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Sample records for psychotherapeutic drugs correlates

  1. Interactions between six psychotherapeutic drugs and plastic containers. Influence of plastic material and infusion solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaudo, C B; Gayte-Sorbier, A; Bianchi, C; Verdier, M

    1993-06-01

    The interactions of chlorpromazine, clomipramine, maprotiline and viloxazine hydrochlorides, and of clorazepate dipotassium salt and diazepam with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Stedim 6 infusion bags were studied. Stedim 6, is anew multilayer film whose inner layer is made of polyethylene. The drugs were in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride isotonic solutions and the influence of these was also considered. The remaining concentrations of each drug were determined at regular time intervals in a 24-h period, by a spectrofluorometric method for chlorpromazine hydrochloride and by ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods for the other drugs. No binding was observed for viloxazine and maprotiline hydrochlorides whatever the infusion solution and the plastic container. A slight retention in PVC bags, but not in Stedim 6 ones, was noted for clomipramine hydrochloride and clorazepate dipotassium salt. This was more marked in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. Diazepam and chlorpromazine hydrochloride were bound both in PVC and Stedim 6 bags, but more in the former and more again in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. The results were explained in terms of the degree of crystallinity of the plastic material and the degree of lipophilicity of the drugs. Practical consequences are discussed.

  2. [Psychotherapeutic interventions in stereotypies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloudi, E; Christodoulou, C; Kontaxakis, V; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypies belong to the psychomotor disorders and they are found in many different disorders. This article refers to the international literature about the psychotherapeutic interventions in stereotypies and reviews the psychotherapeutic techniques that are already being used for these disorders. This study refers to four kinds of psychotherapeutic treatment: (a) Behavioral therapy, (b) Milieu therapy which can be combined successfully with an occupational therapy, (c) Family therapy and (d) Supportive or cognitive or dynamic psychotherapy. The method used for finding the articles for this review was the web research. The articles found were 44 in total, but only 25 were studied extensively since they were absolutely relative to the subject of this review. 12 of these articles were case studies, 7 theoretical papers and 5 of them were reviews. The last one was a research epidemiological study. According to most of the articles, behavioral therapy is considered to be the most effective psychotherapeutic treatment for attenuating stereotypies and relies on techniques like systematic desensitization, environmental enrichment, positive reinforcement of alternative behaviors and negative reinforcement of the "problematic" behaviors. The milieu therapy, combined with occupational therapy, endeavours to shape an appropriate environment where the patient can recover. Family therapy focuses on fully informing the relatives about the nature of stereotypies. Supportive psychotherapy focuses on the current problems in the patient's life. The cognitive psychotherapy tries to fix the dysfunctional thoughts of the patients. Finally, the dynamic psychotherapy is focused on the restoration or reinforcement of the patient's defensive mechanisms. It should be noted that there is a lack of systematic research in the field of stereotypies in general and, especially, regarding psychotherapeutic interventions.

  3. Psychotherapeutic Strategies for Bulimia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, Joel

    1992-01-01

    Psychotherapeutic strategies for bulimia nervosa have included behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, and educational treatments used in individual, family, and group settings. Controlled studies have demonstrated the efficacy of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches for these disorders, and extensive clinical experience suggests a role for individual psychodynamic and family approaches as well, particularly in the treatment of frequently encountered ...

  4. STRATEGIES AND TACTICS OF PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC DISCOURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Sumina Natalia Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the description of strategies and tactics of psychotherapeutic discourse based on the novel by I. Yalom ‘The Schopenhauer Cure’. Its novelty is defined by the fact that the author analyses the new type of discourse - psychotherapeutic one. The author declares the general strategy of psychotherapeutic discourse and its ‘master’, that is to help the client to sustain effective meaningful relationship. Due to the subjective character of the discourse the psychotherapist...

  5. PSYCHOSOMATIC "ARC" IN THE PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanka Boncheva

    2012-01-01

    The psychoneuroimmunology, the new brain science and the endocrinology today show a lot of results, with which symptoms are better to understand. The psychotherapeutic practice shows the ways to influence them by encoding the levels of bounding between the physical symptom and the psychological condition. The aim of the study was to show the encoding of the psychosomatic arc within a real psychotherapeutic contact. 59 psychotherapeutic cases are followed. 33 of them were with somatoform disor...

  6. Psychotherapeutic strategies for bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, J

    1992-01-01

    Psychotherapeutic strategies for bulimia nervosa have included behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, and educational treatments used in individual, family, and group settings. Controlled studies have demonstrated the efficacy of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches for these disorders, and extensive clinical experience suggests a role for individual psychodynamic and family approaches as well, particularly in the treatment of frequently encountered complex clinical conditions in which bulimia nervosa coexists with other mood, anxiety, personality, and interpersonal disorders. Guidelines for clinical management have emerged from both research studies and the cumulative experiences of specialists.

  7. Biomarkers in the psychotherapeutic relationship: the role of physiology, neurobiology, and biological correlates of E.M.P.A.T.H.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Emerging biomarker research could powerfully influence the practice of psychotherapy, a standard treatment that is as strongly rooted in brain plasticity as are psychopharmacologic interventions. Psychotherapy is associated with measurable changes in central and peripheral neurophysiology. These markers could be harnessed to aid informed, personalized recommendations for specific psychosocial treatments, to guide a course of treatment, and to predict treatment outcomes, in lieu of relying on costly, trial-and-error approaches. Psychotherapy and empathy research also demonstrate that the patient-doctor relationship has important neurophysiological correlates that can be salient to treatment outcomes, as illustrated in a case example. These correlates include autonomic nervous system arousal manifested by heart rate, respiration rate, muscle tension, and galvanic skin resistance; electroencephalography; and brain-imaging markers. While additional biomarker research is unfolding, there are specific neurobiologically based clinical and subclinical observations, organized by using the E.M.P.A.T.H.Y. mnemonic, that may guide and enhance psychotherapy. Empathic attunement to patients is equally relevant for psychopharmacologic interventions and psychotherapy, and for all patient-doctor relationships.

  8. PSYCHOSOMATIC "ARC" IN THE PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Boncheva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The psychoneuroimmunology, the new brain science and the endocrinology today show a lot of results, with which symptoms are better to understand. The psychotherapeutic practice shows the ways to influence them by encoding the levels of bounding between the physical symptom and the psychological condition. The aim of the study was to show the encoding of the psychosomatic arc within a real psychotherapeutic contact. 59 psychotherapeutic cases are followed. 33 of them were with somatoform disorders and 26 with chronic psychosomatic diseases. Every patient has minimum 12 psychotherapeutic sessions. The treatment is provided on the base of the 5 levels model of the positive psychotherapy.We ascertain the following:1. The most significant moment in the arise of such symptomatic is the gained past experience - "vital concepts"; "coping strategies";2. Unlocking moment for the arise of the affection is the fixed emotion - fear, aggression or depression, specific for the particular morbid pictures;3. Showing the connection between symptom and fixed emotion by the technique "positive interpretation", which unlocks the process of changingThis shows that the psychotherapeutic help is possible only if the patient rethink the psychosomatic arc. Showing the connections between the content of the unconscious, the fixed emotion in behavioral models and the symptom gives the impetus to change.

  9. Psychotherapeutic Function of the Kazakh Traditional Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerimova, Zere S.; Nussupova, Aizada S.; Burambaeva, Maryam N.; Yermanov, Zhanat R.; Emreyeva, Akmaral E.; Janseitova, Sveta S.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the psychotherapeutic parameters of traditional Kazakh music, best practices that were achieved in practical psychology. From the one hand, it allows us to see the music features in a new light, and from the other hand--to identify the ethnic psychology of the Kazakh nation. An important step in the study of the…

  10. Psychotherapeutic Orientations: A Comparison of Conceptualizations, Interventions, and Treatment Plan Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopta, Stephen Mark; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Delineated patterns of conceptualization and intervention of four psychotherapeutic orientations (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, family systems, eclectic) and then determined how these patterns related to treatment plan costs. Conceptualization and intervention categories given more focus by the psychodynamic group correlated positively with…

  11. Pragmalinguistic analysis of a psychotherapeutic session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alberto Andrade Rodríguez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article is the preliminary result of the research titled: pragmalinguistic analysys of psychotherapeutic verbal interaction, realized in the context of the M.D. in linguistics in the Universitiy of Antioquia. It presents the pragmatic analysis of one psychotherapy session using the speech acts theory. As result, beside the contrast between that theory and the analyzed case, it can be found some consideration about the verbal interaction that happens in the individual psychotherapy.

  12. Psychotherapeutic treatments for older depressed people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K C M; Mottram, P G; Vassilas, C A

    2008-01-23

    Despite a number of reviews advocating psychotherapy for the treatment of depression, there is relatively little evidence based on randomised controlled trials that specifically examines its efficacy in older people. To examine the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatments for depression in older people. CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References were searched on 11/9/2006. The International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Irish Journal of Psychiatry were handsearched. Reference lists of previous published systematic reviews, included/excluded trial articles and bibliographies were scrutinised. Experts in the field were contacted.. All randomised controlled trials that included older adults diagnosed as suffering from depression (ICD or DSM criteria) were included. All types of psychotherapeutic treatments were included, categorised into cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy and supportive therapies. Meta-analysis was performed, using odds ratios for dichotomous outcomes and weighted mean differences (WMD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals. Primary outcomes were a reduction in severity of depression, usually measured by clinician rated rating scales. Secondary outcomes, including dropout and life satisfaction, were also analysed. The search identified nine trials of cognitive behavioural and psychodynamic therapy approaches, together with a small group of 'active control' interventions. No trials relating to other psychotherapeutic approaches and techniques were found. A total of seven trials provided sufficient data for inclusion in the comparison between CBT and controls. No trials compared psychodynamic psychotherapy with controls. Based on five trials (153 participants), cognitive behavioural therapy was more effective than waiting list controls (WMD -9.85, 95% CI -11.97 to -7.73). Only three small trials compared psychodynamic therapy with CBT, with no significant difference in treatment

  13. [Affective disorders. The significance of psychotherapeutic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M; Brakemeier, E L; Klesse, C; Schramm, E

    2009-05-01

    The use of psychotherapeutic strategies is essential in the treatment of affective disorders. Psychotherapy proved to be at least equivalent to antidepressant medication in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. In severe cases, the combination of both treatments is considered by guidelines to be the standard treatment. Psychotherapeutic approaches show a longer latency than antidepressants; however, the effects are longer lasting. Regarding the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy sobering results have been published recently. Therefore, the further development of psychotherapy deserves special attention. Cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy provide the highest evidence. The empirical basis for psychodynamic psychotherapies is still limited. In the treatment of chronic depression a new approach--cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy--is gaining importance. There is a trend towards an increasing specification of psychotherapy for distinct subgroups of depressed patients. Challenges for the future include increasing treatment efficacy, investigating mechanisms of efficacy and predictors for a differential indication, and making effective approaches generally available to all patients.

  14. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  15. An integrative perspective on psychotherapeutic treatments for borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, E.R.; Verheul, R.; Trijsburg, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Although there is an abundance of literature on the psychotherapeutic treatment of borderline pathology, little is known about differences and similarities between treatments of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Potential differences and similarities are especially important in the absence of e

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug-drug Interactions in the Regional Hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabani, D.; Tahiri, Z.; Bara, P.; Hudhra, K.; Malaj, L.; Jucja, B.; Bozalia, A.; Burazeri, G.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the adult population of transitional Kosovo. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted including a representative sample of 1921 patients aged >/=18 years (mean age: 57.8+/-11.2 y

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug-drug Interactions in the Regional Hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabani, D.; Tahiri, Z.; Bara, P.; Hudhra, K.; Malaj, L.; Jucja, B.; Bozalia, A.; Burazeri, G.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the adult population of transitional Kosovo. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted including a representative sample of 1921 patients aged >/=18 years (mean age: 57.8+/-11.2

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug-drug Interactions in the Regional Hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Driton; Tahiri, Zejdush; Bara, Petrit; Hudhra, Klejda; Malaj, Ledian; Jucja, Besnik; Bozalia, Adnan; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the adult population of transitional Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted including a representative sample of 1921 patients aged ≥18 years (mean age: 57.8±11.2 years; 50.3% women; overall response: 96%) from the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo, during 2011-2013. Potential drug-drug-interactions were assessed and clinical data as well as demographic and socioeconomic information were collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the correlates of drug-drug interactions. Upon multivariable adjustment for all the demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as the clinical characteristics, drug-drug interactions were positively and significantly related to older age (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.3-2.8), a lower educational attainment (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.9), a longer hospitalization period (OR=2.7, 95%CI=2.1-3.6), presence of three groups of diseases [infectious diseases (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.3-2.4), cardiovascular diseases (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.4-2.6), respiratory diseases (OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.2-2.5)], presence of comorbid conditions (OR=3.2, 95%CI=2.3-4.4) and an intake of at least four drugs (OR=5.9, 95%CI=4.6-7.1). Our study provides important evidence on the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the hospitalized patients in the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo. Findings from our study should raise the awareness of decision-makers and policy makers about the prevalence and determinants of drug-drug interactions in the adult population of post-war Kosovo.

  19. [Crisis interventions: a psychotherapeutical challenge for psychiatric emergencies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressi, Cinizia; Damsa, Cristian; Pirrotta, Roberto; Lazignac, Coralie; Invernizzi, Giordano

    2005-01-01

    Taking care of patients consulting the emergency psychiatric unit, raises nosological, legal, ethical and even logistic questions for the emergency departments. The need for emergency psychiatric interventions has grown constantly during the last twenty years and clinicians were challenged to find a new psychotherapeutic approach, more focused on the actual symptoms presented by the patients than the 'classic' psychiatric interventions. The goal of this article is to discuss the possibility of a psychotherapeutic approach in an emergency department, departing from a treatment model that has been developed at the psychiatric emergency of the University of Milan. In this approach, the psychotherapeutic treatment is divided in four different stages: preparation, incubation, transformation and verification. The "psychiatric crisis" becomes an opportunity to change for the patient, being a passage rite towards a new and better psychological functioning.

  20. Current status of psychotherapeutic interventions for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimberg, R G

    2001-01-01

    Psychotherapeutic interventions, especially the cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies, have been well studied as treatments for social phobia. The purposes of this article are to (1) enumerate and describe the varieties of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that have been applied to the treatment of social phobia, (2) provide a meta-analytic overview of the efficacy of these approaches, (3) examine the relative utility of CBT versus that of pharmacotherapy for social phobia, (4) examine the potential utility of multidisciplinary approaches to treatment, and (5) discuss possible future directions in the development of psychotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of social phobia, including the use of computers as adjunctive tools.

  1. Animal versus human oral drug bioavailability: do they correlate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musther, Helen; Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Hatley, Oliver J D; Liu, Bo; Rostami Hodjegan, Amin

    2014-06-16

    Oral bioavailability is a key consideration in development of drug products, and the use of preclinical species in predicting bioavailability in human has long been debated. In order to clarify whether any correlation between human and animal bioavailability exist, an extensive analysis of the published literature data was conducted. Due to the complex nature of bioavailability calculations inclusion criteria were applied to ensure integrity of the data. A database of 184 compounds was assembled. Linear regression for the reported compounds indicated no strong or predictive correlations to human data for all species, individually and combined. The lack of correlation in this extended dataset highlights that animal bioavailability is not quantitatively predictive of bioavailability in human. Although qualitative (high/low bioavailability) indications might be possible, models taking into account species-specific factors that may affect bioavailability are recommended for developing quantitative prediction.

  2. Psychotherapeutic Counseling and Pregnancy Rates in In Vitro Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Poehl, Michaela; Bichler, Katherina; Wicke, Veronika; Dörner, Veronika; Feichtinger, Wilfried

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:Since the Austrian propagation bill of July 1, 1992, was passed into law, Austrian physicians are committed to offer psychological counseling to women before performing assisted reproductive techniques, unless refused by the patient. The acceptance of psychotherapeutic counseling (PSITCO) and its influence on pregnancy rate were carefully reviewed.

  3. Psychosocial Correlates of Empirical Types of Multiple Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braucht, G. Nicholas; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined subgroups of people in relation to specific types of drugs. Multiple drug clusters identified here yielded six basic drug clusters. Typology of drug abusers was developed by proximity cluster analysis. Set of psychosocial measures was differentially related to use of types of drugs and drug abusers. (Author/BEF)

  4. The Psychology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Biological and Psychotherapeutic Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Mantosh J

    2016-08-01

    The focus on recent advances in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the person with schizophrenia for several decades. However, a useful functional psychology of schizophrenia (in distinction to a psychological approach to symptoms) remains clinically important for several reasons: it is a core part of the bio-psycho-social formulation; it helps us understand and connect with persons with schizophrenia; and it provides a framework by which to organize our treatment efforts (both psychotherapeutic and particularly biological), which can improve adherence and outcomes. A coherent psychological model (the deficit model) based on object relations theory best explains all the biological, psychological, clinical, and sociocultural factors relevant to the understanding and treatment of persons with schizophrenia. A better understanding of a coherent psychology of persons with schizophrenia and provision of psychotherapies improves both the biological and psychotherapeutic treatment of persons with schizophrenia.

  5. Psychotherapeutic benefits of opioid agonist therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Peter L

    2008-01-01

    Opioids have been used for centuries to treat a variety of psychiatric conditions with much success. The so-called "opium cure" lost popularity in the early 1950s with the development of non-addictive tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Nonetheless, recent literature supports the potent role of methadone, buprenorphine, tramadol, morphine, and other opioids as effective, durable, and rapid therapeutic agents for anxiety and depression. This article reviews the medical literature on the treatment of psychiatric disorders with opioids (notably, methadone and buprenorphine) in both the non-opioid-dependent population and in the opioid-dependent methadone maintenance population. The most recent neurotransmitter theories on the origin of depression and anxiety will be reviewed, including current information on the role of serotonin, N-Methyl d-Aspartate, glutamate, cortisol, catecholamine, and dopamine in psychiatric disorders. The observation that methadone maintenance patients with co-existing psychiatric morbidity (so called dual diagnosis patients) require substantially higher methadone dosages by between 20% and 50% will be explored and qualified. The role of methadone and other opioids as beneficial psychiatric medications that are independent of their drug abuse mitigating properties will be discussed. The mechanisms by which methadone and other opioids can favorably modulate the neurotransmitter systems controlling mood will also be discussed.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used a) alcohol, b) tobacco, c) cannabis, d) other drugs. (including drugs such as cocaine, ...... the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the. Pfizer Foundation, the US ... American Health Organization, Eli Lilly and Company, Ortho-.

