those that do have greater illness burden. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Direct-Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish, Steven G.; Quintana, Stephen; Wampold, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a culturally encapsulated healing practice that is created from and dedicated to specific cultural contexts (Frank & Frank, 1993; Wampold, 2007; Wrenn, 1962). Consequently, conventional psychotherapy is a practice most suitable for dominant cultural groups within North America and Western Europe but may be culturally incongruent…

  3. Can Two Psychotherapy Process Measures Be Dependably Rated Simultaneously? A Generalizability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvenes, Pal G.; Berggraf, Lene; Hoffart, Asle; Levy, Raymon A.; Ablon, J. Stuart; McCullough, Leigh; Wampold, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Observer ratings in psychotherapy are a common way of collecting information in psychotherapy research. However, human observers are imperfect instruments, and their ratings may be subject to variability from several sources. One source of variability can be raters' assessing more than 1 instrument at a time. The purpose of this research is to…

  4. Gestalt Therapy: Student Perceptions of Fritz Perls in "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Joe; Jacobus, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    The "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy" ("TAP") videotape series introduces students to three major schools of psychotherapy: client-centered therapy, Gestalt therapy, and rational-emotive therapy. A sample of undergraduate students viewed the "TAP" series. The students were surveyed about their observations of…

  5. Solicited Diary Studies of Psychotherapy in Qualitative Research - Pros and Cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  6. The First Trial of the P Technique in Psychotherapy Research: A Still-Lively Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luborsky, Lester

    1995-01-01

    Reexamines a 49-year-old study of P technique applied to a psychotherapy patient with a recurrent physical symptom. Explores dimensions of psychotherapeutic change as well as the context for the recurrent symptom. Illustrates the contributions from applying the P technique to psychotherapy research, to psychosomatic medicine, and to personality…

  7. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  8. Individual psychotherapy for schizophrenia: trends and developments in the wake of the recovery movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamm JA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jay A Hamm,1 Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon,2 Marina Kukla,3 Paul H Lysaker11Richard L Roudebush VA Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Bar-Ilan University, Department of Psychology, Ramat Gan, Israel; 3Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence on Implementing Evidence-Based Practice, Richard L Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Although the role and relative prominence of psychotherapy in the treatment of schizophrenia has fluctuated over time, an analysis of the history of psychotherapy for schizophrenia, focusing on findings from the recovery movement, reveals recent trends including the emergence of the development of integrative psychotherapy approaches. The authors suggest that the recovery movement has revealed limitations in traditional approaches to psychotherapy, and has provided opportunities for integrative approaches to emerge as a mechanism for promoting recovery in persons with schizophrenia. Five approaches to integrative psychotherapy for persons with schizophrenia are presented, and a shared conceptual framework that allows these five approaches to be compatible with one another is proposed. The conceptual framework is consistent with theories of recovery and emphasizes interpersonal attachment, personal narrative, and metacognitive processes. Implications for future research on integrative psychotherapy are considered.Keywords: schizophrenia, psychotherapy, recovery, metacognition, psychosis, integrative psychotherapy

  9. Research on Psychotherapy Integration: Recommendations and Conclusions from an NIMH Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Barry E.; Goldfried, Marvin R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) workshop (March 1986) which invited 14 psychotherapy researchers to consider key issues associated with psychotherapy integration. Discusses recommendations developed to initiate a research program encompassing conceptual clarification, efficacy studies of systematic eclectic therapies, the role…

  10. A Pilot Use of Team-Based Learning in Psychiatry Resident Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchet, Bryan K.; Coon, Kim A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Demonstrating psychotherapy competency in trainees will test the resources of psychiatry training programs. The authors outline the phases of team-based learning (TBL). Methods: The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Tulsa (OUCM-T), Department of Psychiatry reorganized its psychodynamic psychotherapy didactic course using TBL.…

  11. Adapting Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Older Adults at Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J.; Talbot, Nancy L.; King, Deborah A.; Tu, Xin M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To pilot a psychological intervention adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide. Design A focused, uncontrolled, pre-to-post-treatment psychotherapy trial. All eligible participants were offered the study intervention. Setting Outpatient mental healthcare provided in the psychiatry department of an academic medical center in a mid-sized Canadian city. Participants Seventeen English-speaking adults 60 years or older, at- risk for suicide by virtue of current suicide ideation, death ideation, and/or recent self-injury. Intervention A 16-session course of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide who were receiving medication and/or other standard psychiatric treatment for underlying mood disorders. Measurements Participants completed a demographics form, screens for cognitive impairment and alcohol misuse, a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and measures of primary (suicide ideation and death ideation), and secondary study outcomes (depressive symptom severity; social adjustment and support; psychological well-being), and psychotherapy process measures. Results Participants experienced significant reductions in suicide ideation, death ideation, and depressive symptom severity, and significant improvement in perceived meaning in life, social adjustment, perceived social support, and other psychological well-being variables. Conclusions Study participants experienced enhanced psychological well-being and reduced symptoms of depression and suicide ideation over the course of IPT adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide. Larger, controlled trials are needed to further evaluate the impact of this novel intervention and to test methods for translating and integrating focused interventions into standard clinical care with at-risk older adults. PMID:24840611

  12. Adapting interpersonal psychotherapy for older adults at risk for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J; Talbot, Nancy L; King, Deborah A; Tu, Xin M; Duberstein, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    To pilot a psychological intervention adapted for older adults at risk for suicide. A focused, uncontrolled, pre-to-post-treatment psychotherapy trial. All eligible participants were offered the study intervention. Outpatient mental health care provided in the psychiatry department of an academic medical center in a mid-sized Canadian city. Seventeen English-speaking adults 60 years or older, at risk for suicide by virtue of current suicide ideation, death ideation, and/or recent self-injury. A 16-session course of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) adapted for older adults at risk for suicide who were receiving medication and/or other standard psychiatric treatment for underlying mood disorders. Participants completed a demographics form, screens for cognitive impairment and alcohol misuse, a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and measures of primary (suicide ideation and death ideation) and secondary study outcomes (depressive symptom severity, social adjustment and support, psychological well-being), and psychotherapy process measures. Participants experienced significant reductions in suicide ideation, death ideation, and depressive symptom severity, and significant improvement in perceived meaning in life, social adjustment, perceived social support, and other psychological well-being variables. Study participants experienced enhanced psychological well-being and reduced symptoms of depression and suicide ideation over the course of IPT adapted for older adults at risk for suicide. Larger, controlled trials are needed to further evaluate the impact of this novel intervention and to test methods for translating and integrating focused interventions into standard clinical care with at-risk older adults. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Systematic Review of the Combined Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychotherapy for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Shawn M.; Brandon, Anna R.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, after acute phase treatment and initial remission, relapse rates are significant. Strategies to prolong remission include continuation phase ECT, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or their combinations. This systematic review synthesizes extant data regarding the combined use of psychotherapy with ECT for the treatment of patients with severe MDD and offers the hypothesis that augmenting ECT with depression-specific psychotherapy represents a promising strategy for future investigation. Methods The authors performed two independent searches in PsychInfo (1806 – 2009) and MEDLINE (1948 – 2009) using combinations of the following search terms: Electroconvulsive Therapy (including ECT, ECT therapy, electroshock therapy, EST, shock therapy) and Psychotherapy (including cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, group, psychodynamic, psychoanalytic, individual, eclectic, and supportive). We included in this review a total of six articles (English language) that mentioned ECT and psychotherapy in the abstract, and provided a case report, series, or clinical trial. We examined the articles for data related to ECT and psychotherapy treatment characteristics, cohort characteristics, and therapeutic outcome. Results Although research over the past seven decades documenting the combined use of ECT and psychotherapy is limited, the available evidence suggests that testing this combination has promise and may confer additional, positive functional outcomes. Conclusions Significant methodological variability in ECT and psychotherapy procedures, heterogeneous patient cohorts, and inconsistent outcome measures prevent strong conclusions; however, existing research supports the need for future investigations of combined ECT and psychotherapy in well-designed, controlled clinical studies. Depression-specific psychotherapy approaches may need special

  14. Psychotherapy role expectations and experiences - discrepancy and therapeutic alliance among patients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, My; Philips, Björn; Wennberg, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of the study was to examine how the discrepancy between role expectations prior to psychotherapy and experiences of ongoing psychotherapy related to therapeutic alliance. We hypothesized that a similarity between patient role expectations and experiences would be associated with a stronger alliance. The study also examined whether different dimensions of psychotherapy role expectations predicted retention in psychotherapy. A naturalistic study design was used with data collected prior to therapy and during the first 6 months of therapy. Patients with substance use disorders completed the Psychotherapy Expectation Questionnaire-short version (PEX-S) at the time of therapy assessment. A subsample of these patients (n = 41; n = 24 in individual therapy and n = 17 in group therapy) provided data from therapy including psychotherapy experiences (also measured with PEX-S) and therapeutic alliance, measured with Working Alliance Questionnaire-short version. For patients in group therapy, discrepancy between role expectations and experiences correlated negatively with alliance. Expectations prior to psychotherapy characterized by defensiveness correlated negatively with therapy retention. The finding that disconfirmation of patients' role expectations in group therapy were associated with weaker therapeutic alliance highlights the importance of discussing psychotherapy expectations at an early stage in treatment. Expectations characterized by defensiveness predicted worse retention in psychotherapy, which indicates that the PEX-S can be helpful in detecting patients at risk for dropout. In targeting a patient's role expectancies prior to treatment, possible discrepancies between patient and therapist are made visible and possible to examine. Clarifying the patient's role expectations and the therapist's rationale might be a first step towards establishing a strong working alliance. Surveying the patient's defensiveness tendencies at the beginning of therapy

  15. The effect of medical comorbidities on male and female Veterans' use of psychotherapy for PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Greenbaum, Mark A; Zulman, Donna M; Rosen, Craig S

    2015-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk for medical comorbidities that may prevent participation in psychotherapy. The present study investigated whether medical comorbidities were associated with lower initiation rates and fewer psychotherapy visits for PTSD. Because women are more likely to initiate psychotherapy after traumatic events, we also assessed whether relationships were weaker among women. Veterans (N=482, 47% women) recently diagnosed with PTSD completed a survey assessing demographics, mood, functional status, and interest in treatment. Data on medical comorbidities, psychotherapy visits, antidepressant prescriptions, and service connection were assessed longitudinally through administrative files. Logistic and negative binomial regressions assessed associations between number of medical comorbidities in the 2 years before the survey and the initiation and number of psychotherapy visits for PTSD in the year after the survey. All analyses were stratified by sex and controlled for survey and administrative variables. The relationship between medical comorbidities and number of psychotherapy visits was stronger among women than among men. A greater number of medical comorbidities was associated with significantly fewer psychotherapy visits in the total sample [incidence rate ratio: 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 1.00] and among women (incidence rate ratio: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.99), but not among men (95% CI: 0.75, 1.01). Medical comorbidities were not associated with the initiation of psychotherapy among men or women. Addressing medical comorbidities may help individuals remain in psychotherapy for PTSD. Medical comorbidities may play a larger role in the number of psychotherapy visits among women than men.

  16. The Perception of Changes Among Participants of Drug Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Opora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive changes among addicted people usually don’t happen by themselves, but they are results of the process which stays under the impact of the aspirations, values and priorities of the person at the moment. Enhancing the motivation of addicted people requires a huge effort from them what helps in making changes in the life style. The presented article contains results of the research. The main aim was describing critical events, which appeared among people addicted to drugs and made them to change their life styles. Additionally the article describes an classifies changes which were noticed by the participants of the stationary psychotherapy of drug addiction.

  17. Clients experience of video recordings of their psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Jensen, Karen Boelt; Madsen, Ninna Skov

    the current relatively widespread use video one finds only a very limited numbers empirical study of how these recordings is experienced by the clients. Aim: After a brief discussion of the pro and cons of the use of video recordings this paper presents a qualitative, explorative study of clients’ experiences......Background: Due to the development of technologies and the low costs video recording of psychotherapy sessions have gained ground in training and supervision. While some praise the advantages others decline to use this technological aid for ethical, theoretical or clinical reasons. Despite...

  18. Evidence-based Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Cătălin; Reiner, Melita; Schütz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) Framework has enjoyed enormous popularity in the field of applied psychology. NLP has been used in business, education, law, medicine and psychotherapy to identify people's patterns and alter their responses to stimuli, so they are better able to regulate their environment and themselves. NLP looks at achieving goals, creating stable relationships, eliminating barriers such as fears and phobias, building self-confidence, and self-esteem, and achieving peak performance. Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt) encompasses NLP as framework and set of interventions in the treatment of individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. We aimed systematically to analyse the available data regarding the effectiveness of Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt). The present work is a meta-analysis of studies, observational or randomized controlled trials, for evaluating the efficacy of Neuro Linguistic Programming in individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. The databases searched to identify studies in English and German language: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library; PubMed; ISI Web of Knowledge (include results also from Medline and the Web of Science); PsycINFO (including PsycARTICLES); Psyndex; Deutschsprachige Diplomarbeiten der Psychologie (database of theses in Psychology in German language), Social SciSearch; National library of health and two NLP-specific research databases: one from the NLP Community (http://www.nlp.de/cgi-bin/research/nlprdb.cgi?action=res_entries) and one from the NLP Group (http://www.nlpgrup.com/bilimselarastirmalar/bilimsel-arastirmalar-4.html#Zweig154). From a total number of 425 studies, 350 were removed and considered not relevant based on the title and abstract. Included, in the final analysis, are 12 studies with numbers of participants ranging between 12 and 115 subjects. The vast majority of studies were prospective observational. The actual paper represents the first

  19. Man-boy lovers: assessment, counseling, and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Naerssen, A

    1990-01-01

    Clinical experiences with 36 males, between the ages of 21 and 60 are described. All of them felt an enduring sexual attraction for boys. Sixteen males were treated for sexual identity conflicts. For eight of them this ended in a positive self-labeling as pedophile, the others had severe problems with accepting sexuality as positive and lustful. Twenty males were treated for identity management problems and counseled how to handle their relationships with boys. Several modalities of interpersonal interaction in man-boy relationships are proposed and the ways conflicts can arise within these frames of reference are explored in counseling and psychotherapy.

  20. Making a case for case studies in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward; Iwakabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    articulated explicitly or researched systematically in spite of its cardinal importance. An analysis of the role of case studies in psychotherapy training is presented. Reading, watching, or hearing about cases can offer novice psychotherapists access to a closed world; access to psychological theory...... in action; access to whole courses of therapy; access to different approaches; access to significant moments; access to the therapeutic relationship; access to a wide range of client types; access to working in different contexts; and the opportunity of identifying with therapists and clients. Writing...

  1. The experience in diagnosis and psychotherapy of students’ anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokoumova G.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses the concept and types of anxiety, the characteristics of student age, describes the experience of diagnosis and psychotherapy of students’ anxiety during the examination session by the scientific student laboratory. The work consists of 3 stages: 1 ascertaining stage – the aim is to analyze the level of students’ anxiety; 2 psycho-corrective stage – the aim is to optimize and reduce the level of anxiety of students in the examination period; 3 controlling stage – the aim is to analyze the influence of the method of desensitization and reprocessing trauma by eye movements (EMDR on the level of students’ anxiety.

  2. THE ROLE OF PSYCHOTHERAPY IN ALLERGY—Credits and Debits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmay, Elizabeth A.

    1953-01-01

    Psychological problems play an important role in the production and exacerbation of allergic disease, just as they do in other illnesses, especially those of a chronic nature entailing economic and social problems. Some psychotherapy is implicit in the practice of all physicians. While most patients make satisfactory progress with whatever treatment is outlined, a few do not, and they may be helped if a little extra time is taken to investigate and rebalance their mental environment. In the treatment of patients with allergic disease, dealing with emotional problems is considered as adjunctive to specific desensitization. PMID:13042681

  3. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic me...

  4. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...

