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Sample records for psychotherapy improve academically

  1. Transpersonal psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorstein, S

    2000-01-01

    The history, theory, and practice of Transpersonal (or Spiritual) Psychotherapy are presented. The author describes his own evolution from a traditional psychoanalyst to a psychotherapist who uses the tools and wisdom from spiritual traditions to enhance traditional psychotherapy while, at the same time, improving the self system of the therapist. Dangers as well as benefits of the spiritual approach are outlined. The creation and holding of a spiritual or transpersonal context is described and ways to ascertain, in the clinical situation, the appropriateness of such an approach are explained. The use of bibliotherapy to help transform and expand the worldview of the patient is outlined. Prayer and meditational systems also have a healing role in this approach. To illustrate the uses of Transpersonal Psychotherapy in practice, four cases are presented: 1) a paranoid schizophrenic man, 2) a well-functioning borderline person, 3) a very poorly functioning borderline person, and 4) a high-functioning neurotic man who had been in psychoanalysis.

  2. Three Obstacles to Improving Academic Consultation.

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    Kremer, John F.

    1980-01-01

    Notes three obstacles to improving academic consultation to students: (1) lack of knowledge of techniques to improve student performance; (2) reduction of barriers between students and professors; and (3) needed reinforcements for professors. Suggests strategies for overcoming those problems. (CK)

  3. Improving Academic Writing in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background: At a specialist nursing education in intensive care, located at a University college in Sweden, there was a desire among the faculty to develop their ability to support specialist nursing students in their academic development, as well as in their academic writing, to improve the overall quality of the master theses. A quality…

  4. College Students' Preferences for Psychotherapy across Depression, Anxiety, Relationship, and Academic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Aaron W.; Ross, Michael J.; Vander Wal, Jillon S.; Austin, Chammie C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined differences in college students' preferences for processes of change across four kinds of problems: academic, relationship, depression, and anxiety. Two hundred eighteen undergraduates were randomly assigned to complete either an academic problems, relationship problems, depression, or anxiety Processes of Change…

  5. Effectiveness of Positive Psychotherapy in Improving Opiate Addicts’ Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Porzoor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy based on quality of life in improving opiate addicts’ quality of life. Method: A quasi experimental research design long with control group and pre-test, post-test and follow-up was employed for the conduct of this study. All the opiate addicts referring to treatment centers of Ardebil city in 2013 constituted the statistical population of the study and the number of 36 participants was selected as the sample via purposive sampling and randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. Quality-of-life-based psychotherapy was conducted on the experimental group in 8 sessions while the control group received no intervention. Quality of life questionnaire was used for data collection purposes. Results: The results suggested the effectiveness of the intervention in quality of life. Conclusion: This intervention, which is formed from the combination positive psychology and cognitive-behavioral approach, can be used as an effective treatment method.

  6. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Peer Mentors Can Improve Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Shaki; Carter, Frederick, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between peer mentoring and academic performance. Students from two introductory psychology classes either received (n = 37) or did not receive (n = 36) peer mentoring. The data indicated a consistent improvement in the performance (i.e., grades on scheduled exams) of the mentored group. A similar pattern…

  8. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Other forms of therapy for BPD ... STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of ...

  9. Performance samples on academic tasks : improving prediction of academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanilon, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development and validation of a performance-based test, labeled as Performance Samples on academic tasks in Education and Child Studies (PSEd). PSEd is designed to identify students who are most able to perform the academic tasks involved in an Education and Child Studies br

  10. Gratitude in cognitive psychotherapy

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    Natalia C. Moyano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gratitude is a cognitive-affective state caused by the recognition that one has received a benefit from an external agent, due to the good intentions of this agent. Despite the evidence that associate gratitude with subjective well being, psychological well being, physical health and copping with stressful events, it is not enough taken in consideration in an academic level and in its interaction with psychotherapy instruments as well. In this article, the central concepts and information provided by the research are revised, intending to analyze possible ways to include gratitude into Cognitive Psychotherapy

  11. Forensic psychotherapy.

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    Riordan, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the role forensic psychotherapy has in the assessment and treatment of mentally disordered offender patients, and its role in the supervision of individual therapists, staff groups or whole organisations which contain and manage this patient population. Forensic psychotherapy has a valuable role to play in the management of mentally disordered forensic patients. As forensic services continue to develop in Australia and New Zealand and interest in this field continues to grow, then the future of forensic psychotherapy looks bright.

  12. Epigenetic Biomarkers as Predictors and Correlates of Symptom Improvement Following Psychotherapy in Combat Veterans with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eYehuda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic alterations offer promise as prognostic or diagnostic markers, but it is not known whether these measures associate with, or predict, clinical state. These questions were addressed in a pilot study with combat veterans with PTSD to determine whether cytosine methylation in promoter regions of the glucocorticoid related NR3C1 and FKBP51 genes would predict or associate with treatment outcome. Veterans with PTSD received prolonged exposure (PE psychotherapy, yielding responders (n=8, defined by no longer meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD, and non-responders (n=8. Blood samples were obtained at pre-treatment, after 12 weeks of psychotherapy (post-treatment, and after a 3 month follow-up. Methylation was examined in DNA extracted from lymphocytes. Measures reflecting glucocorticoid receptor (GR activity were also obtained from lymphocytes (i.e., plasma and 24h-urinary cortisol, plasma ACTH, lysozyme IC50-DEX, and plasma neuropetide-Y. Methylation of the GR gene (NR3C1 exon 1F promoter assessed at pre-treatment predicted treatment outcome, but was not significantly altered in responders or non-responders at post-treatment or follow-up. In contrast, methylation of the FKBP5 gene (FKBP51 exon 1 promoter region did not predict treatment response, but decreased in association with recovery. In a subset, a corresponding group difference in FKBP5 gene expression was observed, with responders showing higher gene expression at post-treatment than non-responders. Endocrine markers also changed in association with symptom change. These preliminary observations require replication and validation. However, the results support research indicating that some glucocorticoid related genes are subject to environmental regulation throughout life. Moreover, psychotherapy constitutes a form of ‘environmental regulation’ that may alter epigenetic state. Finally, the results further suggest that different genes may be associated with prognosis and symptom

  13. Improving psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa: Introduction to the special section on innovative treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2016-06-01

    The available forms of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa (AN) are helpful to many patients; however, a substantial proportion of adults with AN continues to show persistent symptoms and medical risks following treatment. Clinical investigators are therefore developing innovative adjunctive treatments for adults, to augment treatment effects. The 3 cases in this special section each demonstrate a creative, potent adjunctive treatment approach: Exposure and Response Prevention, Cognitive Remediation Therapy, and Unified Couples Therapy. In addition to demonstrating the treatment and response, the authors also discuss the important opportunities and struggles associated with the experience of providing each treatment for AN. Because adults with AN are often very attached to symptoms, and afraid of change, it is crucial to develop a basis for the therapeutic alliance and motivation to change. In these detailed, vivid, evidence-based case examples, the authors demonstrate highly distinct, innovative approaches to these issues. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Parent-infant psychotherapy for improving parental and infant mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Bennett, Cathy; Midgley, Nick; Larkin, Soili K; Wei, Yinghui

    2015-01-08

    Parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP) is a dyadic intervention that works with parent and infant together, with the aim of improving the parent-infant relationship and promoting infant attachment and optimal infant development. PIP aims to achieve this by targeting the mother's view of her infant, which may be affected by her own experiences, and linking them to her current relationship to her child, in order to improve the parent-infant relationship directly. 1. To assess the effectiveness of PIP in improving parental and infant mental health and the parent-infant relationship.2. To identify the programme components that appear to be associated with more effective outcomes and factors that modify intervention effectiveness (e.g. programme duration, programme focus). We searched the following electronic databases on 13 January 2014: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2014, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, BIOSIS Citation Index, Science Citation Index, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, checked reference lists, and contacted study authors and other experts. Two review authors assessed study eligibility independently. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-randomised controlled trials (quasi-RCT) that compared a PIP programme directed at parents with infants aged 24 months or less at study entry, with a control condition (i.e. waiting-list, no treatment or treatment-as-usual), and used at least one standardised measure of parental or infant functioning. We also included studies that only used a second treatment group. We adhered to the standard methodological procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. We standardised the treatment effect for each outcome in each study by dividing the mean difference (MD) in post-intervention scores between the intervention and control groups by the pooled standard deviation. We presented standardised mean differences (SMDs) and

  15. [General psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymetal, J

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays a theoretical psychotherapeutical thinking develops from the eclectic practice and uses particularly the research of the effective factors of the therapy. Best they can be characterized as differentiate, synthetic, integrative and exceeding other approaches. The development in question goes on with attempts of creating a general model of the psychotherapy that could be a basis for models of special psychotherapies. The aim of such a model is to describe all that is present as important factor for inducing a desirable change of a human in all psychotherapeutical approaches. Among general models we can mention the generic model of D. E. Orlinski and K. I. Howard, Grawe's cube (the author is K. Grawe) and the equation of the psychotherapy.

  16. Interpersonal learning is associated with improved self-esteem in group psychotherapy for women with binge eating disorder.

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    Gallagher, Meagan E; Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Maxwell, Hilary; Bissada, Hany

    2014-03-01

    Yalom and Leszcz (2005) indicated that interpersonal learning is a key therapeutic factor in group psychotherapy. In this study, we conceptualized interpersonal learning as the convergence over time between an individual's and the group's perception of the individual's cohesion to the group. First, we developed parallel measures of: (a) an individual's self-rated cohesion to the group (Cohesion Questionnaire-Individual Version [CQ-I]), and (b) the group's rating of the individual's cohesion to the group (CQ-G) based on the original Cohesion Questionnaire (CQ; Piper, Marache, Lacroix, Richardsen, & Jones, 1983). Second, we used these parallel scales to assess differences between an individual's self-rating and the mean of the group's ratings of the individual's cohesion to the group. Women with binge eating disorder (N = 102) received Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Participants were assigned to homogeneously composed groups of either high or low attachment anxiety. Outcomes were measured pre- and post-treatment, and the CQ-I and CQ-G were administered every fourth group session. We found significant convergence over time between the CQ-I and mean CQ-G scale scores in both attachment anxiety conditions. Participants with higher attachment anxiety had lower individual self-ratings of cohesion and had greater discrepancies between the CQ-I and CG-G compared with those with lower attachment anxiety. There was a significant relationship between greater convergence in cohesion ratings and improved self-esteem at post-treatment. More accurate self-perceptions through feedback from group members may be a key factor in facilitating increased self-esteem in group therapy. Group therapists may facilitate such interpersonal learning, especially for those higher in attachment anxiety, by noting discrepancies and then encouraging convergence between an individual and the group in their perceptions of cohesion to the group.

  17. Positive Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  18. Improving motivation for academics in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Singh, Anjileen K; Koegel, Robert L

    2010-09-01

    Many children with autism show very little interest in academic assignments and exhibit disruptive behavior when assignments are presented. Research indicates that incorporating specific motivational variables such as choice, interspersal of maintenance tasks, and natural reinforcers during intervention leads to improvements in core symptoms of autism and may possibly be effective in academic areas. Using a multiple baseline across children and behaviors design with four pre- and elementary school children with autism, we assessed whether the above variables could be incorporated into academic tasks to improve performance and interest. Results indicated that the intervention decreased the children's latency to begin academic tasks, improved their rate of performance and interest, and decreased their disruptive behavior. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

  19. Big ideas for psychotherapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, James; Gates, Sarah; Vinca, Maria Ann; Boles, Shawna; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2007-12-01

    Research indicates that traditional psychotherapy training practices are ineffective in durably improving the effectiveness of psychotherapists. In addition, the quantity and quality of psychotherapy training research has also been limited in several ways. Thus, based on extant scholarship and personal experience, we offer several suggestions for improving on this state of affairs. Specifically, we propose that future psychotherapy trainings focus on a few "big ideas," target psychotherapist meta-cognitive skills, and attend more closely to the organizational/treatment context in which the training takes place. In terms of future training research, we recommend that researchers include a wider range of intermediate outcomes in their studies, examine the nature of trainee skill development, and investigate the role that organizational/treatment culture plays in terms of the retention of changes elicited by psychotherapy training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy Taking Care of Yourself Questions About ...

  2. Improving productivity in academic group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R E

    1995-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to identify all the variables that impact productivity in a group practice, contrast the administrator's and physician's definitions of productivity, discuss current measurement tools and outline the steps in a traditional productivity project. The article identifies key variables that management must address: physician education, goals, feedback and rewards that are critical to the success of any productivity undertaking. Upon completion of this article, the reader will be able to understand the differences in the way administrators and physicians view productivity and be able to identify the vital areas that must be addressed in any effort to increase productivity. While the article focuses on the academic setting, the principles are applicable in any group practice.

  3. Using Audio Books to Improve Reading and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights significant research about what below grade-level reading means in middle school classrooms and suggests a tested approach to improve reading comprehension levels significantly by using audio books. The use of these audio books can improve reading and academic performance for both English language learners (ELLs) and for…

  4. Does Children's Academic Achievement Improve when Single Mothers Marry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagmiller, Robert L., Jr.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Veliz, Philip; Clements, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Promoting marriage, especially among low-income single mothers with children, is increasingly viewed as a promising public policy strategy for improving developmental outcomes for disadvantaged children. Previous research suggests, however, that children's academic achievement either does not improve or declines when single mothers marry. In this…

  5. Using Learning Strategies to Improve the Academic Performance of University Students on Academic Probation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzulli, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    One half of all students who begin college fail to complete their degrees, resulting in wasted talents, time, and resources. Through use of mixed methods, but primarily qualitative, comparative case studies, this research reveals ways a 3-week course in study strategies improved the performance of students placed on academic probation. The…

  6. Jungle Gym or Brain Gym. Playgrounds Can Improve Academic Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Teresa B.

    2000-01-01

    A well-developed playground in a park or school setting can greatly enhance childen's overall development, making playgrounds more than just fun. Playgrounds offer children opportunities to develop physically, mentally, and socially, improving academic readiness as well as overall health. The paper discusses the importance of movement, how…

  7. Improving Motivation for Academics in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Singh, Anjileen K.; Koegel, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Many children with autism show very little interest in academic assignments and exhibit disruptive behavior when assignments are presented. Research indicates that incorporating specific motivational variables such as choice, interspersal of maintenance tasks, and natural reinforcers during intervention leads to improvements in core symptoms of…

  8. Research Publication as a Strategy to Improve International Academic Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Fatt Hee

    2012-01-01

    Many universities in Asia are now focused on enhancing their global academic competitiveness. Various strategies are implemented to restructure, reform and transform universities aimed at improving ranking in the global university league. One significant strategy is to encourage academicians to place priority on publishing in high-impact…

  9. Training of academic writing: improving competitiveness of Czech universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Foltýnek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Project “Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education across Europe” has reached its final phase. We have collected lots of data reflecting facts and opinions about plagiarism and related areas. Training of academic writing is one of important means for plagiarism prevention.The paper compares levels of training of academic writing between the Czech republic and the rest of Europe. The answers in a questionnaire survey dealing with plagiarism and training of academic writing will be compared and analysed. According to these answers, best practices in European higher education institutions will be identified, and gaps in the Czech institutions will be described. Removing gaps than poses a step to improve the competitiveness of the Czech higher education institutions.

  10. Feedback versus no feedback in improving patient outcome in group psychotherapy for eating disorders (F-EAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    or control group at a ratio of 1:1. The experimental group will receive standard treatment (systemic and narrative group psychotherapy) with feedback intervention, whereas the control group will receive standard treatment only. The participants are diagnosed with bulimia nervosa binge eating disorder...

  11. Method of Improving Personal Name Search in Academic Information Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejun Han

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All academic information on the web or elsewhere has its creator, that is, a subject who has created the information. The subject can be an individual, a group, or an institution, and can be a nation depending on the nature of the relevant information. Most information is composed of a title, an author, and contents. An essay which is under the academic information category has metadata including a title, an author, keyword, abstract, data about publication, place of publication, ISSN, and the like. A patent has metadata including the title, an applicant, an inventor, an attorney, IPC, number of application, and claims of the invention. Most web-based academic information services enable users to search the information by processing the meta-information. An important element is to search information by using the author field which corresponds to a personal name. This study suggests a method of efficient indexing and using the adjacent operation result ranking algorithm to which phrase search-based boosting elements are applied, and thus improving the accuracy of the search results of personal names. It also describes a method for providing the results of searching co-authors and related researchers in searching personal names. This method can be effectively applied to providing accurate and additional search results in the academic information services.

  12. WELLFOCUS PPT - modified positive psychotherapy to improve well-being in psychosis: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Beate; Riches, Simon; Coggins, Tony; Rashid, Tayyab; Tylee, Andre; Slade, Mike

    2014-06-03

    The promotion of well-being is an important goal of recovery oriented mental health services. No structured, evidence-based intervention exists that aims to increase the well-being in people with severe mental illness such as psychosis. Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is a promising intervention for this goal. Standard PPT was adapted for use with people with psychosis in the UK following the Medical Research Council framework for developing and testing complex interventions, resulting in the WELLFOCUS Model describing the intended impact of WELLFOCUS PPT. This study aims to test the WELLFOCUS Model, by piloting the intervention, trial processes, and evaluation strategy. This study is a non-blinded pragmatic pilot RCT comparing WELLFOCUS PPT provided as an 11-session group therapy in addition to treatment as usual to treatment as usual alone. Inclusion criteria are adults (aged 18-65 years) with a main diagnosis of psychosis who use mental health services. A target sample of 80 service users with psychosis are recruited from mental health services across the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. Participants are randomised in blocks to the intervention and control group. WELLFOCUS PPT is provided to groups by specifically trained and supervised local therapists and members of the research team. Assessments are conducted before randomisation and after the group intervention. The primary outcome measure is well-being assessed by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Secondary outcomes include good feelings, symptom relief, connectedness, hope, self-worth, empowerment, and meaning. Process evaluation using data collected during the group intervention, post-intervention individual interviews and focus groups with participants, and interviews with trial therapists will complement quantitative outcome data. This study will provide data on the feasibility of the intervention and identify necessary adaptations. It will allow optimisation of trial processes

  13. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  14. Improving outpatient access and patient experiences in academic ambulatory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Sarah; Calderon, Sherry; Casella, Joanne; Wood, Elizabeth; Carvelli-Sheehan, Jayne; Zeidel, Mark L

    2012-02-01

    Effective scheduling of and ready access to doctor appointments affect ambulatory patient care quality, but these are often sacrificed by patients seeking care from physicians at academic medical centers. At one center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, the authors developed interventions to improve the scheduling of appointments and to reduce the access time between telephone call and first offered appointment. Improvements to scheduling included no redirection to voicemail, prompt telephone pickup, courteous service, complete registration, and effective scheduling. Reduced access time meant being offered an appointment with a physician in the appropriate specialty within three working days of the telephone call. Scheduling and access were assessed using monthly "mystery shopper" calls. Mystery shoppers collected data using standardized forms, rated the quality of service, and transcribed their interactions with schedulers. Monthly results were tabulated and discussed with clinical leaders; leaders and frontline staff then developed solutions to detected problems. Eighteen months after the beginning of the intervention (in June 2007), which is ongoing, schedulers had gone from using 60% of their registration skills to over 90%, customer service scores had risen from 2.6 to 4.9 (on a 5-point scale), and average access time had fallen from 12 days to 6 days. The program costs $50,000 per year and has been associated with a 35% increase in ambulatory volume across three years. The authors conclude that academic medical centers can markedly improve the scheduling process and access to care and that these improvements may result in increased ambulatory care volume.

  15. Assessing and Improving L2 Graduate Students' Popular Science and Academic Writing in an Academic Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakedzon, Tzipora; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a study using a quasi-experimental design to examine whether an academic writing course in English can improve graduate students' academic and popular science writing skills. To address this issue, we designed pre- and post-assessment tasks, an intervention assessment task and a scoring rubric. The pre- and post-assessment tasks…

  16. Assessing and Improving L2 Graduate Students' Popular Science and Academic Writing in an Academic Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakedzon, Tzipora; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a study using a quasi-experimental design to examine whether an academic writing course in English can improve graduate students' academic and popular science writing skills. To address this issue, we designed pre- and post-assessment tasks, an intervention assessment task and a scoring rubric. The pre- and post-assessment tasks…

  17. Frontolimbic neural circuit changes in emotional processing and inhibitory control associated with clinical improvement following transference-focused psychotherapy in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, David L; Vago, David R; Pan, Hong; Root, James; Tuescher, Oliver; Fuchs, Benjamin H; Leung, Lorene; Epstein, Jane; Cain, Nicole M; Clarkin, John F; Lenzenweger, Mark F; Kernberg, Otto F; Levy, Kenneth N; Silbersweig, David A; Stern, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by self-regulation deficits, including impulsivity and affective lability. Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) is an evidence-based treatment proven to reduce symptoms across multiple cognitive-emotional domains in BPD. This pilot study aimed to investigate neural activation associated with, and predictive of, clinical improvement in emotional and behavioral regulation in BPD following TFP. BPD subjects (n = 10) were scanned pre- and post-TFP treatment using a within-subjects design. A disorder-specific emotional-linguistic go/no-go functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to probe the interaction between negative emotional processing and inhibitory control. Analyses demonstrated significant treatment-related effects with relative increased dorsal prefrontal (dorsal anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal, and frontopolar cortices) activation, and relative decreased ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampal activation following treatment. Clinical improvement in constraint correlated positively with relative increased left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. Clinical improvement in affective lability correlated positively with left posterior-medial orbitofrontal cortex/ventral striatum activation, and negatively with right amygdala/parahippocampal activation. Post-treatment improvements in constraint were predicted by pre-treatment right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex hypoactivation, and pre-treatment left posterior-medial orbitofrontal cortex/ventral striatum hypoactivation predicted improvements in affective lability. These preliminary findings demonstrate potential TFP-associated alterations in frontolimbic circuitry and begin to identify neural mechanisms associated with a psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. Improving the academic performance of university biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Latasha Shireen

    Studies indicated that teaching styles and learning styles of students play a very important role in the academic success of students. A lack of knowledge about teaching styles and learning styles often complicates the challenge of learning and, therefore, affects the academic achievement of students. The research site at a college had a retention rate of 70% of its biology majors and needed to improve the retention rate of the biology program. The purpose of this study was to improve the academic performance of university biology students through a multicomponent program, the Student Retention Engagement Program. The 3 components included students and teachers understanding students' learning styles, teachers acquiring knowledge of learner-based teaching methodology, and peer mentoring. In the implementation of this applied dissertation, the researcher sought to increase the grade point averages of 100 Biology 103 students from 2.25 to at least an overall 2.50 out of a 4.00 point grade point average scale. After implementation of the intervention strategies. the overall retention ratc of biology majors was also targeted to improve from 70% to at least 75%. The focus of the dissertation was on the outcomes associated with implementing successful teaching and learning strategies with the biology students. In 1 component of the Student Retention Engagement Program, biology teachers learned to identify their preferred teaching styles through a teaching perspectives inventory administered during a professional development program. A training program focused on utilizing teaching strategies for specific student learning styles was implemented. Another component involved training and using upper class peer mentors. The supervisors of the Office of Retention selected upper class participants who held a 3.0 or higher grade point average. A learning style inventory was administered to the upper class peer mentors and participating students. The results helped to identify

  19. Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy and Brief Supportive Psychotherapy for Augmentation of Antidepressant Nonresponse in Chronic Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, James H.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Klein, Daniel N.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Manber, Rachel; Keller, Martin B.; Leon, Andrew C.; Wisniewski, Steven R.; Arnow, Bruce A.; Markowitz, John C.; Thase, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Context Previous studies have found that few chronically depressed patients remit with antidepressant medications alone. Objective To determine the role of adjunctive psychotherapy in the treatment of chronically depressed patients with less than complete response to an initial medication trial. Design This trial compared 12 weeks of (1) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), (2) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP), and (3) continued optimized pharmacotherapy (MEDS) alone. We hypothesized that adding CBASP would produce higher rates of response and remission than adding BSP or continuing MEDS alone. Setting Eight academic sites. Participants Chronically depressed patients with a current DSM-IV–defined major depressive episode and persistent depressive symptoms for more than 2 years. Interventions Phase 1 consisted of open-label, algorithm-guided treatment for 12 weeks based on a history of antidepressant response. Patients not achieving remission received next-step pharmacotherapy options with or without adjunctive psychotherapy (phase 2). Individuals undergoing psychotherapy were randomized to receive either CBASP or BSP stratified by phase 1 response, ie, as nonresponders (NRs) or partial responders (PRs). Main Outcome Measures Proportions of remitters, PRs, and NRs and change on Hamilton Scale for Depression (HAM-D) scores. Results In all, 808 participants entered phase 1, of which 491 were classified as NRs or PRs and entered phase 2 (200 received CBASP and MEDS, 195 received BSP and MEDS, and 96 received MEDS only). Mean HAM-D scores dropped from 25.9 to 17.7 in NRs and from 15.2 to 9.9 in PRs. No statistically significant differences emerged among the 3 treatment groups in the proportions of phase 2 remission (15.0%), partial response (22.5%), and non-response (62.5%) or in changes on HAM-D scores. Conclusions Although 37.5% of the

  20. INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY AND MINDFULNESS: THE CASE OF SARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Černetič

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness on a theoretical as well as practical level. Although mindfulness is not an explicit constituent of Integrative Psychotherapy, the two are arguably a natural fit. Mindfulness has the potential to enhance internal and external contact, a central concept in Integrative Psychotherapy, as well as strengthen a client’s Adult ego state. This article presents a case study whereby Integrative Psychotherapy is analysed from the perspective of mindfulness. Within the course of therapy, parallels were observed between the client's increased mindfulness, improved internal and external contact, strengthened Adult ego state, mastery of introjections, as well as diminished feelings of guilt, improved mood, self care and ability to engage in appropriate separation and individuation. These gains support the conclusion that Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness are inherently related and that explicit incorporation of mindfulness may enhance the therapeutic process of Integrative Psychotherapy.

  1. Outcomes in GroupPsychotherapy: Using Persuasion Theory to Increase Treatment Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Larry E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Some research suggests that improvement in psychotherapy is related to the degree that a patient adopts his therapist's evaluative attitudes. This article was designed to pursue the possibility of predicting the outcomes of group psychotherapy using attitude theory. (Author)

  2. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Multilevel Model, Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Culturally adapted psychotherapy has potential to improve psychotherapy outcomes for ethnic and racial minorities and solve a decades-long conundrum that alteration of specific ingredients does not improve psychotherapy outcomes. Adaptation of the cultural explanation of illness, known as the anthropological Myth in universal healing practices…

  3. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  4. Psychotherapy for Delinquents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ian; Sullivan, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Presents the results of a psychotherapy consultation service for delinquents (n=47). Based on data obtained from this program and a review of relevant literature, a working model of individual psychotherapy related to attachment theory as it applies to this population is presented. Discusses difficulties that warrant resolution. (JPS)

  5. Psychotherapy of the dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedeford, A

    1979-07-01

    The psychotherapeutic aspects of the care of the 49 terminally ill patients described in the preceeding paper are discussed. Their differing ways of coping with the stress of dying and the range of psychotherapeutic strategies used in treatment are described. The work suggests that the therapist's use of psychological insights can improve his understanding of the emotional pain of terminal illness, and well-aimed psychotherapy can contribute to its relief.

  6. Feedback and feedforward: Focal points for improving academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José García San Pedro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effective integration of competencies in university programmes follows a holistic and diversified assessment model and the educational potential development of students’ assessment results. This work questions: how are students informed about the results of their learning? Specifically, it aims to understand students’ and professors’ perspectives about the use of learning results and the strategies that are promoted in the practice of improved use of their educational potential. The results described are derived from a case study on 12 degree graduates adapted to the EEES. Although feedback and the feedfoward are strategies for informing students about their learning results, the results of the study show that their use is not entirely generalised and frequently only inform the grades obtained. Students identify the difference between knowing the grade and obtaining feedback. The relational dimension is also valued positively when students are informed about the results of their assessment. However, it seems that use of the educational potential is pending. The students say that the tutorials and the follow up through continual assessment helps to reduce failure. Also, the faculty identifies that reflection about the results obtained is very much linked to metacognitive reflection, although it is not generalised in practice. The students recognise the limitations and the work load involved for the professor to individually monitor them. The study is concluded with the need for systematically incorporating feedback and feedforward in teaching practices and offers guidelines for orienting these strategies towards improving academic performance.

  7. The prediction of the level of personality organization on reduction of psychiatric symptoms and improvement of work ability in short- versus long-term psychotherapies during a 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi; Keinänen, Matti; Heinonen, Erkki; Virtala, Esa; Härkänen, Tommi

    2017-09-01

    How level of personality organization (LPO) predicts psychiatric symptoms and work ability in short- versus long-term psychotherapies is poorly known. We investigated the importance of the LPO on the benefits of short-term versus long-term psychotherapies. A cohort study based on 326 outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder was allocated to long-term (LPP) and short-term (SPP) psychodynamic psychotherapy, and solution-focused therapy (SFT). The LPO was assessed by interview at baseline and categorized into neuroses and higher level borderline. Outcome was assessed at baseline and 4-9 times during a 5-year follow-up, using self-report and interview-based measures of symptoms and work ability. For patients receiving SPP, improvement in work ability, symptom reduction, and the remission rate were more considerable in patients with neuroses than in higher level borderline patients, whereas LPP or SFT showed no notable differences in effectiveness in the two LPO groups. In patients with neuroses, improvement was more considerable in the short-term therapy groups during the first year of follow-up, and in higher level borderline patients LPP was more effective after 3 years of follow-up. The remission rate, defined as both symptom reduction and lack of auxiliary treatment, was higher in LPP than in SPP for both the LPO groups considered. In neuroses, short-term psychotherapy was associated with a more rapid reduction of symptoms and increase in work ability, whereas LPP was more effective for longer follow-ups in both LPO groups. Further large-scale studies are needed. Level of personality organization is relevant for selection between short- and long-term psychotherapies. Short-term therapy gives faster benefits for neurotic patients but not for patients with higher level borderline personality organization. Sustained remission from symptoms is more probable after long-term than short-term therapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Honor Codes: Evidence Based Strategies for Improving Academic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Holly; Schwartz, Beth M.

    2017-01-01

    Although there is evidence of cheating at all levels of education, institutions often do not implement or design integrity policies, such as honor codes, to prevent and adjudicate academic dishonesty. Further, faculty members rarely discuss academic integrity expectations or policies with their students. When cheating does occur, faculty members…

  9. A Non-randomized Comparison of Strategies for Consultation in a Community-Academic Training Program to Implement an Evidence-Based Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Pontoski, Kristin; Creed, Torrey; Xhezo, Regina; Evans, Arthur C.; Beck, Aaron T.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Despite the central role of training and consultation in the implementation of evidence-based psychological interventions (EBPIs), comprehensive reviews of research on training have highlighted serious gaps in knowledge regarding best practices. Consultation after initial didactic training appears to be of critical importance, but there has been very little research to determine optimal consultation format or interventions. This observational study compared two consultation formats that included review of session audio and feedback in the context of a program to train clinicians (n = 85) in community mental health clinics to deliver cognitive therapy (CT). A “gold standard” condition in which clinicians received individual feedback after expert consultants reviewed full sessions was compared to a group consultation format in which short segments of session audio were reviewed by a group of clinicians and an expert consultant. After adjusting for potential baseline differences between individuals in the two consultation conditions, few differences were found in terms of successful completion of the consultation phase or in terms of competence in CT at the end of consultation or after a 2 year follow-up. However, analyses did not support hypotheses regarding non-inferiority of the group consultation condition. While both groups largely maintained competence, clinicians in the group consultation condition demonstrated increases in competence over the follow-up period, while a sub-group of those in the individual condition experienced decreases. These findings, if replicated, have important implications for EBP implementation programs, as they suggest that observation and feedback is feasible in community mental health setting, and that employing this method in a group format is an effective and efficient consultation strategy that may enhance the implementation and sustainability of evidence-based psychotherapies. PMID:26577646

  10. Videoconferencing psychotherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Autumn; Agha, Zia; Maglione, Melissa L; Repp, Andrea; Ross, Bridgett; Zuest, Danielle; Rice-Thorp, Natalie M; Lohr, James; Thorp, Steven R

    2012-05-01

    Individuals with mental health problems may face barriers to accessing effective psychotherapies. Videoconferencing technology, which allows audio and video information to be shared concurrently across geographical distances, offers an alternative that may improve access. We conducted a systematic literature review of the use of videoconferencing psychotherapy (VCP), designed to address 10 specific questions, including therapeutic types/formats that have been implemented, the populations with which VCP is being used, the number and types of publications related to VCP, and available satisfaction, feasibility, and outcome data related to VCP. After electronic searches and reviews of reference lists, 821 potential articles were identified, and 65 were selected for inclusion. The results indicate that VCP is feasible, has been used in a variety of therapeutic formats and with diverse populations, is generally associated with good user satisfaction, and is found to have similar clinical outcomes to traditional face-to-face psychotherapy. Although the number of articles being published on VCP has increased in recent years, there remains a need for additional large-scale clinical trials to further assess the efficacy and effectiveness of VCP.

  11. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Other forms of therapy for BPD include: ... than acting out these emotions impulsively. Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT) This type of therapy focuses on reframing “ ...

  12. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychotherapy (TFP) This form of therapy is rooted in the patient’s confused and contradictory sense of identity ... person to another person, such as the therapist. In that moment, the therapist talks with the patient ...

  13. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people learn tools, exercises, and concrete things they can do to manage their emotions when certain challenging ... treatment (such as medications or individual psychotherapy), STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve ...

  14. Values in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  15. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... identify and verbally express their emotions, describe their interactions with other people, and talk about themselves and ... stress (particularly the stress of rejection or disappointing interactions with other people). Supportive Psychotherapy A form of ...

  16. Introduction: Psychotherapy for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Beginning with Paul Federn--a contemporary of Sigmund Freud--every generation of psychotherapists for the past hundred years has included a small number of determined clinicians who have worked psychotherapeutically with psychotic patients, and written about their work. This special issue of the American Journal of Psychotherapy contains seven papers by clinicians in this generation who are using psychotherapy in the treatment of psychosis.

  17. PSYCHOTHERAPY SUPPORT ON SCIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Widyawati Suhendro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease that causes varying descriptions. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two groups, the primary and secondary symptoms. Treatment should be done as soon as possible, because a state of psychotic periods raises the possibility to suffer mental decline. The treatment is carried out must be comprehensive, multimodal, empirically and can be applied to the patient. One therapy that is given is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is usually combined with pharmacologica...

  18. Adapting Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Older Adults at Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J.; Talbot, Nancy L.; King, Deborah A.; Tu, Xin M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To pilot a psychological intervention adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide. Design A focused, uncontrolled, pre-to-post-treatment psychotherapy trial. All eligible participants were offered the study intervention. Setting Outpatient mental healthcare provided in the psychiatry department of an academic medical center in a mid-sized Canadian city. Participants Seventeen English-speaking adults 60 years or older, at- risk for suicide by virtue of current suicide ideation, death ideation, and/or recent self-injury. Intervention A 16-session course of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide who were receiving medication and/or other standard psychiatric treatment for underlying mood disorders. Measurements Participants completed a demographics form, screens for cognitive impairment and alcohol misuse, a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and measures of primary (suicide ideation and death ideation), and secondary study outcomes (depressive symptom severity; social adjustment and support; psychological well-being), and psychotherapy process measures. Results Participants experienced significant reductions in suicide ideation, death ideation, and depressive symptom severity, and significant improvement in perceived meaning in life, social adjustment, perceived social support, and other psychological well-being variables. Conclusions Study participants experienced enhanced psychological well-being and reduced symptoms of depression and suicide ideation over the course of IPT adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide. Larger, controlled trials are needed to further evaluate the impact of this novel intervention and to test methods for translating and integrating focused interventions into standard clinical care with at-risk older adults. PMID:24840611

  19. Improved Fuzzy Modelling to Predict the Academic Performance of Distance Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Osman; Bal, Abdullah; Gulsecen, Sevinc

    2013-01-01

    It is essential to predict distance education students' year-end academic performance early during the course of the semester and to take precautions using such prediction-based information. This will, in particular, help enhance their academic performance and, therefore, improve the overall educational quality. The present study was on the…

  20. Causal Discourse Analyzer: Improving Automated Feedback on Academic ESL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Saricaoglu, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Expressing causal relations plays a central role in academic writing. While it is important that writing instructors assess and provide feedback on learners' causal discourse, it could be a very time-consuming task. In this respect, automated writing evaluation (AWE) tools may be helpful. However, to date, there have been no AWE tools capable of…

  1. Causal Discourse Analyzer: Improving Automated Feedback on Academic ESL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Saricaoglu, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Expressing causal relations plays a central role in academic writing. While it is important that writing instructors assess and provide feedback on learners' causal discourse, it could be a very time-consuming task. In this respect, automated writing evaluation (AWE) tools may be helpful. However, to date, there have been no AWE tools capable of…

  2. A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL ON THE EFFICACY OF MEDHYA RASAYANA TABLET ON ACADEMIC STRESS AND PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:School children and academics are not exempted from stress. In Indian context, especially for high school children, the demands to be placed high, parental pressures, the future career option and time bound targets along with inherent biological variations of adolescence create paramount stress. Such stress can be detrimental if not well managed. Despite of loss of lives consequent upon stress and poor performance, academic stress is less researched. Psychotherapy is the current gold standard. Hence this trial aims to evolve the risk factors, common manifestations and adaptations with the academic stress, remedial measures with herbal medicine.Objectives: Evaluation of efficacy and safety of oral administration of Medhya Rasayana (MR on manifestations of academic stress and to improve the academic performance. Setting and design: Study was carried out in Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital (SDMCA&H, Hassan, Karnataka, South India, from December, 2010- December, 2012. Interventional, single blinded, randomized psychotherapy-placebo controlled efficacy trial.Materials and methods:164 children of either sex, studying in tenth standard with normal intelligent quotient (IQ, average and above average stress as indicated from the scores on academic anxiety scale (AASC and Sarason’s Test anxiety scale (TASC, consciously willing to participate in the trial were randomized in to three groups (GP–medhya (M and medhya with psychotherapy (MP and control – Placebo with psychotherapy (PP group. M-group received MR, MP-group with MR and psychotherapy while PP-group given placebo with psychotherapy over 3 months. Stress identified by test anxiety and academic anxiety scores, clinical manifestations and performances were evaluated before, after therapy and after exams. Children suffering from chronic systemic illnesses, developmental disorders, psychiatric illness, post traumatic stress disorder and not

  3. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful, Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complemented with Bodywork Improves Quality of Life, Health, and Ability by Induction of Antonovsky-Salutogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We had a success rate of treating low, self-assessed, global quality of life (measured by QOL1: How would you assess the quality of your life now? with clinical holistic medicine of 56.4% (95% CI: 42.3–69.7% and calculated from this the Number Needed to Treat (NNT as 1.43–2.36. We found that during treatment, (in average 20 sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork at a cost of 1600 EURO, the patients entered a state of Antonovsky-salutogenesis (holistic, existential healing, which also improved their self-assessed health and general ability one whole step up a 5-point Likert Scale. The treatment responders radically improved their self-assessed physical health (0.6 step, self-assessed mental health (1.6 step, their relation to self (1.2 step, friends (0.3 step, and partner (2.1 step on a 6-step scale, and their ability to love (1.2 step and work (0.8 step, and to function socially (1.0 step and sexually (0.8 step. It seems that treatment with clinical holistic medicine is the cure of choice when the patients (1 present the triad of low quality of life, poor self-assessed physical and/or mental health, and poor ability to function; and (2 are willing to suffer during the therapy by confronting and integrating old emotional problems and trauma(s from the past. For these patients, the treatment provided lasting benefits, without the negative side effects of drugs. A lasting, positive effect might also prevent many different types of problems in the future. The therapy was “mindful” in its focus on existential and spiritual issues.

  4. Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types No. 86; updated February 2017 Psychotherapy ... Therapy (DBT) can be used to treat older adolescents who have chronic suicidal feelings/thoughts, engage in ...

  5. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  6. Psychotherapies in Acute and Transient Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel González de Chávez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available From a comprehensive and global view -psychological, biological and social - acute and transient psychoses could be considered identity breakdowns with fragmentation of its structure, paranoid mechanism and cognitive regression. Psychotherapies favour evolution of psychotic identity through disorder awareness and knowledge of aspects of patients that make them more vulnerable to psychotic experiences. We underline the key role of group psychotherapy to improve therapeutic relationships and best use of patient’s coping strategies in the chronology of therapeutic interventions and recovery process of these patients.

