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Sample records for psychotherapy gmp therapeutic

  1. HELPFUL ASPECTS OF THE THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP IN INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Urška Modic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a qualitative study of helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship in Integrative Psychotherapy. Participants of the study were sixteen clients who were in the process of Integrative Psychotherapy for at least a year. Participants were interviewed with the adapted version of the Change Interview (Elliott, 1999, which involves a semi-structured empathic exploration of the client's experience in therapy. The analysis of the clients’ experience of Integrative Psychotherapy revealed six categories of helpful aspects of therapeutic relationship: the therapist’s empathic attunement, the therapist’s acceptance, the match between the client and the therapist, feelings of trust and safety, feeling of connection, and experience of a new relational experience. Based on results of the research, we developed a model of the healing relationship in integrative psychotherapy. This model describes the interrelatedness of these six helpful aspects of the therapeutic relationship. The categories of empathic attunement and acceptance proved to be the most important categories relating to the therapist’s contribution to the healing therapeutic relationship. Clients described that the therapist’s empathic attunement and acceptance influenced the development of safety and trust, feelings of connection and promotion of new relational experiences. The results of this study are discussed in relation to the theories of Integrative Psychotherapy and research regarding the therapeutic relationship in psychotherapy.

  2. Examining the Therapeutic Relationship and Confronting Resistances in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Julie P.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2011-01-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite case illustrates some of the psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be employed in a psychotherapy case. In this example, the case is about a certified public accountant that came to treatment because of an acute stressor that put her career goals at risk. An acute episode or event can bring to light chronic and ongoing symptoms, which have had a remitting and relapsing course, and leave the patient unable to compensate on his or her own. PMID:21686147

  3. The Psychotherapy Process with Adolescents: A First Pilot Study and Preliminary Comparisons between Different Therapeutic Modalities Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkova, Tetyana; Hillman, Saul; Midgley, Nick; Schneider, Celeste

    2011-01-01

    An innovative methodology is presented for describing the therapeutic processes involved in five types of adolescent treatments: psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, mentalisation-based treatment and interpersonal psychotherapy. Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set" (APQ), 18 experienced clinicians…

  4. Examining the Therapeutic Relationship and Confronting Resistances in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Certified Public Accountant Case

    OpenAIRE

    Manetta, Christopher T.; Gentile, Julie P.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2011-01-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite c...

  5. Examining the therapeutic relationship and confronting resistances in psychodynamic psychotherapy: a certified public accountant case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetta, Christopher T; Gentile, Julie P; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2011-05-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite case illustrates some of the psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be employed in a psychotherapy case. In this example, the case is about a certified public accountant that came to treatment because of an acute stressor that put her career goals at risk. An acute episode or event can bring to light chronic and ongoing symptoms, which have had a remitting and relapsing course, and leave the patient unable to compensate on his or her own.

  6. Therapeutic hypnosis, psychotherapy, and the digital humanities: the narratives and culturomics of hypnosis, 1800-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Mortimer, Jane; Rossi, Kathryn

    2013-04-01

    Culturomics is a new scientific discipline of the digital humanities-the use of computer algorithms to search for meaning in large databases of text and media. This new digital discipline is used to explore 200 years of the history of hypnosis and psychotherapy in over five million digitized books from more than 40 university libraries around the world. It graphically compares the frequencies of English words about hypnosis, hypnotherapy, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and their founders from 1800 to 2008. This new perspective explore issues such as: Who were the major innovators in the history of therapeutic hypnosis, psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy? How well does this new digital approach to the humanities correspond to traditional histories of hypnosis and psychotherapy?

  7. The future orientation of constructive memory: an evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    We explore a new distinction between the future, prospective memory system being investigated in current neuroscience and the past, retrospective memory system, which was the original theoretical foundation of therapeutic hypnosis, classical psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy. We then generalize a current evolutionary theory of sleep and dreaming, which focuses on the future, prospective memory system, to conceptualize a new evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy. The implication of current neuroscience research is that activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity are the psychobiological basis of adaptive behavior, consciousness, and creativity in everyday life as well as psychotherapy. We summarize a case illustrating how this evolutionary perspective can be used to quickly resolve problems with past obstructive procrastination in school to facilitate current and future academic success.

  8. Dropout and therapeutic alliance: a meta-analysis of adult individual psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Jennie; Primavera, Louis H; Diener, Marc J

    2010-12-01

    This meta-analytic review of 11 studies examined the relationship between psychotherapy dropout and therapeutic alliance in adult individual psychotherapy. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrate a moderately strong relationship between psychotherapy dropout and therapeutic alliance (d = .55). Findings indicate that clients with weaker therapeutic alliance are more likely to drop out of psychotherapy. The meta-analysis included a total of 1,301 participants, with an average of 118 participants per study, a standard deviation of 115 participants, and a range from 20 to 451 participants per study. Exploratory analyses were conducted to determine the influence of variables moderating the relationship between alliance and dropout. Client educational history, treatment length, and treatment setting were found to moderate the relationship between alliance and dropout. Studies with a larger percentage of clients who completed high school or higher demonstrated weaker relationships between alliance and dropout. Studies with lengthier treatments demonstrated stronger relationships between alliance and dropout. Inpatient settings demonstrated significantly larger effects than both counseling centers and research clinics. No significant differences were found between client-rated, therapist-rated, and observer/staff-rated alliance. Recommendations for clinicians and researchers are discussed.

  9. Therapeutic Doll Making in Art Psychotherapy for Complex Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Sonia M.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic doll making can hold diverse functions for clients in therapy, particularly for those clients who are working through complex trauma histories. Recent literature pertaining to the treatment of complex trauma suggests that talking treatments have their limits; supplementary therapeutic approaches that focus on sensory, physical,…

  10. Therapeutic Doll Making in Art Psychotherapy for Complex Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Sonia M.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic doll making can hold diverse functions for clients in therapy, particularly for those clients who are working through complex trauma histories. Recent literature pertaining to the treatment of complex trauma suggests that talking treatments have their limits; supplementary therapeutic approaches that focus on sensory, physical,…

  11. [FUNCTIONAL ANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY: APPROACHES AND SCOPE OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY BASED ON CHANGES IN THE THERAPEUTIC CONTEXT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in context. FAP is characterized by use therapeutic relationship and the behaviors emit into it to improve clients daily life functioning. This therapeutic model is supported in behavior analysis principles and contextual functionalism philosophy. FAP proposes that clients behavior in session are functional equivalent with those out of session; therefore, when therapists respond to clients behaviors in session contingently, they promote and increase improvements in the natural setting. This article poses main features of FAP, its philosophical roots, achievements and research challenges to establish FAP as an independent treatment based on the evidence.

  12. [Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Approaches and scope of behavior therapy based on changes in the therapeutic context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in 'third wave therapies' context. FAP is characterized by use therapeutic relationship and the behaviors emit into it to improve clients daily life functioning. This therapeutic model is supported in behavior analysis principles and contextual functionalism philosophy. FAP proposes that clients behavior in session are functional equivalent with those out of session; therefore, when therapists respond to clients behaviors in session contingently, they promote and increase improvements in the natural setting. This article poses main features of FAP, its philosophical roots, achievements and research challenges to establish FAP as an independent treatment based on the evidence.

  13. The cyclic GMP/protein kinase G pathway as a therapeutic target in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Traci R; Mierzwa, Michelle L; Wells, Susanne I; Fox, Sejal R; Ben-Jonathan, Nira

    2016-01-28

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive disease with high mortality. Treatments, which can result in significant morbidity, have not substantially changed in three decades. The second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), which targets protein kinase G (PKG), is generated by guanylate cyclases (GCs), and is rapidly hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Activation of the cGMP/PKG pathway is antineoplastic in several cancer types, but its impact on HNSCC has not been fully exploited. We found differential expression of critical components of this pathway in four HNSCC cell lines. Several activators of soluble GC (sGC), as well as inhibitors of PDE5, increased intracellular cGMP, reduced cell viability, and induced apoptosis in HNSCC cells. The apoptotic effects of the sGC activator BAY 41-2272 and the PDE5 inhibitor Tadalafil (Cialis) were mediated by PKG. Furthermore, Tadalafil substantially reduced the growth of CAL27-derived tumors in athymic mice. Several drugs which either activate sGC or inhibit PDE5 are approved for treatment of nonmalignant conditions. These drugs could be repurposed as novel and effective therapeutics in patients with head and neck cancer.

  14. Relationships among alexithymia, therapeutic alliance, and psychotherapy outcome in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Taylor, Graeme J; McBride, Carolina; Bagby, R Michael

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have found that alexithymia predicts process and outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapy across a range of psychiatric disorders. There is preliminary evidence that alexithymia may exert its effects on outcome through the therapist. Other studies have found that alexithymia does not influence outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The aim of the current study was to investigate the capacity of alexithymia to predict therapist- and patient-rated therapeutic alliance and response to CBT and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for major depressive disorder. A total of 75 adults with major depressive disorder were randomized to receive weekly sessions of manualized individual CBT or IPT for a period of 16 weeks. Pre-treatment alexithymia exhibited a positive direct effect on depression change, and a negative indirect effect on depression change via patient-rated alliance at week 13. There was no mediating role of therapist-rated alliance. Although these findings are preliminary, they suggest that pre-treatment alexithymia has meaningful links to psychotherapy process and outcome, and that nuanced analyses incorporating intervening variables are necessary to elucidate the nature of these links. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Therapists' view of therapeutic action in psychoanalytic psychotherapy with young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliengen, Peter; Werbart, Andrzej

    2010-12-01

    Studying experienced therapists' implicit theorizing may contribute to our understanding of what is helpful and what hinders treatment with particular patient populations. In this study, 16 therapists' views of curative factors, hindering factors, and outcome were explored in 22 interviews conducted at termination of individual psychoanalytic psychotherapy with young adults. Grounded theory methodology was used to construct a tentative model of therapeutic action based on the therapists' implicit knowledge. The results indicated that developing a close, safe and trusting relationship was viewed as the core curative factor in interaction with the patient making positive experiences outside the therapy setting and the therapist challenging and developing the patient's thinking about the self. The therapeutic process was experienced as a joint activity resulting in the patient becoming a subject and acquiring an increasing capacity to think and process problems. The patient's fear about close relationships was seen as hindering treatment and leading to core problems remaining. The model is discussed in relation to major theories of therapeutic action in the psychoanalytic discourse and previous research focusing on young adults' view of curative and hindering factors in psychotherapy. Implications for practice and further research are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Therapeutic alliance and cohesion variables as predictors of outcome in short-term group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Anthony S; Piper, William E; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2007-07-01

    The current study explored the relative ability of aggregate therapeutic alliance and cohesion variables to predict short-term group therapy outcome. Data were collected from a comparative trial of two forms of time-limited group psychotherapy for complicated grief (Piper, McCallum, Joyce, Rosie, & Ogrodniczuk, 2001). The therapeutic alliance and elements of the cohesion construct were measured from the perspectives of each patient and the group therapist at intervals during the groups; scores were aggregated across assessments. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, adjusting for the effects of treatment approach (interpretive vs. supportive) and specific group membership, demonstrated that the patient-rated alliance was a consistent predictor of outcome. Two cohesion measures, reflecting other participants' (therapist, other members) views of the patient's "fit" with the group, also accounted for variation in outcome. Implications of the findings for research and clinical practice, and the limitations of the measurement approach taken in this study, are considered.

  17. Goethe's anxieties, depressive episodes and (self-)therapeutic strategies: a contribution to method integration in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M

    2013-01-01

    In psychiatry and psychotherapy, abstract scientific principles need to be exemplified by narrative case reports to gain practical precision. Goethe was one of the most creative writers, productive scientists, and effective statesmen that ever lived. His descriptions of feelings, emotions, and mental states related to anxieties, depressive episodes, dysthymia, and creativity are unique in their phenomenological precision and richness. His life and work can thus serve as an excellent example enhancing our understanding of the relationship between anxiety, depression and creativity. Furthermore, he described (self-)therapeutic strategies that reinforce and refine modern views. Goethe's self-assessments in his works and letters, and the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of current psychiatric classification. His therapeutic techniques and recommendations are compared with cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, and existential psychotherapy to amplify modern concepts of psychotherapy. From a scientific perspective, several distinctive depressive episodes can be diagnosed in Goethe's life. They were characterized by extended depressive moods, lack of drive, and loss of interest and self-esteem combined with social retreat. Goethe displayed diffuse and phobic anxieties as well as dysthymia. His (self-)therapeutic strategies were: (a) the systematic use of helping alliances, (b) behavioral techniques, (c) cognitive reflection on meanings and beliefs, (d) psychodynamic and psychoanalytic remembering, repeating, and working through, and (e) existential striving for self-actualization, social commitment, meaning, and creativity. In Goethe's life, creative incubation, illumination, and elaboration appear to have been associated with psychic instability and dysthymia, sometimes with depressive episodes in a clinical sense. On the one hand, his creative work was triggered by anxieties, dysthymia, and depressive moods. On the other hand, his creativity

  18. Why Ineffective Psychotherapies Appear to Work: A Taxonomy of Causes of Spurious Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ritschel, Lorie A; Lynn, Steven Jay; Cautin, Robin L; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-07-01

    The past 40 years have generated numerous insights regarding errors in human reasoning. Arguably, clinical practice is the domain of applied psychology in which acknowledging and mitigating these errors is most crucial. We address one such set of errors here, namely, the tendency of some psychologists and other mental health professionals to assume that they can rely on informal clinical observations to infer whether treatments are effective. We delineate four broad, underlying cognitive impediments to accurately evaluating improvement in psychotherapy-naive realism, confirmation bias, illusory causation, and the illusion of control. We then describe 26 causes of spurious therapeutic effectiveness (CSTEs), organized into a taxonomy of three overarching categories: (a) the perception of client change in its actual absence, (b) misinterpretations of actual client change stemming from extratherapeutic factors, and (c) misinterpretations of actual client change stemming from nonspecific treatment factors. These inferential errors can lead clinicians, clients, and researchers to misperceive useless or even harmful psychotherapies as effective. We (a) examine how methodological safeguards help to control for different CSTEs, (b) delineate fruitful directions for research on CSTEs, and (c) consider the implications of CSTEs for everyday clinical practice. An enhanced appreciation of the inferential problems posed by CSTEs may narrow the science-practice gap and foster a heightened appreciation of the need for the methodological safeguards afforded by evidence-based practice.

  19. The Therapeutic Alliance in Schema-Focused Therapy and Transference-Focused Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Giesen-Bloo, Josephine; van Dyck, Richard; Kooiman, Kees; Arntz, Arnoud

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the quality and development of the therapeutic alliance as a mediator of change in schema-focused therapy (SFT) and transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) for borderline personality disorder. Seventy-eight patients were randomly allocated to 3 years of biweekly SFT or TFP. Scores of both therapists and patients for the…

  20. Novel activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy: the general waking trance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a highly edited version of a videotape made in 1980 by Marion Moore, M.D., showing Milton H. Erickson and Moore demonstrating novel, activity-dependent approaches to hand-levitation and therapeutic hypnosis on their subject, Ernest Rossi. Erickson's naturalistic and utilization approach is described in his very direct and surprising induction in a trance challenged patient. These novel, and surprising inductions are examples of how Erickson was prescient in developing activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy several generations before modern neuroscience documented the activity-dependent molecular-genomic mechanisms of memory, learning, and behavior change. Erickson describes a case where he utilized what he called, "The General Waking Trance" when he "dared" not use an obvious hypnotic induction. It is proposed that the states of intense mental absorption and response attentiveness that are facilitated by the general waking trance are functionally related to the three conditions neuroscientists have identified as novelty, enrichment, and exercise (both mental and physical), which can turn on activity-dependent gene expression and activity-dependent brain plasticity, that are the molecular-genomic and neural basis ofmemory, learning, consciousness, and behavior change. We recommend that the next step in investigating the efficacy of therapeutic hypnosis will be in partnering with neuroscientists to explore the possibilities and limitations of utilizing the activity-dependent approaches to hypnotic induction and the general waking trance in facilitating activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity.

  1. The early impact of therapeutic alliance in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy O impacto inicial da aliança terapêutica em psicoterapia psicodinâmica breve

    OpenAIRE

    José Alvaro Marques Marcolino; Eduardo Iacoponi

    2003-01-01

    INTRODCTION: Therapeutic alliance is a key component of the psychotherapeutic process. This study estimated the impact of the therapeutic alliance as measured by CALPAS-P in an individual brief psychodynamic psychotherapy program. METHODS: To study the impact of the therapeutic alliance patients in psychotherapy answered to the CALPAS-P at the first and third session and to the Self-report Questionnaire (SRQ-20), to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and to the Hamilton Anxiety Scale at the ...

  2. Innovative trends in the design of therapeutic trials in psychopharmacology and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A; Tomba, Elena; Tossani, Eliana

    2013-01-10

    The standard randomized controlled trial design is still based on the acute disease model. This is in sharp contrast with the fact that the patient is likely to have experienced other treatments before, that may actually modify clinical course and responsiveness. The current standard of therapeutic trial in psychiatry is represented by the large, multi-center, controlled randomized trial with broad inclusion criteria, and little attention to other factors such as the clinical history of patients and comorbidity. The heterogeneous features of these patients would then affect the outcome of the trial. Conflicting results among randomized controlled trials can represent a spectrum of outcomes, based on different patient groups, more than bias or random variability. If a treatment is tested by a series of small trials with inclusion criteria for specific characteristics (including treatment history, subgroups and comorbidity), we may have a better knowledge of its indications and contraindications. Further, there is increasing need of expanding the content of customary clinical information, by including evaluation of variables such as stress, lifestyle, well-being, illness behavior and psychological symptoms. These joint strategies would actually constitute a paradigm shift in psychopharmacology and psychotherapy research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does psychotherapy work with school-aged youth? A meta-analytic examination of moderator variables that influence therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Alicia L; Ahn, Soyeon; Reese, Robert J; Suarez, Marietta M; Macquoid, Ahjane; Davis, Matthew C; Prout, H Thompson

    2016-06-01

    The present study is a quantitative synthesis of the available literature to investigate the efficacy of psychotherapy for children's mental health outcomes. In particular, this study focuses on potential moderating variables-study design, treatment, client, and therapist characteristics-that may influence therapeutic outcomes for youth but have not been thoroughly accounted for in prior meta-analytic studies. An electronic search of relevant databases resulted in 190 unpublished and published studies that met criteria for inclusion in the analysis. Effect sizes differed by study design. Pre-post-test designs resulted in absolute magnitudes of treatment effects ranging from |-0.02| to |-0.76| while treatment versus control group comparison designs resulted in absolute magnitudes of treatment effects ranging from |-0.14| to |-2.39|. Changes in youth outcomes larger than 20% were found, irrespective of study design, for outcomes focused on psychosomatization (29% reduction), school attendance (25% increase), and stress (48% reduction). The magnitude of changes after psychotherapy ranged from 6% (externalizing problems) to 48% (stress). Several moderator variables significantly influenced psychotherapy treatment effect sizes, including frequency and length of treatment as well as treatment format. However, results did not support the superiority of a single type of intervention for most outcomes. Implications for therapy with school-aged youth and future research are discussed.

  4. Therapeutic self-disclosure in integrative psychotherapy: When is this a clinical error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv-Beiman, Sharon; Shahar, Golan

    2016-09-01

    Ascending to prominence in virtually all forms of psychotherapy, therapist self-disclosure (TSD) has recently been identified as a primarily integrative intervention (Ziv-Beiman, 2013). In the present article, we discuss various instances in which using TSD in integrative psychotherapy might constitute a clinical error. First, we briefly review extant theory and empirical research on TSD, followed by our preferred version of integrative psychotherapy (i.e., a version of Wachtel's Cyclical Psychodynamics [Wachtel, 1977, 1997, 2014]), which we title cognitive existential psychodynamics. Next, we provide and discuss three examples in which implementing TSD constitutes a clinical error. In essence, we submit that using TSD constitutes an error when patients, constrained by their representational structures (object relations), experience the subjectivity of the other as impinging, and thus propels them to "react" instead of "emerge." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The relationship between adult attachment style and therapeutic alliance in individual psychotherapy: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Marc J; Monroe, Joel M

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and therapeutic alliance in individual psychotherapy. Search procedures yielded 17 independent samples (total N = 886, average n = 52, standard deviation = 24) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results indicated that greater attachment security was associated with stronger therapeutic alliances, whereas greater attachment insecurity was associated with weaker therapeutic alliances, with an overall weighted effect size of r = .17, p .10) with the exception of the source of alliance ratings; results indicated that patient-rated alliance demonstrated a significantly larger relationship with attachment compared with therapist-rated alliance (Qbetween = 3.95, df = 1, p = .047). Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Studying Psychotherapy Using the One-with-Many Design: The Therapeutic Alliance as an Exemplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, David K.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Baldwin, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Most psychotherapy research uses a one-with-many design, in which each therapist (the one) treats multiple clients (the many), which raises the challenge of nonindependent data. We present a statistical model for analyzing data from studies that use a one-with-many design. This model addresses the problems associated with nonindependence and can…

  7. Psychotherapy and Traditional Healing for American Indians: Exploring the Prospects for Therapeutic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural advocates within professional psychology routinely call for "culturally competent" counseling interventions. Such advocates frequently cite and celebrate traditional healing practices as an important resource for developing novel integrative forms of psychotherapy that are distinctively tailored for diverse populations. Despite this…

  8. Tele-analysis: the use of media technology in psychotherapy and its impact on the therapeutic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Christian

    2017-06-01

    A growing number of approaches in psychotherapy make use of internet- and other media-based interactions. This paper discusses the impact on the therapist-client relationship of using media technology and gives an overview of the current state of the debate. It is suggested that the technical conditions of internet-based interactions produce new forms of social relationships that differ significantly from face-to-face-interactions and that unconscious, nonverbal cues get lost. Research on the therapeutic interaction making use of 'discourse linguistic' methods is presented. The loss of nonverbal cues has implications for psychotherapy in general and especially for the treatment of patients who have difficulties relying on a secure therapeutic relationship. Emotional security in interactional relationships is transmitted to a much greater extent by nonverbal cues than by verbal content; psychoanalytic methods are specialized to refer to this level of interaction. Two alternative scenarios are discussed based on the psychoanalytic theories of Winnicott and Lacan: the risk of an illusionary, idealized image of the other and the possibility that cyberspace can be used for psychological development as a transitional space. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  9. The effects of training in time-limited dynamic psychotherapy: changes in therapeutic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, E; Anderson, T; Strupp, H; Henry, W; Schacht, T; Binder, J; Butler, S

    2000-02-01

    The present study explored the effects on therapeutic outcomes of training therapists in brief manualized therapy. As part of the Vanderbilt II project, each of 16 therapists (8 psychiatrists and 8 clinical psychologists) treated 2 moderately disturbed adult patients using his or her customary short-term treatment methods; they then received a year of training in a manualized form of brief dynamic therapy, Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy (TLDP); finally, they administered TLDP to 2 additional patients. It was hypothesized that training would result in improved outcomes generally and that differentially greater improvement would be seen in patients commonly considered less suitable for brief dynamic therapy. Outcome data obtained at termination failed to support either hypothesis. Measurements of interpersonal dependency obtained at a one-year follow-up were consistent with the first hypothesis, but the follow-up data were inconsistent with the second. A systematic review of the 32 posttraining cases suggested that the majority of the therapists had not achieved basic competence at TLDP. Die hier beschriebene Studie untersucht die Wirkungen eines Trainings in manualisierter Kurzzeitherapie auf das Therapierergebnis. Als Teil des Vanderbilt II Projektes behandelten jeweils 16 Therapeuten (8 Psychiater und 8 klinische Psychologen) zwei mittelgradig beeinrächtigte erwachsene Patienten mit den ihnen vertrauten Kurzzeitbehandlungsmethoden. Danach wurden sie über ein Jahr in einer manualisierten Form psychodynamischer Kurzzeittherapie ausgebildet und wandten diese Therapie auf zwei weitere Patienten an. Es wurde angenommen, dass die Ausbildung in besseren Ergebnisdaten, die bei Ende der Therapie erhoben wurden, konnten diese Hypothese nicht bestätigen. Maße für die interpersonale Abhängigkeit zu einem Einjahreskatamnesezeitpunkt waren mit der ersten Hypothese konform, aber inkonsistent mit der zweiten. Eine systematische Untersuchung der 32 nach der Ausbildung

  10. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  11. Beyond the Therapeutic Hour: An Exploratory Pilot Study of Using Technology to Enhance Alliance and Engagement within Face-to-Face Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Penelope; Simpson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and investigate the capacity for a novel, technologically advanced system (goACT) to enhance face-to-face psychotherapy. Specifically, we explore the capacity for goACT to enhance therapeutic alliance (TA) and engagement, and reduce distress. Using a mixed-methods, multiple-baseline design we present the first study to…

  12. [Psychotherapy of a schizophrenic patient in a large psychiatric hospital--therapeutic option or naive idealism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branik, E

    1994-12-01

    The psychotherapy of a schizophrenic points, as it is depicted, at some characteristics of the interactions with these patients. In this context also the weight and the restrictions of the institutional framing conditions are indicated. Despite all still open questions, difficulties and limitations the author pleads for the furthering of psychotherapeutic efforts with psychotic patients, as in a considerable number of cases they mitigate their suffering, lead to a better understanding of the psychological aspects of the illness, which are important to the patient, and finally afford insight to the therapist into a sphere at the limit of human experience and, by this means, add to his fundamentally competence.

  13. From bedside to bench--meeting report of the 7th International Conference on cGMP "cGMP: generators, effectors and therapeutic implications" in Trier, Germany, from June 19th to 21st 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Andreas; Sandner, Peter; Seifert, Roland

    2015-12-01

    During the past decade, our knowledge on the physiology, pathophysiology, basic pharmacology, and clinical pharmacology of the second messenger (cGMP) has increased tremendously. It is now well-established that cGMP, generated by soluble and particulate guanylate cyclases, is highly compartmentalized in cells and regulates numerous body functions. New cGMP-regulated physiological functions include meiosis and temperature perception. cGMP is involved in the genesis of numerous pathologies including cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, metabolic, neuropsychiatric, eye, and tumor diseases. Several new clinical uses of stimulators and activators of soluble guanylate cyclase and of phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as heart failure, kidney failure, cognitive disorders, obesity bronchial asthma, and osteoporosis are emerging. The combination of neprilysin inhibitors-enhancing stimulation of the particulate guanylate cyclase pathway by preventing natriuretic peptide degradation-with angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists constitutes a novel promising strategy for heart failure treatment. The role of oxidative stress in cGMP signaling, application of cGMP sensors, and gene therapy for degenerative eye diseases are emerging topics. It is anticipated that cGMP research will further prosper over the next years and reach out into more and more basic and clinical disciplines.

  14. Psychotherapies: An Integration of Eastern Cultural Thoughts and Western Therapeutic Skills in the Chinese Practice%心理治疗在中国:西方治疗技术与东方文化思想的结合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季建林

    2001-01-01

    Psychotherapies were introduced into China and developed quite well in the past two decades.The author suggests that the development of psychotherapies for the Chinese should be integrated the traditional cultural issues with the different schools of Western psychotherapies. This article reviews the traditional cultures,which deeply influenced the people's mind and behavioral patterns; and the common kinds of modern psychotherapies practiced in China now.Particularly, the author suggests that the therapeutic skills to learn and experiments to collect, as well as cultural issues to concern will be focused on more by the Chinese therapists.

  15. The early impact of therapeutic alliance in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy O impacto inicial da aliança terapêutica em psicoterapia psicodinâmica breve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alvaro Marques Marcolino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODCTION: Therapeutic alliance is a key component of the psychotherapeutic process. This study estimated the impact of the therapeutic alliance as measured by CALPAS-P in an individual brief psychodynamic psychotherapy program. METHODS: To study the impact of the therapeutic alliance patients in psychotherapy answered to the CALPAS-P at the first and third session and to the Self-report Questionnaire (SRQ-20, to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and to the Hamilton Anxiety Scale at the beginning and at the end of psychotherapy. RESULTS: The study of the impact of the therapeutic alliance in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy showed that higher TUI scores in the first session were significantly associated to the improvement on the BDI. Patients with best scores in the working alliance, measured at the third PWC session had also significant symptomatic changes. DISCUSSION: The study of the impact of the therapeutic alliance in brief psychotherapy indicated that patients who perceived that their therapists had the best capability to understand and to be involved in their issues had best results in reducing depressive symptoms and patients with higher capability to form the working alliance reached the best psychotherapy outcomes.INTRODUÇÃO: A aliança terapêutica é um conceito central do processo psicoterápico. Este estudo avaliou o impacto da aliança terapêutica em um programa de psicoterapia individual psicodinâmica breve. MÉTODO: Para o estudo do impacto da aliança, pacientes em psicoterapia responderam, ao início e ao final de cada psicoterapia, ao Questionário de auto-avaliação (SRQ-20, ao Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI e à Escala de Ansiedade de Hamilton. Responderam também a CALPAS-P ao término da primeira e da terceira sessão. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que os pacientes com uma pontuação mais alta da TUI na primeira sessão tiveram um impacto significativo sobre a mudança da sintomatologia medida

  16. The role of therapists' treatment adherence, professional experience, therapeutic alliance, and clients' severity of psychological problems: Prediction of treatment outcome in eight different psychotherapy approaches. Preliminary results of a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschuschke, Volker; Crameri, Aureliano; Koehler, Miriam; Berglar, Jessica; Muth, Katharina; Staczan, Pia; Von Wyl, Agnes; Schulthess, Peter; Koemeda-Lutz, Margit

    2015-01-01

    In this naturalistic study, 262 audiotaped psychotherapy sessions--randomly drawn from 81 individual therapies from eight different psychotherapy approaches--were rated completely on treatment adherence using a newly developed rating manual. In the therapy sessions, a relatively low percentage of treatment specific interventions (ranging from 4.2% to 27.8%) was found for all eight approaches, 50% to 73% of the interventions were nonspecific or common, and approximately 18% to 27% were intervention techniques from other approaches. Different types of psychotherapy differed highly significantly in levels of treatment adherence. There was no statistically significant association between the type of psychotherapy and its outcome, or between the degree of therapists' treatment fidelity and the treatment outcome. However, there were significant associations between therapists' degree of professional experience, clients' initial psychological burden, and treatment response. Clients' severity of psychological problems prior to treatment predicted quality of therapeutic alliance while therapists' treatment adherence was predicted by therapists' professional experience and by the quality of the therapeutic alliance. We discuss the seemingly indirect importance of treatment adherence for psychotherapy outcome that we found in this study in relation to findings from other studies and in the context of the role of schools within psychotherapy.

  17. Forensic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the role forensic psychotherapy has in the assessment and treatment of mentally disordered offender patients, and its role in the supervision of individual therapists, staff groups or whole organisations which contain and manage this patient population. Forensic psychotherapy has a valuable role to play in the management of mentally disordered forensic patients. As forensic services continue to develop in Australia and New Zealand and interest in this field continues to grow, then the future of forensic psychotherapy looks bright.

  18. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  19. [Application of group psychotherapy in treatment of adolescents and young women with anorexia nervosa (presentation of therapeutic work model in the Neurosis and Eating Disorders Treatment Centre "Dabrówka"--the author's own experience)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta; Niziołek, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    The article shows chosen motives from the authors self experience in the specificity and principles of conducting group psychotherapy in treating patients with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. In the first part of the article, the author presents elementary postulates of the working model in teenage therapeutic groups in the Neurosis and Eating Disorders Treatment Centre "Dabrówka", in the years 2002-2004. The second part presents basic postulates of adult group psychotherapy practiced in the "Dabrówka" Centre. Conclusions indicate the main elements of a group therapy process in patients with anorexia nervosa.

  20. [The various facets of psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing importance in the field of psychiatric treatment. Notably, disorder-specific and evidence-based psychotherapeutic strategies now dominate the field as compared to traditional schools of psychotherapy. It should not be neglected that patients, besides being offered a specifically tailored psychological therapy for their disorder, are also in need of reliable moral support and help. Therapeutic creativity frequently is an important skill to gain access to patients.

  1. The (dramatic) process of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeig, Jeffrey K

    2008-07-01

    Psychotherapy can be conceived as a symbolic drama in which patients can experientially realize their capacity to change. Methods derived from hypnosis can empower therapy without the use of formal trance. A case conducted by Milton Erickson is presented and deconstructed in order to illuminate Erickson's therapeutic patterns. A model is offered for adding drama to therapy, and the model is placed into a larger model of choice points in psychotherapy.

  2. Transpersonal psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorstein, S

    2000-01-01

    The history, theory, and practice of Transpersonal (or Spiritual) Psychotherapy are presented. The author describes his own evolution from a traditional psychoanalyst to a psychotherapist who uses the tools and wisdom from spiritual traditions to enhance traditional psychotherapy while, at the same time, improving the self system of the therapist. Dangers as well as benefits of the spiritual approach are outlined. The creation and holding of a spiritual or transpersonal context is described and ways to ascertain, in the clinical situation, the appropriateness of such an approach are explained. The use of bibliotherapy to help transform and expand the worldview of the patient is outlined. Prayer and meditational systems also have a healing role in this approach. To illustrate the uses of Transpersonal Psychotherapy in practice, four cases are presented: 1) a paranoid schizophrenic man, 2) a well-functioning borderline person, 3) a very poorly functioning borderline person, and 4) a high-functioning neurotic man who had been in psychoanalysis.

  3. [General psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymetal, J

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays a theoretical psychotherapeutical thinking develops from the eclectic practice and uses particularly the research of the effective factors of the therapy. Best they can be characterized as differentiate, synthetic, integrative and exceeding other approaches. The development in question goes on with attempts of creating a general model of the psychotherapy that could be a basis for models of special psychotherapies. The aim of such a model is to describe all that is present as important factor for inducing a desirable change of a human in all psychotherapeutical approaches. Among general models we can mention the generic model of D. E. Orlinski and K. I. Howard, Grawe's cube (the author is K. Grawe) and the equation of the psychotherapy.

  4. Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

  5. A brief protocol for the Creative Psychosocial Genomic Healing Experience: the 4-Stage Creative Process in therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest L; Cozzolino, Mauro; Mortimer, Jane; Atkinson, David; Rossi, Kathryn Lane

    2011-10-01

    The authors present empirical data on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy as a 4-Stage Creative Process of focused attention and positive expectancy in professional training workshops of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, the National Institute for the Clinical Applications of Behavioral Medicine, and the Milton H. Erickson Foundation. The authors developed a brief protocol for assessing the 4-Stage Creative Process, which is the core dynamic of the Creative Psychosocial Genomic Healing Experience. They report that the 4-Stage Creative Process for resolving many psychological problems and symptomatic behavior in a satisfactory manner can be learned within 3 trials during 2-day professional workshops. The theory, research, and practice of private problem solving, stress reduction, and mind-body symptom resolution in professional and public settings is discussed. Immediate knowledge of results, positive peer support, and the development of new psychosocial skills in learning how to appropriately communicate live here-and-now novel and numinous experiences is an exhilarating exercise in creating new consciousness that facilitates the confidence and maturation of psychotherapists.

  6. Positive Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  7. Quantum change and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Thomas H

    2004-05-01

    Deep change in psychotherapy more typically comes slowly rather than suddenly, but this difference between therapeutic change and quantum change may be one of perspective rather than substance. Psychotherapy may be understood as a kind of mindfulness practice similar to working with koans in that the client presents a life dilemma incapable of rational solution. While quantum change cannot be engineered, the psychotherapist can create an environment conducive to such transformation by producing true presence and modeling calm, concerned, sustained attention to the dilemma that precipitated treatment. Psychotherapists who also maintain a sense of their work as a high art and a way of being, and who in consequence cultivate their own emotional and spiritual development, may be more likely to create such an environment.

  8. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  9. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy Taking Care of Yourself Questions About ...

  10. Psychotherapy patient transfer: secondhand rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederer, L

    1975-10-01

    The author uses the analogy of the marketplace to examine the dynamics of the transfer of psychotherapy patients in university clinic settings. The outgoing therapist is the seller, the prospective therapist the buyer, and the patient the commodity--the secondhand Rose. Marketing techniques that are used in this buyers' market allow no active patient participation and are therefore antithetical to the tenets of psychotherapy. The author suggests early clarification of therapeutic goals, assignment of therapists on the basis of patient choice, and explanation of time frames and limits as means for ameliorating the problems he describes.

  11. The therapeutic effect of psychotherapy in bronchial asthma%支气管哮喘心理治疗的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李衡; 赵佩安; 龙飞华; 楚昊湘

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of psychotherapy in bronchial asthma. Methods 252 patients with bronchial asthma adopted from January 2007 to January 2011 were randomly divided into control group( n = 110 ) and study group( n = 142 ), patients in control group were received medicine treatment, while patients in study group were added psychological treatment on basis of medicine treatment, after 1 month treatment, the therapeutic effect were observed and analysed. Results The study group decreased in score of anxiety and depression than that before treatment and contnol group( all the P < 0. 05 ), more effective in controlling the symptoms and signs of asthma, and more effective in improving lung function than the control group,the differences were statistical significant P <0. 05 ). The overall symptoms and signs control rate was 95. 8% , which was higher than control group( 80. 9% , P <0.05 ). The improvement of FVC, FEV, and PEF in study group were better than control group( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Psychological treatment assisted medicine teratment is an effective approach for patients with asthma.%目的 观察支气管哮喘心理治疗的临床疗效.方法 2007年1月-2011年1月收治的252例支气管哮喘患者随机分为对照组110例和研究组142例,对照组予药物治疗,研究组在药物治疗基础上进行心理治疗,治疗1个月后进行观察比较.结果 2组治疗后1个月较治疗前焦虑、抑郁评分值降低,且研究组低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05);哮喘症状、体征控制总有效率研究组为95.8%,高于对照组的80.9%(P<0.05);FVC、FEV1、PEF改善情况明显好于对照组(P<0.05).结论 心理治疗辅助药物治疗支气管哮喘患者是行之有效的治疗手段.

  12. Client attachment security predicts alliance in a randomized controlled trial of two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relation between clients’ attachment patterns and the therapeutic alliance in two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa. Method: Data derive from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for bulimia...

  13. 团体心理治疗对强迫症患者治疗的疗效因子研究%Study for therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 李幼辉; 连楠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relative importance of therapeutic factors in group psychotherapy for patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.Methods Thirty obsessive-compulsive disorder patients underwent 12 weeks of group psychotherapy were given the therapeutic factors questionnaire to assess the relative importance of therapeutic factors in group psychotherapy.Results The important group therapeutic factors were sorted as following:interpersonal gain,interpersonal pay-out,self-realization,catharsis,existential factors,group cohesiveness,universality,instillation of hope,information imparting,altruism,the corrective recapitulation of the primary family group,imitative behavior.One-Way ANOVA showed that the mean difference was significant (P < 0.05 ).Conclusions The relatively important group therapeutic factors are interpersonal gain,interpersonal pay-out,self-realization,catharsis,existential factors and group cohesiveness.%目的 探讨在对强迫症患者进行团体心理治疗过程中各个疗效因子的相对重要性.方法 对符合入组标准的同时完成为期12周的团体心理治疗的30例强迫症患者,进行团体治疗疗效因子问卷的测量,对团体治疗疗效因子的重要性做出评定.结果 本研究提示在强迫症的治疗中,团体心理治疗疗效因子的相对重要性排序为:人际学习(获取)、人际学习(付出)、自我了解、宣泄、存在意识、团体凝聚力、普遍性、希望重塑、传递信息、利他性、原先家庭的矫正性重现、行为模仿.12个因子平均数方差分析差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 人际学习(获取和付出)、自我了解、宣泄、存在意识、团体凝聚力是团体治疗中相对比较重要的疗效因子.

  14. Should psychotherapy consider reincarnation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Julio F P

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the need to take into account the cultural environment and belief systems of psychotherapy patients because these values reflect basic assumptions about man's nature and the cognitive references used to cope with psychological difficulties. Currently accepted psychotherapeutic approaches take no account of the belief in life after death held by most of the world's population. The World Values Survey (http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org) showed that there are large numbers of reincarnationists around the world, and whatever the reasons for believing in reincarnation, psychotherapeutic approaches should not ignore this significant group of people. Respect for patient opinions and subjective realities is a therapeutic need and an ethical duty, even though therapists may not share the same beliefs. Guidelines are suggested for professionals to develop collaborative models that help patients mobilize their intrinsic intelligence to find solutions to their complaints.

  15. Individual psychotherapy as an adjunct to group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranto, E A; Bender, S S

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a form of combined psychotherapy in which the individual sessions are used as an adjunct to group therapy. Each group member is seen regularly in individual sessions to focus primarily on the member's ongoing group work. The individual sessions are scheduled on a rotating basis. Typically, each group member is seen in an individual session once every four weeks. Additional individual sessions are available only when immediate attention is appropriate and necessary. The group is viewed as the primary therapeutic component. A cost-effective therapeutic approach that uses both individual and group methods, this modality lends itself well to a clinic and to a private practice setting.

  16. The Grandmaternal Transference in Parent-Infant/Child Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugmore, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The psychic significance of the figure of the grandmother in psychodynamic psychotherapy has received scant attention. This paper develops the concept of the "grandmaternal transference" in parent-infant psychotherapy and explores its identification, its possible functions and its therapeutic significance. The grandmaternal transference has…

  17. INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY AND MINDFULNESS: THE CASE OF SARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Černetič

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness on a theoretical as well as practical level. Although mindfulness is not an explicit constituent of Integrative Psychotherapy, the two are arguably a natural fit. Mindfulness has the potential to enhance internal and external contact, a central concept in Integrative Psychotherapy, as well as strengthen a client’s Adult ego state. This article presents a case study whereby Integrative Psychotherapy is analysed from the perspective of mindfulness. Within the course of therapy, parallels were observed between the client's increased mindfulness, improved internal and external contact, strengthened Adult ego state, mastery of introjections, as well as diminished feelings of guilt, improved mood, self care and ability to engage in appropriate separation and individuation. These gains support the conclusion that Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness are inherently related and that explicit incorporation of mindfulness may enhance the therapeutic process of Integrative Psychotherapy.

  18. Psychotherapies in Acute and Transient Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel González de Chávez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available From a comprehensive and global view -psychological, biological and social - acute and transient psychoses could be considered identity breakdowns with fragmentation of its structure, paranoid mechanism and cognitive regression. Psychotherapies favour evolution of psychotic identity through disorder awareness and knowledge of aspects of patients that make them more vulnerable to psychotic experiences. We underline the key role of group psychotherapy to improve therapeutic relationships and best use of patient’s coping strategies in the chronology of therapeutic interventions and recovery process of these patients.

  19. Videoconferencing psychotherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Autumn; Agha, Zia; Maglione, Melissa L; Repp, Andrea; Ross, Bridgett; Zuest, Danielle; Rice-Thorp, Natalie M; Lohr, James; Thorp, Steven R

    2012-05-01

    Individuals with mental health problems may face barriers to accessing effective psychotherapies. Videoconferencing technology, which allows audio and video information to be shared concurrently across geographical distances, offers an alternative that may improve access. We conducted a systematic literature review of the use of videoconferencing psychotherapy (VCP), designed to address 10 specific questions, including therapeutic types/formats that have been implemented, the populations with which VCP is being used, the number and types of publications related to VCP, and available satisfaction, feasibility, and outcome data related to VCP. After electronic searches and reviews of reference lists, 821 potential articles were identified, and 65 were selected for inclusion. The results indicate that VCP is feasible, has been used in a variety of therapeutic formats and with diverse populations, is generally associated with good user satisfaction, and is found to have similar clinical outcomes to traditional face-to-face psychotherapy. Although the number of articles being published on VCP has increased in recent years, there remains a need for additional large-scale clinical trials to further assess the efficacy and effectiveness of VCP.

  20. Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Issues and Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    Emphasis on identifying evidence-based therapies (EBTs) has increased markedly. Lists of EBTs are the rationale for recommendations for how psychotherapy provider training programs should be evaluated, professional competence assessed, and licensure and reimbursement policies structured. There are however methodological concerns that limit the external validity of EBTs. Among the most salient is the circularity inherent in randomized control trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy that constrains the manner in which the psychological problems are defined, psychotherapy can be practiced, and change evaluated. RCT studies favor therapies that focus of specific symptoms and can be described in a manual, administered reliably across patients, completed in relatively few sessions, and involve short-term evaluations of outcome. The epistemological assumptions of a natural science approach to psychotherapy research limit how studies are conducted and assessed in ways that that advantage symptom-focused approaches and disadvantage those approaches that seek to bring broad recovery-based changes. Research methods that are not limited to RCTs and include methodology to minimize the effects of "therapist allegiance" are necessary for valid evaluations of therapeutic approaches that seek to facilitate changes that are broader than symptom reduction. Recent proposals to adopt policies that dictate training, credentialing, and reimbursement based on lists of EBTs unduly limit how psychotherapy can be conceptualized and practiced, and are not in the best interests of the profession or of individuals seeking psychotherapy services.

  1. THERAPEUTIC EVALUATION OF YASHTIMADHU GHANA VATI AND TAGARA GHANA VATI ALONG WITH PSYCHOTHERAPY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MENTAL ADJUSTMENT DISORDER OF YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Godatwar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Being a health science with holistic approach, Ayurveda looks the mind as integral part of life and health. It advocates the inter-relationship between mind, body and spirit as a whole. It means an imbalance of mental level is equally reflected and re-enforced at physical level and vice versa. When allowed to persist for long time, the psychic and somatic disorders get combined with each other. Ayurveda recommends certain practices to control mind in a view of achieving mental health. So for that purpose present study includes both Drug and Psychotherapy. 112 patients were screened from the survey study (367 and were randomly divided into two groups by Chit method. After completion of trial it was observed that Yashtimadhu & Tagara both are equally effective in a Mental Adjustment disorders though their mode of actions are different.Keywords: Ayurveda, Yashtimadhu, Tagara, mental adjustment disorder, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Valeriana wallichii

  2. Verbal Response Mode Use by Clients in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, William B.; Sultan, Faye E.

    1979-01-01

    Verbal behavior in transcripts of psychotherapy was coded according to Stile's taxonomy of verbal response modes. Therapists of different theoretical persuasions used different mixtures of verbal techniques. Common elements that make verbal interaction psychologically therapeutic lie in client behavior. (Author)

  3. Recent Studies in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rafael Ferro

    2008-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), based on the principles of radical behaviorism, emphasizes the impact of eventualities that occur during therapeutic sessions, the therapist-client interaction context, functional equivalence between environments, natural reinforcement and shaping by the therapist. This paper reviews recent studies of FAP…

  4. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  5. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  6. [Psychotherapy with the unwilling patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madert, K K

    1984-05-01

    By means of the residential motivation therapy of addicts we discuss ways of dealing with the specific problems, that arise in psychotherapy of character disordered, who are not suffering psychically. The - in the view of the addict patient - often unvoluntary referral to the hospital provokes the patient's refusal of cooperation. The greatest therapeutic challenge is the ego-syntonicity of the character disorder and the rigid defense structure of overcompensation, projection and denial, covered up by rationalizations. This defense system serves to avoid closeness and contact with the original emotions. In our group setting we use mini-contracts, reality-oriented confrontation of behavioral issues in order to make the addict aware of his desperation and lack of fullfilment in life, and offer attractive models of living and the experience of warmth and bondedness in the group. Our main techniques are non-verbal. Body experience and full-body-expression of emotions mediate self-experience which is then integrated verbally. The goal of this psychoanalytically based psychotherapy is to bring about by working through resistances, the attitudes which are a precondition for continuing with a personality-changing psychotherapy.