  7. [Obstacles and Opportunities for the Psychotherapeutic Treatment of Asylum Seekers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Ricarda; Kowarsch, Lea; Reinacher, Hanna; Nater, Urs M

    2016-09-01

    Introduction: The number of refugees and asylum seekers in Germany is high. Presumably, the need for psychotherapeutic care is high in this group. However, this need stands in contrast to a lack of a specialized and widespread provision of such care. Registered psychotherapists could help to partially reduce this gap. The present study aimed at learning more about the expected or experienced obstacles and opportunities of registered psychotherapists in regard to the psychotherapeutic treatment of asylum seekers in Germany. Methods: 198 Hessian registered psychotherapists (40% of all contacted persons) from the administrative districts Marburg-Biedenkopf, Gießen, Lahn-Dill-Kreis, Schwalm-Eder-Kreis und Waldeck-Frankenberg completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed their views of different possible obstacles and advantages regarding the psychotherapy of asylum seekers, as well as possibilities to improve one's own willingness to provide such a treatment. Results: The majority of the participating psychotherapists indicated a modest willingness to provide psychotherapy for asylum seekers. One third had already treated (on average 1-2) asylum seekers. The strongest obstacles were the application of translators, the high formal costs, and the insecurity regarding the reimbursement of therapy sessions. Possible cultural divergences, being afraid of difficult themes, or a potentially reduced adherence of asylum seekers were not seen as meaningful obstacles. Becoming familiar with another culture and new experiences were seen as main advantages of psychotherapy with an asylum seeker. Conclusion: The psychotherapeutic care of asylum seekers could possibly be improved through the exchange of information among psychotherapists and with the responsible local administrative organizations. Moreover, administrative districts could mainly improve the situation by providing help with finding adequate translators, facilitate the formal costs, and secure the reimbursement

  8. [Attitude to disease and psychotherapeutic strategies in youths with the first psychotic episode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleda, V G; Maricheva, M A; Barkhatova, A N; Popovich, U O

    2013-01-01

    To study attitude to disease in patients with the first episode of juvenile endogenous psychosis (ICD-10 items F20, F25, F30.21 and F32.3), authors examined 89 male patients. There were common patterns in attitude to disease caused by the pathoplastic effect of juvenile age and some differences that were correlated with premorbid personality features and the psychopathological structure of the psychotic episode. Normonosognosic, hyponosognosic, hypernosognosic and disnosognosic types of attitude to disease were singled out. Hyponosognosic type was the most common in patients with the first episode of juvenile endogenous psychosis. Its were elaborated recommendations for differential use of psychotherapeutic strategies which took into account attitude to disease and age of the patient.

  9. Rehabilitation after Amputation: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Module in Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological aspects of adjustment to amputation are varied and not addressed in the present treatment regime. There is no research evidence available of psychological intervention and outcome in Indian scenario. One hundred and seventy-three consecutive patients with limb amputations were randomly assigned to psychotherapeutic intervention module (PIM, study group (n=90 and treatment as usual group (TAU, control group (n=83. Patients with psychotic disorder were excluded from the study. Carroll Rating Scale for Depression (CRSD, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Amputees Body Image Scale (ABIS, and Impact of Event Scale (IES along with specially designed information schedule were administered individually. Structured psychotherapeutic module was developed for the intervention. Patients in PIM group were given six therapy sessions, addressing the specific areas of concern. All patients were evaluated on the same tools after two months of therapy. Analysis showed that after treatment a significant reduction in scores was noted on CRSD, STAI, ABIS, and IES in the PIM group. On the TAU group a significant reduction was seen only in the ABIS. The psychological intervention module proposed by authors was efficacious in alleviating the psychological distress, depression, and anxiety and thus was vastly superior to the conventional method of management of amputees.

  10. Rehabilitation after amputation: psychotherapeutic intervention module in Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Kalpana; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2014-01-01

    Psychological aspects of adjustment to amputation are varied and not addressed in the present treatment regime. There is no research evidence available of psychological intervention and outcome in Indian scenario. One hundred and seventy-three consecutive patients with limb amputations were randomly assigned to psychotherapeutic intervention module (PIM, study group) (n = 90) and treatment as usual group (TAU, control group) (n = 83). Patients with psychotic disorder were excluded from the study. Carroll Rating Scale for Depression (CRSD), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Amputees Body Image Scale (ABIS), and Impact of Event Scale (IES) along with specially designed information schedule were administered individually. Structured psychotherapeutic module was developed for the intervention. Patients in PIM group were given six therapy sessions, addressing the specific areas of concern. All patients were evaluated on the same tools after two months of therapy. Analysis showed that after treatment a significant reduction in scores was noted on CRSD, STAI, ABIS, and IES in the PIM group. On the TAU group a significant reduction was seen only in the ABIS. The psychological intervention module proposed by authors was efficacious in alleviating the psychological distress, depression, and anxiety and thus was vastly superior to the conventional method of management of amputees.

  11. Screening for the drug-phospholipid interaction: correlation to phospholipidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alakoskela, Juha-Matti; Vitovic, Pavol; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipid bilayers represent a complex, anisotropic environment fundamentally different from bulk oil or octanol, for instance. Even "simple" drug association to phospholipid bilayers can only be fully understood if the slab-of-hydrocarbon approach is abandoned and the complex, anisotropic pro...... of these interactions in PLD in particular. We also focus on a potential causal connection between drug-induced PLD and steatohepatitis, which is induced by some cationic amphiphilic drugs....

  12. Polypharmacy: correlations with sex, age and drug regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, L; Søgaard, J; Hallas, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the occurrence of multiple drug use (polypharmacy, PP) in the population and to identify individuals particularly prone to PP. METHODS: Data were derived from the Odense Pharmacoepidemiological Database (OPED) and covered all subsidised prescriptions during 1994 presented...

  13. Correlates of injection drug use among individuals admitted to public and private drug treatment facilities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Elif; Alaei, Arash; Tracy, Melissa; Waye, Katherine; Cetin, Mustafa Kemal; Alaei, Kamiar

    2016-07-01

    The number of individuals seeking treatment for drug use has been increasing in recent years in Turkey. However, existing research on patterns and risk factors for drug use and how they vary by age and location in Turkey is limited. We examined the socio-demographic characteristics, drug use behaviors, and treatment history of citizens admitted to inpatient substance use treatment at public and private facilities in Turkey during 2012 and 2013 and identified correlates of lifetime and current injection drug use. Of the 11,247 patients at the 22 public treatment centers in 2012-2013, a majority were male, lived with family, were unemployed, and had an average age of 27 years. Within private clinics (n=663), a higher proportion was female (9.7% private vs. 5.7% public), aged 11-17 years old (13% vs. 7.4%), used cannabis as their primary drug (18.4% vs. 13.2%), and had previously received drug treatment (57% vs. 47.2%). Within public centers, 40.4% reported ever injecting drugs and 33.7% reported injecting in the past 30 days; the corresponding percentages at private clinics were 22.5% and 18.1%. Significant predictors of injection drug use included being homeless, being a temporal employee or unemployed, having higher education, heroin as a preferred drug, having a longer duration of drug use, and prior drug treatment. Prevention and intervention efforts are needed to reduce the transition to heroin and injection drug use among youth as well as improve access to a variety of drug treatment options for people who use substances in Turkey. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic treatment at a psychiatric trauma clinic for refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Cæcilie; Andersen, Ida; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with trauma focus is the most evidence supported psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, but few CBT treatments for traumatized refugees have been described in detail. PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate a manualized cognitive behavioral therapy...

  15. Reduction in anaesthetic drug consumption is correlated with mean titrated intra-operative Bispectral Index values.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerkmann, R.K.; Kreuer, S.; Wilhelm, W.; Ropcke, H.; Hoeft, A.; Bruhn, J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown a reduction in anaesthetic drug consumption with Bispectral Index (BIS) titration compared with standard clinical practice. However, the amount of reduction varied widely between 1% and 40%. We investigated the correlation between reduction in anaesthetic drug

  16. Body Movement Synchrony in Psychotherapeutic Counseling: A Study Using the Video-Based Quantification Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Chika; Komori, Masashi

    Body movement synchrony (i. e. rhythmic synchronization between the body movements of interacting partners) has been described by subjective impressions of skilled counselors and has been considered to reflect the depth of the client-counselor relationship. This study analyzed temporal changes in body movement synchrony through a video analysis of client-counselor dialogues in counseling sessions. Four 50-minute psychotherapeutic counseling sessions were analyzed, including two negatively evaluated sessions (low evaluation groups) and two positively evaluated sessions (high evaluation groups). In addition, two 50-minute ordinary advice sessions between two high school teachers and the clients in the high rating group were analyzed. All sessions represent role-playing. The intensity of the participants' body movement was measured using a video-based system. Temporal change of body movement synchrony was analyzed using moving correlations of the intensity between the two time series. The results revealed (1) A consistent temporal pattern among the four counseling cases, though the moving correlation coefficients were higher for the high evaluation group than the low evaluation group and (2) Different temporal patterns for the counseling and advice sessions even when the clients were the same. These results were discussed from the perspective of the quality of client-counselor relationship.

  17. Body dysmorphic disorder and depression: phenomenological and psychotherapeutic aspects: a report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a hard-to-treat disorder that often coincides with depression and suicidal tendency. We investigate the correlations between depression and BDD in an idiographic study of 5 patients receiving treatment in the psychiatric ward of a general hospital in 2008. Among these patients we found common triggering factors - mainly separation - that were associated with humiliation, childhood stresses, worries in regard to attractiveness and masculinity, and personality structures showing dependent-avoidant, self-insecure and sensitive traits, as described by Kretschmer. It transpired that their BDD had developed out of a self-aggravating cycle of shame, controlling actions, alienation and self-disempowerment. After a certain period their self-disempowerment then gradually transforms into a depressive cycle of despair, increased withdrawal, inward-directed anger and self-depreciation. These correlations indicate that the depressive symptomatology among these patients can be better classified as adjustment disorder in regard to their BDD than as independent major depression. Finally, we present dance/movement therapy as a promising additional psychotherapeutic approach that can complement the recognized therapy forms (serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and cognitive behavioral therapy).

  18. [The emphases and basic procedures of genetic counseling in psychotherapeutic model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Zhong, Nanbert

    2006-11-01

    The emphases and basic procedures of genetic counseling are all different with those in old models. In the psychotherapeutic model, genetic counseling will not only focus on counselees' genetic disorders and birth defects, but also their psychological problems. "Client-centered therapy" termed by Carl Rogers plays an important role in genetic counseling process. The basic procedures of psychotherapeutic model of genetic counseling include 7 steps: initial contact, introduction, agendas, inquiry of family history, presenting information, closing the session and follow-up.

  19. Psychotherapeutic Methods of Coping with Stress in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol TURAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an inevitable part of life. Knowing the ways of coping with stress are necessary to preserve our mental and physical health and to maintain good social and/or occupational func-tioning in daily life activities. Different ways of coping with stress have been developed throughout history. Various type of therapies offer quite effective remedies for coping with stress in everyday life. Among psychotherapeutic treatments cognitive behavioral therapy which involves teaching stressful individuals to develop coping strategies have yielded very promising results. It is helpful to determine first whether stress source can be changed, several therapeutic approaches may then be used. Lazarus and Folkman have identified two major approaches for coping with stress so-called “problem-focused” and “emotion-focused”. In “problem-focused” approaches targets are acquiring time management, self-monitoring, prob-lem-solving skills, while in “emotion-focused” approaches, through ways of accepting or re-jecting of stress associated negative emotions, or reconciling with these emotions, the target is learning how to keep emotions under control. “Problem-focused” and “emotion-focused” approaches may independently be used effectively in appropriate cases, their simultaneous practice may increase chances of successful treatment. Apart from these methods, psychody-namic therapy may be indicated in some cases

  20. [The imaginary in the psychic reality. Psychotherapeutic applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenson Kogan, A

    1983-12-01

    Imagery is considered an important psychotherapeutic means in many contemporary systems, in an explicit way, or implicitely. Its function is at least double. On the one hand it detains the development of personal possibilities, for it raises an unreal barrier of transference when confronting new experiences, but on the other it amplifies life by extending it towards what Gaston Bachelard calls "a reality of superabundance". It represents the discovery of new facets in the external world but, much more important in psychotherapy, the revelation of unknown aspects of oneself. Thus, for explorative aims imagery is used in tests, interviews and even anamnesis, and for furthering the cure (insight and growth) in systems such as psychodrama, Desoille's waking dreams, sensitivity training and others. The question arises: what is the source of its effectivity? In my opinion it depends on two influences: 1) images, as symbols, constitute "intermediary objects" which permit a confrontation comparatively free of anxiety with oneself and above all to envisage new forms of behaviour. These can even be rehearsed in some psychodramatic techniques or in laboratories; 2) symbols give access to psychical areas which are forbidden to a conceptual approach. Therefore, I suggest that the conquest of one's reality results, paradoxically, from incursions in unreality.

  1. Exploring Neural Correlates of Different Dimensions in Drug Craving Self-Reports among Heroin Dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani-Abharian, Peyman; Ganjgahi, Habib; Tabatabaei-Jafari, Hosein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2015-10-01

    Drug craving could be described as a motivational state which drives drug dependents towards drug seeking and use. Different types of self-reports such as craving feeling, desire and intention, wanting and need, imagery of use, and negative affect have been attributed to this motivational state. By using subjective self-reports for different correlates of drug craving along with functional neuroimaging with cue exposure paradigm, we investigated the brain regions that could correspond to different dimensions of subjective reports for heroin craving. A total of 25 crystalline-heroin smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while viewing heroin-related and neutral cues presented in a block-design task. During trial intervals, subjects verbally reported their subjective feeling of cue induced craving (CIC). After fMRI procedure, participants reported the intensity of their "need for drug use" and "drug use imagination" on a 0-100 visual analog scale (VAS). Afterwards, they completed positive and negative affect scale (PANAS) and desire for drug questionnaire (DDQ) with 3 components of "desire and intention to drug use," "negative reinforcement," and "loss of control." The study showed significant correlation between "subjective feeling of craving" and activation of the left and right anterior cingulate cortex, as well as right medial frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the "desire and intention to drug use" was correlated with activation of the left precentral gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus. Subjects also exhibited significant correlation between the "need for drug use" and activation of the right inferior temporal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Correlation between subjective report of "heroin use imagination" and activation of the cerebellar vermis was also observed. Another significant correlation was between the "negative affect" and activation of the left precuneus, right

  2. The progression of the entropy of a five dimensional psychotherapeutic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badalamenti, A.F.; Langs, R.J.

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents a study of the deterministic and stochastic behavior of the entropy of a 5-dimensional, 2400 state, system across each of six psychotherapeutic sessions. The growth of entropy was found to be logarithmic in each session. The stochastic behavior of a moving 600 second estimator of entropy revealed a Box-Jenkins model of type (1,1,0) - that is, the first difference of the entropy series was first order autoregressive or prior state sensitive. In addition, the patient and therapist entropy series exhibited no significant cross correlation across lags of -300 to +300 seconds. Yet all such pairs of series exhibited high coherency past the frequency of .06 (on a full range of 0 to .5). Furthermore, all the patients and therapists were attracted to a geometric center of mass in 5-dimensional space which was different from the geometric center of the region where the system lived. The process significance of the findings and the relationship between the deterministic and stochastic results are discussed. The paper is then placed in the broader context of our efforts to provide new and meaningful quantitative dimensions and mathematical models to psychotherapy research. 59 refs.

  3. Correlates of Protective Motivation Theory (PMT) to adolescents' drug use intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Wong, Ho Ting; Chou, Lai Yan; To, Bobby Pak Wai; Lee, Wai Lok; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2014-01-03

    Early onset and increasing proliferation of illicit adolescent drug-use poses a global health concern. This study aimed to examine the correlation between Protective Motivation Theory (PMT) measures and the intention to use drugs among adolescents. An exploratory quantitative correlation design and convenience sampling were adopted. A total of 318 students completed a self-reported questionnaire that solicited information related to their demographics and activities, measures of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and the intention to use drugs. Logistic regression analysis showed that intrinsic and extrinsic rewards were significant predictors of intention. The odds ratios were equal to 2.90 (p < 0.05) and 8.04 (p < 0.001), respectively. The logistic regression model analysis resulted in a high Nagelkerke R2 of 0.49, which suggests that PMT related measures could be used in predicting drug use intention among adolescents. Further research should be conducted with non-school adolescents to confirm the application.

  4. Distinguishing among weapons offenders, drug offenders, and weapons and drug offenders based on childhood predictors and adolescent correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Skye; Day, David M

    2013-07-01

    Weapons and drug offences incur a large cost to society and tend to be strongly associated. Improved understanding of their antecedents could inform targeted early intervention and prevention programmes. This study aimed to examine differences in criminal careers, childhood predictors and adolescent correlates among weapons-only offenders, drugs-only offenders and a versatile group of weapons + drugs offenders. We conducted a longitudinal records study of 455 young Canadians charged with drug and/or weapons offences who started their offending in late childhood/early adolescence. Consistent with expectation, differences emerged in their criminal careers as the versatile group had a longer criminal career and desisted from offending at a later age than weapons-only offenders. Against prediction, weapons-only offenders experienced the greatest number of childhood predictors and adolescent correlates. The three offending groups could be differentiated on offending trajectories and developmental factors.In making links between past events and later behaviour, life-course criminology may inform development of effective early intervention and prevention strategies.As weapons-only offenders experience the greatest level of adversity in childhood and adolescence, they may benefit most (of these three groups) from early intervention and prevention programmes.A reduction in weapon carrying and use might be achieved by early identification of children risk factors (e.g. family adversity) and appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Bioavailability studies and the clinical pharmacologist: correlation of drug distribution with clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, R I

    1975-06-01

    Bioavailability studies can be interpreted only when clinical information is available which correlates drug distribution with both efficacious and toxic clinical effects. The clinical pharmacologist should be instrumental in the development of safe and effective drug therapy by the systematic application of well designed clinical trials, the clear definition of therapeutically desirable clinical responses, and the development and application of improved techniques of measuring these effects.

  6. Psychotherapeutical effects of stimulate positive connotation in the increase of forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fernando López Pell

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents different aspects that have been related to the aptitude to forgive, emphasizing its importance for the psychotherapeutic practice in order to promote an increase of such capacity. Existing empirical evidence tends to relate forgiveness to emotional, physical and psychological well-being of the persons, and shows that the way of providing sense to the experiences influences the process of forgiveness. An alternative to increase the aptitude to forgive is proposed and results of an experimental study with 60 patients demonstrate the psychotherapeutic effects of stimulating positive connotation in the increase of forgiveness. The independent variable was the type of psychotherapeutic approach applied and the dependant variables were measured with the Aptitude to Forgive Scale (CAPER that evaluates the general predisposition of a subject to forgive, across four independent constructs: a Self, b Others, c Situation, and d Beliefs.

  7. [Guideline-adherent psychiatric psychotherapeutic treatment of bipolar disorders : Which resources are needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, A; Conell, J; Ritter, P; Ritter, D; Severus, E; Meyer, T D; Hautzinger, M; Wolff, J; Godemann, F; Reif, A; Bauer, M

    2017-03-01

    In this article the guideline-adherent psychiatric psychotherapeutic treatment of patients with bipolar disorders is outlined and the required resources are estimated. Based on the core recommendations of the S3 guidelines for diagnostics and treatment of bipolar disorders published in 2012, inpatient treatment needs in hours per week and per patient are determined for both manic and bipolar depressive episodes. The resulting staffing requirements are estimated on this basis. In summary, for guideline-adherent inpatient psychiatric psychotherapeutic treatment the additional needs regarding the physician/psychotherapeutic domain add up to 44 min per patient and week during a manic episode and 88 min for patients with bipolar depression when compared to current psychiatry staffing regulations.

  8. Neural Correlates of Stress-Induced and Cue-Induced Drug Craving: Influences of Sex and Cocaine Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potenza, Marc N; Hong, Kwang-ik Adam; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Fulbright, Robert K; Tuit, Keri L; Sinha, Rajita

    2012-01-01

    .... Objective:Although stress and drug cue exposure each increase drug craving and contribute to relapse in cocaine dependence, no previous research has directly examined the neural correlates of stress-induced...

  9. In vitro-in vivo Pharmacokinetic correlation model for quality assurance of antiretroviral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rojas Gómez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The in vitro-in vivo pharmacokinetic correlation models (IVIVC are a fundamental part of the drug discovery and development process. The ability to accurately predict the in vivo pharmacokinetic profile of a drug based on in vitro observations can have several applications during a successful development process. Objective: To develop a comprehensive model to predict the in vivo absorption of antiretroviral drugs based on permeability studies, in vitro and in vivo solubility and demonstrate its correlation with the pharmacokinetic profile in humans. Methods: Analytical tools to test the biopharmaceutical properties of stavudine, lamivudine y zidovudine were developed. The kinetics of dissolution, permeability in caco-2 cells and pharmacokinetics of absorption in rabbits and healthy volunteers were evaluated. Results: The cumulative areas under the curve (AUC obtained in the permeability study with Caco-2 cells, the dissolution study and the pharmacokinetics in rabbits correlated with the cumulative AUC values in humans. These results demonstrated a direct relation between in vitro data and absorption, both in humans and in the in vivo model. Conclusions: The analytical methods and procedures applied to the development of an IVIVC model showed a strong correlation among themselves. These IVIVC models are proposed as alternative and cost/effective methods to evaluate the biopharmaceutical properties that determine the bioavailability of a drug and their application includes the development process, quality assurance, bioequivalence studies and pharmacosurveillance. 