  7. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  8. Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy and brief supportive psychotherapy for augmentation of antidepressant nonresponse in chronic depression: the REVAMP Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, James H; Gelenberg, Alan J; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Klein, Daniel N; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Manber, Rachel; Keller, Martin B; Leon, Andrew C; Wisniewski, Steven R; Arnow, Bruce A; Markowitz, John C; Thase, Michael E

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies have found that few chronically depressed patients remit with antidepressant medications alone. To determine the role of adjunctive psychotherapy in the treatment of chronically depressed patients with less than complete response to an initial medication trial. This trial compared 12 weeks of (1) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), (2) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP), and (3) continued optimized pharmacotherapy (MEDS) alone. We hypothesized that adding CBASP would produce higher rates of response and remission than adding BSP or continuing MEDS alone. Eight academic sites. Chronically depressed patients with a current DSM-IV-defined major depressive episode and persistent depressive symptoms for more than 2 years. Phase 1 consisted of open-label, algorithm-guided treatment for 12 weeks based on a history of antidepressant response. Patients not achieving remission received next-step pharmacotherapy options with or without adjunctive psychotherapy (phase 2). Individuals undergoing psychotherapy were randomized to receive either CBASP or BSP stratified by phase 1 response, ie, as nonresponders (NRs) or partial responders (PRs). Proportions of remitters, PRs, and NRs and change on Hamilton Scale for Depression (HAM-D) scores. In all, 808 participants entered phase 1, of which 491 were classified as NRs or PRs and entered phase 2 (200 received CBASP and MEDS, 195 received BSP and MEDS, and 96 received MEDS only). Mean HAM-D scores dropped from 25.9 to 17.7 in NRs and from 15.2 to 9.9 in PRs. No statistically significant differences emerged among the 3 treatment groups in the proportions of phase 2 remission (15.0%), partial response (22.5%), and nonresponse (62.5%) or in changes on HAM-D scores. Although 37.5% of the participants experienced partial response or remitted in phase 2, neither form of adjunctive psychotherapy

  9. Psychotherapy: A 40-Year Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Sol L.

    1981-01-01

    Appraises selected issues and developments in the field of psychotherapy since 1940. Discusses increased participation of clinical psychologists in the area of psychotherapy, increased popularity of psychotherapy, declining influence of psychoanalysis and related views, emergence of behavioral and cognitive therapies, and recent emphasis on…

  10. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  11. Feedback versus no feedback to improve patient outcome in group psychotherapy for eating disorders (F-EAT): A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Waaddegaard, Mette; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    of continuous feedback on adherence and outcome in group psychotherapy. Methods/design: The trial is set up in a randomized design for outpatients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified (DSM-IV). They are allocated 1:1 to the experimental group...

  12. Stress Management through Written Emotional Disclosure Improves Academic Performance among College Students with Physical Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Mark A.; Provenzano, Kimberly M.

    2003-01-01

    Tests whether writing about stressful events improves grade point averages (GPAs) and whether decreases in writing-induced negative mood from the first to last day of writing predicts GPA improvements. Results reveal that writing about general life stress leads to improved academic functioning, particularly among those who become less distressed…

  13. Correlates of empathic understanding among neophyte trainees in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, S G; Schwartz, R C

    1999-04-01

    Results are summarized of an empirical study testing the associations among various academic, demographic, and personal characteristics and rated empathic understanding among 93 neophyte psychotherapy trainees from six universities. Multiple regression analyses suggested that completion of a graduate group counseling course with a specific personal growth component was the only characteristic significantly correlated with ratings of empathic understanding.

  14. Feedback versus no feedback in improving patient outcome in group psychotherapy for eating disorders (F-EAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , or an eating disorder not otherwise specified, according to the DSM-IV. In the experimental group feedback to the participants, based on the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Group Session Rating Scale (GSRS), is actively added to standard treatment. The ORS assesses areas of life functioning known to change...... If the results will confirm the hypothesis, this trial will support feedback as a way to improve group treatment attendance for outpatients with eating disorders. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01693237...

  15. Improving the professionalism of post-certification teacher through academic supervision in vocational schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyawati, Sophia Tri; Widyanto, I. Putu; Suemy

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the principal's efforts in improving the professionalism of post-certification teachers through academic supervision in vocational school. The certification of educators is expected to improve the professionalism of teachers, there are significant changes between the before and after receiving the certificate of educators. One of the efforts made by the principal on increasing the professionalism of teachers is to carry out academic supervision completely and continuously. This paper examines about how principals at vocational schools carry out the programmed academic supervision, and continuing through mentoring, evaluation and coaching. Academic supervision is performed by individual supervision techniques which includes: classroom or practical visit, classroom or practical observation, individual meetings, inter-class or practical places visit, and self-assessment.

  16. Psychotherapy for Suicidal Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Reviews various systems of psychotherapy for suitability for suicidal clients. Discusses psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, primal therapy, transactional analysis, Gestalt therapy, reality therapy, person-centered therapy, existential analysis, and Jungian analysis in light of available treatment options. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when people with BPD realize others understand their experience and treatment options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) ... self-image – possibly brought on by negative childhood experiences – that affects how people react to their environment, ...

  18. Personality Theory and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Joen; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This group of articles discusses various aspects of Gestalt Therapy including its major contributions, role in psychotherapy, and contributions of Gestalt psychology in general. There is some discussion of the philosophical background of Gestalt therapy along with Gestalt theory of emotion. A case study and an annotated bibliography are included…

  19. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  20. Psychotherapy, Postmodernism, and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitwood, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a postmodern ethics based on mutual respect and trust, derived from psychotherapy, and recognizing the primacy of individual subjectivity. Develops the concept of free attention to one another creating moral space. Stresses affect over reason and practice over theory. Sees moral space as fundamental to the social fabric. (CH)

  1. Piaget and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, T L

    1978-04-01

    It is difficult to apply Piaget's theory to psychotherapy because the place of affect in it is ambiguous. When the alternatives are considered, it seems most consistent with Piaget's ideas to regard both cognitive and affective phenomena as problem-solving organizations. Piaget's remarkable discoveries in the cognitive sphere are a consequence of the easy access in that sphere to the kind of problems that need solving, and the phasic development of solutions. But the nature of the problems to be solved or the values to be guarded by a patient in psychotherapy are not knowable independently of the patient's actual behavior. In one respect all that is left from Piaget's approach for psychotherapy generally is the truism that therapy fosters differentiation and integration. However, even if we cannot frame a peculiarly Piagetian paradigm of psychotherapy, Piaget is valuable in posing a subsidiary question, namely, what in therapy fosters problem-solving activity. A reading of Piaget suggests that a patient learns by acting on his therapist and tacitly interpreting the results of his actions, that difficulties in therapy are the material from which therapy proceeds, and that in order to grasp the situation of the patient, the therapist himself may need to act on him and not just think about him. An implied lesson for training would be that supervision should instill a professional identity that is reinforced rather than challenged by therapy difficulties, and does not rely solely on theoretical categorizing.

  2. Medikamentengabe und Psychotherapie

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Psychopharmakotherapie ist ein möglicher Baustein in der multimodalen Behandlung kinder- und jugendpsychiatrischer Störungsbilder. Diese simple Aussage ist unumstritten. Dennoch haben im klinischen Alltag sowohl Eltern als auch Psychotherapeuten häufig erhebliche Bedenken, einem Kind ein Psychopharmakon zu verabreichen. Neben angemessenen Bedenken zu potenziellen Wechselwirkungen zwischen psychopharmakotherapie und Psychotherapie oder Unsicherheiten zu Wirkungen und Nebenwirkungen eines Psych...

  3. Neuropsychologically informed strategic psychotherapy in teenagers and adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J

    2014-10-01

    Stimulants are the primary treatment for ADHD. Psychotherapy may augment pharmacologic treatment. In this article, we discuss strategies psychotherapists may use in working with teenagers and adults, including individuals who reject medications or take them suboptimally. Individuals with ADHD often have other psychiatric issues, including affective or cognitive comorbidities. Having ADHD does not protect people from the difficulties of life, and psychotherapy can help to disentangle "ADHD" from other issues. A psychotherapist knowledgeable about ADHD assessment can improve diagnostic precision. Psychotherapy can integrate forms of treatment in which the central goal is increasing mastery and competence of the individual.

  4. Measuring Performance Excellence: Key Performance Indicators for Institutions Accepted into the Academic Quality Improvement Program (AQIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Given growing interest in accountability and outcomes, the North Central Association's Higher Learning Commission developed a new path for accreditation, the Academic Quality Improvement Program (AQIP). The goal is to infuse continuous improvement and quality in the culture of higher education, and to blend traditional accreditation with the…

  5. WELLFOCUS PPT – modified positive psychotherapy to improve well-being in psychosis: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schrank, Beate; Riches, Simon; Coggins, Tony; Rashid, Tayyab; Tylee, Andre; Slade, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background The promotion of well-being is an important goal of recovery oriented mental health services. No structured, evidence-based intervention exists that aims to increase the well-being in people with severe mental illness such as psychosis. Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is a promising intervention for this goal. Standard PPT was adapted for use with people with psychosis in the UK following the Medical Research Council framework for developing and testing complex interventions, resultin...

  6. WELLFOCUS PPT – modified positive psychotherapy to improve well-being in psychosis: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The promotion of well-being is an important goal of recovery oriented mental health services. No structured, evidence-based intervention exists that aims to increase the well-being in people with severe mental illness such as psychosis. Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is a promising intervention for this goal. Standard PPT was adapted for use with people with psychosis in the UK following the Medical Research Council framework for developing and testing complex interventions, resultin...

  7. GUIDED USE OF WRITING PROMPTS TO IMPROVE ACADEMIC WRITING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Trigos Carrillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical data supporting the hypothesis that the systematic and guided use of academic writing prompts is a successful instructional strategy to improve the academic writing in Spanish of college students, mainly during their first semesters. A combined methodology, with pre- and post-tests, was used in this research project conducted from July 2009 to June 2010. The participants were freshmen students of different disciplines of the Human Sciences in a private university in Bogota, Colombia. The aim of this research project was twofold. First, it sought to identify the difficulties students faced in the writing process of academic texts when they are related to real communicative contexts. Second, it involved the design and application of the guided and systematic use of writing prompts for academic writing in a sequence called "The Cognitive Pedagogical Model of Writing for Higher Education". The results show empirical evidence supporting the use of writing prompts designed with specific academic purposes to improve the academic writing level of college students in their first stages of study. However, further research is needed to consolidate the results presented here.

  8. Analytic and Systemic Specialized Incest Group Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Henriette Kiilsholm; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    PURPOSE: Women with long-term sequalae of child sexual abuse (CSA) were randomly assigned to analytic (Group A) or systemic group psychotherapy (Group S). Pre-post-analysis indicated that both therapies led to significant improvement, but overall Group S had significantly better outcome than Group...... and the four time points as repeated measures. Intention to treat analysis demonstrated that improvement were significant on all measures (P treated with Group A or Group S treatment...

  9. Identification of at-risk students and strategies to improve academic success in first year health programs. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gerard Pearson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition to university is a difficult process for many students, having a negative impact on their academic performance, ultimately resulting in failure or withdrawal from one or more courses in their first semester. This practice report describes a profile analysis and readiness assessment designed to identify students at high academic risk. Students so identified were offered additional workshops to address assumed knowledge and academic skills. Attendance at the workshops correlated with improved academic outcomes.

  10. New Directions in Social Psychological Interventions to Improve Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timothy D.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to improve student achievement typically focus on changing the educational environment (e.g., better schools, better teachers) or on personal characteristics of students (e.g., intelligence, self-control). The 6 articles in this special issue showcase an additional approach, emanating from social psychology, which focuses on students'…

  11. Quantum change and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Thomas H

    2004-05-01

    Deep change in psychotherapy more typically comes slowly rather than suddenly, but this difference between therapeutic change and quantum change may be one of perspective rather than substance. Psychotherapy may be understood as a kind of mindfulness practice similar to working with koans in that the client presents a life dilemma incapable of rational solution. While quantum change cannot be engineered, the psychotherapist can create an environment conducive to such transformation by producing true presence and modeling calm, concerned, sustained attention to the dilemma that precipitated treatment. Psychotherapists who also maintain a sense of their work as a high art and a way of being, and who in consequence cultivate their own emotional and spiritual development, may be more likely to create such an environment.

  12. Mind, brain and psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheth Hitesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be. However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients.

  13. Constructivism and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J; Granvold, Donald K

    2005-06-01

    Constructivism is a metatheoretical perspective that embraces diverse traditions in medicine, philosophy, psychology, and spiritual wisdom. Constructive psychotherapy emphasizes complex cycles in the natural ordering and reorganizing processes that characterize all development in living systems. Individuals are encouraged to view themselves as active participants in their lives. Within rich contexts of human relationship and symbol systems, people make new meanings as they develop. Techniques from many different traditions can help people find and refine their sense of balance as they develop.

  14. Mindfulness-based interventions for improving cognition, academic achievement, behavior and socio-emotional functioning of primary and secondary students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brandy R Maynard; Michael Solis; Veronica Miller; Kristen E Brendel

    2017-01-01

      Background Due to educational policy initiatives over the last two decades, school districts across the United States have placed more emphasis on improving academic standards and accountability...

  15. High academic achievement in psychotic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defries, Z; Grothe, L

    1978-02-01

    The authors studied 21 schizophrenic and borderline college students who achieved B+ or higher grade averages and underwent psychotherapy while in college. High academic achievement was found to provide relief from feelings of worthlessness and ineffectuality resulting from poor relationships with parents, siblings, and peers. Psychotherapy and the permissive yet supportive college atmosphere reinforced the students' self-esteem.

  16. [Psychotherapy as cultural discourse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space.

  17. Rapid improvement in academic grades following methylphenidate treatment in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pinchen; Chung, Li-Chen; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2004-02-01

    In the present study a 16 week comparison study was conducted of behavioral, cognitive and educational measures in school-age Taiwanese children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) receiving open-label methylphenidate (MPH). Subjects include 14 male and five female ADHD children. They received MPH twice per day continuously for 16 weeks. Measures of behavior, cognitive function (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Tower of London and Continuous Performance Test), Chinese and arithmetic learning achievement were compared with those of their baseline condition. After MPH, 68-78% of children showed improving behavior in classroom and at home. Among the neuropsychological tests, only the percentage of preservative error was improved (P = 0.022). Approximately 61-66% of children had improvement in academic learning (P = 0.013 for Chinese, 0.004 for arithmetic). The MPH treatment demonstrated improvement in domains of classroom/home behaviors and academic performance, but showed minimal change on neuropsychological functioning in Taiwanese ADHD children. The finding of academic gain was unexpected, which might be due to the greater interest in achievement and better compliance to cultural expectations by Taiwanese versus Western students, which translated into more rapid improvement in academic performance.

  18. Quality Improvement Practices in Academic Emergency Medicine: Perspectives from the Chairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DelliFraine, Jami L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess academic emergency medicine (EM chairs’ perceptions of quality improvement (QI training programs.Methods: A voluntary anonymous 20 item survey was distributed to a sample of academic chairs of EM through the Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine. Data was collected to assess the percentage of academic emergency physicians who had received QI training, the type of training they received, their perception of the impact of this training on behavior, practice and outcomes, and any perceived barriers to implementing QI programs in the emergency department.Results: The response rate to the survey was 69% (N = 59. 59.3% of respondents report that their hospital has a formal QI program for physicians. Chairs received training in a variety of QI programs. The type of QI program used by respondents was perceived as having no impact on goals achieved by QI (χ2 = 12.382; p = 0.260, but there was a statistically significant (χ2 = 14.383; p = 0.006 relationship between whether or not goals were achieved and academic EM chairs’ perceptions about return on investment for QI training. Only 22% of chairs responded that they have already made changes as a result of the QI training. 78.8% of EM chairs responded that quality programs could have a significant positive impact on their practice and the healthcare industry. Chairs perceived that QI programs had the most potential value in the areas of understanding and reducing medical errors and improving patient flow and throughput. Other areas of potential value of QI include improving specific clinical indicators and standardizing physician care.Conclusion: Academic EM chairs perceived that QI programs were an effective way to drive needed improvements. The results suggest that there is a high level of interest in QI but a low level of adoption of training and implementation.[West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:479-485.

  19. Psychotherapy Participants Show Increased Physiological Responsiveness to a Lab Stressor Relative to Matched Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R Steffen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that psychotherapy participants show increased physiological responsiveness to stress. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences between individuals participating in outpatient psychotherapy and matched controls using an experimental design. Forty-two psychotherapy participants and forty-eight matched controls were assessed on cardiovascular and cortisol functioning at baseline, during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, and during a twenty-minute recovery period. Psychotherapy participants and matched controls did not differ at baseline or during the TSST on the physiological measures but psychotherapy participants had higher cortisol and heart rate during the recovery period. In regards to reactivity, cortisol increased during the recovery period for the psychotherapy participants but decreased for those in the matched control group. Psychotherapy participants experiencing clinically significant levels of distress displayed elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate during the TSST when compared to psychotherapy participants not experiencing clinically significant levels of distress. Overall, physiological reactivity to stress appears to be an important issue for those in psychotherapy and directly addressing this issue may help improve psychotherapy outcomes.

  20. Technology as an Instrument to Improve Quality, Accountability, and Reflection in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Michael S.; Howell, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article describes two complementary technology systems used in academic medicine to 1) improve the quality of learning and teaching, and 2) describe the barriers and obstacles encountered in implementing these systems. Method: The literature was integrated with in-depth, case-based experience with technology related to student…

  1. Academic Developers as Change Agents Improving Quality in a Large Interprofessional Undergraduate Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Moira

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written about academic developers as change agents but not in an interprofessional education (IPE) context. IPE involves teaching students in different health professions how to work effectively in teams across professional boundaries to improve the quality of patient care. Extensive evidence reveals that implementing sustainable IPE…

  2. Is There a Relationship between Improving Human Relation Skills and Levels of Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jolene; Byrne, Susan; Kiedaisch, Jan; Thiele, Nancy; Weber, Gwyn

    This Action Research Project implemented a program for improving human relation skills intended to raise the academic performance level of students. The target population consists of kindergarten, seventh grade (regular/at-risk), and high school (regular/behavior disordered) students. Analysis of both research literature and problem evidence…

  3. Restricted Interests as Motivators: Improving Academic Engagement and Outcomes of Children on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Pearl, Cynthia E.

    2008-01-01

    One way to improve engagement and ensure motivation for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during academics is to use restricted interests in instruction and activities. Embedding these interests into the curriculum can motivate the student with ASD to attempt tasks that were previously less preferred or difficult. This article…

  4. Technology as an Instrument to Improve Quality, Accountability, and Reflection in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Michael S.; Howell, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article describes two complementary technology systems used in academic medicine to 1) improve the quality of learning and teaching, and 2) describe the barriers and obstacles encountered in implementing these systems. Method: The literature was integrated with in-depth, case-based experience with technology related to student…

  5. Improving the Virtual Reference Experience: How Closely Do Academic Libraries Adhere to RUSA Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jessica; Benson, Pete

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the degree to which academic libraries or library staff members throughout the United States adhere to the Guidelines for Virtual Reference Services provided by the Reference & User Services Association (RUSA). The results of the study were analyzed to identify specific areas where improvement is needed…

  6. Development Model to Improve the Quality of Academic Administration: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawee Puengphai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Academic teaching and learning of Ban Nongkham Borkaeowittaya School were not consistent with the current change to allow students to learn in accordance with the educational reform. Students could not be developed to their full potential. Most teaching methods still revolved around the teachers and lacked the learning encouragement of students with a variety of methods. Purpose: (1 to study the problems and the need to create and develop a model to improve the quality of academic administration of Ban Nongkham Borkaeowittaya School, Roi Et Educational Service Area Office (3, 2 to create and develop a model to improve the quality of academic administration of Ban Nongkham Borkaeowittaya School, Roi Et Educational Service Area Office 3, (3 to try and evaluate the model to improve the quality of academic administration of Ban Nongkham Borkaeowittaya School, Roi Et Educational Service Area Office 3 and 4 to evaluate the satisfaction of the model to improve the quality of academic administration of Ban Nongkham Borkaeowittaya School, Roi Et Educational Service Area Office 3 by school administrators, teachers, students and school board of directors. Approach: Qualitative research methodology used was an operational research according to the concept of McTaggart (1988. Data was collected using questionnaires and the minutes of conference from a group of 30 people. Data verification was done by a triangular technique. The result was presented by a descriptive analysis. Results: (1 For the study of current academic administration status of Ban Nongkham Borkaeowittaya School, Roi Et Educational Service Area Office 3, the result of the analysis of the opinions on academic administration in practice of 30 school administrators, teachers, students and school directors was “moderate”, (2 To create and develop a model in which the implementation begins with the analysis of relevant factors, supporting school’s policy and context, problem

  7. Academic Libraries’ Role in Improving Institutions Research Impact

    KAUST Repository

    Tamarkin, Molly

    2015-11-11

    In the changing landscape of scientific research and scholarly communication, importance of “quality in research”, “reviewed research” and “reviewed publications” in qualifying for the ratings and rankings are widely discussed. While publishing the research pieces in peer-reviewed and highly ranked journals are increasingly important, there are different methods and tools to be in place at Institutional level to increase researchers’ profile and the ranking of the institutions. As a young research based university created in 2009, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) focuses on the bibliometrics and altemetrics tools, author affiliations, author naming and plug-ins to different search engines, research evaluation systems as well as to research repositories. The University has launched an institutional repository in September 2012 as a home for the intellectual outputs of KAUST researchers, and then adopted the first institutional open access mandate in the Arab region effective June 31, 2014. Integration with ORCID became a key element in this process and the best way to ensure data quality for researcher’s scientific contributions systematically. We will present the inclusion and creation of ORCID identifiers in the existing systems as an institutional member to ORCID, and the creation of dedicated integration tools with Current Research Information System (CRIS) as a standardized common resource to monitor KAUST research outputs. We will also present our experiences in awareness programs, trainings, outreach, implementation of systems and tools like PlumX, as well as our approach in improving the research impact and profiling our Institution’s research to the world.

  8. Selected Aspects of Assessment/Improvement of Academic Research Quality, Also of Industrial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemala, Marek

    2016-06-01

    In terms of publishing and commercialisation of academic research results, there may be more preferred qualitative research in the long term. But, not every research can be focused only on the quality of its outputs, but each output of the research, however, should have an adequate quality and added value. The main research question of this article may be determined as follows - How can the quality of academic research be better evaluated and thus improved, also in the area of Industrial management? It is not the intention of this article to perform statistical research in the field yet, but this study is based on empirical data and results.

  9. Selected Aspects of Assessment/Improvement of Academic Research Quality, Also of Industrial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemala Marek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of publishing and commercialisation of academic research results, there may be more preferred qualitative research in the long term. But, not every research can be focused only on the quality of its outputs, but each output of the research, however, should have an adequate quality and added value. The main research question of this article may be determined as follows – How can the quality of academic research be better evaluated and thus improved, also in the area of Industrial management? It is not the intention of this article to perform statistical research in the field yet, but this study is based on empirical data and results.

  10. Power Politics of Family Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Carl A.

    It is postulated that the standard framework for psychotherapy, a cooperative transference neurosis, does not validly carry over to the successful psychotherapy of a two-generation family group. In many disturbed families, the necessary and sufficient dynamics for change must be initiated, controlled, and augmented by a group dynamic power-play,…

  11. Early Experiences After Adopting a Quality Improvement Portfolio Into the Academic Advancement Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Niraj L; Neeman, Naama; King, Talmadge E

    2017-01-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) and their academic departments are increasingly assuming leadership in the education, science, and implementation of quality improvement (QI) and patient safety efforts. Fostering, recognizing, and promoting faculty leading these efforts is challenging using traditional academic metrics for advancement. The authors adapted a nationally developed QI portfolio, adopted it into their own department's advancement process in 2012, and tracked its utilization and impact over the first two years of implementation. Sixty-seven QI portfolios were submitted with 100% of faculty receiving their requested academic advancement. Women represented 60% of the submitted portfolios, while the Divisions of General Internal Medicine and Hospital Medicine accounted for 60% of the submissions. The remaining 40% were from faculty in 10 different specialty divisions. Faculty attitudes about the QI portfolio were overwhelmingly positive, with 83% agreeing that it "was an effective tool for helping to better recognize faculty contributions in QI work" and 85% agreeing that it "was an effective tool for elevating the importance of QI work in our department." The QI portfolio was one part of a broader effort to create opportunities to recognize and support faculty involved in improvement work. Further adapting the tool to ensure that it complements-rather than duplicates-other elements of the advancement process is critical for continued utilization by faculty. This will also drive desired dissemination to other departments locally and other AMCs nationally who are similarly committed to cultivating faculty career paths in systems improvement.

  12. Improving operating room efficiency in academic children's hospital using Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagge, Edward P; Thirumoorthi, Arul S; Lenart, John; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mitchell, Kenneth W

    2017-06-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a process improvement methodology that utilizes a collaborative team effort to improve performance by systematically identifying root causes of problems. Our objective was to determine whether application of LSS could improve efficiency when applied simultaneously to all services of an academic children's hospital. In our tertiary academic medical center, a multidisciplinary committee was formed, and the entire perioperative process was mapped, using fishbone diagrams, Pareto analysis, and other process improvement tools. Results for Children's Hospital scheduled main operating room (OR) cases were analyzed, where the surgical attending followed themselves. Six hundred twelve cases were included in the seven Children's Hospital operating rooms (OR) over a 6-month period. Turnover Time (interval between patient OR departure and arrival of the subsequent patient) decreased from a median 41min in the baseline period to 32min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). Turnaround Time (interval between surgical dressing application and subsequent surgical incision) decreased from a median 81.5min in the baseline period to 71min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that a coordinated multidisciplinary process improvement redesign can significantly improve efficiency in an academic Children's Hospital without preselecting specific services, removing surgical residents, or incorporating new personnel or technology. Prospective comparative study, Level II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Cristina Paez; Maria Lucia Tiellet Nunes; Vânia Naomi Hirakata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive a...

  14. [Tracking study to improve basic academic ability in chemistry for freshmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsuko; Morone, Mieko; Azuma, Yutaka

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the basic academic ability of freshmen with regard to chemistry and implement suitable educational guidance measures. At Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, basic academic ability examinations are conducted in chemistry for freshmen immediately after entrance into the college. From 2003 to 2009, the examination was conducted using the same questions, and the secular changes in the mean percentage of correct response were statistically analyzed. An experience survey was also conducted on 2007 and 2009 freshmen regarding chemical experiments at senior high school. Analysis of the basic academic ability examinations revealed a significant decrease in the mean percentage of correct responses after 2007. With regard to the answers for each question, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of correct answers for approximately 80% of questions. In particular, a marked decrease was observed for calculation questions involving percentages. A significant decrease was also observed in the number of students who had experiences with chemical experiments in high school. However, notable results have been achieved through the implementation of practice incorporating calculation problems in order to improve calculation ability. Learning of chemistry and a lack of experimental experience in high school may be contributory factors in the decrease in chemistry academic ability. In consideration of the professional ability demanded of pharmacists, the decrease in calculation ability should be regarded as a serious issue and suitable measures for improving calculation ability are urgently required.

  15. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? a school based randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. Discussion A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If

  16. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  17. Of God and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T Byram

    2015-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an instrument for remediation of psychological deficits and conflict resolution, as well as an instrument for growth and self-cultivation. In fact, psychotherapy is the finest form of life education. All of this is done without psychotherapists' playing a teacher, a minister, a priest, a rabbi, an imam, or a Buddhist monk, but by being familiar with what they know and more. That "more" is about understanding "the attributes" of gods and religions as they serve the all-too-human needs of believing and belonging. It is about the distillation of common psychological, sociological, moral, and philosophical attributes of religions, and the recognition that the attributes themselves are faith and God. Attributes that serve the affiliative needs define faith, for example, belonging is faith; attributes that serve the divine needs define God, for example, compassion is God. Those who have recovered from their primitive innocence need to formulate their ideas of God and religion, regardless of their affiliation with a religious community. One may need to resonate emotionally with the God of his or her religion, but intellectually need to transcend all its dogma and cultivate a personal concept of divinity free from any theological structure. Such an enlightened person achieves enduring equanimity by striving to own the attributes of Gods--to be godly. This is equally true for psychotherapists as it is for their patients.

  18. Academic Detailing in Diabetes: Using Outreach Education to Improve the Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Most diabetes care is provided in primary care settings, but typical primary care clinicians struggle to keep up with the latest evidence on diabetes screening, pharmacotherapy, and monitoring. Accordingly, many patients with diabetes are not receiving optimal guideline-based therapy. Relying on front-line clinicians on their own to assess the huge volume of new literature and incorporate it into their practice is unrealistic, and conventional continuing medical education has not proven adequate to address gaps in care. Academic detailing, direct educational outreach to clinicians that uses social marketing techniques to provide specific evidence-based recommendations, has been proven in clinical trials to improve the quality of care for a range of conditions. By directly engaging with clinicians to assess their needs, identify areas for change in practice, and provide them with specific tools to implement these changes, academic detailing can serve as a tool to improve care processes and outcomes for patients with diabetes.

  19. Placebo psychotherapy: synonym or oxymoron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2005-07-01

    Contrary to some recent claims, the placebo effect is real and in some cases very substantial. Placebo effects can be produced or enhanced by classical conditioning, but consistent with virtually all contemporary conditioning theories, these effects are generally mediated by expectancy. Expectancy can also produce placebo effects that are inconsistent with conditioning history. Although expectancy also plays an important role in psychotherapy outcome, the logic of placebo-controlled trials does not map well onto psychotherapy research. The idea of evaluating the efficacy of psychotherapy by controlling for nonspecific or placebo factors is based on a flawed analogy and should be abandoned.

  20. Going for growth: improvement in the infrastructural and management support for clinical academic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler Davis, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to implement a directorate research strategy to improve and grow clinical academic capacity and capability and ensure that the organisational systems and processes enabled clinical staff and managers to increase grant capture, undertake clinically relevant research, including the adoption of NIHR portfolio sites and established a culture in which research was an accepted part of professional practice. An initial evaluation of senior and middle manager attitudes and understanding of the research infrastructure and benefits of research identified that the directorate had a deeply segmented view of research and only a partial view of how research could benefit patients and improve their services. A significant number of staff claimed to be research active but this activity was not contributing to the service knowledge or being translated into grant capture, leading to income that could be used to invest in patient facing research. Few managers had appreciated the challenge of implementing the research strategy or the potential of enabling research active staff to generate clinical academic careers. A quality improvement methodology was adopted, based on four equally important elements [1]; involving people (staff and patients) in research, developing people's research knowledge and skills, promoting an understanding of the complex systems and processes associated with research, and using an organisational research strategy with leadership to drive change. This improvement method suggests an equal and proportional range of activity to engage staff, amend and adapt processes and systems, carry out organisational change and "make it a habit". The improvement measures were selected by a number of managers who acted as "research champions" and shared these with all staff across the directorate; the focus was on delivering sustained improvements in performance targets agreed with the organisation. The interventions were introduced to assist managers in

  1. Use of amphetamines to improve the academic performance in students of the University of Manizales, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo Urrego, Marcela; Estudiante 10° S emestre, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Arango Orozco, Lisa; Estudiante 10° S emestre, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Blandón Montoya, Liliana; Estudiante 10° S emestre, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Buelvas Soto, Liz; Estudiante 10° S emestre, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Carmona Velasquez, Daybeth Vanesa; Estudiante 10° S emestre, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Castaño Castrillón, Jose Jaime; Profesor Titular, Director Centro de Investigaciones, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales. Cra 9 # 19-03, Manizales, Caldas, Colombia. Correo electrónico .; Castro Rocha, Betsy Carolina; Estudiante 10° S emestre, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Serna, Juan Camilo; Estudiante 10° S emestre, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Trujillo Sandoval, Karol Susana; Estudiante 10° S emestre, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Arango, César; Docente Pediatría Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales Remitido para publicación: 16-02-2009. Aprobado para publicación: 11-03-2009

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identify the frequency of use of non-medicated amphetamines and othersubstances to improve academic performance in students of the University of Manizales(Manizales, Colombia).Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was realized. The population was of3616 students of all the faculties of the University of Manizales, with a representativesample of 309 students. An anonymous sur5vey was made in order to collect informationwhich allowed to identify the consumption of amphetamin...

  2. Improved Fuzzy Modelling to Predict the Academic Performance of Distance Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Yildiz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to predict distance education students’ year-end academic performance early during the course of the semester and to take precautions using such prediction-based information. This will, in particular, help enhance their academic performance and, therefore, improve the overall educational quality. The present study was on the development of a mathematical model intended to predict distance education students’ year-end academic performance using the first eight-week data on the learning management system. First, two fuzzy models were constructed, namely the classical fuzzy model and the expert fuzzy model, the latter being based on expert opinion. Afterwards, a gene-fuzzy model was developed optimizing membership functions through genetic algorithm. The data on distance education were collected through Moodle, an open source learning management system. The data were on a total of 218 students who enrolled in Basic Computer Sciences in 2012. The input data consisted of the following variables: When a student logged on to the system for the last time after the content of a lesson was uploaded, how often he/she logged on to the system, how long he/she stayed online in the last login, what score he/she got in the quiz taken in Week 4, and what score he/she got in the midterm exam taken in Week 8. A comparison was made among the predictions of the three models concerning the students’ year-end academic performance.

  3. Improving identification and management of partner violence: examining the process of academic detailing: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    le Roux Helena D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many physicians do not routinely inquire about intimate partner violence. Purpose This qualitative study explores the process of academic detailing as an intervention to change physician behavior with regard to intimate partner violence (IPV identification and documentation. Method A non-physician academic detailer provided a seven-session modular curriculum over a two-and-a-half month period. The detailer noted written details of each training session. Audiotapes of training sessions and semi-structured exit interviews with each physician were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions were qualitatively and thematically coded and analyzed using Atlas ti®. Results All three study physicians reported increased clarity with regard to the scope of their responsibility to their patients experiencing IPV. They also reported increased levels of comfort in the effective identification and appropriate documentation of IPV and the provision of ongoing support to the patient, including referrals to specialized community services. Conclusion Academic detailing, if presented by a supportive and knowledgeable academic detailer, shows promise to improve physician attitudes and practices with regards to patients in violent relationships.

  4. Grundprinzipien der existenziellen Psychotherapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Längle A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Die existenzielle Psychotherapie hat mit der humanistischen Psychotherapie zentrale Themen gemeinsam: personale Freiheit, Verantwortung, Sinnsuche, Authentizität. Die therapeutische Vorgangsweise ist primär phänomenologisch, d. h. auf den Einzelnen und die Einmaligkeit der Situation ausgerichtet. Begegnung der Person und Interesse an dem, was sie bewegt, steht vor der Anwendung von allgemeinen Techniken. Damit kommt die Person mit ihrer zentralen Fähigkeit, das für sie Wesentliche zu erfassen und der Entscheidung zuzuführen, in den Mittelpunkt des Geschehens. Das Auffinden der inneren Zustimmung zu dem, was man tut oder unterlässt, gilt als zentral in der Vorgangsweise der existenziellen Psychotherapie. So liegt das Interesse weniger in der Symptomfreiheit als im Erreichen persönlicher Erfüllung im Leben. Die Therapie beginnt darum meist mit der Arbeit an der Annahme, am Verstehen und an der Stellungnahme zu den Problemen und Erfahrungen, die das Leid verursachen. Diese dialogische Haltung ist auch bei chronischen Krankheiten von grundlegender Bedeutung. Psychische Störungen bzw. Krankheiten wirken sich hemmend auf den Vollzug dieser Fähigkeiten der authentischen Person aus, mit Auswirkungen vor allem auf die Qualität des (inneren und äußeren Dialogs. Dadurch entsteht neben dem spezifischen Leiden, das Bezug auf die jeweils gestörte existenzielle Struktur nimmt, ein Mangel an innerer Erfüllung im Leben, der als existenzielles Hauptsymptom gilt. Dem erfüllenden Dialog geht eine Offenheit des Menschen voraus, in der er sich vom Leben und von der Lebenssituation befragen lässt hinsichtlich dessen, was seine geeignete Antwort auf die Situation wäre. Nicht ausreichend gelebte Pflege und Sorge um die Grundstrukturen der Existenz wirken sich hemmend auf die Voraussetzungen für erfüllendes Leben aus: auf die personalen Fähigkeiten der Wahrnehmung, des Fühlens, Entscheidens und sich mit den Kontexten Abstimmens. Ein verminderter

  5. The Effectiveness of Computerized Instructional Packages on Concept Acquisition and Improving Academic Achievement among Female Deaf Students in KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagabas, Hanan Ali

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of computerized instructional packages on concept acquisition and improving academic achievement among deaf students in Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of (16) third-grade female deaf students in prep stage for the first semester of the academic year 2013/2014, randomly selected from…

  6. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  7. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  8. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  9. Trends in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed the views of both clinical and counseling psychologists regarding current trends in counseling and psychotherapy. Found psychoanalysis to be declining in popularity, while cognitive-behavioral options represented one of the strongest theoretical emphases today. (Author/GC)

  10. Trends in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed the views of both clinical and counseling psychologists regarding current trends in counseling and psychotherapy. Found psychoanalysis to be declining in popularity, while cognitive-behavioral options represented one of the strongest theoretical emphases today. (Author/GC)

  11. Nonverbal communication in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Gretchen N; Gentile, Julie P

    2010-06-01

    The mental status examination is the objective portion of any comprehensive psychiatric assessment and has key diagnostic and treatment implications. This includes elements such as a patient's baseline general appearance and behavior, affect, eye contact, and psychomotor functioning. Changes in these parameters from session to session allow the psychiatrist to gather important information about the patient. In psychiatry, much emphasis is placed on not only listening to what patients communicate verbally but also observing their interactions with the environment and the psychiatrist. In a complimentary fashion, psychiatrists must be aware of their own nonverbal behaviors and communication, as these can serve to either facilitate or hinder the patient-physician interaction. In this article, clinical vignettes will be used to illustrate various aspects of nonverbal communication that may occur within the setting of psychotherapy. Being aware of these unspoken subtleties can offer a psychiatrist valuable information that a patient may be unwilling or unable to put into words.

  12. Should psychotherapy consider reincarnation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Julio F P

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the need to take into account the cultural environment and belief systems of psychotherapy patients because these values reflect basic assumptions about man's nature and the cognitive references used to cope with psychological difficulties. Currently accepted psychotherapeutic approaches take no account of the belief in life after death held by most of the world's population. The World Values Survey (http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org) showed that there are large numbers of reincarnationists around the world, and whatever the reasons for believing in reincarnation, psychotherapeutic approaches should not ignore this significant group of people. Respect for patient opinions and subjective realities is a therapeutic need and an ethical duty, even though therapists may not share the same beliefs. Guidelines are suggested for professionals to develop collaborative models that help patients mobilize their intrinsic intelligence to find solutions to their complaints.

  13. PSYCHOTHERAPY SUPPORT ON SCIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Suhendro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Schizophrenia is a disease that causes varying descriptions. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two groups, the primary and secondary symptoms. Treatment should be done as soon as possible, because a state of psychotic periods raises the possibility to suffer mental decline. The treatment is carried out must be comprehensive, multimodal, empirically and can be applied to the patient. One therapy that is given is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is usually combined with pharmacological actions in order to increase the level of maximum healing. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  14. [The various facets of psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing importance in the field of psychiatric treatment. Notably, disorder-specific and evidence-based psychotherapeutic strategies now dominate the field as compared to traditional schools of psychotherapy. It should not be neglected that patients, besides being offered a specifically tailored psychological therapy for their disorder, are also in need of reliable moral support and help. Therapeutic creativity frequently is an important skill to gain access to patients.

  15. The (dramatic) process of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeig, Jeffrey K

    2008-07-01

    Psychotherapy can be conceived as a symbolic drama in which patients can experientially realize their capacity to change. Methods derived from hypnosis can empower therapy without the use of formal trance. A case conducted by Milton Erickson is presented and deconstructed in order to illuminate Erickson's therapeutic patterns. A model is offered for adding drama to therapy, and the model is placed into a larger model of choice points in psychotherapy.

  16. [Integrated psychotherapy for eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, O

    1995-01-01

    The various psychotherapeutic strategies for eating disorders (EDs) include psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavioral, family oriented, arts therapy and others. In this paper, the psychodynamism of EDs and their therapy are reexamined and considered holistically from "the separate aspects of eating" point of view. That is the separation of eating regulated by biological appetite and the eating or not eating deriving from the patient's mind, unrelated to appetite. A new therapeutic technique called "formalization", which clarifies the separation of aspects of eating are invented. For integrated psychotherapy of EDs, it is necessary to combine the formalization technique of which clarifies and promotes patients' conflicts, and the integrated psychodynamic therapies that treat the promoted conflicts. The psychodynamism of EDs is the subject of much argument by many therapist. Although these arguments differ, they are similar in two points. Firstly, all of them consider EDs as distinctly separate from biological appetites. Secondly, the behavior of patients with EDs are taken as "false solution" or "substitution" of their essential problem. It is impossible to completely separate the physical action of eating mentally, however there may be a second meaning of eating separate from appetite. Seen in this light, psychotherapies are classified into two groups. One supports and sympathizes with these conflicts and the other is an educational one, telling the patients that a false solution is invalid. The former approach is employed by almost all psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, family oriented therapy, arts therapy, self-help groups and the like. These therapies treat patients' conflicts with a non-judgemental approach, transform the psychodynamism, and consequently improve the eating behavior. The latter is applied by behavior therapy. Under strict operant conditioning, adequate behavior is reinforced by reward and inadequate behavior is eliminated by punishment

  17. Building a Culture of Continuous Quality Improvement in an Academic Radiology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Gregory L; Paushter, David M

    2016-04-01

    As we enter a new era of health care in the United States, radiologists must be adequately prepared to prove, and continually improve, our value to our customers. This goal can be achieved in large part by providing high-quality services. Although quality efforts on the national and international levels provide a framework for improving radiologic quality, some of the greatest opportunities for quality improvement can be found at the departmental level, through the implementation of total quality management programs. Establishing such a program requires not only strong leadership and employee engagement, but also a firm understanding of the multiple total quality management tools and continuous quality improvement strategies available. In this article, we discuss key tools and strategies required to build a culture of continuous quality improvement in an academic department, based on our experience. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychosis and the dynamics of the psychotherapy process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment of the 's......The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment...