  7. Near-infrared light responsive synthetic c-di-GMP module for optogenetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Min-Hyung; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-11-21

    Enormous potential of cell-based therapeutics is hindered by the lack of effective means to control genetically engineered cells in mammalian tissues. Here, we describe a synthetic module for remote photocontrol of engineered cells that can be adapted for such applications. The module involves photoactivated synthesis of cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), a stable small molecule that is not produced by higher eukaryotes and therefore is suitable for orthogonal regulation. The key component of the photocontrol module is an engineered bacteriophytochrome diguanylate cyclase, which synthesizes c-di-GMP from GTP in a light-dependent manner. Bacteriophytochromes are particularly attractive photoreceptors because they respond to light in the near-infrared window of the spectrum, where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and also because their chromophore, biliverdin IXα, is naturally available in mammalian cells. The second component of the photocontrol module, a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, maintains near-zero background levels of c-di-GMP in the absence of light, which enhances the photodynamic range of c-di-GMP concentrations. In the E. coli model used in this study, the intracellular c-di-GMP levels could be upregulated by light by >50-fold. Various c-di-GMP-responsive proteins and riboswitches identified in bacteria can be linked downstream of the c-di-GMP-mediated photocontrol module for orthogonal regulation of biological activities in mammals as well as in other organisms lacking c-di-GMP signaling. Here, we linked the photocontrol module to a gene expression output via a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor and achieved a 40-fold photoactivation of gene expression.

  8. Synchrony in Dyadic Psychotherapy Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    Synchrony is a multi-faceted concept used in diverse domains such as physics, biology, and the social sciences. This chapter reviews some of the evidence of nonverbal synchrony in human communication, with a main focus on the role of synchrony in the psychotherapeutic setting. Nonverbal synchrony describes coordinated behavior of patient and therapist. Its association with empathy, rapport and the therapeutic relationship has been pointed out repeatedly, yet close evaluation of empirical studies suggests that the evidence remains inconclusive. Particularly in naturalistic studies, research with quantitative measures of synchrony is still lacking. We introduce a new empirical approach for the study of synchrony in psychotherapies under field conditions: Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This is a video-based algorithm that quantifies the amount of movement in freely definable regions of interest. Our statistical analysis detects synchrony on a global level, irrespective of the specific body parts moving. Synchrony thus defined can be considered as a general measure of movement coordination between interacting individuals. Data from a sequence of N = 21 therapy sessions taken from one psychotherapy dyad shows a high positive relationship between synchrony and the therapeutic bond. Nonverbal synchrony can thus be considered a promising concept for research on the therapeutic alliance. Further areas of application are discussed.

  9. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  10. Psychotherapy for Delinquents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ian; Sullivan, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Presents the results of a psychotherapy consultation service for delinquents (n=47). Based on data obtained from this program and a review of relevant literature, a working model of individual psychotherapy related to attachment theory as it applies to this population is presented. Discusses difficulties that warrant resolution. (JPS)

  11. [Progress in c-di-GMP inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xuwen; Liu, Xingyu; Tao, Hui; Cui, Zining; Zhang, Lianhui

    2017-09-25

    The cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP is known as an important second messenger in bacteria, which controls various important cellular processes, such as cell differentiation, biofilm formation and virulence factors production. It is extremely vital for the development of new antibacterial agents by virtue of blocking c-di-GMP signal conduction. Current research indicates that there are three potential targets for discovering new antibacterial agents based on c-di-GMP regulated signal pathway, which are c-di-GMP synthases, c-di-GMP degrading enzymes and c-di-GMP receptors. Herein, we review small molecules that have been developed to inhibit c-di-GMP related enzymes and indicate perspectives of c-di-GMP inhibitors.

  12. [Body-centered psychotherapy IKP (Institute of Body-Centered Psychotherapy): holistic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Groeli, Y

    1996-03-01

    Body centered Psychotherapy IKP is treated in this article under the aspect of a holistic approach. First the theory and the system of science are summarised and shown as to which amount they are changing concerning knowledge of details and wholeness. It is pointed out that the actual paradigma "to the depth" has to be completed by that of "wideness". The way of holistic-multirelational thinking, stating a diagnosis and doing therapy is demonstrated along a case study going on at the background of a therapeutic encounter-relationship which is emotionally warm (Gestalt-approach).

  13. Alliance in individual psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Adam O; Del Re, A C; Flückiger, Christoph; Symonds, Dianne

    2011-03-01

    This article reports on a research synthesis of the relation between alliance and the outcomes of individual psychotherapy. Included were over 200 research reports based on 190 independent data sources, covering more than 14,000 treatments. Research involving 5 or more adult participants receiving genuine (as opposed to analogue) treatments, where the author(s) referred to one of the independent variables as "alliance," "therapeutic alliance," "helping alliance," or "working alliance" were the inclusion criteria. All analyses were done using the assumptions of a random model. The overall aggregate relation between the alliance and treatment outcome (adjusted for sample size and non independence of outcome measures) was r = .275 (k = 190); the 95% confidence interval for this value was .25-.30. The statistical probability associated with the aggregated relation between alliance and outcome is p < .0001. The data collected for this meta-analysis were quite variable (heterogeneous). Potential variables such as assessment perspectives (client, therapist, observer), publication source, types of assessment methods and time of assessment were explored.

  14. The Ima Hogg Therapeutic School Individualized Education, Behavioral Management in the Classroom and Psychotherapy for the Emotionally Disturbed and Behaviorally Disordered Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Constance D.; And Others

    Three papers discuss aspects of The Ima Hogg Therapeutic School for emotionally disturbed children. The first paper addresses the school's behavior development and management system, which rewards self management with freedom in physical activity and uses individualized target behaviors designed to increase the child's acceptable social…

  15. Treatment Differences in the Therapeutic Relationship and Introject during a 2-Year Randomized Controlled Trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus Nonbehavioral Psychotherapy Experts for Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Jamie D.; Atkins, David C.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study explored the role of the therapeutic relationship and introject during the course of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Method: Women meeting "DSM-IV" criteria for borderline personality disorder (N = 101) were randomized to receive DBT or community…

  16. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Other forms of therapy for BPD include: ... than acting out these emotions impulsively. Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT) This type of therapy focuses on reframing “ ...

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychotherapy (TFP) This form of therapy is rooted in the patient’s confused and contradictory sense of identity ... person to another person, such as the therapist. In that moment, the therapist talks with the patient ...

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Other forms of therapy for BPD ... STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of ...

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people learn tools, exercises, and concrete things they can do to manage their emotions when certain challenging ... treatment (such as medications or individual psychotherapy), STEPPS can help reduce symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve ...

  20. Values in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... identify and verbally express their emotions, describe their interactions with other people, and talk about themselves and ... stress (particularly the stress of rejection or disappointing interactions with other people). Supportive Psychotherapy A form of ...

  2. Introduction: Psychotherapy for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Beginning with Paul Federn--a contemporary of Sigmund Freud--every generation of psychotherapists for the past hundred years has included a small number of determined clinicians who have worked psychotherapeutically with psychotic patients, and written about their work. This special issue of the American Journal of Psychotherapy contains seven papers by clinicians in this generation who are using psychotherapy in the treatment of psychosis.

  3. PSYCHOTHERAPY SUPPORT ON SCIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Widyawati Suhendro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease that causes varying descriptions. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two groups, the primary and secondary symptoms. Treatment should be done as soon as possible, because a state of psychotic periods raises the possibility to suffer mental decline. The treatment is carried out must be comprehensive, multimodal, empirically and can be applied to the patient. One therapy that is given is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is usually combined with pharmacologica...

  4. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: a contemporary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Larry S; Busch, Fredric N

    2012-09-01

    A contemporary perspective on psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy views both treatments as somatic in nature. Abandoning Cartesian dualism frees the clinician to consider therapeutic options based on the best available evidence rather than falsely dichotomizing approaches as biological or psychological. Evidence-based medicine is a helpful though limited paradigm upon which to base treatment decisions. Instead, clinicians should strive for an evidence-informed approach that is patient centered. This approach is illustrated in relation to depressive illness where moderators of outcome are examined (illness severity, history of trauma, personality disorders, patient preference) that will influence clinical recommendations on combining treatment. Psychotherapy is increasingly proving to be a valuable therapeutic modality across the severity spectrum, a finding at odds with current treatment practices.

  5. USING BACH FLOWER IN HOLISTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a narrative review from scientific literature that aimed to describe concepts and approaches for indications of the therapeutic use of Bach flower remedies in holistic psychotherapy. The review was developed in February 2016 from books, official documents and articles indexed in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Bach flower remedies is a therapeutic method that aims to restore the balance of human being, restoring its vital energy through holistic care. Because the flower essences act on psychic and emotional dimension of individual, when employed in holistic psychotherapy can provide greater autonomy, self-care and effectiveness compared to other alternative methods. The literature indicated that flower essence therapy is a safe practice and can be used in a complementary to health care, but should be performed by qualified professionals. It has also shown to be a promising and important area for nursing professional, but it still requires greater investment in research in the area to support the practice.

  6. Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types No. 86; updated February 2017 Psychotherapy ... Therapy (DBT) can be used to treat older adolescents who have chronic suicidal feelings/thoughts, engage in ...

  7. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  8. Serious Games for Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus

    2017-06-01

    In the evolving digital age, media applications are increasingly playing a greater role in the field of psychotherapy. While the Internet is already in the phase of being established when it comes to the care of mental disorders, experimentation is going on with other modern media such as serious games. A serious game is a game in which education and behavior change is the goal, alongside with entertainment. The objective of the present article was to provide a first empirical overview of serious games applied to psychotherapy and psychosomatic rehabilitation. Therefore, a systematic literature search, including the terms "serious game" or "computer game" and "psychotherapy" or "rehabilitation" or "intervention" or "mental disorders" in the databases Medline and PsycINFO, was performed. Subsequently, an Internet search was conducted to identify studies not published in journals. Publications not providing empirical data about effectiveness were excluded. On the basis of this systematic literature review, the results of N = 15 studies met inclusion criteria. They utilized primarily cognitive behavioral techniques and can be useful for treating a range of mental disorders. Serious games are effective both as a stand-alone intervention or part of psychotherapy and appeal to patients independent of age and sex. Included serious games proved to be an effective therapeutic component. Nonetheless, findings are not conclusive and more research is needed to further investigate the effectiveness of serious games for psychotherapeutic purposes.

  9. Psychotherapy: A 40-Year Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Sol L.

    1981-01-01

    Appraises selected issues and developments in the field of psychotherapy since 1940. Discusses increased participation of clinical psychologists in the area of psychotherapy, increased popularity of psychotherapy, declining influence of psychoanalysis and related views, emergence of behavioral and cognitive therapies, and recent emphasis on…

  10. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  11. John Bowlby and couple psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    The centenary of John Bowlby's birth provides a context for considering the policy, research and practice legacies that he left for practitioners working in many different fields supporting couples and families. Part historical, and part forwardlooking, this paper considers the links between attachment in the infant-parent dyad that was at the heart of Bowlby's concern and the nature of the affective ties that bind couples together in adult romantic relationships. An overview of the influence of his theory on family policy and adult attachment research is followed by an appreciation of its significance for the practice of couple psychotherapy. The paper concludes with a comment on the implications of current neuroscience knowledge for therapeutic technique.

  12. Specificity of the Cyclic GMP-Binding Activity and of a Cyclic GMP-Dependent Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Walsum, Hans van; Meer, Rob C. van der; Bulgakov, Roman; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide specificity of the cyclic GMP-binding activity in a homogenate of Dictyostelium discoideum was determined by competition of cyclic GMP derivatives with [8-3H] cyclic GMP for the binding sites. The results indicate that cyclic GMP is bound to the binding proteins by hydrogen bonds at N

  13. Gratitude in cognitive psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Moyano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gratitude is a cognitive-affective state caused by the recognition that one has received a benefit from an external agent, due to the good intentions of this agent. Despite the evidence that associate gratitude with subjective well being, psychological well being, physical health and copping with stressful events, it is not enough taken in consideration in an academic level and in its interaction with psychotherapy instruments as well. In this article, the central concepts and information provided by the research are revised, intending to analyze possible ways to include gratitude into Cognitive Psychotherapy

  14. Therapists' Attitudes Towards Psychotherapeutic Strategies in Community-Based Psychotherapy with Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Garland, Ann F.; Taylor, Robin; Zoffness, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about what individual treatment strategies therapists providing usual care psychotherapy consider the most valuable to their practice. The Therapeutic Strategies Survey (TSS) assesses therapists' attitudes about the value of 27 individual treatment strategies in their practice with children with disruptive behavior problems in community-based outpatient psychotherapy. Findings indicate that therapists from multiple professional disciplines highly value many individual psychoth...

  15. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP): A Review of Publications from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangabeira, Victor; Kanter, Jonathan; Del Prette, Giovana

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), a therapy based on radical behaviorism, establishes the priority of the therapeutic interaction as a mechanism of change in psychotherapy. Since the first book on FAP appeared in 1991, it has been the focus of many papers and has been incorporated by the community of behavior therapists. This paper is a…

  16. Predicting Psychotherapy Dropouts: A Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Alexander F; Flückiger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The role of therapeutic processes in predicting premature termination of psychotherapy has been a particular focus of recent research. The purpose of this study was to contrast outpatients who completed therapy and those who dropped out with respect to their self-reported in-session experiences of self-esteem, mastery, clarification and the therapeutic alliance. The 296 patients with mixed disorders were treated with an integrative form of cognitive-behavioural therapy without pre-determined time limit (M = 20.2 sessions). Multilevel analyses indicated that patients who did not completetreatment reported, on average, lower levels of self-esteem, mastery and clarification and lower ratings of their therapeutic alliance in treatment in contrast to patients who completed therapy. Patient-reported change in self-esteem experiences over the course of treatment turned out to be the strongest predictor of dropout from psychotherapy or successful completion. When dropout occurred before the average treatment length was reached, patients reported fewer clarifying experiences as early as the first session and their ratings of the therapeutic alliance were characterized by an absence of positive development. Both of these aspects seem to be involved in patients' decisions to leave treatment early. The findings underscore the importance of the therapeutic process in understanding the mechanisms behind treatment dropout. Analyses data from 296 patients at a private outpatient clinic in a routine practice setting (CBT). Completer/dropout definition: presence or absence of measurement battery at post-assessment. Focuses on change in therapy processes by investigating post-session reports. Finds that positive changes in self-esteem experiences is the most robust predictor of dropout, followed by ratings of clarification experiences and the global alliance. In line with recent dropout research, these process indicators might help to detect therapeutic situations that are

  17. Transgenic Mice for cGMP Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunemann, Martin; Wen, Lai; Hillenbrand, Matthias; Vachaviolos, Angelos; Feil, Susanne; Ott, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxing; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.; Russwurm, Michael; de Wit, Cor; Feil, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is an important intracellular signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system, but its spatiotemporal dynamics in vivo is largely unknown. Objective To generate and characterize transgenic mice expressing the fluorescence resonance energy transfer–based ratiometric cGMP sensor, cGMP indicator with an EC50 of 500 nmol/L (cGi500), in cardiovascular tissues. Methods and Results Mouse lines with smooth muscle–specific or ubiquitous expression of cGi500 were generated by random transgenesis using an SM22α promoter fragment or by targeted integration of a Cre recombinase–activatable expression cassette driven by the cytomegalovirus early enhancer/chicken β-actin/β-globin promoter into the Rosa26 locus, respectively. Primary smooth muscle cells isolated from aorta, bladder, and colon of cGi500 mice showed strong sensor fluorescence. Basal cGMP concentrations were 3 µmol/L could also be monitored in blood vessels of the isolated retina and in the cremaster microcirculation of anesthetized mice. Moreover, with the use of a dorsal skinfold chamber model and multiphoton fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy, nitric oxide–stimulated vascular cGMP signals associated with vasodilation were detected in vivo in an acutely untouched preparation. Conclusions These cGi500 transgenic mice permit the visualization of cardiovascular cGMP signals in live cells, tissues, and mice under normal and pathological conditions or during pharmacotherapy with cGMP-elevating drugs. PMID:23801067

  18. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  19. Psychotherapy for Suicidal Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Reviews various systems of psychotherapy for suitability for suicidal clients. Discusses psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, primal therapy, transactional analysis, Gestalt therapy, reality therapy, person-centered therapy, existential analysis, and Jungian analysis in light of available treatment options. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when people with BPD realize others understand their experience and treatment options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) ... self-image – possibly brought on by negative childhood experiences – that affects how people react to their environment, ...

  1. Personality Theory and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Joen; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This group of articles discusses various aspects of Gestalt Therapy including its major contributions, role in psychotherapy, and contributions of Gestalt psychology in general. There is some discussion of the philosophical background of Gestalt therapy along with Gestalt theory of emotion. A case study and an annotated bibliography are included…

  2. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  3. Psychotherapy, Postmodernism, and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitwood, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a postmodern ethics based on mutual respect and trust, derived from psychotherapy, and recognizing the primacy of individual subjectivity. Develops the concept of free attention to one another creating moral space. Stresses affect over reason and practice over theory. Sees moral space as fundamental to the social fabric. (CH)

  4. Piaget and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, T L

    1978-04-01

    It is difficult to apply Piaget's theory to psychotherapy because the place of affect in it is ambiguous. When the alternatives are considered, it seems most consistent with Piaget's ideas to regard both cognitive and affective phenomena as problem-solving organizations. Piaget's remarkable discoveries in the cognitive sphere are a consequence of the easy access in that sphere to the kind of problems that need solving, and the phasic development of solutions. But the nature of the problems to be solved or the values to be guarded by a patient in psychotherapy are not knowable independently of the patient's actual behavior. In one respect all that is left from Piaget's approach for psychotherapy generally is the truism that therapy fosters differentiation and integration. However, even if we cannot frame a peculiarly Piagetian paradigm of psychotherapy, Piaget is valuable in posing a subsidiary question, namely, what in therapy fosters problem-solving activity. A reading of Piaget suggests that a patient learns by acting on his therapist and tacitly interpreting the results of his actions, that difficulties in therapy are the material from which therapy proceeds, and that in order to grasp the situation of the patient, the therapist himself may need to act on him and not just think about him. An implied lesson for training would be that supervision should instill a professional identity that is reinforced rather than challenged by therapy difficulties, and does not rely solely on theoretical categorizing.

  5. Medikamentengabe und Psychotherapie

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Psychopharmakotherapie ist ein möglicher Baustein in der multimodalen Behandlung kinder- und jugendpsychiatrischer Störungsbilder. Diese simple Aussage ist unumstritten. Dennoch haben im klinischen Alltag sowohl Eltern als auch Psychotherapeuten häufig erhebliche Bedenken, einem Kind ein Psychopharmakon zu verabreichen. Neben angemessenen Bedenken zu potenziellen Wechselwirkungen zwischen psychopharmakotherapie und Psychotherapie oder Unsicherheiten zu Wirkungen und Nebenwirkungen eines Psych...

  6. LA PSICOTERAPIA: ¿OFICIO SIN CIENCIA Y CIENCIA SIN OFICIO? / PSYCHOTHERAPY: PRACTICE WITHOUT SCIENCE OR SCIENCE WITHOUT PRACTICE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANE KRAUSE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the persistent divorce between clinicalpractice and research in psychotherapy, examining theunderlying reasons in both contexts. With respect to clinicalpractice, the article discusses the characteristics of theteaching of psychotherapy, therapeutic schools as communities,and the fear of research. In the case of research in psychotherapy,the article analyzes research results regarding theeffectiveness of psychotherapy, the therapeutic alliance, andthe elements of the process. Finally, it presents some of thetransformations in research and its dissemination, which cancontribute to closing the gap between practice and science inpsychotherapy.

  7. Therapeutic Change Processes in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valero-Aguayo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda el mecanismo de cambio y las técnicas terapéuticas que son centrales a la Psicoterapia Analítica Funcional (PAF. El análisis experimental de las conductas ha hecho que se consideren a las contingencias de reforzamiento como un mecanismo importante para el cambio que puede llegar a llevar a mejoras terapéuticas significativas. En este articulo nos centramos en cómo un terapeuta puede maximizar su uso de las contingencias de reforzamiento, dado que los problemas del paciente surgen en su día a día. La PAF hace hincapié en la relación cliente-terapeuta como una oportunidad para moldear y reforzar unas conductas mejoradas. Se emplean los principios del análisis funcional para explicar cómo se pueden dar, durante la sesión, ejemplos reales de los problemas cotidianos del paciente, dándose así oportunidades para lograr el cambio terapéutico y para generalizar estas mejoras desde la sesión hacia el día a día del paciente. Algunos conceptos centrales que se tratan en este artículo son: la conducta clínicamente relevante, el reforzamiento natural, los procesos interpersonales, las implicaciones para la conducta de una relación terapeuta-cliente intensa, la conducta privada, las cogniciones de la conducta, y el análisis conductual del lenguaje (conducta verbal. También se presentan 5 reglas para facilitar un trabajo intenso y transformador de los terapeutas con sus clientes.

  8. ASEAN GMP and pharmaceutical industries in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soesilo, S; Sitorus, U

    1995-01-01

    Indonesia was appointed by the ASEAN Technical Cooperation in Pharmaceutical as a focal point and to coordinate the development of practical guidelines for the implementation of GMP. The ASEAN GMP Guidelines were endorsed by the ASEAN Technical Cooperation in Pharmaceutical in 1988, which among others required separation of Beta-Lactam dedicated facilities and three degrees of cleanliness for production areas. As it was realised that drug manufacturers in developing countries need more detailed guidelines to be able to implement the GMP, an Operational Manual for GMP was also prepared for providing examples of SOPs lay-outs, documentation etc. It was agreed by the technical cooperation group to leave the implementation of GMP to each member country. However, the ASEAN Manual for Inspection of GMP was drafted and endorsed by the group and training of ASEAN Drug Inspectors was organized to support the implementation. The ASEAN GMP is being implemented in Indonesia through a five-year, stepwise implementation plan, starting in 1989.

  9. [Integrated psychotherapy for eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, O

    1995-01-01

    The various psychotherapeutic strategies for eating disorders (EDs) include psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavioral, family oriented, arts therapy and others. In this paper, the psychodynamism of EDs and their therapy are reexamined and considered holistically from "the separate aspects of eating" point of view. That is the separation of eating regulated by biological appetite and the eating or not eating deriving from the patient's mind, unrelated to appetite. A new therapeutic technique called "formalization", which clarifies the separation of aspects of eating are invented. For integrated psychotherapy of EDs, it is necessary to combine the formalization technique of which clarifies and promotes patients' conflicts, and the integrated psychodynamic therapies that treat the promoted conflicts. The psychodynamism of EDs is the subject of much argument by many therapist. Although these arguments differ, they are similar in two points. Firstly, all of them consider EDs as distinctly separate from biological appetites. Secondly, the behavior of patients with EDs are taken as "false solution" or "substitution" of their essential problem. It is impossible to completely separate the physical action of eating mentally, however there may be a second meaning of eating separate from appetite. Seen in this light, psychotherapies are classified into two groups. One supports and sympathizes with these conflicts and the other is an educational one, telling the patients that a false solution is invalid. The former approach is employed by almost all psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, family oriented therapy, arts therapy, self-help groups and the like. These therapies treat patients' conflicts with a non-judgemental approach, transform the psychodynamism, and consequently improve the eating behavior. The latter is applied by behavior therapy. Under strict operant conditioning, adequate behavior is reinforced by reward and inadequate behavior is eliminated by punishment

  10. Mind, brain and psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheth Hitesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be. However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients.

  11. Constructivism and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J; Granvold, Donald K

    2005-06-01

    Constructivism is a metatheoretical perspective that embraces diverse traditions in medicine, philosophy, psychology, and spiritual wisdom. Constructive psychotherapy emphasizes complex cycles in the natural ordering and reorganizing processes that characterize all development in living systems. Individuals are encouraged to view themselves as active participants in their lives. Within rich contexts of human relationship and symbol systems, people make new meanings as they develop. Techniques from many different traditions can help people find and refine their sense of balance as they develop.

  12. [Psychotherapy as cultural discourse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space.

  13. Breaking through to Teens: Psychotherapy for the New Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffel, Ron

    2005-01-01

    This book presents groundbreaking strategies for psychotherapy with today's teens, for whom high-risk behavior, lack of adult guidance, and intense anxiety and stress increasingly come with the territory. Ron Taffel addresses the key challenge of building a therapeutic relationship that is strong enough to promote real behavioral and emotional…

  14. ARC Code TI: Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP) is a library which serializes datatypes between XML and ANSI C data structures to support CFD applications. This library...

  15. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  16. [Institutional psychotherapy, caring for patients and the place of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogoul, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Institutional psychotherapy was developed in the specific context of the "assassination" of the Spanish revolution. There are two distinct movements or two periods. The first, based around Georges Daumézon and Henri Ey gave birth to the sector. The second, around FrançoisTosquelles and Jean Oury emphasised the asylum as the place of care. The function of institutional psychotherapy is to care not only for the patients but also the place of treatment. To fulfil this function, it has a tool box: transfer, the fight against the overvaluation of hierarchy as well as the function of the therapeutic club.

  17. Power Politics of Family Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Carl A.

    It is postulated that the standard framework for psychotherapy, a cooperative transference neurosis, does not validly carry over to the successful psychotherapy of a two-generation family group. In many disturbed families, the necessary and sufficient dynamics for change must be initiated, controlled, and augmented by a group dynamic power-play,…

  18. The right brain is dominant in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses how recent studies of the right brain, which is dominant for the implicit, nonverbal, intuitive, holistic processing of emotional information and social interactions, can elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the relational foundations of psychotherapy. Utilizing the interpersonal neurobiological perspective of regulation theory, I describe the fundamental role of the early developing right brain in relational processes, throughout the life span. I present interdisciplinary evidence documenting right brain functions in early attachment processes, in emotional communications within the therapeutic alliance, in mutual therapeutic enactments, and in therapeutic change processes. This work highlights the fact that the current emphasis on relational processes is shared by, cross-fertilizing, and indeed transforming both psychology and neuroscience, with important consequences for clinical psychological models of psychotherapeutic change.

  19. A short history of cGMP, guanylyl cyclases, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kots, Alexander Y; Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida G; Murad, Ferid

    2009-01-01

    Here, we review the early studies on cGMP, guanylyl cyclases, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases to facilitate understanding of development of this exciting but complex field of research encompassing pharmacology, biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology of these important regulatory molecules.

  20. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Cristina Paez; Maria Lucia Tiellet Nunes; Vânia Naomi Hirakata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive a...

  1. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  2. Formation and dimerization of the phosphodiesterase active site of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa MorA, a bi-functional c-di-GMP regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phippen, Curtis William; Mikolajek, Halina; Schlaefli, Henry George; Keevil, Charles William; Webb, Jeremy Stephen; Tews, Ivo

    2014-12-20

    Diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE), respectively synthesise and hydrolyse the secondary messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), and both activities are often found in a single protein. Intracellular c-di-GMP levels in turn regulate bacterial motility, virulence and biofilm formation. We report the first structure of a tandem DGC-PDE fragment, in which the catalytic domains are shown to be active. Two phosphodiesterase states are distinguished by active site formation. The structures, in the presence or absence of c-di-GMP, suggest that dimerisation and binding pocket formation are linked, with dimerisation being required for catalytic activity. An understanding of PDE activation is important, as biofilm dispersal via c-di-GMP hydrolysis has therapeutic effects on chronic infections.

  3. Of God and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T Byram

    2015-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an instrument for remediation of psychological deficits and conflict resolution, as well as an instrument for growth and self-cultivation. In fact, psychotherapy is the finest form of life education. All of this is done without psychotherapists' playing a teacher, a minister, a priest, a rabbi, an imam, or a Buddhist monk, but by being familiar with what they know and more. That "more" is about understanding "the attributes" of gods and religions as they serve the all-too-human needs of believing and belonging. It is about the distillation of common psychological, sociological, moral, and philosophical attributes of religions, and the recognition that the attributes themselves are faith and God. Attributes that serve the affiliative needs define faith, for example, belonging is faith; attributes that serve the divine needs define God, for example, compassion is God. Those who have recovered from their primitive innocence need to formulate their ideas of God and religion, regardless of their affiliation with a religious community. One may need to resonate emotionally with the God of his or her religion, but intellectually need to transcend all its dogma and cultivate a personal concept of divinity free from any theological structure. Such an enlightened person achieves enduring equanimity by striving to own the attributes of Gods--to be godly. This is equally true for psychotherapists as it is for their patients.

  4. [New Developments in Video Games for Psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    A literature survey on new developments in the area of video games and psychotherapy of children and adolescents was conducted. Despite the omnipresence of computers and the internet, development of therapeutic games seems rather slow. The video game Treasure Hunt was introduced in 2008 to support treatment of children with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Camp Cope-A-Lot was developed for treatment of anxious children, whereas the self-help game SPARX is directed at depressed adolescents. Rage-Control is a biofeedback game for children with anger problems. The game Zoo U aims to assess and train social skills of primary school children. Ricky and the Spider for young children with obsessive compulsive disorder is meant to support the cognitive-behavioural treatment of these patients. Clash- Back is a French game for adolescents with externalizing problems. Possible reasons for the relatively slow development of therapeutic games are the high methodological demands concerning an evaluation as well as the high costs of game development. Nonetheless, computers and the internet are bound to influence psychotherapy with children and adolescents in the long run.

  5. Placebo psychotherapy: synonym or oxymoron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2005-07-01

    Contrary to some recent claims, the placebo effect is real and in some cases very substantial. Placebo effects can be produced or enhanced by classical conditioning, but consistent with virtually all contemporary conditioning theories, these effects are generally mediated by expectancy. Expectancy can also produce placebo effects that are inconsistent with conditioning history. Although expectancy also plays an important role in psychotherapy outcome, the logic of placebo-controlled trials does not map well onto psychotherapy research. The idea of evaluating the efficacy of psychotherapy by controlling for nonspecific or placebo factors is based on a flawed analogy and should be abandoned.

  6. Applying a traditional individual psychotherapy model to Equine-facilitated Psychotherapy (EFP): theory and method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a unique, innovative, and effective method of psychotherapy using horses to aid in the therapeutic process (Equine-facilitated Psychotherapy or EFP). The remarkable elements of the horse--power, grace, vulnerability, and a willingness to bear another--combine to form a fertile stage for psychotherapeutic exploration. Therapeutic programs using horses to work with various psychiatric presentations in children and adolescents have begun to receive attention over the past 10 years. However, few EFP programs utilize the expertise of masters and doctoral-level psychologists, clinical social workers, or psychiatrists. In contrast, the psychological practice described in this article, written and practiced by a doctoral-level clinician, applies the breadth and depth of psychological theory and practice developed over the last century to a distinctly compelling milieu. The method relies not only on the therapeutic relationship with the clinician, but is also fueled by the client's compelling attachment to the therapeutic horse. As both of these relationships progress, the child's inner world and interpersonal style come to the forefront and the EFP theater allows the clinician to explore the client's intrapersonal and interpersonal worlds on preverbal, nonverbal and verbal levels of experience.

  7. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cGMP levels and blood pressure in treated hypertensive postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iane P Novais

    Full Text Available Abstract The second messenger cGMP has been largely studied as a therapeutic target in a variety of disorders such as erectile dysfunction, arterial hypertension and heart failure. Evidence has shown thatcGMP activators are less efficient in estrogen-deficiency animals, but no studies exist involving non-pharmacological approacheson NO/cGMP signaling pathway in hypertensive postmenopausal women. The aim of this study is to examine NO/cGMP pathway, redox state and blood pressure in trained treatedhypertensive (HT postmenopausal women comparing with normotensive (NT group. The rationale for that is most of HT patients is encouraged by physician to perform exercise associated with pharmacological treatments.Aerobic exercise training (AET consisted of 24 sessions, 3 times/week.Parameters were evaluated at baseline and after AET for both groups (HT=28; NT=33.In treatedHT group, AET was significantly effective in increasing cGMP concentrations (28% accompanied by an up-regulation of SOD (97% and catalase activity (37%. In NT group, we found an increasein SOD activity (58%. TreatedHT postmenopausal women were still responsive to AET increasing cGMP levels and up-regulating antioxidant system. It should also be emphasized that these findings provide information on the circulating biomarkers that might delay the developing of cardiovascular events in this particular population.

  8. Oxidant sensor in the cGMP-binding pocket of PKGIα regulates nitroxyl-mediated kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, Sonia; Goetz, Mara; Schmidt, Kjestine; Wolters, Markus; Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Diering, Simon; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Polat, Volkan; Scotcher, Jenna; Dees, Christian; Subramanian, Hariharan; Butt, Elke; Kamynina, Alisa; Schobesberger, Sophie; King, S Bruce; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; de Wit, Cor; Leichert, Lars I; Feil, Robert; Eaton, Philip; Cuello, Friederike

    2017-08-30

    Despite the mechanisms for endogenous nitroxyl (HNO) production and action being incompletely understood, pharmacological donors show broad therapeutic promise and are in clinical trials. Mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis showed that chemically distinct HNO donors 1-nitrosocyclohexyl acetate or Angeli's salt induced disulfides within cGMP-dependent protein kinase I-alpha (PKGIα), an interdisulfide between Cys42 of the two identical subunits of the kinase and a previously unobserved intradisulfide between Cys117 and Cys195 in the high affinity cGMP-binding site. Kinase activity was monitored in cells transfected with wildtype (WT), Cys42Ser or Cys117/195Ser PKGIα that cannot form the inter- or intradisulfide, respectively. HNO enhanced WT kinase activity, an effect significantly attenuated in inter- or intradisulfide-deficient PKGIα. To investigate whether the intradisulfide modulates cGMP binding, real-time imaging was performed in vascular smooth muscle cells expressing a FRET-biosensor comprising the cGMP-binding sites of PKGIα. HNO induced FRET changes similar to those elicited by an increase of cGMP, suggesting that intradisulfide formation is associated with activation of PKGIα. Intradisulfide formation in PKGIα correlated with enhanced HNO-mediated vasorelaxation in mesenteric arteries in vitro and arteriolar dilation in vivo in mice. HNO induces intradisulfide formation in PKGIα, inducing the same effect as cGMP binding, namely kinase activation and thus vasorelaxation.

  9. Grundprinzipien der existenziellen Psychotherapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Längle A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Die existenzielle Psychotherapie hat mit der humanistischen Psychotherapie zentrale Themen gemeinsam: personale Freiheit, Verantwortung, Sinnsuche, Authentizität. Die therapeutische Vorgangsweise ist primär phänomenologisch, d. h. auf den Einzelnen und die Einmaligkeit der Situation ausgerichtet. Begegnung der Person und Interesse an dem, was sie bewegt, steht vor der Anwendung von allgemeinen Techniken. Damit kommt die Person mit ihrer zentralen Fähigkeit, das für sie Wesentliche zu erfassen und der Entscheidung zuzuführen, in den Mittelpunkt des Geschehens. Das Auffinden der inneren Zustimmung zu dem, was man tut oder unterlässt, gilt als zentral in der Vorgangsweise der existenziellen Psychotherapie. So liegt das Interesse weniger in der Symptomfreiheit als im Erreichen persönlicher Erfüllung im Leben. Die Therapie beginnt darum meist mit der Arbeit an der Annahme, am Verstehen und an der Stellungnahme zu den Problemen und Erfahrungen, die das Leid verursachen. Diese dialogische Haltung ist auch bei chronischen Krankheiten von grundlegender Bedeutung. Psychische Störungen bzw. Krankheiten wirken sich hemmend auf den Vollzug dieser Fähigkeiten der authentischen Person aus, mit Auswirkungen vor allem auf die Qualität des (inneren und äußeren Dialogs. Dadurch entsteht neben dem spezifischen Leiden, das Bezug auf die jeweils gestörte existenzielle Struktur nimmt, ein Mangel an innerer Erfüllung im Leben, der als existenzielles Hauptsymptom gilt. Dem erfüllenden Dialog geht eine Offenheit des Menschen voraus, in der er sich vom Leben und von der Lebenssituation befragen lässt hinsichtlich dessen, was seine geeignete Antwort auf die Situation wäre. Nicht ausreichend gelebte Pflege und Sorge um die Grundstrukturen der Existenz wirken sich hemmend auf die Voraussetzungen für erfüllendes Leben aus: auf die personalen Fähigkeiten der Wahrnehmung, des Fühlens, Entscheidens und sich mit den Kontexten Abstimmens. Ein verminderter

  10. Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy Research - Editor's Introduction to a Special Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, B M

    2000-12-01

    This article introduces the special section dealing with research on attachment and psychotherapy. Although John Bowlby conceptualized his theory as a tool for clinicians to acquire a better understanding of the development of psychopathology and emotional distress, it took a long time until clinical researchers started to make use of Bowlby's theory. During the last decade, a large number of studies have been published showing that attachment theory could be very useful within different fields of psychotherapy research, such as differentiating psychopathology, therapist characteristics, and aspects of the therapeutic alliance. These fields are briefly stressed and related to the articles in the special section emphasizing some future directions of attachment response within psychotherapy.

  11. The role of hope in psychotherapy with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, L; Walsh, S

    2005-01-01

    The positive impact of psychotherapy upon the mental health problems of older people is increasingly accepted. However little attention has been paid to the role of hope in working therapeutically with older adults. Three relevant bodies of literature, namely adult psychotherapy, hope in older adulthood, and coping with chronic and terminal illness, provide a starting point for examining the therapeutic uses of hope. However, it is argued that these literatures cannot provide a sufficiently comprehensive conceptualisation of hope in psychotherapy with elders. Firstly, it is considered that hope in therapy is directly affected by key experiences of ageing, namely: facing physical and/or cognitive deterioration and facing death. Also, these three bodies of literature have tended to dichotomise hope as either beneficial and adaptive or dysfunctional and maladaptive. A developmental perspective is used to critique this dichotomy and a clinical framework is provided which examines the role and utility of hope in older adult psychotherapy from a more integrated viewpoint embedded in the client's life history. The framework is comprised of three types of 'hope work': 'facilitating realistic hope,' 'the work of despair' and 'surviving not thriving'. Suggestions are made about how this work may be carried out and with whom.

  12. [Real-time monitoring in psychotherapy - methodology and casuistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gabriele; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Leeb, Wilfried; Matschi, Brigitte; Schiepek, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Real-Time Monitoring in psychotherapy is a new method to increase quality and efficacy in psychotherapy. This internet-based information technology offers an online collection of psychotherapy-related data and allows insights into therapeutic patterns of change without any time-delay. The classical pre-post-evaluation is completed by an assessment of therapeutic processes. Besides an internet-based data collection the Synergetic Navigation System (SNS) integrates different methods of nonlinear time series analysis and provides a visualization of results. SNS is a new internet-based technology of data collection and data analysis. For illustration we present a single case study (avoidant personality disorder (DSM IV 301.82) with recurrent major depressive episodes) where SNS was applied in clinical practice (in-patient treatment). SNS results are used for therapy planning by repeated feedback interviews with the patients. Critical phases and nonlinearities of the ongoing self-organization processes can be identified. In addition to the practical impact of real-time monitoring SNS allows for continuous process-outcome-research in naturalistic settings. Models of change processes (e.g. sudden gains) can be tested but also used as a interpretation frame of idiographic results. In every day practice SNS enhances transparency, self-efficacy of patients, and supports the motivation to change. Compliance of patients is high, and the data show high validity. Therefore as a future perspective SNS should become routine in clinical practice and be integrated in professional psychotherapy training.

  13. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) manufacturing of advanced therapy medicinal products: a novel tailored model for optimizing performance and estimating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Enein, Mohamed; Römhild, Andy; Kaiser, Daniel; Beier, Carola; Bauer, Gerhard; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Reinke, Petra

    2013-03-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) have gained considerable attention in academia due to their therapeutic potential. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) principles ensure the quality and sterility of manufacturing these products. We developed a model for estimating the manufacturing costs of cell therapy products and optimizing the performance of academic GMP-facilities. The "Clean-Room Technology Assessment Technique" (CTAT) was tested prospectively in the GMP facility of BCRT, Berlin, Germany, then retrospectively in the GMP facility of the University of California-Davis, California, USA. CTAT is a two-level model: level one identifies operational (core) processes and measures their fixed costs; level two identifies production (supporting) processes and measures their variable costs. The model comprises several tools to measure and optimize performance of these processes. Manufacturing costs were itemized using adjusted micro-costing system. CTAT identified GMP activities with strong correlation to the manufacturing process of cell-based products. Building best practice standards allowed for performance improvement and elimination of human errors. The model also demonstrated the unidirectional dependencies that may exist among the core GMP activities. When compared to traditional business models, the CTAT assessment resulted in a more accurate allocation of annual expenses. The estimated expenses were used to set a fee structure for both GMP facilities. A mathematical equation was also developed to provide the final product cost. CTAT can be a useful tool in estimating accurate costs for the ATMPs manufactured in an optimized GMP process. These estimates are useful when analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these novel interventions. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  15. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  16. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  17. Trends in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed the views of both clinical and counseling psychologists regarding current trends in counseling and psychotherapy. Found psychoanalysis to be declining in popularity, while cognitive-behavioral options represented one of the strongest theoretical emphases today. (Author/GC)

  18. Big ideas for psychotherapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, James; Gates, Sarah; Vinca, Maria Ann; Boles, Shawna; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2007-12-01

    Research indicates that traditional psychotherapy training practices are ineffective in durably improving the effectiveness of psychotherapists. In addition, the quantity and quality of psychotherapy training research has also been limited in several ways. Thus, based on extant scholarship and personal experience, we offer several suggestions for improving on this state of affairs. Specifically, we propose that future psychotherapy trainings focus on a few "big ideas," target psychotherapist meta-cognitive skills, and attend more closely to the organizational/treatment context in which the training takes place. In terms of future training research, we recommend that researchers include a wider range of intermediate outcomes in their studies, examine the nature of trainee skill development, and investigate the role that organizational/treatment culture plays in terms of the retention of changes elicited by psychotherapy training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Trends in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed the views of both clinical and counseling psychologists regarding current trends in counseling and psychotherapy. Found psychoanalysis to be declining in popularity, while cognitive-behavioral options represented one of the strongest theoretical emphases today. (Author/GC)

  20. Nonverbal communication in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Gretchen N; Gentile, Julie P

    2010-06-01

    The mental status examination is the objective portion of any comprehensive psychiatric assessment and has key diagnostic and treatment implications. This includes elements such as a patient's baseline general appearance and behavior, affect, eye contact, and psychomotor functioning. Changes in these parameters from session to session allow the psychiatrist to gather important information about the patient. In psychiatry, much emphasis is placed on not only listening to what patients communicate verbally but also observing their interactions with the environment and the psychiatrist. In a complimentary fashion, psychiatrists must be aware of their own nonverbal behaviors and communication, as these can serve to either facilitate or hinder the patient-physician interaction. In this article, clinical vignettes will be used to illustrate various aspects of nonverbal communication that may occur within the setting of psychotherapy. Being aware of these unspoken subtleties can offer a psychiatrist valuable information that a patient may be unwilling or unable to put into words.

  1. PSYCHOTHERAPY SUPPORT ON SCIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Suhendro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Schizophrenia is a disease that causes varying descriptions. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two groups, the primary and secondary symptoms. Treatment should be done as soon as possible, because a state of psychotic periods raises the possibility to suffer mental decline. The treatment is carried out must be comprehensive, multimodal, empirically and can be applied to the patient. One therapy that is given is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is usually combined with pharmacological actions in order to increase the level of maximum healing. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. [Psychotherapy impact on effectiveness of in-hospital physical rehabilitation in patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumin, A N; Khaĭredinova, O P; Sumina, L Iu; Variushkina, E V; Doronin, D V; Galimzianov, D M; Masin, A N; Gol'dberg, G A

    2000-01-01

    Of 103 patients with acute coronary syndrome (mean age 51.6 +/- 0.9 years) 47 patients participated in 5 group psychotherapeutic sessions added to conversional rehabilitation program. Psychotherapy included progressive muscular relaxation, neurolinguistic programming, eriksonian hypnosis, therapeutic metaphora. Psychotherapy decreased the hear rate, number of ventricular extrasystoles, stimulated tonicity of the parasympathetic nervous system. Compared to the controls, the test patients developed higher exercise tolerance and lower reactivity of the central hemodynamics in all the exercise tests.