  10. The correlation between metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia and drug efficacy evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between metabolic syndrome(MS)and benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH)and the drug treatment of BPH.Methods 300cases of BPH patients treated between May 2011 to June2012 in our hospital and Tonghai County hospitals of traditonal Chinese medicine were included.The patients were divided into observing group(n=100)and control

  11. Prevalence and correlates of abscesses among a cohort of injection drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogg Robert S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have indicated that injection-related infections such as abscesses and cellulitis account for the majority of emergency room visits and acute hospitalizations accrued by local injection drug users. The objective of this analysis was to examine the prevalence and correlates of developing an abscess among a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver and to identify socio-demographic and drug use variables associated with abscesses at baseline. We examined abscesses among participants enrolled in a prospective cohort of injection drug users. Categorical variables were analyzed using the Pearson's chi-square test and continuous variables were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Among 1 585 baseline participants, 341 (21.5% reported having an abscess in the last six months. In a logistic regression model that adjusted for all variables that were associated with having an abscess at p

  12. Dramatyping: a generic algorithm for detecting reasonable temporal correlations between drug administration and lab value alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Newe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, one of the criteria for the standardized assessment of case causality in adverse drug reactions is the temporal relationship between the intake of a drug and the occurrence of a reaction or a laboratory test abnormality. This article presents and describes an algorithm for the detection of a reasonable temporal correlation between the administration of a drug and the alteration of a laboratory value course. The algorithm is designed to process normalized lab values and is therefore universally applicable. It has a sensitivity of 0.932 for the detection of lab value courses that show changes in temporal correlation with the administration of a drug and it has a specificity of 0.967 for the detection of lab value courses that show no changes. Therefore, the algorithm is appropriate to screen the data of electronic health records and to support human experts in revealing adverse drug reactions. A reference implementation in Python programming language is available.

  13. Dramatyping: a generic algorithm for detecting reasonable temporal correlations between drug administration and lab value alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newe, Axel

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, one of the criteria for the standardized assessment of case causality in adverse drug reactions is the temporal relationship between the intake of a drug and the occurrence of a reaction or a laboratory test abnormality. This article presents and describes an algorithm for the detection of a reasonable temporal correlation between the administration of a drug and the alteration of a laboratory value course. The algorithm is designed to process normalized lab values and is therefore universally applicable. It has a sensitivity of 0.932 for the detection of lab value courses that show changes in temporal correlation with the administration of a drug and it has a specificity of 0.967 for the detection of lab value courses that show no changes. Therefore, the algorithm is appropriate to screen the data of electronic health records and to support human experts in revealing adverse drug reactions. A reference implementation in Python programming language is available.

  14. Publication Bias in Meta-Analyses of the Efficacy of Psychotherapeutic Interventions for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Helen; Musch, Jochen; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether systematic reviews investigating psychotherapeutic interventions for depression are affected by publication bias. Only homogeneous data sets were included, as heterogeneous data sets can distort statistical tests of publication bias. Method: We applied Begg and Mazumdar's adjusted rank…

  15. Effectiveness of outpatient, day hospital, and inpatient psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with cluster B personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bartak (Anna); H. Andrea (Helene); M.D. Spreeuwenberg (Marieke); U.M. Ziegler (Uli); J.J.M. Dekker (Jack); B. van Rossum (Bert); E.F.M. Hamers (Elisabeth); W. Scholte (Wubbo); J. Aerts (Janneke); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); R. Verheul (Roel); Th. Stijnen (Theo); P.M.G. Emmelkamp (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Background: For patients with cluster B personality disor- ders there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment setting. The aim of this study was to compare the effective- ness of different psychotherapeutic settings for patients with cluster B personality disorders, i.e.

  16. Effectiveness of outpatient, day hospital, and inpatient psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with Cluster B personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartak, A.; Andrea, H.; Spreeuwenberg, M.D.; Ziegler, U.M.; Dekker, J.; Rossum, B.V.; Hamers, E.F.M; Scholte, W.; Aerts, J.; Busschbach, J.J.V.; Verheul, R.; Stijnen, T.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: For patients with cluster B personality disorders there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment setting. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different psychotherapeutic settings for patients with cluster B personality disorders, i.e. outpatient, day

  17. Dreaming the Research Process: A Psychotherapeutic Contribution to the Culture of Healthcare Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskie, Jane; Lees, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper challenges the neglect of psychotherapeutic methods in therapy research and discusses the use of methods arising directly from therapy practice to generate research data. Recent developments in therapy research culture are critiqued in order to contextualise the present contribution. The research design and methodology evolve from the…

  18. Effectiveness of a Three-Month Training Program in Psychotherapeutic Intervention for Family Practice Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Robert J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study among medical residents (n=50) at the University of Montreal and Laval University (Quebec) found that a structured series of 12 seminars dedicated to psychotherapeutic interventions by family doctors was effective in raising students' knowledge levels, perceived skills, and attitudes. Skills of the "how-to" type improved more than did…

  19. Effectiveness of outpatient, day hospital, and inpatient psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with Cluster B personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bartak; H. Andrea; M.D. Spreeuwenberg; U.M. Ziegler; J. Dekker; B.V. Rossum; E.F.M Hamers; W. Scholte; J. Aerts; J.J.V. Busschbach; R. Verheul; T. Stijnen; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2011-01-01

    Background: For patients with cluster B personality disorders there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment setting. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different psychotherapeutic settings for patients with cluster B personality disorders, i.e. outpatient, day hospital

  20. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  1. Correlation of the "EMIT" antiepileptic drug assay with a gas liquid chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz, M; Raisys, V A

    1976-02-01

    Many methodologies have been developed for determining anticonvulsant drug levels in human serum. Unfortunately, most procedures are either time consuming or subject to a variety of interferring substances. The "Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique" (EMIT) system has been evaluated for its speed, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. When compared with a gas-liquid chromatographic procedure, the EMIT assay appeared to yield results which were statistically comparable for the drugs diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital, and primidone. The EMIT assay also demonstrated no significant interference when challenged with extraordinarily high levels of potentially cross reacting drugs. Results obtained with the EMIT assay correlated well with GLC data and rank it as an attractive alternative to many of the existing procedures now being used.

  2. Correlation of in vitro and in vivo models for the oral absorption of peptide drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föger, F; Kopf, A; Loretz, B; Albrecht, K; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two in vitro models, Caco-2 monolayer and rat intestinal mucosa, regarding their linear correlation with in vivo bioavailability data of therapeutic peptide drugs after oral administration in rat and human. Furthermore the impact of molecular mass (Mm) of the according peptides on their permeability was evaluated. Transport experiments with commercially available water soluble peptide drugs were conducted using Caco-2 cell monolayer grown on transwell filter membranes and with freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa mounted in Using type chambers. Apparent permeability coefficients (P (app)) were calculated and compared with in vivo data derived from the literature. It was shown that, besides a few exceptions, the Mm of peptides linearly correlates with permeability across rat intestinal mucosa (R (2) = 0.86; y = -196.22x + 1354.24), with rat oral bioavailability (R (2) = 0.64; y = -401.90x + 1268.86) as well as with human oral bioavailability (R (2) = 0.91; y = -359.43x + 1103.83). Furthermore it was shown that P (app) values of investigated hydrophilic peptides across Caco-2 monolayer displayed lower permeability than across rat intestinal mucosa. A correlation between P (app) values across rat intestinal mucosa and in vivo oral bioavailability in human (R (2) = 0.98; y = 2.11x + 0.34) attests the rat in vitro model to be a very useful prediction model for human oral bioavailability of hydrophilic peptide drugs. Presented correlations encourage the use of the rat in vitro model for the prediction of human oral bioavailabilities of hydrophilic peptide drugs.

  3. Medication competency of nurses according to theoretical and drug calculation online exams: A descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneck, Sami; Saarnio, Reetta; Isola, Arja; Boigu, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Medication administration is an important task of registered nurses. According to previous studies, nurses lack theoretical knowledge and drug calculation skills and knowledge-based mistakes do occur in clinical practice. Finnish health care organizations started to develop a systematic verification processes for medication competence at the end of the last decade. No studies have yet been made of nurses' theoretical knowledge and drug calculation skills according to these online exams. The aim of this study was to describe the medication competence of Finnish nurses according to theoretical and drug calculation exams. A descriptive correlation design was adopted. Participants and settings All nurses who participated in the online exam in three Finnish hospitals between 1.1.2009 and 31.05.2014 were selected to the study (n=2479). Quantitative methods like Pearson's chi-squared tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to test the existence of relationships between dependent and independent variables. The majority of nurses mastered the theoretical knowledge needed in medication administration, but 5% of the nurses struggled with passing the drug calculation exam. Theoretical knowledge and drug calculation skills were better in acute care units than in the other units and younger nurses achieved better results in both exams than their older colleagues. The differences found in this study were statistically significant, but not high. Nevertheless, even the tiniest deficiency in theoretical knowledge and drug calculation skills should be focused on. It is important to identify the nurses who struggle in the exams and to plan targeted educational interventions for supporting them. The next step is to study if verification of medication competence has an effect on patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlates of Protective Motivation Theory (PMT to Adolescents’ Drug Use Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Sau Ting Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early onset and increasing proliferation of illicit adolescent drug-use poses a global health concern. This study aimed to examine the correlation between Protective Motivation Theory (PMT measures and the intention to use drugs among adolescents. An exploratory quantitative correlation design and convenience sampling were adopted. A total of 318 students completed a self-reported questionnaire that solicited information related to their demographics and activities, measures of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and the intention to use drugs. Logistic regression analysis showed that intrinsic and extrinsic rewards were significant predictors of intention. The odds ratios were equal to 2.90 (p < 0.05 and 8.04 (p < 0.001, respectively. The logistic regression model analysis resulted in a high Nagelkerke R2 of 0.49, which suggests that PMT related measures could be used in predicting drug use intention among adolescents. Further research should be conducted with non-school adolescents to confirm the application.

  5. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques.

  6. Towards a Computable Data Corpus of Temporal Correlations between Drug Administration and Lab Value Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Newe

    Full Text Available The analysis of electronic health records for an automated detection of adverse drug reactions is an approach to solve the problems that arise from traditional methods like spontaneous reporting or manual chart review. Algorithms addressing this task should be modeled on the criteria for a standardized case causality assessment defined by the World Health Organization. One of these criteria is the temporal relationship between drug intake and the occurrence of a reaction or a laboratory test abnormality. Appropriate data that would allow for developing or validating related algorithms is not publicly available, though.In order to provide such data, retrospective routine data of drug administrations and temporally corresponding laboratory observations from a university clinic were extracted, transformed and evaluated by experts in terms of a reasonable time relationship between drug administration and lab value alteration.The result is a data corpus of 400 episodes of normalized laboratory parameter values in temporal context with drug administrations. Each episode has been manually classified whether it contains data that might indicate a temporal correlation between the drug administration and the change of the lab value course, whether such a change is not observable or whether a decision between those two options is not possible due to the data. In addition, each episode has been assigned a concordance value which indicates how difficult it is to assess. This is the first open data corpus of a computable ground truth of temporal correlations between drug administration and lab value alterations.The main purpose of this data corpus is the provision of data for further research and the provision of a ground truth which allows for comparing the outcome of other assessments of this data with the outcome of assessments made by human experts. It can serve as a contribution towards systematic, computerized ADR detection in retrospective data. With

  7. Correlates of exchanging sex for drugs or money among women who use crack cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the correlates of trading sex for drugs or money among women who use crack cocaine. Using baseline data (n = 669) from a woman-focused HIV intervention study among African American women who use crack cocaine, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine the odds of trading sex associated with distal and proximal factors. The results indicate that heavier crack use, homelessness, and unemployment are associated with trading sex. In addition, childhood abuse is associated with trading sex and this relationship is, in part, mediated by psychological distress. This suggests that distal factors may underlie the relationship between current variables and sex trading. These findings underscore the importance for public health interventions to address both distal and proximal factors that contribute to and/or co-occur with women's drug use which, in turn, may affect their HIV risk and overall well-being.

  8. Integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce multiple psychiatric symptoms of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden: randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Lee, J. van der; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of an integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program (integrative reactivation and rehabilitation [IRR]) to reduce multiple neuropsychiatry symptoms (MNPS) of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden (CB). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTIN

  9. Discourse-voice regulatory strategies in the psychotherapeutic interaction: a state-space dynamics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tomicic,Alemka; Martínez, Claudio; PÉREZ,J. CAROLA; Hollenstein, Tom; Angulo, Salvador; Gerstmann, Adam; Barroux, Isabelle; Krause, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient–therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed ...

  10. Discourse-Voice Regulatory Strategies in the Psychotherapeutic Interaction: A State-Space Dynamics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alemka eTomicic; Claudio eMartínez; J. Carola ePérez; Tom eHollenstein; Salvador eAngulo; Adam eGerstmann; Isabelle eBarroux; Mariane eKrause

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient-therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed ...

  11. Psychotherapeutic approaches to non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn Jason J; Richardt Sarah L; Styer Denise M; Gebhardt Michelle; Juzwin K R; Yourek Adrienne; Aldridge Delia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents is gaining increasing attention in both clinical and scientific arenas. The lifetime prevalence of NSSI is estimated to vary between 7.5% to 8% for preadolescents, increasing to between 12% and 23% for adolescents. Despite the prevalence and the increasing interest in NSSI, few psychotherapeutic treatments have been designed specifically for NSSI, and no treatments have been evaluated specifically for the treatment of NSSI among adole...

  12. Psychotherapeutic correction and rehabilitation of mental disorders in pregnant women with threatened miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Kupriyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the efficiency of psychotherapeutic correction of mental disorders in pregnant women with threatened miscarriage.Patients and methods. Psychotherapy for mental disorders and prenosological conditions was performed in 84 pregnant women aged 18 to 41 years with threatened miscarriage. The efficiency of performed measures was evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire, Spielberger–Hanin’s scale, and a therapy efficiency assessment scale in patients with borderline states. Delivery outcomes were analyzed in relation to management tactics in this cohort of pregnant women. The health status of newborn infants was assessed by the neonatologists of maternity hospitals.Results and discussion. After psychotherapeutic correction, the quality-of-life indicators in the pregnant women with threatened miscarriage from the study group were significantly higher than in those from the comparison group. The level of reactive and personality anxiety significantly decreased in the pregnant women in the study group. The pregnant women with the asthenic variant of prenosological conditions and those who had ICD-10 diagnoses F40-48 were most successful in the context of psychotherapeutic rehabilitation. Sporadic cases of incomplete recovery were noted when psychotherapeutical support was got. In the study group, pregnancy resulted in full-term babies in 100% of the women. In the pregnant women with prenosological conditions and mental disorders from the study group, parturition proceeded significantlymore rapidly than in those from the comparison study. Significantly higher physical quotients were found in the newborn babies from the study group parturients. The psychotherapy that supplements the complex system of therapeutic measures has been shown to be highly effective in the women with threatened miscarriage accompanied by mental disorders.

  13. Psychotherapeutical effects of stimulate positive connotation in the increase of forgiveness

    OpenAIRE

    López Pell, Andrés Fernando; Kasanzew, Alexis; Fernández,María Soledad

    2009-01-01

    This work presents different aspects that have been related to the aptitude to forgive, emphasizing its importance for the psychotherapeutic practice in order to promote an increase of such capacity. Existing empirical evidence tends to relate forgiveness to emotional, physical and psychological well-being of the persons, and shows that the way of providing sense to the experiences influences the process of forgiveness. An alternative to increase the aptitude to forgive is proposed and result...

  14. Psychotherapeutic benefits of compassion-focused therapy: an early systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Leaviss, J.; Uttley, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Compassion-focused therapy (CFT) is a relatively novel form of psychotherapy that was developed for people who have mental health problems primarily linked to high shame and self-criticism. The aim of this early systematic review was to draw together the current research evidence of the effectiveness of CFT as a psychotherapeutic intervention, and to provide recommendations that may inform the development of further trials.\\ud \\ud Method. A comprehensive search of electronic datab...

  15. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa - a psychotherapeutic cognitive-constructivist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cristiano Nabuco de; Cangelli Filho, Raphael

    2017-06-01

    Of the eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the ones that have made adolescent patients-often females and aged younger and younger-seek for help. This help is provided through a multidisciplinary treatment involving psychiatrists, psychologists and dietists. Psychotherapy has shown to be an efficient component for these patients' improvement. The present article aims at presenting a proposal of psychotherapeutic treatment based on a cognitive-constructivist approach.

  16. [Psychotherapeutic Interventions in Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Valencia, Jenny; Ahunca Velásquez, Luisa Fernanda; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Palacio Acosta, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the psychotherapeutic strategies designed to improve the outcomes in adults with schizophrenia in both, acute and stable phase of disease. This evidence is used to propose recommendation in the guidelines of integral attention for the diagnosis, treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of adults with schizophrenia. A guideline for clinical practice was developed using the methodological framework of the Ministerio de la Protección Social to collect evidence and grading recommendations. A search, evaluation and synthesis of evidence were carried out. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The cognitive behavioral therapy showed higher efficacy, compared with the usual treatment, to reduce positive symptoms, prevent relapses and hospital readmissions and to improve the occupational stats. However, the quality of evidence was low. There was not enough evidence about the efficacy of adherence, psychodynamic and support therapy. Psychotherapeutic management must be offered to the patients with schizophrenia according to their needs and clinical characteristics. Among the different psychotherapeutic modalities, cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Geriatric Logotherapy: Exploring the Psychotherapeutics of Memory in Treating the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Morgan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Geriatric Logotherapy is an analytical approach designed to address issues uniquely confronted in the counseling encounter with the elderly and is an adaptation of the psychotherapeutic school of thought known as Logotherapy. Logotherapy is a type of psychotherapeutic analysis and treatment which focuses on a will to meaning, founded upon the belief that striving to find meaning in one's life is the primary, most powerful motivating and driving force within the human experience. Sometimes called existential analysis, logotherapy grew out of the psychiatric research and personal experience of Viktor Frankl, M.D., based on his internment experience in Germany. Known as the Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy (Freud and Adler being the founders of the First and Second Schools, logotherapy as a school of thought emphasizes existential reflection rather than psychoanalytic repression, focusing upon the concept and centrality of “meaning” in one’s life rather than Freud’s “pleasure principle” and Adler’s “will to power.” This article explores, then, the application of this school of psychotherapeutic theory and practice to the psychological care and treatment of the elderly, emphasizing the “existential efficacy of the good memory” as an analytical tool for emotional nurture with emphasis upon “immediacy” rather than “longevity” of care and treatment.