  19. Plasticity-augmented psychotherapy for refractory depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-10-03

    Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have been the mainstays of treatment for depression and anxiety disorders during the last century. However, treatment response has not improved in the last few decades, with only half of all patients responding satisfactorily to typical antidepressants. To fulfill the needs of the remaining patients, new treatments with better efficacy are in demand. The addition of psychotherapy to antidepressant treatment has been shown to be superior to pharmacotherapy alone. However, the time costs of psychotherapy limit its use for clinicians and patients. Advancements in neuroscience have contributed to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of depressive and anxiety disorders. In particular, recent advances in the field of fear conditioning have provided valuable insight into the treatment of refractory depressive and anxiety disorders. In this review, we studied the reconsolidation-updating paradigm and the concept of epigenetic modification, which has been shown to permanently attenuate remote fear memory. This has implications for drug-augmented, e.g. antidepressant and valproic acid, psychotherapy. Future research on more sophisticated psychotherapy techniques will increase the desirability of this treatment modality for both clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Model of Students’ Academic and Non-Academic Behaviours in Improving Learning Achievement and Discipline at Nurul ‘Ulum Modern Pesantren in Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binti Maunah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at describing academic and non-academic behaviours that influence students’ achievements and discipline. This research used qualitative method. The data was collected by using two main methods: participative observation and deep interview. There were four steps to analyze the data: data collection, data filter, data classification, and conclusion. Based on the result of the research and the discussion, it can be concluded that : 1. Generally, students have very good academic behaviours during learning process inside and outside the class, 2. Most of the students master English and Arabic skill in which it becomes the most prominent academic behaviour in modern pesantren, 3. Academic behaviours to improve opportunity and learning achievement were conducted by boarding system in which students don’t cook, don’t wash clothes, don’t bring cellphones, motorcycle, radio, TV, and other electronic tools, 4. Students perform very good non-academic behaviours in form of politeness to senior students and teachers, discipline and obey the rules of pesantren. It’s proved by no one is expelled from pesantren due to the violation of the rules of pesantren.

  1. Utilization of Portable Radios to Improve Ophthalmology Clinic Efficiency in an Academic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexander S; Elkeeb, Ahmed M; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Godley, Bernard F

    2016-03-01

    Improvement in clinic efficiency in the ambulatory setting is often looked at as an area for development of lean management strategies to deliver a higher quality of healthcare while reducing errors, costs, and delays. To examine the benefits of improving team communication and its impact on clinic flow and efficiency, we describe a time-motion study performed in an academic outpatient Ophthalmology clinic and its objective and subjective results. Compared to clinic encounters without the use of the portable radios, objective data demonstrated an overall significant decreases in mean workup time (15.18 vs. 13.10), room wait (13.10 vs. 10.47), and decreased the total time needed with an MD per encounter (9.45 vs. 6.63). Subjectively, significant improvements were seen in careprovider scores for patient flow (60.78 vs. 84.29), getting assistance (61.89 vs. 88.57), moving patient charts (54.44 vs. 85.71), teamwork (69.56 vs. 91.0), communications (62.33 vs. 90.43), providing quality patient care (76.22 vs. 89.57), and receiving input on the ability to see walk-in patients (80.11 vs. 90.43). For academic purposes, an improvement in engagement in patient care and learning opportunities was noted by the clinic resident-in-training during the pilot study. Portable radios in our pilot study were preferred over the previous method of communication and demonstrates significant improvements in certain areas of clinical efficiency, subjective perception of teamwork and communications, and academic learning.

  2. Advanced Psychotherapy Training: Psychotherapy Scholars' Track, and the Apprenticeship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E.; Yager, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Guided by ACGME's requirements, psychiatric residency training in psychotherapy currently focuses on teaching school-specific forms of psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive-behavioral, supportive, and psychodynamic psychotherapy). On the basis of a literature review of common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes and…

  3. [Psychotherapy: Legally recognized in Quebec].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Jean-Bernard; Desjardins, Pierre; Dion, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, Quebec was the first to have regulated the practice of psychotherapy through law adopted in 2009. The law emerged following 30 years of efforts and inter-professional discussions that led to a consensus by an expert committee presided by Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau in 2005. In this essay, Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau, general practitioner, and two psychiatrist and psychologist colleagues, who have participated to the expert committee or have been involved more recently in the implementation of law no 21 in Quebec, relate the main landmarks and moments in the regulation of the practice in psychotherapy following this inter-professional consensus that was translated in the law 21. They relate particularly the last ten years that have led to the adoption of law 21 in 2009, following two parliamentary commission after the Trudeau report. They underline how the practice of psychotherapy is integrated in the professional system and submitted to strict regulation. It includes regulations for obtaining the license of psychotherapist and for maintaining competence. Guidelines emerging from continuous inter-professional discussions for the application of the law and of its regulation in the public and private sectors are produced by the Quebec Professions Office. The definition of psychotherapy that was reached by consensus is not limited to the treatment of mental disorders and is distinguished from other intervention in the area of human relations. Continuous training is mandatory and is implemented on one hand by the Order of the psychologists for the psychologists and other professionals practicing psychotherapy and on the other hand the College of physicians for physician practicing psychotherapy. The authors finally described the interdisciplinary advisory council for the practice of psychotherapy that the legislator has foreseen as an external mechanism to insure the conformity of regulation with the spirit of the law and to give opinions to the various

  4. From Guide to Practice: Improving Your After School Science Program to Increase Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous science organizations, such as NASA, offer educational outreach activities geared towards after school. For some programs, the primary goal is to grow students' love of science. For others, the programs are also intended to increase academic achievement. For those programs looking to support student learning in out-of-school time environments, aligning the program with learning during the classroom day can be a challenge. The Institute for Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse, put together a 'Practice Guide' for maximizing learning time beyond the regular school day. These practice guides provide concrete recommendations for educators supported by research. While this guide is not specific to any content or subject-area, the recommendations provided align very well with science education. After school science is often viewed as a fun, dynamic environment for students. Indeed, one of the recommendations to ensure time is structured according to students' needs is to provide relevant and interesting experiences. Given that our after school programs provide such creative environments for students, what other components are needed to promote increased academic achievement? The recommendations provided to academic achievement, include: 1. Align Instruction, 2. Maximize Attendance and Participation, 3. Adapt Instruction, 4. Provide Engaging Experiences, and 5. Evaluate Program. In this session we will examine these five recommendations presented in the Practice Guide, discuss how these strategies align with science programs, and examine what questions each program should address in order to provide experiences that lend themselves to maximizing instruction. Roadblocks and solutions for overcoming challenges in each of the five areas will be presented. Jessica Taylor will present this research based on her role as an author on the Practice Guide, 'Improving Academic Achievement in Out-of-School Time' and her experience working in various informal science

  5. Board of Undergraduate Courses: a Means to Improve Academic Quality in Medical Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Mur Villar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving the quality of the service provided to the society by the University of Medical Sciences and its participation in solving health problems is undoubtedly, the most important challenge facing this institution. In order to disseminate the results of the meeting of the board of undergraduate courses as a means to achieve academic quality, the main results derived from such meeting are presented. The board of undergraduate courses contributes to systematically foster a culture of quality in the university, particularly in professional training. Methodological guidelines for conducting the board meeting are discussed.

  6. An Approach of Improving Student’s Academic Performance by using K-means clustering algorithm and Decision tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayetul Islam Shovon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Improving student’s academic performance is not an easy task for the academic community of higher learning. The academic performance of engineering and science students during their first year at university is a turning point in their educational path and usually encroaches on their General Point Average (GPA in a decisive manner. The students evaluation factors like class quizzes mid and final exam assignment lab -work are studied. It is recommended that all these correlated information should be conveyed to the class teacher before the conduction of final exam. This study will help the teachers to reduce the drop out ratio to a significant level and improve the performance of students. In this paper, we present a hybrid procedure based on Decision Tree of Data mining method and Data Clustering that enables academicians to predict student’s GPA and based on that instructor can take necessary step to improve student academic performance

  7. Use of a horror film in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, J M; Derdeyn, A P

    1990-11-01

    Modern improvements in the technology of cinematic special effects have ushered in a new genre of vivid and graphic horror film. The numerous sequels of these films attest to their popularity among adolescents and young adults. Considerable concern has arisen on the part of parents, professionals, and policymakers regarding adverse effects of these films upon children. The authors discuss the meaning of a horror film to a troubled 13-year-old boy and describe the use of the film in his psychotherapy. The modern horror film serves many of the same functions for the adolescent that the traditional fairy tale serves for the younger child.

  8. Alliance in individual psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Adam O; Del Re, A C; Flückiger, Christoph; Symonds, Dianne

    2011-03-01

    This article reports on a research synthesis of the relation between alliance and the outcomes of individual psychotherapy. Included were over 200 research reports based on 190 independent data sources, covering more than 14,000 treatments. Research involving 5 or more adult participants receiving genuine (as opposed to analogue) treatments, where the author(s) referred to one of the independent variables as "alliance," "therapeutic alliance," "helping alliance," or "working alliance" were the inclusion criteria. All analyses were done using the assumptions of a random model. The overall aggregate relation between the alliance and treatment outcome (adjusted for sample size and non independence of outcome measures) was r = .275 (k = 190); the 95% confidence interval for this value was .25-.30. The statistical probability associated with the aggregated relation between alliance and outcome is p < .0001. The data collected for this meta-analysis were quite variable (heterogeneous). Potential variables such as assessment perspectives (client, therapist, observer), publication source, types of assessment methods and time of assessment were explored.

  9. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  10. Use of social media platforms for improving academic performance at Further Education and Training colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin P. Dzvapatsva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Certificate Vocational (NC[V] curriculum offered by Further Education and Training (FET colleges was introduced in 2007 to address the skills shortage in South Africa. Information Technology (IT lecturers encountered a number of challenges in delivering lessons throughout the course, which affected the academic performance of learners. The biggest challenges identified were the lack of adequate contact hours for the course and inconsistency in the way in which final examination papers were set.Objectives: The aim of the project was to investigate the use of: (1 a knowledge portal for verifying the quality of assessments by lecturers and (2 social media to increase contact time with FET college students in an attempt to improve their academic performance.Method: The NC(V level 3 student test scores for 2011 were compared to those of 2012. In addition to the test scores, students also received a questionnaire so as to determine their perceptions on social media usage. Lecturers also received a questionnaire on their perception of the knowledge portal.Results: The data collected from seven lecturers and 38 students indicated a 35% (from 30% – 65% improvement in academic performance after the introduction of the interventions, that is social media and a knowledge portal; an indication of the importance of electronic media in enhancing learning.Conclusion: The research offered FET lecturers an additional method for learning and teaching in that they could use the knowledge portal to set up quality assessments for the students and social media to increase contact learning time.

  11. Changes in Studying Abilities as Perceived by Students Attending Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkäpää, Kristiina; Junttila, Outi; Lindfors, Olavi; Järvikoski, Aila

    2014-01-01

    In rehabilitative psychotherapy, the goal is to support and improve the person's working and studying capacity and to secure his/her staying in or entering the workforce. In this qualitative study, the aim was to describe the changes students experienced in their studying ability and the advancement of their studies as a result of the therapy…

  12. Motivation and Academic Improvement Using Augmented Reality for 3D Architectural Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David FONSECA ESCUDERO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about the results from the evaluation of the motivation, user profile and level of satisfaction in the workflow using 3D augmented visualization of complex models in educational environments. The study shows the results of different experiments conducted with first and second year students from Architecture and Science and Construction Technologies (Old Spanish degree of Building Engineering, which is recognized at a European level. We have used a mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative student assessment in order to complete a general overview of using new technologies, mobile devices and advanced visual methods in academic environments. The results show us how the students involved in the experiments improved their academic results and their implication in the subject, which allow us to conclude that the hybrid technologies improve both spatial skills and the student motivation, a key concept in the actual educational framework composed by digital-native students and a great range of different applications and interfaces useful for teaching and learning.

  13. A Plan for Academic Biobank Solvency-Leveraging Resources and Applying Business Processes to Improve Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzarski, Diane; Burke, James; Turner, Barbara; Vroom, James; Short, Nancy

    2015-10-01

    Researcher-initiated biobanks based at academic institutions contribute valuable biomarker and translational research advances to medicine. With many legacy banks once supported by federal funding, reductions in fiscal support threaten the future of existing and new biobanks. When the Brain Bank at Duke University's Bryan Alzheimer's Disease Center (ADRC) faced a funding crisis, a collaborative, multidisciplinary team embarked on a 2-year biobank sustainability project utilizing a comprehensive business strategy, dedicated project management, and a systems approach involving many Duke University entities. By synthesizing and applying existing knowledge, Duke Translational Medicine Institute created and launched a business model that can be adjusted and applied to legacy and start-up academic biobanks. This model provides a path to identify new funding mechanisms, while also emphasizing improved communication, business development, and a focus on collaborating with industry to improve access to biospecimens. Benchmarks for short-term Brain Bank stabilization have been successfully attained, and the evaluation of long-term sustainability metrics is ongoing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Plan for Academic Biobank Solvency—Leveraging Resources and Applying Business Processes to Improve Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, James; Turner, Barbara; Vroom, James; Short, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Researcher‐initiated biobanks based at academic institutions contribute valuable biomarker and translational research advances to medicine. With many legacy banks once supported by federal funding, reductions in fiscal support threaten the future of existing and new biobanks. When the Brain Bank at Duke University's Bryan Alzheimer's Disease Center (ADRC) faced a funding crisis, a collaborative, multidisciplinary team embarked on a 2‐year biobank sustainability project utilizing a comprehensive business strategy, dedicated project management, and a systems approach involving many Duke University entities. By synthesizing and applying existing knowledge, Duke Translational Medicine Institute created and launched a business model that can be adjusted and applied to legacy and start‐up academic biobanks. This model provides a path to identify new funding mechanisms, while also emphasizing improved communication, business development, and a focus on collaborating with industry to improve access to biospecimens. Benchmarks for short‐term Brain Bank stabilization have been successfully attained, and the evaluation of long‐term sustainability metrics is ongoing. PMID:25996355

  15. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding.

  16. The Armstrong Institute: An Academic Institute for Patient Safety and Quality Improvement, Research, Training, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronovost, Peter J; Holzmueller, Christine G; Molello, Nancy E; Paine, Lori; Winner, Laura; Marsteller, Jill A; Berenholtz, Sean M; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Demski, Renee; Armstrong, C Michael

    2015-10-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) could advance the science of health care delivery, improve patient safety and quality improvement, and enhance value, but many centers have fragmented efforts with little accountability. Johns Hopkins Medicine, the AMC under which the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Health System are organized, experienced similar challenges, with operational patient safety and quality leadership separate from safety and quality-related research efforts. To unite efforts and establish accountability, the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality was created in 2011.The authors describe the development, purpose, governance, function, and challenges of the institute to help other AMCs replicate it and accelerate safety and quality improvement. The purpose is to partner with patients, their loved ones, and all interested parties to end preventable harm, continuously improve patient outcomes and experience, and eliminate waste in health care. A governance structure was created, with care mapped into seven categories, to oversee the quality and safety of all patients treated at a Johns Hopkins Medicine entity. The governance has a Patient Safety and Quality Board Committee that sets strategic goals, and the institute communicates these goals throughout the health system and supports personnel in meeting these goals. The institute is organized into 13 functional councils reflecting their behaviors and purpose. The institute works daily to build the capacity of clinicians trained in safety and quality through established programs, advance improvement science, and implement and evaluate interventions to improve the quality of care and safety of patients.

  17. Improving Initiation and Tracking of Research Projects at an Academic Health Center: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Goros, Martin; Parsons, Helen M; Saygin, Can; Wan, Hung-Da; Shireman, Paula K; Gelfond, Jonathan A L

    2016-09-20

    Research service cores at academic health centers are important in driving translational advancements. Specifically, biostatistics and research design units provide services and training in data analytics, biostatistics, and study design. However, the increasing demand and complexity of assigning appropriate personnel to time-sensitive projects strains existing resources, potentially decreasing productivity and increasing costs. Improving processes for project initiation, assigning appropriate personnel, and tracking time-sensitive projects can eliminate bottlenecks and utilize resources more efficiently. In this case study, we describe our application of lean six sigma principles to our biostatistics unit to establish a systematic continual process improvement cycle for intake, allocation, and tracking of research design and data analysis projects. The define, measure, analyze, improve, and control methodology was used to guide the process improvement. Our goal was to assess and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of operations by objectively measuring outcomes, automating processes, and reducing bottlenecks. As a result, we developed a web-based dashboard application to capture, track, categorize, streamline, and automate project flow. Our workflow system resulted in improved transparency, efficiency, and workload allocation. Using the dashboard application, we reduced the average study intake time from 18 to 6 days, a 66.7% reduction over 12 months (January to December 2015).

  18. Psychotherapy patient transfer: secondhand rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederer, L

    1975-10-01

    The author uses the analogy of the marketplace to examine the dynamics of the transfer of psychotherapy patients in university clinic settings. The outgoing therapist is the seller, the prospective therapist the buyer, and the patient the commodity--the secondhand Rose. Marketing techniques that are used in this buyers' market allow no active patient participation and are therefore antithetical to the tenets of psychotherapy. The author suggests early clarification of therapeutic goals, assignment of therapists on the basis of patient choice, and explanation of time frames and limits as means for ameliorating the problems he describes.

  19. Initial and last manifest dream reports of patients in psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksman, Myron L; Kramer, Milton

    2012-12-01

    The initial and last manifest dream reports (MDRs) of 30 patients who had either successfully terminated, or continued to make satisfactory progress at an advanced stage of psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy, were rated according to the following variables: Affect and Affect Valence; Affect Valence of Associations and Direction of Association Themes; Dream Narrative; Psychodynamic Formulation; Transference; and Dream Theme. Similar to previous studies, the initial MDRs contained more negative than positive affect. Conversely, the last MDRs contained more positive than negative affect. Associations to initial MDRs contained more negative affect; on the other hand, associations to last MDRs contained more positive affect. Direction of association themes were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Dream narratives were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Psychodynamic formulations were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Transference was more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Relational and injury dream themes occurred more frequently than others in both initial and last MDRs. Initial MDRs contained more injury dream themes than last MDRs. The findings of this study demonstrate that there is a correlation between MDR variables and clinical improvement during treatment. The patients in this study were selected by MG, the treating therapist, on the basis of satisfactory progress. The MDRs of patients who failed to progress or did poorly were not discussed in this report. The findings, therefore, must be taken as preliminary and indicate the need for further research on manifest dreams during psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy.

  20. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of intensive group psychotherapy in treatment of neurotic and personality disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mielimąka

    2015-02-01

    Intensive, short-term group psychotherapy with elements of individual therapy is an effective treatment for neurotic disorders. The majority of treated persons obtains a significant symptomatic improvement and a reduction in the severity of neurotic personality traits.

  2. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  3. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  4. A Case for Improved Reading Instruction for Academic English Reading Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Ole Hellekjær

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the academic reading proficiency in English of 217 senior level Norwegian upper secondary school students who upon graduation are considered qualified for higher education. Testing with an International English Language Testing System (IELTS Academic Reading Module revealed that two thirds of the 178 respondents with ordinary EFL courses did not achieve the equivalent of the IELTS Band 6 score minimum that is usually required for admission to British and Australian universities. In comparison, two thirds of a sample of 39 respondents with a single, sheltered Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL subject achieved a Band 6 score or better. Closer analysis indicates that the poor test scores can be attributed to weaknesses in current English as a Foreign Language (EFL instruction where reading is neglected, where students do not learn to adjust how they read to reading purpose, and where they do not learn how to handle unfamiliar words to avoid disrupting the reading process. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve EFL instruction, in Norway and elsewhere.

  5. Concept mapping improves academic performance in problem solving questions in biochemistry subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Tariq, Saba; Rehman, Rehana; Ali, Sobia; Gazzaz, Zohair J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of concept mapping (CM) on the academic performance of medical students’ in problem-solving as well as in declarative knowledge questions and their perception regarding CM. Methods: The present analytical and questionnaire-based study was carried out at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi, Pakistan. In this analytical study, students were assessed with problem-solving questions (A-type MCQs), and declarative knowledge questions (short essay questions), and 50% of the questions were from the topics learned by CM. Students also filled a 10-item, 3-point Likert scale questionnaire about their perception regarding the effectiveness of the CM approach, and two open-ended questions were also asked. Results: There was a significant difference in the marks obtained in those problem-solving questions, which were learned by CM as compared to those topics which were taught by the traditional lectures (p<0.001), while no significant difference was observed in marks in declarative knowledge questions (p=0.704). Analysis of students’ perception regarding CM showed that majority of the students perceive that CM is a helpful technique and it is enjoyed by the students. In open-ended questions, the majority of the students commented positively about the effectiveness of CM. Conclusion: Our results indicate that CM improves academic performance in problem solving but not in declarative knowledge questions. Students’ perception about the effectiveness of CM was overwhelmingly positive. PMID:27648017

  6. A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Gregory M; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2011-03-18

    A brief intervention aimed at buttressing college freshmen's sense of social belonging in school was tested in a randomized controlled trial (N = 92), and its academic and health-related consequences over 3 years are reported. The intervention aimed to lessen psychological perceptions of threat on campus by framing social adversity as common and transient. It used subtle attitude-change strategies to lead participants to self-generate the intervention message. The intervention was expected to be particularly beneficial to African-American students (N = 49), a stereotyped and socially marginalized group in academics, and less so to European-American students (N = 43). Consistent with these expectations, over the 3-year observation period the intervention raised African Americans' grade-point average (GPA) relative to multiple control groups and halved the minority achievement gap. This performance boost was mediated by the effect of the intervention on subjective construal: It prevented students from seeing adversity on campus as an indictment of their belonging. Additionally, the intervention improved African Americans' self-reported health and well-being and reduced their reported number of doctor visits 3 years postintervention. Senior-year surveys indicated no awareness among participants of the intervention's impact. The results suggest that social belonging is a psychological lever where targeted intervention can have broad consequences that lessen inequalities in achievement and health.

  7. The Students Satisfaction Oriented: Academic Service Improvement Strategy, Department of Aquatic Resources Management, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widaryanti; Daryanto, Arief; Fauzi, Anas Miftah

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions must have a strategy change management in the increasingly competitive business environment. A continous performance improvement should be made accordingly. This study was conducted with the case of MSP-IPB, to analyze the priority of academic services improvement which were oriented in student satisfaction. This…

  8. Psychotherapy via Videoconferencing: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Research into the use of videoconferencing for clinical purposes, in particular psychotherapy, is gradually expanding. A number of case studies and case series have suggested that videoconferencing can be clinically effective and acceptable to patients. Nevertheless, there is a lack of methodologically rigorous studies with adequate sample sizes…

  9. Palmistry, tarot cards, and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Nicholas G

    2008-01-01

    The author summarizes his experience with palm and Tarot card readers in New Orleans. The history, practice, and psychodynamics of palmistry and Tarot are explored. It's postulated that these practices are forms of archaic psychotherapy, which employ supportive treatment and placebo. These tactics are used to elicit hope for its clients.

  10. Beyond Psychobabble: Careers in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    Describes the five largest psychotherapy occupations (psychiatrist, clinical/counseling psychologist, clinical social worker, marriage and family therapist, clinical mental health counselor) and looks at training requirements, types of practices, trends, and related occupations. Lists professional associations and references for further…

  11. The current status of psychotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is as old as human culture'. However, the latter is now ... evolved to three main types as a result of these influ- .... tive by demonstrating a mean effect size for psychotherapy of 0.85 (that ... therapy that makes a difference changes brain function.

  12. Physically Active Math and Language Lessons Improve Academic Achievement : A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Doolaard, Simone; Bosker, Roel J.; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Using physical activity in the teaching of academic lessons is a new way of learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an innovative physically active academic intervention ("Fit & Vaardig op School" [F&V]) on academic achievement of children. METHODS: Using physic

  13. Optimizing MRI Logistics: Focused Process Improvements Can Increase Throughput in an Academic Radiology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jeremy J; Stormann, Jeremy; Roche, Kelli; Cabral-Goncalves, Ines; Monks, Annamarie; Hallett, Donna; Mortele, Koenraad J

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate the effect of focused process improvements on protocol selection and scheduling in the MRI division of a busy academic medical center, as measured by examination and room times, magnet fill rate, and potential revenue increases and cost savings to the department. Focused process improvements, led by a multidisciplinary team at a large academic medical center, were directed at streamlining MRI protocols and optimizing matching protocol ordering to scheduling while maintaining or improving image quality. Data were collected before (June 2013) and after (March 2015) implementation of focused process improvements and divided by subspecialty on type of examination, allotted examination time, actual examination time, and MRI parameters. Direct and indirect costs were compiled and analyzed in consultation with the business department. Data were compared with evaluated effects on selected outcome and efficiency measures, as well as revenue and cost considerations. Statistical analysis was performed using a t test. During the month of June 2013, 2145 MRI examinations were performed at our center; 2702 were performed in March 2015. Neuroradiology examinations were the most common (59% in June 2013, 56% in March 2015), followed by body examinations (25% and 27%). All protocols and parameters were analyzed and streamlined for each examination, with slice thickness, TR, and echo train length among the most adjusted parameters. Mean time per examination decreased from 43.4 minutes to 36.7 minutes, and mean room time per patient decreased from 46.3 to 43.6 minutes (p = 0.009). Potential revenue from increased throughput may yield up to $3 million yearly (at $800 net revenue per scan) or produce cost savings if the facility can reduce staffed scanner hours or the number of scanners in its fleet. Actual revenue and expense impacts depend on the facility's fixed and variable cost structure, payer contracts, MRI fleet composition

  14. It's Just (Academic) Business: A Use Case in Improving Informatics Operations with Business Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Leslie D; Zabarovskaya, Connie; Uhlmansiek, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Academic biomedical informatics cores are beholden to funding agencies, institutional administration, collaborating researchers, and external agencies for ongoing funding and support. Services provided and translational research outcomes are increasingly important to monitor, report and analyze, to demonstrate value provided to the organization and the greater scientific community. Thus, informatics operations are also business operations. As such, adopting business intelligence practices offers an opportunity to improve the efficiency of evaluation efforts while fulfilling reporting requirements. Organizing informatics development documentation, service requests, and work performed with adaptable tools have greatly facilitated these and related business activities within our informatics center. Through the identification and measurement of key performance indicators, informatics objectives and results are now quickly and nimbly assessed using dashboards. Acceptance of the informatics operation as a business venture and the adoption of business intelligence strategies has allowed for data-driven decision making, faster corrective action, and greater transparency for interested stakeholders.

  15. It’s Just (Academic) Business: A Use Case in Improving Informatics Operations with Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Leslie D.; Zabarovskaya, Connie; Uhlmansiek, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Academic biomedical informatics cores are beholden to funding agencies, institutional administration, collaborating researchers, and external agencies for ongoing funding and support. Services provided and translational research outcomes are increasingly important to monitor, report and analyze, to demonstrate value provided to the organization and the greater scientific community. Thus, informatics operations are also business operations. As such, adopting business intelligence practices offers an opportunity to improve the efficiency of evaluation efforts while fulfilling reporting requirements. Organizing informatics development documentation, service requests, and work performed with adaptable tools have greatly facilitated these and related business activities within our informatics center. Through the identification and measurement of key performance indicators, informatics objectives and results are now quickly and nimbly assessed using dashboards. Acceptance of the informatics operation as a business venture and the adoption of business intelligence strategies has allowed for data-driven decision making, faster corrective action, and greater transparency for interested stakeholders. PMID:26306252

  16. Culture and demoralization in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M; Gostoli, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization. Copyright

  17. Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Prakash B; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P

    2013-01-01

    The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of "traditional mental health promoting practices" was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a "mind control" as referred by Caraka, is achieved through "spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.

  18. Metacognitive mastery dysfunctions in personality disorder psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Pedone, Roberto; Popolo, Raffaele; Conti, Laura; Fiore, Donatella; Procacci, Michele; Semerari, Antonio; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2011-11-30

    Individuals with personality disorders (PDs) have difficulties in modulating mental states and in coping with interpersonal problems according to a mentalistic formulation of the problem. In this article we analyzed the first 16 psychotherapy sessions of 14 PD patients in order to explore whether their abilities to master distress and interpersonal problems were actually impaired and how they changed during the early therapy phase. We used the Mastery Section of the Metacognition Assessment Scale, which assesses the use of mentalistic knowledge to solve problems and promote adaptation. We explored the hypotheses that a) PD patients had problems in using their mentalistic knowledge to master distress and solve social problems; b) the impairments were partially stable and only a minimal improvement could be observed during the analyzed period; c) patients' mastery preferences differed from one another; d) at the beginning of treatment the more effective strategies were those involving minimal knowledge about mental states. Results seemed to support the hypotheses; the patients examined had significant difficulties in mastery abilities, and these difficulties persisted after 16 sessions. Moreover, the attitudes towards problem-solving were not homogenous across the patients. Lastly, we discuss implications for assessment and treatment of metacognitive disorders in psychotherapy.

  19. Disappointed Love and Suicide: A Randomized Controlled Trial of "Abandonment Psychotherapy" Among Borderline Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, A; Burnand, Y; Cochennec, M-F; Ohlendorf, P; Frambati, L; Gaudry-Maire, D; Di Clemente, Th; Hourton, G; Lorillard, S; Canuto, A; Frances, A

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether ambulatory psychotherapy targeted to abandonment experiences and fears can reduce suicidality and improve outcome in borderline patients referred to the emergency room with major depressive disorder and self-destructive behavior severe enough to require medical/surgical treatment and a brief psychiatric hospitalization. A total of 170 subjects were randomized at hospital discharge into three treatment groups: treatment as usual (TAU), abandonment psychotherapy delivered by certified psychotherapists, and abandonment psychotherapy delivered by nurses. Assessments were performed before randomization and at 3-month follow-up. Continued suicidality and other outcome measures were significantly worse in the treatment-as-usual as compared to both abandonment psychotherapy groups, but there were no differences between the two psychotherapy groups. These results suggest the efficacy of manualized psychotherapy that specifically targets the abandonment fears and experiences that are so common as precipitants to suicidal and self-destructive acts in borderline patients. It does not appear that formal psychotherapy training is associated with better outcomes.

  20. Relationship of Using the Basic Skills of Teaching and Improvment of the Students’ Academic Performance Lamerd Nursing Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi SA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Development of professional skills of teachers is a key factor in improving the professional performance of teachers and students educational turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the use of basic skills of teaching and improving students' academic performance in Lamerd School of Nursing. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive correlational research, All 95 students who were studying at the School of Nursing, Lamerd State University, Iran, during 2013-14 academic year were entered the study by census method. The instrument was a questionnaire designed by the researchers that its validity and reliability were confirmed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, and cumulative percentage charts and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, independent T test and ANOVA. Findings: A significant relationship was observed between the use of basic skills of teaching and academic performance of nursing (p=0.001. There was also a significant correlation between the past, during and after teaching skills and students’ academic performance (p=0.001. The opinion of students from various semesters was significantly different about the use of basic skills of teaching by teachers (p=0.001. Conclusion: Academic performance of students improves by increasing of teachers’ basic skills of teaching.  

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... changing beliefs and behaviors by teaching skills to: Control intense emotions Reduce self-destructive behaviors Improve relationships ... BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of life. Dynamic Deconstructive Therapy (DDT) DDT aims ...

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... behaviors Improve relationships With DBT, people learn tools, exercises, and concrete things they can do to manage ... symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of life. Dynamic Deconstructive Therapy ( ...

  3. Advances in Psychotherapy for Depressed Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Patrick J; McGovern, Amanda R; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Sirey, Jo Anne

    2017-09-01

    We review recent advances in psychotherapies for depressed older adults, in particular those developed for special populations characterized by chronic medical illness, acute medical illness, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk factors. We review adaptations for psychotherapy to overcome barriers to its accessibility in non-specialty settings such as primary care, homebound or hard-to-reach older adults, and social service settings. Recent evidence supports the effectiveness of psychotherapies that target late-life depression in the context of specific comorbid conditions including COPD, heart failure, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other acute conditions, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk. Growing evidence supports the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of psychotherapy modified for a variety of health care and social service settings. Research supports the benefits of selecting the type of psychotherapy based on a comprehensive assessment of the older adult's psychiatric, medical, functional, and cognitive status, and tailoring psychotherapy to the settings in which older depressed adults are most likely to present.

  4. Improving Communication Skills: A Course for Academic Medical Center Surgery Residents and Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Steven E; Gupta, Meera; Okusanya, Olugbenga; Morris, Jon B

    2015-01-01

    To improve physician/patient communication and familiarize surgeons with contemporary skills for and metrics assessing communication, courses were developed to provide academic general surgery residents and faculty with a toolkit of information, behaviors, and specific techniques. If academic faculty are expected to mentor residents in communication and residents are expected to learn good communication skills, then both should have the necessary education to accomplish such a goal. Didactic lectures introduced current concepts of physician-patient communication including information on better patient care, fewer malpractice suits, and the move toward transparency of communication metrics. Next, course participants viewed and critiqued "Surgi-Drama" videos, with actors simulating "before" and "after" physician-patient communication scenarios. Finally, participants were provided with a "toolkit" of techniques for improving physician-patient communication including "2-3-4"-a semiscripted short communication tool residents and other physicians can use in patient encounters-and a number of other acronymic approaches. Each participant was asked to complete an anonymous evaluation to assess course content satisfaction. Overall, 86% of residents participated (68/79), with a 52% response rate (35/68) for the evaluation tool. Overall, 88% of faculty participated (84/96), with an 84% response rate (71/84). Residents voiced satisfaction with all domains. For faculty, satisfaction was quantitatively confirmed (Likert score 4 or 5) in 4 of 7 domains, with the highest satisfaction in "communication of goals" and "understanding of the HCAHPS metric." The percentage of "top box" Doctor Communication Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores and national percentile ranking showed a sustained increase more than 1 and 2 years from the dates of the courses. The assessment of communication skills is increasing in importance in the practice of

  5. Transitioning From Volume to Value: One Academic Medical Center's Approach to Improving Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Stephanie A C; Tanski, Mary E; Yackel, Thomas R

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. health care system is undergoing a major transformation. Clinical delivery systems are now being paid according to the value of the care they provide, in accordance with the Triple Aim, which incorporates improving the quality and cost of care and the patient experience. Increasingly, financial risk is being transferred from insurers to clinical delivery systems that become responsible for both episode-based clinical care and the longitudinal care of patients. Thus, these delivery systems need to develop strategies to manage the health of populations. Academic medical centers (AMCs) serve a unique role in many markets yet may be ill prepared for this transformation. In 2013, Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) partnered with a large health insurer and six other hospitals across the state to form Propel Health, a collaborative partnership designed to deliver the tools, methods, and support necessary for population health management. OHSU also developed new internal structures and transformed its business model to embrace this value-based care model. Each Propel Health partner included the employees and dependents enrolled in its employee medical plan, for approximately 55,000 covered individuals initially. By 2017, Propel Health is expected to cover 110,000 individuals. Other outcomes to measure in the future include the quality and cost of care provided under this partnership. Anticipated challenges to overcome include insufficient primary care networks, conflicting incentives, local competition, and the magnitude of the transformation. Still, the time is right for AMCs to commit to improving the health of populations.

  6. Integrating self-help books into psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Smith, Thomas P

    2003-02-01

    This article describes a systematic and integral method of incorporating self-help books into psychotherapy as a collaborative function. We address the distinctions between self-help and bibliotherapy, consider bibliotherapy as adjunctive or integrative to psychotherapy, and outline the multiple uses of bibliotherapy for clinical purposes. How to apply self-help books in psychotherapy and ways to select books are illustrated by a case example. Indications and contraindications for bibliotherapy in therapy are outlined.

  7. [Problems of bilinguism in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, S; Müller, C

    1978-01-01

    The authors have attempted an introductory study of problems which are inherent to psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and psychoanalysis conducted in the second language of a bilingual therapist. This situation seems to be more complex than is usually admitted in current literature. The main problem encountered by the authors in their personal practice stems from the fact that the process of identification becomes complex when the therapist is confronted with regressive and/or progressive shifts in the course of the treatment.

  8. Emotional Control in Psychotherapy Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Mardi

    2016-01-01

    Emotional control may be observed to be (1) too excessive as in avoidant behaviors during psychotherapy, (2) suitable to a frank expression of feelings, or (3) lacking in regulation causing too intense affective experiences. This article offers a theory that may help clinicians make observations about this range of possible states, formulate the patient's defensive processes, and choose if, how, and when to act. The observations and formulations presented focus on specific and present moment situations rather than habitual defense mechanisms.

  9. Implementing Self-Advocacy Training within a Brief Psychoeducational Group to Improve the Academic Motivation of Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2009-01-01

    Black adolescents are confronted with ongoing social barriers that affect their academic motivation. School counselors can improve the educational landscape for Black adolescents by employing advocacy competencies in their schools. In this article I describe a brief psychoeducational group that can be used to teach self-advocacy skills to Black…

  10. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of life. Dynamic Deconstructive Therapy (DDT) DDT aims to help patients identify and ...

  11. The future orientation of constructive memory: an evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    We explore a new distinction between the future, prospective memory system being investigated in current neuroscience and the past, retrospective memory system, which was the original theoretical foundation of therapeutic hypnosis, classical psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy. We then generalize a current evolutionary theory of sleep and dreaming, which focuses on the future, prospective memory system, to conceptualize a new evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy. The implication of current neuroscience research is that activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity are the psychobiological basis of adaptive behavior, consciousness, and creativity in everyday life as well as psychotherapy. We summarize a case illustrating how this evolutionary perspective can be used to quickly resolve problems with past obstructive procrastination in school to facilitate current and future academic success.

  12. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathology is mental illness that has often suffered by human being. There are several factors that causes this illness, some of which are modern life characterized by materialistic, hedonistic and egoistic lives. In Islam, psychopathology which is described as a form of deviation from norms or moral values, spiritual and religion. Psychopathology is divided into three parts, namely those associated with faith, humanity and psychopathology which is associated with combination of faith and human being.Meanwhile psychotherapy is an effort to cure mental and psychiatric disorders suffered by individuals. Psychotherapy is a solution to cure various problems of mental disorders. Al-Qur’an, as the principles of Islamic teachings, contain information about psychotherapy for those who suffer from mental disorders. Religious approach is completely needed for therapy and it helps the psychopath recover from his/her mental disorders.TheQur’an could be used as a treatment as well as a preventive step, so that all human being will not suffer from mental disorders, and religious approach can bring the psychopaths closer to God, theAlmighty.

  13. [Psychotherapy with the unwilling patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madert, K K

    1984-05-01

    By means of the residential motivation therapy of addicts we discuss ways of dealing with the specific problems, that arise in psychotherapy of character disordered, who are not suffering psychically. The - in the view of the addict patient - often unvoluntary referral to the hospital provokes the patient's refusal of cooperation. The greatest therapeutic challenge is the ego-syntonicity of the character disorder and the rigid defense structure of overcompensation, projection and denial, covered up by rationalizations. This defense system serves to avoid closeness and contact with the original emotions. In our group setting we use mini-contracts, reality-oriented confrontation of behavioral issues in order to make the addict aware of his desperation and lack of fullfilment in life, and offer attractive models of living and the experience of warmth and bondedness in the group. Our main techniques are non-verbal. Body experience and full-body-expression of emotions mediate self-experience which is then integrated verbally. The goal of this psychoanalytically based psychotherapy is to bring about by working through resistances, the attitudes which are a precondition for continuing with a personality-changing psychotherapy.

  14. Effect of Group Psychotherapy on Improving Psychological Stress and Copping Style of Employees%团体心理治疗对改善企业员工心理压力及应对方式的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍喜燕; 管明月; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索团体心理治疗改善企业员工心理压力的效果.方法 对40名银行员工进行为期2天,共计16 h的"集中封闭式"团体心理治疗.治疗前后用量表施测,发放问卷40份,收回有效问卷37份,回收率为92.5%.结果 团体心理治疗前,37名银行员工的压力反应高于社会常模,差异有统计学意义(P=0.000);积极应对因子较治疗前显著提高,消极应对因子较治疗前显著降低,差异均有统计学意义(P=0.000);压力反应量表中,压力反应总分、情绪反应、躯体反应、行为反应均较治疗前显著降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 "集中封闭式"团体心理治疗,能有效改善员工压力应对方式,降低压力反应.%Objective To investigate the effect of group psychotherapy on improving psychological stress. Methods Totally 40 employees of a bank were given the centralized and closed group psychotherapy for 16 hours in days. Mental-stress scale was adopted to assess the results before and after the intervention. Thirty seven eligible copies of 40 issued questionnaires were recalled, with reclaimed rate of 92. 5 %. Results Before the psychotherapy the stress-response was higher than the norm in 37 employees, with a statistical significance ( P = 0. 000 ). After the psychotherapy the positive copping factor was increased and the negative factor was decreased ( P = 0. 000 ); and in mental-stress scale the total stress score, emotional response, physical response and behavior response were all reduced ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Centralized and closed group psychotherapy can effectively improve the copping style of the employees and reduce their stress response.