  3. A relação entre os mecanismos de defesa e a qualidade da aliança terapêutica em psicoterapia de orientação analítica The relationship between defense mechanisms and the quality of therapeutic alliance in analytic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Grilo Gomes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O estabelecimento de uma aliança terapêutica de boa qualidade em uma psicoterapia psicanalítica é fundamental para o processo terapêutico. Este estudo avaliou a influência do nível de funcionamento defensivo do paciente na qualidade da aliança terapêutica estabelecida durante a psicoterapia. MÉTODO: Para avaliação da qualidade da aliança estabelecida, pacientes em psicoterapia psicanalítica e seus respectivos terapeutas responderam ao Helping Alliance Questionnaire (versão paciente e versão terapeuta, respectivamente. O nível defensivo foi inferido através da Escala de Funcionamento Defensivo proposta no Manual de Diagnóstico e Estatística das Perturbações Mentais, quarta edição, texto revisado. RESULTADOS: Não houve associação entre o estabelecimento de uma aliança terapêutica de boa qualidade e o nível defensivo do paciente. No entanto, houve diferença significativa quando a versão do terapeuta foi comparada com a respondida pelo paciente: os pacientes estabeleceram uma aliança terapêutica de melhor qualidade em relação a seus terapeutas do que o inverso. CONCLUSÕES: O fato de a aliança terapêutica de boa qualidade ter se estabelecido independentemente do nível defensivo do paciente sugere que o treinamento e as características pessoais do terapeuta podem levar a uma capacidade de conectar-se com o paciente, apesar do grau de comprometimento do seu funcionamento psíquico.BACKGROUND: The quality of a therapeutic alliance is essential in psychoanalytic psychotherapy and influences the therapeutic process. This study evaluated the relationship between the level of defense mechanisms and the quality of therapeutic alliance established during psychotherapy. METHOD: Patients in psychotherapy and their respective therapists completed the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (patient version and therapist version, respectively. The level of defenses was inferred by the Defensive Functioning Scale

  4. A Systematic Review of the Combined Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychotherapy for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Shawn M.; Brandon, Anna R.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, after acute phase treatment and initial remission, relapse rates are significant. Strategies to prolong remission include continuation phase ECT, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or their combinations. This systematic review synthesizes extant data regarding the combined use of psychotherapy with ECT for the treatment of patients with severe MDD and offers the hypothesis that augmenting ECT with depression-specific psychotherapy represents a promising strategy for future investigation. Methods The authors performed two independent searches in PsychInfo (1806 – 2009) and MEDLINE (1948 – 2009) using combinations of the following search terms: Electroconvulsive Therapy (including ECT, ECT therapy, electroshock therapy, EST, shock therapy) and Psychotherapy (including cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, group, psychodynamic, psychoanalytic, individual, eclectic, and supportive). We included in this review a total of six articles (English language) that mentioned ECT and psychotherapy in the abstract, and provided a case report, series, or clinical trial. We examined the articles for data related to ECT and psychotherapy treatment characteristics, cohort characteristics, and therapeutic outcome. Results Although research over the past seven decades documenting the combined use of ECT and psychotherapy is limited, the available evidence suggests that testing this combination has promise and may confer additional, positive functional outcomes. Conclusions Significant methodological variability in ECT and psychotherapy procedures, heterogeneous patient cohorts, and inconsistent outcome measures prevent strong conclusions; however, existing research supports the need for future investigations of combined ECT and psychotherapy in well-designed, controlled clinical studies. Depression-specific psychotherapy approaches may need special

  5. Systems Pharmacology and Rational Polypharmacy: Nitric Oxide−Cyclic GMP Signaling Pathway as an Illustrative Example and Derivation of the General Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaroudi, Farshid S.; Handy, Diane E.; Liu, Yang-Yu; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Impaired nitric oxide (NO˙)-cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) signaling has been observed in many cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. There are several enzymatic determinants of cGMP levels in this pathway, including soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) itself, the NO˙-activated form of sGC, and phosphodiesterase(s) (PDE). Therapies for some of these disorders with PDE inhibitors have been successful at increasing cGMP levels in both cardiac and vascular tissues. However, at the systems level, it is not clear whether perturbation of PDE alone, under oxidative stress, is the best approach for increasing cGMP levels as compared with perturbation of other potential pathway targets, either alone or in combination. Here, we develop a model-based approach to perturbing this pathway, focusing on single reactions, pairs of reactions, or trios of reactions as targets, then monitoring the theoretical effects of these interventions on cGMP levels. Single perturbations of all reaction steps within this pathway demonstrated that three reaction steps, including the oxidation of sGC, NO˙ dissociation from sGC, and cGMP degradation by PDE, exerted a dominant influence on cGMP accumulation relative to other reaction steps. Furthermore, among all possible single, paired, and triple perturbations of this pathway, the combined perturbations of these three reaction steps had the greatest impact on cGMP accumulation. These computational findings were confirmed in cell-based experiments. We conclude that a combined perturbation of the oxidatively-impaired NO˙-cGMP signaling pathway is a better approach to the restoration of cGMP levels as compared with corresponding individual perturbations. This approach may also yield improved therapeutic responses in other complex pharmacologically amenable pathways. PMID:26985825

  6. Control of lipolysis by natriuretic peptides and cyclic GMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontan, Max; Moro, Cédric; Berlan, Michel; Crampes, François; Sengenes, Coralie; Galitzky, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Human fat cell lipolysis was, until recently, thought to be mediated exclusively by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-regulated pathway under the control of catecholamines and insulin. We have shown that atrial- and B-type natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP respectively) stimulate lipolysis in human fat cells through a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling pathway independent of cAMP production and PKA activity. Pharmacological or physiological (exercise) increases in plasma ANP levels stimulate lipid mobilization in humans. This pathway becomes important during chronic treatment with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, which inhibit catecholamine-induced lipolysis but enhance cardiac ANP release. These findings have metabolic implications and point to potential problems when natriuretic peptide secretion is altered or during therapeutic use of recombinant BNP.

  7. Advanced Psychotherapy Training: Psychotherapy Scholars' Track, and the Apprenticeship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E.; Yager, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Guided by ACGME's requirements, psychiatric residency training in psychotherapy currently focuses on teaching school-specific forms of psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive-behavioral, supportive, and psychodynamic psychotherapy). On the basis of a literature review of common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes and…

  8. Amelioration of transference resistance: substitute therapists in milieu group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, M B; Kibel, H D; Loutsch, E M

    1990-01-01

    Building upon Wolf's (1949) notion of the use of an alternate session in group psychotherapy, this paper suggests that an alternate therapist substituting for an absent regular therapist in milieu group psychotherapy can facilitate similar therapeutic benefits. The mechanism of this process of overcoming transference resistance is seen as twofold: (1) sessions with a substitute therapist allow patients to confront the infantilization often present in a milieu setting and experiment with more autonomous ego functioning. (2) Sessions with a substitute therapist create conditions which are apart from the ongoing process of the therapy group, thereby allowing for a therapeutic splitting process to develop wherein transference feelings about the regular therapist can be expressed to his or her "alter ego." Several case vignettes are presented in order to illustrate the clinical utility of a substitute therapist.

  9. [Psychotherapy: Legally recognized in Quebec].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Jean-Bernard; Desjardins, Pierre; Dion, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, Quebec was the first to have regulated the practice of psychotherapy through law adopted in 2009. The law emerged following 30 years of efforts and inter-professional discussions that led to a consensus by an expert committee presided by Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau in 2005. In this essay, Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau, general practitioner, and two psychiatrist and psychologist colleagues, who have participated to the expert committee or have been involved more recently in the implementation of law no 21 in Quebec, relate the main landmarks and moments in the regulation of the practice in psychotherapy following this inter-professional consensus that was translated in the law 21. They relate particularly the last ten years that have led to the adoption of law 21 in 2009, following two parliamentary commission after the Trudeau report. They underline how the practice of psychotherapy is integrated in the professional system and submitted to strict regulation. It includes regulations for obtaining the license of psychotherapist and for maintaining competence. Guidelines emerging from continuous inter-professional discussions for the application of the law and of its regulation in the public and private sectors are produced by the Quebec Professions Office. The definition of psychotherapy that was reached by consensus is not limited to the treatment of mental disorders and is distinguished from other intervention in the area of human relations. Continuous training is mandatory and is implemented on one hand by the Order of the psychologists for the psychologists and other professionals practicing psychotherapy and on the other hand the College of physicians for physician practicing psychotherapy. The authors finally described the interdisciplinary advisory council for the practice of psychotherapy that the legislator has foreseen as an external mechanism to insure the conformity of regulation with the spirit of the law and to give opinions to the various

  10. Replication of Child-Parent Psychotherapy in Community Settings: Models for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Patricia; Osofsky, Joy D.; Henderson, Dorothy; Korfmacher, Jon; Thomas, Kandace; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2012-01-01

    Child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), an evidence-based dyadic therapeutic intervention for very young children exposed to trauma, is becoming the go-to therapeutic intervention for infant mental health practitioners. Although CPP has been shown to be effective for rebuilding the parent-child relationship, reducing trauma symptoms, and reducing…

  11. Psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and urban poverty in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, Maria Esther

    2016-12-01

    Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, this paper examines the views of social actors on the psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy focused on marginalized populations. From Foucault's perspective on the forms of truth-telling, the aim of this paper is to analyze, as a preliminary research report, treatments according to the native ways of speaking and listening, which dominate the description of therapeutic experiences of patients who come to the treatment without any professional intermediation. The neoliberal transformations of the past decades in Argentina changed both the landscape of the public health system and the daily lives of marginalized people. Considering such changes, this paper examines the ways in which verbal actions (speaking and listening) take place in psychotherapy and mark the course not only of treatments but also the temporal rhythms of their development, and their various levels of efficacy. Finally, the discussion focuses on how ways of speaking and listening in treatments are modeled not only by institutional dynamics but also by the characteristics these verbal activities take in everyday life under the logics of power that prevail over them.

  12. Review of Psychotherapy as a human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Reviews the book, Psychotherapy as a human science by Daniel Burston and Roger Frie (see record 2006-12980-000). In this book, the authors show how philosophical assumptions pervade therapeutic praxis. "In our view, philosophy is inherent to the very practice of psychotherapy" (p. 2). There is a "common ground that unites the therapists of today with the philosophers of the past" (p. 17). Their effort succeeds brilliantly in reconnecting psychology and philosophy and, by that homecoming, to ground psychotherapy (including contemporary psychoanalysis) as a "human science." The book begins by sketching ideas about truth we inherit from the Greeks, then shows how Descartes and Pascal helped launch the Enlightenment with their thinking about truth and the limits of reason. Kant, Hegel, and Marx broaden the scope to include reason, the unconscious, and the course of history. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche interject angst and authenticity. Dilthey proposes a human science neither scientistic nor irrational. Husserl launches phenomenology as the proper study of experience; Scheler, Jaspers and Heidegger react in their particular ways. Freud and Jung come to loggerheads over the unconscious. Buber, Binswanger, and Boss further develop existential-phenomenological perspectives in terms of human interrelatedness. Confrontation with the other and the limits of reciprocity engage Sartre, Lacan, and Laing. Psychoanalysis grows intersubjectively through the work of Sullivan, Fromm, Merleau-Ponty, Benjamin, and Stolorow. Postmodernism's excess, Frie and Burston conclude, requires acknowledgment of an authentic self answerable for choices in life: '...[W]e are both determined by, and exercise our agency in determining, the communicative contexts in which we exist" (p. 262). Psychotherapy from this existential-phenomenological perspective becomes "a rigorous exploration of our ways of making meaning--both consciously and unconsciously" (p. 263). The book ends, then, with an affirmation

  13. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shan-Ho; Galperin, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms.

  14. Effects of sex and gender in ten types of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staczan, Pia; Schmuecker, Roswitha; Koehler, Miriam; Berglar, Jessica; Crameri, Aureliano; von Wyl, Agnes; Koemeda-Lutz, Margit; Schulthess, Peter; Tschuschke, Volker

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the results of two samples of a large naturalistic (effectiveness study) outpatient process-outcome study in Switzerland (Practice-Oriented Outpatient Psychotherapy Study). Ten different types of psychotherapy were investigated by looking at the role of the sex or gender of therapists and patients with regard to treatment outcome by including several nonspecific therapeutic factors. Ten different types of psychotherapy, 237 patients, and 68 therapists were included in the study. A subsample of 116 cases was analyzed with regard to therapists' technical interventions. Sex and gender issues of both therapists and patients did not play a crucial role in any type of psychotherapy investigated. Gender issues appeared to play an indirect role. Female therapists intervene more empathically, whereas male therapists tend to use more confrontational techniques. Since the results show that therapists differ substantially with regard to their intervention techniques due to their sex, they should become more conscious of their interventions by considering patients' severity of psychological problems and patients' level of psychological functioning so as to not over or underchallenge them.

  15. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  16. The renewal of humanism in psychotherapy: a roundtable discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kirk J; Längle, Alfried

    2012-12-01

    This special section highlights the renewal of humanism in psychotherapy. For the purposes of this special section, humanism is defined as a philosophical perspective whose subject matter is the whole human being. In psychotherapy, humanism places special emphasis on the personal, interpersonal, and contextual dimensions of therapy and on clients' reflections on their relationship with self, others, and the larger psychosocial world. The contributors to this special section-Bruce Wampold, David Elkins, Steven Hayes, Robert Stolorow, Jurgen Kriz, Lillian Comas-Diaz, and the authors of this introduction-are each leaders in their respective therapeutic specialties: research and training, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychoanalytic therapy, European therapy, and multicultural therapy. In the manner of a "roundtable," each contributor was asked to provide a short article on the renewal of humanism in his or her respective specialty followed by brief comments on the initial round of articles. The conclusion of these reflections is that the renewal of humanism is a viable and growing phenomenon among the leading specialty areas of psychotherapy. The corollary conclusion is that although many theoretical and practical questions remain, humanism is (1) a foundational element of therapeutic effectiveness; (2) a pivotal (and needed) dimension of therapeutic training; and (3) a critical contributor to societal well-being. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  18. Therapist variation within randomised trials of psychotherapy: implications for precision, internal and external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, Rebecca; Roberts, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Nesting of patients within therapists in psychotherapy trials creates an additional level within the design. The multilevel nature of this design has implications for the precision, internal and external validity of estimates of the treatment effect. Prior to or during a trial, psychotherapies are allocated to therapists and therapists are assigned to patients such that the therapist becomes part of the causal pathway from the intervention to the patient. It is therefore important to consider not only the relationship between interventions and patients but also relationships between interventions and therapists and between therapists and patients. Research designs comparing the effects of therapeutic approaches, therapist characteristics and packages of the two can be unified by viewing therapists as an important source of variability within psychotherapy outcome studies. Methodological considerations arising from therapist variation will be discussed, drawing together and building upon the associated psychotherapy and statistical literatures. Parallels will also be made with related designs and methods of analysis.

  19. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding.

  20. First Steps in FAP: Experiences of Beginning Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Therapist with an Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Client

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduchi, Katia; Schoendorff, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Practicing Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) for the first time can seem daunting to therapists. Establishing a deep and intense therapeutic relationship, identifying FAP's therapeutic targets of clinically relevant behaviors, and using contingent reinforcement to help clients emit more functional behavior in the therapeutic relationship all…

  1. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  3. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  4. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  5. [Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy: differences and similarities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler-Schülein, Hemma; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette

    2013-01-01

    Psychoanalysis as well as Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy derived from Psychoanalysis are efficient methods offered by the Austrian health care system in the treatment for anxiety, depression, personality disorders, neurotic and somatoform disorders. In both methods similar basic treatment techniques are applied. Therefore differentiation between both treatment options often is made pragmatically by the frequency of sessions or the use of the couch and seems to be vague in the light of empirical studies. This overview focuses a potential differentiation-the objective and subjective dimensions of the indication process. Concerning the latter it is to investigate, if reflective functioning and ego-integration can be enhanced in the patient during the interaction process between patient and psychoanalyst. Empirical data underline the necessity to investigate to which extent externalizing defence processes are used and to integrate such factors into the decision and indication process. Differing treatment aims display another possibility to differentiate psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy aims for example more at circumscribed problem-foci, the capability for self-reflexion is one of the most prominent treatment effects in psychoanalysis that results in on-going symptom reduction and resilience. The most prominent differentiation lies in the utilization of technical neutrality. Within Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy neutrality has sometimes to be suspended in order to stop severe acting out. Empirical evidence is given concerning the differentiation between psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy, that treatment efficacy is not correlated with the duration of the treatment, but with the frequency of sessions. Results give support to the assumption that the dosage of specific and appropriate psychoanalytic techniques facilitates sustained therapeutic change.

  6. Psychotherapy via Videoconferencing: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Research into the use of videoconferencing for clinical purposes, in particular psychotherapy, is gradually expanding. A number of case studies and case series have suggested that videoconferencing can be clinically effective and acceptable to patients. Nevertheless, there is a lack of methodologically rigorous studies with adequate sample sizes…

  7. Palmistry, tarot cards, and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Nicholas G

    2008-01-01

    The author summarizes his experience with palm and Tarot card readers in New Orleans. The history, practice, and psychodynamics of palmistry and Tarot are explored. It's postulated that these practices are forms of archaic psychotherapy, which employ supportive treatment and placebo. These tactics are used to elicit hope for its clients.

  8. Beyond Psychobabble: Careers in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    Describes the five largest psychotherapy occupations (psychiatrist, clinical/counseling psychologist, clinical social worker, marriage and family therapist, clinical mental health counselor) and looks at training requirements, types of practices, trends, and related occupations. Lists professional associations and references for further…

  9. The current status of psychotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is as old as human culture'. However, the latter is now ... evolved to three main types as a result of these influ- .... tive by demonstrating a mean effect size for psychotherapy of 0.85 (that ... therapy that makes a difference changes brain function.

  10. Amnesic effect of GMP depends on its conversion to guanosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; da Silveira, Leonardo Evangelista; Soares, Félix Antunes; Martini, Lúcia Helena; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Ganzella, Marcelo

    2006-05-01

    Extracellular guanine-based purines, namely the nucleotides GTP, GDP, GMP and the nucleoside guanosine, exert important neuroprotective and neuromodulator roles in the central nervous system, which may be related to inhibition of the glutamatergic neurotransmission activity. In this study, we investigated GMP effects on mice inhibitory avoidance performance and the dependence on its conversion to guanosine for such effect, by using the ecto-5'-nucleotidase specific inhibitor AOPCP. We also investigated if this conversion occurs in the central nervous system or peripherally, and if guanosine and GMP affect nociception by the tail-flick test. I.p. GMP or guanosine (7.5 mg/kg) or i.c.v. GMP (480 nmol) pretraining administration was amnesic for the inhibitory avoidance task. I.c.v. AOPCP (1 nmol) administration completely reversed the amnesic effect of i.c.v. GMP, but not of i.p. GMP, indicating that peripheral conversion of GMP to guanosine is probably relevant to this effect. AOPCP alone did not interfere with the performance. Furthermore, tail-flick measurement was unaffected by i.p. GMP and guanosine, suggesting that the amnesic effect of both purines was not due to some antinociceptive effect against the footshock used in the task. All these data together, in accordance to those previously observed in studies involving glutamate uptake and seizures reinforce the idea that guanosine is the specific extracellular guanine-based purines effector and indicate that its conversion occurs not only in the central nervous system but also peripherally.

  11. [Integrative approach in the psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years six psychotherapy methods have been developed specifically for borderline personality disorder. Solid RCT evidences suggests the efficacy of all the methods. Roughly equivalent improvement was obtained from the different types of psychotherapies. Today we have reached a new phase of the borderline "psychotherapy boom", the integrative approach. According to the integrative treatment advocates we should not choose among these effective treatments but we can incorporate in the therapy all the components that work. The integrative approach uses general factors common to all effective therapies, combined with specific treatment techniques taken from different therapies in order to treat the given patient's psychopathology. These common factors are: coherent framework; attention to strategies for building strong positive alliance and maintaining patient motivation; creating a safe and structured therapeutic environment; clear treatment frame; transparency of the goals and roles; focus upon presenting problems; higher level therapeutic activity; here-and-now focus; and facilitating self-reflection. Treatment focuses on change while maintaining a validating and supportive stance. General strategies can be supplemented by more specific techniques such as cognitive-behavioral interventions for reducing maladaptive behavior, training for developing emotion regulation skills and interpersonal skills coming from dialectical behavior therapy. Methods drawn from psychodynamic approaches can be used for the modification of underlying interpersonal cognitive-emotional schemas.

  12. Psychotherapie mit Videotelefon - Telemental Health by using Videoconferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Reisinger

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available All areas of life are covered by the technological development, the use of computer and Internet. This media world does not stop in front of the carefully protected, therapeutic areas. It seems to be necessary to examine the possibilities of psychotherapy or psychotherapeutic counseling with videophone. In this qualitative research, different kind of aspects by psyhotherapists will be presented of how to engage in psychotherapy by using videophone. Furthermore are shown the specifics of the therapeutic relationship, the limits shown in a screen-to-screen treatment and the expectations of the psychotherapists for the future. Examining this subject it became clear that the experts act very carefully when selecting the patients and keep staying within their self-imposed limits. In this area the development of a sound relationship and a successful therapy is possible. For the future, experts hope that the question of the legal general regulations and the protection of quality will be solved. Psychotherapy with videophone shall be offered in addition to mental health care but the presence-therapy should not be replaced.

  13. Transference patterns and working alliance during the early phase of psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzić, Ljiljana; Nikolić, Gordana

    2014-02-01

    Working alliance, as a collaborative part of the therapeutic relationship has been proven to be one of the most powerful therapeutic factors in psychotherapy in general, regardless many technical differences between numerous psychotherapeutic modalities. On the other hand, transference is the basic concept of psychodynamic psychotherapy, and, according to the psychoanalytic theory and practice, it forms a major part of the therapeutic relationship. The aim of our paper was to determine the differences between the groups of patients with low, middle, and high working alliance scores and the dropout group in transference patterns, sociodemographic and clinical parameters, during the early phase of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Our sample consisted of 61 non-psychotic patients, randomly selected by the method of consecutive admissions and treated with psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the outpatient clinical setting. The patients were prospectively followed during 5 initial sessions of the therapeutic process. The working alliance inventory and Core conflictual relationship theme method were used for the estimation of working alliance and transference patterns, respectively. According to the Working Alliance Inventory scores, four groups of patients were formed and than compared. Our results show a significant difference between the groups of patients with low, middle, and high working alliance inventory scores and the dropout group on the variable--transference patterns in the therapeutic relationship. Disharmonious transference patterns are more frequent in patients who form poor quality working alliance in the early phase of psychotherapy, or early dropout psychotherapy. It is of great importance to recognize transference patterns of a patient at the beginning of the psychotherapeutic process, because of their potentially harmful influence on the quality of working alliance.

  14. Culture and demoralization in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M; Gostoli, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization. Copyright

  15. Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Prakash B; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P

    2013-01-01

    The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of "traditional mental health promoting practices" was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a "mind control" as referred by Caraka, is achieved through "spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.

  16. Cyclic nucleotide specificity of the activator and catalytic sites of a cGMP-stimulated cGMP phosphodiesterase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesbeke, Fanja; Baraniak, Janina; Bulgakov, Roman; Jastorff, Bernd; Morr, Michael; Petridis, Georg; Stec, Wojciech J.; Seela, Frank; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1985-01-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum has an intracellular phosphodiesterase which specifically hydrolyzes cGMP. The enzyme is activated by low cGMP concentrations, and is involved in the reduction of chemoattractant-mediated elevations of cGMP levels. The interaction of 20 cGMP derivativ

  17. Kant, cognitive psychotherapy, and the hardening of the categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S

    2007-12-01

    Contemporary models of psychotherapy owe a considerable intellectual debt to philosophy, even though the contributions of philosophers to contemporary practice in the field often go unrecognized. A case in point is Kant's epistemology, which is foundational to cognitive approaches to psychotherapy. Here, it is argued that the rigid use of certain judgments represented in Kant's conceptual scheme underlies patterns of distorted or dysfunctional thinking associated with emotional disorders. Kantian judgments of necessity, disjunction, particularity and universality have counterpoints in contemporary conceptions of cognitive distortions. Moreover, Kantian epistemology has important therapeutic implications with respect to helping people with emotional disorders recognize and challenge rigidly held judgments or categories of understanding. The Kantian perspective also leads us to consider the cognitive frameworks or thought structures that underlie dysfunctional thinking patterns.

  18. Review of Treating chronic depression with disciplined personal involvement: Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, David J

    2008-09-01

    Reviews the book, Treating chronic depression with disciplined personal involvement: Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP) by James P. McCullough Jr. (see record 2006-11486-000). The premise of this book is that therapeutic neutrality does not apply to the psychotherapy of chronically depressed individuals, and that disciplined personal involvement is an efficacious and perhaps necessary component of their treatment. Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP) is a learning model, in which the therapist focuses on teaching patients to recognize the consequences of their behavior. McCullough addresses practical and theoretical objections to this therapeutic approach, which include fears of overinvolvement, and inappropriate behavior, and clinical risks of flooding patients with excessively personal information and content. Ultimately, most readers will finish reading this volume with many open questions, some specific to McCullough's approach, others related to the challenging condition of chronic depression itself. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. [Brief psychotherapy in clinical medicine patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, M

    1992-01-01

    The criteria that "illness is biographical crisis od the individual" and that the only medicine is "personal medicine" is stressed. Clinical medicine, which covers medicine in its entirety, demands conceptual and doctrinal reaffirmations so that gradually the patient can come to be dealt with as a human being fron a holistic point of view, which commences with his complaint and consultation, continues with the interview and semiology, to finish with the diagnosis and therapy which, although in some cases it may be surgical, is still medical and integral. All the steps mentioned are bio-socio-cultural thus, whether in the practice of general clinical medicine or in the most specialized and technologically sophisticated clinical medicine, the animist component is not lacking and demands a minimum degree of "psychosomatic" Knowledge. The use of a psychotherapeutic technique is proposed which, while based on the psychoanalysis theory, is distanced technically from it as a "psychotherapy on limited time and goals", which abbreviates the disease, and is projected not as the "focus" of therapeutic work, but as a re-evaluation of the "life style" of each individual, and tends to help to develop a "project for life" suited to the possible personal, familiar and social well-being of the "patient". Technically speaking, this modality of brief psychotherapy is based on the nonuse of transferential interpretations, on impeding the regression od the patient, on facilitating a cognitice-affective development of his conflicts and thus obtain an internal object mutation which allows the transformation of the "past" into true history, and the "present" into vital perspectives. This technique is within reach of every health professional.

  20. Documentation and Records: Harmonized GMP Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, KT; Chotai, NP

    2011-01-01

    ‘If it’s not written down, then it didn’t happen!’ The basic rules in any good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations specify that the pharmaceutical manufacturer must maintain proper documentation and records. Documentation helps to build up a detailed picture of what a manufacturing function has done in the past and what it is doing now and, thus, it provides a basis for planning what it is going to do in the future. Regulatory inspectors, during their inspections of manufacturing sites, ...

  1. Raising the standard: changes to the Australian Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) for human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Craig; Velickovic, Zlatibor; Brown, Ross; Larsen, Stephen; Macpherson, Janet L; Gibson, John; Rasko, John E J

    2014-04-01

    In Australia, manufacture of blood, tissues and biologicals must comply with the federal laws and meet the requirements of the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) Manufacturing Principles as outlined in the current Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). The Therapeutic Goods Order (TGO) No. 88 was announced concurrently with the new cGMP, as a new standard for therapeutic goods. This order constitutes a minimum standard for human blood, tissues and cellular therapeutic goods aimed at minimising the risk of infectious disease transmission. The order sets out specific requirements relating to donor selection, donor testing and minimisation of infectious disease transmission from collection and manufacture of these products. The Therapeutic Goods Manufacturing Principles Determination No. 1 of 2013 references the human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products 2013 (2013 cGMP). The name change for the 2013 cGMP has allowed a broadening of the scope of products to include human cellular therapy products. It is difficult to directly compare versions of the code as deletion of some clauses has not changed the requirements to be met, as they are found elsewhere amongst the various guidelines provided. Many sections that were specific for blood and blood components are now less prescriptive and apply to a wider range of cellular therapies, but the general overall intent remains the same. Use of 'should' throughout the document instead of 'must' allows flexibility for alternative processes, but these systems will still require justification by relevant logical argument and validation data to be acceptable to TGA. The cGMP has seemingly evolved so that specific issues identified at audit over the last decade have now been formalised in the new version. There is a notable risk management approach applied to most areas that refer to process justification and decision making. These requirements commenced on 31 May 2013 and a 12 month

  2. Advances in Psychotherapy for Depressed Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Patrick J; McGovern, Amanda R; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Sirey, Jo Anne

    2017-09-01

    We review recent advances in psychotherapies for depressed older adults, in particular those developed for special populations characterized by chronic medical illness, acute medical illness, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk factors. We review adaptations for psychotherapy to overcome barriers to its accessibility in non-specialty settings such as primary care, homebound or hard-to-reach older adults, and social service settings. Recent evidence supports the effectiveness of psychotherapies that target late-life depression in the context of specific comorbid conditions including COPD, heart failure, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other acute conditions, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk. Growing evidence supports the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of psychotherapy modified for a variety of health care and social service settings. Research supports the benefits of selecting the type of psychotherapy based on a comprehensive assessment of the older adult's psychiatric, medical, functional, and cognitive status, and tailoring psychotherapy to the settings in which older depressed adults are most likely to present.

  3. Integrating self-help books into psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Smith, Thomas P

    2003-02-01

    This article describes a systematic and integral method of incorporating self-help books into psychotherapy as a collaborative function. We address the distinctions between self-help and bibliotherapy, consider bibliotherapy as adjunctive or integrative to psychotherapy, and outline the multiple uses of bibliotherapy for clinical purposes. How to apply self-help books in psychotherapy and ways to select books are illustrated by a case example. Indications and contraindications for bibliotherapy in therapy are outlined.

  4. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    with psychologists, which were analyzed using the framework of the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with minor changes to the procedure of categorization. Using Harré’s (2002, 2012) Positioning Theory, it is shown that determining goals and deciding if they have been reached are processes...... that are based on asymmetric collaboration between the therapist and the client. Determining goals and deciding when they are reached are not “sterile” procedures, as both the client and the therapist might have different agendas when working therapeutically. The psychologists that participated in this study...

  5. Control of bacterial exoelectrogenesis by c-AMP-GMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James W; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Phillips, Grace E; Stav, Shira; Lünse, Christina E; McCown, Phillip J; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-28

    Major changes in bacterial physiology including biofilm and spore formation involve signaling by the cyclic dinucleotides c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP. Recently, another second messenger dinucleotide, c-AMP-GMP, was found to control chemotaxis and colonization by Vibrio cholerae. We have identified a superregulon of genes controlled by c-AMP-GMP in numerous Deltaproteobacteria, including Geobacter species that use extracellular insoluble metal oxides as terminal electron acceptors. This exoelectrogenic process has been studied for its possible utility in energy production and bioremediation. Many genes involved in adhesion, pilin formation, and others that are important for exoelectrogenesis are controlled by members of a variant riboswitch class that selectively bind c-AMP-GMP. These RNAs constitute, to our knowledge, the first known specific receptors for c-AMP-GMP and reveal that this molecule is used by many bacteria to control specialized physiological processes.

  6. What clinicians want: findings from a psychotherapy practice research network survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Sylvestre, John; Balfour, Louise; Chyurlia, Livia; Evans, Jane; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Francis, Kylie; Gandhi, Jasmine; Huehn, Linda; Hunsley, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Kinley, Jackie; Koszycki, Diana; Leszcz, Molyn; Lybanon-Daigle, Vanessa; Mercer, Deanna; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Presniak, Michelle; Ravitz, Paula; Ritchie, Kerri; Talbot, Jeanne; Wilson, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Practice research networks may be one way of advancing knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in psychotherapy. In this study, we document this process by first asking clinicians what they want from psychotherapy research. Eighty-two psychotherapists in 10 focus groups identified and discussed psychotherapy research topics relevant to their practices. An analysis of these discussions led to the development of 41 survey items. In an online survey, 1,019 participants, mostly practicing clinicians, rated the importance to their clinical work of these 41 psychotherapy research topics. Ratings were reduced using a principal components analysis in which 9 psychotherapy research themes emerged, accounting for 60.66% of the variance. Two postsurvey focus groups of clinicians (N = 22) aided in interpreting the findings. The ranking of research themes from most to least important were-Therapeutic Relationship/Mechanisms of Change, Therapist Factors, Training and Professional Development, Client Factors, Barriers and Stigma, Technology and Adjunctive Interventions, Progress Monitoring, Matching Clients to Therapist or Therapy, and Treatment Manuals. Few differences were noted in rankings based on participant age or primary therapeutic orientation. Postsurvey focus group participants were not surprised by the top-rated items, as they were considered most proximal and relevant to therapists and their work with clients during therapy sessions. Lower ranked items may be perceived as externally imposed agendas on the therapist and therapy. We discuss practice research networks as a means of creating new collaborations consistent with KTE goals. Findings of this study can help to direct practitioner-researcher collaborations.

  7. Psychotherapy of the dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedeford, A

    1979-07-01

    The psychotherapeutic aspects of the care of the 49 terminally ill patients described in the preceeding paper are discussed. Their differing ways of coping with the stress of dying and the range of psychotherapeutic strategies used in treatment are described. The work suggests that the therapist's use of psychological insights can improve his understanding of the emotional pain of terminal illness, and well-aimed psychotherapy can contribute to its relief.

  8. [Problems of bilinguism in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, S; Müller, C

    1978-01-01

    The authors have attempted an introductory study of problems which are inherent to psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and psychoanalysis conducted in the second language of a bilingual therapist. This situation seems to be more complex than is usually admitted in current literature. The main problem encountered by the authors in their personal practice stems from the fact that the process of identification becomes complex when the therapist is confronted with regressive and/or progressive shifts in the course of the treatment.

  9. Emotional Control in Psychotherapy Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Mardi

    2016-01-01

    Emotional control may be observed to be (1) too excessive as in avoidant behaviors during psychotherapy, (2) suitable to a frank expression of feelings, or (3) lacking in regulation causing too intense affective experiences. This article offers a theory that may help clinicians make observations about this range of possible states, formulate the patient's defensive processes, and choose if, how, and when to act. The observations and formulations presented focus on specific and present moment situations rather than habitual defense mechanisms.

  10. Isolation and Partial Characterization of a Cyclic GMP-Dependent Cyclic GMP-Specific Phosphodiesterase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulgakov, Roman; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1983-01-01

    The cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, contains at least two classes of phosphodiesterase activity. One class of enzymes hydrolyses cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) with approximately equal rates. Another enzyme, which is less than 5% of the total activity, specifically hydrolyses

  11. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathology is mental illness that has often suffered by human being. There are several factors that causes this illness, some of which are modern life characterized by materialistic, hedonistic and egoistic lives. In Islam, psychopathology which is described as a form of deviation from norms or moral values, spiritual and religion. Psychopathology is divided into three parts, namely those associated with faith, humanity and psychopathology which is associated with combination of faith and human being.Meanwhile psychotherapy is an effort to cure mental and psychiatric disorders suffered by individuals. Psychotherapy is a solution to cure various problems of mental disorders. Al-Qur’an, as the principles of Islamic teachings, contain information about psychotherapy for those who suffer from mental disorders. Religious approach is completely needed for therapy and it helps the psychopath recover from his/her mental disorders.TheQur’an could be used as a treatment as well as a preventive step, so that all human being will not suffer from mental disorders, and religious approach can bring the psychopaths closer to God, theAlmighty.

  12. Establishing a cGMP pancreatic islet processing facility: the first experience in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Arjmand, Babak; Amoli, Mahsa M; Ao, Ziliang; Jafarian, Ali; Mahdavi-Mazdah, Mitra; Ghanaati, Hossein; Baradar-Jalili, Reza; Sharghi, Sasan; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Aghayan, Hamid Reza

    2012-12-01

    It has been predicted that one of the greatest increase in prevalence of diabetes will happen in the Middle East bear in the next decades. The aim of standard therapeutic strategies for diabetes is better control of complications. In contrast, some new strategies like cell and gene therapy have aimed to cure the disease. In recent years, significant progress has occurred in beta-cell replacement therapies with a progressive improvement of short-term and long term outcomes. In year 2005, considering the impact of the disease in Iran and the promising results of the Edmonton protocol, the funding for establishing a current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) islet processing facility by Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center was approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Several islet isolations were performed following establishment of cGMP facility and recruitment of all required equipments for process validation and experimental purpose. Finally the first successful clinical islet isolation and transplantation was performed in September 2010. In spite of a high cost of the procedure it is considered beneficial and may prevent long term complications and the costs associated with secondary cares. In this article we will briefly describe our experience in setting up a cGMP islet processing facility which can provide valuable information for regional countries interested to establish similar facilities.

  13. Incorporating Short Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Principles into Career Counseling: A Theoretical and Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Ofra; Wiseman, Hadas

    2002-01-01

    The Developmental Career Counseling model incorporates the following principles of Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy: life-span approach, limited time, working alliance, rapid and early assessment, central focus, active and directive counselor participation, therapeutic flexibility, and termination issues. The model enables career and personal…

  14. "Many Secrets Are Told around Horses": An Ethnographic Study of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tiem, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents an ethnography of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) based on nine months of fieldwork at "Equine Healers," a non-profit organization in central Colorado that specialized in various therapeutic modalities associated with EAP. In bridging scholarly work around animals, a literature suffused with the notion of…

  15. Sign-language interpretation in psychotherapy with deaf patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, A

    1999-01-01

    Sporadic encounters with deaf patients seeking psychotherapy present a challenge to general clinicians outside of specialized services for the deaf. Skills for working with people who do not share one's own language mode and culture are not routinely taught in most training programs, so clinicians may be unprepared when they first encounter a deaf patient. While it would be ideal to be able to match deaf patients with therapists fluent in their preferred language mode, this is often not feasible in smaller centers. Working with a trained professional sign-language interpreter can be a productive alternative, as long as patient, therapist, and interpreter understand and are comfortable with the process. Peer-reviewed literature on sign language interpretation in psychotherapy is sparse, but some practical guidelines can be gleaned from it and supplemented by information provided by the deaf community through the Internet. This paper arose from one psychiatric resident's first experience of psychotherapy working with a sign-language interpreter, and summarizes the literature search that resulted from a quest for understanding of deaf culture and experience, of the unique characteristics of sign language, and of the effects on the therapeutic relationship of the presence of the interpreter.

  16. Learning through the lens: ethical considerations in videotaping psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkenstein, Amy B; Kessler, Katherine Ann; Schen, Cathy R

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatry training programs have begun to use technology to enhance psychotherapy teaching. Videotaped interviews provide a window into the psychotherapeutic exchange, demystifying the process and capturing verbal and nonverbal interactions, facial expression, and tone of voice-which can illustrate therapeutic elements such as the alliance and resistance. The process of videotaping psychotherapeutic interviews, however, introduces issues related to consent, ethics, and the dynamics of therapy. By examining two cases in which residents asked their patients to videotape a session for didactic purposes and encountered divergent outcomes, we explore the ethical issues unique to providing informed consent for videotaping psychotherapy. Informed consent must be given verbally and in writing. Verbal consent must include discussion of the risks and benefits of therapy. The discussion must also include the risks inherent in memorializing sensitive material on an external device, with disclosure of the logistics of how data will be stored, who will view the recorded material, and when it will be destroyed. Therapists should be aware of the coercive power inherent in the physician-patient relationship and should individualize each informed consent procedure with this knowledge in mind. Despite these potential pitfalls, videotaping sessions provides a wealth of information about both patients and therapists that can improve psychotherapy teaching and supervision, and indirectly improve patient care.

  17. AN INTEGRATIVE GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN. THE WIZARDING SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria Popescu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tendencies in child psychotherapy is the integration of various psychotherapeutic approaches and technical interventions belonging to different orientations. Based on the Harry Potter stories, the „Wizarding School” structured group therapy program is a 12-step integratively oriented program applicable in personal development, individual and group therapy for children aged 6 to 13 (at present being adapted for adult psychotherapy. The program takes place within a fairy tale, being therefore a type of informal hypnotic trance. The interventions are drawn from the lessons described in Harry Potter’s story at Hogwarts, based on the fundamental principles of child psychotherapy and including elements of play therapy, art therapy, hypnotherapy, cognitive- behavioural therapy, transactional analysis, supportive therapy, family therapy and person centred therapy. From a theoretical point of view the program is based on elements from a number of psychotherapeutic approaches, the main concept being that we need to create a therapeutic myth that is acceptable to a child. The program is not suitable for children with structural deficits, who have difficulties in making the difference between fantasy and reality.

  18. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews...... with psychologists, which were analyzed using the framework of the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with minor changes to the procedure of categorization. Using Harré’s (2002, 2012) Positioning Theory, it is shown that determining goals and deciding if they have been reached are processes...... that are based on asymmetric collaboration between the therapist and the client. Determining goals and deciding when they are reached are not “sterile” procedures, as both the client and the therapist might have different agendas when working therapeutically. The psychologists that participated in this study...

  19. Therapists' attitudes towards psychotherapeutic strategies in community-based psychotherapy with children with disruptive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Garland, Ann F; Taylor, Robin; Zoffness, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about what individual treatment strategies therapists providing usual care psychotherapy consider the most valuable to their practice. The Therapeutic Strategies Survey (TSS) assesses therapists' attitudes about the value of 27 individual treatment strategies in their practice with children with disruptive behavior problems in community-based outpatient psychotherapy. Findings indicate that therapists from multiple professional disciplines highly value many individual psychotherapeutic strategies, and consider strategies common to a majority of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for this population at least as important as strategies not emphasized in EBPs. Implications for developing therapist training and implementation of EBPs are discussed.

  20. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment.

  1. [Adaptation of psychodrama in psychotherapy of patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article was an attempt to present selected theoretical motifs and moreover self experience in the adaptation of elements of psychodrama by Moreno in psychodynamic psychotherapy (individual and group psychotherapy) in a group of people with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Psychodrama through own creativity, spontaneity and taking action on the "here and now" stage helps to attain and intensify therapeutic aims which concern the consciousness of inner conflict of persons with anorexia and bulimia nervosa, which is translocated on their body.

  2. Precision Optics Optimization for GMp Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Allada, Kalyan; Averett, Todd; Christy, Eric; Gu, Chao; Huang, Min; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; GMp Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The GMp experiment aims to improve the precision on the elastic e-p cross section measurement to 2%; up to a factor of 5 better than previous measurements, with four-momentum transfer up to 14 GeV2 using the High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS) of Hall A at Jefferson Lab. These measurements will be an important benchmark for many other cross section measurements in hadron physics. To reach this goal, it is necessary to improve the precision of many instrument systems. Knowledge of the magnetic optics of HRS is critically important for precision reconstruction of the momentum and coordinates of the scattered particles at the interaction vertex. In this talk, an improved optimization method for optics will be presented in detail and the results of a study based on recent commissioning data in 2014 will be discussed.

  3. A Functional Analytic Approach to Group Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…

  4. Consequences of Psychotherapy Clients' Mental Health Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Len; Kirsch, Irving

    Current theoretical approaches to understanding emotional difficulties are dominated by the medical model of mental illness, which assumes that emotional dysfunction can be viewed the same way as physical dysfunction. To examine the relationship between psychotherapy clients' beliefs about the medical model of psychotherapy and their behavior…

  5. Patterns of Symptomatic Recovery in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopta, Stephen Mark; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used psychotherapy dosage model in which effect was probability of recovery to compare treatment response rates for psychological symptoms. Administered symptom checklists to 854 psychotherapy outpatients at intake and during treatment. Chronic distress symptoms demonstrated fastest average response rate, whereas characterological symptoms…

  6. Practice Parameter for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with…

  7. Computational psychotherapy research: scaling up the evaluation of patient-provider interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C

    2015-03-01

    In psychotherapy, the patient-provider interaction contains the treatment's active ingredients. However, the technology for analyzing the content of this interaction has not fundamentally changed in decades, limiting both the scale and specificity of psychotherapy research. New methods are required to "scale up" to larger evaluation tasks and "drill down" into the raw linguistic data of patient-therapist interactions. In the current article, we demonstrate the utility of statistical text analysis models called topic models for discovering the underlying linguistic structure in psychotherapy. Topic models identify semantic themes (or topics) in a collection of documents (here, transcripts). We used topic models to summarize and visualize 1,553 psychotherapy and drug therapy (i.e., medication management) transcripts. Results showed that topic models identified clinically relevant content, including affective, relational, and intervention related topics. In addition, topic models learned to identify specific types of therapist statements associated with treatment-related codes (e.g., different treatment approaches, patient-therapist discussions about the therapeutic relationship). Visualizations of semantic similarity across sessions indicate that topic models identify content that discriminates between broad classes of therapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. psychodynamic therapy). Finally, predictive modeling demonstrated that topic model-derived features can classify therapy type with a high degree of accuracy. Computational psychotherapy research has the potential to scale up the study of psychotherapy to thousands of sessions at a time. We conclude by discussing the implications of computational methods such as topic models for the future of psychotherapy research and practice.

  8. Sterbenlassen. Vom Ende einer Psychotherapie

    OpenAIRE

    Ranefeld, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Reflexionen zum Ende einer psychoanalytischen Psychotherapie; ein Ende, an das es sich nur zögernd und ausweichend annähern läßt. Sterben ist letztendlich ein einsames Geschäft, wir halten den Tod für ansteckend und verfahren nach der Regel: "Man darf nicht zulassen, daß er einem ins Gesicht atmet" (Michael Connelly 1996, The Poet). Dennoch wird ver­sucht, beschreibend ein Konzept der Annäherungen zu skizzieren.

  9. Transference-focused psychotherapy with former child soldiers: meeting the murderous self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draijer, Nel; Van Zon, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the application of transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) to the treatment of former child soldiers suffering from dissociative identity disorder. It focuses on the problems with aggression faced in psychotherapy. TFP provides a psychodynamic, object relations model to understand the aggression arising in psychotherapy, focusing on the transference and countertransference in the here and now of the therapeutic relationship. Aggression is considered an essential and vital inner dynamic aimed at autonomy, distancing, and the prevention of injury and dependency. In extremely traumatized patients there may be aggressive and oppressive inner parts that want total control-identifying with childhood aggressors-thus avoiding vulnerability. According to TFP it is vital that this aggression is addressed as belonging to the patients themselves in order to reach some form of integration, balance, and health. This is illustrated in a case description.

  10. A manifesto of community-focused psychotherapy for the social participation: Does individual and group psychotherapy still meet the care needs of the society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bruschetta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical, on a social-political level, of development of psychotherapy, seen as the health discipline, especially in that part of the world called West, scientifically established itself through the evaluation of the effectiveness of its two most common types of setting: Individual and Group- Psychotherapy. Through a social-anthropological interpretation of mental processes which it underpins, and a group analytical analysis of organizational and institutional dynamics that led to its evolution, the authors highlight the significant impasse in which psychotherapy finds itself today compared to new and more pervasive forms of mental suffering. Following on of the latest scientific research on the functioning of the mind and of new policy proposals from the World Health Organization, it is suggested so a form of basic psychotherapy, focused on the quality of the mental health of human contexts, defined Community-Focused Psychotherapy. This new form of psychotherapy is wrong simply understood as a new setting, alongside the classic individual, group, or family setting, but as a political-cultural background and a theoretical-methodological framework, so for different psychotherapeutic treatment (individual, group , family put in place in cases of specific psychopathological symptoms, as for a number of other clinical and social programs, carried out by professionals, workers and (formerly users, who support the empowerment of people, with serious psychological disorders or severe mental illness, in their own social contexts of belonging, and in their own recovery, through the active participation of all those therapeutic processes that support their care. 