  18. Efficacy of brief interdisciplinary psychotherapeutic intervention for motor conversion disorder and nonepileptic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubschmid, M; Aybek, S; Maccaferri, G E; Chocron, O; Gholamrezaee, M M; Rossetti, A O; Vingerhoets, F; Berney, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to compare a brief interdisciplinary psychotherapeutic intervention to standard care as treatments for patients recently diagnosed with severe motor conversion disorder or nonepileptic attacks. This randomized controlled trial of 23 consecutive patients compared (a) an interdisciplinary psychotherapeutic intervention group receiving four to six sessions by a consultation liaison psychiatrist, the first and last sessions adding a neurological consultation and a joint psychiatric and neurological consultation, and (b) a standard care group. After intervention, patients were assessed at 2, 6 and 12 months with the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20), Clinical Global Impression scale, Rankin scale, use of medical care, global mental health [Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, mental health component of Short Form (SF)-36] and quality of life (SF-36). We calculated linear mixed models. Our intervention brought a statistically significant improvement of physical symptoms [as measured by the SDQ-20 (P<.02) and the Clinical Global Impression scale (P=.02)] and psychological symptoms [better scores on the mental health component of the SF-36 (P<.05) and on the Beck Depression Inventory (P<.05)] and a reduction in new hospital stays after intervention (P<.05). A brief psychotherapeutic intervention taking advantage of a close collaboration with neurology consultants in the setting of consultation liaison psychiatry appears effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Adherence to psychopharmacological treatment: Psychotherapeutic strategies to enhance adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencer, R; Korn, D

    2015-05-01

    Effective psychopharmacological medication with good tolerability represents the cornerstone of treatment for severe mental illness; however, the 1-year adherence rates are only approximately 50%. The term adherence emphasizes the collaborative responsibility of the clinician and the patient for a positive treatment outcome. Reasons for non-adherence are manifold and include patient-specific factors, such as self-stigmatization, lack of social and familial support, cognitive impairment and substance use besides insufficient effectiveness and the occurrence of side effects of the psychotropic drugs. To enhance adherence, both clinician and patient have to fully understand all the reasons for and against adherence to medication before a collaborative decision is made on future long-term treatment. A positive attitude towards medication critically depends on whether patients feel that the medication supports the attainment of the individual goals.

  20. Correlates of Sex Trading among Drug-Involved Women in Committed Intimate Relationships: A Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    Despite a slight decline in new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in New York, marked increases and concentrated epidemics continue among subsets of the population, including women engaged in sex trading. We examined the prevalence and correlates of sex trading among 346 low-income, HIV-negative women in HIV-concordant intimate relationships. Women and their long-term main partners were recruited to participate in an HIV prevention intervention. Baseline data were used in this article. Of the 346 women in the study, 28% reported sex trading during the prior 90 days. Multivariate analyses showed increased relative risk of sex trading by lifetime experience of severe intimate partner violence (IPV), drug, and alcohol use, and marginal significance for mental health hospitalization, partner drug dependency, and homelessness. These findings suggest an urgent need for HIV prevention and intervention efforts targeted toward women in intimate relationships who trade sex for money or drugs, with an emphasis on IPV, mental health, history of incarceration, and substance abuse. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CLINICAL, NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF DRUG RESISTANT JUVENILE MYOCLONIC EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to find the clinical, neuropsychologic, EEG and TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation characteristics of patients with treatment resistant Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME. JME diagnosis was according to the criteria defined by Classification and Terminology Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy. For the purpose of this study, ‘treatment resistance’ was defined as having two or more generalized tonic - clonic sei zures (GTCS or disabling myoclonus resulting in falls, while on optimal dose of a first - line anti - epileptic drug for JME, with proper compliance. All the patients with JME presenting during the study period underwent detailed clinical and EEG evaluation. Hospital Anxiety and Depression score (HADS was used to screen for anxiety and depression. Single and paired pulse (TMS parameters were used to measure cortical excitability. We identified 190 patients with JME during the study period, of which 30 (15.8% were diagnosed as having treatment resistance JME. Patients with drug resistant JME were found to have statistically significant markers in the form of - later age of onset of myoclonic jerks, absence of typical early morning myoclonia, higher scores for depression and anxiety, low IQ scores and persistent EEG abnormalities while on treatment. Frequency of GTCS showed inverse correlation with IQ scores and direct correlation to the anxiety/depression scores. These patients also had paradoxically decreased cortical excitability, probably related to the high antiepileptic drug doses they were taking. We conclude that treatment resistance in JME is not very rare and that such patients form a distinct subtype with certain atypical clinical and electrophysiolog ical characteristics, with a higher risk of developing anxiety and depression

  2. Psychosocial Characteristics of Drug-Abusing Women. Services Research Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Marvin R.; And Others

    In recent years considerable attention has been paid to the status of women as drug abusers and as clients in drug treatment programs. A study of drug abusers' characteristics found a significantly higher history of non-medical psychotherapeutic drug use for females than for males; however, males had a higher prevalence of illicit drug use.…

  3. Driving under the influence of drugs -- evaluation of analytical data of drugs in oral fluid, serum and urine, and correlation with impairment symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toennes, Stefan W; Kauert, Gerold F; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Moeller, Manfred R

    2005-09-10

    A study was performed to acquire urine, serum and oral fluid samples in cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs of abuse. Oral fluid was collected using a novel sampling/testing device (Dräger DrugTest System). The aim of the study was to evaluate oral fluid and urine as a predictor of blood samples positive for drugs and impairment symptoms. Analysis for cannabinoids, amphetamine and its derivatives, opiates and cocaine was performed in urine using the Mahsan Kombi/DOA4-test, in serum using immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation and in oral fluid by GC-MS. Police and medical officer observations of impairment symptoms were rated and evaluated using a threshold value for the classification of driving inability. Accuracy in correlating drug detection in oral fluid and serum were >90% for all substances and also >90% in urine and serum except for THC (71.0%). Of the cases with oral fluid positive for any drug 97.1% of corresponding serum samples were also positive for at least one drug; of drug-positive urine samples this were only 82.4%. In 119 of 146 cases, impairment symptoms above threshold were observed (81.5%). Of the cases with drugs detected in serum, 19.1% appeared not impaired which were the same with drug-positive oral fluid while more persons with drug-positive urine samples appeared uninfluenced (32.7%). The data demonstrate that oral fluid is superior to urine in correlating with serum analytical data and impairment symptoms of drivers under the influence of drugs of abuse.

  4. Rapid screening of anti-infective drug products for counterfeits using Raman spectral library-based correlation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loethen, Yvette L; Kauffman, John F; Buhse, Lucinda F; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2015-11-07

    A new spectral library-based approach that is capable of screening a diverse set of finished drug products using only an active pharmaceutical ingredient spectral library is described in this paper. This approach obviates the need for a comprehensive drug product library, thereby streamlining the use of spectral library-based tests for anti-counterfeiting efforts, specifically to target finished drug products containing the wrong active ingredient or no active ingredient at all. Both laboratory-based and portable spectrometers are used in the study to demonstrate the usefulness and transferability of the spectral correlation method for field screening. The spectral correlation between the active pharmaceutical ingredient and finished drug product spectra is calculated using both full spectral analysis and targeted spectral regions analysis of six types of antimalarial, antibiotic and antiviral products. The spectral regions were determined using a moving window spectral correlation algorithm, and the use of specific spectral regions is shown to be crucial in screening finished drug products using only the active pharmaceutical ingredient spectrum. This comprehensive screening spectral correlation method is tested on seven different validation samples from different manufacturers as those used to develop the method, as well as simulated counterfeits which were prepared to mimic falsified drugs containing no active ingredient. The spectral correlation method is successful in correctly identifying 100% of the authentic products and simulated counterfeit samples tested.

  5. Patterns and Correlates of Drug Use Among Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Killip, Jack; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A drug-use survey was administered in a large metropolitan, middle class high school to test two hypotheses: a. drug users can be divided according to the types of drugs used (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana vs. opiates, LSD, amphetamines, etc.); and, b. respondents' drug use is significantly related to their peers drug use. Both hypotheses were…

  6. Patterns and Correlates of Drug Use Among Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Killip, Jack; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A drug-use survey was administered in a large metropolitan, middle class high school to test two hypotheses: a. drug users can be divided according to the types of drugs used (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana vs. opiates, LSD, amphetamines, etc.); and, b. respondents' drug use is significantly related to their peers drug use. Both hypotheses were…

  7. Identifying prognostic features by bottom-up approach and correlating to drug repositioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Traditionally top-down method was used to identify prognostic features in cancer research. That is to say, differentially expressed genes usually in cancer versus normal were identified to see if they possess survival prediction power. The problem is that prognostic features identified from one set of patient samples can rarely be transferred to other datasets. We apply bottom-up approach in this study: survival correlated or clinical stage correlated genes were selected first and prioritized by their network topology additionally, then a small set of features can be used as a prognostic signature.Gene expression profiles of a cohort of 221 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients were used as a training set, 'bottom-up' approach was applied to discover gene-expression signatures associated with survival in both tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues, and compared with 'top-down' approach. The results were validated in a second cohort of 82 patients which was used as a testing set.Two sets of gene signatures separately identified in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues by bottom-up approach were developed in the training cohort. These two signatures were associated with overall survival times of HCC patients and the robustness of each was validated in the testing set, and each predictive performance was better than gene expression signatures reported previously. Moreover, genes in these two prognosis signature gave some indications for drug-repositioning on HCC. Some approved drugs targeting these markers have the alternative indications on hepatocellular carcinoma.Using the bottom-up approach, we have developed two prognostic gene signatures with a limited number of genes that associated with overall survival times of patients with HCC. Furthermore, prognostic markers in these two signatures have the potential to be therapeutic targets.

  8. In vivo-in vitro correlations: predicting pulmonary drug deposition from pharmaceutical aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Peter R; Hindle, Michael; Lange, Carlos F; Longest, P Worth; McRobbie, Donald; Oldham, Michael J; Olsson, Bo; Thiel, Charles G; Wachtel, Herbert; Finlay, Warren H

    2010-12-01

    In order to answer the question "what research remains to be done?" we review the current state of the art in pharmaceutical aerosol deposition modeling and explore possible in vivo- in vitro correlations (IVIVC) linking drug deposition in the human lung to predictions made using in vitro physical airway models and in silico computer models. The use of physical replicas of portions of the respiratory tract is considered, alongside the advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging methods used to obtain their dimensions. The use of airway replicas to determine drug deposition in vitro is discussed and compared with the predictions from different empirical curve fits to long-standing in vivo deposition data for monodisperse aerosols. The use of improved computational models and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict aerosol deposition within the respiratory tract is examined. CFD's ability to predict both drug deposition from pharmaceutical aerosol sprays and powder behavior in dry powder inhalers is examined; both were highlighted as important areas for future research. Although the authors note the abilities of current in vitro and in silico methods to predict in vivo data, a number of limitations remain. These include our present inability to either image or replicate all but the most proximal airways in sufficient spatial and temporal detail to allow full capture of the fluid and aerosol mechanics in these regions. In addition, the highly complex microscale behavior of aerosols within inhalers and the respiratory tract places extreme computational demands on in silico methods. When the complexity of variations in respiratory tract geometry is associated with additional factors such as breathing pattern, age, disease state, postural position, and patient-device interaction are all considered, it is clear that further research is required before the prediction of all aspects of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosol deposition is possible.

  9. Regulatory Experience with In Vivo In Vitro Correlations (IVIVC) in New Drug Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Sharp, Sandra; Li, Min; Duan, John; Shah, Heta; Seo, Paul

    2016-11-01

    In the past two decades, in vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC) has been considered an important tool for supporting biowaivers, setting dissolution acceptance criteria, and more recently in the Quality by Design (QbD) framework promoting the establishment of clinically meaningful drug product specifications using dissolution as the endpoint. Based on our review experience at the FDA, for the purposes of this article, we analyzed the current state of regulatory submissions containing IVIVC approaches and discussed the successes and failures from the perspectives of study design to methodology. In the past decade, the overall acceptance rate of the IVIVC submissions is about 40%. Moreover, the number of IVIVC studies seen in the submissions per year is not increasing. Establishing clinically meaningful drug product specifications through the linkages between the identified critical quality attributes and in vivo performance is key for developing a quality drug product. To achieve this goal, there is an imminent need for addressing the issues behind a low success rate in IVIVC development. The results from the current analysis revealed that special considerations should be taken in areas such as (1) selection of appropriate number/kind of formulations for IVIVC development/validation, (2) construction of exploratory plots to guide model building and selection, (3) investigation of the reasons of inconclusive predictability, (4) improvement on the quality and richness of the data, and (5) avoidance of over parameterization. The development and incorporation of biopredictive dissolution methods and the use of non-conventional approaches, including mechanistic/physiologically based approaches, should be explored to increase the likelihood of IVIVC success.

  10. Correlation between microstructure and bioequivalence in anti-HIV drug efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandaruff, Cinira; Segatto Silva, Marcos Antônio; Galindo Bedor, Danilo Cesar; de Santana, Davi Pereira; Rocha, Helvécio Vinícius Antunes; Rebuffi, Luca; Azanza Ricardo, Cristy Leonor; Scardi, Paolo; Cuffini, Silvia Lucia

    2015-04-01

    Polymorphism and particle size distribution can impact the dissolution behaviour and, as a consequence, bioavailability and bioequivalence of poorly soluble drugs, such as Efavirenz (EFV). Nevertheless, these characteristics do not explain some failures occurring in in vitro assays and in in vivo studies. EFV belongs to Class II and the High Activity Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is considered the best choice in the treatment of adults and children. EFV is a drug that needs bioequivalence studies for generic compounds. In this work, six raw materials were analyzed and two of them were utilized with human volunteers (in vivo assays or bioequivalence). All the routine pharmaceutical controls of raw materials were approved; however, the reasons for the failure of the bioequivalence assay could not be explained with current knowledge. The aim of this work was to study microstructure, a solid-state property of current interest in the pharmaceutical area, in order to find an explanation for the dissolution and bioequivalence behaviour. The microstructure of EFV raw materials was studied by Whole Powder Pattern Modelling (WPPM) of X-ray powder diffraction data. Results for different EFV batches showed the biorelevance of the crystalline domain size, and a clear correlation with in vitro (dissolution tests) and in vivo assays (bioequivalence).

  11. The correlation between HTA recommendations and reimbursement status of orphan drugs in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kawalec, Paweł; Sagan, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to review and compare types of reimbursement recommendations for orphan drugs issued by eight European health technology assessment (HTA) agencies and the reimbursement status of these drugs in the corresponding countries. Separate calculations were also performed for three sub-groups: ultra-orphan drugs, oncology orphan drugs and other (non-ultra, non-oncology) orphan drugs. Results We reviewed drugs authorized by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) betwee...

  12. Adaptation of instruments developed to study the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushanikova, Anastasia A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to adapt for use in Russian-language contexts a set of instruments that assess the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic practices. The instruments explore the effectiveness of different types of therapy, without evaluating the abstract, idealized characteristics or specifics of each approach, specialist, or therapeutic case. The adapted instruments are based on reflective data about the significance of therapeutic events, from the point of view of both the client and the therapist. We translated, edited, and adapted forms developed by John McLeod and Mick Cooper — a “Goals Form”, a “Goal Assessment Form”, a “Post-Session Form”, and a “Therapy Personalization Form”. The adaption was intended to cohere with the stylistic and cultural aspects of the Russian language. The research showed that the instruments and the methods have great potential for practical and theoretical application in qualitative studies to formulate hypotheses and to verify them in quantitative studies. The phenomenological analysis reveals the reliability, appropriateness, and validity of the adapted instruments for identifying specific meanings of the psychotherapeutic cases considered. The instruments can be used in studies exploring helpful aspects and effectiveness in different types of therapy (cognitive, existential, outdoor therapy, online counseling, etc. with different groups of clients. It is reasonable to continue the use of the Russian-language version of the instruments in further studies exploring the effectiveness of psychological practices. The adapted instruments facilitate comparison and cross-cultural studies, and formulation of meaningful hypotheses about the effectiveness and quality of the psychotherapeutic process.

  13. Therapists' attitudes towards psychotherapeutic strategies in community-based psychotherapy with children with disruptive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Garland, Ann F; Taylor, Robin; Zoffness, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about what individual treatment strategies therapists providing usual care psychotherapy consider the most valuable to their practice. The Therapeutic Strategies Survey (TSS) assesses therapists' attitudes about the value of 27 individual treatment strategies in their practice with children with disruptive behavior problems in community-based outpatient psychotherapy. Findings indicate that therapists from multiple professional disciplines highly value many individual psychotherapeutic strategies, and consider strategies common to a majority of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for this population at least as important as strategies not emphasized in EBPs. Implications for developing therapist training and implementation of EBPs are discussed.

  14. Relationship between incident types and impact on patients in drug name errors: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Toshikazu; Irisa, Toshihiro; Ohata, Shunichi; Kokubu, Chiyo; Kanaya, Akiko; Sueyasu, Masanori; Egashira, Nobuaki; Masuda, Satohiro

    2015-01-01

    There are many reports regarding various medical institutions' attempts at incident prevention, but the relationship between incident types and impact on patients in drug name errors has not been studied. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between them, while also assessing the relationship between preparation and inspection errors. Furthermore, the present study aimed to clarify the incident types that lead to severe patient damage. The investigation object in this study was restricted to "drug name errors", preparation and inspection errors in them were classified into three categories (similarity of drug efficacy, similarity of drug name, similarity of drug appearance) or two groups (drug efficacy similarity (+) group, drug efficacy similarity (-) group). Then, the relationship between preparation and inspection errors was investigated in three categories, the relationship between incident types and impact on patients was examined in two groups. The frequency of preparation errors was liable to be caused by the following order: similarity of drug efficacy > similarity of drug name > similarity of drug appearance. In contrast, the rate of inspection errors was liable to be caused by the following order: similarity of drug efficacy < similarity of drug name < similarity of drug appearance. In addition, the number of preparation errors in the drug efficacy similarity (-) group was fewer than that in the drug efficacy similarity (+) group. However, the rate of inspection errors in the drug efficacy similarity (-) group was significantly higher than that in the drug efficacy similarity (+) group. Furthermore, the occupancy rate of preparation errors, incidents more than Level 0, 1, and 2 in the drug efficacy similarity (-) group increased gradually according to the rise of patient damage. Our results suggest that preparation errors caused by the similarity of drug appearance and/or drug name are likely to lead to the incidents (inspection errors

  15. Correlation of different phenotypic drug susceptibility testing methods for four fluoroquinolones in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeck, Nele; de Jong, Bouke C; Diels, Maren; de Rijk, Pim; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Van Deun, Armand; Rigouts, Leen

    2016-05-01

    Molecular resistance testing fails to explain all fluoroquinolone resistance, with a continued need for a suitable rapid phenotypic drug susceptibility testing method. To evaluate the optimal method for phenotypic fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing. Using Löwenstein-Jensen medium, Middlebrook 7H11 agar, BACTEC-MGIT 960 and the resazurin microtitre plate assay, we determined susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and investigated cross-resistance between ofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. We compared MICs of all four fluoroquinolones for 91 strains on Löwenstein-Jensen (as the gold standard) with their MICs in resazurin plates, and with ofloxacin susceptibility at a single concentration in MGIT and on 7H11 agar, in addition to sequencing of the gyrAB genes. Applying a cut-off of 2 mg/L ofloxacin, 1 mg/L levofloxacin and 0.5 mg/L moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin in all methods, some discordance between solid medium and MGIT methods was observed, yet this tended to be explained by MICs around the cut-off. The high discordance between Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and resazurin plates suggests that the currently applied cut-offs for all fluoroquinolones in the resazurin method should decrease and minor changes in colour (from blue to purple) be considered as meaningful. High-level resistance in all assays to all drugs correlated well with the presence of gyrA mutations, in support of recent findings that fluoroquinolone resistance should be tested at different concentrations, as patients with lower levels of resistance may continue to benefit from high-dose fluoroquinolone-based therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  16. Expression of Annexin A2 and Its Correlation With Drug Resistance and Recurrence of Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huihui; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Man

    2016-12-01

    To explore the expressions of annexin A2 in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer tissues, we want to find the relationship among annexin A2, drug resistance, and recurrence of bladder cancer. Our laboratory established the PUMC-91 bladder cancer cell line against gradient concentration of Adriamycin (0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 μg/mL), and we also collected 60 cases of surgically resected bladder cancer recurrent tissue samples. The tissues were classified into 2 groups according to the frequency of recurrence (2 years) after initial surgery. The method of immunohistochemistry was used to examine the differences in the expression of annexin A2. There were statistical differences in annexin A2 among normal bladder epithelial cell line SV-HUC-1, PUMC-91, PUMC-91 against 0.3 μg/mL Adriamycin, and PUMC-91 against 1.0 μg/mL Adriamycin (P 2 years (P = .002) in the bladder cancer tissues and that recurred at <6 months after initial surgery. It was also associated with invasion depth (stage) of bladder cancer, such as higher expression in T2 (invasive muscular) group than Tis (carcinoma in situ) and T1 (invasive mucosa lamina propria) groups (P = .003 and P = .000, respectively). But, it did not correlate with the differentiation (grade) of cancer cells in bladder cancer tissues (P = .593). Annexin A2 can act as a valuable biomarker for predicting the drug resistance and recurrence of bladder cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Treasure Hunt - a serious game to support psychotherapeutic treatment of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    Computer and video games for children have gained negative publicity due to reported associations between intensive gaming and aggressive behaviour, school failure, and overweight. While most studies centre upon negative consequences of video games, their innovative potentials tend to be overlooked. One field for the innovative use of computer games is child psychotherapy. By including therapeutic concepts into a video game, children can be offered attractive electronic homework assignments that enable them to rehearse and repeat basic psychoeducational concepts they have learned during therapy sessions. Moreover, therapeutic games can help therapists to structure therapy sessions. Psychotherapeutic computer games translated into foreign languages could form a useful tool in the treatment of migrant children. 'Treasure Hunt' is the first serious game based on principles of cognitive behaviour modification. It is developed for eight to twelve year old children who are in cognitive-behavioural treatment for various disorders. Reactions of children and therapists to experimental versions of the game are positive. Serious games might prove a useful tool to support psychotherapeutic treatment of children.