  15. Interpersonal psychotherapy for postpartum depression: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Calugi, Simona; Rucci, Paola; Savino, Mario; Mauri, Mauro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-08-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a dynamically informed and present-focused psychotherapy originally conceived for patients with unipolar depression and subsequently modified for other disorders, including postpartum depression (PPD). The aim of this paper is to review the evidence on the efficacy of IPT for PPD. We conducted a systematic review of studies published between 1995 and April 2013 assessing the efficacy of IPT for PPD using PubMed and PsycINFO. We included the following: (i) articles that presented a combination of at least two of the established terms in the abstract, namely, interpersonal [all fields] and ("psychotherapy" [MeSH terms] or psychotherapy [all fields]) and (perinatal [all fields] or postpartum [all fields]) and ("depressive disorder" [MeSH terms] or ("depressive" [all fields] and "disorder" [all fields]) or depressive disorder [all fields] or "depression" [all fields] or depression [MeSH terms]); (ii) manuscripts in English; (iii) original articles; and (iv) prospective or retrospective observational studies (analytical or descriptive), experimental, or quasi-experimental. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (i) other study designs, such as case reports, case series, and reviews; (ii) non-original studies including editorials, book reviews, and letters to the editor; and (iii) studies not specifically designed and focused on IPT. We identified 11 clinical primary trials assessing the efficacy of IPT for PPD, including 3 trials with group interventions (G-IPT) and one that required the presence of the partner (PA-IPT). We also identified six studies interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented preventive interventions for use in pregnancy. IPT studies showed overall clinical improvement in the most commonly used depression measures in postpartum depressed women (EPDS, HDRS, BDI) and often-full recovery in several cases of treated patients. Evidence from clinical trials indicates that, when administered in monotherapy (or in combination with

  16. Integrating risk management data in quality improvement initiatives within an academic neurosurgery department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Garrett, Matthew C; Emami, Leila; Foss, Sarah K; Klohn, Johanna L; Martin, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT While malpractice litigation has had many negative impacts on health care delivery systems, information extracted from lawsuits could potentially guide toward venues to improve care. The authors present a comprehensive review of lawsuits within a tertiary academic neurosurgical department and report institutional and departmental strategies to mitigate liability by integrating risk management data with quality improvement initiatives. METHODS The Comprehensive Risk Intelligence Tool database was interrogated to extract claims/suits abstracts concerning neurosurgical cases that were closed from January 2008 to December 2012. Variables included demographics of the claimant, type of procedure performed (if any), claim description, insured information, case outcome, clinical summary, contributing factors and subfactors, amount incurred for indemnity and expenses, and independent expert opinion in regard to whether the standard of care was met. RESULTS During the study period, the Department of Neurosurgery received the most lawsuits of all surgical specialties (30 of 172), leading to a total incurred payment of $4,949,867. Of these lawsuits, 21 involved spinal pathologies and 9 cranial pathologies. The largest group of suits was from patients with challenging medical conditions who underwent uneventful surgeries and postoperative courses but filed lawsuits when they did not see the benefits for which they were hoping; 85% of these claims were withdrawn by the plaintiffs. The most commonly cited contributing factors included clinical judgment (20 of 30), technical skill (19 of 30), and communication (6 of 30). CONCLUSIONS While all medical and surgical subspecialties must deal with the issue of malpractice and liability, neurosurgery is most affected both in terms of the number of suits filed as well as monetary amounts awarded. To use the suits as learning tools for the faculty and residents and minimize the associated costs, quality initiatives addressing the

  17. Process mapping evaluation of medication reconciliation in academic teaching hospitals: a critical step in quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Anne; Bowen, James M; Patel, Harsit; O'Brien, Chris; You, John J; Tahavori, Roshan; Doleweerd, Jeff; Berezny, Tim; Perri, Dan; Nieuwstraten, Carmine; Troyan, Sue; Patel, Ameen

    2016-01-01

    Background Medication reconciliation (MedRec) has been a mandated or recommended activity in Canada, the USA and the UK for nearly 10 years. Accreditation bodies in North America will soon require MedRec for every admission, transfer and discharge of every patient. Studies of MedRec have revealed unintentional discrepancies in prescriptions but no clear evidence that clinically important outcomes are improved, leading to widely variable practices. Our objective was to apply process mapping methodology to MedRec to clarify current processes and resource usage, identify potential efficiencies and gaps in care, and make recommendations for improvement in the light of current literature evidence of effectiveness. Methods Process engineers observed and recorded all MedRec activities at 3 academic teaching hospitals, from initial emergency department triage to patient discharge, for general internal medicine patients. Process maps were validated with frontline staff, then with the study team, managers and patient safety leads to summarise current problems and discuss solutions. Results Across all of the 3 hospitals, 5 general problem themes were identified: lack of use of all available medication sources, duplication of effort creating inefficiency, lack of timeliness of completion of the Best Possible Medication History, lack of standardisation of the MedRec process, and suboptimal communication of MedRec issues between physicians, pharmacists and nurses. Discussion MedRec as practised in this environment requires improvements in quality, timeliness, consistency and dissemination. Further research exploring efficient use of resources, in terms of personnel and costs, is required. PMID:28039294

  18. How Non-Academic Supports Work: Four Mechanisms for Improving Student Outcomes. CCRC Brief. Number 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Melinda Mechur

    2011-01-01

    College success requires more than the ability to master college-level academic skills. Students must learn to navigate an unfamiliar campus, satisfy bureaucratic requirements, meet new expectations (Shields, 2002), and engage in new types of interpersonal relationships (Dickie & Farrell, 1991). Academically vulnerable students--those who are most…

  19. Communicative Approach: An Alternative Method Used in Improving Students' Academic Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmawati, Noer Doddy

    2012-01-01

    Academic reading is a difficult subject to be mastered. It is needed because most of books or references are written in English. The emphasis is on academic reading which becomes a compulsory subject that must be taught and understood in Faculty of Letters UAD Yogyakarta. Communicative approach is used and applied as an alternative method in the…

  20. [Need of specific criteria for psychotherapy referral in the public health system: A proposal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Haro, J; Fernández-Briz, N

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the need of specific criteria for psychotherapy referral in the public services. the use of psychotherapy as a supplement to traditional medication, and its comparison with informal methods of support, has been questioned. This study proposes the establishment of basic criteria for the integration of psychotherapy, based on an analysis of the conditions that allow it to function. It thus aims to contribute to improving the reputation and the practice conditions of psychotherapy in the public health system. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Forgiveness in psychotherapy: the key to healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, Sam; Love, Melanie

    2013-08-01

    The process of forgiveness in psychotherapy involves both letting go of resentment toward the offender and replacing the resentment with mindful awareness and empathy. By reconceptualizing past transgressions with a kinder, more equivocal outlook, clients attain a shift in perspective that is spiritual and cognitive in nature, thereby reducing symptomology and enhancing their quality of life. Such insights bring clients toward their inner Buddha nature, which transcends the suffering associated with clinging to past hurts and resentment. This process is facilitated by techniques such as concentrative meditation and identifying with transgressors through perspective taking. Forgiveness therapy improves clients' sense of well-being by promoting feelings of peacefullness toward oneself as well as others.

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and behaviors by teaching skills to: Control intense emotions Reduce self-destructive behaviors Improve relationships With DBT, ... concrete things they can do to manage their emotions when certain challenging situations arise and they are ...

  3. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accepting BPD and changing beliefs and behaviors by teaching skills to: Control intense emotions Reduce self-destructive ... BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of life. Dynamic Deconstructive Therapy (DDT) DDT aims ...

  4. Improving Multibeam Data Quality Across the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. D.; Beaudoin, J.; Ferrini, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Multibeam Advisory Committee (MAC) is an NSF funded project with the goal of improving the quality of multibeam across the U.S. academic research fleet. There are many facets to the Committee's plan to reach this goal, one of which is to have a team of multibeam specialists visiting vessels in the fleet. During their ship visits, the MAC's Quality Assurance Team (QAT) deploys software tools, disseminates "best practice" documentation, assesses the state of the system as a whole and does everything they can to help ship operators better understand and operate their multibeam systems. A big part of these ship visits is simply outreach: we want to let the operators know that they have access to help if they need it. In addition to developing working relationships with the operating institutions, the MAC seeks to reach out to the end user: the scientific community that uses these facilities to further their research. By presenting the MAC and QAT concepts to the community, we hope to raise awareness of our efforts, introduce the software tools and best-practice documentation that we are deploying and also solicit feedback on what future directions the MAC should focus.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of group psychotherapy on cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis with cognitive dysfunction and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bilgi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study will evaluate how decreasing depression severity via group psychotherapy affects the cognitive function of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who are also diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction. Method MS patients completed the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. The group members diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction underwent group psychotherapy for 3 months. Upon completion of psychotherapy, both tests were readministered. Results Depression and cognitive dysfunction were comorbid in 15 (13.9% of patients. Although improvement was detected at the end of the 3-month group psychotherapy intervention, it was limited to the BDI and the Paced Auditory Test. Conclusion Group psychotherapy might decrease cognitive impairment in MS patients.

  6. Does long-term medication use improve the academic outcomes of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M; Becker, Stephen P

    2012-09-01

    Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) frequently experience academic impairment, including lower grades than their peers and elevated risk for grade retention and school dropout. Medication is the most commonly used treatment for youth with ADHD, and it is therefore essential to understand the extent to which medication use improves long-term academic functioning. This paper reviews the literature on the relation between long-term medication use and the academic outcomes of youth with ADHD. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify pertinent studies published since 2000 that followed youth with ADHD for 3 or more years. Academic outcomes of interest included school grades, achievement test scores, and grade retention. Nine studies were identified reporting on eight distinct longitudinal samples (N across studies = 8,721). These studies demonstrate that long-term medication use is associated with improvements in standardized achievement scores. However, the magnitude of these improvements is small and the clinical or educational significance is questionable. Evidence for long-term improvements in school grades and grade retention is less compelling. This review highlights methodological considerations in providing directions for future research. The importance of using multiple sources to gather information about medication adherence is discussed, including use of methodologies such as electronic monitors, rather than relying solely on parent report or chart review. Future research should also examine a range of medication adherence definitions in order to determine whether age of onset, duration of use, dose, and/or consistency of use moderates the relation between long-term medication use and academic outcomes.

  7. Baring the soul: Paul Bindrim, Abraham Maslow and 'nude psychotherapy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Nude psychotherapy is one of the most flamboyant therapeutic techniques ever developed in American psychology. Largely forgotten today, the therapy was an academic and popular sensation upon its introduction in 1967. Developed by psychologist Paul Bindrim, the therapy promised to guide clients to their authentic selves through the systematic removal of clothing. This paper explores the intellectual, cultural and ethical context of nude therapy and its significance as a form of unchurched spirituality. Although nude therapy has an indisputable tabloid character, it is also rooted in a long-standing academic search for authenticity and ultimate meaning through science. Bindrim's career demonstrates the historically long-standing interweaving of spirituality and science within American psychology while simultaneously highlighting the field's extraordinary capacity for adaptive reinvention.

  8. 药物与心理疗法治疗抑郁障碍的疗效对照研究%A Comparative Study of Drug and Psychotherapy in Treatment of Depressive Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳自斌; 刘娅君; 常余善; 孙宝荣

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare effects of drug and psychotherapy in the treatment of depressive disorder. Methods: 63 depressive patients were randomly divided into two treatment groups: drug or psychotherapy. MMPI, SDSS and HAMD were used for assessing treatment effects on personality and social functions. Results: The effects of psychotherapy and drug were compatible for controlling symptoms of depression. Psychotherapy was superior to drug in preventing relapses, as well as improving cognitive and social functions. Conclusion: Psychotherapy should be applied to depressive patients. Dosage and duration of administering sedative antidepressants should be reduced in the treatment of depression.

  9. Individual psychotherapy as an adjunct to group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranto, E A; Bender, S S

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a form of combined psychotherapy in which the individual sessions are used as an adjunct to group therapy. Each group member is seen regularly in individual sessions to focus primarily on the member's ongoing group work. The individual sessions are scheduled on a rotating basis. Typically, each group member is seen in an individual session once every four weeks. Additional individual sessions are available only when immediate attention is appropriate and necessary. The group is viewed as the primary therapeutic component. A cost-effective therapeutic approach that uses both individual and group methods, this modality lends itself well to a clinic and to a private practice setting.

  10. A Functional Analytic Approach to Group Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…

  11. Consequences of Psychotherapy Clients' Mental Health Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Len; Kirsch, Irving

    Current theoretical approaches to understanding emotional difficulties are dominated by the medical model of mental illness, which assumes that emotional dysfunction can be viewed the same way as physical dysfunction. To examine the relationship between psychotherapy clients' beliefs about the medical model of psychotherapy and their behavior…

  12. Patterns of Symptomatic Recovery in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopta, Stephen Mark; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used psychotherapy dosage model in which effect was probability of recovery to compare treatment response rates for psychological symptoms. Administered symptom checklists to 854 psychotherapy outpatients at intake and during treatment. Chronic distress symptoms demonstrated fastest average response rate, whereas characterological symptoms…

  13. Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

  14. Practice Parameter for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with…

  15. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or stress. Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) This treatment consists of 20 two-hour sessions led by an experienced social worker. When used with other types of ... and problem BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve ...

  16. Sterbenlassen. Vom Ende einer Psychotherapie

    OpenAIRE

    Ranefeld, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Reflexionen zum Ende einer psychoanalytischen Psychotherapie; ein Ende, an das es sich nur zögernd und ausweichend annähern läßt. Sterben ist letztendlich ein einsames Geschäft, wir halten den Tod für ansteckend und verfahren nach der Regel: "Man darf nicht zulassen, daß er einem ins Gesicht atmet" (Michael Connelly 1996, The Poet). Dennoch wird ver­sucht, beschreibend ein Konzept der Annäherungen zu skizzieren.

  17. Joy and challenges in improving chronic illness care: capturing daily experiences of academic primary care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julie K; Woods, Donna M; Stevens, David P; Bowen, Judith L; Provost, Lloyd P; Sixta, Connie S; Wagner, Ed H

    2010-09-01

    Two chronic care collaboratives (The National Collaborative and the California Collaborative) were convened to facilitate implementing the chronic care model (CCM) in academic medical centers and into post-graduate medical education. We developed and implemented an electronic team survey (ETS) to elicit, in real-time, team member's experiences in caring for people with chronic illness and the effect of the Collaborative on teams and teamwork. The ETS is a qualitative survey based on Electronic Event Sampling Methodology. It is designed to collect meaningful information about daily experience and any event that might influence team members' daily work and subsequent outcomes. Forty-one residency programs from 37 teaching hospitals participated in the collaboratives and comprised faculty and resident physicians, nurses, and administrative staff. Each team member participating in the collaboratives received an e-mail with directions to complete the ETS for four weeks during 2006 (the National Collaborative) and 2007 (the California Collaborative). At the team level, the response rate to the ETS was 87% with team members submitting 1,145 narrative entries. Six key themes emerged from the analysis, which were consistent across all sites. Among teams that achieved better clinical outcomes on Collaborative clinical indicators, an additional key theme emerged: professional work satisfaction, or "Joy in Work". In contrast, among teams that performed lower in collaborative measures, two key themes emerged that reflected the effect of providing care in difficult institutional environments-"lack of professional satisfaction" and awareness of "system failures". The ETS provided a unique perspective into team performance and the day-to-day challenges and opportunities in chronic illness care. Further research is needed to explore systematic approaches to integrating the results from this study into the design of improvement efforts for clinical teams.

  18. Implementation of quality improvement skills by primary care teams: case study of a large academic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Brook; Lawrence, Renée H; Singh, Simran; Wagner, Carol; Augustine, Sarah; Singh, Mamta K

    2014-04-01

    Continuous quality improvement (QI) is important to primary care in general, and is emphasized as a key tenet of the primary care patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model. While team-based QI activities within the PCMH model are expected, concerns exist as to how successful efforts have been at implementing team-driven QI projects. To (a) identify opportunities and challenges to QI efforts in a large primary care practice in order to (b) develop action plans to facilitate QI work into primary care teams. We obtained qualitative and quantitative information about existing primary care team QI initiatives. Eleven interdisciplinary primary care teams and 4 facilitators/coaches. We conducted unstructured interviews and gathered documentation from primary care team members about QI efforts to (a) characterize team-based QI progress and (b) identify barriers and facilitators. In the 18 months since local leadership prioritized conducting team-based QI projects, team members described multiple exposures to QI training, coaching resources, and data/analysis support. No team developed a formal aim statement. Six of the 11 teams completed any steps beyond the initial team discussion. Four teams attempted to apply an intervention. Challenges included team time and competing demands/priorities; 3 of the 4 teams attempting to implement a project credited a data/informatics facilitator for their progress. In this large academic primary care clinic setting, interdisciplinary team training in QI, support for data collection, and dedicated coaching resources produced few sustainable continuous QI initiatives. Several potentially modifiable barriers to initiation, completion, and sustainability of QI initiatives by primary care teams were identified.

  19. Psicoterapia e bioética: aproximando conceitos, aperfeiçoando práticas Psychotherapy and bioethics: linking concepts, improving practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Wallig Brusius Ludwig

    2007-12-01

    rmino de Consentimiento Libre y Aclarado (TCLA en el proceso psicoterápico, la formación profesional y otros. Se pretende, con este artículo, presentar algunos cuestionamientos poco trabajados, haciendo una contribución reflexiva, pero no determinante.Issues on the link between Psychology, therapy, training and Bioethics are provided and discussed. Current discussion is justified due to the fact that Bioethics has become an important subject in the context of contemporary technological and scientific improvements as a whole. It is thus essential to discuss Bioethics in all its specialties, taking the human being as its focus and center. Since Psychology deals with human beings, it may be highly contribute towards the solution of dilemmas in Bioethics and its importance may be highlighted within this area. Consequently, the manner bioethical principles may be transposed to the psychotherapeutic process is of paramount importance. Current essay reflects on the ethical dilemmas that the psychologist may face, on the use of the Term of Free and Clear Consent (TCLE in the psychotherapeutic process, professional training, among others. It shall also shed some light on less discussed issues for reflective, albeit not determinant, contributions.

  20. Open access meta-analysis for psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Scott A; Del Re, A C

    2016-04-01

    Meta-analysis has played a key role in psychotherapy research for nearly 40 years. There is now an opportunity for technology to assist with transparent and open meta-analyses. The authors describe an open-access database of effect sizes and a corresponding web application for performing meta-analyses, viewing the database, and downloading effect sizes. The initial databases provide effect sizes for family therapy for delinquency studies and for alliance-outcome correlations in individual psychotherapy. Disciplinary norms about data sharing and openness are shifting. Furthermore, meta-analyses of behavioral interventions have been criticized for lacking transparency and openness. The database and web application are aimed at facilitating data sharing and improving the transparency of meta-analyses. The authors conclude with a discussion of future directions for the database.

  1. Reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in high school and college students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachelka, D; Katz, R C

    1999-09-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure in otherwise capable students. Because test anxiety is common in older students with learning disabilities (LD), it is surprising that little research has been done on ways to reduce the distress these students experience in test situations. In this study, we used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in a cohort (N = 27) of high school and college students with learning disabilities (LD). All of the students participated voluntarily. They were enrolled in classes for students with learning problems. Before the study began, they complained of test anxiety and showed an elevated score on the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Eleven students (85%) completed the 8-week long treatment, which consisted of progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, self-instruction training, as well as training in study and test-taking skills. Results showed significant improvement in the treated group which was not evident in an untreated control group (N = 16). Compared to the control group, the treated group showed significant reductions in test anxiety on the TAI, as well as improvement in study skills and academic self-esteem as measured by the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, and the school scale of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. These results extend the generality of similar studies on reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in younger students. They also suggest that relief from test anxiety can be expected fairly quickly when cognitive-behavioral methods are used. Additional implications and methodological limitations of the study are discussed.

  2. Learning through the lens: ethical considerations in videotaping psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkenstein, Amy B; Kessler, Katherine Ann; Schen, Cathy R

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatry training programs have begun to use technology to enhance psychotherapy teaching. Videotaped interviews provide a window into the psychotherapeutic exchange, demystifying the process and capturing verbal and nonverbal interactions, facial expression, and tone of voice-which can illustrate therapeutic elements such as the alliance and resistance. The process of videotaping psychotherapeutic interviews, however, introduces issues related to consent, ethics, and the dynamics of therapy. By examining two cases in which residents asked their patients to videotape a session for didactic purposes and encountered divergent outcomes, we explore the ethical issues unique to providing informed consent for videotaping psychotherapy. Informed consent must be given verbally and in writing. Verbal consent must include discussion of the risks and benefits of therapy. The discussion must also include the risks inherent in memorializing sensitive material on an external device, with disclosure of the logistics of how data will be stored, who will view the recorded material, and when it will be destroyed. Therapists should be aware of the coercive power inherent in the physician-patient relationship and should individualize each informed consent procedure with this knowledge in mind. Despite these potential pitfalls, videotaping sessions provides a wealth of information about both patients and therapists that can improve psychotherapy teaching and supervision, and indirectly improve patient care.

  3. Synchrony in Dyadic Psychotherapy Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    Synchrony is a multi-faceted concept used in diverse domains such as physics, biology, and the social sciences. This chapter reviews some of the evidence of nonverbal synchrony in human communication, with a main focus on the role of synchrony in the psychotherapeutic setting. Nonverbal synchrony describes coordinated behavior of patient and therapist. Its association with empathy, rapport and the therapeutic relationship has been pointed out repeatedly, yet close evaluation of empirical studies suggests that the evidence remains inconclusive. Particularly in naturalistic studies, research with quantitative measures of synchrony is still lacking. We introduce a new empirical approach for the study of synchrony in psychotherapies under field conditions: Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This is a video-based algorithm that quantifies the amount of movement in freely definable regions of interest. Our statistical analysis detects synchrony on a global level, irrespective of the specific body parts moving. Synchrony thus defined can be considered as a general measure of movement coordination between interacting individuals. Data from a sequence of N = 21 therapy sessions taken from one psychotherapy dyad shows a high positive relationship between synchrony and the therapeutic bond. Nonverbal synchrony can thus be considered a promising concept for research on the therapeutic alliance. Further areas of application are discussed.

  4. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  5. [Body-centered psychotherapy IKP (Institute of Body-Centered Psychotherapy): holistic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Groeli, Y

    1996-03-01

    Body centered Psychotherapy IKP is treated in this article under the aspect of a holistic approach. First the theory and the system of science are summarised and shown as to which amount they are changing concerning knowledge of details and wholeness. It is pointed out that the actual paradigma "to the depth" has to be completed by that of "wideness". The way of holistic-multirelational thinking, stating a diagnosis and doing therapy is demonstrated along a case study going on at the background of a therapeutic encounter-relationship which is emotionally warm (Gestalt-approach).

  6. The role of tutoring in higher education: improving the student’s academic success and professional goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tutoring is a part of the university teaching-learning process and is a basic strategy for improving the student’s academic success and professional goals. It is also in line with the policies of the European Union for improving the integration of lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies. This article reviews the process of implementing tutorial action plans in Catalan universities, with particular emphasis on the Universitat Rovira i Virgili. The training and functions of tutors, the recognition of the tutoring task and the tools available to tutors at the URV are described.

  7. Strategies for Improving Academic Performance by Non-Native English Speakers in Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Tracye A.; Stinson, Terrye A.; Sivakumaran, Thillainatarajan

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of non-native English speaking students in higher education has increased dramatically. Educators at all levels have experienced challenges in meeting the academic needs of these students and continue to seek strategies for addressing these challenges. This paper describes some of this research related to K-12 and…

  8. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing to Improve Middle School Students' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald Gill; Smith, Bradley H.; McQuillin, Sam; Terry, John; Swan, Suzanne; Malone, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an effective method of promoting change in adults, but research on adolescents is limited. This study tests the efficacy of MI for promoting academic achievement in middle school students. Participants were 103 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students randomly assigned to either a MI (n = 50) or a waitlist control…

  9. Mentoring At-risk Youth: Improving Academic Achievement in Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie C. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research supports the implementation of mentoring programs as potentially successful approaches to meeting the needs of at-risk students. This study examined a mentoring program entitled: LISTEN (Linking Individual Students To Educational Needs. The LISTEN mentoring program was a district-sponsored, school-based program in which at-risk, middle school students were identified by the school system and mentors were recruited specifically to assist these students with school performance or related issues. Mentors, in this study, were classroom teachers, school counselors, administrators, custodians, librarians, teaching assistants, retired teachers, and cafeteria employees. Archival data from the 2003–04 and 2004–05 academic years were analyzed. A statistically significant difference was found for all three of the study’s criterion variables (GPAs, discipline referrals, and attendance records between those measured in the 2003–04 academic year (pre-intervention and those measured in the 2004–05 academic year (post-intervention. Forty-nine of the fifty-four LISTEN participants experienced academic achievement gains in all three areas of the study.

  10. The Effects of "Brain Gym" as a General Education Intervention: Improving Academic Performance and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Sherri S.

    2010-01-01

    "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act" ("IDEA") and "No Child Left Behind" ("NCLB") now mandate that all at-risk students receive empirical, scientific research-based interventions. "Brain Gym" is a movement-based program designed to address a diverse range of students' academic and behavior needs by promoting whole-brain learning. However,…

  11. Academic Writing at the Graduate Level: Improving the Curriculum through Faculty Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Mary A.; Mader, Cynthia E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative self-study undertaken to identify the source of academic writing difficulties among graduate students and find ways to address them. Ten faculty members in a college of education came together to define the problem and to analyze data gleaned from faculty and student surveys, course documents, course…

  12. The Role of Motivators in Improving Knowledge-Sharing among Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Christine Nya-Ling; Ramayah, T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This research addresses a primary issue that involves motivating academics to share knowledge. Adapting the theory of reasoned action, this study examines the role of motivation that consists of intrinsic motivators (commitment; enjoyment in helping others) and extrinsic motivators (reputation; organizational rewards) to determine…

  13. A physical education trial improves adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement: the EDUFIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoy, D N; Fernández-Rodríguez, J M; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Castillo, R; Ruiz, J R; Ortega, F B

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the effects of an intervention focused on increasing the time and intensity of Physical Education (PE), on adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement. A 4-month group-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 67 adolescents from South-East Spain, 2007. Three classes were randomly allocated into control group (CG), experimental group 1 (EG1) and experimental group 2 (EG2). CG received usual PE (two sessions/week), EG1 received four PE sessions/week and EG2 received four PE sessions/week of high intensity. Cognitive performance (non-verbal and verbal ability, abstract reasoning, spatial ability, verbal reasoning and numerical ability) was assessed by the Spanish Overall and Factorial Intelligence Test, and academic achievement by school grades. All the cognitive performance variables, except verbal reasoning, increased more in EG2 than in CG (all P performance and academic achievement. This study contributes to the current knowledge by suggesting that the intensity of PE sessions might play a role in the positive effect of physical activity on cognition and academic success. Future studies involving larger sample sizes should confirm or contrast these preliminary findings.

  14. Online Academic-Integrity Mastery Training May Improve Students' Awareness of, and Attitudes toward, Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Guy J.; Gouldthorp, Bethanie; Thomas, Emma F.; O'Brien, Geraldine M.; Correia, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence has emerged in recent years that plagiarism can be reduced through the use of online mastery tests that are designed to train introductory psychology students in awareness of academic integrity and referencing conventions. Although these studies demonstrated a reduction in incidents of plagiarism they did not directly examine whether…

  15. How to Improve Academic Optimism? an Inquiry from the Perspective of School Resource and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Hsinchieh; Sheu, Tian-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified many school variables which can have significant effect on academic optimism. However, most of these identified variables are leadership or psychological constructs; thus, it is often too abstract for school administrators to translate into real practice. Therefore, this study adopted the perspective of school…

  16. Improved Academic Performance and Enhanced Employability? The Potential Double Benefit of Proactivity for Business Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymon, Alex; Batistic, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to proactivity theory and debate on how universities meet competing stakeholder demands in an increasingly marketized higher education environment. We explore how the interplay between the stable facet of proactive personality and the situated behaviour of personal initiative influence academic performance. We hypothesized…

  17. Collecting and Documenting Evidence: Methods for Helping Teachers Improve Instruction and Promote Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Kastein, Laura A.; Konrad, Moira; Chan, Paula E.; Peters, Mary T.; Ressa, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing collection and documentation of evidence of students' performance in the classroom is a fundamental component of formative instructional practices, essential for ensuring student success. Multiple methods of collecting and documenting evidence of students' academic performance in the classroom are described. These methods…

  18. Fostering School Connectedness: Improving Student Health and Academic Achievement. Information for Teachers and Other School Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Students feel more connected to their school when they believe that the adults and other students at school not only care about how well they are learning, but also care about them as individuals. Young people who feel connected to school are more likely to succeed academically and make healthy choices. All school staff, including teachers,…

  19. How to Improve Academic Optimism? an Inquiry from the Perspective of School Resource and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Hsinchieh; Sheu, Tian-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified many school variables which can have significant effect on academic optimism. However, most of these identified variables are leadership or psychological constructs; thus, it is often too abstract for school administrators to translate into real practice. Therefore, this study adopted the perspective of school…

  20. How to Improve Your Impact Factor: Questioning the Quantification of Academic Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise questions about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First,…

  1. Online Academic-Integrity Mastery Training May Improve Students' Awareness of, and Attitudes toward, Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Guy J.; Gouldthorp, Bethanie; Thomas, Emma F.; O'Brien, Geraldine M.; Correia, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence has emerged in recent years that plagiarism can be reduced through the use of online mastery tests that are designed to train introductory psychology students in awareness of academic integrity and referencing conventions. Although these studies demonstrated a reduction in incidents of plagiarism they did not directly examine whether…

  2. Combined training of one cognitive and one metacognitive strategy improves academic writing skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke eWischgoll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader’s view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M=22.8, SD=4.4, which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.

  3. Combined Training of One Cognitive and One Metacognitive Strategy Improves Academic Writing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischgoll, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader's view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.

  4. [Integrative approach in the psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years six psychotherapy methods have been developed specifically for borderline personality disorder. Solid RCT evidences suggests the efficacy of all the methods. Roughly equivalent improvement was obtained from the different types of psychotherapies. Today we have reached a new phase of the borderline "psychotherapy boom", the integrative approach. According to the integrative treatment advocates we should not choose among these effective treatments but we can incorporate in the therapy all the components that work. The integrative approach uses general factors common to all effective therapies, combined with specific treatment techniques taken from different therapies in order to treat the given patient's psychopathology. These common factors are: coherent framework; attention to strategies for building strong positive alliance and maintaining patient motivation; creating a safe and structured therapeutic environment; clear treatment frame; transparency of the goals and roles; focus upon presenting problems; higher level therapeutic activity; here-and-now focus; and facilitating self-reflection. Treatment focuses on change while maintaining a validating and supportive stance. General strategies can be supplemented by more specific techniques such as cognitive-behavioral interventions for reducing maladaptive behavior, training for developing emotion regulation skills and interpersonal skills coming from dialectical behavior therapy. Methods drawn from psychodynamic approaches can be used for the modification of underlying interpersonal cognitive-emotional schemas.

  5. Psychotherapy: from exorcism to cognitive theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durval Mazzei Nogueira Filho

    Full Text Available The author discusses aspects of psychotherapeutic action. He defends the rationality of the procedure, comments on the splintering of the field of psychotherapy and discusses the usefulness of applying the scientific methodology to this field of knowledge.

  6. Psychotherapy and distributive justice: a Rawlsian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    In this paper I outline an approach to the distribution of resources between psychotherapy modalities in the context of the UK's health care system, using recent discussions of Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapy as a way of highlighting resourcing issues. My main goal is to offer an approach that is just, and that accommodates the diversity of different schools of psychotherapy. In order to do this I draw extensively on the theories of Justice and of Political Liberalism developed by the late John Rawls, and adapt these to the particular requirements of psychotherapy resourcing. I explore some of the implications of this particular analysis, and consider how the principles of Rawlsian justice might translate into ground rules for deliberation and decision-making.

  7. PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH THE PARENT EGO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruša Zaletel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In their article, the authors present the findings of the study in which they conceptualized the method of psychotherapy with the Parent ego state. Their aim was to explore whether this method could be divided into individual, content-wise separate chronological phases which can be observed with the majority of clients. By using a modified method of content analysis of five psychotherapy transcripts and a video recording of a psychotherapy session, nine chronological phases were identified. In order to illustrate the individual phases, excerpts from the transcripts and the video recording of psychotherapy have been included. The article proposes under what conditions can this method be used, and presents some of its limitations.

  8. John Bowlby and couple psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    The centenary of John Bowlby's birth provides a context for considering the policy, research and practice legacies that he left for practitioners working in many different fields supporting couples and families. Part historical, and part forwardlooking, this paper considers the links between attachment in the infant-parent dyad that was at the heart of Bowlby's concern and the nature of the affective ties that bind couples together in adult romantic relationships. An overview of the influence of his theory on family policy and adult attachment research is followed by an appreciation of its significance for the practice of couple psychotherapy. The paper concludes with a comment on the implications of current neuroscience knowledge for therapeutic technique.

  9. Psychotherapy - insights from bhagavad gita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M S

    2012-01-01

    Spoken and written commentary on Bhagavad Gita, the distilled spiritual essence of Vedas and Upanishads, is aplenty. Mahatma Gandhi was quoted as saying that whenever he had a problem Bhagavad Gita offered an answer and the solution. For a student of psychology Bhagavad Gita offers a valuable case study for lessons in psychotherapy - resolution of conflict and successful resumption of action from a state of acute anxiety and guilt laden depression that precipitated inaction. This presentation makes a humble attempt to discuss the therapy process involved in Bhagavad Gita in which Lord Krishna helped the grief-stricken Arjuna through dialogue and discussion. The focus would be on the conflict and diagnosis of patient, the background setting of the situation, personality of patient, technique of therapy, underlying psychological concepts/ principles/theories, the Guru - Sishya concept, etc.

  10. Psychotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... persistent irritability, or a sense of discouragement or hopelessness that won’t go away. A health professional may suspect or have diagnosed a condition such as depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress or other disorder ...

  11. Psychotherapy with physically disabled patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui Aragao; Milliner, Eric K; Page, Richard

    2004-01-01

    With the last decades, health care interventions have been more productively attuned to actualizing the potential for optimal recuperation of every patient. Unique and important contributions of psychotherapy to this effort include: 1) A formulation which synthesizes an understanding of clinical behaviors, reality-based physical limitations and risks with an appreciation of the patient's mechanisms of defense, ego strengths and weaknesses, and transference expectations which impact the treatment process; 2) The utilization of individual psychotherapy (focused on "insight") in combination with supportive individual and group experiences. For children and adolescents struggling with age-appropriate physical-developmental and social issues or learning disabilities, psychoeducational approach for disabled youngsters has proven very beneficial. 3) Occasional crises occur which involve the spouse or relatives more than the index patient. Working to provide supportive Couple or Family System intervention is sometimes as essential as caring for the disabled individual. 4) Numerous Group Therapy approaches have proven efficacious. Treatment in a group setting is attractive to those who are concerned about cost-containment. Unfortunately, groups for disabled are often "didactic" and utilize a format that provides factual information about disabilities, medical procedures, and sometimes an intellectual discussion of "emotional answers" for certain types of problems or conditions. Groups that facilitate self-disclosure and emotional interactions among the members accomplish more meaningful results. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the importance of developing rigorous scientific research in the area of disabilities which will match the excellence of clinical work already being done in the field. Gaining an accurate and more thorough understanding of the psychological reality of a disabled person's internal world may be a key to facilitating his or her self-esteem and

  12. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: toward an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T B

    1982-09-01

    The author reviews historical trends, hypotheses, and problems in the application of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy and uses research findings to develop an integrative model. He portrays a chronology of models over three decades; an "additive" relationship represents the decade of 1970 to 1980. He presents factors that must be considered in determining the effects of pharmacotherapy plus psychotherapy and recommends refinement of these variables in future research.

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy with Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Bob G.; Satre, Derek

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy is readily adaptable to use with older adults. This review integrates discussion of cognitive and behavioral intervention techniques with recent research and clinical observations in the field of gerontology. Cognitive changes with aging, personality and emotional development, cohort effects, and the social environment of older adults are discussed in relation to psychotherapy. Applications of cognitive behaivor therapy to specific late life problems such as...

  14. Interpretive psychotherapy with chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, R

    1983-12-01

    Patients for whom medical and surgical management has failed to relieve chronic pain were treated in a multimodal programme which included interpretive psychotherapy. Dynamic conflicts were identified in all cases and utilized in the psychotherapy and programme design. Examined in the light of ego functioning, pain that was previously considered intractible, yielded to psychological treatment. Further research is planned to identify the parts played by the different modalities and to study outcome.

  15. NONVERBAL STORIES: THE BODY IN PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotional experience is stored within the amygdala and the limbic system of the brain as affect, visceral, and physiological sensation without symbolization and language. These significant memories are expressed in affect and through our bodily movements and gestures. Such body memories are unconscious non-symbolized patterns of self-in-relationship. Several methods of a body centered psychotherapy are described and clinical case examples illustrate the use of expressive methods within a relational psychotherapy.

  16. Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Issues and Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    Emphasis on identifying evidence-based therapies (EBTs) has increased markedly. Lists of EBTs are the rationale for recommendations for how psychotherapy provider training programs should be evaluated, professional competence assessed, and licensure and reimbursement policies structured. There are however methodological concerns that limit the external validity of EBTs. Among the most salient is the circularity inherent in randomized control trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy that constrains the manner in which the psychological problems are defined, psychotherapy can be practiced, and change evaluated. RCT studies favor therapies that focus of specific symptoms and can be described in a manual, administered reliably across patients, completed in relatively few sessions, and involve short-term evaluations of outcome. The epistemological assumptions of a natural science approach to psychotherapy research limit how studies are conducted and assessed in ways that that advantage symptom-focused approaches and disadvantage those approaches that seek to bring broad recovery-based changes. Research methods that are not limited to RCTs and include methodology to minimize the effects of "therapist allegiance" are necessary for valid evaluations of therapeutic approaches that seek to facilitate changes that are broader than symptom reduction. Recent proposals to adopt policies that dictate training, credentialing, and reimbursement based on lists of EBTs unduly limit how psychotherapy can be conceptualized and practiced, and are not in the best interests of the profession or of individuals seeking psychotherapy services.

  17. Academics and Learners’ Perceptions on Blended Learning as a Strategic Initiative to Improve Student Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Adeline Ng Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly tighter shift of socio-economic constraints on higher education sectors in the recent years has called for greater flexibilities in student learning experience both locally and abroad. To this end, we have recently implemented a Blended Learning Initiative in an attempt to provide better learning support and greater flexibility to our students. This initiative is also in line with the University’s aim of having 50% of our learning and teaching delivered on-line by 2020. In this report, we present our findings on academics and learners’ perceptions on the approach which were obtained through surveys. Results showed that blended learning approach was new to the academics and the factors for successful blended learning implementation were identified. Results also showed that learners appreciated the approach as it made learning more accessible and flexible. Furthermore, they also enjoyed the interesting online activities incorporated into their units. In addition, learners were also able to review and pace their own learning. They also perceived that they have the access to the resources and technical ability to cope with online learning materials and activities. Nonetheless, the survey also revealed that learners still prefer to have academics delivering information to them directly rather than a flipped classroom model. In conclusion, findings from this study provide insights that blended learning could be effective to supplement courses offered by the faculty.

  18. Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cogo-Moreira, H; de Avila, CRB; Ploubidis, GB; Mari, JD

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading...

  19. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms Over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D’Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Depression is associated with poor social problem-solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for chronically depressed patients who failed to fully respond to an initial trial of pharmacotherapy (Kocsis et al., 2009). Method Participants with chronic depression (n = 491) received Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), which emphasizes interpersonal problem-solving, plus medication; Brief Supportive Psychotherapy (BSP) plus medication; or medication alone for 12 weeks. Results CBASP plus pharmacotherapy was associated with significantly greater improvement in social problem solving than BSP plus pharmacotherapy, and a trend for greater improvement in problem solving than pharmacotherapy alone. In addition, change in social problem solving predicted subsequent change in depressive symptoms over time. However, the magnitude of the associations between changes in social problem solving and subsequent depressive symptoms did not differ across treatment conditions. Conclusions It does not appear that improved social problem solving is a mechanism that uniquely distinguishes CBASP from other treatment approaches. PMID:21500885

  20. [Outpatient Psychotherapy Under Naturalistic Conditions: A Selective Review of Results from German Speaking Countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Uwe; Thielemann, Désirée; Strauß, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing body of literature recognizing the importance of outpatient psychotherapy. Several studies investigated the efficacy of outpatient psychotherapy and aspects of the health care system under natural conditions. This paper gives an overview of studies from German speaking countries (TRANS-OP-, TK-, PAP-S- and QS-PSY-BAY-study).The results of the different studies indicate both, positive outcome of the therapies (e. g., reduction of symptoms with an average ES of 1,03; improvement of symptoms despite premature termination) as well as an economic benefit (end of treatment depending on treatment outcome and not limited by therapy sessions; extensions of psychotherapy only if patient is highly impaired and therapeutic alliance is positive; high reduction of supply costs and sick leave). However, the low health care density in rural areas and the waiting periods before starting therapy are indicators of structural problems of the health care system with respect to outpatient psychotherapy.The efficacy of outpatient psychotherapies under natural conditions is sufficiently supported. Future studies should investigate structural aspects of the health care system, for example by focussing on the establishment of inter-sectoral connections between different professional groups and a reduction of bureaucratic actions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Collaborating to improve the global competitiveness of US academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Molly; Garman, Andrew; Johnson, Tricia; Hohmann, Samuel; Meurer, Steve

    2012-01-01

    President Obama announced the National Export Initiative in his 2010 State of the Union address and set the ambitious goal of doubling US exports by the end of 2014 to support millions of domestic jobs. Understanding the competitive position of US health care in the global market for international patients, University Health System Consortium (UHC), an alliance of 116 academic medical centers and 272 of their affiliated hospitals, representing 90 percent of the nation's non-profit academic medical centers partnered with Rush University, a private University in Chicago, IL and the International Trade Administration of the US Department of Commerce International Trade Administration (ITA) to participate in the Market Development Cooperator Program. The goal of this private-public partnership is to increase the global competitiveness of the US health care industry, which represents over 16 percent of the GDP, amongst foreign health care providers. This article provides an overview of the US health care market and outlines the aims of the US Cooperative for International Patient Programs, the end result of the partnership between UHC, ITA and Rush University.