  5. Psychotherapy and medication management strategies for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougle CJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Kelda H Walsh, Christopher J McDougleDepartment of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a chronic anxiety disorder. While medication and psychotherapy advances have been very helpful to patients, many patients do not respond adequately to initial trials of serotonergic medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and require multiple treatment trials or combination therapies. Comorbidity may also influence treatment response. The role of streptococcal infections in pediatric OCD has become an area of intense scrutiny and controversy. In this article, current treatment methods for OCD will be reviewed, with special attention to strategies for treating OCD in children and in patients with comorbid tic disorders. Alternative psychotherapy strategies for patients who are highly anxious about starting CBT, such as cognitive therapy or augmentation with D-cycloserine, will be reviewed. Newer issues regarding use of antibiotics, neuroleptics, and glutamate modulators in OCD treatment will also be explored.Keywords: OCD, exposure/response prevention therapy, PANDAS, tic disorder

  6. An Integrative Theory of Psychotherapy: Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Seymour; Epstein, Martha L

    2016-06-01

    A dual-process personality theory and supporting research are presented. The dual processes comprise an experiential system and a rational system. The experiential system is an adaptive, associative learning system that humans share with other higher-order animals. The rational system is a uniquely human, primarily verbal, reasoning system. It is assumed that when humans developed language they did not abandon their previous ways of adapting, they simply added language to their experiential system. The two systems are assumed to operate in parallel and are bi-directionally interactive. The validity of these assumptions is supported by extensive research. Of particular relevance for psychotherapy, the experiential system, which is compatible with evolutionary theory, replaces the Freudian maladaptive unconscious system that is indefensible from an evolutionary perspective, as sub-human animals would then have only a single system that is maladaptive. The aim of psychotherapy is to produce constructive changes in the experiential system. Changes in the rational system are useful only to the extent that they contribute to constructive changes in the experiential system.

  7. The Mathematics of Psychotherapy: A Nonlinear Model of Change Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Gunter; Aas, Benjamin; Viol, Kathrin

    2016-07-01

    Psychotherapy is a dynamic process produced by a complex system of interacting variables. Even though there are qualitative models of such systems the link between structure and function, between network and network dynamics is still missing. The aim of this study is to realize these links. The proposed model is composed of five state variables (P: problem severity, S: success and therapeutic progress, M: motivation to change, E: emotions, I: insight and new perspectives) interconnected by 16 functions. The shape of each function is modified by four parameters (a: capability to form a trustful working alliance, c: mentalization and emotion regulation, r: behavioral resources and skills, m: self-efficacy and reward expectation). Psychologically, the parameters play the role of competencies or traits, which translate into the concept of control parameters in synergetics. The qualitative model was transferred into five coupled, deterministic, nonlinear difference equations generating the dynamics of each variable as a function of other variables. The mathematical model is able to reproduce important features of psychotherapy processes. Examples of parameter-dependent bifurcation diagrams are given. Beyond the illustrated similarities between simulated and empirical dynamics, the model has to be further developed, systematically tested by simulated experiments, and compared to empirical data.

  8. Star Wars in psychotherapy: video games in the office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceranoglu, Tolga Atilla

    2010-01-01

    Video games are used in medical practice during psycho-education in chronic disease management, physical therapy, rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury, and as an adjunct in pain management during medical procedures or cancer chemotherapy. In psychiatric practice, video games aid in social skills training of children with developmental delays and in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). This most popular children's toy may prove a useful tool in dynamic psychotherapy of youth. The author provides a framework for using video games in psychotherapy by considering the characteristics of video games and describes the ways their use has facilitated various stages of therapeutic process. Just as other play techniques build a relationship and encourage sharing of emotional themes, sitting together in front of a console and screen facilitates a relationship and allows a safe path for the patient's conflict to emerge. During video game play, the therapist may observe thought processes, impulsivity, temperament, decision-making, and sharing, among other aspects of a child's clinical presentation. Several features inherent to video games require a thoughtful approach as resistance and transference in therapy may be elaborated differently in comparison to more traditional toys. Familiarity with the video game content and its dynamics benefits child mental health clinicians in their efforts to help children and their families.

  9. For whom does interpersonal psychotherapy work? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernecker, Samantha L; Coyne, Alice E; Constantino, Michael J; Ravitz, Paula

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) to treat depression and other disorders is well established, yet it remains unknown which patients will benefit more from IPT than another treatment. This review summarizes 46years of clinical trial research on patient characteristics that moderate the relative efficacy of IPT vs. different treatments. Across 57 studies from 33 trials comparing IPT to pharmacotherapy, another psychotherapy, or control, there were few consistent indicators of when IPT would be more or less effective than another treatment. However, IPT may be superior to school counseling for adolescents with elevated interpersonal conflict, and to minimal controls for patients with severe depression. Cognitive-behavioral therapy may outpace IPT for patients with avoidant personality disorder symptoms. There was some preliminary evidence that IPT is more beneficial than alternatives for patients in some age groups, African-American patients, and patients in an index episode of depression. The included studies suffered from several limitations and high risk of Type I and II error. Obstacles that may explain the difficulty in identifying consistent moderators, including low statistical power and heterogeneity in samples and treatments, are discussed. Possible remedies include within-subjects designs, manipulation of single treatment ingredients, and strategies for increasing power such as improving measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Relationship experiences and therapeutic outcome in inpatient psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammet, Isa; Staats, Herrmann; Schauenburg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Inpatient psychotherapy includes the patient's manifold contacts with different therapists, nurses and fellow patients. The present study investigated the association between these multiple relationships and therapy outcome. Pre-post measures of symptom load (Brief Symptom Inventory), interpersonal problems (IIP) and self-efficacy (SEB) were used to define three groups with positive (N=129), unchanged (N=44) or negative (N=40) outcome. These groups were compared 1) by their alliance with an individual therapist, their relationship to the therapeutic team, their experience of cohesion and climate concerning fellow patients in the ward (measured weekly by the "Stationserfahrungsbogen" SEB), and 2) by their differences in mean correlations between the courses of relationship experiences and symptom load. Cohesion and relationship to the therapeutic team were not associated with therapy outcome. Therapeutic alliance with the individual therapist and climate among fellow patients turned out to be moderate indicators of the therapeutic outcome. It is recommended to include these process parameters systematically into the process diagnostics of inpatient psychotherapy.

  11. Psychodynamic psychotherapy, religious beliefs, and self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, J G

    1998-01-01

    The intersection of psychodynamic psychotherapy and religious beliefs may present technical challenges for the psychotherapists; particularly if patients request to know more about the therapist's religious beliefs. Contrary to a recent technical recommendation for therapists to self-disclose personal religious beliefs when asked to do so, I suggest that such a request is complex and requires a thoughtful grounding in psychotherapeutic theory. Disclosing personal beliefs to patients runs the risk of being off-task as well as holding oneself out as an exemplar for the patient. Rather than adopt a formulaic response to requests for information, to deepen the understanding of the patient and the work of therapy, the therapist needs a complex understanding based on a careful diagnostic assessment of the patient, as well as an assessment of the current status of the psychotherapeutic venture. The workings of patients' particular transferences are often evident in requests for personal information and require careful evaluation and consideration. Likewise, countertransference elements may influence the type of response offered by the therapist. Using ethical principles as a guide is different from using them as a rule. The nexus of religious belief, psychosocial context, psychotherapy, and self-disclosure provides a potentially rich source of understanding when explored in the psychotherapeutic situation.

  12. Integrative techniques related to positive processes in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Thomas D

    2013-09-01

    This review compiles and evaluates a number of therapist interventions that have been found to significantly contribute to positive psychotherapy processes (i.e., increased alliance, patient engagement/satisfaction, and symptomatic improvement). Four forms of intervention are presented: Affect-focused, Supportive, Exploratory, and Patient-Therapist Interaction. The intention of this review is to link specific interventions to applied practice so that integrative clinicians can potentially use these techniques to improve their clinical work. To this end, there is the inclusion of theory and empirical studies from a range of orientations including Emotionally Focused, Psychodynamic, Client-Centered, Cognitive-Behavioral, Interpersonal, Eclectic, and Motivational Interviewing. Each of the four sections will include the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism of change for the intervention, research that supports its positive impact on psychotherapy processes, and conclude with examples demonstrating its use in actual practice. Clinical implications and considerations regarding the use of these interventions will also be presented. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Attachment-Focused Psychotherapy and the Wounded Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Eric B

    2016-07-01

    The concept of the "wounded self" (Wolfe, 2005) offers an integrative theoretical framework for self-wounds and their developmental origins. Alladin (2013, 2014, 2016) integrated hypnotherapy into this model to comprehensively address the unconscious protective mechanisms and maladaptive conscious cognitive strategies of the wounded self. The purpose of this article is to propose how an attachment-focused psychotherapy could be utilized in working with the wounded self. With its emphasis on developmental maturation through the frame of the attachment relationship, attachment theory is well-positioned to offer conceptual and treatment insights in treating the wounded self. E. B. Spiegel's (2016) attunement, representation, and mentalization approach to attachment-focused psychotherapy described how hypnosis can be utilized across attachment processes of attunement, representation, and mentalization toward structural maturation and developmental repair of patients with histories of complex relational trauma. In this article, the attunement, representation, and mentalization attachment approach and associated interventions are further explicated in the treatment of self-wounds in the borderline and narcissistic spectrums of personality organization. These principles of conceptualization and treatment interventions are then applied in a case example.

  14. Perforations during contrast enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Steinkamp, U.; Grabbe, E.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Ochsenzoll, Hamburg

    1983-01-01

    During contrast enema, perforation into the retroperitoneal space can be differentiated from perforation into the peritoneum and perforation into the intestinal wall associated with formation of barium granulomas or submucosal spreading of the contrast medium. Other special forms are perforation with contrast medium embolism of diverticula; of the processus vermiformis; penetration of contrast medium into fistulous systems and from the operated areas. Risk factors are: balloon catheter, intestinal tubes with a hard tip, preternatural anus, excessive enema pressure, contrast medium additions, preceding manipulations, intestinal diseases, advanced age and delegation of manipulations to assistants and unskilled staff. Children are particularly at risk. (orig.) [de

  15. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic me....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  16. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients attending Psychotherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zena Al-Sharbati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. Results: The majority of referrals were females (59%, aged 18–34 years, employed (38%, had ≤12 years of formal education (51%, and were single (54%. A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder, while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn, contemptuous envy (Hassad, evil eye (Ain and sorcery (Sihr which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Conclusion: Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.

  17. [Utilization of self-help groups and psychotherapy after psychosomatic-psychotherapeutic in-patient treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflich, Anke; Matzat, Jürgen; Meyer, Friedhelm; Knickenberg, Rudolf J; Bleichner, Franz; Merkle, Wolfgang; Reimer, Christian; Franke, Wolfram; Beutel, Manfred E

    2007-05-01

    Until now little is known about the role of participation in self-help groups alone or combined with psychotherapy in post-in-patient care. In the present study 2933 patients were questioned about their experience of self-help groups and psychotherapy after discharge from a clinic for psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy. Nearly 8 % of them utilized self-help groups (mostly combined with out-patient psychotherapy), and altogether 68 % out-patient psychotherapy following in-patient treatment. Patients without out-patient treatment were psychologically less burdened and had better resources than participants of self-help groups or psychotherapy. Self-help group members differed from patients in out-patient psychotherapy by expressing a more positive opinion of groupwork and higher openness to new experiences. Additionly, they had discussed the topic of self-help groups more frequently with their therapists. This may be a starting-point for promoting more self-help activities of patients in the future.

  18. Psychodramatic psychotherapy combined with pharmacotherapy in major depressive disorder: an open and naturalistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Elisabeth Maria Sene

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: Recent literature has highlighted the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Combined therapies comprising both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have presented the best results. Although several kinds of psychotherapies have been studied in the treatment of depressive disorders, there remains a lack of data on psychodramatic psychotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychodramatic psychotherapy (in a sample of major depressive disorder patients. METHOD: This is an open, naturalistic, controlled, non-randomized study. Twenty major depressive disorder patients (according to the DSM-IV criteria, under pharmacological treatment for depression, with Hamilton Depression Scale total scores between 7 and 20 (mild to moderate depression, were divided into two groups. Patients in the psychotherapeutic group took part in 4 individual and 24 structured psychodramatic group sessions, whilst subjects in the control group did not participate in this psychodramatic psychotherapy. Both groups were evaluated with the Social Adjustment Scale - Self Report and the Hamilton Depression Scale. RESULTS: Psychotherapeutic group patients showed a significant improvement according to the Social Adjustment Scale - Self Report and the Hamilton Depression Scale scores at endpoint, compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that individual and group psychodramatic psychotherapy, associated to pharmacological treatment, provides good clinical benefits in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  19. The relationship between clients' depression etiological beliefs and psychotherapy orientation preferences, expectations, and credibility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Kelley A; Swift, Joshua K; Rousmaniere, Tony G; Whipple, Jason L

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between clients' etiological beliefs for depression and treatment preferences, credibility beliefs, and outcome expectations for five different depression treatments-behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and psychodynamic psychotherapy. Adult psychotherapy clients (N = 98) were asked to complete an online survey that included the Reasons for Depression Questionnaire, a brief description of each of the five treatment options, and credibility, expectancy, and preference questions for each option. On average, the participating clients rated pharmacotherapy as significantly less credible, having a lower likelihood of success, and being less preferred than the four types of psychotherapy. In general, interpersonal psychotherapy was also rated more negatively than the other types of psychotherapy. However, these findings depended somewhat on whether the participating client was personally experiencing depression. Credibility beliefs, outcome expectations, and preferences for pharmacotherapy were positively associated with biological beliefs for depression; however, the other hypothesized relationships between etiological beliefs and treatment attitudes were not supported. Although the study is limited based on the specific sample and treatment descriptions that were used, the results may still have implications for psychotherapy research, training, and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Does gratitude writing improve the mental health of psychotherapy clients? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y Joel; Owen, Jesse; Gabana, Nicole T; Brown, Joshua W; McInnis, Sydney; Toth, Paul; Gilman, Lynn

    2018-03-01

    Although the past decade has witnessed growing research interest in positive psychological interventions (PPIs), their potential as adjunctive interventions for psychotherapy remains relatively unexplored. Therefore, this article expands the frontiers of PPI research by reporting the first randomized controlled trial to test a gratitude writing adjunctive intervention for psychotherapy clients. Participants were 293 adults seeking university-based psychotherapy services. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) control (psychotherapy only), (b) a psychotherapy plus expressive writing, and (c) a psychotherapy plus gratitude writing. Participants in the gratitude condition wrote letters expressing gratitude to others, whereas those in the expressive writing condition wrote about their deepest thoughts and feelings about stressful experiences. About 4 weeks as well as 12 weeks after the conclusion of the writing intervention, participants in the gratitude condition reported significantly better mental health than those in the expressive and control conditions, whereas those in the expressive and control conditions did not differ significantly. Moreover, lower proportions of negative emotion words in participants' writing mediated the positive effect of condition (gratitude versus expressive writing) on mental health. These findings are discussed in light of the use of gratitude interventions as adjunctive interventions for psychotherapy clients.

  1. Outcome and process differences between professional and nonprofessional therapists in time-limited group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, G M; Barlow, S H

    1996-10-01

    The outcome of clients who saw one of four "expert" professional group therapists selected by peer nomination or four "natural helper" nonprofessional nominated by students is contrasted in a 15-session psychotherapy group. Process measures tapping specific group and "common factors" were drawn from sessions 3, 8, and 14; outcome was assessed at pre, mid, posttreatment, and a 6-month follow-up. Results were examined by leader condition (professional vs. nonprofessional therapists) and time (group development). Virtually no reliable differences were found on measures of outcome primarily because of a floor effect on several measures. Therapist differences on the process measures tapping the "common factors" of therapeutic alliance, client expectancy, and perception of therapists were either nonsignificant or disappeared by the end of treatment. A complex picture of differences on one therapeutic factor (insight), common factor measures and subtle variation in the outcome data suggests a distinct pattern of change, however. Methodological limitations are also addressed including problems inherent in large-scale clinical-trial studies, ethical concerns raised by using nonprofessional leaders, and problems with generalizability, given the absence of significant psychopathology in group members.