  11. [Outpatient Psychotherapy Under Naturalistic Conditions: A Selective Review of Results from German Speaking Countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Uwe; Thielemann, Désirée; Strauß, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing body of literature recognizing the importance of outpatient psychotherapy. Several studies investigated the efficacy of outpatient psychotherapy and aspects of the health care system under natural conditions. This paper gives an overview of studies from German speaking countries (TRANS-OP-, TK-, PAP-S- and QS-PSY-BAY-study).The results of the different studies indicate both, positive outcome of the therapies (e. g., reduction of symptoms with an average ES of 1,03; improvement of symptoms despite premature termination) as well as an economic benefit (end of treatment depending on treatment outcome and not limited by therapy sessions; extensions of psychotherapy only if patient is highly impaired and therapeutic alliance is positive; high reduction of supply costs and sick leave). However, the low health care density in rural areas and the waiting periods before starting therapy are indicators of structural problems of the health care system with respect to outpatient psychotherapy.The efficacy of outpatient psychotherapies under natural conditions is sufficiently supported. Future studies should investigate structural aspects of the health care system, for example by focussing on the establishment of inter-sectoral connections between different professional groups and a reduction of bureaucratic actions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Crystal Structure of PKG I:cGMP Complex Reveals a cGMP-Mediated Dimeric Interface that Facilitates cGMP-Induced Activation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jeong Joo

    2016-04-09

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is a key regulator of smooth muscle and vascular tone and represents an important drug target for treating hypertensive diseases and erectile dysfunction. Despite its importance, its activation mechanism is not fully understood. To understand the activation mechanism, we determined a 2.5 Å crystal structure of the PKG I regulatory (R) domain bound with cGMP, which represents the activated state. Although we used a monomeric domain for crystallization, the structure reveals that two R domains form a symmetric dimer where the cGMP bound at high-affinity pockets provide critical dimeric contacts. Small-angle X-ray scattering and mutagenesis support this dimer model, suggesting that the dimer interface modulates kinase activation. Finally, structural comparison with the homologous cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase reveals that PKG is drastically different from protein kinase A in its active conformation, suggesting a novel activation mechanism for PKG. Kim et al. obtain the first crystal structure of the PKG I R domain bound with cGMP representing its activated state. It reveals a symmetric R dimer where cGMP molecules provide dimeric contacts. This R-R interaction prevents the high-affinity inhibitory interaction between R-C domain and sustains activation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Characterization of c-di-GMP signaling in Salmonella typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Simm, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Signal transduction via cyclic nucleotides is a general mechanism utilized by cells from all kingdoms of life. Identification of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) as an allosteric activator of the cellulose synthase in Gluconacetobacter xylinus 20 years ago, paved the way for the discovery of a novel general signalling system which is unique to bacteria. In this thesis, the c-di-GMP signalling network leading to the formation of a biofilm behavior in Salmonella...

  14. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  15. Biofilms and Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Signaling: Lessons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Martina; Filloux, Alain

    2016-06-10

    The cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) second messenger represents a signaling system that regulates many bacterial behaviors and is of key importance for driving the lifestyle switch between motile loner cells and biofilm formers. This review provides an up-to-date compendium of c-di-GMP pathways connected to biofilm formation, biofilm-associated motilities, and other functionalities in the ubiquitous and opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa This bacterium is frequently adopted as a model organism to study bacterial biofilm formation. Importantly, its versatility and adaptation capabilities are linked with a broad range of complex regulatory networks, including a large set of genes involved in c-di-GMP biosynthesis, degradation, and transmission.

  16. cGMP stimulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channels co-expressed with cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II but not type Ibeta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Vaandrager (Arie); S.M. Lohmann (Suzanne); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); W.C. Poller; B.C. Tilly (Bernard); A. Smolenski; S. Schneider-Rasp; A.G. Bot (Alice); M.J. Edixhoven (Marcel); B.J. Scholte (Bob); T. Jarchau; U. Walter

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn order to investigate the involvement of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) type II in cGMP-provoked intestinal Cl- secretion, cGMP-dependent activation and phosphorylation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels was ana

  17. An Empirical Investigation of Defense Interpretation Depth, Defensive Functioning, and Alliance Strength in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Jonathan; Bhatia, Maneet; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Drapeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between depth of defense interpretations by therapists, and patient defensive functioning, on the therapeutic alliance in a sample of 36 patients undergoing short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Defense interpretation depth was defined as the degree to which therapist interpretations contained information regarding the motivation for patient defenses and historical origins of the defensive processes (Greensen, 1967). Mean depth of interpretation was compared between sessions that were identified beforehand as either high-alliance or low-alliance sessions using the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II: Luborsky et al., 1996). Results indicated that defensive functioning was correlated to defense interpretation depth in low-alliance sessions. Moreover, mean depth of interpretation was also higher in low-alliance sessions, pointing to the possible "destabilizing" effects that these interpretations may have on both defensive functioning and the therapeutic alliance. These results are discussed within the context of previous studies of therapeutic technique in dynamic psychotherapy.

  18. Modification of Tau by 8-Nitroguanosine 3',5'-Cyclic Monophosphate (8-Nitro-cGMP): EFFECTS OF NITRIC OXIDE-LINKED CHEMICAL MODIFICATION ON TAU AGGREGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Jun; Soeda, Yoshiyuki; Ida, Tomoaki; Sumioka, Akio; Yoshikawa, Misato; Matsushita, Kenji; Akaike, Takaaki; Takashima, Akihiko

    2016-10-21

    Neurofibrillar tangles caused by intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau inclusion and extracellular amyloid β peptide deposition are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Tau contains one or two cysteine residues in three or four repeats of the microtubule binding region following alternative splicing of exon 10, and formation of intermolecular cysteine disulfide bonds accelerates tau aggregation. 8-Nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP) acts as a novel second messenger of nitric oxide (NO) by covalently binding cGMP to cysteine residues by electrophilic properties, a process termed protein S-guanylation. Here we studied S-guanylation of tau and its effects on tau aggregation. 8-Nitro-cGMP exposure induced S-guanylation of tau both in vitro and in tau-overexpressed HEK293T cells. S-guanylated tau inhibited heparin-induced tau aggregation in a thioflavin T assay. Atomic force microscopy observations indicated that S-guanylated tau could not form tau granules and fibrils. Further biochemical analyses showed that S-guanylated tau was inhibited at the step of tau oligomer formation. In P301L tau-expressing Neuro2A cells, 8-nitro-cGMP treatment significantly reduced the amount of sarcosyl-insoluble tau. NO-linked chemical modification on cysteine residues of tau could block tau aggregation, and therefore, increasing 8-nitro-cGMP levels in the brain could become a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Derivation of vascular endothelial cells from human embryonic stem cells under GMP-compliant conditions: towards clinical studies in ischaemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupisch, A; Kennedy, L; Stelmanis, V; Tye, B; Kane, N M; Mountford, J C; Courtney, A; Baker, A H

    2012-10-01

    Revascularisation of ischaemic tissue remains an area of substantial unmet clinical need in cardiovascular disease. Strategies to induce therapeutic angiogenesis are therefore attractive. Our recent focus has been on human embryonic stem cell (hESC) strategies since hESC can be maintained in a pluripotent state or differentiated into any desired cell type, including endothelial cells (EC), under defined differentiation culture conditions. We recently published a protocol for non-good manufacturing practice (GMP) feeder- and serum-free hESC-EC-directed monolayer differentiation to vascular EC demonstrating the potential to generate hESC-derived EC in a GMP-compliant manner suitable for use in clinical trials. In this study we modified that laboratory protocol to GMP compliance. EC production was confirmed by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and production of vascular structures in Matrigel®, yielding approximately 30 % mature VE-cadherin(+)/PECAM-1(+) cells using the GMP-compliant hESC line RC13. In conclusion, we have successfully demonstrated the production of vascular EC under GMP-compliant conditions suitable for clinical evaluation.

  20. New GMP Models for Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjiashvili, N.; Godoladze, T.; Tvaradze, N.; Tumanova, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Caucasus is a region of numerous natural hazards and ensuing disasters. Analysis of the losses due to past disasters indicates those most catastrophic in the region have historically been due to strong earthquakes. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Thus, many peak ground acceleration attenuation relations have been developed by different authors. However, a few attenuation relations were developed for Caucasus region: Ambraseys et al. (1996,2005) which were based on entire European region and they were not focused locally on Caucasus Region, Smit et.al.(2000) that was based on a small amount of acceleration data that really is not enough. Since 2003 construction of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started with the help of number of International organizations, Projects and Private companies. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models is obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. Also site ground conditions are considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage according to ground conditions. Thus, this parameter is emphasized in the present study. Here it must be mentioned that in previous model which only one was done for Caucasus Region (Smit et. al., 2000) local conditions were not considered. Thus, it is an advantage of models from this study.

  1. Efficacy and enlightenment: LSD psychotherapy and the Drug Amendments of 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Matthew

    2014-04-01

    The decline in therapeutic research with lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the United States over the course of the 1960s has commonly been attributed to the growing controversy surrounding its recreational use. However, research difficulties played an equal role in LSD psychotherapy's demise, as they frustrated researchers' efforts to clearly establish the efficacy of treatment. Once the Kefauver Harris Drug Amendments of 1962 introduced the requirement that proof of efficacy be established through controlled clinical trials before a drug could be approved to market, the value of clinical research became increasingly dependent on the scientific rigor of the trial's design. LSD psychotherapy's complex method of utilizing drug effects to catalyze a psychological treatment clashed with the controlled trial methodology on both theoretical and practical levels, making proof of efficacy difficult to obtain. Through a close examination of clinical trials performed after 1962, this article explores how the new emphasis on controlled clinical trials frustrated the progress of LSD psychotherapy research by focusing researchers' attention on trial design to the detriment of their therapeutic method. This analysis provides a new perspective on the death of LSD psychotherapy and explores the implications of the Drug Amendments of 1962.

  2. Recommendations for Use of Affirmative Psychotherapy With LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Kate L M; Donaldson, Weston

    2017-08-01

    Affirmative therapy is a type of psychotherapy used to validate and advocate for the needs of sexual and gender minority clients. Therapists use verbal and nonverbal means to demonstrate an affirming stance toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) clients. Although this therapeutic approach can be used with LGBT individuals across the lifespan, the case presented in this paper highlights the benefit of using this approach with older LGBT individuals. Discussion of the unique challenges faced by older LGBT people will be followed with an illustrative case that shows ways that affirmative therapy can help individuals achieve greater self-actualization. The case formulation and conclusion will highlight specific ways that therapists can convey an affirmative stance and help clients feel welcome and accepted in the therapeutic setting. Recommendations for environmental cues, intake questions, and treatment skills will be offered at the conclusion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Theoretical Basis of the Psychoanalytic Approach to Psychotherapy of Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Spelic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the modern scientific and professional environment psychoanalytic psychotherapy is placed in the background regarding its possibilities in the treatment of autism. This position, expressed by the question of possibilities of its use in the therapy of autism, is identified by the author as a result of the existing dichotomy (‘splitting’ in ‘organic’ and ‘psychic’ concepts of its etiology. To overcome the above constraint the author, on the base of his twenty years of psychotherapeutic experiences with eight autistic children, suggests the possibility of developing such concept of autistic psychogenesis and based on it a therapeutic approach. In support of his therapeutic observations, in this article were used contributions of contemporary researches by intersubjectivists, whose results speak in favour of the thesis.

  4. Pitfalls of the psychotherapy of twins with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Túry, F; Szentes, A; Varga, M

    2012-06-01

    Scientific literature is limited on problems related to the psychotherapy of twins, especially eating disorders. This paper discusses the therapeutic difficulties encountered with two anorexic and one bulimic sets of twins. The three case reports show that the symbiotic tendency of twins is a frequent phenomenon, which may be a special resistance against change, and can serve as a factor maintaining the pathological state. In many cases, the parental behaviour strengthens the symbiosis of the twins, instead of helping the individuation. The integration of individual and family therapeutic interventions is proposed. The separation-individuation process of the twins can be stimulated by individual sessions with each of the twins, or separate sessions during family therapy (i.e., sessions with the parents and with one of the twins). In this case, the best strategy would be to have the individual and family therapies conducted by the same therapist.

  5. Psychotherapy: from exorcism to cognitive theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durval Mazzei Nogueira Filho

    Full Text Available The author discusses aspects of psychotherapeutic action. He defends the rationality of the procedure, comments on the splintering of the field of psychotherapy and discusses the usefulness of applying the scientific methodology to this field of knowledge.

  6. Psychotherapy and distributive justice: a Rawlsian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    In this paper I outline an approach to the distribution of resources between psychotherapy modalities in the context of the UK's health care system, using recent discussions of Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapy as a way of highlighting resourcing issues. My main goal is to offer an approach that is just, and that accommodates the diversity of different schools of psychotherapy. In order to do this I draw extensively on the theories of Justice and of Political Liberalism developed by the late John Rawls, and adapt these to the particular requirements of psychotherapy resourcing. I explore some of the implications of this particular analysis, and consider how the principles of Rawlsian justice might translate into ground rules for deliberation and decision-making.

  7. PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH THE PARENT EGO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruša Zaletel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In their article, the authors present the findings of the study in which they conceptualized the method of psychotherapy with the Parent ego state. Their aim was to explore whether this method could be divided into individual, content-wise separate chronological phases which can be observed with the majority of clients. By using a modified method of content analysis of five psychotherapy transcripts and a video recording of a psychotherapy session, nine chronological phases were identified. In order to illustrate the individual phases, excerpts from the transcripts and the video recording of psychotherapy have been included. The article proposes under what conditions can this method be used, and presents some of its limitations.

  8. Psychotherapy - insights from bhagavad gita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M S

    2012-01-01

    Spoken and written commentary on Bhagavad Gita, the distilled spiritual essence of Vedas and Upanishads, is aplenty. Mahatma Gandhi was quoted as saying that whenever he had a problem Bhagavad Gita offered an answer and the solution. For a student of psychology Bhagavad Gita offers a valuable case study for lessons in psychotherapy - resolution of conflict and successful resumption of action from a state of acute anxiety and guilt laden depression that precipitated inaction. This presentation makes a humble attempt to discuss the therapy process involved in Bhagavad Gita in which Lord Krishna helped the grief-stricken Arjuna through dialogue and discussion. The focus would be on the conflict and diagnosis of patient, the background setting of the situation, personality of patient, technique of therapy, underlying psychological concepts/ principles/theories, the Guru - Sishya concept, etc.

  9. Psychotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... persistent irritability, or a sense of discouragement or hopelessness that won’t go away. A health professional may suspect or have diagnosed a condition such as depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress or other disorder ...

  10. Optimization of RNA-based c-di-GMP fluorescent sensors through tuning their structural modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuzuka, Saki; Matsumura, Shigeyoshi; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger of bacteria and its detection is an important issue in basic and applied microbiology. As c-di-GMP riboswitch ligand-binding domains (aptamer domains) capture c-di-GMP with high affinity and selectivity, they are promising platforms for the development of RNA-based c-di-GMP sensors. We analyzed two previously reported c-di-GMP sensor RNAs derived from the Vc2 riboswitch. We also designed and tested their variants, some of which showed improved properties as RNA-based c-di-GMP sensors.

  11. Psychotherapy with physically disabled patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui Aragao; Milliner, Eric K; Page, Richard

    2004-01-01

    With the last decades, health care interventions have been more productively attuned to actualizing the potential for optimal recuperation of every patient. Unique and important contributions of psychotherapy to this effort include: 1) A formulation which synthesizes an understanding of clinical behaviors, reality-based physical limitations and risks with an appreciation of the patient's mechanisms of defense, ego strengths and weaknesses, and transference expectations which impact the treatment process; 2) The utilization of individual psychotherapy (focused on "insight") in combination with supportive individual and group experiences. For children and adolescents struggling with age-appropriate physical-developmental and social issues or learning disabilities, psychoeducational approach for disabled youngsters has proven very beneficial. 3) Occasional crises occur which involve the spouse or relatives more than the index patient. Working to provide supportive Couple or Family System intervention is sometimes as essential as caring for the disabled individual. 4) Numerous Group Therapy approaches have proven efficacious. Treatment in a group setting is attractive to those who are concerned about cost-containment. Unfortunately, groups for disabled are often "didactic" and utilize a format that provides factual information about disabilities, medical procedures, and sometimes an intellectual discussion of "emotional answers" for certain types of problems or conditions. Groups that facilitate self-disclosure and emotional interactions among the members accomplish more meaningful results. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the importance of developing rigorous scientific research in the area of disabilities which will match the excellence of clinical work already being done in the field. Gaining an accurate and more thorough understanding of the psychological reality of a disabled person's internal world may be a key to facilitating his or her self-esteem and

  12. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: toward an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T B

    1982-09-01

    The author reviews historical trends, hypotheses, and problems in the application of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy and uses research findings to develop an integrative model. He portrays a chronology of models over three decades; an "additive" relationship represents the decade of 1970 to 1980. He presents factors that must be considered in determining the effects of pharmacotherapy plus psychotherapy and recommends refinement of these variables in future research.

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy with Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Bob G.; Satre, Derek

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy is readily adaptable to use with older adults. This review integrates discussion of cognitive and behavioral intervention techniques with recent research and clinical observations in the field of gerontology. Cognitive changes with aging, personality and emotional development, cohort effects, and the social environment of older adults are discussed in relation to psychotherapy. Applications of cognitive behaivor therapy to specific late life problems such as...

  14. Interpretive psychotherapy with chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, R

    1983-12-01

    Patients for whom medical and surgical management has failed to relieve chronic pain were treated in a multimodal programme which included interpretive psychotherapy. Dynamic conflicts were identified in all cases and utilized in the psychotherapy and programme design. Examined in the light of ego functioning, pain that was previously considered intractible, yielded to psychological treatment. Further research is planned to identify the parts played by the different modalities and to study outcome.

  15. NONVERBAL STORIES: THE BODY IN PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotional experience is stored within the amygdala and the limbic system of the brain as affect, visceral, and physiological sensation without symbolization and language. These significant memories are expressed in affect and through our bodily movements and gestures. Such body memories are unconscious non-symbolized patterns of self-in-relationship. Several methods of a body centered psychotherapy are described and clinical case examples illustrate the use of expressive methods within a relational psychotherapy.

  16. Psychotherapy Is Chaotic-(Not Only) in a Computational World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter K; Viol, Kathrin; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Sungler, Katharina; Pincus, David; Schöller, Helmut J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this article is to outline the role of chaotic dynamics in psychotherapy. Besides some empirical findings of chaos at different time scales, the focus is on theoretical modeling of change processes explaining and simulating chaotic dynamics. It will be illustrated how some common factors of psychotherapeutic change and psychological hypotheses on motivation, emotion regulation, and information processing of the client's functioning can be integrated into a comprehensive nonlinear model of human change processes. Methods: The model combines 5 variables (intensity of emotions, problem intensity, motivation to change, insight and new perspectives, therapeutic success) and 4 parameters into a set of 5 coupled nonlinear difference equations. The results of these simulations are presented as time series, as phase space embedding of these time series (i.e., attractors), and as bifurcation diagrams. Results: The model creates chaotic dynamics, phase transition-like phenomena, bi- or multi-stability, and sensibility of the dynamic patterns on parameter drift. These features are predicted by chaos theory and by Synergetics and correspond to empirical findings. The spectrum of these behaviors illustrates the complexity of psychotherapeutic processes. Conclusion: The model contributes to the development of an integrative conceptualization of psychotherapy. It is consistent with the state of scientific knowledge of common factors, as well as other psychological topics, such as: motivation, emotion regulation, and cognitive processing. The role of chaos theory is underpinned, not only in the world of computer simulations, but also in practice. In practice, chaos demands technologies capable of real-time monitoring and reporting on the nonlinear features of the ongoing process (e.g., its stability or instability). Based on this monitoring, a client-centered, continuous, and cooperative process of feedback and control becomes possible. By contrast, restricted

  17. Psychotherapy Is Chaotic—(Not Only) in a Computational World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter K.; Viol, Kathrin; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Sungler, Katharina; Pincus, David; Schöller, Helmut J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this article is to outline the role of chaotic dynamics in psychotherapy. Besides some empirical findings of chaos at different time scales, the focus is on theoretical modeling of change processes explaining and simulating chaotic dynamics. It will be illustrated how some common factors of psychotherapeutic change and psychological hypotheses on motivation, emotion regulation, and information processing of the client's functioning can be integrated into a comprehensive nonlinear model of human change processes. Methods: The model combines 5 variables (intensity of emotions, problem intensity, motivation to change, insight and new perspectives, therapeutic success) and 4 parameters into a set of 5 coupled nonlinear difference equations. The results of these simulations are presented as time series, as phase space embedding of these time series (i.e., attractors), and as bifurcation diagrams. Results: The model creates chaotic dynamics, phase transition-like phenomena, bi- or multi-stability, and sensibility of the dynamic patterns on parameter drift. These features are predicted by chaos theory and by Synergetics and correspond to empirical findings. The spectrum of these behaviors illustrates the complexity of psychotherapeutic processes. Conclusion: The model contributes to the development of an integrative conceptualization of psychotherapy. It is consistent with the state of scientific knowledge of common factors, as well as other psychological topics, such as: motivation, emotion regulation, and cognitive processing. The role of chaos theory is underpinned, not only in the world of computer simulations, but also in practice. In practice, chaos demands technologies capable of real-time monitoring and reporting on the nonlinear features of the ongoing process (e.g., its stability or instability). Based on this monitoring, a client-centered, continuous, and cooperative process of feedback and control becomes possible. By contrast, restricted

  18. Psychotherapy Is Chaotic—(Not Only in a Computational World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter K. Schiepek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this article is to outline the role of chaotic dynamics in psychotherapy. Besides some empirical findings of chaos at different time scales, the focus is on theoretical modeling of change processes explaining and simulating chaotic dynamics. It will be illustrated how some common factors of psychotherapeutic change and psychological hypotheses on motivation, emotion regulation, and information processing of the client's functioning can be integrated into a comprehensive nonlinear model of human change processes.Methods: The model combines 5 variables (intensity of emotions, problem intensity, motivation to change, insight and new perspectives, therapeutic success and 4 parameters into a set of 5 coupled nonlinear difference equations. The results of these simulations are presented as time series, as phase space embedding of these time series (i.e., attractors, and as bifurcation diagrams.Results: The model creates chaotic dynamics, phase transition-like phenomena, bi- or multi-stability, and sensibility of the dynamic patterns on parameter drift. These features are predicted by chaos theory and by Synergetics and correspond to empirical findings. The spectrum of these behaviors illustrates the complexity of psychotherapeutic processes.Conclusion: The model contributes to the development of an integrative conceptualization of psychotherapy. It is consistent with the state of scientific knowledge of common factors, as well as other psychological topics, such as: motivation, emotion regulation, and cognitive processing. The role of chaos theory is underpinned, not only in the world of computer simulations, but also in practice. In practice, chaos demands technologies capable of real-time monitoring and reporting on the nonlinear features of the ongoing process (e.g., its stability or instability. Based on this monitoring, a client-centered, continuous, and cooperative process of feedback and control becomes possible. By

  19. Elaboração da versão em português do Psychotherapy Process Q-Set Development of a Portuguese version of the Psychotherapy Process Q-Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barcellos Serralta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, a pesquisa em psicoterapia encontra-se em desenvolvimento inicial; ainda não há estudos sistemáticos do processo terapêutico, e poucas são as medidas disponíveis para os pesquisadores interessados nesse campo. OBJETIVO: Elaborar a versão em português do Psychotherapy Process Q-Set. MÉTODO: A elaboração da versão em português do Psychotherapy Process Q-Set envolveu quatro etapas: tradução, retrotradução, avaliação da equivalência semântica e discussão, entre os autores, dos resultados. Para a aplicação do instrumento, cinco avaliadores foram treinados. Durante o treinamento, registros no diário de campo eram feitos para identificar dificuldades na execução da tarefa e subsidiar dados complementares. Após, o Psychotherapy Process Q-Set foi aplicado em sete sessões de uma psicoterapia psicodinâmica breve para examinar a concordância entre os juízes. RESULTADOS: A versão em português do Psychotherapy Process Q-Set apresentou boa equivalência semântica com a original. A avaliação da fidedignidade interavaliadores teve resultado satisfatório. Ressalta-se que a aplicação do Psychotherapy Process Q-Set requer estudo, tempo e reflexão. A discussão com os avaliadores apontou a necessidade de uma revisão do manual de aplicação no que diz respeito às vinhetas ilustrativas. Isto deverá ser realizado, futuramente, para minimizar as discrepâncias observadas no entendimento de alguns conceitos e para melhor adequá-las à realidade brasileira. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo disponibiliza a versão em português do Psychotherapy Process Q-Set, um instrumento versátil, que pode ser utilizado em diferentes contextos para descrever, quantitativamente e em termos clinicamente significativos, o processo terapêutico das diferentes psicoterapias.INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, psychotherapy research is in its early development; there are no systematic studies of the therapeutic process, and there are few

  20. Effect of deanxit and dredging psychotherapy on neuroses%黛力新及心理疏导疗法对神经症的治疗研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建科; 郭克锋

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of deanxit and dredging psychotherpay on patients with neurosis.Method The therapeutic efficacy of deanxit and dredging psychotherapy on neuroses was observed.The diagnosis was bases on CCMD-2-R.The classification diagnosis and efficacy determination indexes were SCL-90.Result The therapeutic effect of deanxit and dredging psychotherapy on neuroses was significantly higher than that of each therapeutics,and every SCL-90 score was also much lower.Conclusion Neuroses is a mental disorder,so drug treatment combined with dredging psychotherpay is very important.

  1. The brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 can generate cGMP enabling cGMP-dependent downstream signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Wheeler, Janet I.

    2017-05-08

    The brassinosteroid receptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) is a member of the leucine rich repeat receptor like kinase family. The intracellular kinase domain of BRI1 is an active kinase and also encapsulates a guanylate cyclase catalytic centre. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we confirmed that the recombinant cytoplasmic domain of BRI1 generates pmol amounts of cGMP per μg protein with a preference for magnesium over manganese as a co-factor. Importantly, a functional BRI1 kinase is essential for optimal cGMP generation. Therefore, the guanylate cyclase activity of BRI1 is modulated by the kinase while cGMP, the product of the guanylate cyclase, in turn inhibits BRI1 kinase activity. Furthermore, we show using Arabidopsis root cell cultures that cGMP rapidly potentiates phosphorylation of the downstream substrate BRASSINOSTEROID SIGNALING KINASE 1 (BSK1). Taken together, our results suggest that cGMP acts as a modulator that enhances downstream signaling while dampening signal generation from the receptor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. 浅谈我国2010版 GMP 认证认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月秋

    2013-01-01

      毒胶囊事件引发人们深思,社会公众对制药企业的要求也日趋提高,GMP 认证势在必行,制药企业自身也加快了GMP 认证的步伐。本文回顾了我国实施 GMP 以来的发展历程。将我国新版 GMP 与美国 GMP 及欧盟 GMP 进行对比,说明我国GMP 步入世界轨道已进入重要阶段。因此,就目前我国制药企业进行 GMP 认证提出一些建议。

  3. Pharmaceutical development and preclinical evaluation of a GMP-grade anti-inflammatory nanotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobatto, Mark E.; Calcagno, Claudia; Otten, Maarten J.; Millon, Antoine; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Paridaans, Maarten P M; van der Valk, Fleur M.; Storm, G; Stroes, Erik S G; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J M; Metselaar, Josbert M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade liposomal nanotherapy containing prednisolone phosphate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. After formulation design, GMP production was commenced which yielded consistent, stable liposomes sized 100. nm

  4. Pharmaceutical development and preclinical evaluation of a GMP-grade anti-inflammatory nanotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobatto, Mark E.; Calcagno, Claudia; Otten, Maarten J.; Millon, Antoine; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Paridaans, Maarten P.M.; Valk, van der Fleur M.; Storm, Gert; Stroes, Erik S.G.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J.M.; Metselaar, Josbert M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade liposomal nanotherapy containing prednisolone phosphate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. After formulation design, GMP production was commenced which yielded consistent, stable liposomes sized 100 nm

  5. Pharmaceutical development and preclinical evaluation of a GMP-grade anti-inflammatory nanotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobatto, Mark E.; Calcagno, Claudia; Otten, Maarten J.; Millon, Antoine; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Paridaans, Maarten P M; van der Valk, Fleur M.; Storm, G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073356328; Stroes, Erik S G; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J M; Metselaar, Josbert M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade liposomal nanotherapy containing prednisolone phosphate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. After formulation design, GMP production was commenced which yielded consistent, stable liposomes sized 100. nm

  6. Pharmaceutical development and preclinical evaluation of a GMP-grade anti-inflammatory nanotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobatto, Mark E.; Calcagno, Claudia; Otten, Maarten J.; Millon, Antoine; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Paridaans, Maarten P.M.; van der Valk, Fleur M.; Storm, Gerrit; Stroes, Erik S.G.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J.M.; Metselaar, Josbert Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade liposomal nanotherapy containing prednisolone phosphate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. After formulation design, GMP production was commenced which yielded consistent, stable liposomes sized 100 nm

  7. The therapeutic value of medical photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J D; Woolford, T J; Lundall, C

    1993-10-01

    Medical photography is shown to have therapeutic value in illustrating to a patient a previously hidden clinical lesion. The sight of the extent and nature of a hole in her nasal septum which the patient had caused by picking her nose allowed her to stop this habit where previous medication and psychotherapy had failed.

  8. Psychotherapy for depression among patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Tatsuo

    2012-12-01

    Cancer causes profound suffering for patients, and previous reports have demonstrated that psychological distress, particularly depression, is frequently observed in advanced and/or terminally ill cancer patients. Such depression can lead to serious and far-reaching negative consequences in patients with advanced cancer: reducing their quality of life and causing severe suffering, a desire for early death, and suicide, as well as psychological distress in family members. For the management of their distress, cancer patients are more likely to prefer psychotherapeutic interventions to pharmacotherapy, and psychotherapy is known to be effective for the management of depression among advanced cancer patients. Hence, psychotherapy is an important treatment strategy for alleviating their depression. Furthermore, patients with advanced and/or terminal cancer suffer from various physical symptoms and are forced to face a continuous decline in physical function. In addition, psychological defense mechanisms such as denial are frequently observed in these patients. Hence, an individually tailored and careful psychotherapeutic approach should be followed, which considers the specific nature of the advanced and/or terminal cancer. This review focuses on psychological interventions that can be utilized in the clinical oncology practice to ameliorate depression among advanced and/or terminally ill cancer patients, rather than focusing on the level of evidence for each intervention. In addition, the current review introduces some novel therapeutic strategies that have not yet been proved to be effective but show promise for future studies.

  9. The Mathematics of Psychotherapy: A Nonlinear Model of Change Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Gunter; Aas, Benjamin; Viol, Kathrin

    2016-07-01

    Psychotherapy is a dynamic process produced by a complex system of interacting variables. Even though there are qualitative models of such systems the link between structure and function, between network and network dynamics is still missing. The aim of this study is to realize these links. The proposed model is composed of five state variables (P: problem severity, S: success and therapeutic progress, M: motivation to change, E: emotions, I: insight and new perspectives) interconnected by 16 functions. The shape of each function is modified by four parameters (a: capability to form a trustful working alliance, c: mentalization and emotion regulation, r: behavioral resources and skills, m: self-efficacy and reward expectation). Psychologically, the parameters play the role of competencies or traits, which translate into the concept of control parameters in synergetics. The qualitative model was transferred into five coupled, deterministic, nonlinear difference equations generating the dynamics of each variable as a function of other variables. The mathematical model is able to reproduce important features of psychotherapy processes. Examples of parameter-dependent bifurcation diagrams are given. Beyond the illustrated similarities between simulated and empirical dynamics, the model has to be further developed, systematically tested by simulated experiments, and compared to empirical data.

  10. PERSONALITY THEORY IN INTEGRATIVE PERSONALITY-ORIENTED RECONSTRUCTIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kurpatov

    2010-01-01

    approaches. V.N. Myasishchev's theory of personality relations in association with its universality, as well as pathogenetic psychotherapy may be the basis for the integration of other methods of psychotherapy

  11. Use of Psychotherapy for Depression in Older Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Wenhui; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Olfson, Mark; Walkup, James T; Crystal, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examine national patterns in psychotherapy for older adults with a diagnosis of depression and analyze correlates of psychotherapy use that is consistent with Agency for Health Care...

  12. Music Therapy as Psychotherapy in Psychiatry at all Levels of the GAF Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Presentation and disussion on how to apply different music therapy methods and techniques in psychiatry at different levels of the GAF (Global Functioning Scoring system) scale described in combination with McGlashan's relational process levels and other therapeutic principles as illustrated in 5...... books on 'relational treatment in psychiatry' by Lars Thorgaard (DK) and Ejvind Haga (N). Is music therapy as psychotherapy applicable also at the lower GAF scorings? Which methods/techniques?...

  13. Dreaming myself: combining dreams, autobiographical writing and psychotherapy in addressing narrative fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Dennett, Janet Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study springs from my experience of what I term ‘narrative fracture’, a life-hiatus or crisis that derails one’s current life pattern and self-identity. It examines the nature of this phenomenon and its possible roots in early infancy and childhood. Three therapeutic modalities: dreams, psychotherapy and autobiographical writing, which were instrumental towards resolution of that narrative fracture for me, are then explored. The study uses first person heuristic methodology because m...

  14. C-di-GMP regulates antimicrobial peptide resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chua, Song Lin; Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Rybtke, Morten Theil

    2013-01-01

    Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is an intracellular second messenger which controls the life styles of many bacteria. A high intracellular level of c-di-GMP induces a biofilm lifestyle, whereas a low intracellular level of c-di-GMP stimulates dispersal of biofilms and promotes a plankto......Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is an intracellular second messenger which controls the life styles of many bacteria. A high intracellular level of c-di-GMP induces a biofilm lifestyle, whereas a low intracellular level of c-di-GMP stimulates dispersal of biofilms and promotes...... a planktonic lifestyle. Here, we used expression of different reporters to show that planktonic cells (PCells), biofilm cells (BCells) and cells dispersed from biofilms (DCells) had distinct intracellular c-di-GMP levels. Proteomics analysis showed that the low intracellular c-di-GMP level of DCells induced...... the expression of proteins required for the virulence and development of antimicrobial peptide resistance in P. aeruginosa. In accordance, P. aeruginosa cells with low c-di-GMP levels were found to be more resistant to colistin than P. aeruginosa cells with high c-di-GMP levels. This contradicts the current...

  15. Psychotherapies for adult depression: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned from the 400 randomized trials on psychotherapies for adult depression that have been conducted, but much is also still unknown. In this study some recent attempts to further reduce the disease burden of depression through psychotherapies are reviewed. In the past, many new psychotherapies have promised to be more effective than existing treatments, usually without success. We describe recent research on two new therapies, acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive bias modification, and conclude that both have also not shown to be more effective than existing therapies. A growing number of studies have also focused on therapies that may be successful in further reducing the disease burden, such as treatments for chronic depression and relapse prevention. Other studies are aimed at scaling up psychological services, such as the training of lay health counselors in low-income and middle-income countries, telephone-based, and internet-based therapies. Psychotherapies are essential tools in the treatment of adult depression. Randomized trials have shown that these treatments are effective, and by focusing on key issues, such as chronic depression, relapse, and scaling them up, psychotherapies contribute more and more to the reduction of the disease burden of depression.

  16. The real relationship in psychotherapy supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2011-01-01

    While the real relationship has long been addressed in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, the matter of the real relationship in psychotherapy supervision has yet to receive any attention. Ample supervisory focus has indeed been given to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration (including parallel processes), but after a century of psychotherapy supervision, any mention whatsoever of real relationship phenomena is absent. In this paper, the following hypotheses are proposed: The real relationship (1) is a crucial component of the supervision relationship that has transtheoretical implications; (2) exists from the moment supervision begins until its end; (3) is the forever silent yet forever substantive contributor to supervisory process and outcome; (4) exerts a significant impact on (a) the development and establishment of the supervisory working alliance and (b) the unfolding and eventual utilization of the transference-countertransference experience in the supervisory situation; (5) consists of at least two dimensions in supervision--realism and genuineness--that vary along valence and magnitude continua (building on the works of Greenson and Gelso), and (6) deserves a place of eminence equal to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration if supervision theory, practice, and research are to be most fully informed. The possibility of using recent real relationship research in psychotherapy as a prototype to inform future research in supervision is presented, and two case examples are provided to illustrate the seeming power of real relationship phenomena in psychotherapy supervision.

  17. [Summary: Scientific evaluation of EMDR psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haour, F; de Beaurepaire, C

    2016-06-01

    The evaluation of psychotherapy methods is made difficult by their practical and theoretical diversities as well as the increasing number of available therapies. Evaluation based on scientific criteria in randomized control trials is providing the highest level of proof and recognition by Health Agencies. A recently described integrative psychotherapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), developed by F. Shapiro since 1989, has been confronted with the validation procedure used in pharmacological treatment. It was of interest to review the scientific validation steps carried out for this EMDR psychotherapy and for its mechanisms of action. The practical and methodological protocol of the EMDR psychotherapy for trauma integration is reviewed as well as clinical results and mechanisms. This EMDR therapy, focused on the resolutions of traumas, was started by treating patients with post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). The integrative EMDR protocol obtained the highest level of efficiency, for PTSD treatment, twenty years after its first publication. The efficiency of the protocol is now under study and scientific evaluation for troubles in which the trauma experiences are triggers or factors of maintenance of the troubles: anxiety, depression, phobia, sexual troubles, schizophrenia, etc. This new integrative psychotherapy follows the pathways and the timing observed for the evaluation and the validation of other therapies. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Obstacles to early career psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A; Plakun, Eric M; Lazar, Susan G; Mellman, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Though psychiatric residents are expected to be competent psychotherapists on graduation, further growth in skill and versatility requires continued experience in their ongoing career. Maturity as a psychotherapist is essential because a psychiatrist is the only mental health provider who, as a physician, can assume full responsibility for biopsychosocial patient care and roles as supervisor, consultant, and team leader. Graduating residents face an environment in which surveys show a steady and alarming decline in practice of psychotherapy by psychiatrists, along with a decline in job satisfaction. High educational debts, practice structures, intrusive management, and reimbursement policies that devalue psychotherapy discourage early career psychiatrists from a practice style that enables providing it. For the early-career psychiatrist there is thus the serious risk of being unable to develop a critical mass of experience or a secure identity as a psychiatric psychotherapist. Implementation of parity laws and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect the situation in unpredictable ways that call for vigilance and active response. Additional service and administrative demands may result from the ACA, creating ethical dilemmas about meeting urgent patient needs versus biopsychosocial standards of care. The authors recommend 1) vigorous advocacy for better payment levels for psychotherapy and freedom from disruptive management; 2) aggressive action against violations of the parity act, 3) active preparation of psychiatric residents for dealing with career choices and the environment for providing psychotherapy in their practice, and 4) post-graduate training in psychotherapy through supervision/consultation, continuing education courses, computer instruction, and distance learning.

  19. From medicine to psychotherapy: the placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    If placebos have been squeezed out of medicine to the point where their official place in in clinical trials designed to identify their own confounding effect, the placebo effect nevertheless thrives in psychotherapy. Not only does psychotherapy dispose of placebo effects that are less available to medicine as it becomes increasingly technological and preoccupied with body parts, but factors of the sort inhibiting the use of placebos in medicine have no equivalent in psychology. Medicine today is disturbed by the placebo effect in a way psychotherapy is not. Psychotherapy does not have to grapple with such a disconcerting paradox as successful sham surgery, and unlike those physicians who once pretended to treat the patient's body while actually attempting to treat the mind, the psychotherapist can treat the mind in all frankness. Perhaps it is because psychotherapy is less burdened by doubts about the placebo effect that it was able to come to its aid when it was orphaned by medicine. It is vain to expect something with so long a history as the placebo effect to disappear from the practices of healing.

  20. Analyses of therapist variables in a series of psychotherapy sessions with two child clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, B

    1982-01-01

    Studied the process of child psychotherapy by means of an analyses of therapist verbal behaviors. Audio-video recordings were made of nine intermittent psychotherapy sessions with 2 child clients, aged 8 and 12. A randomized mastertape of 4-minute segments was rated for empathic understanding and respect by means of the Carkhuff scales. Transcripts were categorized by means of the Hill Counselor Verbal Response Category System, and a preliminary set of 12 grammatical variables. Transcripts were minutized, and all the therapist variables were intercorrelated and factor-analyzed. According to the research expectations, high levels of interrater reliabilities for the Carkhuff scales and relatively high agreement levels for Hill's system were found. Analyses of the therapist variables demonstrated the nature of the therapeutic interventions as well as the pattern of change across successive psychotherapy sessions. The overall verbal response behavior of each therapist was summarized best through the factor analyses. Communalities and individual differences between the therapists were discussed. Future directions for the study of therapist variables in child psychotherapy process research were indicated.

  1. Resistances in the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy group with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević

    2010-06-01

    Resistance refers to all types of behaviour that oppose the exploration processes in the therapeutic process and inhibit work. Very common types of resistances, such as forgetting the time of session, being late, non-payment of sessions and such are found in every type of psychotherapy, including psychodrama psychotherapy. The attempt to break resistance in order to evoke changes could be dangerous as it represents the necessary defence mechanism and it is also a vital element of the person's functioning in therapy. In psychodrama, which is a type of action method of group psychotherapy, resistance can manifest through continuous verbalization of problems, in not wanting to act out the problem, the protagonist's typical non-verbal message or the most obvious manifestation: the absence of the protagonist. This paper will be on the typical resistance which the therapist has noticed during the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy, with a small group of adult clients. As the group was young and with undeveloped cohesiveness, resistance represented a certain balancing power for maintaining mental homeostasis of the group.

  2. Effects of Psychotherapy Training and Intervention Use on Session Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Wasserman, Rachel H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was an investigation of the relationships among therapist training variables, psychotherapy process, and session outcome in a psychotherapy training clinic. The aims were to assess the relationship between "training as usual" and intervention use in individual psychotherapy, to investigate the relationship between therapist…

  3. Therapeutic Process and Outcome: The Interplay of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbel, Holly

    2008-01-01

    From Freud through to modern times researchers have aimed to develop a clearer understanding of therapeutic processes and outcomes. Despite this continued interest in the field, the representation of psychotherapy processes and the applicability of research findings and recommendations to the therapeutic field continue to prove difficult.…

  4. Therapeutic Process and Outcome: The Interplay of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbel, Holly

    2008-01-01

    From Freud through to modern times researchers have aimed to develop a clearer understanding of therapeutic processes and outcomes. Despite this continued interest in the field, the representation of psychotherapy processes and the applicability of research findings and recommendations to the therapeutic field continue to prove difficult.…

  5. Maintaining boundaries in psychotherapy: Covert narcissistic personality characteristics and psychotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchner, Andrew F; Mirsalimi, Hamid; Moser, Casey J; Jones, Rebecca A

    2008-03-01

    The psychological literature to date has identified more than one form of narcissism: the more well-known grandiose form, and the less familiar and recognized covert form. Although the distinction between these two narcissistic types has been identified with regard to better conceptualizing client dynamics, there has been much less written about how covert narcissistic tendencies and traits may affect psychotherapists and psychotherapy. This paper uses psychodynamic theory to highlight the role that covert narcissistic characteristics may have on the psychotherapists' ability to maintain boundaries, potentially leading to boundary transgressions (existing along a continuum from therapeutically useful to maladaptive and anti-therapeutic). Specific therapeutic situations have been delineated to increase therapists' recognition and awareness of themes that may emerge and compromise the boundaries between themselves and their clients. Areas of focus include narcissism and its forms, the possible connection between covert narcissism in psychotherapists and the impact on managing boundaries, the potential therapeutic implications of covert narcissistic tendencies in psychotherapists, and the implications of covert narcissistic personality characteristics on treatment, supervision, and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Compare Research of PIC/S, PIC/S GMP and Chinese GMP%PIC/S、PIC/S GMP与中国GMP的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓光

    2010-01-01

    目的 介绍药品监管公约/药品监管合作计划(PIC/S)和PIC/S GMP,比较PIC/S GMP 和中国GMP(98修订)的差异. 方法 从历史变革、机构与运行机制、宗旨以及PIC/S GMP的影响来阐述PIC/S;从人员、硬件、软件等方面来比较PIC/S GMP 与中国GMP.结果 PIC/S在药品领域倡导GMP标准、检查一致以及互认,促进了GMP发展.结论 PIC/S GMP是国际上高水平的GMP.

  7. The psychotherapy of schizophrenia through the lens of phenomenology: intersubjectivity and the search for the recovery of first- and second-person awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Lysaker, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Phenomenological analyses suggest that persons with schizophrenia have profound difficulties with meaningfully engaging the world and situating a sense of self intersubjectively, which leads to the experience of self as absent. In this paper we explore the implications of this view for understanding the workings and potential of individual psychotherapy. Following an examination of individual psychotherapy transcripts for over 60 persons with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders we offer four principles for psychotherapy and provide clinical vignettes to exemplify these points. We suggest that the psychotherapy of persons with schizophrenia may be conceptualised as a "dialogical prosthesis" that helps individuals recover past selves then kindle internal and external dialogue, which partially enables a sense of the self to emerge. The therapeutic process consists of assisting persons to move towards recovery by providing an intersubjective space where they can evolve the first-person perspective of themselves and the second-person perspective when encountering others.

  8. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The influence of psychotherapy on marriage typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniszewski Mirosław

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the influence of psychotherapeutic group work on matrimonial relations. Such questions are put up in the research as if participating of one of the married couples in a group psychotherapy could indirectly influence the other partner, and also if the type of matrimony could change under the influence of psychotherapy, for example from hierarchical to the partner’s. The article generalizes the classification of marriage types and pays special attention on the types that can be subject to the positive changes as a result of psychotherapeutic influence. Actuality and value of this research lay in estimation of the ability of psychotherapy to influence the matrimony on the whole in case when only one of the partners takes part in the therapy.

  10. Ancient Greek psychotherapy for contemporary nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2002-08-01

    Ancient Greek physicians as well as philosophers were fully cognizant of a human being's psychological function and used their particular art to influence individual or social behavior in accordance with their pursuit. This art or technique favorably compares with several of the methods currently called supportive psychotherapy. This psychotherapy was the first form of care for people with mental health problems. Nurses who base their practice on ancient Greek psychotherapy see the patient as a whole, a person who creates meaning in life. Applying the philosophical principles of ancient Greeks helps nurses understand the behavior of people with mental health problems and recognize and facilitate adaptive satisfaction of these psychological needs. In addition, psychiatric nurses are able to help distressed individuals understand their fears and anxieties, so they are freed from the causes of their symptoms that led them to seek therapy in the first place. Consequently, this understanding can make psychiatric nurses' work a living experience and add meaning to their work.

  11. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels

    2013-01-01

    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications...

  12. Baring the soul: Paul Bindrim, Abraham Maslow and 'nude psychotherapy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Nude psychotherapy is one of the most flamboyant therapeutic techniques ever developed in American psychology. Largely forgotten today, the therapy was an academic and popular sensation upon its introduction in 1967. Developed by psychologist Paul Bindrim, the therapy promised to guide clients to their authentic selves through the systematic removal of clothing. This paper explores the intellectual, cultural and ethical context of nude therapy and its significance as a form of unchurched spirituality. Although nude therapy has an indisputable tabloid character, it is also rooted in a long-standing academic search for authenticity and ultimate meaning through science. Bindrim's career demonstrates the historically long-standing interweaving of spirituality and science within American psychology while simultaneously highlighting the field's extraordinary capacity for adaptive reinvention.