  2. PERSONALITY THEORY IN INTEGRATIVE PERSONALITY-ORIENTED RECONSTRUCTIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kurpatov

    2010-01-01

    approaches. V.N. Myasishchev's theory of personality relations in association with its universality, as well as pathogenetic psychotherapy may be the basis for the integration of other methods of psychotherapy

  3. Use of Psychotherapy for Depression in Older Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Wenhui; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Olfson, Mark; Walkup, James T; Crystal, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examine national patterns in psychotherapy for older adults with a diagnosis of depression and analyze correlates of psychotherapy use that is consistent with Agency for Health Care...

  4. Clinical Observation on Xiaoyu Decoction (消郁汤) Plus Psychotherapy in Treating Functional Dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between mental symptoms and functional dyspepsia (FD), and the effect of Xiaoyu decoction (XYD) plus psychotherapy on FD. Methods: SCL-90 scale and FD symptom scale were used to estimate the condition of 56 healthy subjects and 56 patients of FD before and after 4 weeks treatment with XYD plus psychotherapy. Results: There was significant difference in SCL-90 scales between the healthy subjects and the FD patients before treatment (P<0.01). After treatment, the mental symptoms and the symptom of FD in the patients were markedly improved, as compared with those before treatment, the difference was significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Mental symptoms, such as depression and anxiety existed commonly in FD patients, were closely related to FD. XYD plus psychotherapy could cure it effectively.

  5. Emotional regulation: implications for the psychobiology of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2008-03-01

    A range of studies have contributed to understanding the psychobiology of emotional regulation. Functional imaging studies have demonstrated that cortico-limbic circuitry plays an important role in mediating processes such as reappraisal and suppression. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be important in conscious reframing, while ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex may be particularly important in emotion evaluation. Gene variants and early environments impact underlying emotional regulation and its neurobiology. It may be hypothesized that during interventions such as psychotherapy there are improvements in emotional regulation, together with the normalization of related psychobiological mechanisms.

  6. Psychotherapies for adult depression: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned from the 400 randomized trials on psychotherapies for adult depression that have been conducted, but much is also still unknown. In this study some recent attempts to further reduce the disease burden of depression through psychotherapies are reviewed. In the past, many new psychotherapies have promised to be more effective than existing treatments, usually without success. We describe recent research on two new therapies, acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive bias modification, and conclude that both have also not shown to be more effective than existing therapies. A growing number of studies have also focused on therapies that may be successful in further reducing the disease burden, such as treatments for chronic depression and relapse prevention. Other studies are aimed at scaling up psychological services, such as the training of lay health counselors in low-income and middle-income countries, telephone-based, and internet-based therapies. Psychotherapies are essential tools in the treatment of adult depression. Randomized trials have shown that these treatments are effective, and by focusing on key issues, such as chronic depression, relapse, and scaling them up, psychotherapies contribute more and more to the reduction of the disease burden of depression.

  7. The real relationship in psychotherapy supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2011-01-01

    While the real relationship has long been addressed in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, the matter of the real relationship in psychotherapy supervision has yet to receive any attention. Ample supervisory focus has indeed been given to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration (including parallel processes), but after a century of psychotherapy supervision, any mention whatsoever of real relationship phenomena is absent. In this paper, the following hypotheses are proposed: The real relationship (1) is a crucial component of the supervision relationship that has transtheoretical implications; (2) exists from the moment supervision begins until its end; (3) is the forever silent yet forever substantive contributor to supervisory process and outcome; (4) exerts a significant impact on (a) the development and establishment of the supervisory working alliance and (b) the unfolding and eventual utilization of the transference-countertransference experience in the supervisory situation; (5) consists of at least two dimensions in supervision--realism and genuineness--that vary along valence and magnitude continua (building on the works of Greenson and Gelso), and (6) deserves a place of eminence equal to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration if supervision theory, practice, and research are to be most fully informed. The possibility of using recent real relationship research in psychotherapy as a prototype to inform future research in supervision is presented, and two case examples are provided to illustrate the seeming power of real relationship phenomena in psychotherapy supervision.

  8. [Summary: Scientific evaluation of EMDR psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haour, F; de Beaurepaire, C

    2016-06-01

    The evaluation of psychotherapy methods is made difficult by their practical and theoretical diversities as well as the increasing number of available therapies. Evaluation based on scientific criteria in randomized control trials is providing the highest level of proof and recognition by Health Agencies. A recently described integrative psychotherapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), developed by F. Shapiro since 1989, has been confronted with the validation procedure used in pharmacological treatment. It was of interest to review the scientific validation steps carried out for this EMDR psychotherapy and for its mechanisms of action. The practical and methodological protocol of the EMDR psychotherapy for trauma integration is reviewed as well as clinical results and mechanisms. This EMDR therapy, focused on the resolutions of traumas, was started by treating patients with post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). The integrative EMDR protocol obtained the highest level of efficiency, for PTSD treatment, twenty years after its first publication. The efficiency of the protocol is now under study and scientific evaluation for troubles in which the trauma experiences are triggers or factors of maintenance of the troubles: anxiety, depression, phobia, sexual troubles, schizophrenia, etc. This new integrative psychotherapy follows the pathways and the timing observed for the evaluation and the validation of other therapies. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Obstacles to early career psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A; Plakun, Eric M; Lazar, Susan G; Mellman, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Though psychiatric residents are expected to be competent psychotherapists on graduation, further growth in skill and versatility requires continued experience in their ongoing career. Maturity as a psychotherapist is essential because a psychiatrist is the only mental health provider who, as a physician, can assume full responsibility for biopsychosocial patient care and roles as supervisor, consultant, and team leader. Graduating residents face an environment in which surveys show a steady and alarming decline in practice of psychotherapy by psychiatrists, along with a decline in job satisfaction. High educational debts, practice structures, intrusive management, and reimbursement policies that devalue psychotherapy discourage early career psychiatrists from a practice style that enables providing it. For the early-career psychiatrist there is thus the serious risk of being unable to develop a critical mass of experience or a secure identity as a psychiatric psychotherapist. Implementation of parity laws and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect the situation in unpredictable ways that call for vigilance and active response. Additional service and administrative demands may result from the ACA, creating ethical dilemmas about meeting urgent patient needs versus biopsychosocial standards of care. The authors recommend 1) vigorous advocacy for better payment levels for psychotherapy and freedom from disruptive management; 2) aggressive action against violations of the parity act, 3) active preparation of psychiatric residents for dealing with career choices and the environment for providing psychotherapy in their practice, and 4) post-graduate training in psychotherapy through supervision/consultation, continuing education courses, computer instruction, and distance learning.

  10. From medicine to psychotherapy: the placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    If placebos have been squeezed out of medicine to the point where their official place in in clinical trials designed to identify their own confounding effect, the placebo effect nevertheless thrives in psychotherapy. Not only does psychotherapy dispose of placebo effects that are less available to medicine as it becomes increasingly technological and preoccupied with body parts, but factors of the sort inhibiting the use of placebos in medicine have no equivalent in psychology. Medicine today is disturbed by the placebo effect in a way psychotherapy is not. Psychotherapy does not have to grapple with such a disconcerting paradox as successful sham surgery, and unlike those physicians who once pretended to treat the patient's body while actually attempting to treat the mind, the psychotherapist can treat the mind in all frankness. Perhaps it is because psychotherapy is less burdened by doubts about the placebo effect that it was able to come to its aid when it was orphaned by medicine. It is vain to expect something with so long a history as the placebo effect to disappear from the practices of healing.

  11. Effects of Psychotherapy Training and Intervention Use on Session Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Wasserman, Rachel H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was an investigation of the relationships among therapist training variables, psychotherapy process, and session outcome in a psychotherapy training clinic. The aims were to assess the relationship between "training as usual" and intervention use in individual psychotherapy, to investigate the relationship between therapist…

  12. [Innovative healthcare strategies in geriatric psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthoff, V

    2015-04-01

    The development of efficacious treatment strategies in older adults with mental illnesses is necessary. The growing number of homebound patients and the incidence of physical comorbidities and impairment of activities of daily living are important factors for interdisciplinary treatment strategies in old age and there is a need for home-based services providing medical and psychosocial interventions. Recent studies have provided information on home-based and collaborative treatment strategies in mentally ill elderly patients. This article provides an overview on selected randomized controlled trials (RCT) conducted with mentally ill older adults. Studies have shown promising effects when applying stepped care interventions, collaborative care and assertive community treatment in old patients suffering from mental diseases when compared to usual care. Long-standing home-based mental health programs have been designed and successfully implemented showing improved identification, treatment and ongoing care of mental health problems. In-home tele-psychotherapy has been shown to be efficacious in homebound older adults with limited access to evidence-based psychotherapy and showed a sustained effect in one study. Collaborative care models, stepped care interventions in primary care settings and an enhanced inter-professional approach to patient care in old age psychiatry is necessary to improve detection, treatment and ongoing care. Tele-mental health services may become important parts of the provision of mental health services and the effectiveness revealed for in-home tele-health problem solving therapy in old age depression may be an approach to make psychotherapy available to a large number of underserved elderly patients with mental illness.

  13. Good practice or positive action? Using Q methodology to identify competing views on improving gender equality in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Louise D; Burkinshaw, Paula; House, Allan O; West, Robert M; Ward, Vicky

    2017-08-22

    The number of women entering medicine has increased significantly, yet women are still under-represented at senior levels in academic medicine. To support the gender equality action plan at one School of Medicine, this study sought to (1) identify the range of viewpoints held by staff on how to address gender inequality and (2) identify attitudinal barriers to change. Q methodology. 50 potential interventions representing good practice or positive action, and addressing cultural, organisational and individual barriers to gender equality, were ranked by participants according to their perception of priority. The School of Medicine at the University of Leeds, UK. Fifty-five staff members were purposively sampled to represent gender and academic pay grade. Principal components analysis identified six competing viewpoints on how to address gender inequality. Four viewpoints favoured positive action interventions: (1) support careers of women with childcare commitments, (2) support progression of women into leadership roles rather than focus on women with children, (3) support careers of all women rather than just those aiming for leadership, and (4) drive change via high-level financial and strategic initiatives. Two viewpoints favoured good practice with no specific focus on women by (5) recognising merit irrespective of gender and (6) improving existing career development practice. No viewpoint was strongly associated with gender, pay grade or role; however, latent class analysis identified that female staff were more likely than male to prioritise the setting of equality targets. Attitudinal barriers to the setting of targets and other positive action initiatives were identified, and it was clear that not all staff supported positive action approaches. The findings and the approach have utility for those involved in gender equality work in other medical and academic institutions. However, the impact of such initiatives needs to be evaluated in the longer term.

  14. [Psychodiagnosis and psychotherapy in medico-social adaptation of patients with hemorrhagic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanov, V A; Pozhilenko, N S

    1990-03-01

    The investigations were conducted in 264 patients with hemorrhagic diseases. Based on the clinical and psychological analysis most of the patients were found to have borderline psychic disorders. Psychotherapy has promoted diminution of psychic disorders, and in patients with hemorrhagic thrombocytopathy it has resulted in decreased hemorrhage and improved platelet function.

  15. Self-Disclosure and Outcome in Short-Term Group Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, Erich; Polikoff, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Explores whether self-disclosure in group psychotherapy produces better group outcome. Although the expected positive relationship between the two variables was found, results also indicate a need for caution in postulating a link between self-disclosure and improvement. (BP)

  16. Interpersonal Mindfulness Informed by Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Findings from a Pilot Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah; Haworth, Kevin; Grow, Joel; Tsai, Mavis; Kohlenberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991) aims to improve interpersonal relationships through skills intended to increase closeness and connection. The current trial assessed a brief mindfulness-based intervention informed by FAP, in which an interpersonal element was added to a traditional intrapersonal mindfulness…

  17. The influence of psychotherapy on marriage typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniszewski Mirosław

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the influence of psychotherapeutic group work on matrimonial relations. Such questions are put up in the research as if participating of one of the married couples in a group psychotherapy could indirectly influence the other partner, and also if the type of matrimony could change under the influence of psychotherapy, for example from hierarchical to the partner’s. The article generalizes the classification of marriage types and pays special attention on the types that can be subject to the positive changes as a result of psychotherapeutic influence. Actuality and value of this research lay in estimation of the ability of psychotherapy to influence the matrimony on the whole in case when only one of the partners takes part in the therapy.

  18. Ancient Greek psychotherapy for contemporary nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2002-08-01

    Ancient Greek physicians as well as philosophers were fully cognizant of a human being's psychological function and used their particular art to influence individual or social behavior in accordance with their pursuit. This art or technique favorably compares with several of the methods currently called supportive psychotherapy. This psychotherapy was the first form of care for people with mental health problems. Nurses who base their practice on ancient Greek psychotherapy see the patient as a whole, a person who creates meaning in life. Applying the philosophical principles of ancient Greeks helps nurses understand the behavior of people with mental health problems and recognize and facilitate adaptive satisfaction of these psychological needs. In addition, psychiatric nurses are able to help distressed individuals understand their fears and anxieties, so they are freed from the causes of their symptoms that led them to seek therapy in the first place. Consequently, this understanding can make psychiatric nurses' work a living experience and add meaning to their work.

  19. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels

    2013-01-01

    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications...

  20. 存在心理治疗方法的理论省思%A Theoretical Relfection on the Methodology of Existential Psychotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨韶刚

    2014-01-01

    Existential psychotherapy is an academic trend of thought separated from humanistic psychology in the mid 20th century. Some psychotherapists as such regard existential psychotherapy as their foundation of methodology, whose origin is rooted in the theories and conceptions of European existential philosophy, existentialist art and existential literature. They believe that good and effective psychotherapy is not based on some rigid and unchangeable procedure, but that the psychother-apist is willing to facilitate with his ego the relationship between therapist and client, make the latter have a reflection on his own mind, take steps to adjust his behavior and ifnally help him solve his problem in life. So the therapist and client’s mutual involvement in the process of existential psychotherapy has become a useful method for psychotherapists’ understanding the client. The effect of the therapist and client’s participation can be found out via the participation report, and it has three functions:helping a therapist supervise the contact and participation process of the therapy;facilitating the psychotherapist’s reflection on his treatment for a client; enabling his understanding of the treatment process and improving his future work. Nowadays the methods of participation in this therapy include case stories, case transcripts, single subject case studies, before/after ifeld studies, and grounded theoretical studies.%存在心理治疗是20世纪中叶从人本主义心理学中分离出来的学术思潮。其理论根源植根于在欧洲存在哲学。存在心理治疗有三种功能:帮助治疗师对其治疗中的联系和参与过程进行自我监督;促进存在心理治疗师对具体患者的治疗过程进行个性的反思,以制定针对性的治疗方案;有助于治疗师沟通,理解他对治疗过程的认识,为将来提供洞见、觉知、知识和实践智慧。存在心理治疗的参与方法包括:案例故事形容法、

  1. New parity, same old attitude towards psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2010-03-01

    Full parity of health insurance benefits for treatment of mental illness, including substance use disorders, is a major achievement. However, the newly-published regulations implementing the legislation strongly endorse aggressive managed care as a way of containing costs for the new equality of coverage. Reductions in "very long episodes of out-patient care," hospitalization, and provider fees, along with increased utilization, are singled out as achievements of managed care. Medical appropriateness as defined by expert medical panels is to be the basis of authorizing care, though clinicians are familiar with a history of insurance companies' application of "medical necessity" to their own advantage. The regulations do not single out psychotherapy for attention, but long-term psychotherapy geared to the needs of each patient appears to be at risk. The author recommends that the mental health professions strongly advocate for the growing evidence base for psychotherapy including long-term therapy for complex mental disorders; respect for the structure and process of psychotherapy individualized to patients' needs; awareness of the costs of aggressive managed care in terms of money, time, administrative burden, and interference with the therapy; and recognition of the extensive training and experience required to provide psychotherapy as well as the stresses and demands of the work. Parity in out-of-network benefits could lead to aggressive management of care given by non-network practitioners. Since a large percentage of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals stay out of networks, implementation of parity for out-of-network providers will have to be done in a way that respects the conditions under which they would be willing and able to provide services, especially psychotherapy, to insured patients. The shortage of psychiatrists makes this an important access issue for the insured population in need of care.

  2. Does Spending More on Education Improve Academic Achievement? Backgrounder. No. 2179

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Dan; Watkins, Shanea J.; Fleming, John

    2008-01-01

    Debates about how to improve public education in America often focus on whether government should spend more on education. Federal and state policymakers proposing new education programs often base their arguments on the need to provide more resources to schools to improve opportunities for students. Many Americans seem to share this view. While…

  3. Teaching focus in psychotherapy: a training essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Richard F; Xuan, Yan; Tavakoli, Donald N

    2013-03-01

    Practical application of psychodynamic therapy technique requires that the therapist focus the treatment. The authors review the current evidence about focus in psychotherapy, which suggests that it has a beneficial impact on outcome and patient satisfaction. The core psychodynamic problem is proposed as a valuable conceptual model for providing focus for patient, psychotherapist, and supervisor. The authors narrate a case history from the perspective of both the psychotherapist and the supervisor to demonstrate the opportunities and challenges in using this concept. Finally, the authors suggest that a focus on focus is desirable in residency psychotherapy training programs, and they make suggestions for educational methods that enhance resident training in this area.

  4. Intensive psychotherapy for the psychiatrist's family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, R D

    1977-10-01

    A series of intensive psychotherapy cases of wives and children of psychiatrists reveals that the special problems they present may be divided into those at the onset of treatment, those in the process of the treatment, and special countertransference problems. Paradoxically, early recognition and acceptance of psychotherapy are a foremost problem involving the psychiatrist as father or spouse. During therapy, narcissistic injuries to the psychiatrist father or spouse and loyalty problems in the patient emerge as special problems. Countertransference revolves around peer relationships and "psychopolitics," as well as referrals of other patients.

  5. Active Learning Improves Nursing Student Clinical Performance in an Academic Institution in Macao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy Sin U Leong; Lynn B. Clutter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the outcome of the application of active learning during practicum among nursing students using clinical assessment and evaluation scores as a measurement. Methods: Nursing students were instructed on the basics of active learning prior to the initiation of their clinical experience. The participants were divided into 5groups of nursing students ( n=56) across three levels ( years 2-4) in a public academic institute of a bachelor degree program in Macao. Final clinical evaluation was averaged and compared between groups with and without in-tervention. Results: These nursing students were given higher appraisals in verbal and written comments than previous students without interventian. The groups with the invention achieved higher clinical as-sessment and evaluation scores on average than comparable groups without the active learning in-tervention. One group of sophomore nursing students ( year 2) did not receive as high of evalua-tions as the other groups, receiving an average score of above 80. Conclusions: Nursing students must engage in active learning to demonstrate that they are will-ing to gain knowledge of theory, nursing skills and communication skills during the clinical practi-cum.

  6. Efficacy of group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny

    2016-04-01

    Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats.

  7. A randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of a reintegration training program versus booster sessions after short-term inpatient psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Thunnissenl (Moniek); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona); W. van Tilburg (Willem); R. Verheul (Roel); W. Trijsburg (Wim)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAlthough several studies show symptomatic improvements in patients with personality disorders after short-term inpatient psychotherapy, reintegration remains difficult. In this study the effectiveness of a specifically designed reintegration training program is investigated. One hundred

  8. A randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of a reintegration training program versus booster sessions after short-term inpatient psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, M.; Duivenvoorden, H.; Busschbach, J.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.; van Tilburg, W.; Verheul, R.; Trijsburg, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although several studies show symptomatic improvements in patients with personality disorders after short-term inpatient psychotherapy, reintegration remains difficult. In this study the effectiveness of a specifically designed reintegration training program is investigated. One hundred twenty-eight

  9. Prediction of treatment discontinuation and recovery from Borderline Personality Disorder: Results from an RCT comparing Schema Therapy and Transference Focused Psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arntz; S. Stupar-Rutenfrans; J. Bloo; R. van Dyck; P. Spinhoven

    2015-01-01

    Knowing what predicts discontinuation or success of psychotherapies for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is important to improve treatments. Many variables have been reported in the literature, but replication is needed and investigating what therapy process underlies the findings is necessary

  10. A randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of a reintegration training program versus booster sessions after short-term inpatient psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, M.; Duivenvoorden, H.; Busschbach, J.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.; van Tilburg, W.; Verheul, R.; Trijsburg, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although several studies show symptomatic improvements in patients with personality disorders after short-term inpatient psychotherapy, reintegration remains difficult. In this study the effectiveness of a specifically designed reintegration training program is investigated. One hundred twenty-eight

  11. Meaning-centered psychotherapy: a form of psychotherapy for patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lori P Montross; Meier, Emily A; Irwin, Scott A

    2014-10-01

    Caring for patients with cancer involves addressing their myriad physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Although many cancer treatments focus on physical or psychological needs, few treatments specifically target the basic need for meaning and spiritual well-being in this population. This article describes the creation and evolution of a new psychotherapy devoted to these needs, a therapy termed "meaning-centered psychotherapy." In this article, a detailed description of meaning-centered psychotherapy is provided. An explanation of the current research findings related to this treatment are also offered, with information about the various group and individual treatments as well as the new expansions for use with cancer survivors or nursing staff. Overall, meaning-centered psychotherapy shows promise for enhancing meaning and spiritual well-being among patients with cancer and offers exciting possibilities for future research in other areas.

  12. A public health academic-practice partnership to develop capacity for exercise evaluation and improvement planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kate S; Thomas, Michael W; Durham, Dennis P; Jackson, Lillie M; Porth, Leslie L; Buxton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In December 2006, Congress passed the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act to improve the nation's public health preparedness and response capabilities. It includes the role of Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHPs) to establish a competency-based core curriculum and perform evaluation of impact on newly developed materials. The Heartland Center for Public Health Preparedness (HCPHP) at the Saint Louis University School of Public Health is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national CPHP network and is engaged with state and regional partners in workforce development, preparedness planning, evaluation, and multi-year exercise and training cycles. This includes development, implementation, and evaluation of the HCPHP Exercise Evaluation Training Program to improve the competence and capacity for exercise evaluation and improvement planning. This program is designed to enhance quality improvement and performance measurement capabilities to identify increase of workforce competence over time (maturity).

  13. An Intervention to Improve Academic Literacies in a First Year University Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roisin Kelly-Laubscher

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa there are many students, especially those from previously underrepresented groups at university, who successfully gain access to university but do not succeed in completing their degree either within the prescribed time or at all.  One of the barriers to student success at university is the difficulty these students have in accessing the literacy practices of the disciplines.  Therefore, within a first year biology course at a South African University, an intervention that focused on the academic literacy practices in biology was introduced. The intervention was designed around the assignment of writing a lab report. This paper describes this intervention and how it impacted on one student’s journey from learning science at school to learning science at university.  A literacy history interview and ‘talk around text’ interviews were used to assess the student’s experience of the intervention. Comparison of the student’s first and final drafts of the report revealed changes in the style and format of his writing. These changes in his report writing as well as in his attitude and motivation for writing the report were facilitated by a better understanding of the expectations of writing in university biology. This understanding was mediated largely through the modelling and deconstruction of the expected genre. This highlights not only the importance of providing first year students with examples of the genres they are  expected to be writing but also the facilitation of their engagement with these new genres. Without these kinds of intervention many students are unlikely to gain access to disciplinary ways of learning and writing, which ultimately may lead to their exclusion from university.

  14. La motivación de logro mejora el rendimiento académico (Achievement Motivation Improves Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Garcia-Ramirez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de los proyectos de innovación docente las universidades mejoran y consolidan la calidad de la educación que ofrecen, tomando la creatividad y visibilidad como claves de la motivación por competencias y logro. Método: La investigación se realiza durante el curso académico 2013-14, a través del proyecto de innovación docente “ReiDoCrea” de la Universidad de Granada. Los participantes (N=62, M=22.7, SD=6.6, estudiantes de la Facultad de Ciencias del Trabajo, se adscribieron voluntariamente al Grupo Experimental (n=30 o al Grupo Control (n=32. El grupo experimental participó en el proyecto, mientras que el grupo control no participó; los instrumentos utilizados fueron dos pruebas objetivas (pre y post del programa de evaluación académica. Resultados: El análisis estadístico muestra que existen diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos por el Grupo Experimental (M=83.6, SE=1.259, t(60=3.748, p<.05, d=.95 r=.43 y el Grupo Control (M=77.25, SE=1.14. Conclusiones: En la innovación docente, la motivación por competencias y de logro es clave para desarrollar el pensamiento creativo y mejorar el rendimiento académico. Abstract: Through teaching innovation projects universities improve and consolidate the quality of education they offer, taking creativity and visibility as the key to competence and achievement motivation. Method: The research study was conducted during the academic year 2013-14, through the teaching innovation project "ReiDoCrea" of the University of Granada. The participants (N=62, M=22.7, SD=6.6, students of the Faculty of Labour, voluntarily joined the Experimental Group (n=30 or the Control Group (n=32. The experimental group participated in the project, while the Control Group did not participate; the instruments used were two objective tests (pre and post, part of the academic program evaluation. Results: The statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences between the

  15. La motivación de logro mejora el rendimiento académico (Achievement Motivation Improves Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Garcia-Ramirez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de los proyectos de innovación docente las universidades mejoran y consolidan la calidad de la educación que ofrecen, tomando la creatividad y visibilidad como claves de la motivación por competencias y logro. Método: La investigación se realiza durante el curso académico 2013-14, a través del proyecto de innovación docente “ReiDoCrea” de la Universidad de Granada. Los participantes (N=62, M=22.7, SD=6.6, estudiantes de la Facultad de Ciencias del Trabajo, se adscribieron voluntariamente al Grupo Experimental (n=30 o al Grupo Control (n=32. El grupo experimental participó en el proyecto, mientras que el grupo control no participó; los instrumentos utilizados fueron dos pruebas objetivas (pre y post del programa de evaluación académica. Resultados: El análisis estadístico muestra que existen diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos por el Grupo Experimental (M=83.6, SE=1.259, t(60=3.748, p<.05, d=.95, r=.43 y el Grupo Control (M=77.25, SE=1.14. Conclusiones: En la innovación docente, la motivación por competencias y de logro es clave para desarrollar el pensamiento creativo y mejorar el rendimiento académico. Abstract: Through teaching innovation projects universities improve and consolidate the quality of education they offer, taking creativity and visibility as the key to competence and achievement motivation. Method: The research study was conducted during the academic year 2013-14, through the teaching innovation project "ReiDoCrea" of the University of Granada. The participants (N=62, M=22.7, SD=6.6, students of the Faculty of Labour, voluntarily joined the Experimental Group (n=30 or the Control Group (n=32. The experimental group participated in the project, while the Control Group did not participate; the instruments used were two objective tests (pre and post, part of the academic program evaluation. Results: The statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences between the

  16. Facts and values in psychotherapy-A critique of the empirical reduction of psychotherapy within evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Henrik; Slaattelid, Rasmus

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses an implicit presupposition in research-supported psychological treatments and evidence-based practice in psychology. It argues that the notion of research-supported psychological treatments is based on a reductive conceptualisation of psychotherapy. Research-supported psychological treatments hinge upon an empirical reduction where psychotherapy schools become conceptualized as mere collections of empirical propositions. However, this paper argues that the different psychotherapy schools have distinct ethoses that are constituted by normative claims. Consequently, the evaluation of the different psychotherapy schools and the practice of psychotherapy should include the underlying normative claims of these ethoses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Outcome in psychotherapy: the past and important advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Fifty years after the 1963 debate between Strupp and Eysenck, as recorded in their articles in Psychotherapy, it is clear that Eysenck overstated the case against psychoanalysis and dynamic psychotherapy (Bergin, 1971), while inflating the magnitude of improvement in untreated individuals (Lambert, 1976). Eysenck was probably correct about the beneficial effects of behavior therapies, but did not foresee that behavior therapy would be supplanted by cognitive behavior therapies (CBT) and eclectic mixtures of CBT that incorporate elements of eastern religion, humanistic interventions, and psychodynamic constructs. Fortunately, most of the treatments that have been tested in rigorous investigations have been found to be effective, but few have distinguished themselves as uniquely superior. Many of the problems of how to measure the effects of treatment have been solved and suggest that about two thirds of treated individuals improve or recover. This leaves a sizable portion of nonresponding individuals, but emerging methods involving in tracking treatment response are being used to decrease deterioration and enhance positive outcomes.

  18. A dynamic systems approach to psychotherapy: A meta-theoretical framework for explaining psychotherapy change processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Salvatore, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Notwithstanding the many methodological advances made in the field of psychotherapy research, at present a metatheoretical, school-independent framework to explain psychotherapy change processes taking into account their dynamic and complex nature is still lacking. Over the last years, several authors have suggested that a dynamic systems (DS) approach might provide such a framework. In the present paper, we review the main characteristics of a DS approach to psychotherapy. After an overview of the general principles of the DS approach, we describe the extent to which psychotherapy can be considered as a self-organizing open complex system, whose developmental change processes are described in terms of a dialectic dynamics between stability and change over time. Empirical evidence in support of this conceptualization is provided and discussed. Finally, we propose a research design strategy for the empirical investigation of psychotherapy from a DS approach, together with a research case example. We conclude that a DS approach may provide a metatheoretical, school-independent framework allowing us to constructively rethink and enhance the way we conceptualize and empirically investigate psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Innovative uses of psychodynamic group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchele, B J

    1994-01-01

    Psychodynamic group psychotherapy is gaining renewed attention as an effective form of treatment, due in part to increasing economic constraints that make other forms of treatment less accessible. The author highlights some innovative applications of both extended and time-limited groups. She also describes specific issues that can be addressed effectively in homogeneous time-limited group therapy.

  20. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for the depressive syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, P M

    1989-06-01

    Historical approaches of psychotherapy for depression are contrasted with current psychotherapeutic strategies. Now more strategies are focused, structured, time-limited, observable, testable, researchable and data based. The following depressive syndromes are reviewed in terms of the literature that demonstrates the effectiveness of psychotherapy: major depressive disorder, bipolar depressive disorder, depression associated with medical illness such as cancer, myocardial infarction and stroke, resistant depression post-traumatic stress disorder, grief reactions and depression during adolescence, mid-life and the geriatric period of the life cycle. A conceptual model favoring tripartite focus of intervention is recommended. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression must consider intrapsychic, interpersonal and family dynamics as well as social supports. A model for each population needs to be studied and developed further. Recommendations for current research are suggested. In the individual modification of psychotherapeutic approaches we must consider the varying maturity of ego defenses and the ego strength of the individual patient. Forty well-designed studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of psychotherapy in the depressive syndromes are quoted in this paper.

  1. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    3.0.CO;2-F 5. McCullough JP. Psychotherapy for dysthymia: a naturalistic study of ten patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1991;179(12):734–740. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005053-199112000-00004 6. Keller MB, McCullough JP, Klein DN, et al. A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of

  2. Toward a Neurobiology of Child Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jerald

    2009-01-01

    Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that psychotherapy alters brain structure and function. Learning and memory, both implicit and explicit, play central roles in this process through the creation of new genetic material that leads to increased synaptic efficiency through the creation of new neuronal connections. Although there is substantial…

  3. Attrition in Psychotherapy: A Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseborough, David John; McLeod, Jeffrey T.; Wright, Florence I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attrition is a common problem in psychotherapy and can be defined as clients ending treatment before achieving an optimal response. Method: This longitudinal, archival study utilized data for 3,728 clients, using the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2. A Cox regression proportional hazards (hazard ratios) model was used in order to better…

  4. Play and the Art of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Play, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Terry Marks-Tarlow is a clinical and consulting psychologist and psychotherapist and a member of the teaching faculty at the Reiss Davis Child Study Center in Los Angeles. She is the author of "Awakening Clinical Intuition: An Experiential Workbook for Psychotherapists"; "Psyche's Veil: Psychotherapy, Fractals, and…

  5. Recent Studies in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rafael Ferro

    2008-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), based on the principles of radical behaviorism, emphasizes the impact of eventualities that occur during therapeutic sessions, the therapist-client interaction context, functional equivalence between environments, natural reinforcement and shaping by the therapist. This paper reviews recent studies of FAP…

  6. Existential psychotherapy of students as learning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    According to parts of the existential psychology and psychotherapy the individual's exploration and compliance of his or her life project is central to the experience of living a meaningful life. In many ways, becoming a fully adult individual is about identifying and taking responsibility for th...

  7. Serious Games for Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus

    2017-06-01

    In the evolving digital age, media applications are increasingly playing a greater role in the field of psychotherapy. While the Internet is already in the phase of being established when it comes to the care of mental disorders, experimentation is going on with other modern media such as serious games. A serious game is a game in which education and behavior change is the goal, alongside with entertainment. The objective of the present article was to provide a first empirical overview of serious games applied to psychotherapy and psychosomatic rehabilitation. Therefore, a systematic literature search, including the terms "serious game" or "computer game" and "psychotherapy" or "rehabilitation" or "intervention" or "mental disorders" in the databases Medline and PsycINFO, was performed. Subsequently, an Internet search was conducted to identify studies not published in journals. Publications not providing empirical data about effectiveness were excluded. On the basis of this systematic literature review, the results of N = 15 studies met inclusion criteria. They utilized primarily cognitive behavioral techniques and can be useful for treating a range of mental disorders. Serious games are effective both as a stand-alone intervention or part of psychotherapy and appeal to patients independent of age and sex. Included serious games proved to be an effective therapeutic component. Nonetheless, findings are not conclusive and more research is needed to further investigate the effectiveness of serious games for psychotherapeutic purposes.

  8. Psychotherapy: The Listening Voice. Rogers and Erickson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leva, Richard A.

    The views of Carl Rogers and Milton H. Erickson are combined in this book on psychotherapy. The first section focuses on belief systems, views of man, new views of the unconscious, and a philosophy for change. Erickson and his relationship to myth, the nature of man and the goal of counseling, trance, and a radical view of the unconscious are…

  9. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  10. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    3.0.CO;2-F 5. McCullough JP. Psychotherapy for dysthymia: a naturalistic study of ten patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1991;179(12):734–740. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005053-199112000-00004 6. Keller MB, McCullough JP, Klein DN, et al. A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psy

  11. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  12. Psychotherapy: The Listening Voice. Rogers and Erickson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leva, Richard A.

    The views of Carl Rogers and Milton H. Erickson are combined in this book on psychotherapy. The first section focuses on belief systems, views of man, new views of the unconscious, and a philosophy for change. Erickson and his relationship to myth, the nature of man and the goal of counseling, trance, and a radical view of the unconscious are…

  13. Multicultural Approaches in Psychotherapy: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Leach, Mark M.; Wampold, Bruce; Rodolfa, Emil

    2011-01-01

    In this rejoinder, the authors address several issues raised by R. L. Worthington and F. R. Dillon (2011) and C. R. Ridley and M. Shaw-Ridley (2011) regarding (a) the measurement of multicultural competencies (MCCs), (b) sampling considerations in multicultural research, and (c) the conceptual frame of multicultural psychotherapy research. The…

  14. School Stability: Improving Academic Achievement for NJ Foster Children. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Rance, Kourtney; Parello, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Children in New Jersey's foster care system are more likely to remain in their home school when they enter foster care, thanks to a law passed in 2010, giving these fragile children improved educational stability. The law allows children to remain in their "school of origin" when they are placed in foster care, even if the foster home is…

  15. Improving the Safety of Oral Chemotherapy at an Academic Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Erica; Capozzi, Donna; McGettigan, Suzanne; Gangadhar, Tara C.; Schuchter, Lynn; Myers, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Over the last decade, the use of oral chemotherapy (OC) for the treatment of cancer has dramatically increased. Despite their route of administration, OCs pose many of the same risks as intravenous agents. In this quality improvement project, we sought to examine our current process for the prescription of OC at the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania and to improve on its safety. Methods: A multidisciplinary team that included oncologists, advanced-practice providers, and pharmacists was formed to analyze the current state of our OC practice. Using Lean Six Sigma quality improvement tools, we identified a lack of pharmacist review of the OC prescription as an area for improvement. To address these deficiencies, we used our electronic medical system to route OC orders placed by treating providers to an oncology-specific outpatient pharmacist at the Abramson Cancer Center for review. Results: Over 7 months, 63 orders for OC were placed for 45 individual patients. Of the 63 orders, all were reviewed by pharmacists, and, as a result, 22 interventions were made (35%). Types of interventions included dosage adjustment (one of 22), identification of an interacting drug (nine of 22), and recommendations for additional drug monitoring (12 of 22). Conclusion: OC poses many of the same risks as intravenous chemotherapy and should be prescribed and reviewed with the same oversight. At our institution, involvement of an oncology-trained pharmacist in the review of OC led to meaningful interventions in one third of the orders. PMID:26733627

  16. What Adult ESL Learners Say about Improving Grammar and Vocabulary in Their Writing for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ally A.

    2009-01-01

    Linguistic accuracy plays an important role in the quality of written texts, yet the explicit teaching of linguistic form--particularly grammar--for the purpose of improving learners' writing has generated an ongoing debate. Furthermore, students' voices about their learning are often ignored because they are perceived as not knowing what they…

  17. Effective Strategies That Urban Superintendents Use That Improve the Academic Achievement for African-American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Cardenas

    2013-01-01

    The roles of urban superintendents are crucial to improving the educational outlook for the neediest students, specifically the African-American males. The roles and responsibilities of the urban school superintendent today are more numerous, complex, and demanding than in the past. The expectations of today's urban superintendents are to be…

  18. Creating Birds of Similar Feathers: Leveraging Similarity to Improve Teacher-Student Relationships and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Brinkworth, Maureen E.; King, Aaron M.; Hsu, Laura M.; McIntyre, Joseph; Rogers, Todd

    2016-01-01

    When people perceive themselves as similar to others, greater liking and closer relationships typically result. In the first randomized field experiment that leverages actual similarities to improve real-world relationships, we examined the affiliations between 315 9th grade students and their 25 teachers. Students in the treatment condition…

  19. Supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for first-episode psychosis: two-year outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne; Knudsen, Per; Køster, Anne; Lindhardt, Anne; Lajer, Matilde; Valbak, Kristian; Winther, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, the field of treatment of schizophrenia has lacked empirical, systematic outcome studies that support psychodynamic psychotherapy as an evidence-based intervention for patients with schizophrenia. The Danish schizophrenia project (DNS) compared psychodynamic psychotherapy for psychosis with standard treatment in patients with a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The study was designed as a prospective, comparative, longitudinal multi-site investigation of consecutively referred patients who were included during two years. The patients were treated with either manualized individual supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) in addition to treatment as usual or with treatment as usual alone (TaU). Symptoms and functional outcomes were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF). The study included 269 consecutively admitted patients, age 18-35, of whom 79% remained in the study after two years. The intervention group improved significantly on measures of both PANSS and GAF scores, with large effect sizes at two years follow-up after inclusion. Further, improvement on GAF(function) (p = 0.000) and GAF(symptom) (p = 0.010) significantly favored SPP in combination with TaU over TaU alone. In spite of limitations, this study speaks in favor of including supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy in the treatment for patients with schizophrenic first-episode psychoses.

  20. Reducing inadvertent clinical errors: Guidelines from functional analytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mavis; Mandell, Tien; Maitland, Daniel; Kanter, Jonathan; Kohlenberg, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Two common types of clinical errors, inadvertently reinforcing client problem behaviors or inadvertently punishing client improvements, are conceptualized from the viewpoint of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), a treatment that harnesses the power of the therapeutic relationship. Understanding the functions of client behaviors such as incessant talking and over compliance can lead to more compassionate and effective intervention, and a functional analysis of seemingly problematic behaviors such as silence and lack of cooperation indicate how they may be client improvements. Suggestions are provided for how to more accurately conceptualize whether client behaviors are problems or improvements, and to increase awareness of therapist vulnerabilities that can lead to errors. While FAP is rooted in a functional contextual philosophy, the goal of this article is to offer a framework that crosses theoretical boundaries to decrease the likelihood of clinical errors and to facilitate client growth. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Psychotherapy, a concept for the nonpsychiatric physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAHN, J P

    1962-05-01

    Patients tend to repeat with their physician, as with other significant people in their lives, their earlier previous patterns of behavior. The physician as well as the patient is involved in the physician-patient relationship. He will tend to respond to his patients in accordance with his earlier life experiences and his characteristic repetitive behavioral pattern. For both physician and patient, the relationship between them extends beyond the immediate reality situation. Psychotherapy is the utilization of psychological measures in the treatment of sick persons and the deliberate utilization by the physician of the physician-patient relationship for the benefit of the patient. The kind of psychotherapy that is practical and utilizable by the nonpsychiatric physician is that which uses education, reassurance, support and the management of the patient's problems either directly or indirectly or through the intermediary of other people or agencies. The symbolic aspect of the physician-patient relationship is based essentially on the fact that a sick person, because of his anxiety and because of the threat to his physical and psychic integrity, is more dependent and more anxious than he would be if he were well, and therefore he has a correspondingly greater need for the authoritative and protective figure he finds in the physician. Psychotherapy is not directed exclusively to the treatment of flagrantly or obviously neurotic or psychotic patients. It should be and is directed to all sick persons. Limitations in psychotherapy are set by various determinants, among which are the nature of the precipitating factor in the illness, the nature of the sick person, the skill, knowledge and abilities of the physician, and the nature of the physician-patient relationship. In psychotherapy, as in all medicine, the physician should not do anything which may disturb the patient if the disturbance is of no value or if it cannot be followed through with special skills.