  2. Assessment of Change in Psychoanalysis: Another Way of Using the Change After Psychotherapy Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, António Pazo; Gonçalves, João; Sá, Vânia; Silva, Andrea; Sandell, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    A systematic method is presented whereby material from a full course of psychoanalytic treatment is analyzed to assess changes and identify patterns of change. Through an analysis of session notes, changes were assessed using the CHange After Psychotherapy scales (CHAP; Sandell 1987a), which evaluate changes in five rating variables (symptoms, adaptive capacity, insight, basic conflicts, and extratherapeutic factors). Change incidents were identified in nearly every session. Early in the analysis, relatively more change incidents related to insight were found than were found for the other types of change. By contrast, in the third year and part of the fourth year, relatively more change incidents related to basic conflicts and adaptive capacity were found. While changes related to symptoms occurred throughout the course of treatment, such changes were never more frequent than other types of change. A content analysis of the change incidents allowed a determination of when in the treatment the patient's main conflicts (identified clinically) were overcome. A crossing of quantitative data with clinical and qualitative data allowed a better understanding of the patterns of change. © 2016 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  3. Tablets and talking—A spurious contrast in psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, H.M. van

    1979-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy of psychiatric patients are not given equal appreciation. Particularly in syndromes with marked psychogenic or psychosocial overtones, psychotherapy is regarded as the causal therapy par excellence. In these cases (the vast majority), psychotropic drugs are believed

  4. Psychotherapy Utilization Among Rural and Urban Veterans From 2007 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Juliette M; Grubbs, Kathleen M; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Fortney, John C; Cully, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated change in rural and urban veterans' psychotherapy use during a period of widespread effort within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to engage rural veterans in mental health care. National VHA administrative databases were queried for patients receiving a new diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder in fiscal years (FY) 2007 and 2010. Using the US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban Continuum Codes, we identified urban (FY 2007: n = 192,347; FY 2010: n = 231,471) and rural (FY 2007: n = 72,923; FY 2010: n = 81,905) veterans. Veterans' psychotherapy use during the 12 months following diagnosis was assessed. From FY 2007 to 2010, the proportion of veterans receiving any psychotherapy increased from 17% to 22% for rural veterans and 24% to 28% for urban veterans. Rural veterans were less likely to receive psychotherapy across both fiscal years; however, the magnitude of this disparity decreased significantly from 2007 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51) to 2010 (OR = 1.41). Similarly, although urban veterans received more psychotherapy sessions, urban-rural disparities in the receipt of 8 or more psychotherapy sessions decreased over the study period (2007: OR = 2.32; 2010: OR = 1.69). Rural and urban veterans are increasingly making use of psychotherapy, and rural-urban gaps in psychotherapy use are shrinking. These improvements suggest that recent VHA efforts to engage rural veterans in care have been successful at reducing differences between rural and urban veterans with respect to access and engagement in psychotherapy. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  5. “Gold Standards,” Plurality and Monocultures: The Need for Diversity in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Leichsenring

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For psychotherapy of mental disorders, presently several approaches are available, such as interpersonal, humanistic, systemic, psychodynamic or cognitive behavior therapy (CBT. Pointing to the available evidence, proponents of CBT claim that CBT is the gold standard. Some authors even argue for an integrated CBT-based form of psychotherapy as the only form of psychotherapy. CBT undoubtedly has its strengths and CBT researchers have to be credited for developing and testing treatments for many mental disorders. A critical review, however, shows that the available evidence for the theoretical foundations of CBT, assumed mechanisms of change, quality of studies, and efficacy is not as robust as some researchers claim. Most important, there is no consistent evidence that CBT is more efficacious than other evidence-based approaches. These findings do not justify regarding CBT as the gold standard psychotherapy. They even provide less justification for the idea that the future of psychotherapy lies in one integrated CBT-based form of psychotherapy as the only type of psychotherapy. For the different psychotherapeutic approaches a growing body of evidence is available. These approaches have their strengths because of differences in their respective focus on interpersonal relationships, affects, cognitions, systemic perspectives, experiential, or unconscious processes. Different approaches may be suitable to different patients and therapists. As generally assumed, progress in research results from openness to new ideas and learning from diverse perspectives. Thus, different forms of evidence-based psychotherapy are required. Plurality is the future of psychotherapy, not a uniform “one fits all” approach.

  6. Towards a taxonomy of common factors in psychotherapy-results of an expert survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Junghan, Ulrich Martin; Pfammatter, Mario

    2014-01-01

    How change comes about is hotly debated in psychotherapy research. One camp considers 'non-specific' or 'common factors', shared by different therapy approaches, as essential, whereas researchers of the other camp consider specific techniques as the essential ingredients of change. This controversy, however, suffers from unclear terminology and logical inconsistencies. The Taxonomy Project therefore aims at contributing to the definition and conceptualization of common factors of psychotherapy by analyzing their differential associations to standard techniques. A review identified 22 common factors discussed in psychotherapy research literature. We conducted a survey, in which 68 psychotherapy experts assessed how common factors are implemented by specific techniques. Using hierarchical linear models, we predicted each common factor by techniques and by experts' age, gender and allegiance to a therapy orientation. Common factors differed largely in their relevance for technique implementation. Patient engagement, Affective experiencing and Therapeutic alliance were judged most relevant. Common factors also differed with respect to how well they could be explained by the set of techniques. We present detailed profiles of all common factors by the (positively or negatively) associated techniques. There were indications of a biased taxonomy not covering the embodiment of psychotherapy (expressed by body-centred techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback training and hypnosis). Likewise, common factors did not adequately represent effective psychodynamic and systemic techniques. This taxonomic endeavour is a step towards a clarification of important core constructs of psychotherapy. This article relates standard techniques of psychotherapy (well known to practising therapists) to the change factors/change mechanisms discussed in psychotherapy theory. It gives a short review of the current debate on the mechanisms by which psychotherapy works. We

  7. Effect of Positive Psychotherapy in Depression Symptoms and Character Strengths in Cancer Affected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khodabakhash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of positive psychotherapy on depression symptoms and character strengths in cancer affected patients. Based on a quasi-experimental design by available sampling, 58 cancer patients were investigated. 30 patients were assigned in two groups: 15 patients in positive psychotherapy group (treatment and 15 patients as control group. In the present research, Oxford Happiness-Depression Questionnaire (OHDQ and Values In Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS were used. The results showed that the positive psychotherapy was effective in reducing depression, increasing the character strengths and virtues, improving meaningful, pleasant and engaged life of cancer patients.

  8. Effectiveness of Psychotherapy in Personality Disorders Not Otherwise Specified: A Comparison of Different Treatment Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eva K; Bartak, Anna; Meerman, Anke M M A; Rossum, Bert V; Ziegler, Uli M; Thunnissen, Moniek; Soons, Mirjam; Andrea, Helene; Hamers, Elisabeth F M; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Stijnen, Theo; Busschbach, Jan J V; Verheul, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Although personality disorder not otherwise specified (PDNOS) is highly prevalent and associated with a high burden of disease, only a few treatment studies in this patient group exist. This study is the first to investigate the effectiveness of different modalities of psychotherapy in patients with PDNOS, i.e., short-term (up to 6 months) and long-term (more than 6 months) outpatient, day hospital, and inpatient psychotherapy. A total of 205 patients with PDNOS were assigned to one of six treatment modalities. Effectiveness was assessed over 60 months after baseline. The primary outcome measure was symptom severity, and the secondary outcome measures included psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The study design was quasi-experimental, and the multiple propensity score was used to control for initial differences between treatment groups. All treatment modalities showed positive outcomes, especially in terms of improvements of symptom severity and social role functioning. At 12-month follow-up, after adjustment for initial differences between the treatment groups, short-term outpatient psychotherapy and short-term inpatient psychotherapy showed most improvement and generally outperformed the other modalities concerning symptom severity. At 60 months after baseline, effectiveness remained but observed differences between modalities mostly diminished. Patients with PDNOS benefit from psychotherapy both at short-term and long-term follow-up. Short-term outpatient psychotherapy and short-term inpatient psychotherapy seem to be superior to the other treatment modalities at 12-month follow-up. At 60-month follow-up, treatments showed mostly comparable effectiveness. The effectiveness of different modalities of psychotherapy in patients with PDNOS (i.e., short-term vs long-term; outpatient versus day hospital versus inpatient psychotherapy) has not yet been compared. Different modalities of psychotherapy are effective for patients with PDNOS, and positive

  9. History of Division 29, 1993-2013: another 20 years of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth Nutt; Barnett, Jeffrey E; Canter, Mathilda B

    2013-03-01

    The history of Division 29 (Psychotherapy) of the American Psychological Association (APA) from 1993 to 2013 is reviewed. The 20 years of history can be traced via the Division's primary publications (the journal Psychotherapy and its newsletter Psychotherapy Bulletin) as well as the history of those who have served leadership roles in the Division and have won Divisional awards. Several recurring themes emerge related to the Division's articulations of its own identity, the Division's advocacy efforts vis-à-vis the profession and the APA, and the work of the Division on behalf of major social issues (such as disaster relief and the nation's health care).

  10. Emerging and continuing trends in psychotherapy: views from an editor's eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelso, Charles J

    2011-06-01

    It is proposed that six major trends in psychotherapy have continued or emerged over the course of the author's editorship of Psychotherapy, the past seven years. These trends are (a) the increasing integration of techniques and the therapeutic relationship; (b) increasing focus on theoretical integration; (c) increasing efforts at research-practice integration; (d) increases in more specific, integrative reviews; (e) integration of biological, neuroscience understandings; and (f) integration of diversity and cultural considerations into psychotherapy. Each trend is described and its impact on the field is discussed. Cautions about each trend are also noted. The six trends are discussed in the context of integration.

  11. Modern tendencies in psychotherapy: The specialisation of practice and knowledge integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilov-Jerković Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers chronological and theoretical development of psychotherapy with the aim of formulating psychotherapeutic paradigm as an expression of scientific improvement in this field, as well as methodological and empirical assumption of integrative models in the psychotherapy. Special attention is paid to the phenomena that have characterised the field of psychotherapy in recent time, such as, on one hand, the emphasis on the increased need for the empirical evaluation of practice and accompanied trend regarding specialisation, and, on the other hand, the strengthening of the trend towards defining and researching general change mechanisms from wider, more integrative and transtheoretical perspective.

  12. Believing is seeing: an evolving research program on patients' psychotherapy expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    In this article I discuss one facet of my evolving research program focused on patients' psychotherapy-related expectations. Although generally considered a common psychotherapeutic factor, expectations have been historically undervalued conceptually, empirically, and clinically. Attempting to somewhat redress this slight, I will (a) define the various forms of patients' psychotherapy-related expectations, (b) present relevant findings from research that my colleagues, students, and I have conducted, (c) summarize an integrative psychotherapy approach that underscores expectations as an explanatory construct for patients' corrective experiences, and (d) highlight future research directions for increasing our understanding of the nature and functions of the expectancy construct.

  13. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase funct...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  14. Dialysis and contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, Sameh K.; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Webb, Judith A.W.

    2002-01-01

    In a previous survey we revealed uncertainty among responders about (a) whether or not to perform hemodialysis in patients with severely reduced renal function who had received contrast medium; and (b) when to perform hemodialysis in patients on regular treatment with hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory dialysis who received contrast medium. Therefore, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. The committee performed a Medline search. Based on this, a report and guidelines were prepared. The report was discussed at the Ninth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis safely remove both iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast media. The effectiveness of hemodialysis depends on many factors including blood and dialysate flow rate, permeability of dialysis membrane, duration of hemodialysis and molecular size, protein binding, hydrophilicity, and electrical charge of the contrast medium. Generally, several hemodialysis sessions are needed to removal all contrast medium, whereas it takes 3 weeks for continuous ambulatory dialysis to remove the agent completely. There is no need to schedule the dialysis in relation to the injection of iodinated or MR contrast media or the injection of contrast agent in relation to the dialysis program. Hemodialysis does not protect poorly functioning kidneys against contrast-medium-induced nephrotoxicity. Simple guidelines are given. (orig.)

  15. Individual Psychotherapy ("Talking Therapy"): A Survey of Attitudes among Residents & Specialists in Psychiatry, Israel 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi Shachar, Orit; Mendlovic, Shlomo; Hertzberg, Libi; Baruch, Yehuda; Lurie, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Individual psychotherapy is an efficient tool and an integral part of psychiatric treatment. However, its status among psychiatrists in Israel has never been explored. To explore and map the attitudes of psychiatrists in Israel regarding psychotherapy and psychotherapy training during residency, with comparisons between residents vs. specialists, peripheral vs. central institutions and mental health vs. medical centers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to examine the attitudes toward individual psychotherapy. The questionnaire was delivered via email and direct approach to psychiatrists in Israel. The survey was completed by 229 of 1,502 registered psychiatrists (15.3%). While 96% (n=218) had positive attitudes towards psychotherapy, 93.1% (n=215) thought psychotherapy was less available than pharmacotherapy. Psychiatrists from peripheral institutions prefer cognitive behavioral therapy, while psychiatrists from central institutions prefer dynamic psychotherapy. Psychiatrists from mental health centers use more dynamic psychotherapy compared to psychiatrists from medical centers. The number of dynamic psychotherapy treatments psychiatrists delivered during their residencies has been decreasing over time, meaning residents today deliver fewer dynamic psychotherapy treatments compared to the number of treatments specialists delivered during their residencies. Additionally, 97.4% (n=225) believed psychotherapy training should be included in the psychiatric residency and 87.3% thought that the training should be improved to a great extent. The survey demonstrates mixed but overall positive attitudes towards psychotherapy among psychiatrists in Israel. The findings should be taken into consideration by psychiatrists who design the residency program and by policy makers who are in charge of the mental health reform in Israel, or the psychotherapy usage and therapeutic potential may diminish, as has happened in other countries.

  16. [Psychotherapy of patients with personality disorders with predominance of hypochondria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burno, M E; Igovskaia, A S

    2008-01-01

    A standard of psychotherapeutic help to patients with hypochondriac disorder developed in paranoid, schizoid, anxiety and dependent personality disorders is worked out. In this case, hypochondria is inseparable from the personality structure. Patients of investigated group (61 people) received traditional medical treatment, individual differential symptomatic psychotherapy and a short group course with a variant of the therapy by means of creative sell-expression (TCSEB) worked out by M. Burno. This course aimed at preventing new hypochondriac symptoms and acquiring spiritual creative ways to overcome themselves. The control group (70 people) differed from the index-group by not receiving CSEB. A statistical analysis revealed a significant therapeutic efficacy of the mentioned new clinical psychotherapeutic standard compared to the psychotherapeutic tactics without TCSEB.

  17. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CARLOS ALONSO G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an answer to the growing interest arisen byAnalytic Psychology, a school of thought that compilesthe work of the Swiss doctor Carl G. Jung (1875-1961. There exists a wide lack of information in our society onthe contents of this school and thus this article seeks to offer wide review of its foundations. Given the fact thatthe aforementioned lack of knowledge is even greater in relation to its contributions to clinical work this paperpresents the main contributions made by this approach to psychotherapy. Finally, a mention is made of thedevelopments, revisions and postjunguian schools that have evolved from the original ideas of Jung to our days, aswell as interesting encounter points with other psychoanalitical approaches.

  18. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for patients with dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Julie P; Dillon, Kristy S; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-02-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called "dissociative disorders," including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma report "dissociative" symptoms. Prevalence of dissociative disorders is unknown, but current estimates are higher than previously thought. This paper reviews clinical, phenomenological, and epidemiological data regarding diagnosis in general, and illustrates possible treatment interventions for dissociative identity disorder, with a focus on psychotherapy interventions and a review of current psychopharmacology recommendations as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment plan.

  19. Baring the soul: Paul Bindrim, Abraham Maslow and 'nude psychotherapy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Nude psychotherapy is one of the most flamboyant therapeutic techniques ever developed in American psychology. Largely forgotten today, the therapy was an academic and popular sensation upon its introduction in 1967. Developed by psychologist Paul Bindrim, the therapy promised to guide clients to their authentic selves through the systematic removal of clothing. This paper explores the intellectual, cultural and ethical context of nude therapy and its significance as a form of unchurched spirituality. Although nude therapy has an indisputable tabloid character, it is also rooted in a long-standing academic search for authenticity and ultimate meaning through science. Bindrim's career demonstrates the historically long-standing interweaving of spirituality and science within American psychology while simultaneously highlighting the field's extraordinary capacity for adaptive reinvention.