  18. Discourse-voice regulatory strategies in the psychotherapeutic interaction: a state-space dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomicic, Alemka; Martínez, Claudio; Pérez, J Carola; Hollenstein, Tom; Angulo, Salvador; Gerstmann, Adam; Barroux, Isabelle; Krause, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient-therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the state space grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the dynamic systems theory (DST). The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialog, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode.

  19. Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Aleem

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: As platelets secrete and express a number of crucial mediators of coagulation and inflammation, coagulation and inflammatory cascades may play a positive role in chronic urticaria, paving the way for better understanding of pathogenesis and introduction of newer drugs.

  20. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  1. Biopharmaceutical characterization of oral controlled/modified-release drug products. In vitro/in vivo correlation of roxatidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, A; Möller, H; Wirbitzki, E

    1998-11-01

    From the marketed drug product Roxane(R) 75 mg C/MR capsules (roxatidine controlled/modified-release capsules), an in vitro/in vivo comparison was performed to demonstrate a 1:1 correlation between in vitro and in vivo dissolution, and, furthermore, to ensure bioequivalence of the roxatidine controlled/modified-release (C/MR) capsules exhibiting dissolution profiles within the defined acceptance criteria. This 1:1 in vitro/in vivo comparison was calculated using a model independent numerical deconvolution method. The high degree of correlation is extremely rare, nevertheless it allows to omit the testing of clinical side batches for the setting of acceptance criteria for the in vitro dissolution of roxatidine controlled/modified-release (C/MR) capsules. The 1:1 in vitro/in vivo correlation can be explained by the biopharmaceutical characteristics of the drug substance as well as the drug product, that is, pH-independent high solubility of the drug substance as well as dissolution which is independent of pH and agitation. These facts lead to a controlled/modified-release formulation. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that in most cases in which a pH-dependent solubility/dissolution as well as permeability characteristics can be found, a 1:1 in vitro/in vivo correlation could not be expected.

  2. Patterns and correlates of illicit drug selling among youth in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmedani B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael G Vaughn1, Jeffrey J Shook2, Brian E Perron3, Arnelyn Abdon4, Brian Ahmedani51School of Social Work, School of Public Health and Department of Public Policy Studies, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA; 4School of Economics, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; 5Henry Ford Health System, Detroit MI, USAPurpose: Despite the high rates of drug selling among youth in juvenile justice and youth residing in disadvantage neighborhoods, relatively little is known about the patterns of illicit drug selling among youth in the general population.Methods: Using the public-use data file from the adolescent sample (N = 17 842 in the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, this study employed multiple logistic regression to compare the behavioral, parental involvement, and prevention experiences of youth who sold and did not sell illicit drugs in the past year.Results: Findings from a series of logistic regression models indicated youth who sold drugs were far more likely to use a wide variety of drugs and engage in delinquent acts. Drug-selling youth were significantly less likely to report having a parent involved in their life and have someone to talk to about serious problems but were more likely to report exposure to drug prevention programming.Conclusion: Selling of drugs by youth appears to be a byproduct of substance abuse and deviance proneness, and the prevention programs these youth experience are likely a result of mandated exposure derived from contact with the criminal justice system. Assuming no major drug supply side reductions, policies, and practices associated with increasing drug abuse treatment, parental involvement and supervision, and school engagement are suggested.Keywords: drug distribution, prevention, adolescent risk, youth experiences, parental

  3. [Effectiveness of an inpatient multimodal psychiatric-psychotherapeutic program for the treatment of job burnout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Kathleen; Conrad, Nathalie; Straus, Doris; Porschke, Hildburg; von Känel, Roland

    2016-03-16

    We studied the clinical course and long-term effects of inpatient treatment in 723 patients with job burnout referred with an ICD-10 F diagnosis and Z73.0 code («overwhelming exhaustion») to a Swiss hospital specialized in the treatment of job stress-related disorders. Patients were characterized in terms of age, gender, socioeconomic status. Self-rated psychological measures related to general and burnout-specific symptoms (i. e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished personal accomplishments) were applied before and after a six-week treatment program, as well as at 15 months after hospital discharge in 232 patients. The results show that the multimodal inpatient psychiatric-psychotherapeutic treatment was successful with a sustainable effect on psychological well-being (>90 %), including improvements regarding emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishments as well as professional reintegration in 71 % of cases.

  4. Verbal communication as a case of study in a psychotherapeutic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniszewska Żanna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the psychological aspects of verbal communication, its role in the process of communication and realization of personality in society. Human speech is taken up as means of expression of individuality and his/her inner world. The features of speech are used in psychotherapeutic activity as an instrument for research of individual traits and communicative behaviour of a person. The development of active and empathic listening is an important part of psychotherapy aimed at the improvement of communicative skills in the intercourse. The important components in the process of research and correction of verbal behaviour are metacommunication and focusing on the process. The psychological prosecution of these aspects of verbal communication affects the improvement of communication efficiency and as a result influences adaptation and development of a personality in the society.

  5. [The usefulness of the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI-18) in psychotherapeutic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Gabriele Helga; Ankerhold, Annegret; Haase, Matthais; Jäger, Susanne; Tögel, Christfried; Ulrich, Cornelia; Frommer, Jörg

    2011-02-01

    The BSI-18, an abridged version of the Brief Symptom Inventory of Derogatis, contains the 3 six items scales Somatization, Depression, Anxiety, and the Global Score (GSI). In a sample of N=638 psychotherapeutic patients, reliability and validity were proven. Reliability of the 3 scales was good: Somatization α=0.79, Depression α=0.84, Anxiety α=0.84, and GSI α=0.91. The postulated three-factor structure was proven sufficiently using confirmatory and explorative factor analyses. The questionnaire separated different patients groups. Judgments of the therapists corresponded well with the self-rating behavior of the patients. In conclusion, the psychometric evaluation of the BSI-18 resulted in persuasive evidence for its reliability and validity. The loss of information, as a result of item reduction, is acceptable analyzing large samples; in cases of individual analyses, the SCL-90-R is advised. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Psychotherapeutic approaches to non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Jason J; Richardt, Sarah L; Styer, Denise M; Gebhardt, Michelle; Juzwin, K R; Yourek, Adrienne; Aldridge, Delia

    2012-03-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents is gaining increasing attention in both clinical and scientific arenas. The lifetime prevalence of NSSI is estimated to vary between 7.5% to 8% for preadolescents, increasing to between 12% and 23% for adolescents. Despite the prevalence and the increasing interest in NSSI, few psychotherapeutic treatments have been designed specifically for NSSI, and no treatments have been evaluated specifically for the treatment of NSSI among adolescents. Consequently, child and adolescent clinicians are left with little evidence-based guidance for treating this challenging population. To provide some guidance, evaluations of treatments for adults with NSSI and for adolescents with related conditions, such as deliberate self-harm and borderline personality disorder, are reviewed. Clinical guidelines and resources are also discussed to assist with the gaps in the knowledge base for treatment of NSSI among adolescents.

  7. Cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic treatment at a psychiatric trauma clinic for Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Christine Cæcilie Böck; Andersen, Ida; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    for traumatized refugees incorporating exposure therapy, mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 85 patients received six months' treatment at a Copenhagen Trauma Clinic for Refugees and completed self-ratings before and after treatment. The treatment administered to each patient...... and the observed change. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that CBT treatment incorporating mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy is promising for traumatized refugees and punctures the myth that this group of patients are unable to participate fully in structured CBT. However, treatment methods must......INTRODUCTION: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with trauma focus is the most evidence supported psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, but few CBT treatments for traumatized refugees have been described in detail. PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate a manualized cognitive behavioral therapy...

  8. Cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic treatment at a psychiatric trauma clinic for refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Cæcilie; Andersen, Ida; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    for traumatized refugees incorporating exposure therapy, mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 85 patients received six months' treatment at a Copenhagen Trauma Clinic for Refugees and completed self-ratings before and after treatment. The treatment administered to each patient...... and the observed change. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that CBT treatment incorporating mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy is promising for traumatized refugees and punctures the myth that this group of patients are unable to participate fully in structured CBT. However, treatment methods must......INTRODUCTION: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with trauma focus is the most evidence supported psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, but few CBT treatments for traumatized refugees have been described in detail. PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate a manualized cognitive behavioral therapy...

  9. Psychotherapeutic approaches to non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washburn Jason J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI among adolescents is gaining increasing attention in both clinical and scientific arenas. The lifetime prevalence of NSSI is estimated to vary between 7.5% to 8% for preadolescents, increasing to between 12% and 23% for adolescents. Despite the prevalence and the increasing interest in NSSI, few psychotherapeutic treatments have been designed specifically for NSSI, and no treatments have been evaluated specifically for the treatment of NSSI among adolescents. Consequently, child and adolescent clinicians are left with little evidence-based guidance for treating this challenging population. To provide some guidance, evaluations of treatments for adults with NSSI and for adolescents with related conditions, such as deliberate self-harm and borderline personality disorder, are reviewed. Clinical guidelines and resources are also discussed to assist with the gaps in the knowledge base for treatment of NSSI among adolescents.

  10. Cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic treatment at a psychiatric trauma clinic for Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Christine Cæcilie Böck; Andersen, Ida; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with trauma focus is the most evidence supported psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, but few CBT treatments for traumatized refugees have been described in detail. PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate a manualized cognitive behavioral therapy...... for traumatized refugees incorporating exposure therapy, mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 85 patients received six months' treatment at a Copenhagen Trauma Clinic for Refugees and completed self-ratings before and after treatment. The treatment administered to each patient...... and the observed change. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that CBT treatment incorporating mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy is promising for traumatized refugees and punctures the myth that this group of patients are unable to participate fully in structured CBT. However, treatment methods must...

  11. Discourse-Voice Regulatory Strategies in the Psychotherapeutic Interaction: A State-Space Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemka eTomicic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient-therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the State Space Grid (SSG method, a graphical tool based on the Dynamic Systems Theory (DST. The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialogue, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode.

  12. Effectiveness of psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, and combined treatments for chronic depression: a systematic review (METACHRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wolff Alessa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic depressions represent a substantial part of depressive disorders and are associated with severe consequences. Several studies were performed addressing the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, and combined treatments for chronic depressions. Yet, a systematic review comparing the effectiveness of multiple treatment options and considering all subtypes of chronic depressions is still missing. Methods/Design Aim of this project is to summarize empirical evidence on efficacy and effectiveness of treatments for chronic depression by means of a systematic review. The primary objectives of the study are to examine, which interventions are effective; to examine, if any differences in effectiveness between active treatment options exist; and to find possible treatment effect modifiers. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, and combined treatments will be considered as experimental interventions and no treatment, wait-list, psychological/pharmacological placebo, treatment as usual, and other active treatments will be seen as comparators. The population of patients will include adults with chronic major depression, dysthymia, double depression, or recurrent depression without complete remission between episodes. Outcomes of the analyses are depressive symptoms, associated consequences, adverse events, and study discontinuation. Only randomized controlled trials will be considered. Discussion Given the high prevalence and serious consequences of chronic depression and a considerable amount of existing primary studies addressing the effectiveness of different treatments the present systematic review may be of high relevance. Special attention will be given to the use of current methodological standards. Findings are likely to provide crucial information that may help clinicians to choose the appropriate treatment for chronically depressed patients.

  13. Weight and content uniformity of lorazepam half-tablets: A study of correlation of a low drug content product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Al-Ramahi, Rowa' J; Ghoush, Abeer Abu; Qaddumi, Aiman; Zaaror, Yara Abu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between the weight and the content of spilt-halves of lorazepam 2.5 mg tablets. Weight variation and drug content of lorazepam half-tablets were evaluated according to the European Pharmacopoeia tests. Only one individual mass of the 30 half tablets was outside the limits of 85-115% of the average mass, but since it was within 75-125% of the average mass, the product passed the test. Each individual content was between 85% and 115% of the average content (99.8% expressed as a percent to label claim) and within the limits of 75-125%, so the product passed the uniformity of content test. The correlation coefficient (r) between the weight and the content of split halves was found to be 0.994. The weights of split tablet halves appear to be directly correlated with their drug content even for a medication with a low drug content, thus it is recommended that pharmacists who split tablets into two halves, assure the weight uniformity of the resultant halves. Manufacturers should develop formulation and manufacturing procedures that ensure high degree of correlation between weight and content not only among the whole tablet but also among the obtained tablet halves.

  14. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse...... to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles...

  15. CYP2C9 genotype vs. metabolic phenotype for individual drug dosing--a correlation analysis using flurbiprofen as probe drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vogl

    Full Text Available Currently, genotyping of patients for polymorphic enzymes responsible for metabolic elimination is considered a possibility to adjust drug dose levels. For a patient to profit from this procedure, the interindividual differences in drug metabolism within one genotype should be smaller than those between different genotypes. We studied a large cohort of healthy young adults (283 subjects, correlating their CYP2C9 genotype to a simple phenotyping metric, using flurbiprofen as probe drug. Genotyping was conducted for CYP2C9*1, *2, *3. The urinary metabolic ratio MR (concentration of CYP2C9-dependent metabolite divided by concentration of flurbiprofen determined two hours after flurbiprofen (8.75 mg administration served as phenotyping metric. Linear statistical models correlating genotype and phenotype provided highly significant allele-specific MR estimates of 0.596 for the wild type allele CYP2C9*1, 0.405 for CYP2C9*2 (68 % of wild type, and 0.113 for CYP2C9*3 (19 % of wild type. If these estimates were used for flurbiprofen dose adjustment, taking 100 % for genotype *1/*1, an average reduction to 84 %, 60 %, 68 %, 43 %, and 19 % would result for genotype *1/*2, *1/*3, *2/*2, *2/*3, and *3/*3, respectively. Due to the large individual variation within genotypes with coefficients of variation ≥ 20 % and supposing the normal distribution, one in three individuals would be out of the average optimum dose by more than 20 %, one in 20 would be 40 % off. Whether this problem also applies to other CYPs and other drugs has to be investigated case by case. Our data for the given example, however, puts the benefit of individual drug dosing to question, if it is exclusively based on genotype.

  16. Dimensions, Patterns, and Personality Correlates of Drug Abuse in an Offender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Terrill R.

    1978-01-01

    Drug abuse scores from prisoners resulted in two factors describing lifetime use of cannabis versus opiates. Analysis of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles versus drug abuse patterns indicated moderate, unidimensional relationship between variables. MMPI profiles of opiate users were similar to those identified in research…

  17. Development and validation of in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) for estradiol transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Pavurala, Naresh; Khan, Mansoor A; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R

    2015-07-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a level A in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) for drug-in-adhesive (DIA) type estradiol transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS). In vitro drug permeation studies across human skin were carried out to obtain the percent of estradiol permeation from marketed products. The in vivo time versus plasma concentration data of three estradiol TDDS at drug loadings of 2.0, 3.8 and 7.6mg (delivery rates of 25, 50 and 100μg/day, respectively) was deconvoluted using Wagner-Nelson method to obtain percent of in vivo drug absorption in postmenopausal women. The IVIVC between the in vitro percent of drug permeation (X) and in vivo percent of drug absorption (Y) for these three estradiol TDDS was constructed using GastroPlus® software. There was a high correlation (R(2)=1.0) with a polynomial regression of Y=-0.227X(2)+0.331X-0.001. These three estradiol TDDS were used for internal validation whereas another two products of the same formulation design (with delivery rates of 60 and 100μg/day) were used for external validation. The predicted estradiol serum concentrations (convoluted from in vitro skin permeation data) were compared with the observed serum concentrations for the respective products. The developed IVIVC model passed both the internal and external validations as the prediction errors (%PE) for Cmax and AUC were less than 15%. When another marketed estradiol TDDS with a delivery rate of 100μg/day but with a slight variation in formulation design was chosen, it did not pass external validation indicating the product-specific nature of IVIVC model. Results suggest that the IVIVC model developed in this study can be used to successfully predict the in vivo performance of the same estradiol TDDS with in vivo delivery rates ranging from 25 to 100μg/day.

  18. CORRELATION OF THE SERUM LEVEL OF CARBAMAZEPINE WITH SEIZURE CONTROL AND ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AMONG EPILEPTICS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Fadare

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder requiring long-term treatment. Seizure control requires adequate blood levels of anti-seizure drugs. Carbarmazepine is one of the most prescribed antiepileptic drugs in Nigeria. This study was carried out to investigate the correlation between serum levels of carbamazepine and seizure control and adverse drug reactions among epileptics in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, sixty-nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy who had been on treatment with carbamazepine alone or in combination with phenytoin for at least one month were enrolled into the study and divided into two groups based on seizure control. Drug level in pre-dose (steady state venous blood was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Result: The mean serum concentration of carbamazepine (CBZ and carbamazepine-epoxide (CBZ-EP was 13.5±9.3ìg/mL and 6.34±12.61ìg/mL respectively. Patients with good seizure control had mean serum CBZ concentration of 12.7 ± 9.2ìg/mL versus 15.02 ± 9.7ìg/mL among patients with poor seizure control (P=0.33. The serum concentration of CBZ-EP in patients with good seizure control was 8.05 ± 15.2ìg/mL while it was 3.11 ± 3.5ìg/mL in the second group (P=0.122. Drowsiness was the commonest adverse drug reaction (26.1% and it did not necessitate withdrawal of the drug. Conclusion The study showed that serum level of carbamazepine does not correlate with seizure control and adverse drug reactions.