  13. Reducing inadvertent clinical errors: Guidelines from functional analytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mavis; Mandell, Tien; Maitland, Daniel; Kanter, Jonathan; Kohlenberg, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Two common types of clinical errors, inadvertently reinforcing client problem behaviors or inadvertently punishing client improvements, are conceptualized from the viewpoint of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), a treatment that harnesses the power of the therapeutic relationship. Understanding the functions of client behaviors such as incessant talking and over compliance can lead to more compassionate and effective intervention, and a functional analysis of seemingly problematic behaviors such as silence and lack of cooperation indicate how they may be client improvements. Suggestions are provided for how to more accurately conceptualize whether client behaviors are problems or improvements, and to increase awareness of therapist vulnerabilities that can lead to errors. While FAP is rooted in a functional contextual philosophy, the goal of this article is to offer a framework that crosses theoretical boundaries to decrease the likelihood of clinical errors and to facilitate client growth. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  15. The role of edge-sensing in experiential psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, David; Early, Annmarie

    2012-01-01

    In experiential psychotherapy three modes of experiencing are managed in parallel--experiencing in the domain of explicit knowing, experiencing in implicit knowing, and experiencing in the zone of emergent formation where the other two meet. Gendlin (1996) argued that therapy is a "process that centrally involves experience before it becomes one of a set of defined 'packages' and again afterword when it dips back into the prepackaged zone at the edge of experiencing" (p. 4). In Gendlin's terms, the "edge" is where the prepackaged and packaged zones meet. Encounter at the edge, what we call edge sensing, is dwelling in the meeting point between what is known explicitly and what is known in an implicit bodied way. This encounter extends to dyadic encounter at the interpersonal edge in the therapeutic relationship. Edge sensing is an intrasubjective and intersubjective process crucial for the moving forward process of change.

  16. Using Animal-assisted Therapy to Enrich Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerine, Jeanne Louise; Hubbard, Grace B

    2016-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of many psychological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). AAT can be used as an adjunct to other forms of psychotherapy. With AAT, the animal becomes a part of the treatment plan. Outcomes for clients that are associated with the use of AAT include (1) increased sense of comfort and safety, (2) increased motivation, (3) enhanced self-esteem, (4) increased prosocial behaviors, and (5) decreased behavioral problems. AAT provides a bridge for the therapist to develop a therapeutic relationship with a client, and the animal can provide supportive reassurance for the therapist. The amount of data that supports the benefits of AAT for the treatment of those with mental illnesses is growing, but evidence-based research that supports its use is lacking. Further research is needed.

  17. Crystal Structure of PKG I:cGMP Complex Reveals a cGMP-Mediated Dimeric Interface that Facilitates cGMP-Induced Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Joo; Lorenz, Robin; Arold, Stefan T; Reger, Albert S; Sankaran, Banumathi; Casteel, Darren E; Herberg, Friedrich W; Kim, Choel

    2016-05-03

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is a key regulator of smooth muscle and vascular tone and represents an important drug target for treating hypertensive diseases and erectile dysfunction. Despite its importance, its activation mechanism is not fully understood. To understand the activation mechanism, we determined a 2.5 Å crystal structure of the PKG I regulatory (R) domain bound with cGMP, which represents the activated state. Although we used a monomeric domain for crystallization, the structure reveals that two R domains form a symmetric dimer where the cGMP bound at high-affinity pockets provide critical dimeric contacts. Small-angle X-ray scattering and mutagenesis support this dimer model, suggesting that the dimer interface modulates kinase activation. Finally, structural comparison with the homologous cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase reveals that PKG is drastically different from protein kinase A in its active conformation, suggesting a novel activation mechanism for PKG.

  18. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP guidelines for virgin olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrakis, Christos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents GMP guidelines for the production of virgin olive oil. Standard procedures and conditions are indicated for olive production, harvesting, transportation and storage, for oil manufacture, storage and packaging, for buildings, process logistics and the materials used throughout the production chain.

  19. cGMP signalling : different ways to create a pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Jeroen; Smith, Janet L.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Recently, a novel cGMP signalling cascade was uncovered in Dictyostelium, a eukaryote that diverged from the lineage leading to metazoa after plants and before yeast. In both Dictyostelium and metazoa, the ancient cAMP-binding (cNB) motif of bacterial CAP has been modified and assembled with other d

  20. Implementation of good manufacturing practices (GMP) on human blood irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghi, Claudio; Napolitano, Celia M.; Ferreira, Danilo C.; Rela, Paulo Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: cboghi@uol.com.br; cmnapoli@ipen.br; dancarde@ig.com.br; prela@ipen.br; Zarate, Herman S. [Comission Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: hzarate@cchen.cl

    2007-07-01

    The irradiation of human blood is used to avoid the TA-GVHD (transfusion-associated graft-versus-host-disease), a rare but devastating adverse effect of leukocytes present in blood components for a immuno-competent transfusion recipients. Usually this irradiation practice is performed to a physical elimination of lymphocytes. The implementation of the GMP will assure that the properly dose in a range of 25 Gy to 50 Gy will be delivered to the blood in the bag collected in a blood tissue bank. The studies to establish the GMP were developed under the guidelines of the standard ISO 11137 - Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. In this work, two dosimetric systems were used for dose mapping during the studies of irradiator qualification, loading pattern, irradiation process validation and auditing. The CaSO{sub 4}: Dy dosimeter presented difficulties concerning to uncertainty on dose measurement, stability, trace ability and calibration system. The PMMA and gafchromic dosimetric systems have shown a better performance and were adopted on establishment of GMP procedures. The irradiation tests have been done using a Gammacell 220 Irradiator. The developed GMP can be adapted for different types of gamma irradiators, allowing to set up a quality assurance program for blood irradiation. (author)

  1. Good manufacturing practices (GMP utilized on human blood irradiation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Boghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation of human blood is used to avoid the TA-GVHD (transfusion-associated graft-versus-host-disease, a rare but devastating adverse effect of leukocytes present in blood components for immunocompetent transfusion recipients. Usually this irradiation practice is performed to a physical elimination of lymphocytes. The implementation of the GMP will assure that the properly dose in a range of 25Gy to 50Gy will be delivered to the blood in the bag collected in a blood tissue bank. The studies to establish the GMP were developed under the guidelines of the standard ISO 11137 - Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. In this work, two dosimetric systems were used for dose mapping during the studies of irradiator qualification, loading pattern, irradiation process validation and auditing. The CaSO4: Dy dosimeter presented difficulties concerning to uncertainty on dose measurement, stability, trace ability and calibration system. The PMMA and gafchromic dosimetric systems have shown a better performance and were adopted on establishment of GMP procedures. The irradiation tests have been done using a Gammacell 220 Irradiator. The developed GMP can be adapted for different types of gamma irradiators, allowing to set up a quality assurance program for blood irradiation.

  2. New parity, same old attitude towards psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2010-03-01

    Full parity of health insurance benefits for treatment of mental illness, including substance use disorders, is a major achievement. However, the newly-published regulations implementing the legislation strongly endorse aggressive managed care as a way of containing costs for the new equality of coverage. Reductions in "very long episodes of out-patient care," hospitalization, and provider fees, along with increased utilization, are singled out as achievements of managed care. Medical appropriateness as defined by expert medical panels is to be the basis of authorizing care, though clinicians are familiar with a history of insurance companies' application of "medical necessity" to their own advantage. The regulations do not single out psychotherapy for attention, but long-term psychotherapy geared to the needs of each patient appears to be at risk. The author recommends that the mental health professions strongly advocate for the growing evidence base for psychotherapy including long-term therapy for complex mental disorders; respect for the structure and process of psychotherapy individualized to patients' needs; awareness of the costs of aggressive managed care in terms of money, time, administrative burden, and interference with the therapy; and recognition of the extensive training and experience required to provide psychotherapy as well as the stresses and demands of the work. Parity in out-of-network benefits could lead to aggressive management of care given by non-network practitioners. Since a large percentage of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals stay out of networks, implementation of parity for out-of-network providers will have to be done in a way that respects the conditions under which they would be willing and able to provide services, especially psychotherapy, to insured patients. The shortage of psychiatrists makes this an important access issue for the insured population in need of care.

  3. Teaching focus in psychotherapy: a training essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Richard F; Xuan, Yan; Tavakoli, Donald N

    2013-03-01

    Practical application of psychodynamic therapy technique requires that the therapist focus the treatment. The authors review the current evidence about focus in psychotherapy, which suggests that it has a beneficial impact on outcome and patient satisfaction. The core psychodynamic problem is proposed as a valuable conceptual model for providing focus for patient, psychotherapist, and supervisor. The authors narrate a case history from the perspective of both the psychotherapist and the supervisor to demonstrate the opportunities and challenges in using this concept. Finally, the authors suggest that a focus on focus is desirable in residency psychotherapy training programs, and they make suggestions for educational methods that enhance resident training in this area.

  4. Intensive psychotherapy for the psychiatrist's family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, R D

    1977-10-01

    A series of intensive psychotherapy cases of wives and children of psychiatrists reveals that the special problems they present may be divided into those at the onset of treatment, those in the process of the treatment, and special countertransference problems. Paradoxically, early recognition and acceptance of psychotherapy are a foremost problem involving the psychiatrist as father or spouse. During therapy, narcissistic injuries to the psychiatrist father or spouse and loyalty problems in the patient emerge as special problems. Countertransference revolves around peer relationships and "psychopolitics," as well as referrals of other patients.

  5. Effects of 3 weeks GMP oral administration on glutamatergic parameters in mice neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzella, Marcelo; Moreira, Julia Dubois; Almeida, Roberto Farina; Böhmer, Ana Elisa; Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; Holmseth, Silvia; Souza, Diogo Onofre

    2012-03-01

    Overstimulation of the glutamatergic system (excitotoxicity) is involved in various acute and chronic brain diseases. Several studies support the hypothesis that guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP) can modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronically administered GMP on brain cortical glutamatergic parameters in mice. Additionally, we investigated the neuroprotective potential of the GMP treatment submitting cortical brain slices to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Moreover, measurements of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) purine levels were performed after the treatment. Mice received an oral administration of saline or GMP during 3 weeks. GMP significantly decreases the cortical brain glutamate binding and uptake. Accordingly, GMP reduced the immunocontent of the glutamate receptors subunits, NR2A/B and GluR1 (NMDA and AMPA receptors, respectively) and glutamate transporters EAAC1 and GLT1. GMP treatment significantly reduced the immunocontent of PSD-95 while did not affect the content of Snap 25, GLAST and GFAP. Moreover, GMP treatment increased the resistance of neocortex to OGD insult. The chronic GMP administration increased the CSF levels of GMP and its metabolites. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential modulatory role of GMP on neocortex glutamatergic system by promoting functional and plastic changes associated to more resistance of mice neocortex against an in vitro excitotoxicity event.

  6. Meaning-centered psychotherapy: a form of psychotherapy for patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lori P Montross; Meier, Emily A; Irwin, Scott A

    2014-10-01

    Caring for patients with cancer involves addressing their myriad physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Although many cancer treatments focus on physical or psychological needs, few treatments specifically target the basic need for meaning and spiritual well-being in this population. This article describes the creation and evolution of a new psychotherapy devoted to these needs, a therapy termed "meaning-centered psychotherapy." In this article, a detailed description of meaning-centered psychotherapy is provided. An explanation of the current research findings related to this treatment are also offered, with information about the various group and individual treatments as well as the new expansions for use with cancer survivors or nursing staff. Overall, meaning-centered psychotherapy shows promise for enhancing meaning and spiritual well-being among patients with cancer and offers exciting possibilities for future research in other areas.

  7. Urothelium muscarinic activation phosphorylates CBS(Ser227) via cGMP/PKG pathway causing human bladder relaxation through H2S production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Mitidieri, Emma; Fusco, Ferdinando; Russo, Annapina; Pagliara, Valentina; Tramontano, Teresa; Donnarumma, Erminia; Mirone, Vincenzo; Cirino, Giuseppe; Russo, Giulia; Sorrentino, Raffaella

    2016-08-11

    The urothelium modulates detrusor activity through releasing factors whose nature has not been clearly defined. Here we have investigated the involvement of H2S as possible mediator released downstream following muscarinic (M) activation, by using human bladder and urothelial T24 cell line. Carbachol stimulation enhances H2S production and in turn cGMP in human urothelium or in T24 cells. This effect is reversed by cysthationine-β-synthase (CBS) inhibition. The blockade of M1 and M3 receptors reverses the increase in H2S production in human urothelium. In T24 cells, the blockade of M1 receptor significantly reduces carbachol-induced H2S production. In the functional studies, the urothelium removal from human bladder strips leads to an increase in carbachol-induced contraction that is mimicked by CBS inhibition. Instead, the CSE blockade does not significantly affect carbachol-induced contraction. The increase in H2S production and in turn of cGMP is driven by CBS-cGMP/PKG-dependent phosphorylation at Ser(227) following carbachol stimulation. The finding of the presence of this crosstalk between the cGMP/PKG and H2S pathway downstream to the M1/M3 receptor in the human urothelium further implies a key role for H2S in bladder physiopathology. Thus, the modulation of the H2S pathway can represent a feasible therapeutic target to develop drugs for bladder disorders.

  8. Group psychotherapies for depression in persons with HIV: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honagodu, Abhijit Ramanna; Krishna, Murali; Sundarachar, Rajesh; Lepping, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Studies investigating effectiveness of group psychotherapy intervention in depression in persons with HIV have showed varying results with differing effect sizes. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of group psychotherapy in depression in persons with HIV has been conducted to present the best available evidence in relation to its effect on depressive symptomatology. Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials. Selected studies were quality assessed and data extracted by two reviewers. If feasible, it was planned to conduct a meta-analysis to obtain a pooled effect size of group psychotherapeutic interventions on depressive symptoms. Odds ratio for drop out from group was calculated. The studies were assessed for their quality using the Quality Rating Scale and other parameters for quality assessment set out by COCHRANE. The quality of reporting of the trials was compared against the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist for non-pharmacological studies (CONSORT-NPT). Four studies met the full inclusion criteria for systematic review. The trials included in the review examined group interventions based on the Cognitive behavioral therapy model against other therapeutic interventions or waiting list controls. In all four studies, group psychotherapy was an effective intervention for reducing depressive symptoms in persons with HIV in comparison to waiting list controls. The reported benefits from the group psychotherapy in comparison to active controls were less impressive. There were no statistically significant differences in drop outs at post treatments across group psychotherapy, wait list control, and other active interventions. The methodological quality of the studies varied. The quality of reporting of the studies was sub-optimal. The results of this systematic review support that group psychological interventions for depression in persons with HIV have a significant effect on depressive

  9. Facts and values in psychotherapy-A critique of the empirical reduction of psychotherapy within evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Henrik; Slaattelid, Rasmus

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses an implicit presupposition in research-supported psychological treatments and evidence-based practice in psychology. It argues that the notion of research-supported psychological treatments is based on a reductive conceptualisation of psychotherapy. Research-supported psychological treatments hinge upon an empirical reduction where psychotherapy schools become conceptualized as mere collections of empirical propositions. However, this paper argues that the different psychotherapy schools have distinct ethoses that are constituted by normative claims. Consequently, the evaluation of the different psychotherapy schools and the practice of psychotherapy should include the underlying normative claims of these ethoses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. For developmental period specific tasks in psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy: The case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The patient – therapist relationship is always unique, depending from both personalities – the patient's and the therapist's one. Therefore the rules for therapeutic interventions are strict and rigid – they should give some objective frames for the therapy. In this article I present psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy, where I outrouled the rigidness of psychotherapeutic interventions.At deep pathology of personality structure, especially at ego and self pathology, it is sometimes advisable to overcame the therapeutic boundaries for a more active healing process of developmental deficits.

  11. A dynamic systems approach to psychotherapy: A meta-theoretical framework for explaining psychotherapy change processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Salvatore, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Notwithstanding the many methodological advances made in the field of psychotherapy research, at present a metatheoretical, school-independent framework to explain psychotherapy change processes taking into account their dynamic and complex nature is still lacking. Over the last years, several authors have suggested that a dynamic systems (DS) approach might provide such a framework. In the present paper, we review the main characteristics of a DS approach to psychotherapy. After an overview of the general principles of the DS approach, we describe the extent to which psychotherapy can be considered as a self-organizing open complex system, whose developmental change processes are described in terms of a dialectic dynamics between stability and change over time. Empirical evidence in support of this conceptualization is provided and discussed. Finally, we propose a research design strategy for the empirical investigation of psychotherapy from a DS approach, together with a research case example. We conclude that a DS approach may provide a metatheoretical, school-independent framework allowing us to constructively rethink and enhance the way we conceptualize and empirically investigate psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Innovative uses of psychodynamic group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchele, B J

    1994-01-01

    Psychodynamic group psychotherapy is gaining renewed attention as an effective form of treatment, due in part to increasing economic constraints that make other forms of treatment less accessible. The author highlights some innovative applications of both extended and time-limited groups. She also describes specific issues that can be addressed effectively in homogeneous time-limited group therapy.

  13. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for the depressive syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, P M

    1989-06-01

    Historical approaches of psychotherapy for depression are contrasted with current psychotherapeutic strategies. Now more strategies are focused, structured, time-limited, observable, testable, researchable and data based. The following depressive syndromes are reviewed in terms of the literature that demonstrates the effectiveness of psychotherapy: major depressive disorder, bipolar depressive disorder, depression associated with medical illness such as cancer, myocardial infarction and stroke, resistant depression post-traumatic stress disorder, grief reactions and depression during adolescence, mid-life and the geriatric period of the life cycle. A conceptual model favoring tripartite focus of intervention is recommended. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression must consider intrapsychic, interpersonal and family dynamics as well as social supports. A model for each population needs to be studied and developed further. Recommendations for current research are suggested. In the individual modification of psychotherapeutic approaches we must consider the varying maturity of ego defenses and the ego strength of the individual patient. Forty well-designed studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of psychotherapy in the depressive syndromes are quoted in this paper.

  14. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    3.0.CO;2-F 5. McCullough JP. Psychotherapy for dysthymia: a naturalistic study of ten patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1991;179(12):734–740. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005053-199112000-00004 6. Keller MB, McCullough JP, Klein DN, et al. A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of

  15. Toward a Neurobiology of Child Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jerald

    2009-01-01

    Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that psychotherapy alters brain structure and function. Learning and memory, both implicit and explicit, play central roles in this process through the creation of new genetic material that leads to increased synaptic efficiency through the creation of new neuronal connections. Although there is substantial…

  16. Attrition in Psychotherapy: A Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseborough, David John; McLeod, Jeffrey T.; Wright, Florence I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attrition is a common problem in psychotherapy and can be defined as clients ending treatment before achieving an optimal response. Method: This longitudinal, archival study utilized data for 3,728 clients, using the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2. A Cox regression proportional hazards (hazard ratios) model was used in order to better…

  17. Play and the Art of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Play, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Terry Marks-Tarlow is a clinical and consulting psychologist and psychotherapist and a member of the teaching faculty at the Reiss Davis Child Study Center in Los Angeles. She is the author of "Awakening Clinical Intuition: An Experiential Workbook for Psychotherapists"; "Psyche's Veil: Psychotherapy, Fractals, and…

  18. Existential psychotherapy of students as learning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    According to parts of the existential psychology and psychotherapy the individual's exploration and compliance of his or her life project is central to the experience of living a meaningful life. In many ways, becoming a fully adult individual is about identifying and taking responsibility for th...

  19. Psychotherapy: The Listening Voice. Rogers and Erickson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leva, Richard A.

    The views of Carl Rogers and Milton H. Erickson are combined in this book on psychotherapy. The first section focuses on belief systems, views of man, new views of the unconscious, and a philosophy for change. Erickson and his relationship to myth, the nature of man and the goal of counseling, trance, and a radical view of the unconscious are…

  20. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    3.0.CO;2-F 5. McCullough JP. Psychotherapy for dysthymia: a naturalistic study of ten patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1991;179(12):734–740. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005053-199112000-00004 6. Keller MB, McCullough JP, Klein DN, et al. A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psy

  1. Psychotherapy: The Listening Voice. Rogers and Erickson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leva, Richard A.

    The views of Carl Rogers and Milton H. Erickson are combined in this book on psychotherapy. The first section focuses on belief systems, views of man, new views of the unconscious, and a philosophy for change. Erickson and his relationship to myth, the nature of man and the goal of counseling, trance, and a radical view of the unconscious are…

  2. Multicultural Approaches in Psychotherapy: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Leach, Mark M.; Wampold, Bruce; Rodolfa, Emil

    2011-01-01

    In this rejoinder, the authors address several issues raised by R. L. Worthington and F. R. Dillon (2011) and C. R. Ridley and M. Shaw-Ridley (2011) regarding (a) the measurement of multicultural competencies (MCCs), (b) sampling considerations in multicultural research, and (c) the conceptual frame of multicultural psychotherapy research. The…

  3. Psychotherapy, a concept for the nonpsychiatric physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAHN, J P

    1962-05-01

    Patients tend to repeat with their physician, as with other significant people in their lives, their earlier previous patterns of behavior. The physician as well as the patient is involved in the physician-patient relationship. He will tend to respond to his patients in accordance with his earlier life experiences and his characteristic repetitive behavioral pattern. For both physician and patient, the relationship between them extends beyond the immediate reality situation. Psychotherapy is the utilization of psychological measures in the treatment of sick persons and the deliberate utilization by the physician of the physician-patient relationship for the benefit of the patient. The kind of psychotherapy that is practical and utilizable by the nonpsychiatric physician is that which uses education, reassurance, support and the management of the patient's problems either directly or indirectly or through the intermediary of other people or agencies. The symbolic aspect of the physician-patient relationship is based essentially on the fact that a sick person, because of his anxiety and because of the threat to his physical and psychic integrity, is more dependent and more anxious than he would be if he were well, and therefore he has a correspondingly greater need for the authoritative and protective figure he finds in the physician. Psychotherapy is not directed exclusively to the treatment of flagrantly or obviously neurotic or psychotic patients. It should be and is directed to all sick persons. Limitations in psychotherapy are set by various determinants, among which are the nature of the precipitating factor in the illness, the nature of the sick person, the skill, knowledge and abilities of the physician, and the nature of the physician-patient relationship. In psychotherapy, as in all medicine, the physician should not do anything which may disturb the patient if the disturbance is of no value or if it cannot be followed through with special skills.

  4. The power of subtle interpersonal hostility in psychodynamic psychotherapy: a speech acts analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Timothy; Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Stiles, William B; Ordoñez, Tatiana; Heckman, Bernadette D

    2012-01-01

    This study compared participants' speech acts in low-hostile versus moderate-hostile interpersonal episodes in time-limited psychodynamic psychotherapy. Sixty-two cases from the Vanderbilt II psychotherapy project were categorized as low or moderate in interpersonal hostility based on ratings of interpersonal process using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (Benjamin, 1996). Representative episodes were coded using a taxonomy of speech acts (Stiles, 1992), and speech acts were compared across low- and moderate-hostile episodes. Therapists in moderate-hostility episodes used more interpretations and edifications, and fewer questions and reflections. Patients in moderate-hostility episodes used more disclosures and fewer edifications. Content coding showed that therapist interpretations with a self/intrapsychic self focus were more characteristic of moderate-hostility than low-hostility episodes, whereas the two types of episodes contained similar levels of interpretations focused on the patient's interpersonal relationships and the therapeutic relationship.

  5. Unwitting self-disclosures in psychodynamic psychotherapy: deciphering their meaning and accessing the pain within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Jerome S

    2011-04-01

    Unwitting self-disclosures (USDs), unconscious yet observable parts of personality, are often behavioral relics of past suffering and, as such, constitute valuable though frequently underutilized clinical information. While ego-syntonic aspects of personality can be commented on with impunity, dealing therapeutically with patients' USDs--manifestations of their blind spots--requires sensitivity, empathy, and timing. Providing many clinical examples of patient and therapist USDs from individual and group psychotherapy, this report discusses the origins, possible meanings, and the countertransference and empathic challenges encountered in the handling of these blind spots. The importance of establishing a narcissistic alliance and of employing the methods of the existential school of psychotherapy in processing USDs is described. Self-aware therapists can minimize the clinical impasse that may result when therapist-patient blind spots overlap.

  6. Therapeutic Alliance in Telephone-Administered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Allison J.; DuHamel, Katherine N.; Winkel, Gary; Rini, Christine; Greene, Paul B.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Redd, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A strong therapeutic alliance has been found to predict psychotherapeutic treatment success across a variety of therapeutic modalities and patient populations. However, only a few studies have examined therapeutic alliance as a predictor of psychotherapy outcome among cancer survivors, and none have examined this relation in…

  7. Therapeutic Alliance in Telephone-Administered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Allison J.; DuHamel, Katherine N.; Winkel, Gary; Rini, Christine; Greene, Paul B.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Redd, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A strong therapeutic alliance has been found to predict psychotherapeutic treatment success across a variety of therapeutic modalities and patient populations. However, only a few studies have examined therapeutic alliance as a predictor of psychotherapy outcome among cancer survivors, and none have examined this relation in…

  8. c-di-GMP and its Effects on Biofilm Formation and Dispersion: a Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dae-Gon; O'Toole, George A

    2015-04-01

    Since its initial discovery as an allosteric factor regulating cellulose biosynthesis in Gluconacetobacter xylinus, the list of functional outputs regulated by c-di-GMP has grown. We have focused this article on one of these c-di-GMP-regulated processes, namely, biofilm formation in the organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The majority of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases encoded in the P. aeruginosa genome still remain uncharacterized; thus, there is still a great deal to be learned about the link between c-di-GMP and biofilm formation in this microbe. In particular, while a number of c-di-GMP metabolizing enzymes have been identified that participate in reversible and irreversible attachment and biofilm maturation, there is a still a significant knowledge gap regarding the c-di-GMP output systems in this organism. Even for the well-characterized Pel system, where c-di-GMP-mediated transcriptional regulation is now well documented, how binding of c-di-GMP by PelD stimulates Pel production is not understood in any detail. Similarly, c-di-GMP-mediated control of swimming, swarming and twitching also remains to be elucidated. Thus, despite terrific advances in our understanding of P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and the role of c-di-GMP in this process since the last version of this book (indeed there was no chapter on c-di-GMP!) there is still much to learn.

  9. Endo-S-c-di-GMP Analogues-Polymorphism and Binding Studies with Class I Riboswitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman O. Sintim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available C-di-GMP, a cyclic guanine dinucleotide, has been shown to regulate biofilm formation as well as virulence gene expression in a variety of bacteria. Analogues of c-di-GMP have the potential to be used as chemical probes to study c-di-GMP signaling and could even become drug leads for the development of anti-biofilm compounds. Herein we report the synthesis and biophysical studies of a series of c-di-GMP analogues, which have both phosphate and sugar moieties simultaneously modified (called endo-S-c-di-GMP analogues. We used computational methods to predict the relative orientation of the guanine nucleobases in c-di-GMP and analogues. DOSY NMR of the endo-S-c-di-GMP series showed that the polymorphism of c-di-GMP can be tuned with conservative modifications to the phosphate and sugar moieties (conformational steering. Binding studies with Vc2 RNA (a class I c-di-GMP riboswitch revealed that conservative modifications to the phosphate and 2'-positions of c-di-GMP dramatically affected binding to class I riboswitch.

  10. Reduction of suicidal ideation in patients undergoing psychotherapy in the day hospital for the treatment of neurotic and behavioral disorders and their neurotic personality traits measured before the hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Rodziński

    2015-12-01

    Initially prominent Tendency to risk-taking and Impulsiveness may coexist with SI of increased resistance to psychotherapy. Thus, those subgroups require special attention and diligent selection of therapeutic methods. Also, it is probable that focusing therapy at the above-mentioned personality components may increase effectiveness of SI treatment. Reducing SI during psychotherapy appears to be highly effective especially in women with difficulties in expressing anger adequately and in men with prominently elevated level of Envy, which suggests adequacy of this treatment choice and of targeting those difficulties during psychotherapy.

  11. Vendor qualification for pharmaceutical excipients--GMP requirements and approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, K T; Chotal, N P

    2010-11-01

    Excipients are, in the large majority of cases, not made specifically for pharmaceutical use. Most pharmaceutical excipient manufacturers supply less than 10% of the total production of that particular material for pharmaceutical use. Excipient product portfolio consists of hundreds of products differing in chemistry, origin and functionality and they are used in many different applications. The days of treating excipients like commodities and buying them without fully qualifying the source and the entire distribution chain have gone by as GMP regulations demands to ensure quality of other materials used in the manufacturing process. The paradigm that exists in some pharmaceutical companies today where excipients are sourced from distributors without knowing the actual manufacturer, manufacturing site and full distribution lifecycle chain to be changed. The present contribution gives an overview about the current moves on GMP requirements for pharmaceutical excipient and approach for qualification of pharmaceutical excipient manufacturers.

  12. Ab Initio QM/MM Study Shows a Highly Dissociated SN2 Hydrolysis Mechanism for the cGMP-Specific Phosphodiesterase-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Wu, Yinuo; Feng, Ling-Jun; Wu, Ruibo; Luo, Hai-Bin

    2014-12-09

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the sole enzymes hydrolyzing the important second messengers cGMP and cAMP and have been identified as therapeutic targets for several diseases. The most successful examples are PDE5 inhibitors (i.e., sildenafil and tadalafil), which have been approved for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. However, the side effects mostly due to nonselective inhibition toward other PDE isoforms, set back the clinical usage of PDE5 inhibitors. Until now, the exact catalytic mechanism of the substrate cGMP by PDE5 is still unclear. Herein, the first computational study on the catalytic hydrolysis mechanism of cGMP for PDE5 (catalytic domain) is performed by employing the state-of-the-art ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our simulations show a SN2 type reaction procedure via a highly dissociated transition state with a reaction barrier of 8.88 kcal/mol, which is quite different from the previously suggested hydrolysis mechanism of cAMP for PDE4. Furthermore, the subsequent ligand exchange and the release of the product GMP have also been investigated by binding energy analysis and MD simulations. It is deduced that ligand exchange would be the rate-determining step of the whole reaction, which is consistent with many previous experimental results. The obtained mechanistic insights should be valuable for not only the rational design of more specific inhibitors toward PDE5 but also understanding the general hydrolysis mechanism of cGMP-specific PDEs.

  13. Groups as a part of integrated treatment plans : Inpatient psychotherapy for outpatients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, H

    2005-01-01

    Group psychotherapy in Germany is well established as part of an integrative treatment plan in inpatient treatment. Outpatient group psychotherapy, however, is conceptualized as a separate treatment option in competition with individual therapy. German guidelines for outpatient psychotherapy exclude

  14. CdiGMP signaling at early stages of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Xian, Wujing; Utada, Andrew; Wong, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Biofilm communities on surfaces constitute an important physiological state of bacteria. CdiGMP is a secondary messenger that has recently emerged as a master regulator of biofilm behavior. It has been shown that cdiGMP can affect bacterial adhesion, motility and exopolysaccharides production, which are important in regulating biofilm formation. However, at a single cell level, the details of how cdiGMP regulate bacterial behavior are largely unknown. Here we examine the dynamics of intracellular cdiGMP levels at early stages of biofilm in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, by using cell tracking techniques. We show that cells with different cdiGMP levels play different roles in the microcolony development at early stages of biofilm. The correlation between Psl and cdiGMP levels is also investigated.

  15. Fluorescence-Based Reporter for Gauging Cyclic Di-GMP Levels in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten T.; Borlee, Bradley R.; Murakami, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The increased tolerance toward the host immune system and antibiotics displayed by biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other bacteria in chronic infections such as cystic fibrosis bronchopneumonia is of major concern. Targeting of biofilm formation is believed to be a key aspect...... of antipathogenic compounds. Here we describe the development of fluorescent monitors that can gauge the cellular level of cyclic di-GMP in P. aeruginosa. We have created cyclic di-GMP level reporters by transcriptionally fusing the cyclic di-GMP-responsive cdrA promoter to genes encoding green fluorescent protein....... We show that the reporter constructs give a fluorescent readout of the intracellular level of cyclic di-GMP in P. aeruginosa strains with different levels of cyclic di-GMP. Furthermore, we show that the reporters are able to detect increased turnover of cyclic di-GMP mediated by treatment of P...

  16. Teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to psychiatric residents: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, Emily; Douglas, Carolyn J; Cabaniss, Deborah L

    2013-03-01

    There is enduring controversy in our field regarding the place for supportive interventions in psychodynamic psychotherapy. This controversy is reflected in the differing ways in which psychodynamic psychotherapy has been conceptualized and taught in psychiatric residency training programs. The authors propose an "integrated" approach for teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to trainees. In the integrated model, psychodynamic psychotherapy is conceptualized as a form of therapy designed to (a) uncover unconscious elements that influence thoughts, feelings, and behavior, and (b) support weakened psychological function. Using this model, residents learning psychodynamic psychotherapy are taught both uncovering and supporting techniques side by side in one course with specific guidelines for assessing when to use one set of interventions or the other. Teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to residents in this integrated way prepares them to become skilled clinicians who are able to move fluidly from supporting to uncovering in a pragmatic and flexible manner, matched to the particular moment-to-moment needs of the individual patient.

  17. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  18. Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Treatment: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2015-09-01

    Psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment have been shown to be effective forms of treatment of a range of individual and complex comorbid disorders. The future role of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment depends on several factors, including full implementation of mental health parity, correction of underlying false assumptions that shape treatment, payment priorities and research, identification and teaching of common factors or elements shared by effective psychosocial therapies, and adequate teaching of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment.

  19. The Dodo Bird and Common Factors in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Trancas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception, the theoretical exploration of psychotherapy has originated diverse ideas on the mechanisms underlying its effectiveness. The authors focus on one of the founding moments of the theory of common factors in psychotherapy and subsequently explore its theoretical grounds and conceptual evolution. Criticism to the construct and exposure of its fragilities are also approached. Some consequences of this knowledge relating to the practice and training of psychotherapy are put forward.

  20. Aberrant cGMP-binding activity in non-chemotactic Dictyostelium discoideum mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Viel, Gerhard T.; Ishida, Shuji; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of cGMP-binding to the major cGMP-binding activity in Dictyostelium, were investigated in 10 non-chemotactic mutants (KI mutants; KI-1 similar to 10). A wild-type cell contains about 3000 binding sites with a K-d of 1.5 nM. cGMP may dissociate from these binding sites with fast (F-type)

  1. Correlative intravital imaging of cGMP signals and vasodilation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eThunemann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP is an important signaling molecule and drug target in the cardiovascular system. It is well known that stimulation of the vascular nitric oxide (NO-cGMP pathway results in vasodilation. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP signals themselves and the cGMP concentrations within specific cardiovascular cell types in health, disease, and during pharmacotherapy with cGMP-elevating drugs are largely unknown. To facilitate the analysis of cGMP signaling in vivo, we have generated transgenic mice that express fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based cGMP sensor proteins. Here, we describe two models of intravital FRET/cGMP imaging in the vasculature of cGMP sensor mice: (1 epifluorescence-based ratio imaging in resistance-type vessels of the cremaster muscle and (2 ratio imaging by multiphoton microscopy within the walls of subcutaneous blood vessels accessed through a dorsal skinfold chamber. Both methods allow simultaneous monitoring of NO-induced cGMP transients and vasodilation in living mice. Detailed protocols of all steps necessary to perform and evaluate intravital imaging experiments of the vasculature of anesthetized mice including surgery, imaging, and data evaluation are provided. An image segmentation approach is described to estimate FRET/cGMP changes within moving structures such as the vessel wall during vasodilation. The methods presented herein should be useful to visualize cGMP or other biochemical signals that are detectable with FRET-based biosensors, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate or Ca2+, and to correlate them with respective vascular responses. With further refinement and combination of transgenic mouse models and intravital imaging technologies, we envision an exciting future, in which we are able to ‘watch’ biochemistry, (patho physiology, and pharmacotherapy in the context of a living mammalian organism.

  2. Correlative intravital imaging of cGMP signals and vasodilation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunemann, Martin; Schmidt, Kjestine; de Wit, Cor; Han, Xiaoxing; Jain, Rakesh K.; Fukumura, Dai; Feil, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is an important signaling molecule and drug target in the cardiovascular system. It is well known that stimulation of the vascular nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway results in vasodilation. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP signals themselves and the cGMP concentrations within specific cardiovascular cell types in health, disease, and during pharmacotherapy with cGMP-elevating drugs are largely unknown. To facilitate the analysis of cGMP signaling in vivo, we have generated transgenic mice that express fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cGMP sensor proteins. Here, we describe two models of intravital FRET/cGMP imaging in the vasculature of cGMP sensor mice: (1) epifluorescence-based ratio imaging in resistance-type vessels of the cremaster muscle and (2) ratio imaging by multiphoton microscopy within the walls of subcutaneous blood vessels accessed through a dorsal skinfold chamber. Both methods allow simultaneous monitoring of NO-induced cGMP transients and vasodilation in living mice. Detailed protocols of all steps necessary to perform and evaluate intravital imaging experiments of the vasculature of anesthetized mice including surgery, imaging, and data evaluation are provided. An image segmentation approach is described to estimate FRET/cGMP changes within moving structures such as the vessel wall during vasodilation. The methods presented herein should be useful to visualize cGMP or other biochemical signals that are detectable with FRET-based biosensors, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate or Ca2+, and to correlate them with respective vascular responses. With further refinement and combination of transgenic mouse models and intravital imaging technologies, we envision an exciting future, in which we are able to “watch” biochemistry, (patho-)physiology, and pharmacotherapy in the context of a living mammalian organism. PMID:25352809

  3. Regulation of cGMP synthesis in cultured podocytes by vasoactive hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewko, B; Gołos, M; Latawiec, E; Angielski, S; Stepinski, J

    2006-12-01

    The podocytes are highly differentiated cells playing a key role in glomerular filtration. Vasoactive factors including angiotensin II (Ang II) and cyclic guanosine 5' monophosphate (cGMP) are synthesized by these cells upon stimulation as well as in the basal state. In this study we have tested whether angiotensin II affects the total synthesis of cGMP in primary culture of rat podocytes. The cells were stimulated with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and/or a nitric oxide (NO) donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP), in the absence or presence of Ang II. The cGMP synthesis was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). ANP or SNAP alone increased the cGMP synthesis in podocytes although the effects were not additive unless Ang II was present in the medium. Ang II suppressed the ANP-dependent cGMP synthesis whereas SNAP-dependent cGMP production remained unaffected. These effects were prevented by a non-specific antagonist of Ang II receptors (AT), saralasin. Adversely, PD123319, a specific inhibitor of AT2 receptors, augmented inhibition of ANP-dependent and enhanced the NO-dependent cGMP production. Probenecid, an inhibitor of cGMP extrusion from the cells, suppressed the cGMP generation by both ANP and SNAP. We conclude that cGMP synthesis in cultured podocytes is modulated by angiotensin II and that two adversely acting receptors, AT1 and AT2 are involved in this effect. Additionally, production of cGMP might be intrinsically inhibited by cGMP accumulating inside the cells.

  4. Occurrence of Cyclic di-GMP-Modulating Output Domains in Cyanobacteria: an Illuminating Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Marco; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Waters, Christopher M.; Williams, Barry L.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms use a variety of metabolites to respond to external stimuli, including second messengers that amplify primary signals and elicit biochemical changes in a cell. Levels of the second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) are regulated by a variety of environmental stimuli and play a critical role in regulating cellular processes such as biofilm formation and cellular motility. Cyclic di-GMP signaling systems have been largely characterized in pathogenic bacteria; however, proteins that can impact the synthesis or degradation of c-di-GMP are prominent in cyanobacterial species and yet remain largely underexplored. In cyanobacteria, many putative c-di-GMP synthesis or degradation domains are found in genes that also harbor light-responsive signal input domains, suggesting that light is an important signal for altering c-di-GMP homeostasis. Indeed, c-di-GMP-associated domains are often the second most common output domain in photoreceptors—outnumbered only by a histidine kinase output domain. Cyanobacteria differ from other bacteria regarding the number and types of photoreceptor domains associated with c-di-GMP domains. Due to the widespread distribution of c-di-GMP domains in cyanobacteria, we investigated the evolutionary origin of a subset of genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that c-di-GMP signaling systems were present early in cyanobacteria and c-di-GMP genes were both vertically and horizontally inherited during their evolution. Finally, we compared intracellular levels of c-di-GMP in two cyanobacterial species under different light qualities, confirming that light is an important factor for regulating this second messenger in vivo. PMID:23943760

  5. Rethinking therapeutic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O; Westen, Drew

    2003-08-01

    Like other core psychoanalytic constructs, the theory of therapeutic action is currently in flux, as theorists of differing persuasions propose different mechanisms. In this article, the authors attempt to integrate developments within and without psychoanalysis to provide a working model of the multifaceted processes involved in producing change in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. A theory of therapeutic action must describe both what changes (the aims of treatment) and what strategies are likely to be useful in facilitating those changes (technique). The authors believe that single-mechanism theories of therapeutic action, no matter how complex, are unlikely to prove useful at this point because of the variety of targets of change and the variety of methods useful in effecting change in those targets (such as techniques aimed at altering different kinds of conscious and unconscious processes). Interventions that facilitate change may be classified into one of three categories: those that foster insight, those that make use of various mutative aspects of the treatment relationship and a variety of secondary strategies that can be of tremendous importance. They propose that, in all forms of psychoanalytic treatment, we would be more accurate to speak of the therapeutic actions, rather than action.

  6. Remote psychotherapy for terminally ill cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Jeffrey S; Schuyler, Dean; Frueh, B Christopher; Brescia, Frank; Arana, George W

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a feasibility study of remote psychotherapy in 10 terminally ill cancer patients with diagnoses of adjustment disorder or major depression. Subjects received six sessions of individual cognitive therapy with the same therapist. Sessions alternated between face-to-face sessions and remote sessions delivered by analogue videophone. After each therapy session, a brief questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjects' level of satisfaction with the session, sense of connectedness to the therapist and overall progress being made in the therapy. Nine patients completed the study. Of 53 completed therapy sessions, 21 were by videophone and 32 were conducted face to face. Participants reported strong positive perceptions and acceptance after almost all therapy sessions, regardless of service delivery mode. The study suggests that there may be a role for the delivery of psychotherapy using low-bandwidth videophones.

  7. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  8. A semiotic approach to suitability for psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, J D

    1978-11-01

    At the beginning of my career as a psychotherapist I interviewed a number of patients in an effort to find one who seemed to be a good prospect for long-term psychotherapy. While interviewing with this purpose in mind, I was struck by the fact that a number of the people I spoke with gave me a sense of being extremely suitable for this sort of therapy, but that others seemed quite unsuitable. An informal survey among my peers as well as among more senior therapists revealed that they were not unfamiliar with the phenomenon. The present empirical study of the semiotic aspects of suitability for psychotherapy grew out of this early experience.

  9. Some neurobiological aspects of psychotherapy. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggan, D Y; Kay, J

    1999-01-01

    Ever since the idea was accepted that memory is associated with alterations in synaptic strength, studies on the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the plastic changes in neurons have attracted wide interest in the scientific community. This article explores the process of memory consolidation leading to persistent modifications in synaptic plasticity as a mechanism by which psychotherapy facilitates changes in the permanent storage of information acquired throughout the individual's life. The psychobiological interrelationships of affect, attachment, and memory offer a perspective regarding the etiology and treatment of clinical disturbances of affect. Analogies between brain physiology and modes of psychotherapy provide the foundation for a review of psychiatric disorders involving the inability to control fear, obsessions, compulsions, and delusions, all of which respond to psychotherapeutic interventions.

  10. Self and its anxieties in existential psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Mircea Adrian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a self and the imperative of knowing it have gone through philosophy from its beginning until today. Existentialism, starting with Kierkegaard and continuing with Heidegger, relate the scope of the authentic self to that of anxiety. Once the scope of the anxiety of self has been formulated, it entered the sphere of psychological theories. The prolific encounter between existentialism and psychology materializes into the influent contemporary psychological school, named existential psychotherapy. Our analysis wishes to describe the nodal points of this encounter, having as reference points the scope of self and its anxieties. In the first part of the analysis we look into the philosophical premises, referring to the two above mentioned names, while in the second part we present the taking-ups and the applicative adjustments brought up by existential psychotherapy.

  11. Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C

    2014-10-01

    This article briefly summarizes the empirical and clinical literature underlying a contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism. Unlike the DSM Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), this clinical model identifies and differentiates between two phenotypic themes of dysfunction-narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability-that can be expressed both overtly and covertly in patients' ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, and participating in treatment. Clinical recognition that narcissistic patients can and often do present for psychotherapy in vulnerable states of depression, anxiety, shame, and even suicidality increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. This article provides case examples derived from psychotherapies with narcissistic patients to demonstrate how narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability concurrently present in patients who seek treatment.

  12. The outcome problem in psychotherapy: a reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, H J

    2013-03-01

    This reprinted article originally appeared in Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, & Practice, 1964(MONTH), 1(3), 97-100. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1966-01631-001). Comments on the original article by H. H. Strupp (see record 1965-15636-001). In his recent article in this journal, Strupp (1963) has this to say in relation to the outcome problem in psychotherapy: "A brief review of Eysenck's (1952) widely quoted survey, which capitalized upon and added considerably to the existing confusion may be instructive." In reply I would like to suggest that Strupp's review is, in the lawyer's phrase, irrelevant, incompetent and immaterial. Fortunately, the points I wish to make are so simple that they will not take up much space.

  13. DFP: Psychotherapie der Angststörungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doering S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Psychotherapie stellt eine wirksame Behandlung für alle Angststörungen dar. Die Kombination mit einer (antidepressiven Pharmakotherapie dürfte oft sinnvoll sein, ist jedoch nur bei der Panikstörung empirisch untermauert. Bei allen Angststörungen sind verhaltenstherapeutische Ansätze am besten in ihrer Wirksamkeit belegt. Inzwischen sind – außer für die spezifischen Phobien – auch psychodynamische Ansätze manualisiert und empirisch evaluiert. Entspannungsverfahren werden bei der sozialen Phobie und der Panikstörung empfohlen und sind oft Bestandteil umfassender Behandlungsprogramme. Komorbide Störungen – insbesondere Persönlichkeitsstörungen – verschlechtern den Outcome der Angstbehandlung. Für die Zukunft sind weitere Untersuchungen zur langfristigen Wirksamkeit der Psychotherapie sowie zur Behandlung von Angstpatienten mit komorbiden Störungen notwendig.

  14. Applied philosophy and psychotherapy: Heraclitus as case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Beukes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates a recent attempt to apply philosophy within the discipline of psychotherapy and to investigate the somewhat undefined realm of philosophical counselling. After introducing the claims of this interdisciplinary exercise and after addressing the problems involved in crossing the boundaries between philosophy and psychotherapy, the article elaborates on  Alex Howard’s (2000 [Philosophy for counselling and psychotherapy: Pythagoras to post-modernism. London: Macmillan] attempt to make explicit use of philosophy in psychotherapy, using his interpretation and application of Heraclitus’ philosophy as case study.