  20. Towards a feminist empowerment model of forgiveness psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Kevin M; Hill, Melanie S; Freedman, Suzanne R; Enright, Robert D

    2007-03-01

    In recent years Enright and Fitzgibbon's (2000) process model of forgiveness therapy has received substantial theoretical and empirical attention. However, both the process model of forgiveness therapy and the social-cognitive developmental model on which it is based have received criticism from feminist theorists. The current paper considers feminist criticisms of forgiveness therapy and uses a feminist lens to identify potential areas for growth. Specifically, Worell and Remer's (2003) model of synthesizing feminist ideals into existing theory was consulted, areas of bias within the forgiveness model of psychotherapy were identified, and strategies for restructuring areas of potential bias were introduced. Further, the authors consider unique aspects of forgiveness therapy that can potentially strengthen existing models of feminist therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Transforming Losses―A Major Task of Spiritually Integrated Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckhard Frick

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Since Freud’s “Mourning and Melancholia”, bereavement encompasses the dilemma between continuing versus relinquishing bonds to deceased persons. Mourning is the process of symbolizing the loss, of making sense by facing the conflict between the absence of the lost object and the continuing presence of an emotional relationship to that which is lost. Furthermore, mourning is not limited to bereaved persons but also concerns dying persons and, in a broader sense, our whole symbolic life which is playful coping with a rhythm of absence and presence. True consolation connects the individual and the archetypical mourning. Spiritually integrated psychotherapy may accompany this process by amplification. Christian mysticism takes its starting point from the experience of Jesus Christ’s lost body, and this may be understood as a model of spiritual transformation.

  2. Psychotherapy: What's Metaphysical Got to Do With It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2009-12-01

    Clinicians have a number of treatment options for dealing with the emotional ills of patients, including psychoeducation, psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy. However, after years of experience in the clinical field, we have recognized that these treatment options may not be sufficient to adequately address the problems of some patients. We have found that adding a metaphysical/spiritual component may be helpful, particularly for those patients with histories of childhood trauma. In this edition of The Interface, we discuss four metaphysical techniques for facilitating patient healing-1) refocusing on the present, 2) reframing adversity, 3) practicing surrender, and 4) meditation. These approaches can be mutually integrated and compliment a psychological treatment in either the psychiatric or primary care setting, regardless of whether or not the patient has formal religious beliefs.

  3. Clinical process in an integrative psychotherapy for self-wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Barry E

    2013-09-01

    In this article, I will briefly describe the clinical process of an integrative psychotherapy for the healing of self-wounds, including its intended interventions and the variability of their application and outcome. Four specific strategies will be considered, including (a) the role of empathy throughout the course of therapy; (b) exposure therapy as a paradigmatic treatment for the treatment of feared thoughts, behavior, and emotions; (c) focusing and other experiential interventions for eliciting self-wounds; and (d) modification and healing of self-wounds with an individualized array of psychodynamic, experiential, and cognitive-behavioral strategies. In addition, we will briefly consider the impact of transference and countertransference on the trajectory of therapy. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Integrative change model in psychotherapy: Perspectives from Indian thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, L S S

    2013-01-01

    Different psychotherapeutic approaches claim positive changes in patients as a result of therapy. Explanations related to the change process led to different change models. Some of the change models are experimentally oriented whereas some are theoretical. Apart from the core models of behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive and spiritually oriented models there are specific models, within psychotherapy that explains the change process. Integrative theory of a person as depicted in Indian thought provides a common ground for the integration of various therapies. Integrative model of change based on Indian thought, with specific reference to psychological concepts in Upanishads, Ayurveda, Bhagavad Gita and Yoga are presented. Appropriate psychological tools may be developed in order to help the clinicians to choose the techniques that match the problem and the origin of the dimension. Explorations have to be conducted to develop more techniques that are culturally appropriate and clinically useful. Research has to be initiated to validate the identified concepts.

  5. Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap in group psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Mark A; Ogrodniczuk, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Sochting, Ingrid

    2010-04-01

    Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap requires a different clinical research paradigm: participatory research that encourages community agency-academic partnerships. In this context, clinicians help define priorities, determine the type of evidence that will have an impact on their practice (affecting the methods that are used to produce the evidence), and develop strategies for translating, implementing, and disseminating their findings into evidence-based practice. Within this paradigm, different roles are assumed by the partners, and sometimes these roles are blended. This paper will consider the perspectives of people who assume these different roles (clinician, researcher, and clinician-researcher) with group psychotherapy as the specific focus. Finally, the establishment of a practice-research network will be discussed as a potentially promising way to better engage group therapists in research.

  6. Using Animal-assisted Therapy to Enrich Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerine, Jeanne Louise; Hubbard, Grace B

    2016-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of many psychological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). AAT can be used as an adjunct to other forms of psychotherapy. With AAT, the animal becomes a part of the treatment plan. Outcomes for clients that are associated with the use of AAT include (1) increased sense of comfort and safety, (2) increased motivation, (3) enhanced self-esteem, (4) increased prosocial behaviors, and (5) decreased behavioral problems. AAT provides a bridge for the therapist to develop a therapeutic relationship with a client, and the animal can provide supportive reassurance for the therapist. The amount of data that supports the benefits of AAT for the treatment of those with mental illnesses is growing, but evidence-based research that supports its use is lacking. Further research is needed.

  7. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  8. Fostering new relational experience: clinical process in couple psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2014-03-01

    One of the most critical goals for couple psychotherapy is to foster a new relational experience in the session where the couple feels safe enough to reveal more vulnerable emotions and to explore their defensive withdrawal, aggressive attacking, or blaming. The lived intimate experience in the session offers the couple an opportunity to gain integrative insight into their feelings, expectations, and behaviors that ultimately hinder intimacy. The clinical processes that are necessary include empathizing with the couple and facilitating safety within the session, looking for opportunities to explore emotions, ruptures, and unconscious motivations that maintain distance in the relationship, and creating a new relational experience in the session that has the potential to engender integrative insight. These clinical processes will be presented with empirical support. Experts from a session will be used to highlight how these processes influence the couple and promote increased intimacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The affective dimension of alliance in transactional analysis psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Johnsson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study describes an investigation of the significance of the affective dimension of the therapeutic alliance (Bordin 1979, in a psychodynamic form of transactional analysis therapy after the style of “Redecision therapy” (Goulding & Goulding, 1979. We explored the client’s pattern of affective relationships by use of CCRT (the Core Conflictual Relationship method, Luborsky & Crits-Christoph, 1990, 1998 and examined how the therapist responds to the client’s affective messages (“tests” by use of the Plan Diagnosis method (Weiss & Sampson, 1986. We found that “emotional” aspects play a more decisive role than has been envisioned in the TA redecision method and similar approaches of TA psychotherapy that emphasise contracts, tasks of therapy and a rational approach.

  10. Neuroimaging of psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsen, A.L.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Hansen, B.; Kvale, G.

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include intrusive thoughts, compulsive behavior, anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility, which are associated with dysfunction in dorsal and ventral corticostriato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. Psychotherapy involving exposure and response

  11. The Theory and Art of Child Psychotherapy: A Corrective Developmental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The history of child psychotherapy is sketched from the psychoanalytic pioneers Anna Freud and Melanie Klein to the popular "nondirective" approach of Virginia Axline. The author's approach to child psychotherapy, based on contemporary psychoanalytic theories, allows the therapist to play any parental role that helps to repair developmental deficiencies and conflicts. These include nurturing, supporting, mirroring, role modeling, challenging, and limit setting. Following Winnicott, psychotherapy is conceived as a play space in which therapist and child are both spontaneous. The value of interpretation and insight in child therapy is discussed. There follows a more detailed discussion of three major problem areas in child psychotherapy: handling anger and hostile aggression; handling issues related to sexuality; and handling narcissistic issues of inferiority and shame.

  12. Practical Implications of Metacognitively Oriented Psychotherapy in Psychosis : Findings From a Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven; van Donkersgoed, Rozanne J. M.; Aleman, Andre; van der Gaag, Mark; Wunderink, Lex; Arends, Johan; Lysaker, Paul H.; Pijnenborg, Marieke

    In preparation for a multicenter randomized controlled trial, a pilot study was conducted investigating the feasibility and acceptance of a shortened version (12 vs. 40 sessions) of an individual metacognitive psychotherapy (Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy [MERIT]). Twelve participants

  13. [Need of specific criteria for psychotherapy referral in the public health system: A proposal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Haro, J; Fernández-Briz, N

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the need of specific criteria for psychotherapy referral in the public services. the use of psychotherapy as a supplement to traditional medication, and its comparison with informal methods of support, has been questioned. This study proposes the establishment of basic criteria for the integration of psychotherapy, based on an analysis of the conditions that allow it to function. It thus aims to contribute to improving the reputation and the practice conditions of psychotherapy in the public health system. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Examining the therapeutic relationship and confronting resistances in psychodynamic psychotherapy: a certified public accountant case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetta, Christopher T; Gentile, Julie P; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2011-05-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite case illustrates some of the psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be employed in a psychotherapy case. In this example, the case is about a certified public accountant that came to treatment because of an acute stressor that put her career goals at risk. An acute episode or event can bring to light chronic and ongoing symptoms, which have had a remitting and relapsing course, and leave the patient unable to compensate on his or her own.

  15. [Work-related behaviour and experience patterns and mental health: a study in psychotherapy trainees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Johanna; Sude, Kerstin; Löwe, Bernd; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2013-03-01

    In view of the fact that many reports have been published that emphasize the difficult conditions of the German psychotherapy training, the aim of this study was to investigate psychotherapy trainees´ work stress as well as work-related psychosocial risks and resources. Variables of interest were work-related behaviour and experience patterns (AVEM), effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and health-related quality of life. 321 participants completed an online survey. The distribution of work-related behaviour and experience patterns as well as the results regarding work overload and mental health are evidence of psychotherapy trainees' strain. AVEM-risk patterns are associated with effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and reduced mental health. These results clearly support claims for a modification of the psychotherapy training in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Patients with Cluster A Personality Disorders in Psychotherapy: An Effectiveness Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bartak (Anna); H. Andrea (Helene); M.D. Spreeuwenberg (Marieke); M.M. Thunnissen (Moniek); U.M. Ziegler (Uli); J.J.M. Dekker (Jack)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: While psychopharmacological studies are common in patients with cluster A personality disorders, the effects of psychotherapy have received little attention. The aim of this study is to explore whether psychotherapeutic treatment yields health gains for these

  17. Therapeutic hypnosis, psychotherapy, and the digital humanities: the narratives and culturomics of hypnosis, 1800-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Mortimer, Jane; Rossi, Kathryn

    2013-04-01

    Culturomics is a new scientific discipline of the digital humanities-the use of computer algorithms to search for meaning in large databases of text and media. This new digital discipline is used to explore 200 years of the history of hypnosis and psychotherapy in over five million digitized books from more than 40 university libraries around the world. It graphically compares the frequencies of English words about hypnosis, hypnotherapy, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and their founders from 1800 to 2008. This new perspective explore issues such as: Who were the major innovators in the history of therapeutic hypnosis, psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy? How well does this new digital approach to the humanities correspond to traditional histories of hypnosis and psychotherapy?

  18. Attitude Similarity and Therapist Credibility as Predictors of Attitude Change and Improvement in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Larry E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study attempts to (1) assess the effects of therapist credibility and patient-therapist similarity on interpersonal persuasion; and (2) to further assess the relationship between patient attitude change and psychotherapy outcome. (HMV)

  19. Pharmacotherapy for the soul and psychotherapy for the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleger, Urban

    2007-09-01

    The "mind-body" dualism has shaped the development of psychiatry. At the very beginning psychiatry was related to the mind and the rest of the medicine to the body. The main reasons for such division were lack of biological evidence for psychiatric disorders and wrong beliefs about demonic origins of "lunacy". But although the development of science offered more than enough biological evidence to understand brain as an organ of origin for psychiatric disorders, the dualism of mind and body remained alive even in the modern classification systems. One of the consequences was another dualism that differ biological (e.g. pharmacotherapy) from psychological therapy (e.g. psychotherapy) as completely different approaches. The purpose of this article is to offer enough evidence to reframe the existing dualisms into a different paradigm. In every illness both mind and body can be affected to a different extent. Which part of an illness is body and which part is mind is often difficult to differentiate even when we compare a person with broken leg with a person with acute stress reaction. For that reason it might be an over-simplification to differentiate sharply between biological and psychological therapies. The evidence show that psychotherapy influences biology of the brain and that pharmacotherapy influences psychological, social and developmental dimensions of the diseased person as well as overall well-being and functionality. In the era where medicine discovered psychology and psychiatry discovered biology, the debates and divisions that steam out of past dualisms should end. Every practising physician regardless of the medical discipline uses in everyday practice both biological and psychological approaches to help the patient successfully.

  20. Psychotherapy in long-term care: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Ashok J; Dew, Mary Amanda; Miller, Mark D; Borson, Soo; Reynolds, Charles

    2006-11-01

    Psychological distress in long-term care (LTC) settings is highly prevalent and crosses many conventional psychiatric diagnostic boundaries. Mental health professionals who consult in LTC facilities have experienced firsthand the impact of a variety of nonpharmacological therapeutic approaches on individual residents, yet these are rarely investigated in a systematic fashion, and even less commonly reported in the literature. The present report summarizes the state-of-evidence of "talk therapies" for depression and psychological well-being in LTC facilities by reviewing controlled trials of psychotherapy for LTC residents published in English-language peer-reviewed journals. We excluded studies of nonpharmacological approaches designed primarily to curb behavioral disturbances of dementia, and those psychosocial interventions using an approach other than "talk therapy" in individual or group format since they have been reviewed in detail elsewhere. A majority of the 18 studies that met our inclusion criteria reported significant short- and, in some cases, longer-term benefits on instruments measuring depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, perceived control, and a host of other psychological variables. However, these findings must be interpreted within the severe methodological limitations of many studies, including small sample sizes, variable study entry criteria, short duration of trials, heterogeneous outcome assessment methods, and lack of detail on intervention methods. Nevertheless, the positive efficacy of these approaches, when understood within the framework of potential serious complications of pharmacotherapy for frail elders with multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy, and a narrow therapeutic index, suggests a strong need for methodologically rigorous trials of psychotherapy in the LTC setting, especially in combination with pharmacotherapy.

  1. Contrast analysis : A tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, A.

    2018-01-01

    Contrast analysis is a relatively simple but effective statistical method for testing theoretical predictions about differences between group means against the empirical data. Despite its advantages, contrast analysis is hardly used to date, perhaps because it is not implemented in a convenient

  2. Psychotherapy as a treatment modality for psychiatric disorders: Perceptions of general public of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Abdul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric disorders affect about 450 million individuals worldwide. A number of treatment modalities such as psychotropic medications, psychotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy can be used to treat these disorders. Attitudes of general public play a pivotal role in effective utilization of mental health services. We explored the perceptions of general public of Karachi, Pakistan regarding psychotherapy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan during July-August, 2008. A three-step sampling strategy and a structured questionnaire were employed to survey knowledge and perceptions of adult general public about psychotherapy. Descriptive statistics were used for baseline characteristics. Logistic regression models were used to investigate any significant associations between baseline characteristics of the participants and their perceptions. Results The study sample comprised of 985 individuals (536 males; 531 financially independent with an average age of 36.7 years (SD 13.54 years and 12.5 years (SD 3.09 years of education were included. Majority (59.4%; n = 585 claimed to be aware of psychotherapy as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders but 47.5% of these (n = 278/585 failed to identify its correct definition. Concerns voiced by the participants about psychotherapy included stigma (48.7% and breech in confidentiality (39.5%; 60.7% opined it cost effective and 86.5% favored its use as an adjuvant modality. A preference for psychotherapy as the treatment strategy for psychiatric disorders was demonstrated by 46.6% (n = 459/985. Younger, more educated, financially independent and female participants were more likely to prefer psychotherapy as were those who deemed it cost effective. Conclusion Positive attitudes regarding the acceptability, clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy were observed in a sample representative of general public of Karachi, Pakistan. These findings

  3. Exploring the benefits of intersectional feminist social justice approaches in art psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, T.; Wright, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper charts a research and knowledge exchange project between a university and group of art psychotherapists who came together in a project aimed at better understanding the benefits of critical feminist social justice approaches to art psychotherapy. It outlines the impact of the partnership for art psychotherapy practice, practitioners’ continued professional development and patients’/ service users’ benefit. Drawing on knowledges of critical feminisms held within the university and a...