  19. Sexual Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes at Diagnosis: Progression over Time and Drug and Non-Drug Correlated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Giorda, Carlo B.; Cucinotta, Domenico; Guida, Piero; Nada, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Aims To present the longitudinal data of the SUBITO-DE study, a prospective survey involving male patients with new or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (<24 months). Materials and Methods Sexual function was assessed in male patients with T2DM at baseline (phase 1) and after a mean follow-up of 18 months (phase 2). Standard metabolic parameters and sexual and depressive symptoms were evaluated. Results Six of the 499 enrolled patients died of different causes during phase 1. Of the 493 surviving men invited to participate in phase 2, 450 (mean age 59.0±9.0 years) (90.2%) accepted and 43 (8.2%) were lost to follow-up. As compared to baseline, the proportion of the men who reported improvement in erectile dysfunction (ED) at follow-up was nearly double that of the men who reported worsening of ED (22.6% vs. 12.8%). The increase in frequency of sexual activity the men reported at follow-up assessment indicates that many never treated before baseline were taking an ED drug during the study period (106 subjects). Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) were the ED drugs most commonly taken at both baseline and follow-up. An overall improvement over baseline values was observed in metabolic targets for T2DM and depressive symptoms. Conversely, no change in lifestyle behaviors was recorded during the study. Conclusions Sexual dysfunction is a major concern in men with T2DM. The SUBITO-DE study demonstrates that, when combined with adequate counseling and tailored PDE5i therapy, an integrated approach to achieving metabolic targets in men with T2DM can improve sexual function as well as depressive symptoms. PMID:27706160

  20. Pair correlation microscopy reveals the role of nanoparticle shape in intracellular transport and site of drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Elizabeth; Thammasiraphop, Kitiphume; Duong, Hien T. T.; Yeow, Jonathan; Karagoz, Bunyamin; Boyer, Cyrille; Gooding, J. Justin; Gaus, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle size, surface charge and material composition are known to affect the uptake of nanoparticles by cells. However, whether nanoparticle shape affects transport across various barriers inside the cell remains unclear. Here we used pair correlation microscopy to show that polymeric nanoparticles with different shapes but identical surface chemistries moved across the various cellular barriers at different rates, ultimately defining the site of drug release. We measured how micelles, vesicles, rods and worms entered the cell and whether they escaped from the endosomal system and had access to the nucleus via the nuclear pore complex. Rods and worms, but not micelles and vesicles, entered the nucleus by passive diffusion. Improving nuclear access, for example with a nuclear localization signal, resulted in more doxorubicin release inside the nucleus and correlated with greater cytotoxicity. Our results therefore demonstrate that drug delivery across the major cellular barrier, the nuclear envelope, is important for doxorubicin efficiency and can be achieved with appropriately shaped nanoparticles.

  1. Heteronuclear 19F-1H statistical total correlation spectroscopy as a tool in drug metabolism: study of flucloxacillin biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keun, Hector C; Athersuch, Toby J; Beckonert, Olaf; Wang, Yulan; Saric, Jasmina; Shockcor, John P; Lindon, John C; Wilson, Ian D; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2008-02-15

    We present a novel application of the heteronuclear statistical total correlation spectroscopy (HET-STOCSY) approach utilizing statistical correlation between one-dimensional 19F/1H NMR spectroscopic data sets collected in parallel to study drug metabolism. Parallel one-dimensional (1D) 800 MHz 1H and 753 MHz 19F{1H} spectra (n = 21) were obtained on urine samples collected from volunteers (n = 6) at various intervals up to 24 h after oral dosing with 500 mg of flucloxacillin. A variety of statistical relationships between and within the spectroscopic datasets were explored without significant loss of the typically high 1D spectral resolution, generating 1H-1H STOCSY plots, and novel 19F-1H HET-STOCSY, 19F-19F STOCSY, and 19F-edited 1H-1H STOCSY (X-STOCSY) spectroscopic maps, with a resolution of approximately 0.8 Hz/pt for both nuclei. The efficient statistical editing provided by these methods readily allowed the collection of drug metabolic data and assisted structure elucidation. This approach is of general applicability for studying the metabolism of other fluorine-containing drugs, including important anticancer agents such as 5-fluorouracil and flutamide, and is extendable to any drug metabolism study where there is a spin-active X-nucleus (e.g., 13C, 15N, 31P) label present.

  2. Correlates of Salvia divinorum use in a national sample: findings from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Watkins, William C; Blumenstein, Lindsey

    2011-11-01

    Salvia, a hallucinogenic plant legally available in most of the United States, has become a widely discussed drug in the media. The extant research on Salvia use relies on non-probability samples and studies of college students. There is a clear need for research that identifies the correlates of Salvia use using data from a large sample that is nationally representative. The current study fills this important gap in the literature by using data from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. This survey includes data from nearly 70,000 respondents ages 12 and older living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Due to survey design, separate analyses are conducted among adolescents and adults. Findings indicate that 1.66% of adolescents (respondents ages 12 to 17) and 5.08% of adults (respondents ages 18-34) report the use of Salvia at some point in their lifetime. Correlates of use among adolescents include age, gender, income, peer and parent attitudes toward substance use, and other forms of drug use. Correlates of use among adults include age, gender, race, religiosity, marital status, criminal involvement, and other forms of substance use. Implications of the findings and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  3. Pairwise and higher-order correlations among drug-resistance mutations in HIV-1 subtype B protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Alexandre V

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reaction of HIV protease to inhibitor therapy is characterized by the emergence of complex mutational patterns which confer drug resistance. The response of HIV protease to drugs often involves both primary mutations that directly inhibit the action of the drug, and a host of accessory resistance mutations that may occur far from the active site but may contribute to restoring the fitness or stability of the enzyme. Here we develop a probabilistic approach based on connected information that allows us to study residue, pair level and higher-order correlations within the same framework. Results We apply our methodology to a database of approximately 13,000 sequences which have been annotated by the treatment history of the patients from which the samples were obtained. We show that including pair interactions is essential for agreement with the mutational data, since neglect of these interactions results in order-of-magnitude errors in the probabilities of the simultaneous occurence of many mutations. The magnitude of these pair correlations changes dramatically between sequences obtained from patients that were or were not exposed to drugs. Higher-order effects make a contribution of as much as 10% for residues taken three at a time, but increase to more than twice that for 10 to 15-residue groups. The sequence data is insufficient to determine the higher-order effects for larger groups. We find that higher-order interactions have a significant effect on the predicted frequencies of sequences with large numbers of mutations. While relatively rare, such sequences are more prevalent after multi-drug therapy. The relative importance of these higher-order interactions increases with the number of drugs the patient had been exposed to. Conclusion Correlations are critical for the understanding of mutation patterns in HIV protease. Pair interactions have substantial qualitative effects, while higher-order interactions are

  4. Drug-induced exanthems: correlation of allergy testing with histologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Cornelia S; Rose, Christian; Kerstan, Andreas; Trautmann, Axel

    2013-11-01

    Skin biopsies are commonly performed to confirm drug-induced exanthem (DIE). However, the relevance of histologic examination in discriminating between DIE and non-DIE (NDIE) is controversial. A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the reliability of histologic diagnosis of DIE. In all, 91 patients with a skin biopsy specimen of an acute exanthem temporally related to a single identifiable drug underwent complete allergy testing. Their biopsy specimens were retrospectively re-evaluated by 2 dermatopathologists blinded to the original reports to test for discrimination between DIE versus NDIE. In 35 patients, non-IgE-mediated drug allergy was confirmed by allergy testing, whereas in 56 patients drug hypersensitivity could be excluded. Sensitivity of pathology reports for diagnosis of DIE reached 62.9% with a positive predictive value of 40.7%. Specificity was 41.1% with a negative predictive value of 69.7%. No significant difference in tissue eosinophilia was detected between DIE and NDIE. This was a retrospective study. Dermatopathologic evaluation of skin biopsy specimens is of limited use in differentiating between DIE and NDIE. All efforts should be made to subject these patients to thorough allergy testing for definitely confirming or ruling out drug hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Smartphone-based psychotherapeutic micro-interventions to improve mood in a real-world setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Meinlschmidt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes.Method: As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects – after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition – underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good–bad, GB; awake–tired, AT; and calm–nervous, CN. Results: Twenty-seven men participated on at least eleven days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13% and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30% being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood (GB: b=0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI [0.068, 0.860], t(613.3=2.298, p=0.022 and became more awake (AT: b=0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t(612.4=2.456, p=0.014 and calmer (CN: b=0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t(612.3=4.137, p<0.001 from pre- to post-micro-intervention. These mood improvements from pre- to post-micro-intervention were associated with changes in mood from the first day until the last day with regard to GB mood (r=0.614, 95%CI [0.297, 0.809], p<0.001, but not AT mood (r=0.279, 95%CI [-0.122, 0.602], p=0.167 and CN mood (r=0.277, 95

  6. Smartphone-Based Psychotherapeutic Micro-Interventions to Improve Mood in a Real-World Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Stalujanis, Esther; Belardi, Angelo; Oh, Minkyung; Jung, Eun Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Alfano, Janine; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Tegethoff, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes. Method: As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects—after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition—underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good–bad, GB; awake–tired, AT; and calm–nervous, CN). Results: Twenty-seven men participated on at least 11 days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13%) and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30%) being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood [GB: b = 0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI) [0.068, 0.860], t(613.3) = 2.298, p = 0.022] and became more awake [AT: b = 0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t(612.4) = 2.456, p = 0.014] and calmer [CN: b = 0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t(612.3) = 4.137, p < 0.001] from pre- to post-micro-intervention. These mood improvements from pre- to post-micro-intervention were associated with changes in mood from the 1st day until the last day with regard to GB mood (r = 0.614, 95%CI [0.297, 0.809], p < 0.001), but not AT mood (r = 0.279, 95%CI [−0.122, 0.602], p = 0.167) and CN mood (r

  7. Correlates and Impact of Coronary Artery Calcifications in Women Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Drug-Eluting Stents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giustino, Gennaro; Mastoris, Ioannis; Baber, Usman

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical correlates and prognostic impact of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (DES). BACKGROUND: The clinical correlates and the prognostic significance of CAC...... in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with DES remain unclear. METHODS: Patient-level data from female participants in 26 randomized trials of DES were pooled. Study population was categorized according to the presence of moderate or severe versus mild or no target lesion CAC, assessed......,371 women. Of these, 1,622 (25.5%) had moderate or severe CAC. In fully adjusted models, independent correlates of CAC were age, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and worse left ventricular and renal function. At 3 years, women with CAC were...

  8. Glycoprotein Mucin Molecular Brush on Cancer Cells and its Correlation with Resistance Against Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Shah, Aalok; Campbell, Robert; Wan, Kai-Tak

    2012-02-01

    Uptake of cytotoxic drugs by typical tumor cells is limited by the dense dendritic network of oligosaccharide mucin chains that forms a mechanical barrier. Atomic force microscopy is used to directly measure the force needed to pierce the mucin layer to reach the cell surface. Measurements are analyzed by deGennes' steric reputation theory. Multi-drug resistant ovarian tumor cells shows significantly larger penetration load compared to the wide type. A pool of pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and breast cells are also characterized. The chemotherapeutic agent, benzyl-α-GalNac, for inhibiting glycosylation is shown to be effective in reducing the mechanical barrier.

  9. Assessing sexuality attitudes and behaviors and correlates of alcohol and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J; Goldfarb, E S; Ferraro, H; Eadie, C; Duncan, D F

    2001-06-01

    The association between sexual abstinence and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana was examined in data from questionnaires completed by 874 students in Grades 6 through 8 at six urban schools. These students participated in a program that implemented and evaluated an educational program on abstinence sexuality. It focused on raising self-esteem, improving communication skills, and learning to set life goals. The evaluation instrument contained items assessing sexuality and attitudes toward behaviors related to drug use. Use of each drug (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) was significantly (p < .00001) and positively associated with self-report of having experienced sexual intercourse and expectation of having intercourse during the next year.

  10. Smartphone-Based Psychotherapeutic Micro-Interventions to Improve Mood in a Real-World Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Stalujanis, Esther; Belardi, Angelo; Oh, Minkyung; Jung, Eun Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Alfano, Janine; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Tegethoff, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes. As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects-after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition-underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good-bad, GB; awake-tired, AT; and calm-nervous, CN). Twenty-seven men participated on at least 11 days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13%) and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30%) being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood [GB: b = 0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI) [0.068, 0.860], t (613.3) = 2.298, p = 0.022] and became more awake [AT: b = 0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t (612.4) = 2.456, p = 0.014] and calmer [CN: b = 0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t (612.3) = 4.137, p mindfulness-based psychotherapy, transcendental meditation, and other contemplative therapies. The results encourage exploring these techniques' capability to improve mood in randomized controlled studies and patients. Smartphone-based micro-interventions are promising to modify mood in real-world settings, complementing other psychotherapeutic interventions, in

  11. Outlier populations: individual and social network correlates of solvent-using injection drug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souradet Y Shaw

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We previously identified a high prevalence of Hepatitis C (HCV amongst solvent-using injection drug users (S-IDU relative to other injection drug users within the same locality. Here we incorporated social network variables to better characterize some of the behavioural characteristics that may be putting this specific subgroup of IDU at elevated disease risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of at-risk populations was carried out in Winnipeg, Canada in 2009. Individuals reporting any history of injection drug and/or solvent use were included in the study. Associations between subgroup membership, infection with HCV and HIV and individual and social network variables were examined. RESULTS: In relation to other IDU, S-IDU were more likely to be infected with HCV, to report ever having shared a syringe, and to associate with other IDU. They were further differentiated in terms of their self-reported sexual orientation, ethnicity and in the injection drugs typically used. CONCLUSION: Solvent use stands as a proxy measure of numerous other characteristics that put this group of IDU at higher risk of infection. Provision of adequate services to ostracized subpopulations may result in wider population-level benefits.

  12. Psychotherapeutic process of cognitive-behavioral intervention in HIV-infected persons: results from a controlled, randomized prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znoj, Hans-Jörg; Messerli-Burgy, Nadine; Tschopp, Simone; Weber, Rainer; Christen, Lisanne; Christen, Stephan; Grawe, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the possible mechanisms of behavioral change in a cognitive-behavioral intervention supporting medication adherence in HIV-infected persons. A total of 60 persons currently under medical treatment were randomized to psychotherapy or usual care and were compared with a sociodemographically matched group of general psychotherapy clients. Outcome measures included therapy adherence using medication event-monitoring system psychotherapeutic processes and changes of experience and behavior. The general psychotherapy group was initially more distressed than HIV psychotherapy patients and reached higher levels of psychotherapeutic effect. In the HIV psychotherapy patients, a significant effect was found for maintaining adherence to medical treatment (Weber et al., 2004). These findings show that psychotherapy is a beneficial intervention for HIV-infected persons, and therapeutic alliance and activation of resources do not differ from a general psychotherapy treatment. Differential effects were detected for specific process variables, namely problem actuation.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of opiate overdose among young injection drug users in a large U.S. city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan G; Cheng, Yingkai; Kral, Alexander H

    2007-05-11

    The current study examines the prevalence and correlates of witnessing and experiencing opiate overdoses among a sample of young, injection drug users (IDUs) and non-injection drug users (NIDUs) in Baltimore, MD. Data were derived from a longitudinal study of 15-30 year old IDUs and NIDUs (N=309) who had initiated heroin, cocaine, and/or crack use within 5 years prior to study enrollment. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used in bivariate analyses of demographic and drug use variables with each of the two dependent variables. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of experiencing and witnessing overdose. Twenty-nine percent of participants reported having ever experienced an opiate overdose and 57% reported having ever witnessed an overdose. Having ever experienced an opiate overdose was independently associated with being White (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=3.2; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.6, 6.4) recent homelessness (AOR=2.9; 95%CI: 1.5, 5.7); and length of injection, 5.6-6.9 years versus 8 versus overdose was independently associated with being White (AOR=2.4; 95%CI: 1.4, 4.1) and injecting >8 years versus overdoses among young, newly initiated IDUs and NIDUs. The results could inform the growing number of overdose prevention efforts throughout the U.S.

  14. [Definition of the core area of medical services in the psychiatric-psychotherapeutic field--the prerequisite for any delegation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Wolfgang; Bleich, Stefan; Cohrs, Stefan; von Einsiedel, Regina; Falkai, Peter; Grosskopf, Volker; Hauth, Iris; Steiner, Johann; Adler, Lothar

    2011-11-01

    Based on legal jurisdiction, knowledge of the psychiatric-psychotherapeutic field and insight into the necessity of a new allocation of responsibilities in the overall therapeutic service of a clinic, the core areas of medical activities are defined for the first time, innovative organisational approaches to the reorganisation of therapeutic service are presented and discussed against the background of qualified staff deficit, introduction of an OPS coding for inpatient psychiatry and economic constraints. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Psychotherapeutic process of cognitive-behavioral intervention in HIV-infected persons: Results from a controlled, randomized prospective clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Znoj, H J; Messerli-Burgy, N; Tschopp, S; Weber, R.; Christen, L; Christen, S; Grawe, K

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the possible mechanisms of behavioral change in a cognitive-behavioral intervention supporting medication adherence in HIV-infected persons. A total of 60 persons currently under medical treatment were randomized to psychotherapy or usual care and were compared with a sociodemographically matched group of general psychotherapy clients. Outcome measures included therapy adherence using medication event-monitoring system psychotherapeutic process...

  16. Liberating the Mind or Governing the Soul? Psychotherapeutic Education, Children’s Rights and the Disciplinary State

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on theoretical contributions from Michel Foucault, Nikolas Rose and from within the new sociology of childhood to open up for critical analysis and debate contemporary policy and practice initiatives involving the introduction of formal psychotherapeutic education programmes in schools. While the primary focus is the UK, the article also makes reference to wider European and international contexts. A children’s rights perspective is taken in considering the potential implic...

  17. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions for managing stress in multiple sclerosis: the contribution of mindfulness-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz San José, A; Oreja-Guevara, C; Cebolla Lorenzo, S; Carrillo Notario, L; Rodríguez Vega, B; Bayón Pérez, C

    2016-03-01

    Depression or anxiety in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been linked to a more severe course of the disease and higher numbers of relapses, in addition to poorer treatment adherence and exacerbated immune system dysregulation. Recent investigations indicate that psychotherapeutic interventions for stress management, such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), could improve quality of life, depression, anxiety, and fatigue in MS patients. Mindfulness fosters the ability to slow down and observe experiences as they truly are, which improves affect regulation. Mindfulness is acquired through training; its advantage over other psychotherapeutic interventions is that effects may remain over time, since cultivating mindfulness depends on regular practising of abilities learned during training. The objective of this article is to review the current evidence of psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions, including MBIs for stress management, and their beneficial effects on MS patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The experience of mental health professionals using neuro emotional technique in psychotherapeutic practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Amanda Lynn

    This study reviewed how Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) is used in psychotherapeutic practice, and how it is understood and experienced by the practitioners who use it. Participants included 18 mental health professionals who have obtained the certification-level of training in NET and have incorporated NET into their professional practice. A qualitative method was used to explore NET providers' experiences through an online survey. Data from these surveys was analyzed using the constant comparative method. Six categories containing 18 themes emerged as a result of this analysis. These categories included: (1) practitioners currently employing NET; (2) technique utilization; (3) participant estimation of the efficacy of NET; (4) talking about NET; (5) clients most likely to benefit from NET; and (6) clients least likely to benefit from NET. The 18 themes that emerged within these categories represent important components of the integration of NET into psychological treatment. These themes were compared with existing literature to serve as valuable information for psychologists and other mental health professionals seeking to incorporate NET into their professional practices. This study helps to fill the current void in the area of research on NET as a psychological intervention, or more specifically, as a holistic mind-body approach to self-betterment and the amelioration of symptoms for humans who are healing from a broad spectrum of traumatic and stressful experiences.