  2. Special Education Students Improve Academic Performance through Problem-Based Learning and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Kintsch, A.

    2003-12-01

    Boulder High School Special Education students work in teams on donated wireless computers to solve problems created by global climate change. Their text is Richard Somerville's The Forgiving Air. They utilize Wheeling Jesuit University's remote sensing web site and private computer bulletin board. Their central source for problem-based learning (PBL) is www.cotf.edu, NASA's Classroom of the Future Global Change web site. As a result, students not only improve their abilities to write, read, do math and research, speak, and work as team members, they also improve self-esteem, resilience, and willingness to take more challenging classes. Two special education students passed AP exams, Calculus and U.S. Government, last spring and Jay Matthews of Newsweek rates Boulder High as 201st of the nation's top 1000 high schools.

  3. Using social-emotional and character development to improve academic outcomes: a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial in low-income, urban schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD, but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. METHODS The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design. Student-reported disaffection with learning and academic grades, and teacher ratings of academic ability and motivation were assessed for a cohort followed from grades 3 to 8. Aggregate school records were used to assess standardized test performance (for entire school, cohort, and demographic subgroups) and absenteeism (entire school). Multilevel growth-curve analyses tested program effects. RESULTS PA significantly improved growth in academic motivation and mitigated disaffection with learning. There was a positive impact of PA on absenteeism and marginally significant impact on math performance of all students. There were favorable program effects on reading for African American boys and cohort students transitioning between grades 7 and 8, and on math for girls and low-income students. CONCLUSIONS A school-based SECD program was found to influence academic outcomes among students living in low-income, urban communities. Future research should examine mechanisms by which changes in SECD influence changes in academic outcomes. PMID:24138347

  4. For whom does interpersonal psychotherapy work? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernecker, Samantha L; Coyne, Alice E; Constantino, Michael J; Ravitz, Paula

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) to treat depression and other disorders is well established, yet it remains unknown which patients will benefit more from IPT than another treatment. This review summarizes 46years of clinical trial research on patient characteristics that moderate the relative efficacy of IPT vs. different treatments. Across 57 studies from 33 trials comparing IPT to pharmacotherapy, another psychotherapy, or control, there were few consistent indicators of when IPT would be more or less effective than another treatment. However, IPT may be superior to school counseling for adolescents with elevated interpersonal conflict, and to minimal controls for patients with severe depression. Cognitive-behavioral therapy may outpace IPT for patients with avoidant personality disorder symptoms. There was some preliminary evidence that IPT is more beneficial than alternatives for patients in some age groups, African-American patients, and patients in an index episode of depression. The included studies suffered from several limitations and high risk of Type I and II error. Obstacles that may explain the difficulty in identifying consistent moderators, including low statistical power and heterogeneity in samples and treatments, are discussed. Possible remedies include within-subjects designs, manipulation of single treatment ingredients, and strategies for increasing power such as improving measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving nursing students' breast cancer knowledge through a novel academic and non-profit foundation partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocky, Nina M; McLeskey, Sandra W; McGuire, Deborah; Griffith, Kathleen; Plusen, Abby

    2011-06-01

    The unique partnership between an affiliate of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure(©) foundation and a school of nursing offered faculty the ability to creatively inject breast cancer content into the baccalaureate curriculum. In-house breast cancer experts and external consultants developed seven breast cancer-specific educational Web-based modules to supplement a packed curriculum taught by generalists in a cost-efficient manner. Easily integrated into the baccalaureate program, these modules provided evidence-based breast cancer content to nursing students. Following completion of the modules, baccalaureate students' knowledge of breast cancer improved.

  6. Use of a data warehouse at an academic medical center for clinical pathology quality improvement, education, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Schriever, Andy; Mathur, Gagan; Blau, John L; Stauffer, Stephanie L; Ford, Bradley A

    2015-01-01

    Pathology data contained within the electronic health record (EHR), and laboratory information system (LIS) of hospitals represents a potentially powerful resource to improve clinical care. However, existing reporting tools within commercial EHR and LIS software may not be able to efficiently and rapidly mine data for quality improvement and research applications. We present experience using a data warehouse produced collaboratively between an academic medical center and a private company. The data warehouse contains data from the EHR, LIS, admission/discharge/transfer system, and billing records and can be accessed using a self-service data access tool known as Starmaker. The Starmaker software allows users to use complex Boolean logic, include and exclude rules, unit conversion and reference scaling, and value aggregation using a straightforward visual interface. More complex queries can be achieved by users with experience with Structured Query Language. Queries can use biomedical ontologies such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine. We present examples of successful searches using Starmaker, falling mostly in the realm of microbiology and clinical chemistry/toxicology. The searches were ones that were either very difficult or basically infeasible using reporting tools within the EHR and LIS used in the medical center. One of the main strengths of Starmaker searches is rapid results, with typical searches covering 5 years taking only 1-2 min. A "Run Count" feature quickly outputs the number of cases meeting criteria, allowing for refinement of searches before downloading patient-identifiable data. The Starmaker tool is available to pathology residents and fellows, with some using this tool for quality improvement and scholarly projects. A data warehouse has significant potential for improving utilization of clinical pathology testing. Software that can access data warehouse using a straightforward visual

  7. Use of a data warehouse at an academic medical center for clinical pathology quality improvement, education, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Krasowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology data contained within the electronic health record (EHR, and laboratory information system (LIS of hospitals represents a potentially powerful resource to improve clinical care. However, existing reporting tools within commercial EHR and LIS software may not be able to efficiently and rapidly mine data for quality improvement and research applications. Materials and Methods: We present experience using a data warehouse produced collaboratively between an academic medical center and a private company. The data warehouse contains data from the EHR, LIS, admission/discharge/transfer system, and billing records and can be accessed using a self-service data access tool known as Starmaker. The Starmaker software allows users to use complex Boolean logic, include and exclude rules, unit conversion and reference scaling, and value aggregation using a straightforward visual interface. More complex queries can be achieved by users with experience with Structured Query Language. Queries can use biomedical ontologies such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine. Result: We present examples of successful searches using Starmaker, falling mostly in the realm of microbiology and clinical chemistry/toxicology. The searches were ones that were either very difficult or basically infeasible using reporting tools within the EHR and LIS used in the medical center. One of the main strengths of Starmaker searches is rapid results, with typical searches covering 5 years taking only 1-2 min. A "Run Count" feature quickly outputs the number of cases meeting criteria, allowing for refinement of searches before downloading patient-identifiable data. The Starmaker tool is available to pathology residents and fellows, with some using this tool for quality improvement and scholarly projects. Conclusion: A data warehouse has significant potential for improving utilization of clinical pathology testing

  8. Sign Redesign: Applying Design Principles to Improve Signage in an Academic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Kasperek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When the Mansfield University library’s Special Events and Customer Service Committee created a communications plan for the library, the opportunity presented itself to overhaul the library signs. Applying basic design principles of contrast, alignment, and repetition along with standards from the Americans with Disabilities Act, the library improved the visual communications within the library. Patrons can now read signs from a distance and understand their purpose. Using common design elements, the library began presenting official library information more cohesively. Extending beyond signs, these design principles are now part of the library’s print publications and promotional items. With this consistency, the library brand is more easily recognizable both within the library and across campus. This article describes some basic elements of design and the process of redesigning the signs.

  9. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  10. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  11. Indirect Effects of the Family Check-up on School-Age Academic Achievement through Improvements in Parenting in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that the impact of the Family Check-Up on parent use of positive behavior support would indirectly improve academic achievement scores at school age. The study included a sample of 731 high-risk families recruited from Women, Infant, and Children Supplemental Nutrition Program settings in 3 geographically…

  12. Groups as a part of integrated treatment plans : Inpatient psychotherapy for outpatients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, H

    2005-01-01

    Group psychotherapy in Germany is well established as part of an integrative treatment plan in inpatient treatment. Outpatient group psychotherapy, however, is conceptualized as a separate treatment option in competition with individual therapy. German guidelines for outpatient psychotherapy exclude

  13. The role biomedical science laboratories can play in improving science knowledge and promoting first-year nursing academic success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Pam

    The Role Biomedical Science Laboratories Can Play In Improving Science Knowledge and Promoting First-Year Nursing Academic Success The need for additional nursing and health care professionals is expected to increase dramatically over the next 20 years. With this in mind, students must have strong biomedical science knowledge to be competent in their field. Some studies have shown that participation in bioscience laboratories can enhance science knowledge. If this is true, an analysis of the role bioscience labs have in first-year nursing academic success is apposite. In response, this study sought to determine whether concurrent enrollment in anatomy and microbiology lecture and lab courses improved final lecture course grades. The investigation was expanded to include a comparison of first-year nursing GPA and prerequisite bioscience concurrent lecture/lab enrollment. Additionally, research has indicated that learning is affected by student perception of the course, instructor, content, and environment. To gain an insight regarding students' perspectives of laboratory courses, almost 100 students completed a 20-statement perception survey to understand how lab participation affects learning. Data analyses involved comparing anatomy and microbiology final lecture course grades between students who concurrently enrolled in the lecture and lab courses and students who completed the lecture course alone. Independent t test analyses revealed that there was no significant difference between the groups for anatomy, t(285) = .11, p = .912, but for microbiology, the lab course provided a significant educational benefit, t(256) = 4.47, p = .000. However, when concurrent prerequisite bioscience lecture/lab enrollment was compared to non-concurrent enrollment for first-year nursing GPA using independent t test analyses, no significant difference was found for South Dakota State University, t(37) = -1.57, p = .125, or for the University of South Dakota, t(38) = -0.46, p

  14. Problem-based writing with peer review improves academic performance in physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Nancy J

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether problem-based writing with peer review (PW-PR) improves undergraduate student performance on physiology exams. Didactic lectures were replaced with assignments to give students practice explaining their reasoning while solving qualitative problems, thus transferring the responsibility for abstraction and generalization to the students. Performance on exam items about concepts taught using PW-PR was compared with performance on concepts taught using didactic lectures followed by group work. Calibrated Peer Review, a Web-delivered program, was used to collect student essays and to manage anonymous peer review after students "passed" three calibration peer reviews. Results show that the students had difficulty relating concepts. Relationship errors were categorized as (1) problems recognizing levels of organization, (2) problems with cause/effect, and (3) overgeneralizations. For example, some described cells as molecules; others thought that vesicles transport materials through the extracellular fluid. With PW-PR, class discussion was used to confront and resolve such difficulties. Both multiple-choice and essay exam results were better with PW-PR instead of lecture.

  15. Teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to psychiatric residents: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, Emily; Douglas, Carolyn J; Cabaniss, Deborah L

    2013-03-01

    There is enduring controversy in our field regarding the place for supportive interventions in psychodynamic psychotherapy. This controversy is reflected in the differing ways in which psychodynamic psychotherapy has been conceptualized and taught in psychiatric residency training programs. The authors propose an "integrated" approach for teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to trainees. In the integrated model, psychodynamic psychotherapy is conceptualized as a form of therapy designed to (a) uncover unconscious elements that influence thoughts, feelings, and behavior, and (b) support weakened psychological function. Using this model, residents learning psychodynamic psychotherapy are taught both uncovering and supporting techniques side by side in one course with specific guidelines for assessing when to use one set of interventions or the other. Teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to residents in this integrated way prepares them to become skilled clinicians who are able to move fluidly from supporting to uncovering in a pragmatic and flexible manner, matched to the particular moment-to-moment needs of the individual patient.

  16. Yoga Improves Academic Performance in Urban High School Students Compared to Physical Education: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagins, Marshall; Rundle, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Yoga programs within schools have become more widespread but research regarding the potential effect on academic achievement remains limited. This study cluster-randomized 112 students within a single New York City public high school to participate in either school-based yoga or physical education (PE) for an entire academic year. The primary…

  17. Protocol for Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With or At-Risk of Academic Difficulties in Grade K to 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Eiberg, Misja;

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review will examine the effects of targeted interventions to students with or at-risk of academic difficulties in Kindergarten to grade 6 on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. We will examine interventions such as for example tutoring, cooperative learning, computer......-assisted instruction, and incentive programs with the objective of assessing their comparative effectiveness. As such, the review will contribute to the knowledge of what type of interventions that can be used to improve the educational achievement of students with or at-risk of academic difficulties....

  18. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  19. Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Treatment: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2015-09-01

    Psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment have been shown to be effective forms of treatment of a range of individual and complex comorbid disorders. The future role of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment depends on several factors, including full implementation of mental health parity, correction of underlying false assumptions that shape treatment, payment priorities and research, identification and teaching of common factors or elements shared by effective psychosocial therapies, and adequate teaching of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment.

  20. The Dodo Bird and Common Factors in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Trancas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception, the theoretical exploration of psychotherapy has originated diverse ideas on the mechanisms underlying its effectiveness. The authors focus on one of the founding moments of the theory of common factors in psychotherapy and subsequently explore its theoretical grounds and conceptual evolution. Criticism to the construct and exposure of its fragilities are also approached. Some consequences of this knowledge relating to the practice and training of psychotherapy are put forward.

  1. Remote psychotherapy for terminally ill cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Jeffrey S; Schuyler, Dean; Frueh, B Christopher; Brescia, Frank; Arana, George W

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a feasibility study of remote psychotherapy in 10 terminally ill cancer patients with diagnoses of adjustment disorder or major depression. Subjects received six sessions of individual cognitive therapy with the same therapist. Sessions alternated between face-to-face sessions and remote sessions delivered by analogue videophone. After each therapy session, a brief questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjects' level of satisfaction with the session, sense of connectedness to the therapist and overall progress being made in the therapy. Nine patients completed the study. Of 53 completed therapy sessions, 21 were by videophone and 32 were conducted face to face. Participants reported strong positive perceptions and acceptance after almost all therapy sessions, regardless of service delivery mode. The study suggests that there may be a role for the delivery of psychotherapy using low-bandwidth videophones.

  2. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  3. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: a contemporary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Larry S; Busch, Fredric N

    2012-09-01

    A contemporary perspective on psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy views both treatments as somatic in nature. Abandoning Cartesian dualism frees the clinician to consider therapeutic options based on the best available evidence rather than falsely dichotomizing approaches as biological or psychological. Evidence-based medicine is a helpful though limited paradigm upon which to base treatment decisions. Instead, clinicians should strive for an evidence-informed approach that is patient centered. This approach is illustrated in relation to depressive illness where moderators of outcome are examined (illness severity, history of trauma, personality disorders, patient preference) that will influence clinical recommendations on combining treatment. Psychotherapy is increasingly proving to be a valuable therapeutic modality across the severity spectrum, a finding at odds with current treatment practices.

  4. A semiotic approach to suitability for psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, J D

    1978-11-01

    At the beginning of my career as a psychotherapist I interviewed a number of patients in an effort to find one who seemed to be a good prospect for long-term psychotherapy. While interviewing with this purpose in mind, I was struck by the fact that a number of the people I spoke with gave me a sense of being extremely suitable for this sort of therapy, but that others seemed quite unsuitable. An informal survey among my peers as well as among more senior therapists revealed that they were not unfamiliar with the phenomenon. The present empirical study of the semiotic aspects of suitability for psychotherapy grew out of this early experience.

  5. Some neurobiological aspects of psychotherapy. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggan, D Y; Kay, J

    1999-01-01

    Ever since the idea was accepted that memory is associated with alterations in synaptic strength, studies on the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the plastic changes in neurons have attracted wide interest in the scientific community. This article explores the process of memory consolidation leading to persistent modifications in synaptic plasticity as a mechanism by which psychotherapy facilitates changes in the permanent storage of information acquired throughout the individual's life. The psychobiological interrelationships of affect, attachment, and memory offer a perspective regarding the etiology and treatment of clinical disturbances of affect. Analogies between brain physiology and modes of psychotherapy provide the foundation for a review of psychiatric disorders involving the inability to control fear, obsessions, compulsions, and delusions, all of which respond to psychotherapeutic interventions.

  6. Self and its anxieties in existential psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Mircea Adrian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a self and the imperative of knowing it have gone through philosophy from its beginning until today. Existentialism, starting with Kierkegaard and continuing with Heidegger, relate the scope of the authentic self to that of anxiety. Once the scope of the anxiety of self has been formulated, it entered the sphere of psychological theories. The prolific encounter between existentialism and psychology materializes into the influent contemporary psychological school, named existential psychotherapy. Our analysis wishes to describe the nodal points of this encounter, having as reference points the scope of self and its anxieties. In the first part of the analysis we look into the philosophical premises, referring to the two above mentioned names, while in the second part we present the taking-ups and the applicative adjustments brought up by existential psychotherapy.

  7. Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C

    2014-10-01

    This article briefly summarizes the empirical and clinical literature underlying a contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism. Unlike the DSM Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), this clinical model identifies and differentiates between two phenotypic themes of dysfunction-narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability-that can be expressed both overtly and covertly in patients' ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, and participating in treatment. Clinical recognition that narcissistic patients can and often do present for psychotherapy in vulnerable states of depression, anxiety, shame, and even suicidality increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. This article provides case examples derived from psychotherapies with narcissistic patients to demonstrate how narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability concurrently present in patients who seek treatment.

  8. The outcome problem in psychotherapy: a reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, H J

    2013-03-01

    This reprinted article originally appeared in Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, & Practice, 1964(MONTH), 1(3), 97-100. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1966-01631-001). Comments on the original article by H. H. Strupp (see record 1965-15636-001). In his recent article in this journal, Strupp (1963) has this to say in relation to the outcome problem in psychotherapy: "A brief review of Eysenck's (1952) widely quoted survey, which capitalized upon and added considerably to the existing confusion may be instructive." In reply I would like to suggest that Strupp's review is, in the lawyer's phrase, irrelevant, incompetent and immaterial. Fortunately, the points I wish to make are so simple that they will not take up much space.

  9. DFP: Psychotherapie der Angststörungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doering S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Psychotherapie stellt eine wirksame Behandlung für alle Angststörungen dar. Die Kombination mit einer (antidepressiven Pharmakotherapie dürfte oft sinnvoll sein, ist jedoch nur bei der Panikstörung empirisch untermauert. Bei allen Angststörungen sind verhaltenstherapeutische Ansätze am besten in ihrer Wirksamkeit belegt. Inzwischen sind – außer für die spezifischen Phobien – auch psychodynamische Ansätze manualisiert und empirisch evaluiert. Entspannungsverfahren werden bei der sozialen Phobie und der Panikstörung empfohlen und sind oft Bestandteil umfassender Behandlungsprogramme. Komorbide Störungen – insbesondere Persönlichkeitsstörungen – verschlechtern den Outcome der Angstbehandlung. Für die Zukunft sind weitere Untersuchungen zur langfristigen Wirksamkeit der Psychotherapie sowie zur Behandlung von Angstpatienten mit komorbiden Störungen notwendig.

  10. USING BACH FLOWER IN HOLISTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a narrative review from scientific literature that aimed to describe concepts and approaches for indications of the therapeutic use of Bach flower remedies in holistic psychotherapy. The review was developed in February 2016 from books, official documents and articles indexed in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Bach flower remedies is a therapeutic method that aims to restore the balance of human being, restoring its vital energy through holistic care. Because the flower essences act on psychic and emotional dimension of individual, when employed in holistic psychotherapy can provide greater autonomy, self-care and effectiveness compared to other alternative methods. The literature indicated that flower essence therapy is a safe practice and can be used in a complementary to health care, but should be performed by qualified professionals. It has also shown to be a promising and important area for nursing professional, but it still requires greater investment in research in the area to support the practice.

  11. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  12. Effective multi-level, multi-sector, school-based obesity prevention programming improves weight, blood pressure, and academic performance, especially among low-income, minority children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, Danielle; Lombardo, Michelle; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriella; Hollar, Theodore L; Almon, Marie; Agatston, Arthur S; Messiah, Sarah E

    2010-05-01

    Successfully addressing childhood onset obesity requires multilevel (individual, community, and governmental), multi-agency collaboration. The Healthier Options for Public Schoolchildren (HOPS)/OrganWise Guys (OWG) quasi-experimental controlled pilot study (four intervention schools, one control school, total N=3,769; 50.2% Hispanic) was an elementary school-based obesity prevention intervention designed to keep children at a normal, healthy weight, and improve health status and academic achievement. The HOPS/OWG included the following replicable, holistic components: (1) modified dietary offerings, (2) nutrition/lifestyle educational curricula; (3) physical activity component; and (4) wellness projects. Demographic, anthropometric (body mass index [BMI]), blood pressure, and academic data were collected during the two-year study period (2004-6). Statistically significant improvements in BMI, blood pressure, and academic scores, among low-income Hispanic and White children in particular, were seen in the intervention versus controls. Holistic school-based obesity prevention interventions can improve health outcomes and academic performance, in particular among high-risk populations.

  13. Protocol for Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With or At-Risk of Academic Difficulties in Grade 7 to 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine;

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review will examine the effects of targeted interventions to students with or at-risk of academic difficulties in grades 7 to 12 on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. We will examine interventions such as for example tutoring, cooperative learning, computer-assisted in......This systematic review will examine the effects of targeted interventions to students with or at-risk of academic difficulties in grades 7 to 12 on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. We will examine interventions such as for example tutoring, cooperative learning, computer......-assisted instruction, and incentive programs with the objective of assessing their comparative effectiveness. As such, the review will contribute to the knowledge of what type of interventions that can be used to improve the educational achievement of students with or at-risk of academic difficulties....

  14. Team-based learning in the gross anatomy laboratory improves academic performance and students' attitudes toward teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitt, Tiffany W; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S

    2015-01-01

    As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving skills, communication, and teamwork. However, its documented use in the laboratory setting and physical therapy education is limited. We used TBL as a substitute for one-third of cadaveric dissections in the gross anatomy laboratories at two Doctor of Physical Therapy programs to study its effect on both students' perceptions and academic performance. We surveyed students at the beginning and completion of their anatomy course as well as students who had previously completed a traditional anatomy course to measure the impact of TBL on students' perceptions of teamwork. We found that the inclusion of TBL in the anatomy laboratory improves students' attitudes toward working with peers (P teamwork (P teamwork. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Applied philosophy and psychotherapy: Heraclitus as case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Beukes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates a recent attempt to apply philosophy within the discipline of psychotherapy and to investigate the somewhat undefined realm of philosophical counselling. After introducing the claims of this interdisciplinary exercise and after addressing the problems involved in crossing the boundaries between philosophy and psychotherapy, the article elaborates on  Alex Howard’s (2000 [Philosophy for counselling and psychotherapy: Pythagoras to post-modernism. London: Macmillan] attempt to make explicit use of philosophy in psychotherapy, using his interpretation and application of Heraclitus’ philosophy as case study.

  16. NONVERBAL STORIES: THE BODY IN PSYCHOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Erskine

    2014-01-01

    Emotional experience is stored within the amygdala and the limbic system of the brain as affect, visceral, and physiological sensation without symbolization and language. These significant memories are expressed in affect and through our bodily movements and gestures. Such body memories are unconscious non-symbolized patterns of self-in-relationship. Several methods of a body centered psychotherapy are described and clinical case examples illustrate the use of expressive methods within a re...

  17. Recognition of psychotherapy effectiveness: the APA resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Norcross, John C; Vasquez, Melba J T; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2013-03-01

    In August 2012, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives voted overwhelmingly to adopt as APA policy a Resolution on the Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness. This invited article traces the origins and intentions of that resolution and its protracted journey through the APA governance labyrinth. We summarize the planned dissemination and projected results of the resolution and identify several lessons learned through the entire process.

  18. The Arts, Crafts, and Sciences of Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lorna Smith

    2015-11-01

    Contemporary training and practice of psychotherapy and the research that supports it is the subject of this review. I discuss it in the light of what I value most from my own professional training, which was, in my opinion, highly privileged by comparison with what is offered today. A minimal hoped-for outcome is that younger readers will find valuable tidbits here and there that will be useful in their own versions of psychotherapy. A maximal hope is that a few individuals who choose to maintain clinical skills as well as emphasize psychotherapy research might be encouraged to follow their instincts toward excellence. They would allow their curiosity to bloom and their work to be creative and more adherent to the rules of natural science than time allows in these days of dashboards that count funding associated with numbers of publications, grants, teaching, and service hours. Admittedly, that path less well traveled would be risky, because what truly is new takes time to develop and implement and the outcomes when research truly can disconfirm hypotheses (as distinct from fail to confirm them) are, well, uncertain.

  19. Removing pathogenic memories: a neurobiology of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Siracusano, Alberto; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2005-10-01

    Experimental research examining the neural bases of nondeclarative memory has offered intriguing insight into how functional and dysfunctional implicit learning affects the brain. Long-term modifications of synaptic transmission, in particular, are currently considered the most plausible mechanism underlying memory trace encoding and compulsions, addiction, anxiety, and phobias. Therefore, an effective psychotherapy must be directed to erase maladaptive implicit memories and aberrant synaptic plasticity. This article describes the neurobiological bases of pathogenic memory disruption to provide some insight into how psychotherapy works. At least two mechanisms of unwanted memory erasing appear to be implicated in the effects of psychotherapy: inhibition of memory consolidation/reconsolidation and extinction. Behavioral evidence demonstrated that these two ways to forget are profoundly distinct in nature, and it is increasingly clear that their cellular, synaptic, and molecular underpinnings are different. Accordingly, the blockade of consolidation/reconsolidation erases memories by reversing the plasticity associated with memory maintenance, whereas extinction is a totally new form of plasticity that, similar to the plasticity underlying the old memory, requires protein synthesis-dependent synaptic remodeling.

  20. A comparison between phone-based psychotherapy with and without text messaging support in between sessions for crisis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furber, Gareth; Jones, Gabrielle Margaret; Healey, David; Bidargaddi, Niranjan

    2014-10-08

    Few studies have tested whether individually tailored text messaging interventions have an effect on clinical outcomes when used to supplement traditional psychotherapy. This is despite the potential to improve outcomes through symptom monitoring, prompts for between-session activities, and psychoeducation. The intent of the study was to explore the use of individually tailored between-session text messaging, or short message service (SMS), as an adjunct to telephone-based psychotherapy for consumers who present to the Emergency Department (ED) in situational and/or emotional crises. Over a 4-month period, two therapists offered 68 prospective consumers of a telephone-based psychotherapy service individually tailored between-session text messaging alongside their telephone-based psychotherapy. Attendance and clinical outcomes (depression, anxiety, functional impairment) of those receiving messages were compared against a historical control group (n=157) who received telephone psychotherapy only. A total of 66% (45/68) of the consumers offered SMS accepted the intervention. A total of 432 messages were sent over the course of the trial, the majority involving some kind of psychoeducation or reminders to engage in therapy goals. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between consumers who received the SMS and those in the control group. There was a trend for participants in the intervention group to attend fewer sessions than those in the control group (mean 3.7, SD 1.9 vs mean 4.4, SD 2.3). Both groups showed significant improvement over time. Individually tailored SMS were not found to improve clinical outcomes in consumers receiving telephone-based psychotherapy, but the study was underpowered, given the effect sizes noted and the significance level chosen. Given the ease of implementation and positive feedback from therapists and clients, individually tailored text messages should be explored further in future trials with a focus on enhancing

  1. [Diagnosis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for personality disordered persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Kuninao

    2011-01-01

    The author uses PubMed searches on clinical studies on personality disorders and finds that the borderline personality disorder is most extensively researched. Mary Zanarini summeries there are four kinds of psychotherapies that are proved to be effective in the treatment of BPD patients, including mentalization based treatment, transference focused therapy, dialectic behavior therapy and schema focused therapy. They are all effective to improve the severity of impulsivity and self-destructiveness. The author then reviews McGlashan's series of extensive follow-up studies on BPD and other mental disorders at Chestnut Lodge back in 1980's. The data tells us that both symptomatic stability and level of social adaptation in the long term outcome of BPDs varied to be very poor to recovered. The outcome seem to be heavily relied on the intimate relationship BPDs could enjoy or not. This finding was also noted in a five year Tokyo BPDs follow-up studies by Moriya, Ikuta and Minakawa in 1990's. Both impulsivity and self-destructiveness get always worse along with loss or threatened loss of love object. Therefore all psychotherapies for BPDs should be directed to improve their pathological object relations although it would be extremely difficult to attain. The author finally points it out that the primary prevention of BPDs should be designed and begin a program on a trial basis in a community soon because there are many empirical studies to show the mothers with BPD tend to be frightened by her baby and/or frighten her baby and this pattern of communication is the first epigenetic expression of BPDs.

  2. Pluralistic criteria for psychotherapy: an alternative to sectarianism, anarchy, and utopian integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenger, C; Omer, H

    1992-01-01

    A pluralist revolution has taken place in psychotherapy, discarding the assumptions that only one theory can be true and that there exists only one method for finding it. Rejecting the anarchistic attitude of "anything goes" as professionally nihilistic, we propose that in the present pluralistic era it is necessary to recognize a multiplicity of perspectives for determining the rightness of therapeutic constructs. A construct or intervention is right to the extent that it fits demands for coherence and pragmatic value from a variety of perspectives, such as the patient's, the clinical community's, the academic community's, and the general public's. Within the clinical and academic communities, the greater the variety of acceptance (by different schools, theories, and methodologies), the greater the construct's cumulative rightness. The difference between this variety rule and a majority one is made explicit. Coherence and pragmatic value are widely accepted criteria and they define the universe of rational discourse in psychotherapy. Adding to these the requirement of multiple acceptability is the necessary step for creating rational dialogue in the new pluralistic world.

  3. Does self-reflection and peer-assessment improve Saudi pharmacy students' academic performance and metacognitive skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuff, Kazeem B

    2015-07-01

    The patient-centered focus of clinical pharmacy practice which demands nuanced application of specialized knowledge and skills targeted to meeting patient-specific therapeutic needs warrant that the training strategy used for PharmD graduates must empower with the ability to use the higher level cognitive processes and critical thinking effectively in service delivery. However, the historical disposition to learning in the Middle East and among Saudi students appeared heavily focused on rote memorization and recall of memorized facts. To assess the impact of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer assessment on pharmacy students' academic performance and metacognitive skills, and evaluate students' feedback on the impact of these active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. An exploratory prospective cohort study was conducted among 4th year students at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia to assess the impact of self-reflection and peer-assessment in a semester-wide assessment tasks in two compulsory first semester 4th year courses (Therapeutics-3 and Pharmacoeconomics). An end-of-course evaluation survey with a pre-tested 5-item open-ended questionnaire was also conducted to evaluate students' feedback on the impact of active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Male students (study group) constituted 40.7% of the cohort while 59.3% were females (control group) with mean ± SD age of 23.2 ± 5.6 and 22.1 ± 4.9 years respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes, mid-term and final exams, and the overall percentage pass were significantly higher in the study group for both courses (P students in the study group opined that the exposure to active pedagogic strategies enabled them to improve their use of critical thinking, facilitated deeper engagement with their learning and improved their clinical decision-making and discussion skills. The use of active

  4. Improving resident education and patient safety: a method to balance initial caseloads at academic year-end transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John Q; Niehaus, Brian; Lieu, Sandra C; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2010-09-01

    In outpatient continuity clinics, incoming trainees may receive caseloads that are unbalanced in terms of the mental workload required from each resident. When significant, these imbalances may compromise resident learning and patient safety. Using data from psychiatric outpatient continuity clinics, this study tested a method for balancing initial caseloads. Adapting prior research on mental workload, the authors developed and implemented a workload-balancing method to balance initial caseloads regarding factors contributing to mental workload: number of patients, number of acute patients, complexity/time demands outside clinic, visits per month, and collaboration demands. For academic years 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010, they compared these balanced caseloads with those that would have been created by the clinic's traditional method of largely preserving prior caseloads (with some redistribution to balance only the number of patients). The outcome measure was the intercaseload coefficient of variation for each of the chosen mental workload factors and for all factors combined. Compared with the traditional method, the workload-balancing method generated lower intercaseload variation for each mental workload factor. Also, this method reduced overall intercaseload variation for all factors combined by 50% to 61% in each of the intervention years. The workload-balancing method evenly distributes among resident panels factors known to contribute to mental workload. This method may reduce errors and stress likely to occur when residents inherit unbalanced caseloads that are overly challenging and, thus, may improve patient safety and resident learning. This model could be applicable to other caseload situations.

  5. Exploring Psychotherapy Clients' Independent Strategies for Change While in Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Psychotherapy research usually describes how client change is caused by therapist interventions. This article describes how clients change by continuing to use and revising the strategies for change that they bring with them when they first enter therapy. This article presents data from a qualitative diary study of psychotherapy. Three cases…

  6. Solicited diary studies of psychotherapy in qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  7. Characteristics of Patients Involved in Psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Alispahić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of Bosnian and Herzegovinian patients involved in psychotherapeutic treatments in order to explore the current situation of psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The study included 213 patients (154 women and 47 men undergoing diverse psychotherapeutic treatments. Data about demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by questionnaire. Following characteristics were documented: age, sex, education, employment status, marital status, specific problem that got the client involved in psychotherapy, type of psychotherapy, and use of psychopharmacology.Results: Majority of the patients undergoing psychotherapy are age up to 40 and female. They are by vast majority holding a university degree and are employed. Nearly equal number of patients is living in partnership or marriage compared to single or never been married. Most frequent reasons for getting involved in the psychotherapy treatment are of the intrapersonal nature (depression, anxiety and panic attacks. Majority of the patients were involved in gestalt and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, and at the same time majority of those were not prescribed medicaments.Conclusions: We point out and overview some of the most prominent socio-demographic traits of patients undergoing psychotherapy, the ones that could be important in the future research with the higher degree of control. In the terms of personal initiative, psychotherapy stops being a taboo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, there is still a long path until it reaches integration in daily life of the people.

  8. Is There Room for Criticism of Studies of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Jewett, Lisa R.; Bassel, Marielle

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler. Shedler declared unequivocally that "empirical evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy" (p. 98). He did not mention any specific criticisms that have been made of evidence on psychodynamic psychotherapies or address possible distinctions…

  9. Using Media to Teach How Not to Do Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen; Horowitz, Mardi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article describes how using media depictions of psychotherapy may help in teaching psychiatric residents. Methods: Using the HBO series "In Treatment" as a model, the authors suggest how boundary transgressions and technical errors may inform residents about optimal psychotherapeutic approaches. Results: The psychotherapy vignettes…

  10. Use of Psychotherapy by Rural and Urban Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jeffrey A.; Jameson, John P.; Phillips, Laura L.; Kunik, Mark E.; Fortney, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether differences exist between rural and urban veterans in terms of initiation of psychotherapy, delay in time from diagnosis to treatment, and dose of psychotherapy sessions. Methods: Using a longitudinal cohort of veterans obtained from national Veterans Affairs databases (October 2003 through September 2004), we extracted…

  11. The Grandmaternal Transference in Parent-Infant/Child Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugmore, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The psychic significance of the figure of the grandmother in psychodynamic psychotherapy has received scant attention. This paper develops the concept of the "grandmaternal transference" in parent-infant psychotherapy and explores its identification, its possible functions and its therapeutic significance. The grandmaternal transference has…

  12. Therapy 101: A Psychotherapy Curriculum for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Fotouh, Frieda; Asghar-Ali, Ali Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This pilot project, designed and taught by a resident, created a curriculum to introduce medical students to the practice of psychotherapy. Medical students who are knowledgeable about psychotherapy can become physicians who are able to refer patients to psychotherapeutic treatments. A search of the literature did not identify a…

  13. The Psychotherapy Research Project of the Menninger Foundation: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Studied processes and outcomes of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Followed 42 subjects over natural course of treatment, with 100 percent follow-up 2-3 years posttermination. Some follow-ups extended over 30-year study. Psychoanalysis achieved more limited outcomes than predicted; psychotherapies often achieved more than…

  14. Holism in Psychotherapy and Spiritual Direction: A Course Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len; Mansager, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The authors offer a course correction for understanding the term holism as used in spiritually oriented psychotherapy literature. This is done to allow the relationship between psychotherapy and spirituality to expand beyond limited dualistic conceptualizations, They first address numerous sources from which spiritually oriented psychotherapy…

  15. Rorschach and MMPI-2 Indices of Early Psychotherapy Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the differences between 97 patients who had prematurely terminated psychotherapy and 81 who had participated in individual psychotherapy for at least 6 months and 24 sessions on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Rorschach variables. Theoretical implications of interpersonal variables are discussed in…

  16. Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Schuurmans, J.; Oppen, van P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depressi

  17. Evaluation of a positive psychotherapy group intervention for people with psychosis: pilot randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Third-wave psychological interventions have gained relevance in mental health service provision but their application to people with psychosis is in its infancy and interventions targeting wellbeing in psychosis are scarce. This study tested the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of positive psychotherapy adapted for people with psychosis (WELLFOCUS PPT) to improve wellbeing. Methods. WELLFOCUS PPT was tested as an 11-week group intervention in a convenience sample of people w...

  18. Psychiatric Residents' Views of Quality of Psychotherapy Training and Psychotherapy Competencies: A Multisite Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Christina; Sciolla, Andres; Zisook, Sidney; Bitner, Robin; Tuttle, Jeffrey; Dunn, Laura B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Few studies of residents' attitudes toward psychotherapy training exist. The authors examined residents' perceptions of the quality of their training, support for training, their own competence levels, and associations between self-perceived competence and perceptions of the training environment. Methods: An anonymous, web-based…

  19. Improving the appropriateness of antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes: a mixed-methods process evaluation of an academic detailing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desveaux, L; Saragosa, M; Rogers, J; Bevan, L; Loshak, H; Moser, A; Feldman, S; Regier, L; Jeffs, L; Ivers, N M

    2017-05-26

    In 2014, nursing home administration and government officials were facing increasing public and media scrutiny around the variation of antipsychotic medication (APM) prescribing across Ontario nursing homes. In response, policy makers partnered to test an academic detailing (AD) intervention to address appropriate prescribing of APM in nursing homes in a cluster-randomized trial. This mixed-methods study aimed to explore how and why the AD intervention may have resulted in changes in the nursing home context. The objectives were to understand how the intervention was implemented, explore contextual factors associated with implementation, and examine impact of the intervention on prescribing. Administrative data for the primary outcome of the full randomized trial will not be available for a minimum of 1 year. Therefore, this paper reports the findings of a planned, quantitative interim trial analysis assessed mean APM dose and prescribing prevalence at baseline and 3 and 6 months across 40 nursing homes (18 intervention, 22 control). Patient-level administrative data regarding prescribing were analyzed using generalized linear mixed effects regression. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nursing home staff from the intervention group to explore opinions and experiences of the AD intervention. Interviews were analyzed using the framework method, with constructs from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) applied as pre-defined deductive codes. Open coding was applied when emerging themes did not align with CFIR constructs. Qualitative and quantitative findings were triangulated to examine points of divergence to understand how the intervention may work and to identify areas for future opportunities and areas for improvement. No significant differences were observed in prescribing outcomes. A total of 22 interviews were conducted, including four academic detailers and 18 nursing home staff. Constructs within the CFIR domains of

  20. Commentary: "Who was caring for Mary?" revisited: a call for all academic physicians caring for patients to focus on systems and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Frederick S; Spear, Steven J

    2009-12-01

    Over 15 years have passed since Mary's near death (Annals of Internal Medicine. 1993;118:146-148). Disappointment in the care by fellow academic physicians persists; however, a reanalysis of her case through the lens of complex systems design and performance yields a more accurate and actionable perspective. Mary's suffering was not due to human failure alone. Human failure was provoked and exacerbated by broken processes including ambiguous assignments of responsibility; inadequate transfers of information and authority; unreliable or unavailable protocols for providing safe, effective treatment; and a failure to integrate the deep but narrow perspectives of individual specialists into a complete picture of Mary's condition. Her case exemplifies, in personal terms, many of the system challenges academic medical centers face: Faculty have other missions that can conflict with patient care; disease complexity is high, requiring input from multiple subspecialists; clinical departments serve as roadblocks to communication; and novice physicians, requiring close supervision, have primary responsibility for the day-to-day care of acutely ill patients. The academic physicians who first cared for Mary unwittingly accepted flawed systems, and they failed to work around them. At great monetary and emotional expense, last-minute heroics saved Mary. In a dysfunctional system, even the most conscientious physician may be viewed as uncaring. As Mary's case so clearly illustrates, patients and their families see the system and the physician as one. Only by working to improve the systems of delivery will academic physicians again be consistently viewed as caring.

  1. Improving antibiotic prescribing for adults with community acquired pneumonia: Does a computerised decision support system achieve more than academic detailing alone? – a time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black James F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ideal method to encourage uptake of clinical guidelines in hospitals is not known. Several strategies have been suggested. This study evaluates the impact of academic detailing and a computerised decision support system (CDSS on clinicians' prescribing behaviour for patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP. Methods The management of all patients presenting to the emergency department over three successive time periods was evaluated; the baseline, academic detailing and CDSS periods. The rate of empiric antibiotic prescribing that was concordant with recommendations was studied over time comparing pre and post periods and using an interrupted time series analysis. Results The odds ratio for concordant therapy in the academic detailing period, after adjustment for age, illness severity and suspicion of aspiration, compared with the baseline period was OR = 2.79 [1.88, 4.14], p Conclusion Deployment of a computerised decision support system was associated with an early improvement in antibiotic prescribing practices which was greater than the changes seen with academic detailing. The sustainability of this intervention requires further evaluation.