  4. With Doug: an Eastern Orthodox--Gestalt framework for pastoral psychotherapy in the armed forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David

    2013-01-01

    In military behavioral healthcare, a short-term, solutions-focused system often privileges cognitive techniques over existential, affective, or psychodynamic approaches to care. Pastoral psychotherapy, which often privileges existential and person-centered care, has the potential to prove a pivotal complement in treating the whole person. This article offers an existential approach to pastoral psychotherapy in the military using integrated concepts and applications from Gestalt Therapy and Eastern Orthodox pastoral care.

  5. On a Diagnosed Case of Multiple Personality Disorder -A Supplementary Report with Special Reference to Psychotherapy-

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 裕司

    2000-01-01

    As a supplement of the study on a dignosed case of MPD (Multiple Personality Disorder), the effect of the psychotherapy was discussed. The patient was a twenty-four-year-old woman suspected of an attempted murder. In this article, continued from the previous one reporting the process of a series of ten psychotherapeutic interviews with her, the general comment on that was made, and the merits and demerits of the psychotherapy were clarified.

  6. [Body integrity identity disorder--first success in long-term psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Aylin; Ehni, Franziska J F; Oddo, Silvia; Stirn, Aglaja

    2011-07-01

    The Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a fairly unknown and unexplored psychic illness. Very little cases underwent a psychotherapeutic treatment. We report on the two-and-a-half year psychotherapy with a 37 years old man, who wants an amputation of his two legs. Origin and meaning of the amputation desire were uncovered in psychotherapy. The psychodynamic oriented therapy with cognitive-behavioral elements can be used to develop further treatment approaches. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Using a cross-contextual qualitative diary design to explore client experiences of psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research in counselling and psychotherapy has largely been based on interviews carried out with clients and therapists. Other approaches to qualitative data collection are possible. The present paper presents a diary design for qualitative psychotherapy research. The study explores...... contexts in their lives. Ethical and practical issues involved in the use of diaries are discussed and the methods that were employed to analyse diary-based data are described. The types of findings that the study generated are presented....

  8. Current Perspective on MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Thal, Sascha B.; Lommen, Miriam J.J.

    2018-01-01

    The present paper discusses the current literature with regard to substance-assisted psychotherapy with Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the development from MDMA’s early application in psychotherapy to its present and future role in the treatment of PTSD. It is further attempted to increase the attention for MDMA’s therapeutic potential by providing a thorough depiction of the scientific...

  9. VULNERABILITY, AUTHENTICITY, AND INTER-SUBJECTIVE CONTACT: PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Philosophical principles of a relationally focused Integrative Psychotherapy are described through the concepts of vulnerability, authenticity, and inter-subjective contact. Eight principles or therapist attitudes are outlined with clinical examples that illustrate the philosophy. These philosophical principles provide the foundation for a theory of methods. This article is based on a keynote address given at the 6th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, Grantham, UK, July 11-14, 2013.

  10. Integrative harm reduction psychotherapy: a case of substance use, multiple trauma, and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarsky, Andrew; Kellogg, Scott

    2010-02-01

    Harm reduction is a new paradigm that seeks to reduce the harmful consequences of substance use and other risky behaviors without requiring abstinence. This article discusses integrative harm reduction psychotherapy, one application of harm reduction principles to psychotherapy. Seven therapeutic tasks are described with attention to clinical process, skills, and strategies. A case is presented that illustrates the application of this approach with life-threatening substance use that was related to multiple trauma and suicidal depression. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Religious Transformation Among Danish Pentecostals Following Personal Crisis and Group Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; la Cour, Peter; Buus, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to explore transformations of religiosity experienced by Danish Pentecostals following a crisis and religiously integrated group psychotherapy. The study included semistructured interviews with 18 participants. The qualitative method of interpretative phenomenological analysis...... was applied for generating and analyzing the data-material. The findings suggested that all participants encountered a secondary religious transformation following the personal crisis or religiously integrated group psychotherapy. From a religious development perspective, however, the transformations...

  12. VULNERABILITY, AUTHENTICITY, AND INTER-SUBJECTIVE CONTACT: PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Erskine

    2013-01-01

    The Philosophical principles of a relationally focused Integrative Psychotherapy are described through the concepts of vulnerability, authenticity, and inter-subjective contact. Eight principles or therapist attitudes are outlined with clinical examples that illustrate the philosophy. These philosophical principles provide the foundation for a theory of methods. This article is based on a keynote address given at the 6th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, Granth...

  13. [Psychotherapy impact on effectiveness of in-hospital physical rehabilitation in patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumin, A N; Khaĭredinova, O P; Sumina, L Iu; Variushkina, E V; Doronin, D V; Galimzianov, D M; Masin, A N; Gol'dberg, G A

    2000-01-01

    Of 103 patients with acute coronary syndrome (mean age 51.6 +/- 0.9 years) 47 patients participated in 5 group psychotherapeutic sessions added to conversional rehabilitation program. Psychotherapy included progressive muscular relaxation, neurolinguistic programming, eriksonian hypnosis, therapeutic metaphora. Psychotherapy decreased the hear rate, number of ventricular extrasystoles, stimulated tonicity of the parasympathetic nervous system. Compared to the controls, the test patients developed higher exercise tolerance and lower reactivity of the central hemodynamics in all the exercise tests.

  14. Group supervision in a private setting: Practice and method for theory and practice in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziana Mangiacavallo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The report aims to tell the experience of a supervision group in a private setting. The group consists of professional psychotherapists driven by the more experienced practitioner, who shares a clinical reasoning on psychotherapy with younger colleagues. The report aims to present the supervision group as a methode and to showcase its features. The supervision group becomes a container of professional experiences that speak of the new way of doing psychotherapy

  15. Winifred Rushforth and the Davidson Clinic for Medical Psychotherapy: a case study in the overlap of psychotherapy, Christianity and New Age spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gavin

    2015-09-01

    The activities of both Winifred Rushforth (1885-1983), and the Edinburgh-based Davidson Clinic for Medical Psychotherapy (1941-73) which she directed, exemplify and elaborate the overlap in Scotland of religious discourses and practices with psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Even as post-war secularization began to affect Scottish culture and society, Rushforth and the Davidson Clinic attempted to renew the biographical discourses of Christianity using the idioms and practices of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Furthermore, alongside these Christian-inflected activities, Rushforth promoted a psychoanalytically-informed New Age spirituality. This parallel mode of belief and practice drew on Christian life-narrative patterns, preserving them within psychoanalytic forms grafted onto a vitalist worldview informed by the work of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. [Reality of treatment in psychotherapy: Results of a survey of German psychiatric hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, G; Sander, K; Artmann, S; Dreher, J; Lenz, J; Hauth, I

    2015-05-01

    Since the introduction of the qualification as specialist for psychiatry and psychotherapy, in addition to psychopharmacotherapy psychotherapy is an integral component of the treatment of mentally ill people. A survey was carried out to evaluate the reality of clinical routine use of psychotherapy in German psychiatric hospitals. Between October 2011 and March 2012 German hospitals of psychiatry and psychotherapy were contacted by the head organization, the conference of national directors (Bundesdirektorenkonferenz), to participate in a survey regarding the application of psychotherapy in the real clinical world of daily treatment. With an anonymous questionnaire, data were requested as either a printed form or online version. Data from 25 psychiatric hospitals in the year 2010 could be analysed (average number of beds 300 of which 53 were for psychosomatic/psychotherapeutic patients) and a total of 87,000 inpatients were treated whereby 34 % were diagnosed as F1 addictive disorders and 24 % as F3 affective disorders. More than 80 % of the hospitals applied group therapies of relaxation, cognitive behavior therapy, social competence training and specific techniques, such as dialectic-behavior therapy. As individual treatment methods, patients with depressive disorders were treated with cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy or psychodynamic therapy in more than 50 % of the cases. Relaxation techniques were offered in most cases by the nursing staff, behavior therapy by psychologists and physicians and psychodynamic therapy mainly by psychiatrists.

  17. Investigating Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Positive Psychotherapy Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Ghorbani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate psychometric properties of the Persian version of positive psychotherapy inventory in university students. Research method was descriptive, correlational type. The sample of the study consist of 432 MS and PhD students, 225 female and 207 male, aged between 23 to 45 of state universities of Tehran who were selected through multi-stage random sampling. To study reliability, convergent and structural validity of instrument the sample group completed, positive psychotherapy inventory (Rashid and Oxford Happiness Inventory (Argyle and Hills. To investigating the reliability Cronbach alpha and test- retest method, and for validity of instrument structural validity exploratory factor analysis method and convergent validity were used. Results showed the total internal consistency of positive psychotherapy inventory was 0.80 and subscales internal consistency was between 0.80 to 0.92 respectively. In addition test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.70 for total inventory and between 0.63 to 0.73 for the subscales. Also the correlation coefficients between positive psychotherapy inventory and oxford happiness inventory were 0.73, which indicated a satisfactory convergent validity for positive psychotherapy inventory. Confirmatory factor analysis results showed three factors model of positive psychotherapy inventory in the Iranian sample. These three factors explained 79.99 variance of total inventory.

  18. [On the present situation in psychotherapy and its implications - A critical analysis of the facts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschuschke, Volker; Freyberger, Harald J

    2015-01-01

    The currently dominating research paradigm in evidence-based medicine is expounded and discussed regarding the problems deduced from so-called empirically supported treatments (EST) in psychology and psychotherapy. Prevalent political and economic as well as ideological backgrounds influence the present dominance of the medical model in psychotherapy by implementing the randomized-controlled research design as the standard in the field. It has been demonstrated that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are inadequate in psychotherapy research, not the least because of the high complexity of the psychotherapy and the relatively weak role of the treatment concept in the change process itself. All major meta-analyses show that the Dodo bird verdict is still alive, thereby demonstrating that the medical model in psychotherapy with its RCT paradigm cannot explain the equivalence paradox. The medical model is inappropriate, so that the contextual model is proposed as an alternative. Extensive process-outcome research is suggested as the only viable and reasonable way to identify highly complex interactions between the many factors regularly involved in change processes in psychotherapy.

  19. Implementation and outcome of child psychotherapy compared with other psychiatric treatments in a naturalistic clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryynänen, Taimi; Alen, Markku; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Joskitt, Leena; Ebeling, Hanna

    2015-04-01

    Mental health problems of children are commonly treated by psychotherapy and other psychosocial treatments. Studies comparing different treatments in naturalistic clinical settings are few, however. We assessed the differences: 1) in symptoms and diagnoses; 2) in treatment outcome between psychotherapy and other psychosocial treatments; and 3) evaluated the effect of family background and life circumstances on the outcome. The data were collected from the psychiatric hospital records of Oulu University Hospital, Finland. All 118 children (aged psychotherapy from the Department of Child Psychiatry in 1996-2005 and 118 age- and sex-matched children undergoing other psychosocial treatments were included. A lack of later recorded psychiatric problems was used as an indicator of good treatment outcome. On referral, functional ability was severely impaired in almost half of the children (Children's Global Assessment Scale score psychotherapy group, while no difference was found in externalizing symptoms between the groups. In both groups, later psychiatric problems were associated with a child's low functional ability and poor parental coping with their responsibilities. Children with internalizing problems had impaired prognosis if they had psychosocial treatments other than psychotherapy. Individual psychotherapy should especially be considered for children with internalizing symptoms, but the outcome of psychiatric treatment depends not only on children's own functional abilities, but also on parental abilities.

  20. Research on psychotherapy integration: building on the past, looking to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G; Eubanks, Catherine F; Goldfried, Marvin R; Muran, J Christopher; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Integration has become an important and influential movement within psychotherapy practice, reflected by the fact that many treatment providers now identify as integrative. However, integration has not had as great an influence on psychotherapy research. The goal of this paper is to highlight the growing body of research on psychotherapy integration, and to identify future directions for research that may strengthen the integration movement as well as the field of psychotherapy as a whole. We first summarize the past 25 years of research on integration, with a focus on four approaches to integration: theoretical integration, technical eclectic, common factors, and assimilative integration. Next, we identify directions of research within these four areas that could strengthen and support integrative practice. We then propose ways in which the perspective of integrationists could contribute to psychotherapy research in the critical areas of harmful effects, therapist effects, practice-oriented research, and training. We end this paper by suggesting that a greater collaboration between integrationists and psychotherapy researchers will help to create a unified landscape of knowledge and action that will benefit all participants and advance the field.

  1. Psychotherapy in psychiatry: the current situation and future directions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Knut; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this article is to review how psychotherapy is dispensed to patients in psychiatric treatment and to render the future perspectives of psychotherapy in psychiatric outpatient and inpatient care in Germany. We demonstrate that--according to the currently available data about healthcare providers, allocation of financial resources and curricular regulations--the presently used definition of the term "psychotherapy" is ambiguous. One major problem for the application of psychotherapy in psychiatry is obviously constituted by the dominance of the major guideline therapies ("Richtlinienverfahren") within psychiatric services. Here, guideline therapies do not meet the needs of a significant proportion of acutely, severely and/or chronically ill psychiatric patients and restrain the application of scientifically approved, disorder-oriented and context compliant interventions in psychiatric practice. As a future perspective, we suggest that the training of psychiatrists should impart profound interpersonal skills and provide the competence to offer psychotherapy within a multimodal, modular, and flexible treatment plan on the background of the self-conception of psychiatry as a medical discipline. Moreover, future concepts of psychiatric psychotherapy should promote an evidence-based selection and application of scientifically approved, disorder-oriented, and integrative treatment methods, which are available in growing number.

  2. Depressed patients’ preferences for type of psychotherapy: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrondi A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antoine Yrondi,1 Julie Rieu,1 Claire Massip,1 Vanina Bongard,2 Laurent Schmitt1 1Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, 2Public Health Service, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France Background: The treatment recommendations for depressed patients by the American Psychiatric Association encourage a focus on the patient’s preferences. The focus of this study was the preference of depressed inpatients for the type of psychotherapy. Methods: Twenty-nine subjects of both sexes who were hospitalized with a major depressive episode were interviewed at 5-day intervals with the same questions after the depressive episode resolved, as indicated by a score less than 7 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. The selection of items was performed by expert consensus. Results: The supportive psychotherapy scores were the highest, followed by psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The two sessions conducted at 5-day intervals showed no significant difference, which reflected the stability of choices and preferences of patients. Conclusion: In this study, the patients preferred supportive psychotherapy as first-line therapy compared to psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Keywords: depression, depressive disorder, psychodynamic psychotherap, supportive psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy

  3. [Attitudes towards psychotherapy in South Korea and Germany : A cross-cultural comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W; Shin, M A; Schmid-Ott, G

    2018-01-01

    Due to the relatively recent introduction of psychotherapy in South Korea and against the background of collectivist and Confucian values, it has been suggested that South Koreans harbor more negative attitudes towards psychotherapy compared to Germans and that the social acceptance of psychotherapy is lower. We compared the attitudes of 99 women from South Korea with 98 German women using the questionnaire on attitudes towards psychotherapeutic treatment (FEP). For the study of the South Korean women we translated the questionnaire into the Korean language. The results of the psychometric analysis suggest that the Korean version of the FEP is of acceptable quality. South Korean women reported a significantly more negative attitude towards psychotherapy compared to German women. Furthermore, South Korean women anticipated a more skeptical social attitude towards psychotherapy compared to Germans. The presented results suggest the relevance of cultural imprinting in psychotherapy. They are discussed with respect to culture-specific self-concepts, concepts of disease and healing expectations and the increase of individualistic values in the Korean society.