  19. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Christoph; Tschan, Regine; Stieber, Nikola; Beutel, Manfred E.; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI) using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (Q H/V), reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 28); baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ). Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: Q H/V = 0.31 versus controls: Q H/V = 0.38; p = 0.022). After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles. PMID:26843786

  20. Examining mentalizing ability in the process of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Dejko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the problem of examining ability to mentalize in the psychiatric and psychotherapeutic diagnosis process. It is proved by the research results indicating significance of mentalization in the psychosocial functioning of an individual, the relation between the level of this ability and the appearance of the specific mental disorders and problems, and its role in the treatment process. The paper describes and analyses the classic tool for studying mentalization – Reflective Functioning Scale. The present paper points to the advantages of this tool – good reliability, high criterion and theoretical validity, enabling studying complexity of a phenomenon, and introduction of non-specific therapeutic factors into the diagnostic process. The limitations of the tool are also mentioned – high cost borne by a researcher and an examined person, the complexity of the interview collection and analysis procedure and the inability of repeated application of the tool to evaluate treatment effects. The paper also presents an alternative method of studying mentalization that uses questionnaire tools. The text describes the advantages of the questionnaire in assessing a reflective function: first and foremost, its low cost and an easy repeatability of the test. The paper also shows the limitations of this tool in describing the subject phenomenon: inability to describe the complexity of the phenomenon, simplified results and low theoretical validity.

  1. Re-creating your life: a spiritual/psychotherapeutic intervention for people diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, B; Pargament, K

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot psychotherapy program for people who have experienced cancer that integrates spiritual issues and resources. The name of the program is: Re-Creating Your Life: During and After Cancer. The literature suggests that people experiencing cancer wrestle with existential concerns related to control, identity, relationships, and meaning. For spiritually oriented people, religious and spiritual issues are likely to be embedded in these existential concerns. Moreover, spiritual resources are likely to play a role in resolving these issues. This seems even more likely given the body of research suggesting that spirituality and religion play a helpful role when people face a traumatic life event. The few studies that have examined the importance of religious variables for people experiencing cancer have found that this is also true for this population. Thus, a psychotherapeutic program for persons diagnosed with cancer might be more efficacious if it integrated spiritual issues and resources. This paper describes a treatment program oriented towards this goal and presents rationales for the interventions that are included in the therapy process. The program addresses the four existential concerns listed above, in ways that integrate spiritual issues and assist participants in drawing on spiritual resources. An outcome study is currently underway to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. Ten participants have participated, results are promising, and will be published when data collection is completed.

  2. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Christoph; Tschan, Regine; Stieber, Nikola; Beutel, Manfred E; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI) using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (Q H/V ), reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 28); baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ). Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: Q H/V = 0.31 versus controls: Q H/V = 0.38; p = 0.022). After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles.

  3. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Best

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (QH/V, reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n=28; baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ. Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: QH/V=0.31 versus controls: QH/V=0.38; p=0.022. After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles.

  4. Drug release profiles of modified MCM-41 with superparamagnetic behavior correlated with the employed synthesis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, Natalia I; Elías, Verónica R; Mendieta, Silvia N; Longhi, Marcela; Crivello, Mónica E; Oliva, Marcos I; Eimer, Griselda A

    2017-09-01

    Mesoporous materials with superparamagnetic properties were successfully synthesized by two different methods: direct incorporation (DI) and wet impregnation (WI). The synthetized solids were evaluated as host of drugs for delivery systems and their physicochemical properties were characterized by XRD, ICP, N2 adsorption-desorption, spectroscopies of UV-Vis DR, FT-IR and their magnetic properties were measured. Indomethacin (IND) was incorporated into the materials and the kinetic of the release profiles was studied by applying the Pepas and Sahlin model. In this sense, materials modified by DI, particularly that with hydrothermal treatment, showed the higher adsorption capacity and slower release rate. This behavior could be associated to the synthesis method used that allowed a high percentage of silanol groups available in the solids surface, which can interact with the IND molecule. This feature coupled with the superparamagnetic behavior; make these materials very interesting for drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Correlating structure and function of drug-metabolizing enzymes: progress and ongoing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric F; Connick, J Patrick; Reed, James R; Backes, Wayne L; Desai, Manoj C; Xu, Lianhong; Estrada, D Fernando; Laurence, Jennifer S; Scott, Emily E

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics at Experimental Biology held April 20-24 in Boston, MA. Presentations discussed the status of cytochrome P450 (P450) knowledge, emphasizing advances and challenges in relating structure with function and in applying this information to drug design. First, at least one structure of most major human drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes is known. However, the flexibility of these active sites can limit the predictive value of one structure for other ligands. A second limitation is our coarse-grain understanding of P450 interactions with membranes, other P450 enzymes, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and cytochrome b5. Recent work has examined differential P450 interactions with reductase in mixed P450 systems and P450:P450 complexes in reconstituted systems and cells, suggesting another level of functional control. In addition, protein nuclear magnetic resonance is a new approach to probe these protein/protein interactions, identifying interacting b5 and P450 surfaces, showing that b5 and reductase binding are mutually exclusive, and demonstrating ligand modulation of CYP17A1/b5 interactions. One desired outcome is the application of such information to control drug metabolism and/or design selective P450 inhibitors. A final presentation highlighted development of a CYP3A4 inhibitor that slows clearance of human immunodeficiency virus drugs otherwise rapidly metabolized by CYP3A4. Although understanding P450 structure/function relationships is an ongoing challenge, translational advances will benefit from continued integration of existing and new biophysical approaches.

  6. Correlates of unprotected sex in a sample of young club drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysa Remy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the demographic characteristics, psychiatric symptoms, substance use patterns, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of club drug users to identify factors associated with unprotected sex during the 12 months prior to the interview. METHODS: This cross-sectional study employed the targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approaches via face-to-face interviews conducted at bars and electronic music festivals using an adapted, semi-structured version of the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs questionnaire. The sample comprised 240 male and female young adults who had used ecstasy and/or LSD in the 90 days prior to the interview and who were not receiving treatment for alcohol or drug abuse. RESULTS: Of the 240 subjects selected (mean age: 22.9±4.5 years, 57.9% were men; of the male subjects, 52.5% reported having had unprotected sex in the previous 12 months. Of the total sample, 63.33% reported having had unprotected sex. Multivariate regression analysis showed that anal sex (PR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.044-1.543; p = 0.017 and the use of alcohol/drugs to make sex last longer (PR = 1.430; 95% CI: 1.181-1.732; p<0.001 are associated with unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of intervention strategies aimed at reducing sexually risky behaviors should take into consideration the specific characteristics of drug users and should include the development of safer sex negotiation skills.

  7. The oral health of street-recruited injecting drug users: prevalence and correlates of problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, Anne-Marie; Dietze, Paul; Dwyer, Robyn

    2008-11-01

    To examine the effects of a series of injecting drug users' (IDU) characteristics and drug use behaviours upon the self-reported oral health of a sample of IDU. Cross-sectional survey. Melbourne, Australia. A total of 285 IDU recruited through needle and syringe programmes, snowballing and outreach across six sites. Structured survey that collected information on current drug use patterns, self-reported blood-borne virus status and general health factors, including open-ended questions on past-year dental health problems. Sixty-eight per cent of the sample reported dental problems that were commonly severe and caused dental pain. Despite these reported problems, almost half the sample had not visited the dentist in the 12 months prior to the survey. Participants who were older, and reported homelessness, not eating every day and more common injection of amphetamines rather than heroin in the previous month, were more likely to report having a past-year dental problem. Dental problems in IDUs are common but few receive treatment. Further, those using amphetamines, with poor housing, hygiene and poor nutrition, are most at risk. Programmes designed to improve the oral health of IDU need to be developed and implemented in a manner amenable to the varying social circumstances of this marginalized group in the community.

  8. The Politics of Psychoactive Drug Use in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brent

    1978-01-01

    A literature review explores why misuse of psychotherapeutic drugs is occurring among older noninstitutionalized adults. The roles of the physician, the patient, the pharmaceutical industry, and medical-geriatric journal advertising are discussed. The paper concludes with an exploration of innovative strategies for treatment and prevention.…

  9. Enhanced stability of monomer fold correlates with extreme drug resistance of HIV-1 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, John M; Tözsér, József; Roche, Julien; Matúz, Krisztina; Aniana, Annie; Sayer, Jane M

    2013-10-29

    During treatment, mutations in HIV-1 protease (PR) are selected rapidly that confer resistance by decreasing affinity to clinical protease inhibitors (PIs). As these unique drug resistance mutations can compromise the fitness of the virus to replicate, mutations that restore conformational stability and activity while retaining drug resistance are selected on further evolution. Here we identify several compensating mechanisms by which an extreme drug-resistant mutant bearing 20 mutations (PR20) with >5-fold increased Kd and >4000-fold decreased affinity to the PI darunavir functions. (1) PR20 cleaves, albeit poorly, Gag polyprotein substrates essential for viral maturation. (2) PR20 dimer, which exhibits distinctly enhanced thermal stability, has highly attenuated autoproteolysis, thus likely prolonging its lifetime in vivo. (3) The enhanced stability of PR20 results from stabilization of the monomer fold. Both monomeric PR20(T26A) and dimeric PR20 exhibit Tm values 6-7.5 °C higher than those for their PR counterparts. Two specific mutations in PR20, L33F and L63P at sites of autoproteolysis, increase the Tm of monomeric PR(T26A) by ~8 °C, similar to PR20(T26A). However, without other compensatory mutations as seen in PR20, L33F and L63P substitutions, together, neither restrict autoproteolysis nor significantly reduce binding affinity to darunavir. To determine whether dimer stability contributes to binding affinity for inhibitors, we examined single-chain dimers of PR and PR(D25N) in which the corresponding identical monomer units were covalently linked by GGSSG sequence. Linking of the subunits did not appreciably change the ΔTm on inhibitor binding; thus stabilization by tethering appears to have little direct effect on enhancing inhibitor affinity.

  10. Liver Transplantation and Abuse of Drugs and Alcohol: A Correlation Between Scales of the MMPI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, M; Prinzi, G; Campagna, E; Battaglia, T; Barucco, T; Polchi, S; Kisialiou, A; Colasanti, M; Felli, E; Lepiane, P; Santoro, R; Vennarecci, G; Ettorre, G M

    2016-03-01

    Clinical practice requires an accurate psychological assessment of subjects with clinical history of alcohol abuse and/or substance abuse (abuse history [AH]) for therapeutic choice. This study aims to identify significant correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 scales in patients awaiting liver transplantation. We evaluated a personality questionnaire containing MMPI-2 scales in the sample of 308 patients (81.8% males and 18.2% females) awaiting liver transplantation. The AH group composed 44.49% of patients and in the abuse free (AF) group, 55.51%. Scales were compared using Shapiro-Wilk test and Mann-Whitney U test. Interrelationships were examined using Spearman's correlation. This analysis found 27 scales of the MMPI-2 that were statistically different between 2 groups (AF and AH). In the AH group, we found a significant correlation between the following pairs of scales: Schizophrenia Scale (Sc) with the Addictions Potential Scale, Social Introversion scale (Si) with the Psychopathic Deviate scale (Pd), and Social Discomfort scale with Pd; the ES scale was negatively correlated with the Sc and Si scales. This interim study showed that the understanding of these indicators is crucial both for the assessment accuracy and for a prediction of the degree of therapy compliance after the transplantation. The scales of the MMPI-2 indicated a marked tendency to emotional rigidity, a lack of self-esteem and susceptibility judgment. Social introversion and social discomfort trends lead to impulsive behavior and deviant actions that combine poorly with good compliance with treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Active Metabolite of Warfarin (3'-Hydroxywarfarin) and Correlation with INR, Warfarin and Drug Weekly Dosage in Patients under Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Pharmacogenetics Study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Warfarin oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) requires regular and frequent drug adjustment monitored by INR. Interindividual variability, drug and diet interferences, and genetics (VKORC1 and CYP2C9) make the maintenance/reaching of stable INR a not so easy task. HPLC assessment of warfarin/enantiomers was suggested as a valid monitoring-tool along with INR, but definite results are still lacking. We evaluated possible correlations between INR, warfarin/3’-hydroxywarfarin, and drug we...

  12. The Comparison of Attentional Bias and Difficulty of Emotional States Regulation and Their Correlation with Craving Severity in Drug Abuser Methamphetamines and Crack

    OpenAIRE

    Raheleh Haghiaght; Nezamaddin Ghasemi; Mehdi Rabiei; Asghar Zerehposh; Ahmadreza Kiani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, within creased substance, type of substance used has changed. Therefore, drug abuse in population of crack to the stimulant drugs (amphetamine) particularly crystal is expanding and increasing. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was the comparison of attentional bias and difficulty of emotional states regulation and their correlation with craving severity in drug abuser methamphetamines and crack. Materials and Methods: Type of research was descriptive analytic...

  13. Variation of Protein's Expression Correlated to the Drug Resistance after Sequential Anti-cancer Treatment in Human Lung Cancer Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-hong Chi; Ji-ren Zhang; Peng Li; Duan-qi Liu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Multi-drug resistance is one of the leading causes for fai lure to treat patients with cancer. This study is to explore the expression of the proteins correlated with chemoresistance in a human lung cancer cell line (LPET-a-1) repeatedly treated by anti-cancer drugs.

  14. Correlates of Early Alcohol and Drug Use in Hispanic Adolescents: Examining the Role of ADHD with Comorbid Conduct Disorder, Family, School, and Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Barbara; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Wang, Wei; Pantin, Hilda

    2008-01-01

    This study examined correlates of early adolescent alcohol and drug use in a community sample of 217 eighth-grade adolescents with behavior problems and from Hispanic/Latino immigrant families. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships of multiple contexts (e.g., family, school, and peers) to alcohol and drug use. Results…

  15. Correlates of susceptibility to hepatitis B among people who inject drugs in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Rachel M; Topp, Libby; Wand, Handan; Day, Carolyn A; Rodgers, Craig; Haber, Paul S; van Beek, Ingrid; Maher, Lisa

    2012-10-01

    Despite a safe, effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination coverage remains low among people who inject drugs (PWID). Characteristics of participants screened for a trial investigating the efficacy of financial incentives in increasing vaccination completion among PWID were examined to inform targeting of vaccination programs. Recruitment occurred at two health services in inner-city Sydney that target PWID. HBV status was confirmed via serological testing, and questionnaires elicited demographic, drug use, and HBV risk data. Multinomial logistic regression was utilized to determine variables independently associated with HBV status. Of 172 participants, 64% were susceptible, 17% exposed (HBV core antibody-positive), and 19% demonstrated evidence of prior vaccination (HBV surface antibody ≥ 10 mIU/ml). Compared with exposed participants, susceptible participants were significantly more likely to be aged less than 35 years and significantly less likely to be receiving current opioid substitution therapy (OST) and to test hepatitis C antibody-positive. In comparison to vaccinated participants, susceptible participants were significantly more likely to be male and significantly less likely to report daily or more frequent injecting, current OST, and prior awareness of HBV vaccine. HBV vaccination uptake could potentially be increased by targeting younger, less frequent injectors, particularly young men. In addition to expanding vaccination through OST, targeting "at risk" youth who are likely to have missed adolescent catch-up programs may be an important strategy to increase coverage. The lack of an association between incarceration and vaccination also suggests increasing vaccination uptake and completion in adult and juvenile correctional facilities may also be important.

  16. Correlation of genes associated with drug response to prognosis of large cell lung carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Chen; Xiang-Li Jiang; Cui-Cui Zhang; Kai Li

    2011-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy remains the main treatment of advanced lung cancer. However,platinum resistance has become a major treatment obstacle. Novel therapies, particularly tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-TKI) and agents that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have improved the treatment. Both chemotherapy and targeted therapy have their molecular mechanisms. This study aimed to determine the mutation, amplification, or expression status and interrelationships of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-Ras proto-oncogene, excision repair cress-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), and VEGF genes as well as their correlations to prognosis of large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) after EGFR-targeted therapy, chemotherapy, and antiVEGF therapy. EGFR and K-Ras mutations in 60 specimens of LCLC were detected by direct DNA sequencing. EGFR, ERCC1, and VEGF protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC).EGFR gene copy number was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). One (1.7%) patient had an EGFR L858M point mutation in exon 21, 3 (5.0%) had K-Ras mutations, and 10 (19.6%) had EGFR amplification (FISH positive). Positive rates of EGFR, ERCC1, and VEGF proteins were 38.3%,56.7%, and 70.0%, respectively. EGFR amplification was positively correlated to EGFR protein expression (r = 0.390, P = 0.005). The positive rate of VEGF protein was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without (84.6% vs. 58.8%, P = 0.046). No significant correlations were observed among the EGFR, K-Ras, ERCC1, and VEGF genes. EGFR gene amplification and the low rate of EGFR mutation suggest that patients with LCLC are likely to obtain little benefit from anti-EGFR therapies.

  17. Correlation of pretreatment drug induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells with patient survival and clinical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salom Emery

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to determine if a chemotherapy-induced apoptosis assay (MiCK could predict the best therapy for patients with ovarian cancer. Methods A prospective, multi-institutional and blinded trial of the assay was conducted in 104 evaluable ovarian cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. The MiCK assay was performed prior to therapy, but treating physicians were not told of the results and selected treatment only on clinical criteria. Outcomes (response, time to relapse, and survival were compared to the drug-induced apoptosis observed in the assay. Results Overall survival in primary therapy, chemotherapy naïve patients with Stage III or IV disease was longer if patients received a chemotherapy which was best in the MiCK assay, compared to shorter survival in patients who received a chemotherapy that was not the best. (p  Conclusion The MiCK assay can predict the chemotherapy associated with better outcomes in ovarian cancer patients. This study quantifies outcome benefits on which a prospective randomized trial can be developed.

  18. Correlation between prescribed daily dose, seizure freedom and defined daily dose in antiepileptic drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, László; Fekete, Klára; Márton, Sándor; Fekete, István

    2017-04-01

    Background Although defined daily doses (DDD) for antiepileptic drugs (AED) have been assigned only in combination therapy, based on the literature, most patients take them in monotherapy. Furthermore, discrepancies between DDD and prescribed daily dose (PDD) were observed. Objective First, to determine PDDs of AEDs and to reveal PDD/DDD ratio among seizure free versus not seizure free patients in everyday clinical practice. Second, to test the applicability of 75% cut-off of DDD to achieve seizure freedom. Furthermore, to find out what factors might influence PDD. Setting Outpatient data files at a Hungarian university hospital were studied. Methods A retrospective, 20-year cross-sectional database was compiled from 1282 epileptic outpatients' files. Main outcome measure Seizure freedom and PDD were used as outcome measures. Results The mean DDD% of all prescribed AEDs increased steadily from monotherapy, through bitherapy towards polytherapy (p seizure free patients took AEDs in doses in the range of ≤75% of DDDs in monotherapy and bitherapy. Older AEDs (carbamazepine and valproate) were given in a significantly higher mean dose in bitherapy in the seizure free group. Among the newer types, only levetiracetam and lamotrigine had a significantly higher DDD% in mono-, bi-, and polytherapy. Confirmed by logistic regression analysis, gender, age, type of epilepsy, and number of AEDs had a significant impact on the value of 75% DDD. Conclusion No significant unfavourable impact of the lower ratio of PDD/DDD on the outcome of achieving seizure freedom has been confirmed. As a measure of seizure freedom, 75% of DDD may be used, although individual therapy must be emphasised. Precisely quantified DDD would provide a more accurate calculation of other derived values.