  2. Predicting Psychotherapy Dropouts: A Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Alexander F; Flückiger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The role of therapeutic processes in predicting premature termination of psychotherapy has been a particular focus of recent research. The purpose of this study was to contrast outpatients who completed therapy and those who dropped out with respect to their self-reported in-session experiences of self-esteem, mastery, clarification and the therapeutic alliance. The 296 patients with mixed disorders were treated with an integrative form of cognitive-behavioural therapy without pre-determined time limit (M = 20.2 sessions). Multilevel analyses indicated that patients who did not completetreatment reported, on average, lower levels of self-esteem, mastery and clarification and lower ratings of their therapeutic alliance in treatment in contrast to patients who completed therapy. Patient-reported change in self-esteem experiences over the course of treatment turned out to be the strongest predictor of dropout from psychotherapy or successful completion. When dropout occurred before the average treatment length was reached, patients reported fewer clarifying experiences as early as the first session and their ratings of the therapeutic alliance were characterized by an absence of positive development. Both of these aspects seem to be involved in patients' decisions to leave treatment early. The findings underscore the importance of the therapeutic process in understanding the mechanisms behind treatment dropout. Analyses data from 296 patients at a private outpatient clinic in a routine practice setting (CBT). Completer/dropout definition: presence or absence of measurement battery at post-assessment. Focuses on change in therapy processes by investigating post-session reports. Finds that positive changes in self-esteem experiences is the most robust predictor of dropout, followed by ratings of clarification experiences and the global alliance. In line with recent dropout research, these process indicators might help to detect therapeutic situations that are

  3. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  4. The supervisory needs of neophyte psychotherapy trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryee, J; Brymer, M; Gold, K

    1996-11-01

    This article focuses on the difficulties facing the neophyte trainee in the field of psychotherapy. Three areas of such difficulties are identified, defined, and discussed: feelings of inadequacy and incompetence, anxieties concerning supervisors, and confusion concerning multiple theoretical views of clinical work. Two vignettes from the early training of the paper's junior authors illustrate and discuss these problems and their resolution in applied contexts. A conclusion is offered which emphasizes the value of supervisory recognition of these dimensions of trainees' experience, as well as their potential for modeling processes of growth that are likely to help supervisees' patients as well.

  5. Class barriers to psychotherapy and counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, I

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the barriers to the uptake of counselling and psychotherapy from a social class perspective. It begins with a definition of class before discussing particular aspects that inhibit uptake. Barriers focused upon are those regarding travel, costs, child care, appointment times and location of actual therapists. Likewise barriers to the effective outcome, for example cognitive and verbal abilities of clients, are addressed and the way in which these barriers inhibit the referral rate from particular social groups. Finally the self-imposed barriers of certain social groups are explored regarding self exile from the counselling arena.

  6. An Integrative Psychotherapy of Postpartum Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merle-Fishman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a mother is a time of transition, transformation and sometimes trauma. The immediacy of meeting the needs of an infant, combined with the immediacy of becoming a mother, often collide to produce depression, anxiety and stress. Shame, confusion, isolation and cultural expectations often prevent women from seeking the postpartum support they need, which may result in long lasting depression, anxiety and unresolved trauma. Integrative Psychotherapy, Transactional Analysis and Attachment Theory offer ways to understand postpartum adjustment as well as methodologies for addressing this unique developmental event in the life of women.

  7. Review of Psychotherapy as a human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Reviews the book, Psychotherapy as a human science by Daniel Burston and Roger Frie (see record 2006-12980-000). In this book, the authors show how philosophical assumptions pervade therapeutic praxis. "In our view, philosophy is inherent to the very practice of psychotherapy" (p. 2). There is a "common ground that unites the therapists of today with the philosophers of the past" (p. 17). Their effort succeeds brilliantly in reconnecting psychology and philosophy and, by that homecoming, to ground psychotherapy (including contemporary psychoanalysis) as a "human science." The book begins by sketching ideas about truth we inherit from the Greeks, then shows how Descartes and Pascal helped launch the Enlightenment with their thinking about truth and the limits of reason. Kant, Hegel, and Marx broaden the scope to include reason, the unconscious, and the course of history. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche interject angst and authenticity. Dilthey proposes a human science neither scientistic nor irrational. Husserl launches phenomenology as the proper study of experience; Scheler, Jaspers and Heidegger react in their particular ways. Freud and Jung come to loggerheads over the unconscious. Buber, Binswanger, and Boss further develop existential-phenomenological perspectives in terms of human interrelatedness. Confrontation with the other and the limits of reciprocity engage Sartre, Lacan, and Laing. Psychoanalysis grows intersubjectively through the work of Sullivan, Fromm, Merleau-Ponty, Benjamin, and Stolorow. Postmodernism's excess, Frie and Burston conclude, requires acknowledgment of an authentic self answerable for choices in life: '...[W]e are both determined by, and exercise our agency in determining, the communicative contexts in which we exist" (p. 262). Psychotherapy from this existential-phenomenological perspective becomes "a rigorous exploration of our ways of making meaning--both consciously and unconsciously" (p. 263). The book ends, then, with an affirmation

  8. Psychotherapy change process research: realizing the promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Change process research (CPR) is the study of the processes by which change occurs in psychotherapy and is a necessary complement to randomized clinical trials and other forms of efficacy research. In this article the author describes and evaluates four types of CPR. The first three are basic designs and include quantitative process-outcome, qualitative helpful factors, and microanalytic sequential process; the fourth, the significant events approach, refers to methods such as task analysis and comprehensive process analysis that integrate the first three. The strengths and weaknesses of each design are described and summarized using both causal and practical criteria as part of an overall argument for systematic methodological pluralism.

  9. Near-death experiences and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Psychiatrists are likely to come into contact with patients who have had near-death experiences, who may have a variety of reactions to the experience, and who may benefit from psychotherapy. We may also have opportunities to work with individuals who are reacting to others who have had such experiences. There is much a psychiatrist can offer to these people, including listening respectfully, being nonjudgemental, normalizing the experience, providing education, and assisting with integrating the experience into their lives to develop or maintain the best possible functioning.

  10. Rates and predictors of referral for individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and medications among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Juliette M; Barrera, Terri L; Hernandez, Caitlin; Graham, David P; Teng, Ellen J

    2014-04-01

    This study examined rates of referral for medication, individual psychotherapy, and group psychotherapy within a Veterans Affairs (VA) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) specialty mental health clinic. Participants were 388 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were referred for PTSD treatment following a mental health evaluation required for all new VA enrollees. The majority of the sample was referred for medication (79 %), with comparatively fewer referrals for individual (39 %) or group psychotherapy (24 %). Forty percent of participants were referred for combined medication and psychotherapy. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were examined to determine whether these variables predicted referral type. Female veterans and those with lower clinician ratings of overall functioning were more likely to be referred for individual therapy. Group psychotherapy referrals were more common in veterans who were older, unemployed, identified as an ethnic minority, and had a comorbid anxiety disorder. There were no significant predictors of medication referral.

  11. [Survey among academic teachers about psychiatric training in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Effenterre, A; Hanon, C; Llorca, P-M

    2014-06-01

    Given the results of resident psychiatrists' surveys conducted in France over the past 3 years, it has become essential to also examine the opinion of the academic psychiatrists in charge of psychiatry education. To study the teachers point of view on psychiatric training in France, the weaknesses and strengths of the training, recent improvements and problems, and to compare their opinion with that of the residents. A survey was conducted in April 2012 among 125 academic teachers professors hospital practitioners (PU-PH), in child & adolescent psychiatry and adult psychiatry. An anonymous online questionnaire including seven parts and three open questions was sent to the PU-PH. The questionnaire was answered by 79/125 psychiatric PU-PH (63%). Results show that a majority of PU-PH (78%) were willing to maintain a single training pathway including adult psychiatry and child psychiatry with a single diploma, with the addition of a DESC (specific and additional Diploma) in forensic psychiatry (72%) and old age psychiatry (62%). Almost all respondents suggested the implementation of an assessment of teaching and a formal mentorship program. Some aspects of training included more controversial issues: such as the length of the training, the opening of training to private practice physicians, or the European harmonization. The survey stressed some areas of improvement: such training in psychotherapy and research, access to supervision as well as barriers to improved training including an insufficient number of academic practitioners. Compared with other surveys, it emphasized that in addition to the need of diversifying the theoretical (thematic, interactive media and teaching, teachers, etc.) and the practical aspect (training sites), it is essential according to trainees and PU-PH, to implement an efficient supervision during residency. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement in young poor readers: a pragmatic cluster-randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Brandão de Ávila, Clara Regina; Ploubidis, George B; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [pread per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves, enough to make music lessons as public policy.

  13. The role of self-image as a predictor of psychotherapy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryum, Truls; Vogel, Patrick A; Walderhaug, Eirik P; Stiles, Tore C

    2015-02-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-image and outcome in psychotherapy. Patients (n = 170) received treatment-as-usual at a university clinic, and met diagnostic criteria for mostly anxiety and depression related disorders. Self-image was measured with the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB-I) introject pre and post-treatment. Using multiple regression analyses, higher levels of Self-ignore and Self-blame pre-treatment predicted a poorer treatment outcome in terms of symptoms (SCL-90-R) and interpersonal problems (IIP-64), respectively. Increase in Self-love and decrease in Self-blame (pre to post) predicted reduced symptoms at post-treatment, whereas decrease in Self-attack and Self-control, as well as increase in Self-affirm, predicted reduced interpersonal problems. The results suggest that self-image improvement may be important in order to achieve a good outcome in psychotherapy.

  14. Psychotherapy in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: implications for treatment and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and negative psychosocial consequences in adulthood. Previous trials of psychotherapeutic programs for adult ADHD were based on cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic approaches and showed significant effects. Targets of psychotherapeutic interventions include not only coping with the core symptoms and associated problems such as depression and anxiety, but also probable consequences such as low self-esteem. Improvements in ADHD symptomatology and associated symptoms have been reported after psychotherapeutic treatment. The support of other participants is strongly regarded as helpful by patients in group therapy. This manuscript provides an overview of psychotherapy approaches and results of studies evaluating programs developed to treat adults with ADHD. Finally, the specific requirements of psychotherapy for adult ADHD as well as further research questions will be discussed.

  15. Psychotropic medication from an object relations theory perspective: an analysis of vignettes from group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Dana Shindel; Sharon, Amos; Moscovici, Lucian; Schreiber, Shaul

    2008-07-01

    In this article we explore the content and dynamics of patients' verbalizations within a "living with medications" group. Patients' perceptions of their psychotropic medications are interpreted and classified within the framework of object relations theory. One's perception of the role of medication in one's life can serve as a gateway to one's inner world and the way that he or she perceives authority figures, peers, and oneself. We suggest that working through patients' relationships with their medications can help them to achieve better integration of internal object relations. Discussing patients' views about medications should therefore be seen as an important part of psychotherapy with many individuals. Such a discussion may enhance and improve efficacy of both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. It is of particular importance in group therapy, within milieu environments and with individuals reluctant to explicitly discuss interpersonal matters. Vignettes from the group sessions illustrate the way in which discussing medication advances group process.

  16. [Education in psychosomatic medicine/psychotherapy at German universities: a critical evaluation of the current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzer, M; Blaser, G; Schüppel, R; Kächele, H

    1995-08-01

    The integration of psychosomatics/psychotherapy into the medical curriculum has not yet resolved the majority of problems in conveying a bio-psycho-social perspective to medical students. A survey, conducted 1992/93 at the university departments of psychosomatics-psychotherapy in Germany yielded that there is no true integration of a bio-psycho-social perspective into the curriculum up until now. A second investigation with students of the university of Ulm in 1993 revealed that there is substantial variety in the quality of teaching and that improvement is possible with resources already available. Consequences with regard to changes to be expected by the 8th renewal of the present teaching regulations ("Approbationsordnung") are discussed. A pilot project aiming at the integration of preclinical and clinical aspects of the psychosocial aspects of medicine is outlined.

  17. A micro-process analysis of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy's mechanism of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M; Kanter, Jonathan W; Callaghan, Glenn M; Baruch, David E; Weeks, Cristal E; Berlin, Kristoffer S

    2009-09-01

    This study sought to clarify the micro-process of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) by using the Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) to code every client and therapist turn of speech over the course of successful treatment of an individual meeting diagnostic criteria for depression and histrionic personality disorder. Treatment consisted of cognitive behavioral therapy alone followed by the addition of FAP techniques in a unique A / A+B design. In-session client behavior improved following the shift to FAP techniques, and micro-process data suggested that client behavior was effectively shaped by in-vivo FAP procedures. These results support FAP's purported mechanisms of change and highlight the advantages of utilizing molecular coding systems to explore these mechanisms.

  18. Change in self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up after intensive multimodal psychotherapy for major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Nikendei, Christoph; Schauenburg, Henning

    2017-01-08

    Reduced self-esteem is a core symptom of depression, but few studies have investigated within-treatment change of self-esteem as a predictor of long-term outcome in depression. This study investigated change in self-esteem during 8 weeks of multimodal, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for 40 depressed patients and tested whether it would predict outcome 6 months after termination. Data was drawn from a randomized clinical pilot trial on day-clinic versus inpatient psychotherapy for depression. Findings supported the association between change in self-esteem and follow-up depression severity, even when controlling for within-treatment symptom change. Change in self-esteem was not related to overall symptoms and interpersonal problems at follow-up. Thus, change in self-esteem may be an important variable in preventing relapse for depression. Self-esteem is related to depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. Improvement of self-esteem during psychotherapy correlates with improvements of symptoms and interpersonal problems. Change of self-esteem during psychotherapy predicts depressive symptoms 6 months after termination of therapy. When treating depressed patients, psychotherapists should work towards an improvement of self-esteem in order to prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Improving academic performance of school-age children by physical activity in the classroom: 1-year program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-06-01

    An intervention was designed that combined physical activity with learning activities. It was based upon evidence for positive effects of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on academic achievement. The aim of this study was to describe the program implementation and effects on academic achievement after 1 year. Second- and third-grade classes of 6 elementary schools were included in the study. The intervention group participated in physically active academic lessons and the control group in regular classroom lessons. Implementation measures were obtained and the children were pretested and posttested on mathematics and reading. Teacher observations and self-reports indicated that the lessons were implemented as planned. Classroom observations showed that children's on-task behavior during the lessons was above 70%. On the basis of heart rate measures, on average 64% of the lesson time was spent in MVPA. Posttest mathematics and reading scores of third-grade children who participated in the intervention were significantly higher in comparison with control children. Posttest mathematics scores of second-grade children in the intervention condition were significantly lower in comparison with control children. The intervention program was successfully implemented and the lessons contributed to the academic outcomes of third-grade children. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  20. British Students' Academic Writing: Can Academia Help Improve the Writing Skills of Tomorrow's Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    The problem of poor academic writing among British university students is a major cause of concern for universities and their tutors; and it is also of concern to employers struggling to recruit individuals able to communicate clearly and accurately. This article reports on a study designed to highlight some of the reasons for the lack of writing…

  1. Extending the Classroom Walls: Using Academic Blogging as an Intervention Strategy to Improve Critical Literacy Skills with Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    "Academic blogging" is a way of extending the primary classroom walls and enhancing learning through collaborative reflective responses to open-ended questions from prescribed text. Students learn from each other, develop critical literacy skills, voice their opinions and ask questions through blogging. This pedagogical approach broaches…

  2. Lecture Attendance Is a Pivotal Factor for Improving Prospective Teachers' Academic Performance in Teaching and Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzhanova-Ericsson, Alla T.; Bergman, Christina; Dinnétz, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    The value and importance of lectures in higher education is part of a modern education discourse worldwide. This study aims to estimate the importance of lectures for prospective teachers of kindergarten, preschool and early primary school. We analysed academic achievements of prospective teachers who had either mandatorily or voluntarily attended…

  3. Lecture Attendance Is a Pivotal Factor for Improving Prospective Teachers' Academic Performance in Teaching and Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzhanova-Ericsson, Alla T.; Bergman, Christina; Dinnétz, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    The value and importance of lectures in higher education is part of a modern education discourse worldwide. This study aims to estimate the importance of lectures for prospective teachers of kindergarten, preschool and early primary school. We analysed academic achievements of prospective teachers who had either mandatorily or voluntarily attended…

  4. Improving Balance in Regression Discontinuity Design by Matching: Estimating the Effect of Academic Probation after the First Year of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Olivia L.; Dow, Aaron W.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on how matching, a method of preprocessing data prior to estimation and analysis, can be used to reduce imbalance between treatment and control group in regression discontinuity design. To examine the effects of academic probation on student outcomes, researchers replicate and expand upon research conducted by Lindo, Sanders,…

  5. Does Long-Term Medication Use Improve the Academic Outcomes of Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Becker, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) frequently experience academic impairment, including lower grades than their peers and elevated risk for grade retention and school dropout. Medication is the most commonly used treatment for youth with ADHD, and it is therefore essential to understand the extent to which medication use…

  6. Reviewing to Learn: Graduate Student Participation in the Professional Peer-Review Process to Improve Academic Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittum, Jessica R.; Bryant, Lauren H.

    2014-01-01

    Although expectations for graduate students' writing abilities are high, their actual writing skills are often subpar (Cuthbert & Spark, 2008; Singleton-Jackson, Lumsden, & Newson, 2009), even though academic writing is considered integral to graduate education and necessary for career preparedness (e.g., Mullen, 2006; Stevens, 2005).…

  7. Psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and urban poverty in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, Maria Esther

    2016-12-01

    Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, this paper examines the views of social actors on the psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy focused on marginalized populations. From Foucault's perspective on the forms of truth-telling, the aim of this paper is to analyze, as a preliminary research report, treatments according to the native ways of speaking and listening, which dominate the description of therapeutic experiences of patients who come to the treatment without any professional intermediation. The neoliberal transformations of the past decades in Argentina changed both the landscape of the public health system and the daily lives of marginalized people. Considering such changes, this paper examines the ways in which verbal actions (speaking and listening) take place in psychotherapy and mark the course not only of treatments but also the temporal rhythms of their development, and their various levels of efficacy. Finally, the discussion focuses on how ways of speaking and listening in treatments are modeled not only by institutional dynamics but also by the characteristics these verbal activities take in everyday life under the logics of power that prevail over them.

  8. [New Developments in Video Games for Psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    A literature survey on new developments in the area of video games and psychotherapy of children and adolescents was conducted. Despite the omnipresence of computers and the internet, development of therapeutic games seems rather slow. The video game Treasure Hunt was introduced in 2008 to support treatment of children with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Camp Cope-A-Lot was developed for treatment of anxious children, whereas the self-help game SPARX is directed at depressed adolescents. Rage-Control is a biofeedback game for children with anger problems. The game Zoo U aims to assess and train social skills of primary school children. Ricky and the Spider for young children with obsessive compulsive disorder is meant to support the cognitive-behavioural treatment of these patients. Clash- Back is a French game for adolescents with externalizing problems. Possible reasons for the relatively slow development of therapeutic games are the high methodological demands concerning an evaluation as well as the high costs of game development. Nonetheless, computers and the internet are bound to influence psychotherapy with children and adolescents in the long run.

  9. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eBorgeat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST.Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy.

  10. Religious Cognitive-Emotional Therapy :A New Form of Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Rajaei

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nFrom the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role ,and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health ; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies . Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific ,comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested . Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis , depression , and anxiety ; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well . Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.

  11. Religious cognitive-emotional therapy: a new form of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Ali Reza

    2010-01-01

    From the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role, and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies. Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific, comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested. Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET) is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis, depression, and anxiety; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well. Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.

  12. Religious Cognitive–Emotional Therapy: A New Form of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    From the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role, and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies. Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific, comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested. Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET) is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis, depression, and anxiety; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well. Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area. PMID:22952497

  13. Clinical Research of Acupuncture Adding Psychotherapy in Treating Essential Hypertension%针刺结合心理干预治疗原发性高血压的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀; 刘旭光; 董湘玉; 刘瑶; 许建阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effection of acupuncture adding psychotherapy controlling Essential Hypertension, validate its therapeutic effection and supply the academic gist for the new way to treat Essential Hypertension and a therapy-measure of psychology. Methods: 42 Essential Hypertension were randomly recruited and divided into 3 groups: A (the group of acupuncture adding psychotherapy) , B (the group of acupuncture treatment ) , C (the group of medicine ) , the therapeutic time is 8weeks. All the three groups patient completed the diagram of the blood pressure figure and SDS and SAS. Results: The therapy of every group could all effectively control blood pressure. Acupuncture adding psychotherapy was superior to acupuncture treatment in the aspect of controlling blood pressure. Acupuncture adding psychotherapy and single using medicine did nearly the same effect in the aspect of controlling blood pressure. By respectively comparing of before therapy and after therapy about SAS and SDS, indicating that acupuncture adding psychotherapy could ameliorate SAS and SDS, but the acupuncture treatment and single medicine could not ameliorate. Conclusion: Using the ways of acupuncture adding psychotherapy could effectively control blood pressure and improve negative e-motions and suitable for patients with mild-to-moderate primary hypertension.%目的:通过应用针刺和心理干预相结合的方法治疗原发性高血压,证实其治疗原发性高血压的临床疗效,提供一种有效的心理治疗与躯体治疗相结合的心身综合治疗方法.方法:选取42例原发性高血压病人随机分为A组(针刺结合心理治疗组)、B组(针刺治疗组)、C组(西药治疗对照组),每组14人,疗程为8 w.3组的临床疗效通过血压和抑郁、焦虑自评量表评估.结果:3组治疗都能有效地控制血压.针刺结合心理治疗组对血压控制疗效要优于针刺治疗组.针刺结合心理治疗组与西药治

  14. Attention-memory training yields behavioral and academic improvements in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid with a learning disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Antonio Carlos; Cordeiro, Mara L; Felden, Erico Pg; Bara, Tiago S; Benko, Cássia R; Coutinho, Daniele; Martins, Leandra F; Ferreira, Rosilda Tc; McCracken, James T

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may benefit from computerized cognitive training. Therapy implementation is especially complicated when ADHD is associated with learning disorders (LDs). This study tested the efficacy of a computer-based cognitive training program, namely, computerized cognitive training (CCT), in children with ADHD comorbid with an LD (ADHD-LD), with or without psychostimulant medication. After diagnostic evaluations, 27 children with ADHD-LD (8 unmedicated and 19 medicated) participated in CCT, which is intended to improve attention, memory, reasoning, visual processing, and executive functioning. The participants completed 24 1-hour sessions over 3 months. Neuropsychometric and standardized academic test results before and after training were compared to assess treatment efficacy. Shapiro-Wilk normality tests were applied, and subsequent Wilcoxon tests were used to identify significant differences in pre-versus post-training performance. After CAT, children diagnosed with ADHD-LD showed 1) improvements in trained skills, measured directly within the software and indirectly by external psychometric tests; 2) improvements in attention, memory, and some executive functioning; 3) improvements in academic performance, particularly in mathematics; and 4) reductions in maladaptive behavioral features. The present findings suggest that cognitive training programs should be explored further as potential adjunctive therapies to improve outcomes in children with ADHD-LD.

  15. Academic Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  16. The application of Peplau's theory to group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lego, S

    1998-06-01

    This paper illustrates the application of Hildegard Peplau's Interpersonal Theory of Nursing to group psychotherapy. The phases of the nurse-patient relationship, including orientation, identification, exploitation and resolution, are described as they relate to group psychotherapy, and clinical examples are presented. The clinical examples also demonstrate the patient's movement in group therapy through the steps of the learning process: observation, description, analysis, formulation, validation, testing, integration and utilization. Finally, the roles of the nurse including stranger, resource person, teacher, leader, surrogate and counsellor are described as they occur in group psychotherapy.

  17. Directive approach for Chinese clients receiving psychotherapy: Is that really a priority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Ting Connie eNg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature often suggests that Chinese people prefer directive approaches in therapy. However, studies on this topic are often based on therapists’ self-reports: clients’ perceptions are rarely considered. What does directive approach mean? Is it what clients prefer? Using cultural psychology and medical anthropology as a theoretical framework, the ethnography explored the experience of psychotherapy from Chinese clients’ perspectives. Specifically, using ethnographic interview, eight informants, two male and six female, ranging in age from 40 to 55, were interviewed twice in-depth about their experiences of seeing Chinese therapists. All informants are Chinese immigrants who reside in a major Canadian city and saw at least one Chinese therapist in a community counselling agency within one year prior to the interview. In the first interview, informants created groups of cards describing a list of hypothesized cultural knowledge regarding psychotherapy. After initial data analysis, the cards were presented to the informants in the second interviews, in which they confirmed and/or rejected the hypotheses by grouping, reorganizing, and ranking the cards. In the end each informant created a number of mind-maps with the cards, which served as a representation of informants’ psychological reality of psychotherapy based on their ordinary language. The maps were then further analysed for themes among informants. Results suggest that clients appreciate therapists who give homework, analyse their problems, talk about strategies that other clients have found useful, chat, and provide resources. Results also highlight informants’ understanding of their own responsibility for the therapeutic relationship which has never been documented before and has important clinical implications.

  18. "Directive approach" for chinese clients receiving psychotherapy: is that really a priority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi Ting Connie; James, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The academic literature often suggests that Chinese people prefer directive approaches in therapy. However, studies on this topic are often based on therapists' self-reports: clients' perceptions are rarely considered. What does "directive approach" mean? Is it what clients prefer? Using cultural psychology and medical anthropology as a theoretical framework, the ethnography explored the experience of psychotherapy from Chinese clients' perspectives. Specifically, using ethnographic interview, eight informants, two male and six female, ranging in age from 40 to 55, were interviewed twice in-depth about their experiences of seeing Chinese therapists. All informants are Chinese immigrants who reside in a major Canadian city and saw at least one Chinese therapist in a community counseling agency within 1 year prior to the interview. In the first interview, informants created group of cards describing a list of hypothesized cultural knowledge regarding psychotherapy. After initial data analysis, the cards were presented to the informants in the second interviews, in which they confirmed and/or rejected the hypotheses by grouping, reorganizing, and ranking the cards. In the end each informant created a number of mind-maps with the cards, which served as a representation of informants' psychological reality of psychotherapy based on their ordinary language. The maps were then further analyzed for themes among informants. Results suggest that clients appreciate therapists who "give homework," "analyze their problems," "talk about strategies that other clients have found useful," "chat," and "provide resources." Results also highlight informants' understanding of their own responsibility for the therapeutic relationship which has never been documented before and has important clinical implications.

  19. “Directive Approach” for Chinese Clients Receiving Psychotherapy: Is That Really a Priority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi Ting Connie; James, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The academic literature often suggests that Chinese people prefer directive approaches in therapy. However, studies on this topic are often based on therapists’ self-reports: clients’ perceptions are rarely considered. What does “directive approach” mean? Is it what clients prefer? Using cultural psychology and medical anthropology as a theoretical framework, the ethnography explored the experience of psychotherapy from Chinese clients’ perspectives. Specifically, using ethnographic interview, eight informants, two male and six female, ranging in age from 40 to 55, were interviewed twice in-depth about their experiences of seeing Chinese therapists. All informants are Chinese immigrants who reside in a major Canadian city and saw at least one Chinese therapist in a community counseling agency within 1 year prior to the interview. In the first interview, informants created group of cards describing a list of hypothesized cultural knowledge regarding psychotherapy. After initial data analysis, the cards were presented to the informants in the second interviews, in which they confirmed and/or rejected the hypotheses by grouping, reorganizing, and ranking the cards. In the end each informant created a number of mind-maps with the cards, which served as a representation of informants’ psychological reality of psychotherapy based on their ordinary language. The maps were then further analyzed for themes among informants. Results suggest that clients appreciate therapists who “give homework,” “analyze their problems,” “talk about strategies that other clients have found useful,” “chat,” and “provide resources.” Results also highlight informants’ understanding of their own responsibility for the therapeutic relationship which has never been documented before and has important clinical implications. PMID:23408043

  20. Academic member’s knowledge improvement effect on the results of multiple choice questions in residency exams analysis (2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Pourmirza Kalhori; Farah Roshanpour; Mansour Rezaei; Arsalan Naderipour

    2011-01-01

    Background: Multiple choice questions are used for evaluation of learning in promotion residency exams. Due to holding these exams in a standard way, we conducted this study to evaluate the effect of board members, promotion scholarship who designed the questions on these exams results in 2009.Methods: A semi experimental research was designed and 105 exam boards of academic members were studied. The results of promotion exams analysis in 2008 plus a tripartite pamphlet for developing standar...

  1. Academic member’s knowledge improvement effect on the results of multiple choice questions in residency exams analysis (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pourmirza Kalhori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple choice questions are used for evaluation of learning in promotion residency exams. Due to holding these exams in a standard way, we conducted this study to evaluate the effect of board members, promotion scholarship who designed the questions on these exams results in 2009.Methods: A semi experimental research was designed and 105 exam boards of academic members were studied. The results of promotion exams analysis in 2008 plus a tripartite pamphlet for developing standard exams were sent to all. Quantity data was collected by discrimination index, difficulty level, standard deviation and Reliability of test index (KR20, computer report of health ministry analyzing software, and the quality data by percent of Taxonomy II & III questions and report questions from the secretariat of medical educational salinity. Data was analyzed by Even and independent T test and variance analysis.Results: Data from 11 different academic groups were compared. A statistically significant increase was observed among average of distinction index, exam reliability, percent of questions without structural defects and Taxonomy II & III in 2008 compared to 2009 results (p=0.05. The highest difficulty level was related to questions of urology promotion test 0.54 (p=0.005 and the lowest in psychiatry group 0.69 (p=0.013. The most percent rise in the discrimination index was in the psychiatry group.Conclusions: This study suggested that medical academic members, scholarship promotion increase by using an educational pamphlet and providing feedback of results from previous exams.

  2. Dynamics of the psychological features and clinical symptoms in mitral valve prolapse patients receiving long-term integrative psychotherapy for anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko Y.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of the psychological features and clinical symptoms in mitral valve prolapse (MVP patients receiving long-term integrative psychotherapy for anxiety disorders (AD and to investigate the psychological factors of their improvement in mental health as a result of psychotherapy. Thirty-two MVP patients with AD attended long-term integrative psychotherapy. Psychological and clinical examinations of the patients were made before and after the therapy courses and in a follow-up study after 2, 5, and 10 years. Data from the study show that 78.1% of the patients who attended psychotherapy sessions demonstrated valid improvements in self-rated psychological well-being and a reduction in their anxiety levels. Analysis of emotion-regulation strategies showed that psychotherapy encouraged the use of strategies effective for solving adaptive tasks. Positive dynamics in the development of personality reflection, the recognition of one’s emotional experiences, improved skills of self-regulation, and growing awareness of actual needs, individual purposes, and personality resources—all were associated with the reduction of MVP clinical symptoms. The psychiatrist who interviewed the patients reported that most of them were in sustained remission.

  3. Family group psychotherapy to support the disclosure of HIV status to children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Emanuele; Continisio, Grazia Isabella; Storace, Cinzia; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Mango, Carmela; Liguoro, Ilaria; Guarino, Alfredo; Officioso, Annunziata

    2013-06-01

    Disclosure of the HIV status to infected children is often delayed due to psychosocial problems in their families. We aimed at improving the quality of life in families of HIV-infected children, thus promoting disclosure of the HIV status to children by parents. Parents of 17 HIV-infected children (4.2-18 years) followed at our Center for pediatric HIV, unaware of their HIV status, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (8 monthly sessions of family group psychotherapy, FGP) or to the control group not receiving psychotherapy. Changes in the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB-I) and in the Short-Form State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Sf-STAI), as well as the HIV status disclosure to children by parents, were measured. Ten parents were assigned to the FGP group, while 7 parents to the controls. Psychological well-being increased in 70% of the FGP parents and none of the control group (p=0.017), while anxiety decreased in the FGP group but not in controls (60% vs. 0%, p=0.03). HIV disclosure took place for 6/10 children of the intervention group and for 1/7 of controls. Family group psychotherapy had a positive impact on the environment of HIV-infected children, promoting psychological well-being and the disclosure of the HIV status to children.

  4. Response to psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: the role of pretreatment verbal memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2015-08-01

    Neuropsychological studies have consistently demonstrated impaired verbal memory in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma-focused treatment for PTSD is thought to rely on memory, but it is largely unknown whether treatment outcome is influenced by memory performance. The aim of the study, therefore, was to examine the relationship between verbal memory performance and treatment response to trauma-focused psychotherapy. Participants were referred to our outpatient clinic and recruited between December 2003 and January 2009 upon diagnosis of PTSD according to DSM-IV. Secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial comparing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (n = 70) and brief eclectic psychotherapy (n = 70), a cognitive-behavioral intervention, are reported. Response to treatment was measured by self-reported PTSD symptom severity (Impact of Event Scale-Revised) over 17 weeks. Pretreatment verbal memory measures (California Verbal Learning Test, Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test) were included in the mixed linear model analyses in order to investigate the influence of memory on treatment outcome. Pretreatment encoding, short-term retrieval, long-term retrieval, and recognition performance were significantly associated with treatment response in terms of self-reported PTSD symptom severity for both treatments (P ≤ .013). Receiver operating characteristic curves predicting treatment response with pretreatment memory indices showed that 75.6% of the patients could be correctly classified as responder. Poor verbal memory performance represents a risk factor for worse treatment response to trauma-focused psychotherapy. Memory measures can be helpful in determining which patients are unable to benefit from trauma-focused psychotherapy. Future research should explore how treatment perspectives of patients with poor verbal memory can be improved. ISRCTN.com identifier: ISRCTN64872147. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. The Psychotherapy Process with Adolescents: A First Pilot Study and Preliminary Comparisons between Different Therapeutic Modalities Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkova, Tetyana; Hillman, Saul; Midgley, Nick; Schneider, Celeste

    2011-01-01

    An innovative methodology is presented for describing the therapeutic processes involved in five types of adolescent treatments: psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, mentalisation-based treatment and interpersonal psychotherapy. Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set" (APQ), 18 experienced clinicians…

  6. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  7. Examining the Therapeutic Relationship and Confronting Resistances in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Julie P.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2011-01-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite case illustrates some of the psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be employed in a psychotherapy case. In this example, the case is about a certified public accountant that came to treatment because of an acute stressor that put her career goals at risk. An acute episode or event can bring to light chronic and ongoing symptoms, which have had a remitting and relapsing course, and leave the patient unable to compensate on his or her own. PMID:21686147

  8. Verbal Response Mode Use by Clients in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, William B.; Sultan, Faye E.

    1979-01-01

    Verbal behavior in transcripts of psychotherapy was coded according to Stile's taxonomy of verbal response modes. Therapists of different theoretical persuasions used different mixtures of verbal techniques. Common elements that make verbal interaction psychologically therapeutic lie in client behavior. (Author)

  9. Gestalt psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of borderline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the use of Gestalt psychotherapy in the treatment of BPD patients. The authors ... psychological tests showed difficulties in social communication and adjustment, as .... impairments in reasoning, personality, movement, speech, social graces ...

  10. New medical psychotherapy CPT coding: the tail wagging the dog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2013-03-01

    The implications of the 2013 revised current procedural terminology (CPT) system for coding psychotherapy with medical evaluation and management (E&M) are discussed. The author expresses concern about a potential devaluing of psychotherapy because of the required order of reporting combined codes, with E&M the primary code. Procedural and documentation requirements for using the standard medical E&M codes challenge psychiatrists to be systematic and efficient in order not to interfere with time and attention essential to an effective psychotherapy process. Insensitive use of computers when working with patients can damage rapport and progress. The trend toward sharing personal health information in large systems calls for heightened discretion. Using the psychotherapy notes protected under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) for highly sensitive personal information is essential to preserve patient privacy.

  11. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Eugenie Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  12. Analysis of transference in Gestalt group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, J E

    1990-04-01

    In Gestalt therapy, transference is viewed as a contact boundary disturbance which impairs the patient's ability to accurately perceive the present therapy situation. The boundary disturbances in Gestalt therapy most closely related to the analytic notion of transference are projection, introjection, and confluence. In Gestalt group psychotherapy, group members interfere with the process of need identification and satisfaction by distorting their contact with each other through projecting, introjecting, and being confluent. The Gestalt group therapist uses interventions directed to individuals and to the group to increase participants' awareness of these boundary disturbances and of the present contact opportunities available to them when these disturbances are resolved. In formulating interventions, the leader is mindful of the function of boundary disturbances to the group-as-a-whole as well as to individuals.

  13. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  14. Introduction: Science, Sexuality, and Psychotherapy: Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Armand R

    2017-08-01

    This introduction presents an overview of the current issue (73, 8) of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session. This issue features a series of articles, with clinical cases, each presented to illustrate the challenges faced by individuals and couples whose sexual and gender identities and expressions do not comport with traditional and cultural norms. These articles also document the challenges to the therapists who treat them. Considered individually, each article underscores the need to recognize the importance of evidence in guiding psychotherapy in cases involving sexuality. The discussions in each article offer recommendations meant to help and guide psychotherapists. Considered collectively, they raise important questions and considerations about shifting paradigms of human sexuality. Implications for assessment and treatment of cases involving sexuality and gender identity are discussed and recommended. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Use of Dreams in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Bohusch, Claudia; Kahl, Johanna; Mader, Andrea; Somesan, Alexandra

    2000-01-01

    Since the publication of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, dream interpretation has been a standard technique often used in psychotherapy. However, empirical studies about the frequency of working on dreams in therapy are lacking. The present study elicited, via a self-developed questionnaire, various aspects of work on dreams applied by psychotherapists in private practice. The findings indicate that dreams were often used in therapy, especially in psychoanalysis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of the therapists' working on their own dreams and frequency of work on dreams in therapy. Because work on dreams was rated as beneficial for the clients, further studies investigating the effectiveness and the process of working on dreams will be of interest. PMID:10793127

  16. The right brain is dominant in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses how recent studies of the right brain, which is dominant for the implicit, nonverbal, intuitive, holistic processing of emotional information and social interactions, can elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the relational foundations of psychotherapy. Utilizing the interpersonal neurobiological perspective of regulation theory, I describe the fundamental role of the early developing right brain in relational processes, throughout the life span. I present interdisciplinary evidence documenting right brain functions in early attachment processes, in emotional communications within the therapeutic alliance, in mutual therapeutic enactments, and in therapeutic change processes. This work highlights the fact that the current emphasis on relational processes is shared by, cross-fertilizing, and indeed transforming both psychology and neuroscience, with important consequences for clinical psychological models of psychotherapeutic change.

  17. Psychotherapy as a rite of passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beels, C Christian

    2007-12-01

    Some psychotherapies may work because they resemble rites of passage. To explore this idea, this article describes an "individual" case of depression in which drug, cognitive, and narrative approaches fell short of effectiveness, and change occurred in a series of experiences that resemble a rite of passage. This resemblance is illuminated by examining two apparently quite different healing processes--Alcoholics Anonymous and multifamily group therapy in schizophrenia--to explore the elements they have in common with the case described: the acceptance of what Victor Turner called a liminal experience, and the importance of witnesses to the ritual support for that acceptance. The discussion contributes to a loosening of the distinctions between the processes of individual, family, group, and other social therapies and leads to questions about the expert knowledge the therapist provides.

  18. [Brief psychotherapy in clinical medicine patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, M

    1992-01-01

    The criteria that "illness is biographical crisis od the individual" and that the only medicine is "personal medicine" is stressed. Clinical medicine, which covers medicine in its entirety, demands conceptual and doctrinal reaffirmations so that gradually the patient can come to be dealt with as a human being fron a holistic point of view, which commences with his complaint and consultation, continues with the interview and semiology, to finish with the diagnosis and therapy which, although in some cases it may be surgical, is still medical and integral. All the steps mentioned are bio-socio-cultural thus, whether in the practice of general clinical medicine or in the most specialized and technologically sophisticated clinical medicine, the animist component is not lacking and demands a minimum degree of "psychosomatic" Knowledge. The use of a psychotherapeutic technique is proposed which, while based on the psychoanalysis theory, is distanced technically from it as a "psychotherapy on limited time and goals", which abbreviates the disease, and is projected not as the "focus" of therapeutic work, but as a re-evaluation of the "life style" of each individual, and tends to help to develop a "project for life" suited to the possible personal, familiar and social well-being of the "patient". Technically speaking, this modality of brief psychotherapy is based on the nonuse of transferential interpretations, on impeding the regression od the patient, on facilitating a cognitice-affective development of his conflicts and thus obtain an internal object mutation which allows the transformation of the "past" into true history, and the "present" into vital perspectives. This technique is within reach of every health professional.

  19. Improving the quality of health services organization structure by reengineering: circular design and clinical case impact in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartin-Drake, J M; Curran, C; Gillis-Donovan, J; Kruger, N R; Ziegenfuss, J T; Ostrem, J; Zanotti, M

    1996-01-01

    Innovation to improve the quality of structure and process in health care organization is reported in this case example of change in an academic medical center. Interactive planning and the circular organization design concept were the driving principles and methods. This report presents the needs for and initial obstructions to change, planning and project design work, a description of the change process, and illustrative accomplishments to date--two cases, one of conscious sedation policy and one of nuisance pages. Evaluative criteria for judging the progress and lessons of the project regarding key design characteristics also are included.