  4. [Psychotherapy research in the German-speaking community--a bibliometric analysis of three journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Franz; Schüssler, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Psychotherapy research has often been considered a neglected topic in clinical psychology, psychosomatic medicine, and psychiatry because of its massive organizational and financial demands. However, it is unclear whether this assumption actually reflects the research activities in the field. We conducted a bibliometric analysis of the annual volumes for 2008 and 2009 of three clinical journals published in German. All publications referring to facets of psychotherapy research were analysed. About 30% of the publications dealt with issues of psychotherapy research. Outcome and process studies were about equally distributed. Process research frequently focused on patient variables as outcome predictors. Outcome studies most often presented effectiveness studies with rather small sample sizes. Psychotherapy research is a well-represented and multifaceted field in the German speaking research community. However, the traditional distinction between efficacy and process research among the various schools of psychotherapy research may be hampering further developments in this branch. The government-funded research networks may turn out to be promising approaches to overcoming some of the obstacles of classic psychotherapy research.

  5. A manifesto of community-focused psychotherapy for the social participation: Does individual and group psychotherapy still meet the care needs of the society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bruschetta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical, on a social-political level, of development of psychotherapy, seen as the health discipline, especially in that part of the world called West, scientifically established itself through the evaluation of the effectiveness of its two most common types of setting: Individual and Group- Psychotherapy. Through a social-anthropological interpretation of mental processes which it underpins, and a group analytical analysis of organizational and institutional dynamics that led to its evolution, the authors highlight the significant impasse in which psychotherapy finds itself today compared to new and more pervasive forms of mental suffering. Following on of the latest scientific research on the functioning of the mind and of new policy proposals from the World Health Organization, it is suggested so a form of basic psychotherapy, focused on the quality of the mental health of human contexts, defined Community-Focused Psychotherapy. This new form of psychotherapy is wrong simply understood as a new setting, alongside the classic individual, group, or family setting, but as a political-cultural background and a theoretical-methodological framework, so for different psychotherapeutic treatment (individual, group , family put in place in cases of specific psychopathological symptoms, as for a number of other clinical and social programs, carried out by professionals, workers and (formerly users, who support the empowerment of people, with serious psychological disorders or severe mental illness, in their own social contexts of belonging, and in their own recovery, through the active participation of all those therapeutic processes that support their care. 

  6. [2-stage group psychotherapy with integrated autogenic training within the scope of a general integrated psychotherapy concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barolin, Gerhard S

    2003-01-01

    Group-therapy and autogenic training in combination show mutual potentiation. Our results have proved the hypothesis to be true and we have also been able to explain it by an analysis of the neurophysiological and psychological findings concerning both methods. Our "model" has proved to be very economical in time and can be easily applied. It needs basic psychotherapeutical education but no special additive schooling. It is particularly well employed in rehabilitation patients, elderly patients and geronto-rehabilitation patients. As numbers of such patients are steadily increasing, it could soon become highly important, and in the technically dominated medicine of today, the particularly communicative component that we postulate in integrated psychotherapy could also grow in importance. By combining the two methods, it is not method that is at the centre of our endeavours but the patient.

  7. Personality disorder moderates outcome in short- and long-term group analytic psychotherapy: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Steinar; Ruud, Torleif; Fjeldstad, Anette; Høglend, Per A

    2015-06-01

    In a randomized clinical trial, short- and long-term psychodynamic group psychotherapy (STG and LTG, respectively) schedules were equally effective for the 'typical' patient during a 3-year study period. Although several studies have reported good effects for patients with personality disorders (PD) in diverse forms of psychotherapy, the significance of treatment duration is unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that PD patients would improve more during and after LTG than STG. A randomized, longitudinal, prospective study contrasting the outcomes during and after short- and long-term dynamic group psychotherapies. One hundred and sixty-seven outpatients with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, or PD were randomized to STG or LTG (respectively, 20 or 80 weekly sessions of 90 min each). Outcome measures are as follows: symptoms (SCL-90-R), interpersonal problems (IIP-C), and psychosocial functioning (GAF split version: GAF-Symptom and GAF-Function). PD pathology (number of PD criteria items) was selected a priori as a putative moderator of treatment effects. Change during the 3-year study period was assessed using linear mixed models. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT 00021417. Our hypothesis was supported, as patients with PD improved significantly more regarding all outcome variables in LTG than STG. For patients without PD, the rate of change was similar across 3 years; however, the rate of change in symptoms and interpersonal problems was higher in STG during the first 6 months. The effectiveness of LTG is higher for patients with co-morbid PD. Patients without PD do not appear to experience additional gain from LTG. Clinical implications: LTG demonstrates better effectiveness than STG for patients with personality disorder co-morbidity (PD). Patients without PD do not appear to experience additional gain from attending LTG. Correct initial allocation to treatment duration may prevent disruptive breaks in relationships and lead to both

  8. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  10. Generalized Phase Contrast

    CERN Document Server

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  11. Mamografia Espectral de Contraste

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Inês Santiago; Pereira, Inês; Pacheco, Hugo Pisco; Moutinho, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    A mamografia de contraste é uma aplicação recente possível com a mamografia digital directa, que utiliza contraste iodado endovenoso tendo como princípio a neovascularização induzida no cancro da mama, permitindo obter informação morfológica e funcional. Na mamografia espectral de contraste realiza-se uma aquisição simultânea com alta e baixa energia para cada incidência após administração de contraste iodado endovenoso. É depois feita uma imagem recombinada em que são realçadas as áreas que ...

  12. Reducing the time until psychotherapy initiation reduces sick leave duration in participants diagnosed with anxiety and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sandra; Marco, José H; Andani, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    Sick leave in patients with a mental disorder is characterized by having a long duration. Studies suggest that the time until a patient on sick leave for a common mental health disorder initiates evaluation and treatment by a healthcare professional is an important factor in the duration of the sick leave. However, in these studies, the intervention was not performed by a mental health specialist. The aim of this study was to find out whether the length of sick leave was associated with the time before initiating psychotherapy, age, time until returning to work after psychotherapy ends, and duration of psychotherapy. In a further analysis, we examined whether the model composed of age, duration of psychotherapy, and time before initiating psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave. The sample consisted of 2,423 participants, 64.1% (n = 1,554) women and 35.9% (n = 869) men, who were on sick leave for anxiety disorders or depressive disorder. The total duration of the sick leave of participants diagnosed with depression and anxiety was positively associated with the time before beginning psychotherapy. Time before beginning psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave when the variables age and duration of psychotherapy were controlled. It is necessary to reduce the time until beginning psychotherapy in people on sick leave for common mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Guidelines for Individual and Group Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Persons Diagnosed with Psychosis and/or Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezić, Slađana Štrkalj; Petrović, Branka Restek; Urlić, Ivan; Grah, Majda; Mayer, Nina; Stijačić, Dubravka; Jendričko, Tihana; Martić-Biočina, Sanja

    2017-09-01

    The hereby presented guidelines for the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy are based on references and research in the field of individual and group therapy and they refer to psychotherapy for patients suffering from the first psychotic episode, schizophrenia, schizoaffective psychosis, bipolar disorder and paranoid psychosis. The aim was to provide an overview of present literature and to give recommendations based on current knowledge. Clinical experience and research of the outcomes of psychodynamic psychotherapy encourage positioning of such treatments among recommendations for treating various mental disorders, as well as in the field of psychotherapy of patients with psychotic disorders (PD).

  14. LA PSICOTERAPIA: ¿OFICIO SIN CIENCIA Y CIENCIA SIN OFICIO? / PSYCHOTHERAPY: PRACTICE WITHOUT SCIENCE OR SCIENCE WITHOUT PRACTICE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANE KRAUSE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the persistent divorce between clinicalpractice and research in psychotherapy, examining theunderlying reasons in both contexts. With respect to clinicalpractice, the article discusses the characteristics of theteaching of psychotherapy, therapeutic schools as communities,and the fear of research. In the case of research in psychotherapy,the article analyzes research results regarding theeffectiveness of psychotherapy, the therapeutic alliance, andthe elements of the process. Finally, it presents some of thetransformations in research and its dissemination, which cancontribute to closing the gap between practice and science inpsychotherapy.

  15. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical fil...

  16. Psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa on symptoms of depression: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake; Wade, Tracey; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl; Brennan, Leah

    2017-10-01

    Depressive symptoms are an important risk factor and consequence of binge eating and purging behavior in bulimia nervosa (BN). Although psychotherapy is effective in reducing symptoms of BN in the short- and long-term, it is unclear whether psychotherapy for BN is also effective in reducing depressive symptoms. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of psychotherapy for BN on depressive symptoms in the short- and long-term. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on BN that assessed depressive symptoms as an outcome were identified. Twenty-six RCTs were included. Psychotherapy was more efficacious at reducing symptoms of depression at post-treatment (g = 0.47) than wait-lists. This effect was strongest when studies delivered therapist-led, rather than guided self-help, treatment. No significant differences were observed between psychotherapy and antidepressants. There was no significant post-treatment difference between CBT and other active psychological comparisons at reducing symptoms of depression. However, when only therapist-led CBT was analyzed, therapist-led CBT was significantly more efficacious (g = 0.25) than active comparisons at reducing depressive symptoms. The magnitude of the improvement in depressive symptoms was predicted by the magnitude of the improvement in BN symptoms. These findings suggest that psychotherapy is effective for reducing depressive symptoms in BN in the short-term. Whether these effects are sustained in the long-term is yet to be determined, as too few studies conducted follow-up assessments. Moreover, findings demonstrate that, in addition to being the front-running treatment for BN symptoms, CBT might also be the most effective psychotherapy for improving the symptoms of depression that commonly co-occur in BN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Computational psychotherapy research: scaling up the evaluation of patient-provider interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C

    2015-03-01

    In psychotherapy, the patient-provider interaction contains the treatment's active ingredients. However, the technology for analyzing the content of this interaction has not fundamentally changed in decades, limiting both the scale and specificity of psychotherapy research. New methods are required to "scale up" to larger evaluation tasks and "drill down" into the raw linguistic data of patient-therapist interactions. In the current article, we demonstrate the utility of statistical text analysis models called topic models for discovering the underlying linguistic structure in psychotherapy. Topic models identify semantic themes (or topics) in a collection of documents (here, transcripts). We used topic models to summarize and visualize 1,553 psychotherapy and drug therapy (i.e., medication management) transcripts. Results showed that topic models identified clinically relevant content, including affective, relational, and intervention related topics. In addition, topic models learned to identify specific types of therapist statements associated with treatment-related codes (e.g., different treatment approaches, patient-therapist discussions about the therapeutic relationship). Visualizations of semantic similarity across sessions indicate that topic models identify content that discriminates between broad classes of therapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. psychodynamic therapy). Finally, predictive modeling demonstrated that topic model-derived features can classify therapy type with a high degree of accuracy. Computational psychotherapy research has the potential to scale up the study of psychotherapy to thousands of sessions at a time. We conclude by discussing the implications of computational methods such as topic models for the future of psychotherapy research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy for the major psychiatric diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Susan G

    2014-09-01

    Psychotherapy is an effective and often highly cost-effective medical intervention for many serious psychiatric conditions. Psychotherapy can also lead to savings in other medical and societal costs. It is at times the firstline and most important treatment and at other times augments the efficacy of psychotropic medication. Many patients are in need of more prolonged and intensive psychotherapy, including those with personality disorders and those with chronic complex psychiatric conditions often with severe anxiety and depression. Many patients with serious and complex psychiatric illness have experienced severe early life trauma in an atmosphere in which family members or caretakers themselves have serious psychiatric disorders. Children and adolescents with learning disabilities and those with severe psychiatric disorders can also require more than brief treatment. Other diagnostic groups for whom psychotherapy is effective and cost-effective include patients with schizophrenia, anxiety disorders (including posttraumatic stress disorder), depression, and substance abuse. In addition, psychotherapy for the medically ill with concomitant psychiatric illness often lowers medical costs, improves recovery from medical illness, and at times even prolongs life compared to similar patients not given psychotherapy. While "cost-effective" treatments can yield savings in healthcare costs, disability claims, and other societal costs, "cost-effective" by no means translates to "cheap" but instead describes treatments that are clinically effective and provided at a cost that is considered reasonable given the benefit they provide, even if the treatments increase direct expenses. In the current insurance climate in which Mental Health Parity is the law, insurers nonetheless often use their own non-research and non-clinically based medical necessity guidelines to subvert it and limit access to appropriate psychotherapeutic treatments. Many patients, especially those who need

  19. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms Over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D’Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Depression is associated with poor social problem-solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for chronically depressed patients who failed to fully respond to an initial trial of pharmacotherapy (Kocsis et al., 2009). Method Participants with chronic depression (n = 491) received Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), which emphasizes interpersonal problem-solving, plus medication; Brief Supportive Psychotherapy (BSP) plus medication; or medication alone for 12 weeks. Results CBASP plus pharmacotherapy was associated with significantly greater improvement in social problem solving than BSP plus pharmacotherapy, and a trend for greater improvement in problem solving than pharmacotherapy alone. In addition, change in social problem solving predicted subsequent change in depressive symptoms over time. However, the magnitude of the associations between changes in social problem solving and subsequent depressive symptoms did not differ across treatment conditions. Conclusions It does not appear that improved social problem solving is a mechanism that uniquely distinguishes CBASP from other treatment approaches. PMID:21500885

  20. The Effect of Contingent Reinforcement on Target Variables in Outpatient Psychotherapy for Depression: A Successful and Unsuccessful Case Using Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Landes, Sara J.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.; Brown, Keri R.; Baruch, David E.; Holman, Gareth I.

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated a behavior-analytic treatment, functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), for outpatient depression utilizing two single-subject A/A+B designs. The baseline condition was cognitive behavioral therapy. Results demonstrated treatment success in 1 client after the addition of FAP and treatment failure in the 2nd. This…

  1. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fuentes Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test.

  2. Design challenges in transdiagnostic psychotherapy research: Comparing Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) to existing evidence-based psychotherapy in veterans with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F

    2015-07-01

    To address the limitations of disorder-specific approaches, newer transdiagnostic approaches to psychotherapy have been developed to provide a single treatment that is capable of addressing several, related disorders. However, the recruitment of multiple diagnoses presents many challenges to the traditional design of psychotherapy randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The goal of the manuscript is to present the challenges and rationale for designing a RCT for transdiagnostic treatment to inform and aid in the development of future investigations. A recently funded and ongoing RCT for Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) is used as an example to discuss the related design challenges. The TBT study involves the recruitment of 96 veteran participants with any of the following eight principal diagnoses: posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, major depressive disorder, or persistent depressive disorder. Within the TBT study, participants will complete a semi-structured diagnostic interview and a series of transdiagnostic self-report measures to determine eligibility and assess baseline symptomatology. Qualifying participants will be randomized to TBT or control psychotherapy. Additional assessments will be completed at post-treatment and 6-month follow-up. Due to the transdiagnostic nature of the sample, adjustments to the recruitment and randomization procedures, selection of measures, selection of control psychotherapy, and analysis plan were required. These adjustments have implications to future trials on transdiagnostic psychotherapy protocols as well as future research in line with the transdiagnostic focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) funding strategy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Suggestion, persuasion and work: Psychotherapies in communist Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    This article traces what recent research and primary sources tell us about psychotherapy in Communist Europe, and how it survived both underground and above the surface. In particular, I will elaborate on the psychotherapeutic techniques that were popular across the different countries and language cultures of the Soviet sphere, with a particular focus upon the Cold War period. This article examines the literature on the mixed fortunes of psychoanalysis and group therapies in the region. More specifically, it focuses upon the therapeutic modalities such as work therapy, suggestion and rational therapy, which gained particular popularity in the Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The latter two approaches had striking similarities with parallel developments in behavioural and cognitive therapies in the West. In part, this was because clinicians on both sides of the 'iron curtain' drew upon shared European traditions from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Nevertheless, this article argues that in the Soviet sphere, those promoting these approaches appropriated socialist thought as a source of inspiration and justification, or at the very least, as a convenient political shield.