  15. Stimulation of innate immunity by in vivo cyclic di-GMP synthesis using adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestler, Benjamin J; Seregin, Sergey S; Rastall, David P W; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Godbehere, Sarah; Amalfitano, Andrea; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) stimulates inflammation by initiating innate immune cell recruitment and triggering the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These properties make c-di-GMP a promising candidate for use as a vaccine adjuvant, and numerous studies have demonstrated that administration of purified c-di-GMP with different antigens increases protection against infection in animal models. Here, we have developed a novel approach to produce c-di-GMP inside host cells as an adjuvant to exploit a host-pathogen interaction and initiate an innate immune response. We have demonstrated that c-di-GMP can be synthesized in vivo by transducing a diguanylate cyclase (DGC) gene into mammalian cells using an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector. Expression of DGC led to the production of c-di-GMP in vitro and in vivo, and this was able to alter proinflammatory gene expression in murine tissues and increase the secretion of numerous cytokines and chemokines when administered to animals. Furthermore, coexpression of DGC modestly increased T-cell responses to a Clostridium difficile antigen expressed from an adenovirus vaccine, although no significant differences in antibody titers were observed. This adenovirus c-di-GMP delivery system offers a novel method to administer c-di-GMP as an adjuvant to stimulate innate immunity during vaccination.

  16. Cyclic di-GMP riboswitch-regulated type IV pili contribute to aggregation of Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeleau, Eric; Purcell, Erin B; Lafontaine, Daniel A; Fortier, Louis-Charles; Tamayo, Rita; Burrus, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium that causes intestinal infections with symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis. Cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that typically regulates the switch from motile, free-living to sessile and multicellular behaviors in Gram-negative bacteria. Increased intracellular c-di-GMP concentration in C. difficile was recently shown to reduce flagellar motility and to increase cell aggregation. In this work, we investigated the role of the primary type IV pilus (T4P) locus in c-di-GMP-dependent cell aggregation. Inactivation of two T4P genes, pilA1 (CD3513) and pilB1 (CD3512), abolished pilus formation and significantly reduced cell aggregation under high c-di-GMP conditions. pilA1 is preceded by a putative c-di-GMP riboswitch, predicted to be transcriptionally active upon c-di-GMP binding. Consistent with our prediction, high intracellular c-di-GMP concentration increased transcript levels of T4P genes. In addition, single-round in vitro transcription assays confirmed that transcription downstream of the predicted transcription terminator was dose dependent and specific to c-di-GMP binding to the riboswitch aptamer. These results support a model in which T4P gene transcription is upregulated by c-di-GMP as a result of its binding to an upstream transcriptionally activating riboswitch, promoting cell aggregation in C. difficile.

  17. NONVERBAL STORIES: THE BODY IN PSYCHOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Erskine

    2014-01-01

    Emotional experience is stored within the amygdala and the limbic system of the brain as affect, visceral, and physiological sensation without symbolization and language. These significant memories are expressed in affect and through our bodily movements and gestures. Such body memories are unconscious non-symbolized patterns of self-in-relationship. Several methods of a body centered psychotherapy are described and clinical case examples illustrate the use of expressive methods within a re...

  18. Recognition of psychotherapy effectiveness: the APA resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Norcross, John C; Vasquez, Melba J T; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2013-03-01

    In August 2012, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives voted overwhelmingly to adopt as APA policy a Resolution on the Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness. This invited article traces the origins and intentions of that resolution and its protracted journey through the APA governance labyrinth. We summarize the planned dissemination and projected results of the resolution and identify several lessons learned through the entire process.

  19. Analytic and Systemic Specialized Incest Group Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Henriette Kiilsholm; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    PURPOSE: Women with long-term sequalae of child sexual abuse (CSA) were randomly assigned to analytic (Group A) or systemic group psychotherapy (Group S). Pre-post-analysis indicated that both therapies led to significant improvement, but overall Group S had significantly better outcome than Group...... and the four time points as repeated measures. Intention to treat analysis demonstrated that improvement were significant on all measures (P treated with Group A or Group S treatment...

  20. The Arts, Crafts, and Sciences of Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lorna Smith

    2015-11-01

    Contemporary training and practice of psychotherapy and the research that supports it is the subject of this review. I discuss it in the light of what I value most from my own professional training, which was, in my opinion, highly privileged by comparison with what is offered today. A minimal hoped-for outcome is that younger readers will find valuable tidbits here and there that will be useful in their own versions of psychotherapy. A maximal hope is that a few individuals who choose to maintain clinical skills as well as emphasize psychotherapy research might be encouraged to follow their instincts toward excellence. They would allow their curiosity to bloom and their work to be creative and more adherent to the rules of natural science than time allows in these days of dashboards that count funding associated with numbers of publications, grants, teaching, and service hours. Admittedly, that path less well traveled would be risky, because what truly is new takes time to develop and implement and the outcomes when research truly can disconfirm hypotheses (as distinct from fail to confirm them) are, well, uncertain.

  1. Removing pathogenic memories: a neurobiology of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Siracusano, Alberto; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2005-10-01

    Experimental research examining the neural bases of nondeclarative memory has offered intriguing insight into how functional and dysfunctional implicit learning affects the brain. Long-term modifications of synaptic transmission, in particular, are currently considered the most plausible mechanism underlying memory trace encoding and compulsions, addiction, anxiety, and phobias. Therefore, an effective psychotherapy must be directed to erase maladaptive implicit memories and aberrant synaptic plasticity. This article describes the neurobiological bases of pathogenic memory disruption to provide some insight into how psychotherapy works. At least two mechanisms of unwanted memory erasing appear to be implicated in the effects of psychotherapy: inhibition of memory consolidation/reconsolidation and extinction. Behavioral evidence demonstrated that these two ways to forget are profoundly distinct in nature, and it is increasingly clear that their cellular, synaptic, and molecular underpinnings are different. Accordingly, the blockade of consolidation/reconsolidation erases memories by reversing the plasticity associated with memory maintenance, whereas extinction is a totally new form of plasticity that, similar to the plasticity underlying the old memory, requires protein synthesis-dependent synaptic remodeling.

  2. Mediators and Moderators in Meta-Analysis: There's a Reason We Don't Let Dodo Birds Tell Us Which Psychotherapies Should Have Prizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R., Jr.; Sweeney, Rebecca B.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on psychotherapy research, illustrates methods for studying mediator and moderator variables in meta-analysis, discusses their advantages and disadvantages, and shows how inclusion of these variables can change interpretation of meta-analytic results. Notes that therapeutic orientation may make significant difference to outcome but only…

  3. The Virtues of Cultural Resonance, Competence, and Relational Collaboration with Native American Indian Communities: A Synthesis of the Counseling and Psychotherapy Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    The article extends the scholarship, observations, and recommendations provided in Joseph Gone's article, "Psychotherapy and Traditional Healing for American Indians: Prospects for Therapeutic Integration" (2010 [this issue]). The overarching thesis is that for many Indian and Native clients, interpersonal and interethnic problems can emerge when…

  4. The use of empathy and transference as interventions in psychotherapy with attention deficit hyperactive disorder latency-aged boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Francine

    2014-03-01

    Psychodynamic-oriented therapies are uniquely positioned to address the internal experiences of a child whose external presentation is consistent with an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, an area of treatment intervention that is conspicuously absent from common ADHD treatment modalities. This article presents two psychodynamic psychotherapy treatment interventions that demonstrate (1) the importance of empathy in the therapeutic relationship and (2) the use of transference in psychotherapy with ADHD children. Through the use of case examples, the use of empathy is demonstrated in developing the therapeutic alliance, facilitating the development of the child's reflective capacity on affective states, and organizing the child's affective experiences. The benefits of transference interventions with ADHD children are reviewed, and case examples are provided to demonstrate how the therapist worked with the idealized and mirroring transference. Interventions are presented in the context of Object Relations and Self-Psychology Theories.

  5. Is group psychotherapy effective in older adults with depression? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Murali; Jauhari, Archana; Lepping, Peter; Turner, Jim; Crossley, David; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok

    2011-04-01

    Earlier reviews and meta-analyses have consistently concluded that psychological treatment of depression is effective in older adults. We conducted a systematic review randomised controlled trials of group psychotherapy to present the best available evidence in relation to its effectiveness in older adults with depressive disorders. Electronic databases were searched to identify randomised controlled trials. Selected studies were quality assessed and data extracted by two reviewers. Six trials met the inclusion criteria. The trials included in the review examined group interventions based on the cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) model with active therapeutic interventions or waiting list controls. Group psychotherapy is an effective intervention in older adults with depression in comparison to waiting list controls, the overall effect size is very modest (MD = -3.92, 95%CI: -6.18, -1.67). The reported benefits of group intervention in comparison to other active interventions did not reach statistical significance. The benefits of group psychotherapy were maintained at follow-up. The quality of the studies varied and studies were heterogeneous. Although quality of many studies was not optimal, the results of this meta analysis support the results of earlier meta analyses. Group cognitive behavioural therapy is effective in older adults with depression. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Clinical and no-clinical setting specificities in first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević

    2011-03-01

    Modern history of short-term group psychotherapy dates back to the late 1950-ies. From then to present day, this psychotherapeutic method has been used in various forms, from dynamic-oriented to cognitive behavioural psychotherapies. Although it has always been considered rather controversial, due its cost-effectiveness, it has been capturing more and more popularity. This paper presents the specificities of first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group through session work with two examined groups: a group of 20 adult women who suffer from mild or moderate forms of unipolar depression and a group of 20 students of the School of Medicine in Zagreb without any psychiatric symptomatology. The results indicate the high importance of having structure in first psychodrama session, of relating it with the previously thoroughly conducted, initial, clinical, interviews, and of the clarity and focus in terms of determining the goals of therapy, especially in a clinical context. This study also confirmed assumptions regarding the need for different approaches of warming-up in psychodrama, both in the clinical and in non-clinical samples. A psychodrama psychotherapist should have good time managing skills and capability to convert the time available into an opportunity for directly boosting the group energy and work on therapeutic alliance.

  7. [Psychotherapy with Adjuvant use of Serotonergic Psychoactive Substances: Possibilities and Challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majić, Tomislav; Jungaberle, Henrik; Schmidt, Timo T; Zeuch, Andrea; Hermle, Leo; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Background Recently, scientific interest in the therapeutic potential of serotonergic and psilocybin hallucinogens (psychedelics) such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and entactogens like 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) within the framework of psychotherapy has resumed. The present article provides an overview on the current evidence on substance-assisted psychotherapy with these substances. Method A selective search was carried out in the PubMed and Cochrane Library including studies investigating the clinical use of serotonergic psychoactive substances since 2000. Results Studies were found investigating the following indications: alcohol (LSD and psilocybin) and tobacco addiction (psilocybin), anxiety and depression in patients suffering from life-threatening somatic illness (LSD and psilocybin), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (psilocybin), treatment-resistant major depression (psilocybin), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (MDMA). Discussion Substance use disorders, PTSD and anxiety and depression in patients suffering from life-threatening somatic illness belong to the indications with the best evidence for substance-assisted psychotherapy with serotonergic psychoactive agents. To date, studies indicate efficacy and relatively good tolerability. Further studies are needed to determine whether these substances may represent suitable and effective treatment options for some treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders in the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Socialist psychotherapy and its dissidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, C

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on the history of psychotherapeutic theory and practice in socialist East Germany before the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. The "official" pre-1989 socialist history of East German psychology is juxtaposed to psychotherapists' post-1989 oral history of the development of Socialist psychological theory and practice. These reconstructive histories draw on embryonic therapeutic practices that diverged from the dominant socialist paradigm. Their existence exemplifies how a state-driven high modernist scheme for remaking society can fail as it does not account for the complex relationship between a state's abstract knowledge and local practices. Moreover, the emphasis therapists put on the prevalence of these alternative practices also reveals how the present post-socialist context becomes an interpretative resource for reconstructing their past. By emphasizing these practices they try to bridge the gap between their past and current practices so as to minimize the transformation that has taken place.

  9. Psychotherapy mediated by remote communication technologies: a meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards David

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to psychotherapy is limited by psychopathology (e.g. agoraphobia, physical disability, occupational or social constraints and/or residency in under-served areas. For these populations, interventions delivered via remote communication technologies (e.g. telephone, internet may be more appropriate. However, there are concerns that such delivery may influence the therapeutic relationship and thus reduce therapy effectiveness. This review aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of remotely communicated, therapist-delivered psychotherapy. Methods Systematic review (including electronic database searching and correspondence with authors of randomised trials of individual remote psychotherapy. Electronic databases searched included MEDLINE (1966–2006, PsycInfo (1967–2006, EMBASE (1980–2006 and CINAHL databases (1982–2006. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDAN-CTR. All searches were conducted to include studies with a publication date to July 2006. Results Thirteen studies were identified, ten assessing psychotherapy by telephone, two by internet and one by videoconference. Pooled effect sizes for remote therapy versus control conditions were 0.44 for depression (95%CI 0.29 to 0.59, 7 comparisons, n = 726 and 1.15 for anxiety-related disorders (95%CI 0.81 to 1.49, 3 comparisons, n = 168. There were few comparisons of remote versus face-to-face psychotherapy. Conclusion Remote therapy has the potential to overcome some of the barriers to conventional psychological therapy services. Telephone-based interventions are a particularly popular research focus and as a means of therapeutic communication may confer specific advantages in terms of their widespread availability and ease of operation. However, the available evidence is limited in quantity and quality. More rigorous trials are required to

  10. Methods and materials relating to IMPDH and GMP production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart, Frank R.; Huberman, Eliezer

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed are purified and isolated DNA sequences encoding eukaryotic proteins possessing biological properties of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase ("IMPDH"). Illustratively, mammalian (e.g., human) IMPDH-encoding DNA sequences are useful in transformation or transfection of host cells for the large scale recombinant production of the enzymatically active expression products and/or products (e.g., GMP) resulting from IMPDH catalyzed synthesis in cells. Vectors including IMPDH-encoding DNA sequences are useful in gene amplification procedures. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides provided by the invention are useful as immunological reagents and in the preparation of antibodies (including polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies) for quantitative detection of IMPDH.

  11. Cyclic GMP protects human macrophages against peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Adriano G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO can be both pro- and anti-apoptotic in various cell types, including macrophages. This apparent paradox may result from the actions of NO-related species generated in the microenvironment of the cell, for example the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-. In this study we have examined the ability of NO and ONOO- to evoke apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMϕ, and investigated whether preconditioning by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP is able to limit apoptosis in this cell type. Methods Characterisation of the NO-related species generated by (Z-1- [2-(2-aminoethyl-N-(2-ammonioethylamino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA/NO and 1,2,3,4-oxatriazolium, 5-amino-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-, chloride (GEA-3162 was performed by electrochemistry using an isolated NO electrode and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectrometry. Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and cultured to allow differentiation into MDMϕ. Resultant MDMϕ were treated for 24 h with DETA/NO (100 – 1000 μM or GEA-3162 (10 – 300 μM in the presence or absence of BAY 41–2272 (1 μM, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX; 1 μM, 1H- [1,2,4]oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 20 μM or 8-bromo-cGMP (1 mM. Apoptosis in MDMϕ was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of annexin V binding in combination with propidium iodide staining. Results Electrochemistry and EPR revealed that DETA/NO liberated free NO radical, whilst GEA-3162 concomitantly released NO and O2-, and is therefore a ONOO- generator. NO (DETA/NO had no effect on cell viability, but ONOO- (GEA-3162 caused a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis in MDMϕ. Preconditioning of MDMϕ with NO in combination with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, or the NO-independent stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase, BAY 41–2272, significantly attenuated ONOO--induced apoptosis in a cGMP-dependent manner

  12. Good manufacturing practices (GMP) utilized on human blood irradiation process

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Boghi; Dorlivete M. Shitsuka; Marcos Alexandruk; Ricardo Shitsuka; Paulo Roberto Rela

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation of human blood is used to avoid the TA-GVHD (transfusion-associated graft-versus-host-disease), a rare but devastating adverse effect of leukocytes present in blood components for immunocompetent transfusion recipients. Usually this irradiation practice is performed to a physical elimination of lymphocytes. The implementation of the GMP will assure that the properly dose in a range of 25Gy to 50Gy will be delivered to the blood in the bag collected in a blood tissue bank. The stud...

  13. A group-mediated psychotherapy with children: Clinical observation and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cuticchio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on clinical evaluation of a psychotherapy group for children, employing Sicilian puppets, objects as mediators, to reflect on significant moments and the dynamic processes of change during the therapy. TCM (Therapeutic Cycle Model, 1996, designed by Mergenthaler, is used to identify whether and how the assessment corresponds to the changes detected by observation of each subject and the group. During the 8 sessions of therapy, verbal productions of children and therapists were analyzed and compared. Keywords:Evaluation; Group therapy; Mediating object; Children 

  14. A developmental approach to gifts in long-term group psychotherapy extending from an anniversary ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolar, Andrew I; Eichen, Ann E

    2013-01-01

    Therapists have been quietly receiving gifts from patients for many years, but only recently have they been acknowledging and reporting such transactions. Most of the literature on the subject, which has been sparse, has been limited to the individual psychotherapy setting. In this article, we take up the issue within the group psychotherapeutic setting, surveying the literature, and describing our own experience with what became a gift-giving ritual in our long-term open-ended therapy group. We offer a group developmental perspective for informing therapeutic responses to gifts, and suggestions for the technical management of this kind of transaction.

  15. Paranoia and psychotic process: some clinical applications of projective identification in psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Alistair D

    2010-01-01

    The concept of projective identification has, since its introduction by Melanie Klein over half a century ago, caused much controversy amongst psychoanalysts and psychotherapists. In this paper the author traces some of the key theoretical developments of the concept since its introduction in 1946, including: normal and pathological projective identification, aspects of symbolisation and projective identification as an intrapsychic mechanism. An extended case report of a patient in weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy is offered in order to expand upon some of the theoretical ideas previously considered. Emphasis is placed on the patient's use of intrapsychic projective mechanisms and the emergence and mutation of such mechanisms in the therapeutic relationship.

  16. Exploring Psychotherapy Clients' Independent Strategies for Change While in Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Psychotherapy research usually describes how client change is caused by therapist interventions. This article describes how clients change by continuing to use and revising the strategies for change that they bring with them when they first enter therapy. This article presents data from a qualitative diary study of psychotherapy. Three cases…

  17. Solicited diary studies of psychotherapy in qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  18. Characteristics of Patients Involved in Psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Sabina Alispahić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of Bosnian and Herzegovinian patients involved in psychotherapeutic treatments in order to explore the current situation of psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The study included 213 patients (154 women and 47 men undergoing diverse psychotherapeutic treatments. Data about demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by questionnaire. Following characteristics were documented: age, sex, education, employment status, marital status, specific problem that got the client involved in psychotherapy, type of psychotherapy, and use of psychopharmacology.Results: Majority of the patients undergoing psychotherapy are age up to 40 and female. They are by vast majority holding a university degree and are employed. Nearly equal number of patients is living in partnership or marriage compared to single or never been married. Most frequent reasons for getting involved in the psychotherapy treatment are of the intrapersonal nature (depression, anxiety and panic attacks. Majority of the patients were involved in gestalt and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, and at the same time majority of those were not prescribed medicaments.Conclusions: We point out and overview some of the most prominent socio-demographic traits of patients undergoing psychotherapy, the ones that could be important in the future research with the higher degree of control. In the terms of personal initiative, psychotherapy stops being a taboo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, there is still a long path until it reaches integration in daily life of the people.

  19. Is There Room for Criticism of Studies of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Jewett, Lisa R.; Bassel, Marielle

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler. Shedler declared unequivocally that "empirical evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy" (p. 98). He did not mention any specific criticisms that have been made of evidence on psychodynamic psychotherapies or address possible distinctions…

  20. Using Media to Teach How Not to Do Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen; Horowitz, Mardi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article describes how using media depictions of psychotherapy may help in teaching psychiatric residents. Methods: Using the HBO series "In Treatment" as a model, the authors suggest how boundary transgressions and technical errors may inform residents about optimal psychotherapeutic approaches. Results: The psychotherapy vignettes…

  1. Use of Psychotherapy by Rural and Urban Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jeffrey A.; Jameson, John P.; Phillips, Laura L.; Kunik, Mark E.; Fortney, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether differences exist between rural and urban veterans in terms of initiation of psychotherapy, delay in time from diagnosis to treatment, and dose of psychotherapy sessions. Methods: Using a longitudinal cohort of veterans obtained from national Veterans Affairs databases (October 2003 through September 2004), we extracted…

  2. Therapy 101: A Psychotherapy Curriculum for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Fotouh, Frieda; Asghar-Ali, Ali Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This pilot project, designed and taught by a resident, created a curriculum to introduce medical students to the practice of psychotherapy. Medical students who are knowledgeable about psychotherapy can become physicians who are able to refer patients to psychotherapeutic treatments. A search of the literature did not identify a…

  3. The Psychotherapy Research Project of the Menninger Foundation: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Studied processes and outcomes of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Followed 42 subjects over natural course of treatment, with 100 percent follow-up 2-3 years posttermination. Some follow-ups extended over 30-year study. Psychoanalysis achieved more limited outcomes than predicted; psychotherapies often achieved more than…

  4. Holism in Psychotherapy and Spiritual Direction: A Course Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len; Mansager, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The authors offer a course correction for understanding the term holism as used in spiritually oriented psychotherapy literature. This is done to allow the relationship between psychotherapy and spirituality to expand beyond limited dualistic conceptualizations, They first address numerous sources from which spiritually oriented psychotherapy…

  5. Rorschach and MMPI-2 Indices of Early Psychotherapy Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the differences between 97 patients who had prematurely terminated psychotherapy and 81 who had participated in individual psychotherapy for at least 6 months and 24 sessions on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Rorschach variables. Theoretical implications of interpersonal variables are discussed in…

  6. Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Schuurmans, J.; Oppen, van P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depressi

  7. Therapeutic working alliance: From a psychoanalitical to a pantheoretical conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Praper

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of therapeutic working alliance was rooted in psychoanalysis, today it is more prominent in psychoanalytic psychotherapies than psychoanalysis. It is rather surprising that we cannot find the concept in the Laplanche and Pontalis Dictionary. During the last two decades a growing body of empirical research material on therapeutic working alliance was published, confirming the idea of the alliance as a separate dimension of therapeutic relationship with few recognisable components. The dimension of the therapeutic working alliance was examined in several approaches and proved as one of the most important therapeutic factors, regardless of the approach, and it has finally been accepted as a pantheoretical concept.

  8. Psychiatric Residents' Views of Quality of Psychotherapy Training and Psychotherapy Competencies: A Multisite Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Christina; Sciolla, Andres; Zisook, Sidney; Bitner, Robin; Tuttle, Jeffrey; Dunn, Laura B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Few studies of residents' attitudes toward psychotherapy training exist. The authors examined residents' perceptions of the quality of their training, support for training, their own competence levels, and associations between self-perceived competence and perceptions of the training environment. Methods: An anonymous, web-based…

  9. The practice of analytical psychotherapy, counselling and examination. Institute for legal psychology, Uster (Zurich, Switzerland

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    Reinfried H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapy is often regarded as a technique by which convicts can be changed in accordance with the wishes of society. Independent client activity is paid too little attention to. However, it is the one on which it depends whether the therapeutic work will begin, as well as the extent to which the client will be able to transfer the acquired in the course of the therapy awareness so that it can last after his release from a prison. In order to check how deep the mental changes are, you can use some analytical therapeutic approaches that help the therapist to control the process. Therapeutic interventions of different psychological schools make it possible to enhance a customer and to stimulate his activity

  10. The cyclic-di-GMP signaling pathway in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Elizabeth A. Novak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In nature, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi cycles between the unrelated environments of the Ixodes tick vector and mammalian host. In order to survive transmission between hosts, B. burgdorferi must be able to not only detect changes in its environment, but also rapidly and appropriately respond to these changes. One manner in which this obligate parasite regulates and adapts to its changing environment is through cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP signaling. c-di-GMP has been shown to be instrumental in orchestrating the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick environment. B. burgdorferi possesses only one set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing genes (one diguanylate cyclase and two distinct phosphodiesterases and one c-di-GMP-binding PilZ-domain protein designated as PlzA. While studies in the realm of c-di-GMP signaling in B. burgdorferi have exploded in the last few years, there are still many more questions than answers. Elucidation of the importance of c-di-GMP signaling to B. burgdorferi may lead to the identification of mechanisms that are critical for the survival of B. burgdorferi in the tick phase of the enzootic cycle as well as potentially delineate a role (if any c-di-GMP may play in the transmission and virulence of B. burgdorferi during the enzootic cycle, thereby enabling the development of effective drugs for the prevention and/or treatment of Lyme disease.

  11. Understanding the link between GMP and dough: From glutenin particles in flour towards developed dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Don, C.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Plijter, J.J.; Hamer, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Clear correlations exist for glutenin macropolymer (GMP) quantity and rheological properties vs. wheat quality and dough rheological properties, but real insight in understanding these links is still missing. The observation that GMP consists of glutenin particles opens up new possibilities to revea

  12. Trigger phosphodiesterases as a novel class of c-di-GMP effector proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengge, Regine

    2016-11-01

    The bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP controls bacterial biofilm formation, motility, cell cycle progression, development and virulence. It is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (with GGDEF domains), degraded by specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs, with EAL of HD-GYP domains) and sensed by a wide variety of c-di-GMP-binding effectors that control diverse targets. c-di-GMP-binding effectors can be riboswitches as well as proteins with highly diverse structures and functions. The latter include 'degenerate' GGDEF/EAL domain proteins that are enzymatically inactive but still able to bind c-di-GMP. Surprisingly, two enzymatically active 'trigger PDEs', the Escherichia coli proteins PdeR and PdeL, have recently been added to this list of c-di-GMP-sensing effectors. Mechanistically, trigger PDEs are multifunctional. They directly and specifically interact with a macromolecular target (e.g. with a transcription factor or directly with a promoter region), whose activity they control by their binding and degradation of c-di-GMP-their PDE activity thus represents the c-di-GMP sensor or effector function. In this process, c-di-GMP serves as a regulatory ligand, but in contrast to classical allosteric control, this ligand is also degraded. The resulting kinetics and circuitry of control are ideally suited for trigger PDEs to serve as key components in regulatory switches.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

  13. Understanding the link between GMP and dough: from glutenin particles in flour towards developed dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Don, C.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Plijter, J.J.; Hamer, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Clear correlations exist for glutenin macropolymer (GMP) quantity and rheological properties vs. wheat quality and dough rheological properties, but real insight in understanding these links is still missing. The observation that GMP consists of glutenin particles opens up new possibilities to revea

  14. c-di-GMP induction of Dictyostelium cell death requires the polyketide DIF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; Giusti, Corinne; Golstein, Pierre

    2015-02-15

    Cell death in the model organism Dictyostelium, as studied in monolayers in vitro, can be induced by the polyketide DIF-1 or by the cyclical dinucleotide c-di-GMP. c-di-GMP, a universal bacterial second messenger, can trigger innate immunity in bacterially infected animal cells and is involved in developmental cell death in Dictyostelium. We show here that c-di-GMP was not sufficient to induce cell death in Dictyostelium cell monolayers. Unexpectedly, it also required the DIF-1 polyketide. The latter could be exogenous, as revealed by a telling synergy between c-di-GMP and DIF-1. The required DIF-1 polyketide could also be endogenous, as shown by the inability of c-di-GMP to induce cell death in Dictyostelium HMX44A cells and DH1 cells upon pharmacological or genetic inhibition of DIF-1 biosynthesis. In these cases, c-di-GMP-induced cell death was rescued by complementation with exogenous DIF-1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that c-di-GMP could trigger cell death in Dictyostelium only in the presence of the DIF-1 polyketide or its metabolites. This identified another element of control to this cell death and perhaps also to c-di-GMP effects in other situations and organisms.

  15. cGMP-binding prepares PKG for substrate binding by disclosing the C-terminal domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alverdi, V.; Mazon, H.F.M.; Versluis, C.; Hemrika, W.; Esposito, G.; van den Heuvel, R.H.H.; Scholten, A.; Heck, A.J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Type I cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is involved in the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway. PKG has been identified in many different species, ranging from unicelõlular organisms to mammals. The enzyme serves as one of the major receptor proteins for int

  16. 76 FR 51395 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP), Canaveral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... National Park Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP... Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP), Canaveral National...-Action Alternative that continues current management policies and the NPS's preferred alternative. The...

  17. Sildenafil Potentiates a cGMP-Dependent Pathway to Promote Melanoma Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Dhayade

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sildenafil, an inhibitor of the cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 5 that is used to treat erectile dysfunction, has been linked to an increased risk of melanoma. Here, we have examined the potential connection between cGMP-dependent signaling cascades and melanoma growth. Using a combination of biochemical assays and real-time monitoring of melanoma cells, we report a cGMP-dependent growth-promoting pathway in murine and human melanoma cells. We document that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP, a ligand of the membrane-bound guanylate cyclase B, enhances the activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI in melanoma cells by increasing the intracellular levels of cGMP. Activation of this cGMP pathway promotes melanoma cell growth and migration in a p44/42 MAPK-dependent manner. Sildenafil treatment further increases intracellular cGMP concentrations, potentiating activation of this pathway. Collectively, our data identify this cGMP-cGKI pathway as the link between sildenafil usage and increased melanoma risk.

  18. Structural Basis of Ligand Binding by a C-di-GMP Riboswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Lipchock, S; Ames, T; Wang, J; Breaker, R; Strobel, S

    2009-01-01

    The second messenger signaling molecule bis-(3{prime}-5{prime})-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates many processes in bacteria, including motility, pathogenesis and biofilm formation. c-di-GMP-binding riboswitches are important downstream targets in this signaling pathway. Here we report the crystal structure, at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution, of a c-di-GMP riboswitch aptamer from Vibrio cholerae bound to c-di-GMP, showing that the ligand binds within a three-helix junction that involves base-pairing and extensive base-stacking. The symmetric c-di-GMP is recognized asymmetrically with respect to both the bases and the backbone. A mutant aptamer was engineered that preferentially binds the candidate signaling molecule c-di-AMP over c-di-GMP. Kinetic and structural data suggest that genetic regulation by the c-di-GMP riboswitch is kinetically controlled and that gene expression is modulated through the stabilization of a previously unidentified P1 helix, illustrating a direct mechanism for c-di-GMP signaling.

  19. A cyclic GMP signalling module that regulates gliding motility in a malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Moon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ookinete is a motile stage in the malaria life cycle which forms in the mosquito blood meal from the zygote. Ookinetes use an acto-myosin motor to glide towards and penetrate the midgut wall to establish infection in the vector. The regulation of gliding motility is poorly understood. Through genetic interaction studies we here describe a signalling module that identifies guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP as an important second messenger regulating ookinete differentiation and motility. In ookinetes lacking the cyclic nucleotide degrading phosphodiesterase delta (PDEdelta, unregulated signalling through cGMP results in rounding up of the normally banana-shaped cells. This phenotype is suppressed in a double mutant additionally lacking guanylyl cyclase beta (GCbeta, showing that in ookinetes GCbeta is an important source for cGMP, and that PDEdelta is the relevant cGMP degrading enzyme. Inhibition of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase, PKG, blocks gliding, whereas enhanced signalling through cGMP restores normal gliding speed in a mutant lacking calcium dependent protein kinase 3, suggesting at least a partial overlap between calcium and cGMP dependent pathways. These data demonstrate an important function for signalling through cGMP, and most likely PKG, in dynamically regulating ookinete gliding during the transmission of malaria to the mosquito.

  20. Intestinal GPS: bile and bicarbonate control cyclic di-GMP to provide Vibrio cholerae spatial cues within the small intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Koestler, Benjamin J.; Waters, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates numerous phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli to enable bacteria to transition between different lifestyles. Here we discuss our recent findings that the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae recognizes 2 host-specific signals, bile and bicarbonate, to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP. We have demonstrated that bile acids increase intracellular c-di-GMP to promote biofilm formation. We have also shown that this bile-mediated increase ...

  1. A Case Study of Adult Examination Anxiety Disorder by Eclectic Psychotherapy%运用综合心理疗法治疗一例成人考试焦虑症的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓旭阳; 何家声; 郭晋林

    2002-01-01

    Objective:This is a case study in which a 30-year-old male suffering from Examination Anxiety Disorder was treated by Eclectic Psychotherapy. Methods: Using Eclectic Psychotherapy, an approach that combines principles of Client Centeed Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, Rational Emotion Therapy (RET),and Behavior Therapy, the patient was treated for a total of 22 sessions.Results: The study showed obvious therapeutic effect for Eclectic Psychotherapy. The patient reported complete relief of his examination anxiety symptoms at conclusion of treatment. Follow-up by telephone at 1 month and 6 months after treatment showed that the patient remained stable and well.Conclusion: Eclectic Psychotherapy is an efficient way for treating symptoms of severe Examination Anxiety Disorder, both in terms of permanent cure and temporary relief.

  2. STING activator c-di-GMP enhances the anti-tumor effects of peptide vaccines in melanoma-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zili; Celis, Esteban

    2015-08-01

    Therapeutic vaccines to induce anti-tumor CD8 T cells have been used in clinical trials for advanced melanoma patients, but the clinical response rate and overall survival time have not improved much. We believe that these dismal outcomes are caused by inadequate number of antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated by most vaccines. In contrast, huge CD8 T cell responses readily occur during acute viral infections. High levels of type-I interferon (IFN-I) are produced during these infections, and this cytokine not only exhibits anti-viral activity but also promotes CD8 T cell responses. The studies described here were performed to determine whether promoting the production of IFN-I could enhance the potency of a peptide vaccine. We report that cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), which activates the stimulator of interferon genes, potentiated the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of a peptide vaccine against mouse B16 melanoma. The synergistic effects of c-di-GMP required co-administration of costimulatory anti-CD40 antibody, the adjuvant poly-IC, and were mediated in part by IFN-I. These findings demonstrate that peptides representing CD8 T cell epitopes can be effective inducers of large CD8 T cell responses in vaccination strategies that mimic acute viral infections.

  3. Evaluation of Tissue Homogenization to Support the Generation of GMP-Compliant Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from the Umbilical Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Emnett

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that the umbilical cord (UC is an excellent source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. However, current protocols for extracting and culturing UC-MSCs do not meet current good manufacturing practice (cGMP standards, in part due to the use of xenogeneic reagents. To support the development of a cGMP-compliant method, we have examined an enzyme-free isolation method utilizing tissue homogenization (t-H followed by culture in human platelet lysate (PL supplemented media. The yield and viability of cells after t-H were comparable to those obtained after collagenase digestion (Col-D. Importantly, kinetic analysis of cultured cells showed logarithmic growth over 10 tested passages, although the rate of cell division was lower for t-H as compared to Col-D. This slower growth of t-H-derived cells was also reflected in their longer population doubling time. Interestingly, there was no difference in the expression of mesenchymal markers and trilineage differentiation potential of cells generated using either method. Finally, t-H-derived cells had greater clonogenic potential compared to Col-D/FBS but not Col-D/PL and were able to maintain CFU-F capacity through P7. This bench scale study demonstrates the possibility of generating therapeutic doses of good quality UC-MSCs within a reasonable length of time using t-H and PL.

  4. The brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 can generate cGMP enabling cGMP-dependent downstream signaling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wheeler, J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available . Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA followed by Sidak’s multiple comparisons post-hoc test. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Plant Journal, (2017), doi: 10.1111/tpj.13589 BRI1 generates cGMP to modulate....49 � 0.132 pmol/lg protein (Figure 1c). A BRI model incorporating the KR1083/4AA mutations was able to form a helical structural fold (Fig- ure S1) that characterizes all Arabidopsis GC centres reported to-date (Wong et al., 2015) and thus may account...

  5. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-hui; Schaap, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo.

  6. cGMP in Mouse Rods: the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying single photon responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen P. Gross

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate vision begins when retinal photoreceptors transduce photons into membrane hyperpolarization, which reduces glutamate release onto second-order neurons. In rod photoreceptors, transduction of single photons is achieved by a well-understood G-protein cascade that modulates cGMP levels, and in turn, cGMP-sensitive inward current. The spatial extent and depth of the decline in cGMP during the single photon response have been major issues in phototransduction research since the discovery that single photons elicit substantial and reproducible changes in membrane current. The spatial profile of cGMP decline during the single photon response affects signal gain, and thus may contribute to reduction of trial-to-trial fluctuations in the single photon response. Here we summarize the general principles of rod phototransduction, emphasizing recent advances in resolving the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP during the single photon response.

  7. Cyclic GMP-AMP displays mucosal adjuvant activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škrnjug

    Full Text Available The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice. A characteristic of the cGAMP-induced immune response is the slightly reduced induction of interleukin-17 as a hallmark of Th17 activity--a distinct feature that is not observed with other cyclic di-nucleotide adjuvants. We further characterize the innate immune stimulation activity in vitro on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and human dendritic cells. The observed results suggest the consideration of cGAMP as a candidate mucosal adjuvant for human vaccines.

  8. 75 FR 17761 - Termination of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the General Management Plan (GMP) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... preparation of an EIS for the GMP for the Park, South Carolina. A Notice of Intent to prepare an EIS for the Park GMP was published in the Federal Register on October 10, 2006 (71 FR 63350), and followed by a... Plan (GMP) for Kings Mountain National Military Park (Park), South Carolina AGENCY: National...

  9. The supervisory needs of neophyte psychotherapy trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryee, J; Brymer, M; Gold, K

    1996-11-01

    This article focuses on the difficulties facing the neophyte trainee in the field of psychotherapy. Three areas of such difficulties are identified, defined, and discussed: feelings of inadequacy and incompetence, anxieties concerning supervisors, and confusion concerning multiple theoretical views of clinical work. Two vignettes from the early training of the paper's junior authors illustrate and discuss these problems and their resolution in applied contexts. A conclusion is offered which emphasizes the value of supervisory recognition of these dimensions of trainees' experience, as well as their potential for modeling processes of growth that are likely to help supervisees' patients as well.

  10. Class barriers to psychotherapy and counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, I

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the barriers to the uptake of counselling and psychotherapy from a social class perspective. It begins with a definition of class before discussing particular aspects that inhibit uptake. Barriers focused upon are those regarding travel, costs, child care, appointment times and location of actual therapists. Likewise barriers to the effective outcome, for example cognitive and verbal abilities of clients, are addressed and the way in which these barriers inhibit the referral rate from particular social groups. Finally the self-imposed barriers of certain social groups are explored regarding self exile from the counselling arena.

  11. An Integrative Psychotherapy of Postpartum Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merle-Fishman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a mother is a time of transition, transformation and sometimes trauma. The immediacy of meeting the needs of an infant, combined with the immediacy of becoming a mother, often collide to produce depression, anxiety and stress. Shame, confusion, isolation and cultural expectations often prevent women from seeking the postpartum support they need, which may result in long lasting depression, anxiety and unresolved trauma. Integrative Psychotherapy, Transactional Analysis and Attachment Theory offer ways to understand postpartum adjustment as well as methodologies for addressing this unique developmental event in the life of women.

  12. Use of a horror film in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, J M; Derdeyn, A P

    1990-11-01

    Modern improvements in the technology of cinematic special effects have ushered in a new genre of vivid and graphic horror film. The numerous sequels of these films attest to their popularity among adolescents and young adults. Considerable concern has arisen on the part of parents, professionals, and policymakers regarding adverse effects of these films upon children. The authors discuss the meaning of a horror film to a troubled 13-year-old boy and describe the use of the film in his psychotherapy. The modern horror film serves many of the same functions for the adolescent that the traditional fairy tale serves for the younger child.

  13. Psychotherapy change process research: realizing the promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Change process research (CPR) is the study of the processes by which change occurs in psychotherapy and is a necessary complement to randomized clinical trials and other forms of efficacy research. In this article the author describes and evaluates four types of CPR. The first three are basic designs and include quantitative process-outcome, qualitative helpful factors, and microanalytic sequential process; the fourth, the significant events approach, refers to methods such as task analysis and comprehensive process analysis that integrate the first three. The strengths and weaknesses of each design are described and summarized using both causal and practical criteria as part of an overall argument for systematic methodological pluralism.

  14. Near-death experiences and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Psychiatrists are likely to come into contact with patients who have had near-death experiences, who may have a variety of reactions to the experience, and who may benefit from psychotherapy. We may also have opportunities to work with individuals who are reacting to others who have had such experiences. There is much a psychiatrist can offer to these people, including listening respectfully, being nonjudgemental, normalizing the experience, providing education, and assisting with integrating the experience into their lives to develop or maintain the best possible functioning.

  15. Intercellular signaling via cyclic GMP diffusion through gap junctions restarts meiosis in mouse ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaibar, Leia C; Egbert, Jeremy R; Norris, Rachael P; Lampe, Paul D; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Thunemann, Martin; Wen, Lai; Feil, Robert; Jaffe, Laurinda A

    2015-04-28

    Meiosis in mammalian oocytes is paused until luteinizing hormone (LH) activates receptors in the mural granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle. Prior work has established the central role of cyclic GMP (cGMP) from the granulosa cells in maintaining meiotic arrest, but it is not clear how binding of LH to receptors that are located up to 10 cell layers away from the oocyte lowers oocyte cGMP and restarts meiosis. Here, by visualizing intercellular trafficking of cGMP in real-time in live follicles from mice expressing a FRET sensor, we show that diffusion of cGMP through gap junctions is responsible not only for maintaining meiotic arrest, but also for rapid transmission of the signal that reinitiates meiosis from the follicle surface to the oocyte. Before LH exposure, the cGMP concentration throughout the follicle is at a uniformly high level of ∼2-4 μM. Then, within 1 min of LH application, cGMP begins to decrease in the peripheral granulosa cells. As a consequence, cGMP from the oocyte diffuses into the sink provided by the large granulosa cell volume, such that by 20 min the cGMP concentration in the follicle is uniformly low, ∼100 nM. The decrease in cGMP in the oocyte relieves the inhibition of the meiotic cell cycle. This direct demonstration that a physiological signal initiated by a stimulus in one region of an intact tissue can travel across many layers of cells via cyclic nucleotide diffusion through gap junctions could provide a general mechanism for diverse cellular processes.

  16. Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

  17. Cyclic Di-GMP modulates the disease progression of Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Adam C; Castiblanco, Luisa F; Sundin, George W; Waters, Christopher M

    2013-05-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a nearly ubiquitous intracellular signal molecule known to regulate various cellular processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. The intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is inversely governed by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes, which synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP, respectively. The role of c-di-GMP in the plant pathogen and causal agent of fire blight disease Erwinia amylovora has not been studied previously. Here we demonstrate that three of the five predicted DGC genes in E. amylovora (edc genes, for Erwinia diguanylate cyclase), edcA, edcC, and edcE, are active diguanylate cyclases. We show that c-di-GMP positively regulates the secretion of the main exopolysaccharide in E. amylovora, amylovoran, leading to increased biofilm formation, and negatively regulates flagellar swimming motility. Although amylovoran secretion and biofilm formation are important for the colonization of plant xylem tissues and the development of systemic infections, deletion of the two biofilm-promoting DGCs increased tissue necrosis in an immature-pear infection assay and an apple shoot infection model, suggesting that c-di-GMP negatively regulates virulence. In addition, c-di-GMP inhibited the expression of hrpA, a gene encoding the major structural component of the type III secretion pilus. Our results are the first to describe a role for c-di-GMP in E. amylovora and suggest that downregulation of motility and type III secretion by c-di-GMP during infection plays a key role in the coordination of pathogenesis.

  18. Intercellular signaling via cyclic GMP diffusion through gap junctions restarts meiosis in mouse ovarian follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaibar, Leia C.; Egbert, Jeremy R.; Norris, Rachael P.; Lampe, Paul D.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Thunemann, Martin; Wen, Lai; Feil, Robert; Jaffe, Laurinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis in mammalian oocytes is paused until luteinizing hormone (LH) activates receptors in the mural granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle. Prior work has established the central role of cyclic GMP (cGMP) from the granulosa cells in maintaining meiotic arrest, but it is not clear how binding of LH to receptors that are located up to 10 cell layers away from the oocyte lowers oocyte cGMP and restarts meiosis. Here, by visualizing intercellular trafficking of cGMP in real-time in live follicles from mice expressing a FRET sensor, we show that diffusion of cGMP through gap junctions is responsible not only for maintaining meiotic arrest, but also for rapid transmission of the signal that reinitiates meiosis from the follicle surface to the oocyte. Before LH exposure, the cGMP concentration throughout the follicle is at a uniformly high level of ∼2–4 μM. Then, within 1 min of LH application, cGMP begins to decrease in the peripheral granulosa cells. As a consequence, cGMP from the oocyte diffuses into the sink provided by the large granulosa cell volume, such that by 20 min the cGMP concentration in the follicle is uniformly low, ∼100 nM. The decrease in cGMP in the oocyte relieves the inhibition of the meiotic cell cycle. This direct demonstration that a physiological signal initiated by a stimulus in one region of an intact tissue can travel across many layers of cells via cyclic nucleotide diffusion through gap junctions could provide a general mechanism for diverse cellular processes. PMID:25775542

  19. Rates and predictors of referral for individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and medications among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Juliette M; Barrera, Terri L; Hernandez, Caitlin; Graham, David P; Teng, Ellen J

    2014-04-01

    This study examined rates of referral for medication, individual psychotherapy, and group psychotherapy within a Veterans Affairs (VA) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) specialty mental health clinic. Participants were 388 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were referred for PTSD treatment following a mental health evaluation required for all new VA enrollees. The majority of the sample was referred for medication (79 %), with comparatively fewer referrals for individual (39 %) or group psychotherapy (24 %). Forty percent of participants were referred for combined medication and psychotherapy. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were examined to determine whether these variables predicted referral type. Female veterans and those with lower clinician ratings of overall functioning were more likely to be referred for individual therapy. Group psychotherapy referrals were more common in veterans who were older, unemployed, identified as an ethnic minority, and had a comorbid anxiety disorder. There were no significant predictors of medication referral.

  20. Psychotherapies for PTSD: what do they have in common?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schnyder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, research and clinical practice related to the field of traumatic stress have developed tremendously. In parallel with the steady accumulation of basic knowledge, therapeutic approaches have been developed to treat people suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other trauma-related psychological problems. Today, a number of evidence-based treatments are available. They differ in various ways; however, they also have a number of commonalities. Given this situation, clinicians may wonder which treatment program to use, or more specifically, which treatment components are critical for a successful therapy. In this article, seven pioneers who have developed empirically supported psychotherapies for trauma-related disorders were asked to compose an essay of three parts: first, to provide a brief summary of the treatment they have developed; second, to identify three key interventions that are common and critical in treating PTSD; and third, to suggest important topics and future directions for research. The paper ends with a summary highlighting the identified commonalities (psychoeducation; emotion regulation and coping skills; imaginal exposure; cognitive processing, restructuring, and/or meaning making; emotions; and memory processes, pointing to future directions such as trying to better understand the underlying mechanisms of action, and developing treatments that are tailored to the needs of different patient groups.

  1. Therapeutic relationship and dropout in youth mental health care with ethnic minority children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. de Haan; A.E. Boon; J.T.V.M. de Jong; C.A.M.L. Geluk; R.R.J.M. Vermeiren

    2013-01-01

    Background Dropout in youth psychotherapy is high, especially for ethnic minority patients. An important determinant of dropout is the quality of the therapeutic relationship. This study evaluated the association between the therapeutic relationship and dropout in therapy with ethnic minority youth.