  20. Applications of Mindfulness in Psychotherapy – Contemporary Dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Škodlar, Borut

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness has without doubt been the fastest spreading and most popular concept in psychotherapy in the last two decades. Its influence exceeds that of any other individual concept or approach in modern psychotherapy. However, there are many dilemmas, open questions and controversies related to this rapid, almost fanatic spread, which obviously compensates for a certain lack in modern Euro- and Americo-centric societies. Similarly, we are witnessing in the West a lack of reflection, a proce...

  1. PSYCHOTHERAPY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY Psychotherapy is being increasingly recognised as an important treatment modality for various mental health problems. However, minimal efforts have been made to examine the utility of psychotherapy from the public health perspective, especially for developing countries. This paper outlines the present situation in developing countries with respect to the magnitude of mental health and related problems requiring psychotherapeutic help, the existing health and mental health facilities, ...

  2. Sport psychiatry and psychotherapy. Mental strains and disorders in professional sports. Challenge and answer to societal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markser, Valentin Z

    2011-11-01

    Professional athletes are subject to massive somatic, social, and mental stress. Despite great public interest for athletic achievements, the emotional strains thereof are very poorly investigated and discussed. The main reason for this is the widespread assumption that only emotionally very strong athletes are able to compete at the highly professional level and therefore mental disorders do not exist in professional sports. But available research data about the prevalence of mental disorders in this area suggest that this hypothesis must be revised. With respect to depression and the overtraining syndrome, attempts have been made to demonstrate the difficulties with etiology, diagnostics, and treatment for sports psychiatry and psychotherapy. Scientifically, sport psychiatry and psychotherapy can be defined as a discipline, whose focus is the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the extreme and sports-specific emotional strains and disorders. In addition to sport psychology, which focuses mainly on performance enhancement, mental stress, and disorders can hereby be recognized, disorders be treated and the athletic performance sustained. With the foundation of the Task Force for Sports Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, scientific research, further education, prevention, and treatment for mental disorders in professional sports will be improved.

  3. Review of the Research on Ecological Psychotherapy%生态心理治疗研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安倩

    2015-01-01

    In academia, psychologists hold that the real obtain-ment of happiness and health cannot be realized merely relying on certain principle or method, instead, it needs the comprehen-sive consideration of human and nature, using psychotherapy methods to improve and solve the ecological crisis of the contem-porary worlds. Thus, ecological psychotherapy formed. In view of the development status of ecological psychotherapy, this paper will analyze the definition, characteristics, history and current situation, value, ecological self and treatment methods of ecologi-cal psychotherapy.%在学术界,心理学家认为人们要想获得真正的幸福和健康,并不能单独依靠某种原理或方法,而是要与自然综合考虑,利用心理治疗的方法来改善、解决当今世界存在的生态危机.由此,逐步衍生出了生态心理治疗这一理论.针对生态心理治疗发展状况,本文将从生态心理治疗概念、特点、历史与现状、价值、生态自我及治疗方法加以分析.

  4. [FUNCTIONAL ANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY: APPROACHES AND SCOPE OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY BASED ON CHANGES IN THE THERAPEUTIC CONTEXT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in context. FAP is characterized by use therapeutic relationship and the behaviors emit into it to improve clients daily life functioning. This therapeutic model is supported in behavior analysis principles and contextual functionalism philosophy. FAP proposes that clients behavior in session are functional equivalent with those out of session; therefore, when therapists respond to clients behaviors in session contingently, they promote and increase improvements in the natural setting. This article poses main features of FAP, its philosophical roots, achievements and research challenges to establish FAP as an independent treatment based on the evidence.

  5. [Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Approaches and scope of behavior therapy based on changes in the therapeutic context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in 'third wave therapies' context. FAP is characterized by use therapeutic relationship and the behaviors emit into it to improve clients daily life functioning. This therapeutic model is supported in behavior analysis principles and contextual functionalism philosophy. FAP proposes that clients behavior in session are functional equivalent with those out of session; therefore, when therapists respond to clients behaviors in session contingently, they promote and increase improvements in the natural setting. This article poses main features of FAP, its philosophical roots, achievements and research challenges to establish FAP as an independent treatment based on the evidence.

  6. HELPFUL ASPECTS OF THE THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP IN INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Urška Modic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a qualitative study of helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship in Integrative Psychotherapy. Participants of the study were sixteen clients who were in the process of Integrative Psychotherapy for at least a year. Participants were interviewed with the adapted version of the Change Interview (Elliott, 1999, which involves a semi-structured empathic exploration of the client's experience in therapy. The analysis of the clients’ experience of Integrative Psychotherapy revealed six categories of helpful aspects of therapeutic relationship: the therapist’s empathic attunement, the therapist’s acceptance, the match between the client and the therapist, feelings of trust and safety, feeling of connection, and experience of a new relational experience. Based on results of the research, we developed a model of the healing relationship in integrative psychotherapy. This model describes the interrelatedness of these six helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship. The categories of empathic attunement and acceptance proved to be the most important categories relating to the therapist’s contribution to the healing therapeutic relationship. Clients described that the therapist’s empathic attunement and acceptance influenced the development of safety and trust, feelings of connection and promotion of new relational experiences. The results of this study are discussed in relation to the theories of Integrative Psychotherapy and research regarding the therapeutic relationship in psychotherapy.

  7. Effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement in young poor readers: a pragmatic cluster-randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cogo-Moreira

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age with reading difficulties. METHOD: 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114, and five served as controls (n = 121. Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT, and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE estimation method, which took compliance status into account. RESULTS: The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]. As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children, more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year. CONCLUSION: The results may be seen as promising, but they are not

  8. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  9. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  10. Implementing multifactorial psychotherapy research in online virtual environments (IMPROVE-2: study protocol for a phase III trial of the MOST randomized component selection method for internet cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Watkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a global health challenge. Although there are effective psychological and pharmaceutical interventions, our best treatments achieve remission rates less than 1/3 and limited sustained recovery. Underpinning this efficacy gap is limited understanding of how complex psychological interventions for depression work. Recent reviews have argued that the active ingredients of therapy need to be identified so that therapy can be made briefer, more potent, and to improve scalability. This in turn requires the use of rigorous study designs that test the presence or absence of individual therapeutic elements, rather than standard comparative randomised controlled trials. One such approach is the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, which uses efficient experimentation such as factorial designs to identify active factors in complex interventions. This approach has been successfully applied to behavioural health but not yet to mental health interventions. Methods/Design A Phase III randomised, single-blind balanced fractional factorial trial, based in England and conducted on the internet, randomized at the level of the patient, will investigate the active ingredients of internet cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for depression. Adults with depression (operationalized as PHQ-9 score ≥ 10, recruited directly from the internet and from an UK National Health Service Improving Access to Psychological Therapies service, will be randomized across seven experimental factors, each reflecting the presence versus absence of specific treatment components (activity scheduling, functional analysis, thought challenging, relaxation, concreteness training, absorption, self-compassion training using a 32-condition balanced fractional factorial design (2IV 7-2. The primary outcome is symptoms of depression (PHQ-9 at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of anxiety and process measures related to hypothesized mechanisms

  11. Academic Jibberish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about academic jibberish. Alfie Kohn states that a great deal of academic writing is incomprehensible even to others in the same area of scholarship. Academic Jibberish may score points for the writer but does not help research or practice. The author discusses jibberish as a career strategy that impresses those…

  12. Academic writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  13. Resting-state connectivity predictors of response to psychotherapy in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Andrew; Smoski, Moria J; Minkel, Jared; Moore, Tyler; Gibbs, Devin; Petty, Chris; Bizzell, Josh; Schiller, Crystal Edler; Sideris, John; Carl, Hannah; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2015-06-01

    Despite the heterogeneous symptom presentation and complex etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), functional neuroimaging studies have shown with remarkable consistency that dysfunction in mesocorticolimbic brain systems are central to the disorder. Relatively less research has focused on the identification of biological markers of response to antidepressant treatment that would serve to improve the personalized delivery of empirically supported antidepressant interventions. In the present study, we investigated whether resting-state functional brain connectivity (rs-fcMRI) predicted response to Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression, an empirically validated psychotherapy modality designed to increase engagement with rewarding stimuli and reduce avoidance behaviors. Twenty-three unmedicated outpatients with MDD and 20 matched nondepressed controls completed rs-fcMRI scans after which the MDD group received an average of 12 sessions of psychotherapy. The mean change in Beck Depression Inventory-II scores after psychotherapy was 12.04 points, a clinically meaningful response. Resting-state neuroimaging data were analyzed with a seed-based approach to investigate functional connectivity with four canonical resting-state networks: the default mode network, the dorsal attention network, the executive control network, and the salience network. At baseline, the MDD group was characterized by relative hyperconnectivity of multiple regions with precuneus, anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex seeds and by relative hypoconnectivity with intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, and dACC seeds. Additionally, connectivity of the precuneus with the left middle temporal gyrus and connectivity of the dACC with the parahippocampal gyrus predicted the magnitude of pretreatment MDD symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that response to psychotherapy in the MDD group was predicted by pretreatment

  14. Lipid levels in dissociative disorders: effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsa, Cristian; Lazignac, Coralie; Miller, Nick; Maris, Susanne; Adam, Eric; Rossignon, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    Although there are several data suggesting a link between lower lipids levels and the risk of suicide, there are few data concerning lower lipids levels in patients with dissociative disorders (DD). This is the first longitudinal study investigating the evolution of the lipids levels during a specific 8 weeks of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PP) for patients with DD. 32 patients diagnosed with DD (SCID for DSMIVR) were assessed with Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Clinical Global Impression and Improvement Scale and their lipids levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein) were measured at inclusion and after 3 and 8 weeks of PP. 30 patients finished the study. There is a significant positive (p dissociation (DES scores) at the beginning and at the end of the study. Interestingly, we found a significant (p = 0.018) positive link between the reduction of the dissociation (DES) and the increase of the triglycerides levels after 8 weeks of treatment. While lower lipids seems related to a higher level of dissociation before and after the treatment, an increasing triglycerides level was observed after 8 weeks of PP in patients with a better outcome. Further studies are needed with larger samples and control groups, in order to confirm these preliminary data. These findings could open the way for hypothesis about the role of lipids in the pathophysiology of DD and raise the question of the patients with DD receiving antilipidemiants agents.

  15. Clinical Thanatology and Psychotherapy: Some Reflections on Caring for the Dying Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenberg, Loma; Shneidman, Edwin S.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the relationship between psychotherapy and clinical thanatology relative to working with dying patients and their survivors. Eight special characteristics of thanatological exchanges are explained including comments on time, transference, aspirations, and empathy. Conversation, heirarchical exchange, psychotherapy, and thanatological…

  16. Client attachment security predicts alliance in a randomized controlled trial of two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relation between clients’ attachment patterns and the therapeutic alliance in two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa. Method: Data derive from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for bulimia...

  17. Family Group Psychotherapy to Support the Disclosure of HIV Status to Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Nicastro, Emanuele; Continisio, Grazia Isabella; Storace, Cinzia; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Mango, Carmela; Liguoro, Ilaria; Guarino, Alfredo; Officioso, Annunziata

    2013-01-01

    Disclosure of the HIV status to infected children is often delayed due to psychosocial problems in their families. We aimed at improving the quality of life in families of HIV-infected children, thus promoting disclosure of the HIV status to children by parents. Parents of 17 HIV-infected children (4.2–18 years) followed at our Center for pediatric HIV, unaware of their HIV status, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (8 monthly sessions of family group psychotherapy, FGP) or to t...

  18. Glucocorticoids enhance extinction-based psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Bolt, Olivia C; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Margraf, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2011-04-19

    Behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders is believed to rely on fear extinction. Because preclinical studies have shown that glucocorticoids can promote extinction processes, we aimed at investigating whether the administration of these hormones might be useful in enhancing exposure therapy. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 40 patients with specific phobia for heights were treated with three sessions of exposure therapy using virtual reality exposure to heights. Cortisol (20 mg) or placebo was administered orally 1 h before each of the treatment sessions. Subjects returned for a posttreatment assessment 3-5 d after the last treatment session and for a follow-up assessment after 1 mo. Adding cortisol to exposure therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in fear of heights as measured with the acrophobia questionnaire (AQ) both at posttreatment and at follow-up, compared with placebo. Furthermore, subjects receiving cortisol showed a significantly greater reduction in acute anxiety during virtual exposure to a phobic situation at posttreatment and a significantly smaller exposure-induced increase in skin conductance level at follow-up. The present findings indicate that the administration of cortisol can enhance extinction-based psychotherapy.

  19. Exorcism and possession in psychotherapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J

    1982-03-01

    There has been an evolution in the layman's concept of mental disorder. Medieval belief in possession by demons and witches gave way to a 19th century medical model and more recently classical psychoanalytic formulations. Concurrently professional helping endeavor has moved increasingly from a more traditionally medical to psychotherapeutic process, and from a classical psychotherapeutic process wherein the therapist remained to a degree unresponsive and detached to a more modern emphasis on such qualities as empathy, sensitivity, reliability, and optimism as ingredients of successful psychotherapeutic practice. Freud's account of Haizmann's demonological neurosis usefully formulates the possession concept in psychological terms. However, recent developments in psychotherapeutic practice argue for a validity in the possession model of psychological distress. The possessing forces of object relations psychology are of course not the possessing demons and witches of medieval times but the possessing good and bad objects of early intrapsychic life set up through processes of introjection and incorporation in response to frustration in the early infant-mother relationship. Points of similarity in this comparison should not obscure features of contrast--ther is no place for histrionic manipulation nor for a moralistic attitude in the practice of psychotherapy. A case is described to illustrate these points.

  20. Problems of process-efficiency studies in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A E

    1996-01-01

    Three areas of psychotherapy research can be delimited of which differential efficiency research promises to be the most fruitful, because it will eventually inform us which interventions with what kind of patient and what kind of problem will be the most constructive. One problem it can solve is the so-called equivalence paradox. This epitheton designates the fact, that in spite of the enormous differences in theory and interventions between the different kinds of psychotherapies, their results are not remarkably divergent. One quite popular hypothesis is that this is due to common factors, commun to any and every kind of psychotherapy. Our results indicate that this explanation is too simplistic because it uses a monosubstance-doses-effect-relationship model and disregards interaction. One other avenue is the relevant events approach. Our examples yield equivocal results. Nevertheless this remains a promising field of investigation. Finally there are time series analyses which are probably most germane to the field of psychotherapies. One illustration with a case of negative psychotherapy outcome is presented. Time series analysis is able to show that the patient changed to a negativistic attitude in the middle of session, whereas the psychoanalyst only changed at the beginning of session 10 respectively in its middle.

  1. Applications of Mindfulness in Psychotherapy – Contemporary Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut ŠKODLAR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness has without doubt been the fastest spreading and most popular concept in psychotherapy in the last two decades. Its influence exceeds that of any other individual concept or approach in modern psychotherapy. However, there are many dilemmas, open questions and controversies related to this rapid, almost fanatic spread, which obviously compensates for a certain lack in modern Euro- and Americo-centric societies. Similarly, we are witnessing in the West a lack of reflection, a process of limitless idealization, and the search for a panacea. This all flows with a tint of colonialism, presumptuously taking over ideas, concepts and techniques without a proper study of the primary sources, and with all the accompanying negative side-effects: profiteering, self-promotion, unethical conduct, empty promises of instant rewards, and so on. In the present paper, the development of interest in mindfulness in psychotherapy, as well as the research findings and dilemmas, and concepts and mechanisms of applying mindfulness in psychotherapy, will be reviewed. The main purpose of the paper is to contribute to the critical reflection in studying and applying mindfulness in psychotherapy.

  2. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, Jolien; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility study, we examined the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Incremental costs and effects were estimated by means of cross-sectional measurements in a cohort design (psychoanalysis, n = 78; psychoanalytic psychotherapy, n = 104). Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for each treatment strategy using the SF-6D. Total costs were calculated from a societal perspective (treatment costs plus other societal costs) and discounted at 4 percent. Psychoanalysis was more costly than psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but also more effective from a health-related quality of life perspective. The ICER--that is, the extra costs to gain one additional QALY by delivering psychoanalysis instead of psychoanalytic psychotherapy--was estimated at 52,384 euros per QALY gained. Our findings show that the cost-utility ratio of psychoanalysis relative to psychoanalytic psychotherapy is within an acceptable range. More research is needed to find out whether cost-utility ratios vary with different types of patients. We also encourage cost-utility analyses comparing psychoanalytic treatment to other forms of (long-term) treatment.

  3. Academic Words and Academic Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Billig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that it is the best and worst of times for academic work. It is the best of times because there are more academics publishing than ever before. It is the worst of times because there is much unnecessary publication. Working in the competitive conditions of academic capitalism, academics feel impelled to keep publishing, whether or not they have anything to say. The pressures to publish continually and to promote one’s own approach are reflected in the way that social scientists are writing. Academics use a noun-based technical language, which is less precise than ordinary language. Postgraduates are taught this way of writing as a precondition for entering the social sciences. In this way, the nature of academic capitalism not only determines the conditions under which academics are working but it affects the way that they are writing.

  4. Applying a traditional individual psychotherapy model to Equine-facilitated Psychotherapy (EFP): theory and method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a unique, innovative, and effective method of psychotherapy using horses to aid in the therapeutic process (Equine-facilitated Psychotherapy or EFP). The remarkable elements of the horse--power, grace, vulnerability, and a willingness to bear another--combine to form a fertile stage for psychotherapeutic exploration. Therapeutic programs using horses to work with various psychiatric presentations in children and adolescents have begun to receive attention over the past 10 years. However, few EFP programs utilize the expertise of masters and doctoral-level psychologists, clinical social workers, or psychiatrists. In contrast, the psychological practice described in this article, written and practiced by a doctoral-level clinician, applies the breadth and depth of psychological theory and practice developed over the last century to a distinctly compelling milieu. The method relies not only on the therapeutic relationship with the clinician, but is also fueled by the client's compelling attachment to the therapeutic horse. As both of these relationships progress, the child's inner world and interpersonal style come to the forefront and the EFP theater allows the clinician to explore the client's intrapersonal and interpersonal worlds on preverbal, nonverbal and verbal levels of experience.

  5. [E-mail in psychotherapy--an aftercare model via electronic mail for psychotherapy inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Markus; Maurer, Wolf-Jürgen; Dogs, Peter; Kordy, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We introduce an aftercare program for psychotherapy inpatients, which is based on regular communication via E-mail. The organizational and operational structure of the program are described within the context of computer mediated communication. First results on utilization and acceptance are reported. In comparison to patients who did not participate in either aftercare program of the clinic, the E-mail participants are younger and higher educated. Inpatient treatment of the participants was three days shorter in duration than that of non participants. Both groups were similar with regard to symptom distress at discharge from hospital. A low dropout rate of 8%, the high activity and satisfaction emphasize the positive acceptance of the program. Therapists' E-mail activity turned out to be important for the participants. Neither age, internet experience or symptom related variables nor the own E-mail activity were associated with participants' evaluation of the new service. Based on these first positive experiences the perspectives of using E-mail in psychotherapy will be discussed.

  6. The Role of Social Media for Collaborative Learning to Improve Academic Performance of Students and Researchers in Malaysian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahmi, Waleed Mugahed; Othman, Mohd Shahizan; Yusuf, Lizawati Mi

    2015-01-01

    Social media is widely considered to improve collaborative learning among students and researchers. However, there is a surprising lack of empirical research in Malaysian higher education to improve performance of students and researchers through the effective use of social media that facilitates desirable outcomes. Thus, this study offers a…

  7. [Publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Dezetter, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Quebec's HealthCommissioner on the performance of the health system clearly highlighted gaps in the collaboration between primary care physicians and mental health specialists, decreased accessibility and inequity in access to effective mental health services such as psychotherapy.Objectives The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of two publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England with similar gatekeeper systems to the one in Quebec.Findings Following the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program introduced in Australia in 2003, one of the most important initiatives from the Council of Australian Governments' National Action Plan on Mental Health 2006-2011 was the Better Access Initiative which commenced in 2006. The plan included AUD1.2 billion in funding for integrating and improving the mental health care system. The purpose of Better Access was to improve the treatment and management of mental illnesses and increasing community access to mental health professionals and providing more affordable mental health care. GPs were encouraged to work more closely with mental health professionals. Under this program, these professionals are able to provide mental health services on a fee-for-service basis subsidized through Medicare. Access to psychological therapies is provided through private providers, rather than through fund holding arrangements. As of 2009 in Australia, 2 million people (1 in 11) had received over 11.2 million subsidized mental health services. A recent study showed clinical improvements in patients with depression associated with Better Access, concluding that the program is meeting previously unmet mental health needs.In the case of England, the IAPT - Improving Access to psychological Therapies-program enabled primary care trusts (PCTs) to implement evidence-based psychological therapies as recommended by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for people suffering from

  8. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  9. Report of the Psychotherapy Task Force of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Ritvo, Rachel; Al-mateen, Cheryl; Ascherman, Lee; Beardslee, William; Hartmann, Lawrence; Lewis, Owen; Papilsky, Shirley; Sargent, John; Sperling, Eva; Stiener, Gregory; Szigethy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    In this task force report, the authors define the field of child and adolescent psychotherapy; review the state of the field with respect to advocacy, training, research, and clinical practice; and recommend steps to ensure that psychotherapy remains a core competence of child and adolescent psychiatrists. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:93–102)

  10. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  11. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  12. Accelerating Best Care in Pennsylvania: adapting a large academic system's quality improvement process to rural community hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydar, Ziad; Gunderson, Julie; Ballard, David J; Skoufalos, Alexis; Berman, Bettina; Nash, David B

    2008-01-01

    Industrial quality improvement (QI) methods such as continuous quality improvement (CQI) may help bridge the gap between evidence-based "best care" and the quality of care provided. In 2006, Baylor Health Care System collaborated with Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University to conduct a QI demonstration project in select Pennsylvania hospitals using CQI techniques developed by Baylor. The training was provided over a 6-month period and focused on methods for rapid-cycle improvement; data system design; data management; tools to improve patient outcomes, processes of care, and cost-effectiveness; use of clinical guidelines and protocols; leadership skills; and customer service skills. Participants successfully implemented a variety of QI projects. QI education programs developed and pioneered within large health care systems can be adapted and applied successfully to other settings, providing needed tools to smaller rural and community hospitals that lack the necessary resources to establish such programs independently.

  13. Motivating English Learning Interest and Improving English Academic Performance%激发英语学习兴趣提高英语掌业威绩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏波

    2011-01-01

    英语教育是一件分重要的事情。那么作为一名英语教师,要如何来发展学生的英语水平呢?这是个值得探讨的问题。本文结合笔者的英语教学实践,论述了如何激发学习兴趣,提高英语成绩。%English education is an important thing. As an English teacher, how to develop students" English competence is a problem worthy of discussion. This paper expounds how to motivate learning interest and improve English academic performance based on the auth

  14. The A3 Problem Solving Report: A 10-Step Scientific Method to Execute Performance Improvements in an Academic Research Vivarium

    OpenAIRE

    Bassuk, James A.; Washington, Ida M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponso...

  15. Changes in neurotic personality profile associated with reduction of suicidal ideation in patients who underwent psychotherapy in the day hospital for the treatment of neurotic and behavioral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Rodziński

    2015-12-01

    The results confirm effectiveness of intensive psychotherapy as a treatment method that leads to comprehensive improvement encompassing reduction of neurotic personality disorders (neuroticism and of majority of neurotic personality traits, as well as SI reduction. The revealed associations weigh in favor of hypothesis on neuroticism as SI predisposing factor in patients with neurotic, behavioral and personality disorders.

  16. Psychotherapy training: Suggestions for core ingredients and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F; Castonguay, Louis G

    2007-12-01

    Despite our considerable depth and breadth of empirical knowledge on psychotherapy process and outcome, research on psychotherapy training is somewhat lacking. We would argue, however, that the scientist-practitioner model should not only guide practice, but also the way our field approaches training. In this paper we outline our perspective on the crucial elements of psychotherapy training based on available evidence, theory, and clinical experience, focusing specifically on the structure, key components, and important skills to be learned in a successful training program. In addition, we derive specific research directions based on the crucial elements of our proposed training perspective, and offer general considerations for research on training, including method and measurement issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The renewal of humanism in psychotherapy: summary and conclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kirk J; Längle, Alfried

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes and discusses the main themes to emerge from this special section on the renewal of humanism in psychotherapy. It is concluded that (1) despite some controversies, humanism is both a viable and growing influence among the leading specialty areas of psychotherapy; (2) humanism is a foundational element of effectiveness among these specialty areas; and (3) humanistic training is essential to the development of trainees in the aforementioned specialty areas. The implications of these findings for each of the specialty areas, for the profession of psychotherapy, and for the public at large are elaborated, concluding with a call for a reassessment of priorities in the research, practice, and training of standardized mental health delivery. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Dream screen phenomenon in psychotherapy and artistic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Pirjo Irmeli

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer a point on the meaning of the dream screen phenomenon in psychotherapy and artistic work. Some current theories of early ego development, the formation of the dream screen and dream imagery seem to match the theories of symbol formation, artistic and literary creativity. In actual dreaming, the dream screen can exist in the form of empty sheets of paper, but also in the form of a landscape, hills or mountains. The activation of the dream screen is presented in the light of the psychotherapy of two depressed patients. Dreams implying activation of the dream screen have been interpreted to signify a turning point during psychotherapy. Dream screen can be considered as a phenomenon with different elements. Examples of dream screen symbols in Aleksis Kivi's poems and in Paul Cézanne's paintings are presented.

  19. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy and Postpartum Depression: The Fathers Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena da Rosa Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.

  20. [Psychotherapy in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gisèle

    2002-11-15

    Alone or used with psychostimulants, psychotherapy is the keystone of the treatment in children attention deficit disorder hyperactivity (ADHD). This article explains in which matter psychotherapy is essential. To be well done, it's necessary before starting the treatment to analyze precisely the disorder and how it interferes with the child's environment. It describes how this functional analysis must be done in order to be more precise in the choice of the treatment objectives. This article explains why in children ADHD treatment, the individual therapy must be associated with a family training and describes briefly the more studied and recognized psychotherapy techniques in those children ADHD and how other partners (teacher, speech or motor therapist) are also useful.

  1. Psychotherapy with women who have worked in the "sex industry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anklesaria, Ariz; Gentile, Julie P

    2012-10-01

    Psychotherapy is effective for a myriad of mental health symptoms, with the clinical situation dictating the most applicable method. For episodes of severe stress including acute depression and anxiety, supportive mechanisms (crisis interventions and shoring up existing coping skills and strategies) may be the best fit. During periods of relatively milder symptomatology a psychodynamic approach may be utilized with the same patient (focusing on self-reflection and a more in-depth exploration). This article focuses on the use of psychotherapy with women working in the sex industry, whether indoor (such as strip clubs and cabarets) or outdoor (such as prostitution and escort services). These women frequently experience violence in various forms, and most report multiple traumatic experiences, both during their developmental years and while working in the industry. A composite case is included that illustrates some of the supportive and psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be applied when treating these individuals.

  2. Changes in prefrontal-limbic function in major depression after 15 months of long-term psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna; Viviani, Roberto; Kessler, Henrik; Kächele, Horst; Cierpka, Manfred; Roth, Gerhard; George, Carol; Kernberg, Otto F; Bruns, Georg; Taubner, Svenja

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV) unmedicated outpatients (N = 16) and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17) before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

  3. Changes in prefrontal-limbic function in major depression after 15 months of long-term psychotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buchheim

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV unmedicated outpatients (N = 16 and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17 before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

  4. Sensitivity analysis in multiple imputation in effectiveness studies of psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Aureliano; von Wyl, Agnes; Koemeda, Margit; Schulthess, Peter; Tschuschke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The importance of preventing and treating incomplete data in effectiveness studies is nowadays emphasized. However, most of the publications focus on randomized clinical trials (RCT). One flexible technique for statistical inference with missing data is multiple imputation (MI). Since methods such as MI rely on the assumption of missing data being at random (MAR), a sensitivity analysis for testing the robustness against departures from this assumption is required. In this paper we present a sensitivity analysis technique based on posterior predictive checking, which takes into consideration the concept of clinical significance used in the evaluation of intra-individual changes. We demonstrate the possibilities this technique can offer with the example of irregular longitudinal data collected with the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ) in a sample of 260 outpatients. The sensitivity analysis can be used to (1) quantify the degree of bias introduced by missing not at random data (MNAR) in a worst reasonable case scenario, (2) compare the performance of different analysis methods for dealing with missing data, or (3) detect the influence of possible violations to the model assumptions (e.g., lack of normality). Moreover, our analysis showed that ratings from the patient's and therapist's version of the HAQ could significantly improve the predictive value of the routine outcome monitoring based on the OQ-45. Since analysis dropouts always occur, repeated measurements with the OQ-45 and the HAQ analyzed with MI are useful to improve the accuracy of outcome estimates in quality assurance assessments and non-randomized effectiveness studies in the field of outpatient psychotherapy. PMID:26283989

  5. The treatment of nonmelancholic depression: when antidepressants fail, does psychotherapy work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Graham, Rebecca; Sheppard, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is used as a descriptive or diagnostic term and has generated many management guidelines weighting antidepressant (AD) therapy, but which may be an inappropriate paradigm for the nonmelancholic disorders where psychotherapy may be a more salient modality. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in patients whose nonmelancholic depressive condition had been resistant to at least 2 ADs. Principal analyses compared 32 patients, diagnosed with a nonmelancholic depression who received 12 weeks of psychological therapy, with a small control group. Comparative analyses failed to find a distinct therapeutic effect, leading to an extension study pursuing candidate explanatory factors for this lack of response, including psychosocial factors. While our sample showed a 41% response and 22% remission rate to psychotherapy, their improvement pattern was similar to the control group, thus arguing against any specific therapeutic benefit. Explanatory factors nominated by the treating psychologist weighted personality issues for 35% of the patients, distal stressors for 22%, and comorbid anxiety conditions for 18%. When sample members were compared with an age- and sex-matched sample of patients with nonmelancholic depression who improved distinctly during a similar 12-week period, rates of such putative personality, stress, and anxiety risk factors did not differ, arguing against the likelihood of these factors compromising improvement. Patients with nonmelancholic TRD also failed to demonstrate a clear response to a psychotherapeutic approach, while our pursuit of clinically explanatory variables was not supported empirically.

  6. A Four-Component Model of Sexual Orientation & Its Application to Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    Distress related to sexual orientation is a common focus in psychotherapy. In some instances the distress is external in nature as with persecution, and in others it is internal as with self-acceptance issues. Complicating matters, sexual orientation is a very complex topic producing a great deal of confusion for both clients and therapists. The current paper provides a four component model-sexual orientation dimensions, activation of these dimensions, the role of erotic fantasy, and social construction of sexual orientation-that in combination provide a comprehensive perspective. Activation of dimensions is a novel contribution not proposed in any other model. With improved understanding of sexual orientation issues, and utilization of this knowledge to guide interventions, psychotherapists can improve outcomes with their clients. Also described is how dimensions of sexual orientation relate to transgender. In addition to improving psychotherapy outcomes, the fourcomponent model presented can help reduce discrimination and persecution, by demonstrating that the capacity for both homoerotic and heteroerotic behavior is universal.

  7. Learning how to ask in ethnography and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Inga-Britt

    2003-01-01

    To social anthropologists an affinity with psychotherapy lies in the view that this discipline is a social science. Increasingly, social anthropologists offer comments and analyse their own data using psychotherapeutic or psychoanalytic frames of reference. At the same time, a methodological crisis has developed in ethnography. This is a crisis of how to carry out an ethnographic enquiry in a disciplined manner without either claiming to be a detached observer on the one hand or explaining away the subjective experiences of informants or clients with too much interpretation on the other. The aim of this paper is to address this crisis and to suggest ways in which ethnographers can use techniques from one type of psychotherapy, namely systemic or family psychotherapy in order to access social and psychological aspects of the lives of their informants. The paper achieves this by describing systemic psychotherapy and its theoretical foundations in the ethnographic work of Gregory Bateson. It then reviews the mainly medical anthropology literature in which the connection between psychotherapy and anthro pology has been discussed. While this literature has suggested a narrative and a performative approach to ethnographic data and, therefore, to informants, it has not extended the analytic frame to include the ethnographer him/herself within these frames. Clinical case material is presented to demonstrate how such an inclusion is central to the practice of systemic psychotherapy and to show that this type of material is ethnographic. The techniques of double description, hypothesising and circular questioning are described and demonstrated, and it is argued that adapting these to an ethnographic enquiry will enhance the validity of the anthropological project.

  8. Attention–memory training yields behavioral and academic improvements in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid with a learning disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias AC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Carlos Farias,1–4 Mara L Cordeiro,1,2,5 Erico PG Felden,6 Tiago S Bara,1,2 Cássia R Benko,1,2 Daniele Coutinho,1,2 Leandra F Martins,2 Rosilda TC Ferreira,1,2 James T McCracken5 1Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, 2Neurosciences Core, Pelé Pequeno Príncipe Research Institute, Curitiba, 3Department of Neuropediatrics, Children’s Hospital, Pequeno Príncipe, 4School of Medicine, University Positivo, Curitiba, Brazil; 5Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, US; 6Center for Health Science Research, Santa Catarina State University, Florianópolis, Brazil Background: Recent studies have suggested that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD may benefit from computerized cognitive training. Therapy implementation is especially complicated when ADHD is associated with learning disorders (LDs. This study tested the efficacy of a computer-based cognitive training program, namely, computerized cognitive training (CCT, in children with ADHD comorbid with an LD (ADHD-LD, with or without psychostimulant medication. Materials and methods: After diagnostic evaluations, 27 children with ADHD-LD (8 unmedicated and 19 medicated participated in CCT, which is intended to improve attention, memory, reasoning, visual processing, and executive functioning. The participants completed 24 1-hour sessions over 3 months. Neuropsychometric and standardized academic test results before and after training were compared to assess treatment efficacy. Shapiro–Wilk normality tests were applied, and subsequent Wilcoxon tests were used to identify significant differences in pre- versus post-training performance. Results: After CAT, children diagnosed with ADHD-LD showed 1 improvements in trained skills, measured directly within the software and indirectly by external psychometric tests; 2 improvements in

  9. Misuse of statistical test in three decades of psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, R; Serlin, R C; Omer, H

    1994-02-01

    This article reviews the misuse of statistical tests in psychotherapy research studies published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in the years 1967-1968, 1977-1978, and 1987-1988. It focuses on 3 major problems in statistical practice: inappropriate uses of null hypothesis tests and p values, neglect of effect size, and inflation of Type I error rate. The impressive frequency of these problems is documented, and changes in statistical practices over the past 3 decades are interpreted in light of trends in psychotherapy research. The article concludes with practical suggestions for rational application of statistical tests.

  10. [Institutional psychotherapy, caring for patients and the place of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogoul, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Institutional psychotherapy was developed in the specific context of the "assassination" of the Spanish revolution. There are two distinct movements or two periods. The first, based around Georges Daumézon and Henri Ey gave birth to the sector. The second, around FrançoisTosquelles and Jean Oury emphasised the asylum as the place of care. The function of institutional psychotherapy is to care not only for the patients but also the place of treatment. To fulfil this function, it has a tool box: transfer, the fight against the overvaluation of hierarchy as well as the function of the therapeutic club.

  11. The renewal of humanism in European psychotherapy: developments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, Alfried A; Kriz, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    In Europe, humanistic psychotherapy is becoming increasingly widespread. Not only are the explicitly "humanistic" psychotherapies being robustly used, they are increasingly being integrated into approaches not traditionally viewed as humanistic. One can therefore observe a progression in the personalization of methodology within European modes of practice. In the past several decades, humanistic psychology has inspired the expanding use of existential-phenomenological modes of practice. This theoretical base, coupled with recent trends in person-centered systems theory, points toward an invigorating future for humanistic forms of practice in Europe, despite the political trends toward psychotherapeutic practice in Germany. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Psychotherapy: Adaptation or Walking Together? (A Roadside Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bychkova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns psychotherapeutic work in the perspective of existential approach. Two trends are discerned in modern psychotherapy regardless of the known division into different schools – the adaptation therapy, and the one viewing a person in the context of his Personal being in the world. Therapy here is understood as the Way of mutual personal growth of both the therapist and the client. Distinction is singled out as one of the central points in forming the meanings, essential for both the normal development of a child and in psychotherapy, and remaining significant for spiritual growth in adults. 

  13. Beyond Mindfulness: Buddha Nature and the Four Postures in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacamano, James; Altman, Jennifer K

    2016-10-01

    We propose to incorporate the contextual view of the Buddhist teachings of the Three Turnings into applications of mindfulness in psychotherapy; specifically by applying the teaching of the Four Postures, which are expressions of innate health in ordinary life activities. This practice may expand understanding of the core mechanisms of different modalities of mindfulness and psychotherapy, thereby supporting clinicians in guiding clients on a healing path that is in natural alignment with each individual. By its allegiance to inherent wakefulness (Buddha Nature), this teaching supports clients in appreciating their own inherent health and the health of the world around them.

  14. Basics of the ascetical (christian) psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievski, N

    2015-01-01

    It is obvious that contemporary man is suffering. His sufferings often seem pointless and causeless. Modern science more and more comes to reveal and acknowledge that human sufferings have a psychosomatic basis. In some of the cases, these sufferings are noogenic neuroses. They do not originate from the psychological dimension but from the noological or spiritual one of human existence. The pointlessness of life is the basic cause for the noogenic neurosis and depression from which the humankind suffers. e. Hence, the many escapes from such experienced reality into various addictions. Possible way towards healing is to retrieve one's meaning of life, to strengthen his will to meaning. Religion has always been - and still remains - a powerful and appealing purpose that fulfills the life and being of the believers. This article demonstrates the systematization of the spiritual development of a person presented in a table of the harmony of the ascetic-hesychastic struggle, according which everyone can find his place on the ladder of spiritual development, become aware, and reconciliate the mode of personal struggle according to his spiritual development. The reconciliation of the primary function of the mind with its secondary function - the intellect, is of an essential importance. Contemporary religious psychology do not regard man merely as a biological or a psychological being. The subject matter of research is the human being as a whole, as a spiritual person that is characterized by autonomy, regarding the biological and psychological processes. The importance of understanding the spiritual level of human existence enables holistic approach and experiencing of the human personality as a whole. Furthermore, it offers new perspectives of psychotherapeutic action not only within the range of the classical psychotherapeutic modalities but also within the range of the applied Christian Psychotherapy.

  15. DYNAMICS OF THE ANXIETY DISORDERS IN THE COURSE OF SHORT-TERM PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Hmylova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.

  16. Towards a unified taxonomy of health indicators: academic health centers and communities working together to improve population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton Mickey; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B; Strelnick, A Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-04-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public's health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium's Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators.The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy's application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health.

  17. The effectiveness of individual interpersonal psychotherapy as a treatment for major depressive disorder in adult outpatients: a systematic review

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    van Hees Madelon L J M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This systematic review describes a comparison between several standard treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD in adult outpatients, with a focus on interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT. Methods Systematic searches of PubMed and PsycINFO studies between January 1970 and August 2012 were performed to identify (C-RCTs, in which MDD was a primary diagnosis in adult outpatients receiving individual IPT as a monotherapy compared to other forms of psychotherapy and/or pharmacotherapy. Results 1233 patients were included in eight eligible studies, out of which 854 completed treatment in outpatient facilities. IPT combined with nefazodone improved depressive symptoms significantly better than sole nefazodone, while undefined pharmacotherapy combined with clinical management improved symptoms better than sole IPT. IPT or imipramine hydrochloride with clinical management showed a better outcome than placebo with clinical management. Depressive symptoms were reduced more in CBASP (cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy patients in comparison with IPT patients, while IPT reduced symptoms better than usual care and wait list condition. Conclusions The differences between treatment effects are very small and often they are not significant. Psychotherapeutic treatments such as IPT and CBT, and/or pharmacotherapy are recommended as first-line treatments for depressed adult outpatients, without favoring one of them, although the individual preferences of patients should be taken into consideration in choosing a treatment.

  18. Determining adolescents' suitability for inpatient psychotherapy: utility of the clinician-rated Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Greg; Siefert, Caleb; Stoycheva, Valentina; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Baity, Matthew; Zodan, Jennifer; Mehra, Ashwin; Chand, Vijay; Blais, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Growing economic pressure on inpatient services for adolescents has resulted in fewer clinicians to provide individual psychotherapy. As a result, inpatient treatment trends have favored group psychotherapy modalities and psychopharmacological interventions. Currently, no clinician-rated measures exist to assist clinicians in determining who would be able to better utilize individual psychotherapy on inpatient units. The current study sought to demonstrate the utility of the Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample. This study also used the RIPS as it is intended to be used in everyday practice. Results from the authors' analyses reveal that the RIPS demonstrates good psychometrics and interrater reliability, as well as construct validity.

  19. The a3 problem solving report: a 10-step scientific method to execute performance improvements in an academic research vivarium.

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    James A Bassuk

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation. The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner

  20. Strengthening Black Students' Academic Preparedness for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargile, Samuel D.; Woods, Jacqueline E.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews trends in high school graduation and college enrollment rates, and academic preparation and performance. Offers the following strategies for improving academic preparation and performance: (1) adequate skills preparation; (2) academic student support services; and (3) positive motivation. (BJV)