  4. Group psychotherapy for parents of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ema N; Kajević, Milka; Agius, Mark; Martić-Biocina, Sanja

    2006-11-01

    During a four-month period, the authors provided group psychotherapy combining psychodynamic, supportive and psycho-educational approaches. The aim was to investigate whether this approach would enable parents of patients with schizophrenia to re-establish their psychic balance and the balance of the whole family system by reducing high expressed emotion. The following tools were administered: a socio-cultural questionnaire, MMPI and PIE psychological tests and two questionnaires for group evaluation. The socio-cultural questionnaire showed that the group of parents is heterogeneous. MMPI profiles showed truthful answers and well organized thinking; there were no psychopathological symptoms. The PIE test showed increased dimensions of sociability and trust. The dimensions of fear, sorrow and anger were decreased. Combinations of primary emotions (marked sociability and high self-protection) show that the parents are cautious, responsible and tend to feel guilt. The parents evaluated the group work as interesting and helpful and the group as a place where the parents can overcome the stigma of the disease that affects them, get information, find help and friends and find a way out of their social isolation. This combined approach changes the emotional profile of parents, reduces high expressed emotions (fear, sorrow and anger) in parents and helps re-establish their psychic balance and the balance of the whole family system.

  5. The complexities of power in feminist multicultural psychotherapy supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arczynski, Alexis V; Morrow, Susan L

    2017-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to understand how current feminist multicultural supervisors understand and implement their feminist multicultural principles into clinical supervision. We addressed this aim by answering the following research question: How do self-identified feminist multicultural psychotherapy supervisors conceptualize and practice feminist supervision that is explicitly multicultural? The perspectives of 14 participant supervisors were obtained by using semistructured initial interviews, follow-up interviews, and feedback interviews and were investigated via a feminist constructivist grounded theory design and analysis. Most participants identified as counseling psychologists (n = 12), women (n = 11) and temporarily able-bodied (n = 11); but they identified with diverse racial/ethnic, sexual, spiritual/religious, generational, and nationality statuses. A 7-category empirical framework emerged that explained how the participants anticipated and managed power in supervision. The core category, the complexities of power in supervision, explained how participants conceptualized power in supervisory relationships. The 6 remaining categories were bringing history into the supervision room, creating trust through openness and honesty, using a collaborative process, meeting shifting developmental (a)symmetries, cultivating critical reflexivity, and looking at and counterbalancing the impact of context. Limitations of the study, implications for research, and suggestions to use the theoretical framework to transform supervisory practice and training are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Attachment and group psychotherapy: introduction to a special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2014-03-01

    The application of attachment theory to adult psychotherapy represents a growing area of research and practice. Despite the conceptual overlap between group therapeutic factors, attachment theory, and therapeutic tasks as outlined by Bowlby (1988), there is little research on attachment functioning in group therapy. Hence, there remain substantial questions about the role of attachment theory in understanding group therapy processes and outcomes. The three studies in this special section advance the research in some of these important areas, including showing that positive changes in self-reported attachment insecurity among clients persist long after group therapy ends; attachment anxiety affects the level and rate of interpersonal learning in groups; and change in attachment to the therapy group has an impact on longer term change in individual group members' attachment. Each article also examines the impact of these attachment concepts on treatment outcomes. Numerous areas remain to be explored when it comes to the implications of attachment theory for understanding and conducting group therapy, including the conceptual and practical overlap between attachment concepts such as security and exploration with group therapeutic factors such as cohesion and interpersonal learning. The articles in this special section begin to address some of these issues related to attachment theory and its implications for group therapists. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive behvioral psychotherapy of a severe anorexia nervosa case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk ASLAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia Nervosa is a chronic, severe psychiatric illness characterized with life threatening weight loss. Patients with eating disorder almost devote their lives to lose weight. In the course of disorder, patients hold irrational fears of becoming overweight and are committed to lose weight with/without engaging bulimic behaviors. The effectiveness of drug treatment and psychotherapy is scant. Therefore, in this paper, treatment process of a 28 y.o patient with anorexia nervosa whom hospitalized to inpatient unit with 33kg is presented to discuss the effectiveness CBT treatment. After two weeks of intense psychiatric care, 10 sessions of CBT is delivered in inpatient unit resulting with significant improvements in her weight control behavior. She completed 6-week inpatient treatment and followed by this, she completed her treatment process as an outpatient client. By the end of treatment, she reached 50kg and sustained her weight afterwards. The records revealed that she manages to cope with her fears of gaining weights and stopped using safety behaviors. Moreover, it is reported that her maintaining behaviors like excessive exercising habits, purging and restrictive dieting abated. Exposure intervention is combined with CBT treatment introduced to help her to first accommodate an imaginary acceptance to idea of gaining weight and tolerating to reach her healthy targeted weight. This followed by using exposure interventions as a preventative instrument to help her overcome her fears of gaining weights, during the 6 months followup she maintained the healthy weight. [JCBPR 2016; 5(2.000: 94-103

  8. [Towards a Rehabilitation- and Participation-Oriented Psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Bengel, Jürgen; Morfeld, Matthias; Worringen, Ulrike

    2017-04-24

    Mental disorders (such as recurrent mood disorders, personality disorders, or psychotic disorders) come along with enduring impairment in daily life activities. Therefore psychotherapeutic actions in inpatient or outpatient settings require a life-span and participation-oriented treatment perspective. Participation-oriented treatment aims at social and vocational integration in general life despite enduringly recurring or resting symptoms. According to the model of health problems offered by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, ICF (WHO, 2001), disability can be defined as context-dependent activity impairment due to illness. Disability is not the person̓s illness itself, but depends on the interaction of health status and contextual conditions. This context-dependent impairment shall be overcome with the help of treatment. In psychotherapy, the perspective of participation over the life-span has always been of great importance. However, it has until now hardly been mentioned explicitly.For practical handling of the ICF philosophy, its bio-psycho-social model of health problem-description is useful. Psychotherapists should gain knowledge on medical, vocational, and social rehabilitation treatment aims, institutions and the health care system. Psychotherapists may serve, similar to family physicians, as a case manager of illness processes. They do not only aim reducing mental illness symptoms, but focus on life-span management of the mental disorder. The aim is mainly to improve patients̓ daily life participation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Reflections on relevance: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Relevance of an article is a highly desirable yet hardly predictable quality at the time of its publication. Article relevance is frequently measured by the impact factor of the journal where the article is published. Furthermore, impact factor, citation index and citation analysis are used as a measure of research progress and scientific wealth of a nation. The wisdom and significance of this approach to relevance is debatable and thus discussed here. In 2004, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics published a variety of articles which, in the author's view, are clinically relevant. Several selected clinically relevant issues reviewed in this article include: the conceptualization of fibromyalgia as a stress disorder; the psychosocial impact and psychosocial interventions in cancer; the impact of alexithymia on patient care; the possible relationship between depression and nutrition (namely intake of folate and pyridoxal phosphate); the significance of hypercoagulability in panic-like anxiety; the questionable value of single isomer drugs, and the relevance and adequacy of clinimetrics versus psychometrics in clinical research. The reviewed issues seem to be relevant to clinical practice, research or both, but also to our critical thinking, and the critical review of the developments in psychiatry and psychology. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Cultural function and psychological transformation in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2006-10-01

    Cultural experience of silence and individual vicissitudes between talking and being silent influence the way individuals form an alliance and pursue the analytic process. This is of relevance both for the patient and for the psychoanalyst/therapist. The author describes a patient, whose silent phase occurred in the fifth and sixth year of intensive psychoanalytic psychotherapy. She suggests that a) the silence functioned as a protection of a space for the core self and promoted inner transformation and psychological development; b) the silence involved a transference-countertransference matrix with projective identifications of the patient's internalized mother- and father-related objects that caused a tenuous balance between maintaining and erasing the relationship between the patient and the author; c) the silence phase was highly influenced by the author's own cultural background and what she brought into the relationship of tolerance of being silent in the presence of another, and understanding of the many complex functions of silence. During the silent phase the patient moved from simply describing and naming her affects and inner experiences or expressing them as somatic processes, to being able to internally access and verbally convey her own affects and experiences in the therapeutic alliance. This process involved both affect desomatization, affect differentiation, and affect verbalization.

  11. Outcome of systemic and analytic group psychotherapy for adult women with history of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, M; Kristensen, Ellids

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA.......Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA....

  12. Psychotherapy research needs theory. Outline for an epistemology of the clinical exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Sergio

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides an analysis of a basic assumption grounding the clinical research: the ontological autonomy of psychotherapy-based on the idea that the clinical exchange is sufficiently distinguished from other social objects (i.e. exchange between teacher and pupils, or between buyer and seller, or interaction during dinner, and so forth). A criticism of such an assumption is discussed together with the proposal of a different epistemological interpretation, based on the distinction between communicative dynamics and the process of psychotherapy-psychotherapy is a goal-oriented process based on the general dynamics of human communication. Theoretical and methodological implications are drawn from such a view: It allows further sources of knowledge to be integrated within clinical research (i.e. those coming from other domains of analysis of human communication); it also enables a more abstract definition of the psychotherapy process to be developed, leading to innovative views of classical critical issues, like the specific-nonspecific debate. The final part of the paper is devoted to presenting a model of human communication--the Semiotic Dialogical Dialectic Theory--which is meant as the framework for the analysis of psychotherapy.

  13. Internet-mediated psychotherapy: Are we ready for the ethical challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satalkar, Priya; Shrivastava, Shivanshu; Desousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Advances in information and communication technology have facilitated the development of online psychotherapy. This form of psychotherapy would provide the developing world with better access to professional mental healthcare services. At the same time, it is prudent to carefully consider the various ethical, legal and regulatory issues involved in online psychotherapy. This paper highlights the major ethical issues involved in the use of online psychotherapy, whether conducted via e-mail, chat rooms or interactive video, and identifies practical solutions for the ethical dilemmas that exist. Many authors and organisations have expressed their opinions on the subject, but no consensus has evolved. The advice offered to psychologists is mostly skewed and the scarcity of literature available to those considering expanding their practice to include online psychotherapy is certainly a source of vexation. While reviewing the existing literature, this paper seeks to describe and discuss the major ethical issues in this area, particularly in India, but many of these issues will be equally applicable to any developing world settings.

  14. Emotion episodes during psychotherapy sessions among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L; Darabos, Kathleen; Heckman, Carolyn J; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Rosenblum, Norman

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe emotion episodes during early and late psychotherapy sessions among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer and to examine whether the total number of emotion episodes during early and later sessions was associated with baseline psychological distress, dispositional emotion expressivity, and patient-rated therapeutic progress. The study utilized data from an ongoing study examining the efficacy of two psychotherapy interventions, a coping and communication intervention and a supportive counseling intervention, for women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Emotion episode coding was completed for the first and sixth psychotherapy sessions for each patient randomized to receive psychotherapy (N = 173). Patients completed baseline survey measures of psychological distress and dispositional emotional expressivity and post-session ratings of therapeutic progress. The average number of emotion episodes was 7.4 in the first session and 5.2 episodes in the sixth session. In both sessions, the majority of emotion episodes contained only negative emotions and focused on a cancer-related topic. A higher number of emotion episodes in the first session was associated with higher psychological distress reported in the baseline survey (p = 0.02). A higher number of emotion episodes in the sixth session was associated with a higher number of emotion episodes in the first session (p psychotherapy among women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [The Application of Body-Mind-Spirit Integrated Psychotherapy in Nursing Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu

    2017-06-01

    Body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy reflects the core value of nursing by emphasizing the inseparable concept of body, mind, and spirit and caring for the holistic needs of the patient. Body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy was developed based on Western psychotherapy (positive psychology and forgiveness therapy), traditional Chinese medicine, and the Eastern philosophies of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. The present paper describes the holistic concepts that underpin this therapeutic approach. Physical health is sustained through proper nutrition, physical relaxation, and harmonized breathing; psychological well-being helps maintain inner peace and harmony in interpersonal relationships; and spiritual well-being helps develop an optimistic and meaningful life. We report on several cases in which body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy was applied to the care of clients with depressive disorders and of breast cancer survivors and their partners as well as the related efficacy of this intervention in these cases. Finally, we discuss the potential for culturally-enriched psychotherapy to help clients transform illness suffering into life-growth experiences.

  16. Synchrony in Psychotherapy: A Review and an Integrative Framework for the Therapeutic Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Sander L.; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    During psychotherapy, patient and therapist tend to spontaneously synchronize their vocal pitch, bodily movements, and even their physiological processes. In the present article, we consider how this pervasive phenomenon may shed new light on the therapeutic relationship– or alliance– and its role within psychotherapy. We first review clinical research on the alliance and the multidisciplinary area of interpersonal synchrony. We then integrate both literatures in the Interpersonal Synchrony (In-Sync) model of psychotherapy. According to the model, the alliance is grounded in the coupling of patient and therapist’s brains. Because brains do not interact directly, movement synchrony may help to establish inter-brain coupling. Inter-brain coupling may provide patient and therapist with access to another’s internal states, which facilitates common understanding and emotional sharing. Over time, these interpersonal exchanges may improve patients’ emotion-regulatory capacities and related therapeutic outcomes. We discuss the empirical assessment of interpersonal synchrony and review preliminary research on synchrony in psychotherapy. Finally, we summarize our main conclusions and consider the broader implications of viewing psychotherapy as the product of two interacting brains. PMID:27378968

  17. Use of psychotherapy in a representative adult community sample in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Sergio L.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; da Silva, Paula Freitas R.; Peluso, Erica T.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the use of psychotherapy to treat common mental disorders in a major city in a middle income country. Data come from in-home interviews with a stratified random sample of 2,000 community residents age 18–65 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The information obtained included sociodemographic characteristics; psychotropic drugs; mental status; and lifetime, previous 12 months, and current use of psychotherapy. Logistic regression was used to examine determinants of use of psychotherapy. Of the sample, 22.7% met General Health Questionnaire-12 criteria for common mental disorders. Lifetime, previous 12 months, and current use of psychotherapy were reported by 14.6%, 4.6%, and 2.3% of the sample respectively. Users were typically women, more educated, higher income, not married, unemployed, with common mental disorders. Further analysis found that 47% (with higher education and income) paid out-of-pocket, and 53% used psychotropic medication. Psychotherapy does not appear to be the preferred treatment for common mental disorders. PMID:25118139

  18. A comparative trial of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for "pure" dysthymic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C; Kocsis, James H; Bleiberg, Kathryn L; Christos, Paul J; Sacks, Michael

    2005-12-01

    Psychotherapy of "pure" dysthymic disorder remains understudied. This article reports outcomes of an acute randomized trial of 94 subjects treated for 16 weeks with either interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP), sertraline, or sertraline plus IPT. Recruited by clinical referral and advertising, subjects met DSM-IV criteria for early onset dysthymic disorder, with no episode of major depression in the prior six months. They were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments, with options for crossover or continuation treatment. Results were analyzed from the intention-to-treat sample by ANCOVA, controlling for baseline depressive severity. Subjects improved in all conditions over time, with the cells including sertraline pharmacotherapy showing superiority over psychotherapy alone for response and remission. Response rates were 58% for sertraline alone, 57% for combined treatment, 35% for IPT, and 31% for BSP. The study was underpowered and may have employed too "active" a control condition. Follow-up data were unobtainable. In this acute trial for "pure" dysthymic disorder, sertraline with or without IPT showed advantages relative to IPT and BSP. Methodological difficulties may have limited differential outcome findings. This study bolsters a small but growing literature on the treatment of dysthymic disorder, suggesting that pharmacotherapy may acutely benefit patients more than psychotherapy.

  19. Synchrony in Psychotherapy: A Review and an Integrative Framework for the Therapeutic Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Sander L; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    During psychotherapy, patient and therapist tend to spontaneously synchronize their vocal pitch, bodily movements, and even their physiological processes. In the present article, we consider how this pervasive phenomenon may shed new light on the therapeutic relationship- or alliance- and its role within psychotherapy. We first review clinical research on the alliance and the multidisciplinary area of interpersonal synchrony. We then integrate both literatures in the Interpersonal Synchrony (In-Sync) model of psychotherapy. According to the model, the alliance is grounded in the coupling of patient and therapist's brains. Because brains do not interact directly, movement synchrony may help to establish inter-brain coupling. Inter-brain coupling may provide patient and therapist with access to another's internal states, which facilitates common understanding and emotional sharing. Over time, these interpersonal exchanges may improve patients' emotion-regulatory capacities and related therapeutic outcomes. We discuss the empirical assessment of interpersonal synchrony and review preliminary research on synchrony in psychotherapy. Finally, we summarize our main conclusions and consider the broader implications of viewing psychotherapy as the product of two interacting brains.