  2. Optogenetic Module for Dichromatic Control of c-di-GMP Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Min-Hyung; Fomicheva, Anastasia; Moskvin, Oleg V; Gomelsky, Mark

    2017-09-15

    Many aspects of bacterial physiology and behavior, including motility, surface attachment, and the cell cycle, are controlled by cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-dependent signaling pathways on the scale of seconds to minutes. Interrogation of such processes in real time requires tools for introducing rapid and reversible changes in intracellular c-di-GMP levels. Inducing the expression of genes encoding c-di-GMP-synthetic (diguanylate cyclases) and -degrading (c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase) enzymes by chemicals may not provide adequate temporal control. In contrast, light-controlled diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases can be quickly activated and inactivated. A red/near-infrared-light-regulated diguanylate cyclase, BphS, was engineered previously, yet a complementary light-activated c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase has been lacking. In search of such a phosphodiesterase, we investigated two homologous proteins from Allochromatium vinosum and Magnetococcus marinus, designated BldP, which contain C-terminal EAL-BLUF modules, where EAL is a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase domain and BLUF is a blue light sensory domain. Characterization of the BldP proteins in Escherichia coli and in vitro showed that they possess light-activated c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activities. Interestingly, light activation in both enzymes was dependent on oxygen levels. The truncated EAL-BLUF fragment from A. vinosum BldP lacked phosphodiesterase activity, whereas a similar fragment from M. marinus BldP, designated EB1, possessed such activity that was highly (>30-fold) upregulated by light. Following light withdrawal, EB1 reverted to the inactive ground state with a half-life of ∼6 min. Therefore, the blue-light-activated phosphodiesterase EB1 can be used in combination with the red/near-infrared-light-regulated diguanylate cyclase BphS for the bidirectional regulation of c-di-GMP-dependent processes in E. coli as well as other bacterial and nonbacterial cells.IMPORTANCE Regulation of motility

  3. Metacognitive mastery dysfunctions in personality disorder psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Pedone, Roberto; Popolo, Raffaele; Conti, Laura; Fiore, Donatella; Procacci, Michele; Semerari, Antonio; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2011-11-30

    Individuals with personality disorders (PDs) have difficulties in modulating mental states and in coping with interpersonal problems according to a mentalistic formulation of the problem. In this article we analyzed the first 16 psychotherapy sessions of 14 PD patients in order to explore whether their abilities to master distress and interpersonal problems were actually impaired and how they changed during the early therapy phase. We used the Mastery Section of the Metacognition Assessment Scale, which assesses the use of mentalistic knowledge to solve problems and promote adaptation. We explored the hypotheses that a) PD patients had problems in using their mentalistic knowledge to master distress and solve social problems; b) the impairments were partially stable and only a minimal improvement could be observed during the analyzed period; c) patients' mastery preferences differed from one another; d) at the beginning of treatment the more effective strategies were those involving minimal knowledge about mental states. Results seemed to support the hypotheses; the patients examined had significant difficulties in mastery abilities, and these difficulties persisted after 16 sessions. Moreover, the attitudes towards problem-solving were not homogenous across the patients. Lastly, we discuss implications for assessment and treatment of metacognitive disorders in psychotherapy.

  4. Religious Cognitive-Emotional Therapy :A New Form of Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Rajaei

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nFrom the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role ,and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health ; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies . Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific ,comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested . Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis , depression , and anxiety ; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well . Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.

  5. Religious cognitive-emotional therapy: a new form of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Ali Reza

    2010-01-01

    From the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role, and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies. Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific, comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested. Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET) is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis, depression, and anxiety; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well. Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.

  6. Religious Cognitive–Emotional Therapy: A New Form of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    From the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role, and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies. Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific, comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested. Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET) is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis, depression, and anxiety; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well. Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area. PMID:22952497

  7. GIL, a new c-di-GMP binding protein domain involved in regulation of cellulose synthesis in enterobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xin; Ahmad, Irfan; Blanka, Andrea; Schottkowski, Marco; Cimdins, Annika; Galperin, Michael Y.; Römling, Ute; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to numerous enzymes involved in c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation in enterobacteria, only a handful of c-di-GMP receptors/effectors have been identified. In search of new c-di-GMP receptors, we screened the Escherichia coli ASKA overexpression gene library using the Differential Radial Capillary Action of Ligand Assay (DRaCALA) with fluorescently and radioisotope-labeled c-di-GMP. We uncovered three new candidate c-di-GMP receptors in E. coli and characterized one of them, BcsE. ...

  8. New insights into Legionella pneumophila biofilm regulation by c-di-GMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécastaings, Sophie; Allombert, Julie; Lajoie, Barbora; Doublet, Patricia; Roques, Christine; Vianney, Anne

    2016-09-01

    The waterborne pathogen Legionella pneumophila grows as a biofilm, freely or inside amoebae. Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP), a bacterial second messenger frequently implicated in biofilm formation, is synthesized and degraded by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs), respectively. To characterize the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes involved in L. pneumophila biofilm regulation, the consequences on biofilm formation and the c-di-GMP concentration of each corresponding gene inactivation were assessed in the Lens strain. The results showed that one DGC and two PDEs enhance different aspects of biofilm formation, while two proteins with dual activity (DGC/PDE) inhibit biofilm growth. Surprisingly, only two mutants exhibited a change in global c-di-GMP concentration. This study highlights that specific c-di-GMP pathways control L. pneumophila biofilm formation, most likely via temporary and/or local modulation of c-di-GMP concentration. Furthermore, Lpl1054 DGC is required to enable the formation a dense biofilm in response to nitric oxide, a signal for biofilm dispersion in many other species.

  9. Trigger phosphodiesterases as a novel class of c-di-GMP effector proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP controls bacterial biofilm formation, motility, cell cycle progression, development and virulence. It is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (with GGDEF domains), degraded by specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs, with EAL of HD-GYP domains) and sensed by a wide variety of c-di-GMP-binding effectors that control diverse targets. c-di-GMP-binding effectors can be riboswitches as well as proteins with highly diverse structures and functions. The latter include ‘degenerate’ GGDEF/EAL domain proteins that are enzymatically inactive but still able to bind c-di-GMP. Surprisingly, two enzymatically active ‘trigger PDEs’, the Escherichia coli proteins PdeR and PdeL, have recently been added to this list of c-di-GMP-sensing effectors. Mechanistically, trigger PDEs are multifunctional. They directly and specifically interact with a macromolecular target (e.g. with a transcription factor or directly with a promoter region), whose activity they control by their binding and degradation of c-di-GMP—their PDE activity thus represents the c-di-GMP sensor or effector function. In this process, c-di-GMP serves as a regulatory ligand, but in contrast to classical allosteric control, this ligand is also degraded. The resulting kinetics and circuitry of control are ideally suited for trigger PDEs to serve as key components in regulatory switches. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672149

  10. Subtle alterations in NMDA-stimulated cyclic GMP levels following lateral fluid percussion brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, M D; Delahunty, T M; Hamm, R J; Phillips, L L; Lyeth, B G; Povlishock, J T

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether NMDA-stimulated cyclic GMP levels were altered at two different time points following lateral fluid percussion injury. At 60 min and 15 days postinjury, the left and right hippocampi were dissected and chopped into mini-prisms. Each hippocampus was divided into five equal parts and incubated with either the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, 500 microM) alone, IBMX and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) OR IBMX, NMDA, and glycine (10 MM). Two concentrations of NMDA were used: 500 or 1,000 microM. Tissues were then assayed for levels of cyclic GMP. Results indicated that there were no changes in basal levels of cyclic GMP at either postinjury time point. At 60 min postinjury, there were no significant main effects for injury or drug concentration. There was a significant injury x side interaction effect with increased levels of NMDA-stimulated cyclic GMP in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the injury impact and decreased cyclic GMP levels in the contralateral hippocampus. There were no significant alterations in NMDA-stimulated cyclic GMP levels at 15 days postinjury. The data from this study indicated that NMDA-stimulated cyclic GMP accumulation is differentially altered in the hippocampus ipsilateral and contralateral to the site of the injury at 1 h after injury, but is normalized by 15 days postinjury. These findings implicate NMDA-mediated intracellular signaling processes in the acute excitotoxic response to injury.

  11. Process and technique factors associated with patient ratings of session safety during psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Deborah F; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between patient ratings of in-session safety with psychotherapeutic techniques and process. Ninety-four participants received Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP) at a university-based clinic. Patient experiences of therapeutic process were self-assessed early in treatment using the Session Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ Stiles, 1980). Techniques implemented in session were identified using the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS: Hilsenroth et al., 2005). Alliance was evaluated with the Combined Alliance Short Form-Patient Version (CASF-P; Hatcher and Barends, 1996). Safety significantly correlated with session depth, smoothness, and positivity. Safety was significantly related to the interaction of psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral techniques, but to neither individual subscale Safety significantly correlated with CASF-P Total, Confident Collaboration, and Bond. Patient experiences of safety are consistent with exploration and depth of session content. Integration of some CB techniques within a psychodynamic model may facilitate a sense of safety. Safety is notably intertwined with the therapeutic relationship.

  12. Beginning and end of treatment of patients who dropped out of psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Isabel Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Even though it is expected that patients and therapist will agree on when to terminate psychotherapy, quite often patients discontinue treatment on their own. This study aims to better understand dropout in psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PP. Method: Baseline and post-treatment interviews were conducted with six adult women classified by their therapists as dropout patients at a PP outpatient clinic. Results were analyzed using Bardin's content analysis. Results: Content analysis generated five categories (reasons for treatment, goals, readiness to change, previous treatment, transference for the baseline interviews and three categories (change process, results, interruption for post-treatment interviews. Unclear treatment goals, low readiness to change, early signs of negative transference and resistance, and absence of recognition of their own participation in problems emerged in baseline interviews. In most cases, the patient's evaluation of the therapeutic relationship was not determinant of dropout. Therapeutic gains, dissatisfaction, and resistance during the psychotherapeutic process seemed to be associated with noncompliance. Conclusions: Decisions to initiate, continue, or quit PP depend on multiple factors, such as initial goals, readiness to change, insight capacity, awareness of personal problems, resistance, and transference. However, these factors should be considered in view of the methodological limitations of this study. Further investigation of PP dropout is still necessary.

  13. Patient affect experiencing following therapist interventions in short-term dynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Joel M; Hardy, Gillian E; McCullough, Leigh; Stride, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between therapist interventions and patient affect responses in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP). The Affect Experiencing subscale from the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS) was adapted to measure individual immediate affect experiencing (I-AES) responses in relation to therapist interventions coded within the preceding speaking turn, using the Psychotherapy Interaction Coding (PIC) system. A hierarchical linear modelling procedure was used to assess the change in affect experiencing and the relationship between affect experiencing and therapist interventions within and across segments of therapy. Process data was taken from six STDP cases; in total 24 hours of video-taped sessions were examined. Therapist interventions were found to account for a statistically significant amount of variance in immediate affect experiencing. Higher levels of immediate affect experiencing followed the therapist's use of Confrontation, Clarification and Support compared to Questions, Self-disclosure and Information interventions. Therapist Confrontation interventions that attempted to direct pressure towards either the visceral experience of affect or a patient's defences against feelings led to the highest levels of immediate affect experiencing. The type of therapist intervention accounts for a small but significant amount of the variation observed in a patient's immediate emotional arousal. Empirical findings support clinical theory in STDP that suggests strategic verbal responses promote the achievement of this specific therapeutic objective.

  14. The treatment of nonmelancholic depression: when antidepressants fail, does psychotherapy work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Graham, Rebecca; Sheppard, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is used as a descriptive or diagnostic term and has generated many management guidelines weighting antidepressant (AD) therapy, but which may be an inappropriate paradigm for the nonmelancholic disorders where psychotherapy may be a more salient modality. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in patients whose nonmelancholic depressive condition had been resistant to at least 2 ADs. Principal analyses compared 32 patients, diagnosed with a nonmelancholic depression who received 12 weeks of psychological therapy, with a small control group. Comparative analyses failed to find a distinct therapeutic effect, leading to an extension study pursuing candidate explanatory factors for this lack of response, including psychosocial factors. While our sample showed a 41% response and 22% remission rate to psychotherapy, their improvement pattern was similar to the control group, thus arguing against any specific therapeutic benefit. Explanatory factors nominated by the treating psychologist weighted personality issues for 35% of the patients, distal stressors for 22%, and comorbid anxiety conditions for 18%. When sample members were compared with an age- and sex-matched sample of patients with nonmelancholic depression who improved distinctly during a similar 12-week period, rates of such putative personality, stress, and anxiety risk factors did not differ, arguing against the likelihood of these factors compromising improvement. Patients with nonmelancholic TRD also failed to demonstrate a clear response to a psychotherapeutic approach, while our pursuit of clinically explanatory variables was not supported empirically.

  15. Neuropsychologically informed strategic psychotherapy in teenagers and adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J

    2014-10-01

    Stimulants are the primary treatment for ADHD. Psychotherapy may augment pharmacologic treatment. In this article, we discuss strategies psychotherapists may use in working with teenagers and adults, including individuals who reject medications or take them suboptimally. Individuals with ADHD often have other psychiatric issues, including affective or cognitive comorbidities. Having ADHD does not protect people from the difficulties of life, and psychotherapy can help to disentangle "ADHD" from other issues. A psychotherapist knowledgeable about ADHD assessment can improve diagnostic precision. Psychotherapy can integrate forms of treatment in which the central goal is increasing mastery and competence of the individual.

  16. The application of Peplau's theory to group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lego, S

    1998-06-01

    This paper illustrates the application of Hildegard Peplau's Interpersonal Theory of Nursing to group psychotherapy. The phases of the nurse-patient relationship, including orientation, identification, exploitation and resolution, are described as they relate to group psychotherapy, and clinical examples are presented. The clinical examples also demonstrate the patient's movement in group therapy through the steps of the learning process: observation, description, analysis, formulation, validation, testing, integration and utilization. Finally, the roles of the nurse including stranger, resource person, teacher, leader, surrogate and counsellor are described as they occur in group psychotherapy.

  17. Modulation by cyclic GMP of the odour sensitivity of vertebrate olfactory receptor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinders-Zufall, T.; Shepherd, G. M.; Zufall, F.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated a significant role for the cGMP second messenger system in vertebrate olfactory transduction but no clear functions have been identified for cGMP so far. Here, we have examined the effects of 8-Br-cGMP and carbon monoxide (CO) on odour responses of salamander olfactory receptor neurons using perforated patch recordings. We report that 8-Br-cGMP strongly down-regulates the odour sensitivity of the cells, with a K1/2 of 460 nM. This adaptation-like effect can be mimicked by CO, an activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, with a K1/2 of 1 microM. Sensitivity modulation is achieved through a regulatory chain of events in which cGMP stimulates a persistent background current due to the activation of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. This in turn leads to sustained Ca2+ entry providing a negative feedback signal. One consequence of the Ca2+ entry is a shift to the right of the stimulus-response curve and a reduction in saturating odour currents. Together, these two effects can reduce the sensory generator current by up to twenty-fold. Thus, cGMP functions to control the gain of the G-protein coupled cAMP pathway. Another consequence of the action of cGMP is a marked prolongation of the odour response kinetics. The effects of CO/cGMP are long-lasting and can continue for minutes. Hence, we propose that cGMP helps to prevent saturation of the cell's response by adjusting the operational range of the cAMP cascade and contributes to olfactory adaptation by decreasing the sensitivity of olfactory receptor cells to repeated odour stimuli.

  18. Cyclic di-GMP-dependent signaling pathways in the pathogenic Firmicute Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We characterized key components and major targets of the c-di-GMP signaling pathways in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, identified a new c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide responsible for motility inhibition, cell aggregation, and enhanced tolerance to disinfectants and desiccation, and provided first insights into the role of c-di-GMP signaling in listerial virulence. Genome-wide genetic and biochemical analyses of c-di-GMP signaling pathways revealed that L. monocytogenes has three GGDEF domain proteins, DgcA (Lmo1911, DgcB (Lmo1912 and DgcC (Lmo2174, that possess diguanylate cyclase activity, and three EAL domain proteins, PdeB (Lmo0131, PdeC (Lmo1914 and PdeD (Lmo0111, that possess c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity. Deletion of all phosphodiesterase genes (ΔpdeB/C/D or expression of a heterologous diguanylate cyclase stimulated production of a previously unknown exopolysaccharide. The synthesis of this exopolysaccharide was attributed to the pssA-E (lmo0527-0531 gene cluster. The last gene of the cluster encodes the fourth listerial GGDEF domain protein, PssE, that functions as an I-site c-di-GMP receptor essential for exopolysaccharide synthesis. The c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide causes cell aggregation in minimal medium and impairs bacterial migration in semi-solid agar, however, it does not promote biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The exopolysaccharide also greatly enhances bacterial tolerance to commonly used disinfectants as well as desiccation, which may contribute to survival of L. monocytogenes on contaminated food products and in food-processing facilities. The exopolysaccharide and another, as yet unknown c-di-GMP-dependent target, drastically decrease listerial invasiveness in enterocytes in vitro, and lower pathogen load in the liver and gallbladder of mice infected via an oral route, which suggests that elevated c-di-GMP levels play an overall negative role in listerial virulence.

  19. Cyclic di-GMP-dependent signaling pathways in the pathogenic Firmicute Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hong; Köseoğlu, Volkan K; Güvener, Zehra T; Myers-Morales, Tanya; Reed, Joseph M; D'Orazio, Sarah E F; Miller, Kurt W; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-08-01

    We characterized key components and major targets of the c-di-GMP signaling pathways in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, identified a new c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide responsible for motility inhibition, cell aggregation, and enhanced tolerance to disinfectants and desiccation, and provided first insights into the role of c-di-GMP signaling in listerial virulence. Genome-wide genetic and biochemical analyses of c-di-GMP signaling pathways revealed that L. monocytogenes has three GGDEF domain proteins, DgcA (Lmo1911), DgcB (Lmo1912) and DgcC (Lmo2174), that possess diguanylate cyclase activity, and three EAL domain proteins, PdeB (Lmo0131), PdeC (Lmo1914) and PdeD (Lmo0111), that possess c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity. Deletion of all phosphodiesterase genes (ΔpdeB/C/D) or expression of a heterologous diguanylate cyclase stimulated production of a previously unknown exopolysaccharide. The synthesis of this exopolysaccharide was attributed to the pssA-E (lmo0527-0531) gene cluster. The last gene of the cluster encodes the fourth listerial GGDEF domain protein, PssE, that functions as an I-site c-di-GMP receptor essential for exopolysaccharide synthesis. The c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide causes cell aggregation in minimal medium and impairs bacterial migration in semi-solid agar, however, it does not promote biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The exopolysaccharide also greatly enhances bacterial tolerance to commonly used disinfectants as well as desiccation, which may contribute to survival of L. monocytogenes on contaminated food products and in food-processing facilities. The exopolysaccharide and another, as yet unknown c-di-GMP-dependent target, drastically decrease listerial invasiveness in enterocytes in vitro, and lower pathogen load in the liver and gallbladder of mice infected via an oral route, which suggests that elevated c-di-GMP levels play an overall negative role in listerial virulence.

  20. Novel cyclic di-GMP effectors of the YajQ protein family control bacterial virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shi-qi; Caly, Delphine L; McCarthy, Yvonne; Murdoch, Sarah L; Ward, Joseph; Febrer, Melanie; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P

    2014-10-01

    Bis-(3',5') cyclic di-guanylate (cyclic di-GMP) is a key bacterial second messenger that is implicated in the regulation of many critical processes that include motility, biofilm formation and virulence. Cyclic di-GMP influences diverse functions through interaction with a range of effectors. Our knowledge of these effectors and their different regulatory actions is far from complete, however. Here we have used an affinity pull-down assay using cyclic di-GMP-coupled magnetic beads to identify cyclic di-GMP binding proteins in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). This analysis identified XC_3703, a protein of the YajQ family, as a potential cyclic di-GMP receptor. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the purified XC_3703 protein bound cyclic di-GMP with a high affinity (K(d)∼2 µM). Mutation of XC_3703 led to reduced virulence of Xcc to plants and alteration in biofilm formation. Yeast two-hybrid and far-western analyses showed that XC_3703 was able to interact with XC_2801, a transcription factor of the LysR family. Mutation of XC_2801 and XC_3703 had partially overlapping effects on the transcriptome of Xcc, and both affected virulence. Electromobility shift assays showed that XC_3703 positively affected the binding of XC_2801 to the promoters of target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by cyclic di-GMP. Genetic and functional analysis of YajQ family members from the human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed that they also specifically bound cyclic di-GMP and contributed to virulence in model systems. The findings thus identify a new class of cyclic di-GMP effector that regulates bacterial virulence.

  1. Novel cyclic di-GMP effectors of the YajQ protein family control bacterial virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-qi An

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bis-(3',5' cyclic di-guanylate (cyclic di-GMP is a key bacterial second messenger that is implicated in the regulation of many critical processes that include motility, biofilm formation and virulence. Cyclic di-GMP influences diverse functions through interaction with a range of effectors. Our knowledge of these effectors and their different regulatory actions is far from complete, however. Here we have used an affinity pull-down assay using cyclic di-GMP-coupled magnetic beads to identify cyclic di-GMP binding proteins in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. This analysis identified XC_3703, a protein of the YajQ family, as a potential cyclic di-GMP receptor. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the purified XC_3703 protein bound cyclic di-GMP with a high affinity (K(d∼2 µM. Mutation of XC_3703 led to reduced virulence of Xcc to plants and alteration in biofilm formation. Yeast two-hybrid and far-western analyses showed that XC_3703 was able to interact with XC_2801, a transcription factor of the LysR family. Mutation of XC_2801 and XC_3703 had partially overlapping effects on the transcriptome of Xcc, and both affected virulence. Electromobility shift assays showed that XC_3703 positively affected the binding of XC_2801 to the promoters of target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by cyclic di-GMP. Genetic and functional analysis of YajQ family members from the human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed that they also specifically bound cyclic di-GMP and contributed to virulence in model systems. The findings thus identify a new class of cyclic di-GMP effector that regulates bacterial virulence.

  2. Tracing therapeutic discourse in material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, I

    1999-12-01

    Approaches to language and subjectivity from post-structuralist theory outside psychology and from deconstructive perspectives within counselling and psychotherapy have questioned the way therapeutic relationships are formed in Western culture. Discourse analysis has been developed as a methodological framework to take this questioning further, and to provide detailed readings of therapeutic patterns of meaning. Foucauldian discourse analytic approaches help us to address how we are made into selves that speak, how we experience the self therapeutically. I will elaborate this methodological framework through an analysis of a piece of text--an item of consumer packaging--tracing the contours of therapeutic discourse through a series of 20 methodological steps. Therapeutic discourse draws the reader in as the kind of subject who must feel a relationship at some depth with the (imagined) authors for the text to work. This paper thus illustrates the value of discourse analytic readings of texts, and helps us to reflect upon our commitment to discourses of counselling and psychotherapy as empowering stories and as culturally-specific patterns of subjectivity.

  3. Initial and last manifest dream reports of patients in psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksman, Myron L; Kramer, Milton

    2012-12-01

    The initial and last manifest dream reports (MDRs) of 30 patients who had either successfully terminated, or continued to make satisfactory progress at an advanced stage of psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy, were rated according to the following variables: Affect and Affect Valence; Affect Valence of Associations and Direction of Association Themes; Dream Narrative; Psychodynamic Formulation; Transference; and Dream Theme. Similar to previous studies, the initial MDRs contained more negative than positive affect. Conversely, the last MDRs contained more positive than negative affect. Associations to initial MDRs contained more negative affect; on the other hand, associations to last MDRs contained more positive affect. Direction of association themes were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Dream narratives were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Psychodynamic formulations were more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Transference was more negative in initial MDRs and more positive in last MDRs. Relational and injury dream themes occurred more frequently than others in both initial and last MDRs. Initial MDRs contained more injury dream themes than last MDRs. The findings of this study demonstrate that there is a correlation between MDR variables and clinical improvement during treatment. The patients in this study were selected by MG, the treating therapist, on the basis of satisfactory progress. The MDRs of patients who failed to progress or did poorly were not discussed in this report. The findings, therefore, must be taken as preliminary and indicate the need for further research on manifest dreams during psychotherapy and combined psychotherapy/pharmacotherapy.

  4. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels in glandular stomach of restrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrindast, M R; Sharghi, G; Gerayesh-Nejad, S; Djahanguiri, B

    1977-10-01

    Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP were measured in glandular stomach of rats subjected to saline administration, cold (4 degrees C), restraint and restraint+cold after 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. All animals subjected to restraint+cold had gastric ulceration after 2 hours. A significant but transient decrease in cAMP was observed 15 minutes after restraint+cold. A marked, sustained and significant decrease of cGMP was observed in the same group of animals. It is concluded that it seems unlikely to be a correlation between cAMP and cGMP changes of the stomach and the restraint-induced gastric ulceration.

  5. Host Immune Response to Bacterial Cyclic Diguanylic Acid (c-di-GMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Materials and Methods c-di-GMP and chemicals used The c-di-GMP (Fig. 1) used in these studies was synthesized and prepared as previously described (19–24...godeoxynucleotide (ODN) 2216 (25). LPS endotoxin (Limulus amebocyte lysate assay) test A dose of 500 M c-di-GMP was tested for the presence of LPS endotoxin using...inoculation, 100 CFU of S. aureus New- bould 305 (ATCC 29740) were injected into each gland and the coloniza- tion was allowed for 10 h. Raw bacterial CFU

  6. Effect of Icariin on Cyclic GMP Levels and on the mRNA Expression of cGMP-binding cGMP-specific Phosphodiesterase (PDE5) in Penile Cavernosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhaojian; HU Benrong; WANG Jialing; TANG Qiang; TAN Yan; XIANG Jizhou; LIU Juyan

    2006-01-01

    To further investigate the mechanisms of action of icariin (ICA), we assessed the effects of ICA on the in vitro formation of cGMP and cAMP in isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum. Isolated segments of rabbit corpus cavernosum were exposed to increasing concentrations of ICA and the dose-dependent accumulation of cGMP and cAMP was determined in the tissues samples by means of 125I radioimmunoassay. Responses of the isolated tissues preparations to ICA were compared with those obtained with the reference compounds sildenafil (Sild). Furthermore, the effects of ICA on the mRNA expression of specific cGMP-binding phosphodiesterase type V (PDE5) in rat penis were also observed. After incubation with ICA for 6 h or 14 h respectively, the levels of PDE5 mRNA were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that ICA increased cGMP concentrations directly (P<0.05), but there was no significant effect on cAMP concentrations (P>0.05). In the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a stimulatory agent of cGMP,both ICA and Sild increased cGMP concentrations with increasing dose (P<0.01). Their EC50 was 4.62 (ICA) and 0.42 (Sild) μmol/L respectively. Under the same condition, ICA and Sild unaltered cAMP level significantly (P>0.05). There were PDE5A1 and PDE5A2 mRNA expressions in rat corpus cavernosum with PDE5A2 being the dominant isoform. ICA could obviously inhibit these two isoforms mRNA expression in rat penis, and decrease PDE5A1 more pronouncedly (P< 0.01). The present study indicated that the aphrodisiac mechanisms of icariin involved the NO-cGMP signal transduction pathway, with increasing cGMP levels in the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. The inhibitory effect of icariin on PDE5 mRNA expression, especially on PDE5A1, might account for its molecular mechanisms for its long-term activity.

  7. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  8. Gestalt psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of borderline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the use of Gestalt psychotherapy in the treatment of BPD patients. The authors ... psychological tests showed difficulties in social communication and adjustment, as .... impairments in reasoning, personality, movement, speech, social graces ...

  9. New medical psychotherapy CPT coding: the tail wagging the dog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2013-03-01

    The implications of the 2013 revised current procedural terminology (CPT) system for coding psychotherapy with medical evaluation and management (E&M) are discussed. The author expresses concern about a potential devaluing of psychotherapy because of the required order of reporting combined codes, with E&M the primary code. Procedural and documentation requirements for using the standard medical E&M codes challenge psychiatrists to be systematic and efficient in order not to interfere with time and attention essential to an effective psychotherapy process. Insensitive use of computers when working with patients can damage rapport and progress. The trend toward sharing personal health information in large systems calls for heightened discretion. Using the psychotherapy notes protected under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) for highly sensitive personal information is essential to preserve patient privacy.

  10. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Eugenie Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  11. Forgiveness in psychotherapy: the key to healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, Sam; Love, Melanie

    2013-08-01

    The process of forgiveness in psychotherapy involves both letting go of resentment toward the offender and replacing the resentment with mindful awareness and empathy. By reconceptualizing past transgressions with a kinder, more equivocal outlook, clients attain a shift in perspective that is spiritual and cognitive in nature, thereby reducing symptomology and enhancing their quality of life. Such insights bring clients toward their inner Buddha nature, which transcends the suffering associated with clinging to past hurts and resentment. This process is facilitated by techniques such as concentrative meditation and identifying with transgressors through perspective taking. Forgiveness therapy improves clients' sense of well-being by promoting feelings of peacefullness toward oneself as well as others.

  12. Analysis of transference in Gestalt group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, J E

    1990-04-01

    In Gestalt therapy, transference is viewed as a contact boundary disturbance which impairs the patient's ability to accurately perceive the present therapy situation. The boundary disturbances in Gestalt therapy most closely related to the analytic notion of transference are projection, introjection, and confluence. In Gestalt group psychotherapy, group members interfere with the process of need identification and satisfaction by distorting their contact with each other through projecting, introjecting, and being confluent. The Gestalt group therapist uses interventions directed to individuals and to the group to increase participants' awareness of these boundary disturbances and of the present contact opportunities available to them when these disturbances are resolved. In formulating interventions, the leader is mindful of the function of boundary disturbances to the group-as-a-whole as well as to individuals.

  13. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  14. Introduction: Science, Sexuality, and Psychotherapy: Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Armand R

    2017-08-01

    This introduction presents an overview of the current issue (73, 8) of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session. This issue features a series of articles, with clinical cases, each presented to illustrate the challenges faced by individuals and couples whose sexual and gender identities and expressions do not comport with traditional and cultural norms. These articles also document the challenges to the therapists who treat them. Considered individually, each article underscores the need to recognize the importance of evidence in guiding psychotherapy in cases involving sexuality. The discussions in each article offer recommendations meant to help and guide psychotherapists. Considered collectively, they raise important questions and considerations about shifting paradigms of human sexuality. Implications for assessment and treatment of cases involving sexuality and gender identity are discussed and recommended. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Use of Dreams in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Bohusch, Claudia; Kahl, Johanna; Mader, Andrea; Somesan, Alexandra

    2000-01-01

    Since the publication of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, dream interpretation has been a standard technique often used in psychotherapy. However, empirical studies about the frequency of working on dreams in therapy are lacking. The present study elicited, via a self-developed questionnaire, various aspects of work on dreams applied by psychotherapists in private practice. The findings indicate that dreams were often used in therapy, especially in psychoanalysis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of the therapists' working on their own dreams and frequency of work on dreams in therapy. Because work on dreams was rated as beneficial for the clients, further studies investigating the effectiveness and the process of working on dreams will be of interest. PMID:10793127

  16. Psychotherapy as a rite of passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beels, C Christian

    2007-12-01

    Some psychotherapies may work because they resemble rites of passage. To explore this idea, this article describes an "individual" case of depression in which drug, cognitive, and narrative approaches fell short of effectiveness, and change occurred in a series of experiences that resemble a rite of passage. This resemblance is illuminated by examining two apparently quite different healing processes--Alcoholics Anonymous and multifamily group therapy in schizophrenia--to explore the elements they have in common with the case described: the acceptance of what Victor Turner called a liminal experience, and the importance of witnesses to the ritual support for that acceptance. The discussion contributes to a loosening of the distinctions between the processes of individual, family, group, and other social therapies and leads to questions about the expert knowledge the therapist provides.

  17. Applications of Mindfulness in Psychotherapy – Contemporary Dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Škodlar, Borut

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness has without doubt been the fastest spreading and most popular concept in psychotherapy in the last two decades. Its influence exceeds that of any other individual concept or approach in modern psychotherapy. However, there are many dilemmas, open questions and controversies related to this rapid, almost fanatic spread, which obviously compensates for a certain lack in modern Euro- and Americo-centric societies. Similarly, we are witnessing in the West a lack of reflection, a proce...

  18. PSYCHOTHERAPY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY Psychotherapy is being increasingly recognised as an important treatment modality for various mental health problems. However, minimal efforts have been made to examine the utility of psychotherapy from the public health perspective, especially for developing countries. This paper outlines the present situation in developing countries with respect to the magnitude of mental health and related problems requiring psychotherapeutic help, the existing health and mental health facilities, ...

  19. The Structural Basis for the Sensing and Binding of Cyclic di-GMP by STING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Under a research project funded by NSFC, Prof. Su Xiaodong and his team of the National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, BIOPIC, the School of Life Sciences of Peking Uni- versity, obtained remarkable achievement and published recently a paper entitled "The Structural Basis for the Sensing and Binding of Cyclic di-GMP by STING" on online Natural Structural and Molecular Biolo- gY. STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an essential signaling adaptor that mediates cytokine pro- duction in response to microbial invasion by directly sensing bacterial secondary messengers such as the cy- clic dinucleotide bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (e-di-GMP). STING's structure and its binding mecha- nism to cyclic dinucleotides were unknown. We report here the crystal structures of the STING cytoplas- mic domain and its complex with c-di-GMP, thus providing the structural basis for understanding STING function.

  20. The expanding roles of c-di-GMP in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides and secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhao-Xun

    2015-05-01

    The cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP has emerged in the last decade as a prevalent intracellular messenger that orchestrates the transition between the motile and sessile lifestyles of many bacterial species. The motile-to-sessile transition is often associated with the formation of extracellular matrix-encased biofilm, an organized community of bacterial cells that often contributes to antibiotic resistance and host-pathogen interaction. It is increasingly clear that c-di-GMP controls motility, biofilm formation and bacterial pathogenicity partially through regulating the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and small-molecule secondary metabolites. This review summarizes our current understanding of the regulation of EPS biosynthesis by c-di-GMP in a diversity of bacterial species and highlights the emerging role of c-di-GMP in the biosynthesis of small-molecule secondary metabolites.

  1. Evidence for a Messenger Function of Cyclic GMP During Phosphodiesterase Induction in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Pasveer, Frank J.; Meer, Rob C. van der; Heijden, Paul R. van der; Walsum, Hans van; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    Chemotactic stimulation of vegetative or aggregative Dictyostelium discoideum cells induced a transient elevation of cyclic GMP levels. The addition of chemoattractants to postvegetative cells by pulsing induced phosphodiesterase activity. The following lines of evidence suggest a messenger function

  2. Supercritical fluid chromatography for GMP analysis in support of pharmaceutical development and manufacturing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael B; Regalado, Erik L; Tan, Feng; Gong, Xiaoyi; Welch, Christopher J

    2016-01-05

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has long been a preferred method for enantiopurity analysis in support of pharmaceutical discovery and development, but implementation of the technique in regulated GMP laboratories has been somewhat slow, owing to limitations in instrument sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy and robustness. In recent years, commercialization of next generation analytical SFC instrumentation has addressed previous shortcomings, making the technique better suited for GMP analysis. In this study we investigate the use of modern SFC for enantiopurity analysis of several pharmaceutical intermediates and compare the results with the conventional HPLC approaches historically used for analysis in a GMP setting. The findings clearly illustrate that modern SFC now exhibits improved precision, reproducibility, accuracy and robustness; also providing superior resolution and peak capacity compared to HPLC. Based on these findings, the use of modern chiral SFC is recommended for GMP studies of stereochemistry in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing.

  3. Aislamiento y rendimiento del GMP mediante precipitacion de lactosuero con acido tricloroacetico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rojas V., Evelin; Valbuena C., Emiro; Torres F., Gabriel; Garcia de H., Aiza; Pinero G., Maria; Galindo A., Luz Mila

    2009-01-01

    ...) que se libera al lactosuero. El GMP presenta una estructura quimica particular donde predominan los aminoacidos con cadena lateral ramificada, no presenta aminoacidos aromaticos y contiene carbohidratos unidos a residuos de treonina...

  4. The individual therapy process questionnaire: development and validation of a revised measure to evaluate general change mechanisms in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of measures specifically designed to assess empirically validated mechanisms of therapeutic change. To fill in this research gap, the aim of the current study was to develop a measure that covers a large variety of empirically validated mechanisms of change with corresponding versions for the patient and therapist. To develop an instrument that is based on several important change process frameworks, we combined two established change mechanisms instruments: the Scale for the Multiperspective Assessment of General Change Mechanisms in Psychotherapy (SACiP) and the Scale of the Therapeutic Alliance-Revised (STA-R). In our study, 457 psychosomatic inpatients completed the SACiP and the STA-R and diverse outcome measures in early, middle and late stages of psychotherapy. Data analyses were conducted using factor analyses and multilevel modelling. The psychometric properties of the resulting Individual Therapy Process Questionnaire were generally good to excellent, as demonstrated by (a) exploratory factor analyses on both patient and therapist ratings, (b) CFA on later measuring times, (c) high internal consistencies and (d) significant outcome predictive effects. The parallel forms of the ITPQ deliver opportunities to compare the patient and therapist perspectives for a broader range of facets of change mechanisms than was hitherto possible. Consequently, the measure can be applied in future research to more specifically analyse different change mechanism profiles in session-to-session development and outcome prediction. Key Practitioner Message This article describes the development of an instrument that measures general mechanisms of change in psychotherapy from both the patient and therapist perspectives. Post-session item ratings from both the patient and therapist can be used as feedback to optimize therapeutic processes. We provide a detailed discussion of measures developed to evaluate therapeutic change mechanisms.

  5. Directive approach for Chinese clients receiving psychotherapy: Is that really a priority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Ting Connie eNg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature often suggests that Chinese people prefer directive approaches in therapy. However, studies on this topic are often based on therapists’ self-reports: clients’ perceptions are rarely considered. What does directive approach mean? Is it what clients prefer? Using cultural psychology and medical anthropology as a theoretical framework, the ethnography explored the experience of psychotherapy from Chinese clients’ perspectives. Specifically, using ethnographic interview, eight informants, two male and six female, ranging in age from 40 to 55, were interviewed twice in-depth about their experiences of seeing Chinese therapists. All informants are Chinese immigrants who reside in a major Canadian city and saw at least one Chinese therapist in a community counselling agency within one year prior to the interview. In the first interview, informants created groups of cards describing a list of hypothesized cultural knowledge regarding psychotherapy. After initial data analysis, the cards were presented to the informants in the second interviews, in which they confirmed and/or rejected the hypotheses by grouping, reorganizing, and ranking the cards. In the end each informant created a number of mind-maps with the cards, which served as a representation of informants’ psychological reality of psychotherapy based on their ordinary language. The maps were then further analysed for themes among informants. Results suggest that clients appreciate therapists who give homework, analyse their problems, talk about strategies that other clients have found useful, chat, and provide resources. Results also highlight informants’ understanding of their own responsibility for the therapeutic relationship which has never been documented before and has important clinical implications.

  6. "Directive approach" for chinese clients receiving psychotherapy: is that really a priority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi Ting Connie; James, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The academic literature often suggests that Chinese people prefer directive approaches in therapy. However, studies on this topic are often based on therapists' self-reports: clients' perceptions are rarely considered. What does "directive approach" mean? Is it what clients prefer? Using cultural psychology and medical anthropology as a theoretical framework, the ethnography explored the experience of psychotherapy from Chinese clients' perspectives. Specifically, using ethnographic interview, eight informants, two male and six female, ranging in age from 40 to 55, were interviewed twice in-depth about their experiences of seeing Chinese therapists. All informants are Chinese immigrants who reside in a major Canadian city and saw at least one Chinese therapist in a community counseling agency within 1 year prior to the interview. In the first interview, informants created group of cards describing a list of hypothesized cultural knowledge regarding psychotherapy. After initial data analysis, the cards were presented to the informants in the second interviews, in which they confirmed and/or rejected the hypotheses by grouping, reorganizing, and ranking the cards. In the end each informant created a number of mind-maps with the cards, which served as a representation of informants' psychological reality of psychotherapy based on their ordinary language. The maps were then further analyzed for themes among informants. Results suggest that clients appreciate therapists who "give homework," "analyze their problems," "talk about strategies that other clients have found useful," "chat," and "provide resources." Results also highlight informants' understanding of their own responsibility for the therapeutic relationship which has never been documented before and has important clinical implications.

  7. “Directive Approach” for Chinese Clients Receiving Psychotherapy: Is That Really a Priority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi Ting Connie; James, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The academic literature often suggests that Chinese people prefer directive approaches in therapy. However, studies on this topic are often based on therapists’ self-reports: clients’ perceptions are rarely considered. What does “directive approach” mean? Is it what clients prefer? Using cultural psychology and medical anthropology as a theoretical framework, the ethnography explored the experience of psychotherapy from Chinese clients’ perspectives. Specifically, using ethnographic interview, eight informants, two male and six female, ranging in age from 40 to 55, were interviewed twice in-depth about their experiences of seeing Chinese therapists. All informants are Chinese immigrants who reside in a major Canadian city and saw at least one Chinese therapist in a community counseling agency within 1 year prior to the interview. In the first interview, informants created group of cards describing a list of hypothesized cultural knowledge regarding psychotherapy. After initial data analysis, the cards were presented to the informants in the second interviews, in which they confirmed and/or rejected the hypotheses by grouping, reorganizing, and ranking the cards. In the end each informant created a number of mind-maps with the cards, which served as a representation of informants’ psychological reality of psychotherapy based on their ordinary language. The maps were then further analyzed for themes among informants. Results suggest that clients appreciate therapists who “give homework,” “analyze their problems,” “talk about strategies that other clients have found useful,” “chat,” and “provide resources.” Results also highlight informants’ understanding of their own responsibility for the therapeutic relationship which has never been documented before and has important clinical implications. PMID:23408043

  8. Structural basis for c-di-GMP-mediated inside-out signaling controlling periplasmic proteolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos V A S Navarro

    Full Text Available The bacterial second messenger bis-(3'-5' cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP has emerged as a central regulator for biofilm formation. Increased cellular c-di-GMP levels lead to stable cell attachment, which in Pseudomonas fluorescens requires the transmembrane receptor LapD. LapD exhibits a conserved and widely used modular architecture containing a HAMP domain and degenerate diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase domains. c-di-GMP binding to the LapD degenerate phosphodiesterase domain is communicated via the HAMP relay to the periplasmic domain, triggering sequestration of the protease LapG, thus preventing cleavage of the surface adhesin LapA. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanism of autoinhibition and activation of LapD based on structure-function analyses and crystal structures of the entire periplasmic domain and the intracellular signaling unit in two different states. In the absence of c-di-GMP, the intracellular module assumes an inactive conformation. Binding of c-di-GMP to the phosphodiesterase domain disrupts the inactive state, permitting the formation of a trans-subunit dimer interface between adjacent phosphodiesterase domains via interactions conserved in c-di-GMP-degrading enzymes. Efficient mechanical coupling of the conformational changes across the membrane is realized through an extensively domain-swapped, unique periplasmic fold. Our structural and functional analyses identified a conserved system for the regulation of periplasmic proteases in a wide variety of bacteria, including many free-living and pathogenic species.

  9. Polyphosphate, cyclic AMP, guanosine tetraphosphate, and c-di-GMP reduce in vitro Lon activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourne, Devon O; Soo, Valerie WC; Konieczny, Igor; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Lon protease is conserved from bacteria to humans and regulates cellular processes by degrading different classes of proteins including antitoxins, transcriptional activators, unfolded proteins, and free ribosomal proteins. Since we found that Lon has several putative cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) binding sites and since Lon binds polyphosphate (polyP) and lipid polysaccharide, we hypothesized that Lon has an affinity for phosphate-based molecules that might regulate its activity. Hence we tested the effect of polyP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), c-di-GMP, and GMP on the ability of Lon to degrade α-casein. Inhibition of in vitro Lon activity occurred for polyP, cAMP, ppGpp, and c-di-GMP. We also demonstrated by HPLC that Lon is able to bind c-di-GMP. Therefore, four cell signals were found to regulate the activity of Lon protease. PMID:24874800

  10. Targeting cyclic di-GMP signalling: a strategy to control biofilm formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caly, Delphine L; Bellini, Domenico; Walsh, Martin A; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP is a second messenger found in almost all eubacteria that acts to regulate a wide range of functions including developmental transitions, adhesion and biofilm formation. Cyclic di-GMP is synthesised from two GTP molecules by diguanylate cyclases that have a GGDEF domain and is degraded by phosphodiesterases with either an EAL or an HD-GYP domain. Proteins with these domains often contain additional signal input domains, suggesting that their enzymatic activity may be modulated as a response to different environmental or cellular cues. Cyclic di-GMP exerts a regulatory action through binding to diverse receptors that include a small protein domain called PilZ, enzymatically inactive GGDEF, EAL or HD-GYP domains, transcription factors and riboswitches. In many bacteria, high cellular levels of cyclic di-GMP are associated with a sessile, biofilm lifestyle, whereas low levels of the nucleotide promote motility and virulence factor synthesis in pathogens. Elucidation of the roles of cyclic di-GMP signalling in biofilm formation has suggested strategies whereby modulation of the levels of the nucleotide or interference with signalling pathways may lead to inhibition of biofilm formation or promotion of biofilm dispersal. In this review we consider these approaches for the control of biofilm formation, beginning with an overview of cyclic di-GMP signalling and the different ways that it can act in regulation of biofilm dynamics.

  11. Cyclic di-GMP acts as a cell cycle oscillator to drive chromosome replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, C; Ozaki, S; Steiner, S; Böhm, R; Abel, S; Dubey, B N; Schirmer, T; Hiller, S; Jenal, U

    2015-07-01

    Fundamental to all living organisms is the capacity to coordinate cell division and cell differentiation to generate appropriate numbers of specialized cells. Whereas eukaryotes use cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases to balance division with cell fate decisions, equivalent regulatory systems have not been described in bacteria. Moreover, the mechanisms used by bacteria to tune division in line with developmental programs are poorly understood. Here we show that Caulobacter crescentus, a bacterium with an asymmetric division cycle, uses oscillating levels of the second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) to drive its cell cycle. We demonstrate that c-di-GMP directly binds to the essential cell cycle kinase CckA to inhibit kinase activity and stimulate phosphatase activity. An upshift of c-di-GMP during the G1-S transition switches CckA from the kinase to the phosphatase mode, thereby allowing replication initiation and cell cycle progression. Finally, we show that during division, c-di-GMP imposes spatial control on CckA to install the replication asymmetry of future daughter cells. These studies reveal c-di-GMP to be a cyclin-like molecule in bacteria that coordinates chromosome replication with cell morphogenesis in Caulobacter. The observation that c-di-GMP-mediated control is conserved in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens suggests a general mechanism through which this global regulator of bacterial virulence and persistence coordinates behaviour and cell proliferation.