  20. Contrast media: future aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinmann, H.J.; Platzek, J.; Schirmer, H.; Pietsch, H.; Carretero, J.; Harto, J.; Medina, J.; Riefke, B.; Martin, J.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of the dramatic development in CT, there was no major breakthrough in the iodinated contrast media development. New agents based on hybrid between MRI and CT compounds may be a new innovative alternative. This new approach may also open new indications such as radiotherapy. (orig.)

  1. Roentgen contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamborski, C.

    1989-01-01

    The patent deals with a roentgen contrast medium containing a perfluorinebrominealkylether of the formula C m F 2m+1 OC n F 2n Br dispersed in water, preferentially in the presence of a non-ionic dispersing agent such as a fluorinated amidoaminoxide. 2 tabs

  2. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  3. The efficacy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in treating depressive and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Sijbrandij, M.; Koole, S.L.; Andersson, G.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Reynolds, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychotherapy and antidepressant medication are efficacious in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders, it is not known whether they are equally efficacious for all types of disorders, and whether all types of psychotherapy and antidepressants are equally efficacious for each

  4. Do Sex, Sex-Role Orientation, and Exposure to Gender-Congruent Therapy Models Influence Receptivity to Psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heather L.; Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2006-01-01

    This study had two objectives. The first objective was to evaluate how well sex and sex-role orientation predicted receptivity to psychotherapy. The second objective was to evaluate whether exposure to gender-congruent therapy videos influenced participants' receptivity to psychotherapy. Participants were randomly assigned to three conditions: (1)…

  5. Patient preference compared with random allocation in short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy with indicated addition of pharmacotherapy for depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Koelen, J.; Kool, S.; van Aalst, G.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Peen, J.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Depressed patients randomized to psychotherapy were compared with those who had been chosen for psychotherapy in a treatment algorithm, including addition of an antidepressant in case of early nonresponse. There were no differences between randomized and by-preference patients at baseline in

  6. Stigma, help-seeking attitudes, and use of psychotherapy in veterans with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Craig S; Greenbaum, Mark A; Fitt, Julie E; Laffaye, Charlene; Norris, Virginia A; Kimerling, Rachel

    2011-11-01

    Survey and medical record data from 482 Veterans Affairs (VA) patients who recently received diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were examined to determine need and predisposing factors associated with utilization of psychotherapy and counseling. More than half (58%) of participants initiated VA psychotherapy for PTSD within a year of diagnosis. Of those, one third completed eight or more sessions. Roughly two thirds of participants initiated counseling at a Vet Center. Initiating PTSD psychotherapy was associated with greater impairment but not with stigma, concerns about fitting in, or satisfaction with care. The use of Vet Center counseling was associated with desire for help, concerns about fitting in, and satisfaction with care. Unexpectedly, veterans with greater stigma concerns completed more psychotherapy visits and Vet Center counseling. Negative attitudes about mental health treatment did not seem to be substantial barriers to engaging in psychotherapy among these VA patients. Future research should consider enabling treatment system factors in addition to predisposing patient characteristics.

  7. Psychotherapy supervision developments and innovations for the new millennium: contributions from the cutting edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2014-01-01

    What are some of the most recent, cutting-edge developments and innovations in psychotherapy supervision? And what is their particular significance for supervision now and into its future? In this special supervision issue of the American Journal of Psychotherapy, those questions are considered, and some compelling answers are provided. In what follows, I introduce this special journal issue: (a) define supervision and indicate its purposes; (b) summarize the contents of each innovative paper; and (c) accentuate the significance of each presented development/innovation. The papers contained in this issue boldly speak to supervision's future and provide exciting--and highly profitable--directions to pursue in forever making psychotherapy supervision a far more anchored, accountable, and educational experience.

  8. THE IMPACT OF HOPE IN MEDIATING PSYCHOTHERAPY EXPECTATIONS AND OUTCOMES: A STUDY OF BRAZILIAN CLIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicki L. Aubuchon-Endsley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Client treatment expectations and hope are robustly associated with treatment outcome. Despite this, no known studies have examined client hope as a mediator to the relationship between expectancies and psychotherapy session outcomes. In addition, recent literature also supports cross-cultural differences in relations between treatment expectancies and outcomes. This article presents a cross-sectional study with a sample of Brazilian psychotherapy clients collected via referral sampling, in which existing clients referred potential participants. Participants were asked about their symptomatology and expectations of psychotherapy. The current study found that, within this Brazilian sample, trait hope partially mediated relations between expectancies and treatment session outcomes. Further studies are needed to investigate these effects and session outcomes in a culturally competent manner.

  9. Client attachment security predicts alliance in a randomized controlled trial of two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2016-01-01

    interaction whereby dismissing clients would develop weaker alliances in psychoanalytic psychotherapy and preoccupied clients would develop weaker alliances in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Conclusions: As the first study to examine client attachment and therapeutic alliance using observer-based instruments......Objective: This study investigated the relation between clients’ attachment patterns and the therapeutic alliance in two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa. Method: Data derive from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for bulimia...... to be a significant (p = .007) predictor of alliance levels at the three measured time points, with clients higher on attachment security developing stronger alliances with their therapists in both treatments as compared to clients higher on attachment insecurity. No evidence was found to support a hypothesized...

  10. The future orientation of constructive memory: an evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    We explore a new distinction between the future, prospective memory system being investigated in current neuroscience and the past, retrospective memory system, which was the original theoretical foundation of therapeutic hypnosis, classical psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy. We then generalize a current evolutionary theory of sleep and dreaming, which focuses on the future, prospective memory system, to conceptualize a new evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy. The implication of current neuroscience research is that activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity are the psychobiological basis of adaptive behavior, consciousness, and creativity in everyday life as well as psychotherapy. We summarize a case illustrating how this evolutionary perspective can be used to quickly resolve problems with past obstructive procrastination in school to facilitate current and future academic success.

  11. The influence of diagnosis on psychotherapy missed opportunities in a veteran population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jared Wayne; Cardin, Scott; Gonzalez, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Canceled or unattended psychotherapy sessions are a source of concern for patients, providers, and health-care systems. Veterans are particularly likely to experience mental health problems, and yet they are also especially susceptible to variables leading to premature termination of services. This study examined a large (n = 2285) sample of veterans receiving psychotherapy services to determine if mental health diagnosis had an impact upon missed psychotherapy opportunities. There were differential cancelation rates for individuals with different classes of disorder, and the total number of appointments a person scheduled changed the nature of the effect. Health-care administrators and treatment providers should consider the specific effects of individuals with differing diagnoses when planning courses of treatment and coordinating care.

  12. Effects of cognitive therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hansen, J L; Simonsen, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetime at tremendous suffering and cost. Cognitive therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy are treatment options, but their effects have only been limitedly compared in systematic reviews. METHOD: Using...... Cochrane systematic review methodology we compared the benefits and harm of cognitive therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy for major depressive disorder. Trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Library's CENTRAL, Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, Psychlit, PsycInfo, and Science Citation Index...... trials with low risk of bias and low risk of random errors are needed, although the effects of cognitive therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy do not seem to differ significantly regarding depressive symptoms. Future trials should report on adverse events....

  13. Looking back, looking forward: A historical reflection on psychotherapy process research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Elkin, Irene; Kiesler, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    In 1983, a group of 14 prominent psychotherapy process researchers attended a workshop sponsored by the US National Institute of Mental Health. Although the previous decade had seen a marked emphasis on psychotherapy outcome research, there had also been several major advances in the field of process research. The goals of the workshop were to review the current state of the field, address methodological and conceptual issues, and provide recommendations to advance scholarship in this area. In this paper, we summarize the major themes of the workshop and consider the degree to which its recommendations have come to fruition via subsequent developments in the field. Although 30 years have passed since the workshop was held, its insights remain highly relevant to psychotherapy process research today.

  14. RELATIONAL NEEDS OF THE THERAPIST: COUNTERTRANSFERENCE, CLINICAL WORK AND SUPERVISION. BENEFITS AND DISRUPTIONS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Relational needs are the emotional needs which underlie our social connectedness and help sustain and nurture our attachments to others. In doing psychotherapy, therapists must be attuned not only to the needs of the client, but also to their own relational needs. Through self awareness and knowledge of healthy and appropriate boundaries, therapists can ensure the best interest of the client is kept foremost. In this article, the influence of the therapist’s own relational needs in the psychotherapy process is examined in terms of the possible benefits and disruptions to the client’s emotional growth. This is discussed in the context of the Integrative Psychotherapy model based on the core concepts of inquiry, involvement and attunement. Clinical supervision is seen as an important part of working through counter-transference.

  15. Therapeutic self-disclosure in integrative psychotherapy: When is this a clinical error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv-Beiman, Sharon; Shahar, Golan

    2016-09-01

    Ascending to prominence in virtually all forms of psychotherapy, therapist self-disclosure (TSD) has recently been identified as a primarily integrative intervention (Ziv-Beiman, 2013). In the present article, we discuss various instances in which using TSD in integrative psychotherapy might constitute a clinical error. First, we briefly review extant theory and empirical research on TSD, followed by our preferred version of integrative psychotherapy (i.e., a version of Wachtel's Cyclical Psychodynamics [Wachtel, 1977, 1997, 2014]), which we title cognitive existential psychodynamics. Next, we provide and discuss three examples in which implementing TSD constitutes a clinical error. In essence, we submit that using TSD constitutes an error when patients, constrained by their representational structures (object relations), experience the subjectivity of the other as impinging, and thus propels them to "react" instead of "emerge." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. [Publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Dezetter, Anne

    Quebec's HealthCommissioner on the performance of the health system clearly highlighted gaps in the collaboration between primary care physicians and mental health specialists, decreased accessibility and inequity in access to effective mental health services such as psychotherapy.Objectives The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of two publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England with similar gatekeeper systems to the one in Quebec.Findings Following the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program introduced in Australia in 2003, one of the most important initiatives from the Council of Australian Governments' National Action Plan on Mental Health 2006-2011 was the Better Access Initiative which commenced in 2006. The plan included AUD1.2 billion in funding for integrating and improving the mental health care system. The purpose of Better Access was to improve the treatment and management of mental illnesses and increasing community access to mental health professionals and providing more affordable mental health care. GPs were encouraged to work more closely with mental health professionals. Under this program, these professionals are able to provide mental health services on a fee-for-service basis subsidized through Medicare. Access to psychological therapies is provided through private providers, rather than through fund holding arrangements. As of 2009 in Australia, 2 million people (1 in 11) had received over 11.2 million subsidized mental health services. A recent study showed clinical improvements in patients with depression associated with Better Access, concluding that the program is meeting previously unmet mental health needs.In the case of England, the IAPT - Improving Access to psychological Therapies-program enabled primary care trusts (PCTs) to implement evidence-based psychological therapies as recommended by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for people suffering from

  17. Relapse rates after psychotherapy for depression - stable long-term effects? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Christiane; Hofmann, Mareike; Kruse, Johannes; Leichsenring, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Depression is the most common mental disorder. Effective psychotherapeutic treatments for depression exist; however, data on their long-term effectiveness beyond a time span of two years is still scarce. Our aim was to perform a meta-analysis, investigating (a) overall rates of relapse more than two years after psychotherapy (meta-analysis 1), and (b) if psychotherapy has more enduring effects than non-psychotherapeutic comparison conditions (e.g. pharmacotherapy, treatment as usual), again beyond a time span of two years post-therapy (meta-analysis 2). We searched electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO and the COCHRANE Library. Main selection criteria were (i) RCT of psychotherapy with follow-up interval of more than 2 years, (ii) primary diagnosis of depression, assessed by observer ratings, (iii) report of relapse at follow-up. We identified 11 studies, 6 of which included a non-psychotherapeutic comparison condition. Together they comprised long-term data of 966 patients. Mean follow-up duration was 4.4 years. The overall relapse rate at long-term follow-up was 0.39 (95% CI 0.29, 0.50). Psychotherapy resulted in significantly less relapses (53.1% vs. 71.1%, OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.32, 0.82, p=0.005) than comparison treatments. This finding corresponded to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 5.55. Results can only be preliminary as data was sparse and studies differed methodologically. Heterogeneity in the first meta-analysis was high (I(2)=82%). Results indicated publication bias. The relapse rate more than two years after psychotherapy is relatively high, but significantly lower compared to non-psychotherapeutic treatments. Multiannual follow-ups should routinely be included in future psychotherapy RCTs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Cognitive-Developmental Model of Emotional Awareness and Its Application to the Practice of Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatwal, Jasleen; Lane, Richard D

    The ability to be aware of one's own emotional states has been a time-honored ingredient of successful psychodynamic psychotherapy. With the rise of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), however, the utility of experiencing and reflecting upon emotional experience has become less certain, and a quantifiable measure of emotional awareness for clinicians has not been previously available. Several recent advances cast the role of emotional awareness in psychotherapy in a different light: (1) a new theory of change in psychotherapy has been formulated that highlights emotional experience as an important ingredient of change in a variety of modalities; (2) new evidence shows that individual differences in the capacity for emotional awareness predict successful psychotherapeutic outcome in the treatment of panic disorder both by manualized psychodynamic psychotherapy and CBT; and (3) a new online version of the electronic Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (eLEAS) has been created that can be used with individual patients as a guide to psychotherapy treatment. Here we review evidence of a reliable and valid measure of emotional awareness that has been used in both normative and clinical contexts. The psychotherapeutic treatment of three patients is described to illustrate the clinical manifestations of the different levels of emotional awareness and the ways the eLEAS can be useful in the clinical context, including (1) assessment of the patient's current level of emotional functioning and his or her potential for higher levels of functioning, (2) the targeting of interventions to facilitate functioning at the next level, and (3) a possible marker of treatment progress. These observations suggest that the eLEAS has the potential to be a clinically useful tool that may assist clinicians in guiding psychotherapy treatment.

  19. Change mechanisms of schema-centered group psychotherapy with personality disorder patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Tschacher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study addressed the temporal properties of personality disorders and their treatment by schema-centered group psychotherapy. It investigated the change mechanisms of psychotherapy using a novel method by which psychotherapy can be modeled explicitly in the temporal domain. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: 69 patients were assigned to a specific schema-centered behavioral group psychotherapy, 26 to social skills training as a control condition. The largest diagnostic subgroups were narcissistic and borderline personality disorder. Both treatments offered 30 group sessions of 100 min duration each, at a frequency of two sessions per week. Therapy process was described by components resulting from principal component analysis of patients' session-reports that were obtained after each session. These patient-assessed components were Clarification, Bond, Rejection, and Emotional Activation. The statistical approach focused on time-lagged associations of components using time-series panel analysis. This method provided a detailed quantitative representation of therapy process. It was found that Clarification played a core role in schema-centered psychotherapy, reducing rejection and regulating the emotion of patients. This was also a change mechanism linked to therapy outcome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The introduced process-oriented methodology allowed to highlight the mechanisms by which psychotherapeutic treatment became effective. Additionally, process models depicted the actual patterns that differentiated specific diagnostic subgroups. Time-series analysis explores Granger causality, a non-experimental approximation of causality based on temporal sequences. This methodology, resting upon naturalistic data, can explicate mechanisms of action in psychotherapy research and illustrate the temporal patterns underlying personality disorders.

  20. Mamografia com contraste

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Rita; Silva, Carina; Reis, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    O estudo pretendeu apresentar as indicações clínicas, vantagens e princípios da mamografia com contraste, identificar as evoluyções tecnológicas para a mamografia com contraste e caracterizar as práticas e os desafios dos técnicos de radiologia do Hospital de Santarém (único no país a utilizar esta técnica). O cancro da mama é uma das principais causas de morte nas mulheres, em todo o mundo, mas principalmente nos Estados Unidos da América, Canadá, Europa Ocidental e Austrália. Em Portugal, e...