  12. Bacterial Signal Transduction by Cyclic Di-GMP and Other Nucleotide Second Messengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengge, Regine; Gründling, Angelika; Jenal, Urs; Ryan, Robert; Yildiz, Fitnat

    2016-01-01

    The first International Symposium on c-Di-GMP Signaling in Bacteria (22 to 25 March 2015, Harnack-Haus, Berlin, Germany)brought together 131 molecular microbiologists from 17 countries to discuss recent progress in our knowledge of bacterial nucleotide second messenger signaling. While the focus was on signal input, synthesis, degradation, and the striking diversity of the modes of action of the current second messenger paradigm, i.e., cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), “classics” like cAMP and (p)ppGpp were also presented, in novel facets, and more recent “newcomers,” such as c-di-AMP and c-AMP-GMP, made an impressive appearance. A number of clear trends emerged during the 30 talks, on the 71 posters, and in the lively discussions, including (i)c-di-GMP control of the activities of various ATPases and phosphorylation cascades, (ii) extensive cross talk between c-di-GMP and other nucleotide second messenger signaling pathways, and (iii) a stunning number of novel effectors for nucleotide second messengers that surprisingly include some long-known master regulators of developmental pathways. Overall, the conference made it amply clear that second messenger signaling is currently one of the most dynamic fields within molecular microbiology,with major impacts in research fields ranging from human health to microbial ecology.

  13. 浅谈GMP自检%Discussion on Self-test of GMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘加宝

    2015-01-01

    GMP自检是指药品生产企业内部对药品生产实施GMP的检查,是企业执行GMP中的一项重要内容,也是日常生产质量管理工作中一项重要的质量活动,实质上就是对企业完善生产质量管理体系的自我检查。通过GMP自检,发现企业执行GMP时存在的质量风险,并通过实施纠正和预防措施,来进一步提高GMP执行的持续性、符合性、有效性,通过自检进行持续改进。%GMP pharmaceutical manufac turing self-test refers to the internal implementation of GMP for pharmaceutical production inspection, GMP is a business executive in an important part of daily production and quality management is an important quality in work activities, in essence, is for enterprises to improve production quality management system of self-examination. By GMP self-test, found that companies perform GMP quality risk exists, and through the implementation of corrective and preventive measures to further improve the sustainability of GMP execution, compliance, effectiveness, through a self-test for continuous improvement.

  14. Polyphosphate, cyclic AMP, guanosine tetraphosphate, and c-di-GMP reduce in vitro Lon activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourne, Devon O; Soo, Valerie W C; Konieczny, Igor; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Lon protease is conserved from bacteria to humans and regulates cellular processes by degrading different classes of proteins including antitoxins, transcriptional activators, unfolded proteins, and free ribosomal proteins. Since we found that Lon has several putative cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) binding sites and since Lon binds polyphosphate (polyP) and lipid polysaccharide, we hypothesized that Lon has an affinity for phosphate-based molecules that might regulate its activity. Hence we tested the effect of polyP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), c-di-GMP, and GMP on the ability of Lon to degrade α-casein. Inhibition of in vitro Lon activity occurred for polyP, cAMP, ppGpp, and c-di-GMP. We also demonstrated by HPLC that Lon is able to bind c-di-GMP. Therefore, four cell signals were found to regulate the activity of Lon protease.

  15. Psychotherapy in residential treatment: historical development and critical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, D Patrick

    2004-04-01

    In a time of concern with policies of managed care, more limited financial resources, and reduced lengths of residential treatment for troubled children and adolescents in the United States, we seem to be confronted ironically with an ever larger number of children who are growing up in circumstances of social dis-organization and personal despair. Faced with this dilemma, considerations of issues related to the provision of therapeutic services within residential treatment were provided by an examination of the historical development of the concepts of the milieu and residential care in the United States. The historical review revealed how the emergence of differing theories of psychotherapy has influenced the creation of various models of residential care. Several tensions have persisted over the years in the effort to provide therapy services within the broader residential setting. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral methodologies currently have come to the forefront in many aspects of milieu treatment in group care for children and adolescents in the United States. This article concluded with a critique of some potential impacts associated with those perspectives on individual and group treatment and on our views of the individual and culture in general. This discussion did not attempt to provide answers to all the stresses that can emerge in a residential setting that strives to provide a range of mental health services, nor was it intended to present an exclusively rejecting, strident criticism of the medical model or behaviorally oriented therapies. The intent was to point out some of the limitations of relying exclusively on those perspectives and to show that an amalgamation of treatment models can have real consequences for children in group care. A continued awareness of those potential consequences is essential to mitigate their potentially antitherapeutic effects.

  16. Significant change events in psychodynamic psychotherapy: Is cognition or emotion more important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kye L; Caputi, Peter; Grenyer, Brin F S

    2017-09-01

    Significant change events are helpful moments within a psychotherapy session that have been shown in previous research to relate strongly to outcome. They are special moments and therefore provide rich data for research into understanding therapeutic process. This study investigated clinical and linguistic features of these helpful moments using and comparing both human ratings and computerized text analysis strategies. Significant change events versus non-event passages were studied within 1195 word blocks of transcribed psychotherapy for 20 participants with diagnoses of comorbid depression and personality disorder. Significant events were determined manually by independent raters using the Helpful Aspects of Therapy (HAT) form linked to the Helpful Aspects of Experiential Therapy Content Analysis System (HAETCAS). Mergenthaler's Therapeutic Cycles Model (TCM)-computerized text analysis, identified significant events via linguistic markers. The Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) differentiated emotional and cognitive components. Significant events included statements reflecting emotional and cognitive awareness and insight, and moments of alliance strengthening. These events were saturated with both positive and negative emotion words, particularly anger and sadness, and more cognitive insight words. Significant moments of psychotherapeutic movement featured high therapeutic alliance. There was evidence of the integration or working through of positive and negative emotional content with cognitive insight - meaning both emotion and cognition were important in these interchanges. This study found that significant events in therapy were characterized by high levels of both emotional and cognitive language, and alliance strengthening. Linguistic analysis methods provide important data on psychotherapeutic processes which can be useful in guiding clinicians and improving treatment outcomes. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Movement Coordination in Psychotherapy: Synchrony of Hand Movements is Associated with Session Outcome. A Single-Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has shown that nonverbal behavior was associated with both session-level outcome and global outcome in psychotherapy. Nonverbal synchrony--here the coordination between patient's and psychotherapist's movement behavior--is a facet of nonverbal behavior that has recently been studied with video-based motion energy analysis (MEA). The present study aimed to replicate and extend these findings by using direct acquisition of movement data. In a single-case analysis, we monitored patient's and therapist's hand movements with a high-resolution accelerometric measurement system (Vitaport (r)). In addition to these behavioral data, both patient and therapist provided session-level ratings of various factors relevant to the psychotherapy process, which were assessed with post-session questionnaires. The patient-therapist coordination of hand movements, i.e. nonverbal synchrony, in (N = 27) sessions of this dyadic psychotherapy was positively associated with progress reported in post-session questionnaires. Sessions with good evaluations concerning the quality of therapeutic alliance were characterized by high movement coordination. Thus, accelerometric data of this therapy dyad confirmed previous findings gained through video analyses: The coordination of nonverbal behavior shown by patient and therapist was an indicator of beneficial processes occurring within sessions. This replication study showed that nonverbal synchrony embodies important aspects of the alliance. Its assessment and quantification may provide therapists important additional information on processes that usually occur outside conscious awareness, but that nevertheless influence core aspects of the therapy.

  18. Efficacy of psychodynamic short-term psychotherapy for depressed breast cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwerenz Rüdiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of psychotherapeutic trials of treatments of comorbid depression in cancer patients. Our study determines the efficacy of a manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and predictors of outcome by personality and quality of the therapeutic relationship. Methods/design Eligible breast cancer patients with comorbid depression are assigned to short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (up to 20 + 5 sessions or to treatment as usual (augmented by recommendation for counseling center and physician information. We plan to recruit a total of 180 patients (90 per arm in two centers. Assessments are conducted pretreatment, after 6 (treatment termination and 12 months (follow-up. The primary outcome measures are reduction of the depression score in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and remission of depression as assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Disorders by independent, blinded assessors at treatment termination. Secondary outcomes refer to quality of life. Discussion We investigate the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in acute care and we aim to identify predictors for acceptance and success of treatment. Trial registration ISRCTN96793588

  19. The anti-cancerous drug doxorubicin decreases the c-di-GMP content in Pseudomonas aeruginosa but promotes biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groizeleau, Julie; Rybtke, Morten; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    formation in many clinically relevant bacteria. It is hypothesized that drugs lowering the intracellular level of c-di-GMP will force biofilm bacteria into a more treatable planktonic lifestyle. To identify compounds capable of lowering c-di-GMP levels in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we screened 5000 compounds...... for their potential c-di-GMP-lowering effect using a recently developed c-di-GMP biosensor strain. Our screen identified the anti-cancerous drug doxorubicin as a potent c-di-GMP inhibitor. In addition, the drug decreased the transcription of many biofilm-related genes. However, despite its effect on the c......-di-GMP content in P. aeruginosa, doxorubicin was unable to inhibit biofilm formation or disperse established biofilms. On the contrary, the drug was found to promote P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, possibly through release of extracellular DNA from a subpopulation of killed bacteria. Our findings emphasize...

  20. NO, nitrotyrosine, and cyclic GMP in signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, K. A.; Krumenacker, J. S.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in biology has evolved from being recognized as an environmental pollutant to an endogenously produced substance involved in cell communication and signal transduction. NO is produced by a family of enzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOSs), which can be stimulated by a variety of factors that mediate responses to various stimuli. NO can initiate its biological effects through activation of the heterodimeric enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), or through several other chemical reactions. Activation of sGC results in the production of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), an intracellular second messenger signaling molecule, which can subsequently mediate such diverse physiological events such as vasodilatation and immunomodulation. Chemically reactive NO can affect physiological changes through modifications to cellular proteins, one of which is tyrosine nitration. The demonstration that NO is involved in so many biological pathways indicates the importance of this endogenously produced substance, and suggests that there is much more to be discovered about its role in biology in years to come.

  1. Does interpersonal behaviour of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Ida Fincke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behaviour on Work Involvement (WI and compared their social behaviour within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic (PA, psychodynamic (PD and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT training. Trainees from sample 1 (N = 184 were asked to describe their interpersonal behaviour in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from sample 2 (N = 135 were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Results: Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of Healing Involvement (HI, while Stress Involvement (SI was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees' relationships with their patients. Social behaviour within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behaviour. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees’ interpersonal behaviour with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behaviour could only be found when comparing trainees' level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Conclusion: Trainees' interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behaviour in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training.

  2. Influential psychotherapy figures, authors, and books: An Internet survey of over 2,000 psychotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joan M; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C

    2009-03-01

    In a partial replication and extension of a survey conducted 25 years ago (Smith, 1982), over 2,400 North American psychotherapists completed a Web-based survey in which they identified prominent figures in the psychotherapy field who have most influenced their practice and the best psychotherapy books they had read in the past 3 years. There is a continued prominence to leaders of the field from 25 years ago but who are now deceased, notably the top-ranked Carl Rogers. Three books on the top-10 list represent empirically supported therapies (ESTs); two are treatment manuals for an EST, and one is a self-help book derived from an EST that has itself been shown to be efficacious bibliotherapy. Differences between psychologist and nonpsychologist therapists in the choice of influential figures, authors, and books are negligible. Implications are discussed in terms of the contemporary context into which therapeutic innovations are disseminated, as well as the conditions that may be necessary for successful dissemination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Pluralistic criteria for psychotherapy: an alternative to sectarianism, anarchy, and utopian integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenger, C; Omer, H

    1992-01-01

    A pluralist revolution has taken place in psychotherapy, discarding the assumptions that only one theory can be true and that there exists only one method for finding it. Rejecting the anarchistic attitude of "anything goes" as professionally nihilistic, we propose that in the present pluralistic era it is necessary to recognize a multiplicity of perspectives for determining the rightness of therapeutic constructs. A construct or intervention is right to the extent that it fits demands for coherence and pragmatic value from a variety of perspectives, such as the patient's, the clinical community's, the academic community's, and the general public's. Within the clinical and academic communities, the greater the variety of acceptance (by different schools, theories, and methodologies), the greater the construct's cumulative rightness. The difference between this variety rule and a majority one is made explicit. Coherence and pragmatic value are widely accepted criteria and they define the universe of rational discourse in psychotherapy. Adding to these the requirement of multiple acceptability is the necessary step for creating rational dialogue in the new pluralistic world.

  4. Flexing the frame: contemplating the use of multiple ports of entry in parent-infant psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugmore, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Multirelational interventions are well described in the psychoanalytic parent-infant literature. Daniel Stern (1995) originally suggested and described five "ports of entry" that may be employed to access the multiperson parent-infant clinical system. Other authors have elaborated and extended Stern's original list of ports of entry. The impact of using multiple ports of entry on the psychoanalytic frame, however, is largely neglected in the parent-infant psychotherapy literature. Danielle Quinodoz's (1992) four facets of the psychoanalytic setting are used to structure a discussion of how the multiplicities associated with parent-infant psychotherapy may impact the frame. The article argues strongly for a necessary flexing of the psychoanalytic frame to establish therapeutic alliances. A fifth facet, that of psychoanalytic mindfulness, is offered as a counterbalance to the risks associated with excessive flexing of the frame, particularly in relation to Quinodoz's fourth facet of "refraining from 'doing.'" This article relies on case material to illustrate the issues under discussion. Further engagement and debate are invited.

  5. Clinical Thanatology and Psychotherapy: Some Reflections on Caring for the Dying Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenberg, Loma; Shneidman, Edwin S.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the relationship between psychotherapy and clinical thanatology relative to working with dying patients and their survivors. Eight special characteristics of thanatological exchanges are explained including comments on time, transference, aspirations, and empathy. Conversation, heirarchical exchange, psychotherapy, and thanatological…

  6. Outcomes in GroupPsychotherapy: Using Persuasion Theory to Increase Treatment Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Larry E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Some research suggests that improvement in psychotherapy is related to the degree that a patient adopts his therapist's evaluative attitudes. This article was designed to pursue the possibility of predicting the outcomes of group psychotherapy using attitude theory. (Author)

  7. Evaluation der verschiedenen Therapiemethoden anhand des Werks von Grawe, Donati und Bernauer (1994):„Psychotherapie im Wandel. Von der Konfession zur Profession“

    OpenAIRE

    Brodersen, Britta

    2010-01-01

    Wirkt Psychotherapie und wenn ja, welche Therapieform ist die erfolgreichste? Diese Frage beschäftigt die Psychotherapieforschung bereits seit mehr als sechzig Jahren. Übersichtswerke hinsichtlich der Wirkweise sind selten. Vielmehr nimmt jede Therapieschule gemäß Grawe et al. (1994) für sich in Anspruch, die Wirksamste zu sein. Aber, gibt es überhaupt die eine richtige Wirkweise, oder ist vielleicht derjenige der beste Therapeut, der verschiedene Therapiemethoden, je nach Patient und Situ...

  8. GMP-compliant isolation and large-scale expansion of bone marrow-derived MSC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Fekete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC have gained importance in tissue repair, tissue engineering and in immunosupressive therapy during the last years. Due to the limited availability of MSC in the bone marrow, ex vivo amplification prior to clinical application is requisite to obtain therapeutic applicable cell doses. Translation of preclinical into clinical-grade large-scale MSC expansion necessitates precise definition and standardization of all procedural parameters including cell seeding density, culture medium and cultivation devices. While xenogeneic additives such as fetal calf serum are still widely used for cell culture, its use in the clinical context is associated with many risks, such as prion and viral transmission or adverse immunological reactions against xenogeneic components. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We established animal-free expansion protocols using platelet lysate as medium supplement and thereby could confirm its safety and feasibility for large-scale MSC isolation and expansion. Five different GMP-compliant standardized protocols designed for the safe, reliable, efficient and economical isolation and expansion of MSC was performed and MSC obtained were analyzed for differentiation capacity by qPCR and histochemistry. Expression of standard MSC markers as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy as well as expression of additional MSC markers and of various chemokine and cytokine receptors was analysed by flow cytometry. Changes of metabolic markers and cytokines in the medium were addressed using the LUMINEX platform. CONCLUSIONS: The five different systems for isolation and expansion of MSC described in this study are all suitable to produce at least 100 millions of MSC, which is commonly regarded as a single clinical dose. Final products are equal according to the minimal criteria for MSC defined by the ISCT. We showed that chemokine and integrin receptors analyzed had the same expression pattern

  9. Development of a whole cell pneumococcal vaccine: BPL inactivation, cGMP production, and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Viviane M; Dias, Waldely O; Campos, Ivana B; Liberman, Celia; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria E; Silva, Eliane P; Cardoso, Celso P; Alderson, Mark; Robertson, George; Maisonneuve, Jean-François; Tate, Andrea; Anderson, Porter; Malley, Richard; Fratelli, Fernando; Leite, Luciana C C

    2014-02-19

    Pneumococcal infections impose a large burden of disease on the human population, mainly in developing countries, and the current pneumococcal vaccines offer serotype-specific protection, but do not cover all pathogenic strains, leaving populations vulnerable to disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes. The pneumococcal whole cell vaccine is a low-cost strategy based on non-capsular antigens common to all strains, inducing serotype-independent immunity. Therefore, we developed the process for the cGMP production of this cellular vaccine. Initially, three engineering runs and two cGMP runs were performed in 60-L bioreactors, demonstrating the consistency of the production process, as evaluated by the growth curves, glucose consumption and metabolite formation (lactate and acetate). Cell recovery by tangential filtration was 92 ± 13 %. We optimized the conditions for beta-propiolactone (BPL) inactivation of the bacterial suspensions, establishing a maximum cell density of OD600 between 27 and 30, with a BPL concentration of 1:4000 (v/v) at 150 rpm and 4 °C for 30 h. BPL was hydrolyzed by heating for 2h at 37 °C. The criteria and methods for quality control were defined using the engineering runs and the cGMP Lots passed all specifications. cGMP vaccine Lots displayed high potency, inducing between 80 and 90% survival in immunized mice when challenged with virulent pneumococci. Sera from mice immunized with the cGMP Lots recognized several pneumococcal proteins in the extract of encapsulated strains by Western blot. The cGMP whole cell antigen bulk and whole cell vaccine product lots were shown to be stable for up to 12 and 18 months, respectively, based upon survival assays following i.p. challenge. Our results show the consistency and stability of the cGMP whole cell pneumococcal vaccine lots and demonstrate the feasibility of production in a developing country setting.

  10. Structural and Biochemical Determinants of Ligand Binding by the c-di-GMP Riboswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Lipchock, S; Livingston,; Shanahan, C; Strobel, S

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP is used in many species to control essential processes that allow the organism to adapt to its environment. The c-di-GMP riboswitch (GEMM) is an important downstream target in this signaling pathway and alters gene expression in response to changing concentrations of c-di-GMP. The riboswitch selectively recognizes its second messenger ligand primarily through contacts with two critical nucleotides. However, these two nucleotides are not the most highly conserved residues within the riboswitch sequence. Instead, nucleotides that stack with c-di-GMP and that form tertiary RNA contacts are the most invariant. Biochemical and structural evidence reveals that the most common natural variants are able to make alternative pairing interactions with both guanine bases of the ligand. Additionally, a high-resolution (2.3 {angstrom}) crystal structure of the native complex reveals that a single metal coordinates the c-di-GMP backbone. Evidence is also provided that after transcription of the first nucleotide on the 3{prime}-side of the P1 helix, which is predicted to be the molecular switch, the aptamer is functional for ligand binding. Although large energetic effects occur when several residues in the RNA are altered, mutations at the most conserved positions, rather than at positions that base pair with c-di-GMP, have the most detrimental effects on binding. Many mutants retain sufficient c-di-GMP affinity for the RNA to remain biologically relevant, which suggests that this motif is quite resilient to mutation.

  11. A minimalist biosensor: Quantitation of cyclic di-GMP using the conformational change of a riboswitch aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellenberger, Colleen A; Sales-Lee, Jade; Pan, Yuchen; Gassaway, Madalee M; Herr, Amy E; Hammond, Ming C

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger that is important in regulating bacterial physiology and behavior, including motility and virulence. Many questions remain about the role and regulation of this signaling molecule, but current methods of detection are limited by either modest sensitivity or requirements for extensive sample purification. We have taken advantage of a natural, high affinity receptor of c-di-GMP, the Vc2 riboswitch aptamer, to develop a sensitive and rapid electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) for c-di-GMP quantitation that required minimal engineering of the RNA.

  12. Liposomes loaded with a STING pathway ligand, cyclic di-GMP, enhance cancer immunotherapy against metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Miyabe, Hiroko; Hyodo, Mamoru; Sato, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2015-10-28

    Malignant melanomas escape immunosurveillance via the loss/down-regulation of MHC-I expression. Natural killer (NK) cells have the potential to function as essential effector cells for eliminating melanomas. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), a ligand of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signal pathway, can be thought of as a new class of adjuvant against cancer. However, it is yet to be tested, because technologies for delivering c-di-GMP to the cytosol are required. Herein, we report that c-di-GMP efficiently activates NK cells and induces antitumor effects against malignant melanomas when loaded in YSK05 lipid containing liposomes, by assisting in the efficient delivery of c-di-GMP to the cytosol. The intravenous administration of c-di-GMP encapsulated within YSK05-liposomes (c-di-GMP/YSK05-Lip) into mice efficiently induced the production of type I interferon (IFN) as well as the activation of NK cells, resulting in a significant antitumor effect in a lung metastasis mouse model using B16-F10. This antitumor effect was dominated by NK cells. The infiltration of NK cells was observed in the lungs with B16-F10 melanomas. These findings indicate that the c-di-GMP/YSK05-Lip induces MHC-I non-restricted antitumor immunity mediated by NK cells. Consequently, c-di-GMP/YSK05-Lip represents a potentially new adjuvant system for use in immunotherapy against malignant melanomas.

  13. Nucleotide binding by the widespread high-affinity cyclic di-GMP receptor MshEN domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chuan; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Tu, Zhi-Le; He, Jin; Jones, Christopher J; Sanchez, David Zamorano; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Galperin, Michael Y; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP is a bacterial second messenger regulating various cellular functions. Many bacteria contain c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes but lack known c-di-GMP receptors. Recently, two MshE-type ATPases associated with bacterial type II secretion system and type IV pilus formation were shown to specifically bind c-di-GMP. Here we report crystal structure of the MshE N-terminal domain (MshEN1-145) from Vibrio cholerae in complex with c-di-GMP at a 1.37 Å resolution. This structure reveals a unique c-di-GMP-binding mode, featuring a tandem array of two highly conserved binding motifs, each comprising a 24-residue sequence RLGxx(L/V/I)(L/V/I)xxG(L/V/I)(L/V/I)xxxxLxxxLxxQ that binds half of the c-di-GMP molecule, primarily through hydrophobic interactions. Mutating these highly conserved residues markedly reduces c-di-GMP binding and biofilm formation by V. cholerae. This c-di-GMP-binding motif is present in diverse bacterial proteins exhibiting binding affinities ranging from 0.5 μM to as low as 14 nM. The MshEN domain contains the longest nucleotide-binding motif reported to date.

  14. The Bacterial Second Messenger Cyclic di-GMP Regulates Brucella Pathogenesis and Leads to Altered Host Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mike; Harms, Jerome S; Marim, Fernanda M; Armon, Leah; Hall, Cherisse L; Liu, Yi-Ping; Banai, Menachem; Oliveira, Sergio C; Splitter, Gary A; Smith, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Brucella species are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, a chronic debilitating disease significantly impacting global health and prosperity. Much remains to be learned about how Brucella spp. succeed in sabotaging immune host cells and how Brucella spp. respond to environmental challenges. Multiple types of bacteria employ the prokaryotic second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) to coordinate responses to shifting environments. To determine the role of c-di-GMP in Brucella physiology and in shaping host-Brucella interactions, we utilized c-di-GMP regulatory enzyme deletion mutants. Our results show that a ΔbpdA phosphodiesterase mutant producing excess c-di-GMP displays marked attenuation in vitro and in vivo during later infections. Although c-di-GMP is known to stimulate the innate sensor STING, surprisingly, the ΔbpdA mutant induced a weaker host immune response than did wild-type Brucella or the low-c-di-GMP guanylate cyclase ΔcgsB mutant. Proteomics analysis revealed that c-di-GMP regulates several processes critical for virulence, including cell wall and biofilm formation, nutrient acquisition, and the type IV secretion system. Finally, ΔbpdA mutants exhibited altered morphology and were hypersensitive to nutrient-limiting conditions. In summary, our results indicate a vital role for c-di-GMP in allowing Brucella to successfully navigate stressful and shifting environments to establish intracellular infection. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Glucocorticoids enhance extinction-based psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Bolt, Olivia C; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Margraf, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2011-04-19

    Behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders is believed to rely on fear extinction. Because preclinical studies have shown that glucocorticoids can promote extinction processes, we aimed at investigating whether the administration of these hormones might be useful in enhancing exposure therapy. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 40 patients with specific phobia for heights were treated with three sessions of exposure therapy using virtual reality exposure to heights. Cortisol (20 mg) or placebo was administered orally 1 h before each of the treatment sessions. Subjects returned for a posttreatment assessment 3-5 d after the last treatment session and for a follow-up assessment after 1 mo. Adding cortisol to exposure therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in fear of heights as measured with the acrophobia questionnaire (AQ) both at posttreatment and at follow-up, compared with placebo. Furthermore, subjects receiving cortisol showed a significantly greater reduction in acute anxiety during virtual exposure to a phobic situation at posttreatment and a significantly smaller exposure-induced increase in skin conductance level at follow-up. The present findings indicate that the administration of cortisol can enhance extinction-based psychotherapy.

  16. Exorcism and possession in psychotherapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J

    1982-03-01

    There has been an evolution in the layman's concept of mental disorder. Medieval belief in possession by demons and witches gave way to a 19th century medical model and more recently classical psychoanalytic formulations. Concurrently professional helping endeavor has moved increasingly from a more traditionally medical to psychotherapeutic process, and from a classical psychotherapeutic process wherein the therapist remained to a degree unresponsive and detached to a more modern emphasis on such qualities as empathy, sensitivity, reliability, and optimism as ingredients of successful psychotherapeutic practice. Freud's account of Haizmann's demonological neurosis usefully formulates the possession concept in psychological terms. However, recent developments in psychotherapeutic practice argue for a validity in the possession model of psychological distress. The possessing forces of object relations psychology are of course not the possessing demons and witches of medieval times but the possessing good and bad objects of early intrapsychic life set up through processes of introjection and incorporation in response to frustration in the early infant-mother relationship. Points of similarity in this comparison should not obscure features of contrast--ther is no place for histrionic manipulation nor for a moralistic attitude in the practice of psychotherapy. A case is described to illustrate these points.

  17. Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Chaubron, Franck; De Vos, John; Cuisinier, Frédéric J

    2015-08-26

    Medical research in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy has brought encouraging perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Multiple types of stem cells, from progenitors to pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated. Among these, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal multipotent cells coming from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue within teeth. They represent an interesting adult stem cell source because they are recovered in large amount in dental pulps with non-invasive techniques compared to other adult stem cell sources. DPSCs can be obtained from discarded teeth, especially wisdom teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. To shift from promising preclinical results to therapeutic applications to human, DPSCs must be prepared in clinical grade lots and transformed into advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). As the production of patient-specific stem cells is costly and time-consuming, allogenic biobanking of clinical grade human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed DPSC lines provides efficient innovative therapeutic products. DPSC biobanks represent industrial and therapeutic innovations by using discarded biological tissues (dental pulps) as a source of mesenchymal stem cells to produce and store, in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, DPSC therapeutic batches. In this review, we discuss about the challenges to transfer biological samples from a donor to HLA-typed DPSC therapeutic lots, following regulations, GMP guidelines and ethical principles. We also present some clinical applications, for which there is no efficient therapeutics so far, but that DPSCs-based ATMP could potentially treat.

  18. Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre-Yves; Collart-Dutilleul; Franck; Chaubron; John; De; Vos; Frédéric; J; Cuisinier

    2015-01-01

    Medical research in regenerative medicine and cellbased therapy has brought encouraging perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Multiple types of stem cells, from progenitors to pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated. Among these, dental pulp stem cells(DPSCs) are mesenchymal multipotent cells coming from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue within teeth. They represent an interesting adult stem cell source because they are recovered in large amount in dental pulps with non-invasive techniques compared to other adult stem cell sources. DPSCs can be obtained from discarded teeth, especially wisdom teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. To shift from promising preclinical results to therapeutic applications to human, DPSCs must be prepared in clinical grade lots and transformed into advanced therapy medicinal products(ATMP). As the production of patient-specific stem cells is costly and time-consuming, allogenic biobanking of clinical grade human leukocyte antigen(HLA)-typed DPSC lines provides efficient innovative therapeutic products. DPSC biobanks represent industrial and therapeutic innovations by using discarded biological tissues(dental pulps) as a source of mesenchymal stem cells to produce and store, in good manufacturing practice(GMP) conditions, DPSC therapeutic batches. In this review, we discuss about the challenges to transfer biological samples from a donor to HLA-typed DPSC therapeutic lots, following regulations, GMP guidelines and ethical principles. We also present some clinical applications, for which there is no efficient therapeutics so far, but that DPSCs-based ATMP could potentially treat.

  19. Problems of process-efficiency studies in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A E

    1996-01-01

    Three areas of psychotherapy research can be delimited of which differential efficiency research promises to be the most fruitful, because it will eventually inform us which interventions with what kind of patient and what kind of problem will be the most constructive. One problem it can solve is the so-called equivalence paradox. This epitheton designates the fact, that in spite of the enormous differences in theory and interventions between the different kinds of psychotherapies, their results are not remarkably divergent. One quite popular hypothesis is that this is due to common factors, commun to any and every kind of psychotherapy. Our results indicate that this explanation is too simplistic because it uses a monosubstance-doses-effect-relationship model and disregards interaction. One other avenue is the relevant events approach. Our examples yield equivocal results. Nevertheless this remains a promising field of investigation. Finally there are time series analyses which are probably most germane to the field of psychotherapies. One illustration with a case of negative psychotherapy outcome is presented. Time series analysis is able to show that the patient changed to a negativistic attitude in the middle of session, whereas the psychoanalyst only changed at the beginning of session 10 respectively in its middle.

  20. Applications of Mindfulness in Psychotherapy – Contemporary Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut ŠKODLAR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness has without doubt been the fastest spreading and most popular concept in psychotherapy in the last two decades. Its influence exceeds that of any other individual concept or approach in modern psychotherapy. However, there are many dilemmas, open questions and controversies related to this rapid, almost fanatic spread, which obviously compensates for a certain lack in modern Euro- and Americo-centric societies. Similarly, we are witnessing in the West a lack of reflection, a process of limitless idealization, and the search for a panacea. This all flows with a tint of colonialism, presumptuously taking over ideas, concepts and techniques without a proper study of the primary sources, and with all the accompanying negative side-effects: profiteering, self-promotion, unethical conduct, empty promises of instant rewards, and so on. In the present paper, the development of interest in mindfulness in psychotherapy, as well as the research findings and dilemmas, and concepts and mechanisms of applying mindfulness in psychotherapy, will be reviewed. The main purpose of the paper is to contribute to the critical reflection in studying and applying mindfulness in psychotherapy.

  1. Plasticity-augmented psychotherapy for refractory depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-10-03

    Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have been the mainstays of treatment for depression and anxiety disorders during the last century. However, treatment response has not improved in the last few decades, with only half of all patients responding satisfactorily to typical antidepressants. To fulfill the needs of the remaining patients, new treatments with better efficacy are in demand. The addition of psychotherapy to antidepressant treatment has been shown to be superior to pharmacotherapy alone. However, the time costs of psychotherapy limit its use for clinicians and patients. Advancements in neuroscience have contributed to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of depressive and anxiety disorders. In particular, recent advances in the field of fear conditioning have provided valuable insight into the treatment of refractory depressive and anxiety disorders. In this review, we studied the reconsolidation-updating paradigm and the concept of epigenetic modification, which has been shown to permanently attenuate remote fear memory. This has implications for drug-augmented, e.g. antidepressant and valproic acid, psychotherapy. Future research on more sophisticated psychotherapy techniques will increase the desirability of this treatment modality for both clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, Jolien; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility study, we examined the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Incremental costs and effects were estimated by means of cross-sectional measurements in a cohort design (psychoanalysis, n = 78; psychoanalytic psychotherapy, n = 104). Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for each treatment strategy using the SF-6D. Total costs were calculated from a societal perspective (treatment costs plus other societal costs) and discounted at 4 percent. Psychoanalysis was more costly than psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but also more effective from a health-related quality of life perspective. The ICER--that is, the extra costs to gain one additional QALY by delivering psychoanalysis instead of psychoanalytic psychotherapy--was estimated at 52,384 euros per QALY gained. Our findings show that the cost-utility ratio of psychoanalysis relative to psychoanalytic psychotherapy is within an acceptable range. More research is needed to find out whether cost-utility ratios vary with different types of patients. We also encourage cost-utility analyses comparing psychoanalytic treatment to other forms of (long-term) treatment.

  3. [E-mail in psychotherapy--an aftercare model via electronic mail for psychotherapy inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Markus; Maurer, Wolf-Jürgen; Dogs, Peter; Kordy, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We introduce an aftercare program for psychotherapy inpatients, which is based on regular communication via E-mail. The organizational and operational structure of the program are described within the context of computer mediated communication. First results on utilization and acceptance are reported. In comparison to patients who did not participate in either aftercare program of the clinic, the E-mail participants are younger and higher educated. Inpatient treatment of the participants was three days shorter in duration than that of non participants. Both groups were similar with regard to symptom distress at discharge from hospital. A low dropout rate of 8%, the high activity and satisfaction emphasize the positive acceptance of the program. Therapists' E-mail activity turned out to be important for the participants. Neither age, internet experience or symptom related variables nor the own E-mail activity were associated with participants' evaluation of the new service. Based on these first positive experiences the perspectives of using E-mail in psychotherapy will be discussed.

  4. Possible neural mechanisms of psychotherapy for trauma-related symptoms: cerebral responses to the neuropsychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder model individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tamaki; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Psychotherapy is often effective for treating psychogenic disorders, but the changes that occur in the brain during such treatments remain unknown. To investigate this, we monitored cerebral activity throughout an entire session using a psychotherapeutic technique in healthy subjects. Since post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a typical psychogenic psychiatric disorder, we used PTSD-model volunteers who had experienced a moderately traumatic event. The technique used as psychotherapy was eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), a standard method for treating PTSD. The oxygenated haemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]), a sensitive index of brain activation, measured using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy, revealed changes in [oxy-Hb] in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). During a vital therapeutic stage, a significant reduction in the activation by forced eye movements was observed in the right STS, and a trend toward a reduction in the left OFC. The hyperactivation of the right STS on the recall of unpleasant memories, and its normalisation by eye movements, seem to reflect an important neural mechanism of the psychotherapy. These findings suggest that psychotherapy for traumatic symptoms involves brain regions related to memory representation and emotion, and possibly those that link memory and emotion, such as the amygdala. PMID:27698453

  5. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  6. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Multilevel Model, Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Culturally adapted psychotherapy has potential to improve psychotherapy outcomes for ethnic and racial minorities and solve a decades-long conundrum that alteration of specific ingredients does not improve psychotherapy outcomes. Adaptation of the cultural explanation of illness, known as the anthropological Myth in universal healing practices…

  7. Report of the Psychotherapy Task Force of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Ritvo, Rachel; Al-mateen, Cheryl; Ascherman, Lee; Beardslee, William; Hartmann, Lawrence; Lewis, Owen; Papilsky, Shirley; Sargent, John; Sperling, Eva; Stiener, Gregory; Szigethy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    In this task force report, the authors define the field of child and adolescent psychotherapy; review the state of the field with respect to advocacy, training, research, and clinical practice; and recommend steps to ensure that psychotherapy remains a core competence of child and adolescent psychiatrists. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:93–102)

  8. The pragmatics of therapeutic interaction: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Georgia

    2009-10-01

    The research reported in this article aims to demonstrate a method for the systematic study of the therapist/patient interaction in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, drawing upon the tradition and methods of 'pragmatics'--the study of language in interaction. A brief introduction to the discipline of pragmatics demonstrates its relevance to the contemporary focus of clinical theory on the here-and-now dynamics of the relationship between analyst and patient. This is followed by a detailed study of five segments from the transcript of a therapeutic dialogue, drawn from a brief psychoanalytic psychotherapy, in which therapist and patient negotiate the meaning of the patient's symptom: Is it psychosomatic? The research seeks to show how the therapeutic process can be observed and studied as an interactional achievement, grounded in general and well-studied procedures through which meaning is intersubjectively developed and shared. Implications of the analysis for clinical theory and practice, and further research, are discussed.

  9. Systematic Identification of Cyclic-di-GMP Binding Proteins in Vibrio cholerae Reveals a Novel Class of Cyclic-di-GMP-Binding ATPases Associated with Type II Secretion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Kevin G; Jones, Christopher J; Helman, Sarah R; Shang, Xiaoran; Orr, Mona W; Goodson, Jonathan R; Galperin, Michael Y; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Lee, Vincent T

    2015-10-01

    Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule that regulates a variety of complex processes through a diverse set of c-di-GMP receptor proteins. We have utilized a systematic approach to identify c-di-GMP receptors from the pathogen Vibrio cholerae using the Differential Radial Capillary Action of Ligand Assay (DRaCALA). The DRaCALA screen identified a majority of known c-di-GMP binding proteins in V. cholerae and revealed a novel c-di-GMP binding protein, MshE (VC0405), an ATPase associated with the mannose sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) type IV pilus. The known c-di-GMP binding proteins identified by DRaCALA include diguanylate cyclases, phosphodiesterases, PilZ domain proteins and transcription factors VpsT and VpsR, indicating that the DRaCALA-based screen of open reading frame libraries is a feasible approach to uncover novel receptors of small molecule ligands. Since MshE lacks the canonical c-di-GMP-binding motifs, a truncation analysis was utilized to locate the c-di-GMP binding activity to the N-terminal T2SSE_N domain. Alignment of MshE homologs revealed candidate conserved residues responsible for c-di-GMP binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of these candidate residues revealed that the Arg9 residue is required for c-di-GMP binding. The ability of c-di-GMP binding to MshE to regulate MSHA dependent processes was evaluated. The R9A allele, in contrast to the wild type MshE, was unable to complement the ΔmshE mutant for the production of extracellular MshA to the cell surface, reduction in flagella swimming motility, attachment to surfaces and formation of biofilms. Testing homologs of MshE for binding to c-di-GMP identified the type II secretion ATPase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14_29490) as a c-di-GMP receptor, indicating that type II secretion and type IV pili are both regulated by c-di-GMP.

  10. Psychotherapy training: Suggestions for core ingredients and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F; Castonguay, Louis G

    2007-12-01

    Despite our considerable depth and breadth of empirical knowledge on psychotherapy process and outcome, research on psychotherapy training is somewhat lacking. We would argue, however, that the scientist-practitioner model should not only guide practice, but also the way our field approaches training. In this paper we outline our perspective on the crucial elements of psychotherapy training based on available evidence, theory, and clinical experience, focusing specifically on the structure, key components, and important skills to be learned in a successful training program. In addition, we derive specific research directions based on the crucial elements of our proposed training perspective, and offer general considerations for research on training, including method and measurement issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The renewal of humanism in psychotherapy: summary and conclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kirk J; Längle, Alfried

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes and discusses the main themes to emerge from this special section on the renewal of humanism in psychotherapy. It is concluded that (1) despite some controversies, humanism is both a viable and growing influence among the leading specialty areas of psychotherapy; (2) humanism is a foundational element of effectiveness among these specialty areas; and (3) humanistic training is essential to the development of trainees in the aforementioned specialty areas. The implications of these findings for each of the specialty areas, for the profession of psychotherapy, and for the public at large are elaborated, concluding with a call for a reassessment of priorities in the research, practice, and training of standardized mental health delivery. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Dream screen phenomenon in psychotherapy and artistic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Pirjo Irmeli

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer a point on the meaning of the dream screen phenomenon in psychotherapy and artistic work. Some current theories of early ego development, the formation of the dream screen and dream imagery seem to match the theories of symbol formation, artistic and literary creativity. In actual dreaming, the dream screen can exist in the form of empty sheets of paper, but also in the form of a landscape, hills or mountains. The activation of the dream screen is presented in the light of the psychotherapy of two depressed patients. Dreams implying activation of the dream screen have been interpreted to signify a turning point during psychotherapy. Dream screen can be considered as a phenomenon with different elements. Examples of dream screen symbols in Aleksis Kivi's poems and in Paul Cézanne's paintings are presented.

  13. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy and Postpartum Depression: The Fathers Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena da Rosa Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.

  14. [Psychotherapy in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gisèle

    2002-11-15

    Alone or used with psychostimulants, psychotherapy is the keystone of the treatment in children attention deficit disorder hyperactivity (ADHD). This article explains in which matter psychotherapy is essential. To be well done, it's necessary before starting the treatment to analyze precisely the disorder and how it interferes with the child's environment. It describes how this functional analysis must be done in order to be more precise in the choice of the treatment objectives. This article explains why in children ADHD treatment, the individual therapy must be associated with a family training and describes briefly the more studied and recognized psychotherapy techniques in those children ADHD and how other partners (teacher, speech or motor therapist) are also useful.

  15. Psychotherapy with women who have worked in the "sex industry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anklesaria, Ariz; Gentile, Julie P

    2012-10-01

    Psychotherapy is effective for a myriad of mental health symptoms, with the clinical situation dictating the most applicable method. For episodes of severe stress including acute depression and anxiety, supportive mechanisms (crisis interventions and shoring up existing coping skills and strategies) may be the best fit. During periods of relatively milder symptomatology a psychodynamic approach may be utilized with the same patient (focusing on self-reflection and a more in-depth exploration). This article focuses on the use of psychotherapy with women working in the sex industry, whether indoor (such as strip clubs and cabarets) or outdoor (such as prostitution and escort services). These women frequently experience violence in various forms, and most report multiple traumatic experiences, both during their developmental years and while working in the industry. A composite case is included that illustrates some of the supportive and psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be applied when treating these individuals.

  16. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Branco, L.G.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leite-Panissi, C.R.A. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-19

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  17. Cyclic di-GMP sensing via the innate immune signaling protein STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qian; Tian, Yuan; Kabaleeswaran, Venkataraman; Jiang, Xiaomo; Tu, Daqi; Eck, Michael J; Chen, Zhijian J; Wu, Hao

    2012-06-29

    Detection of foreign materials is the first step of successful immune responses. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was shown to directly bind cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), a bacterial second messenger, and to elicit strong interferon responses. Here we elucidate the structural features of the cytosolic c-di-GMP binding domain (CBD) of STING and its complex with c-di-GMP. The CBD exhibits an α + β fold and is a dimer in the crystal and in solution. Surprisingly, one c-di-GMP molecule binds to the central crevice of a STING dimer, using a series of stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. We show that STING is autoinhibited by an intramolecular interaction between the CBD and the C-terminal tail (CTT) and that c-di-GMP releases STING from this autoinhibition by displacing the CTT. The structures provide a remarkable example of pathogen-host interactions in which a unique microbial molecule directly engages the innate immune system.

  18. The c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase BifA regulates biofilm development in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Alicia; López-Sánchez, Aroa; Calero, Patricia; Govantes, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    We previously showed the isolation of biofilmpersistent Pseudomonas putida mutants that fail to undergo biofilm dispersal upon entry in stationary phase. Two such mutants were found to bear insertions in PP0914, encoding a GGDEF/EAL domain protein with high similarity to Pseudomon asaeruginosa BifA. Here we show the phenotypic characterization of a ΔbifA mutant in P. putida KT2442.This mutant displayed increased biofilm and pellicle formation, cell aggregation in liquid medium and decreased starvation-induced biofilm dispersal relative to the wild type. Unlike its P. aeruginosa counterpart, P. putida BifA did not affect swarming motility. The hyperadherent phenotype of the ΔbifA mutant correlates with a general increase in cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) levels, Congo Red-binding exopolyaccharide production and transcription of the adhesin-encoding lapA gene. Integrity of the EAL motif and a modified GGDEF motif (altered to GGDQF)were crucial for BifA activity, and c-di-GMP depletion by overexpression of a heterologous c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase in the ΔbifA mutant restored wild-type biofilm dispersal and lapA expression.Our results indicate that BifA is a phosphodiesterase involved in the regulation of the c-di-GMP pool and required for the generation of the low c-di-GMP signal that triggers starvation-induced biofilm dispersal.

  19. Bacterial c-di-GMP affects hematopoietic stem/progenitors and their niches through STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Chiharu I; Nakamura-Ishizu, Ayako; Karigane, Daiki; Haeno, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kimiyo N; Sato, Taku; Ohteki, Toshiaki; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Barber, Glen N; Kurokawa, Mineo; Suda, Toshio; Takubo, Keiyo

    2015-04-01

    Upon systemic bacterial infection, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) migrate to the periphery in order to supply a sufficient number of immune cells. Although pathogen-associated molecular patterns reportedly mediate HSPC activation, how HSPCs detect pathogen invasion in vivo remains elusive. Bacteria use the second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) for a variety of activities. Here, we report that c-di-GMP comprehensively regulated both HSPCs and their niche cells through an innate immune sensor, STING, thereby inducing entry into the cell cycle and mobilization of HSPCs while decreasing the number and repopulation capacity of long-term hematopoietic stem cells. Furthermore, we show that type I interferon acted as a downstream target of c-di-GMP to inhibit HSPC expansion in the spleen, while transforming growth factor-β was required for c-di-GMP-dependent splenic HSPC expansion. Our results define machinery underlying the dynamic regulation of HSPCs and their niches during bacterial infection through c-di-GMP/STING signaling.

  20. Auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    Gravitropism is the asymmetric growth or curvature of plant organs in response to gravistimulation. There is a complex signal transduction cascade which involved in the differential growth of plants in response to changes in the gravity vector. The role of auxin in gravitropism has been demonstrated by many experiments, but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects. In our studies before, mediation of the gravitropic bending of soybean roots and rice leaf sheath bases by nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins, are induced by auxin. The asymmetrical distribution of nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins resulted from the asymmetrical synthesis of them in bending sites. In soybean roots, inhibitions of NO and cGMP synthesis reduced differential NO and cGMP accumulation respectively, which both of these effects can lead to the reduction of gravitropic bending. Gibberellin-induced OsXET, OsEXPA4 and OsRWC3 were also found involved in the gravitropic bending. These data indicated that auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism. More experiments need to prove the more detailed mechanism of them.