  19. Improving Access to Mental Health Care by Delivering Psychotherapeutic Care in the Workplace: A Cross-Sectional Exploratory Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermund, Eva; Kilian, Reinhold; Rottler, Edit; Mayer, Dorothea; Hölzer, Michael; Rieger, Monika A; Gündel, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Common mental disorders like mood and anxiety disorders and somatoform disorders have high costs, yet under-treatment is still frequent. Many people with common mental disorders are employed, so the workplace is potentially a suitable context in which to provide early treatment. Our study investigates whether a change of setting (workplace versus standard care) improves access to treatment for common mental disorders. Conditional latent profile analysis was applied to identify user profiles for work ability (WAI), clinical symptoms like depression (patient health questionnaire depression, PHQ-9), health-related quality of life (QoL, SF-12), and work-related stress (Maslach Burnout Inventory, irritation scale). Patients were recruited consecutively, via psychotherapeutic consultation in the workplace (n = 174) or psychotherapeutic consultation in outpatient care (n = 193). We identified four user profiles in our model: 'severe' (n = 99), 'moderate I-low QoL' (n = 88), 'moderate II-low work ability' (n = 83), and 'at risk' (n = 97). The 'at risk' profile encompassed individuals with reduced work ability (36.0, 34.73 to 37.37), only mild clinical symptoms (PHQ-9 5.7, 4.92 to 6.53), no signs of work-related stress and good quality of life. A higher proportion of the 'at risk' group than of the 'severe' group sought help via the psychotherapeutic consultation in the workplace (OR 0.287, P workplace is feasible and accepted by users. Offering treatment in the workplace as an alternative to standard outpatient settings is a viable strategy for improving access to treatment for common mental disorders.

  20. Resting state connectivity correlates with drug and placebo response in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Wilcke, T; Ichesco, E; Hampson, J P; Kairys, A; Peltier, S; Harte, S; Clauw, D J; Harris, R E

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and memory and mood disturbances. Despite advances in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, treatment is often challenging. New research indicates that changes in functional connectivity between brain regions, as can be measured by magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) of the resting state, may underlie the pathogenesis of this and other chronic pain states. As such, this parameter may be able to be used to monitor changes in brain function associated with pharmacological treatment, and might also be able to predict treatment response. We performed a resting state fcMRI trial using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design to investigate mechanisms of action of milnacipran (MLN), a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), in fibromyalgia patients. Our aim was to identify functional connectivity patterns at baseline that would differentially predict treatment response to MLN as compared to placebo. Since preclinical studies of MLN suggest that this medication works by augmenting antinociceptive processes, we specifically investigated brain regions known to be involved in pain inhibition. 15 fibromyalgia patients completed the study, consisting of 6 weeks of drug and placebo intake (order counterbalanced) with an interspersed 2 week wash out period. As a main finding we report that reductions in clinical pain scores during MLN were associated with decreased functional connectivity between pro-nociceptive regions and antinociceptive pain regions at baseline, specifically between the rostral part of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the insular cortex (IC), as well as between the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the IC: patients with lower preexisting functional connectivity had the greatest reduction in clinical pain. This pattern was not observed for the placebo period. However a more robust placebo response was associated with lower

  1. Can Twitter Be a Source of Information on Allergy? Correlation of Pollen Counts with Tweets Reporting Symptoms of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Names of Antihistamine Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Stilo, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Angelo; Carloni, Emanuela; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Velardi, Paola; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tozzi, Alberto E

    2015-01-01

    Pollen forecasts are in use everywhere to inform therapeutic decisions for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). We exploited data derived from Twitter in order to identify tweets reporting a combination of symptoms consistent with a case definition of ARC and those reporting the name of an antihistamine drug. In order to increase the sensitivity of the system, we applied an algorithm aimed at automatically identifying jargon expressions related to medical terms. We compared weekly Twitter trends with National Allergy Bureau weekly pollen counts derived from US stations, and found a high correlation of the sum of the total pollen counts from each stations with tweets reporting ARC symptoms (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.95) and with tweets reporting antihistamine drug names (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.93). Longitude and latitude of the pollen stations affected the strength of the correlation. Twitter and other social networks may play a role in allergic disease surveillance and in signaling drug consumptions trends.

  2. Can Twitter Be a Source of Information on Allergy? Correlation of Pollen Counts with Tweets Reporting Symptoms of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Names of Antihistamine Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gesualdo

    Full Text Available Pollen forecasts are in use everywhere to inform therapeutic decisions for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC. We exploited data derived from Twitter in order to identify tweets reporting a combination of symptoms consistent with a case definition of ARC and those reporting the name of an antihistamine drug. In order to increase the sensitivity of the system, we applied an algorithm aimed at automatically identifying jargon expressions related to medical terms. We compared weekly Twitter trends with National Allergy Bureau weekly pollen counts derived from US stations, and found a high correlation of the sum of the total pollen counts from each stations with tweets reporting ARC symptoms (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.95 and with tweets reporting antihistamine drug names (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.93. Longitude and latitude of the pollen stations affected the strength of the correlation. Twitter and other social networks may play a role in allergic disease surveillance and in signaling drug consumptions trends.

  3. Do patients' symptoms and interpersonal problems improve in psychotherapeutic hospital treatment in Germany? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Liebherz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Germany, inpatient psychotherapy plays a unique role in the treatment of patients with common mental disorders of higher severity. In addition to psychiatric inpatient services, psychotherapeutic hospital treatment and psychosomatic rehabilitation are offered as independent inpatient treatment options. This meta-analysis aims to provide systematic evidence for psychotherapeutic hospital treatment in Germany regarding its effects on symptomatic and interpersonal impairment. METHODOLOGY: Relevant papers were identified by electronic database search and hand search. Randomized controlled trials as well as naturalistic prospective studies (including post-therapy and follow-up assessments evaluating psychotherapeutic hospital treatment of mentally ill adults in Germany were included. Outcomes were required to be quantified by either the Symptom-Checklist (SCL-90-R or short versions or the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64 or short versions. Effect sizes (Hedges' g were combined using random effect models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty-seven papers representing 59 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis yielded a medium within-group effect size for symptom change at discharge (g = 0.72; 95% CI 0.68-0.76, with a small reduction to follow-up (g = 0.61; 95% CI 0.55-0.68. Regarding interpersonal problems, a small effect size was found at discharge (g = 0.35; 95% CI 0.29-0.41, which increased to follow-up (g = 0.48; 95% CI 0.36-0.60. While higher impairment at intake was associated with a larger effect size in both measures, longer treatment duration was related to lower effect sizes in SCL GSI and to larger effect sizes in IIP Total. CONCLUSIONS: Psychotherapeutic hospital treatment may be considered an effective treatment. In accordance with Howard's phase model of psychotherapy outcome, the present study demonstrated that symptom distress changes more quickly and strongly than interpersonal problems. Preliminary analyses

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and Lipopolysaccharide Modulate Gene Expressions of Drug Transporters in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells Correlation to Inflammatory Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Tallkvist, Jonas; Artursson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation in the mammary gland (mastitis) is the most common disease in dairy herds worldwide, often caused by the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Little is known about the effects of mastitis on drug transporters and the impact on transporter-mediated excretion of drugs into milk. We used murine mammary epithelial HC11 cells, after lactogenic differentiation into a secreting phenotype, and studied gene expressions of ABC- and SLC- transporters after treatment of cells with S. aureus and lipopolysaccharide, an endotoxin secreted by E. coli. The studied transporters were Bcrp, Mdr1, Mrp1, Oatp1a5, Octn1 and Oct1. In addition, Csn2, the gene encoding β-casein, was analyzed. As biomarkers of the inflammatory response, gene expressions of the cytokines Il6 and Tnfα and the chemokine Cxcl2 were determined. Our results show that S. aureus and LPS treatment of cells, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, induced an up-regulation of Mdr1 and of the inflammatory biomarkers, except that Tnfα was not affected by lipopolysaccharide. By simple regression analysis we could demonstrate statistically significant positive correlations between each of the transporters with each of the inflammatory biomarkers in cells treated with S. aureus. The coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.7–0.9 for all but one correlation. After treatment of cells with lipopolysaccharide, statistically significant correlations were only found between Mdr1 and the two parameters Cxcl2 and Il6. The expression of Csn2 was up-regulated in cells treated with S. aureus, indicating that the secretory function of the cells was not impaired. The strong correlation in gene expressions between transporters and inflammatory biomarkers may suggest a co-regulation and that the transporters have a role in the transport of cytokines and chemokines. Our results demonstrate that transporters in mammary cells can be affected by infection, which may have an impact on

  5. Florida Best Practice Psychotherapeutic Medication Guidelines for Adults With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Suppes, Trisha; Tandon, Rajiv; Ostacher, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Herein we provide the 2015 update for the Florida Best Practice Psychotherapeutic Medication Guidelines (FPG) for major depressive disorder (MDD). The FPG represent evidence-based decision support for practitioners providing care to adults with MDD. The consensus meeting included representatives from the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (FAHCA), advocacy members, academic experts in MDD, and multidisciplinary mental health clinicians, as well as health policy experts. The FAHCA provided funding support for the FPG. Evidence was limited to results from adequately powered, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials; in addition, pooled-, meta-, and network-analyses were included. Recommendations were based on consensus arrived at by the multistakeholder Florida Expert Panel. Articles selected were identified on the electronic search engine PubMed with the dates 2010 to present. The search terms were major depressive disorder, psychopharmacology, antidepressants, psychotherapy, neuromodulation, complementary alternative medicines, pooled-analysis, meta-analysis, and network-analysis. Bibliographies of the identified articles were manually searched for additional citations not identified in the original search. A consensus meeting comprising all representatives took place on September 25-26, 2015, in Tampa, Florida. Guiding principles (eg, emphasis on the most rigorous evidence for efficacy, safety, and tolerability) were discussed, defined, and operationalized prior to review of extant data. As MDD often pursues a recurrent and chronic course, principles of practice, measurement-based care, and comprehensive assessment and management of overall physical and mental health were emphasized. Evidence supporting pretreatment major depressive episode specifiers (eg, mixed features, anxious distress) and the role of pharmacogenomics (and other biological-behavioral markers) in informing treatment selection were comprehensively discussed. Algorithmic

  6. Clinical Correlates and Drug Resistance in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Chandy; Elsa, Heylen; Baijayanti, Mishra; Lennartsdotter, Ekstrand Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine demographics, clinical correlates, sputum AFB (acid fast bacilli) smear grading DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course) uptake, and drug resistance in a cohort of newly-diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with respect to HIV status at baseline, and compare smear conversion rates, side effects and mortality after two months. Design A prospective study among 54 HIV positive and 41 HIV negative pulmonary TB patients. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews, review of medical records, and lab tests. Results HIVTB co-infected patients, though more symptomatic at baseline, showed more improvement in their symptoms compared to HIV-uninfected TB patients at follow-up. The HIV co-infected group had more prevalent perceived side effects, and sputum smear positivity was marginally higher compared to the HIV negative group at follow-up. Mortality was higher among the HIV-infected group. Both groups had high rates of resistance to first-line anti-tubercular drugs, particularly isoniazid. There was no significant difference in the drug resistance patterns between the groups. Conclusions Prompt initiation and provision of daily regimens of ATT (Anti-Tubercular treatment) along with ART (Anti-Retroviral treatment) via ART centers is urgently needed in India. As resistance to ART and/or ATT is directly linked to medication non-adherence, the use of counseling, regular reinforcement, early detection and appropriate intervention strategies to tackle this complex issue could help prevent premature mortality and development of resistance in HIV-TB co-infected patients. The high rate of isoniazid resistance might preclude its use in India as prophylaxis for latent TB in HIV infected persons as per the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. PMID:27708985

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of ‘Agua Celeste’ Use among Female Sex Workers who Inject Drugs in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D.; Case, Patricia; Robertson, Angela M.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Clapp, John D.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Agua celeste, or “heavenly water,” is the street name for a sky-blue colored solvent reportedly inhaled or ingested to produce an intoxicating effect. Study aims were to (1) describe prevalence of Agua Celestse (AC) use, and (2) identify correlates of lifetime and recent use of AC use among female sex workers who also inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in northern Mexico. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, baseline data from FSW-IDUs ≥ 18 years old living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez participating in a longitudinal behavioral intervention were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Among 623 FSW-IDUs (307 from Tijuana and 316 from Ciudad Juarez (CJ)), 166 (26%) reported ever using AC, all of whom lived in CJ. Among the CJ sample, lifetime prevalence of AC use was 53%, median age of first use was 16 years (IQR: 14–23), and 10% reported it as their first abused substance. Ever using AC was independently associated with ever being physically abused and younger age, and was marginally associated with initiating injection drug use and regular sex work at age eighteen or younger. Among those ever using AC, 70/166 (42.2%) reported using it within the last 6 months, which was independently associated with using drugs with clients before or during sex, being on the street more than 8 hours per day, and younger age. Discussion We observed considerable geographic variation in the use of AC in northern Mexico. Future studies exploring factors influencing use, its precise formulation(s), and its potential health effects are needed to guide prevention and treatment. PMID:21441001

  8. Prevalence and correlates of 'agua celeste' use among female sex workers who inject drugs in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Case, Patricia; Robertson, Angela M; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Clapp, John D; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2011-09-01

    Agua celeste, or "heavenly water", is the street name for a sky-blue colored solvent reportedly inhaled or ingested to produce an intoxicating effect. Study aims were to (1) describe prevalence of agua celestse (AC) use, and (2) identify correlates of lifetime and recent use of AC use among female sex workers who also inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in northern Mexico. Between 2008 and 2010, baseline data from FSW-IDUs≥18 years old living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez participating in a longitudinal behavioral intervention were analyzed using logistic regression. Among 623 FSW-IDUs (307 from Tijuana and 316 from Ciudad Juarez (CJ)), 166 (26%) reported ever using AC, all of whom lived in CJ. Among the CJ sample, lifetime prevalence of AC use was 53%, median age of first use was 16 years (IQR: 14-23), and 10% reported it as their first abused substance. Ever using AC was independently associated with ever being physically abused and younger age, and was marginally associated with initiating injection drug use and regular sex work at age eighteen or younger. Among those ever using AC, 70/166 (42.2%) reported using it within the last 6 months, which was independently associated with using drugs with clients before or during sex, being on the street more than 8h per day, and younger age. We observed considerable geographic variation in the use of AC in northern Mexico. Future studies exploring factors influencing use, its precise formulation(s), and its potential health effects are needed to guide prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation and correlation of drug polymer miscibility and molecular interactions by various approaches for the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Trivino, Anne; Prasad, Dev; Chauhan, Harsh

    2015-04-25

    Curcumin (CUR) was used as a poorly soluble drug whereas polyvinyl pyrrolidone K90 (PVP), Eudragit EPO (EPO), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5 (HPMC) and polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG) were used as hydrophilic polymers. CUR polymer miscibility was evaluated by solubility parameter, melting point depression and glass transition temperature (Tg) measurements. Molecular interactions between CUR and polymers were determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman. Amorphous solid dispersions were prepared with CUR-polymer ratio of 70:30 (w/w) by solvent evaporation technique and were evaluated for dissolution enhancement using USP II method. Physical states of solid dispersions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) whereas thermal behaviors were investigated using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). CUR-EPO system showed good miscibility through all the approaches, whereas immiscibility was found in other CUR-polymer systems. CUR-EPO and CUR-HPMC systems showed significant molecular interactions whereas CUR-PVP and CUR-PEG showed no molecular interactions. All solid dispersions showed significant dissolution enhancement with CUR-EPO showing highest dissolution rate during first 1h whereas CUR-HPMC was effective in maintaining high CUR concentrations for 6h. The study highlights the importance of investigating and correlating drug polymer miscibility and molecular interactions by various approaches for successful formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

  10. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Methods Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Results Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P marijuana (OR = 0.26, P marijuana DUI laws was also associated with lower odds of each of these outcomes (OR = 0.63, P marijuana DUI were greater in magnitude for safety

  11. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Davis

    Full Text Available A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI.Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865 served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1 any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2 driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model.Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P < 0.01 and lower past-month odds of driving 5 or more times within 1 hour of using marijuana (OR = 0.26, P < 0.01. Increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was also associated

  12. Connection and Missing:Drug Policy Thinking on the Correlation between the Various Drugs%相关与缺失:关于各毒品间关联性的政策思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林少真

    2012-01-01

    毒品政策的治理有限性,引发对各毒品间关联性问题的探讨。以西方社会的"闸道假定"为理论对照,挖掘我国各毒品间关联性的特点。即我国毒品市场存在类型更替;毒品使用顺序有明显边界;毒品药理特性是选择或更换毒品的主要原因。最后提出与各毒品间关联性相关的政策建议,即应该考虑各毒品之间的关联性,进行分类型的毒品宣传,毒品治理不应该一刀切。%The limited effect of drug policy led to the discussion of the correlation between the various drugs.Given "Gateway Hypothesis" as the control theory,this paper explored features of the correlation between the various drugs in China,which were that China's drug market existed type turnover;drug use sequence had significant boundary;and pharmacological properties of drugs were the main reason for drug selection or replacement.Finally,the paper put forward the policy suggestions.We should take the correlation between the various drugs into account,do the publicity based on the different drug types,and drug treatment should not make it rigidly uniform.

  13. [Psychotherapeutically-Systemic Acting in the Integrated Family Counseling Presented by the Example of Child-Centered Educational Counseling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Ines

    2015-01-01

    The article gives an insight into the practice of Integrated Family Counseling and identifies their interfaces with psychotherapeutic approaches. The example of the child-centered educational counseling shows how consultancy, systemic and psychotherapeutic interventions interact in order to meet the parents educational needs defined by the parents. The first part of the article explains the term of Integrated Family Counseling, differentiates the various substantive areas of work and outlines the systematic attitude. The second part describes the psychotherapy-systemic action in the child-centered educational counseling from the perspective of the practice. Main priorities in the course of counseling, including cause-related behavioral and developmental diagnostics, play therapy intervention and parental involvement are presented. Here the systemic approach, major methodological elements as well as their effects are pointed up. The third part is devoted to the reflection of the relationship between counseling and psychotherapy. It becomes clear that in particular the intended effectiveness of an intervention determines their methodological design to a large extent.

  14. Psychodiagnostic and Psychotherapeutic Judgments: Expectation-Based Biases in Covariation Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.

    This paper considers three clinical judgment biases in clinical inference: (1) illusory correlation bias, the report by clinicians of a correlation between psychodiagnostic test signs and patient's symptoms which are not correlated or are correlated to a smaller degree than that reported; (2) labeling bias, the tendency of exposure to diagnositc…

  15. Do Postoperative Psychotherapeutic Interventions and Support Groups Influence Weight Loss Following Bariatric Surgery? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized and Nonrandomized Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Nina N.; Johannsen, Maja; Støvring, René K.

    2012-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently considered the most effective treatment of severe obesity, but considerable individual variations in weight loss results have been reported. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating the effect of psychotherapeutic...... interventions and support groups on weight loss following bariatric surgery. A literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and PsycINFO, identifying nine eligible studies reporting results of the effect of psychotherapeutic interventions and support groups on weight loss following bariatric surgery...

  16. Correlations between immunogenicity, drug levels, and disease activity in an Italian cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with tocilizumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Maurizio; Meacci, Francesca; Grossi, Valentina; Infantino, Maria; Manfredi, Mariangela; Bellio, Emanuele; Bellio, Valerio; Li Gobbi, Francesca; Bazzichi, Laura; Moscato, Paolo; Caputo, Dario; Saviola, Gianantonio; Talotta, Rossella; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the real-life immunogenicity of anti-drug antibodies, drug levels, and disease activity in an Italian cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with tocilizumab (TCZ). We evaluated 126 TCZ-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis (16 males and 110 females; mean age 59±12 years, range 26–83; mean disease duration 11±5 years) with inadequate 12-week response to any synthetic and biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, in a retrospective analysis. One-hundred and seven patients were treated with methotrexate mean dose 12.6±1.3 mg/week in combination with TCZ, 13 received TCZ monotherapy, and six received leflunomide 20 mg/day plus TCZ; all patients were treated with prednisone mean dose 6.4±1.2 mg/day. They had a 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) of >3.2, an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of >30 mm/hour, and CRP levels of >1.0 mg/dL. We evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of treatment: DAS28; rheumatoid factor (RF) IgM, IgA, and IgG; anti-citrullinated peptide antibody; ESR; CRP; TNF-α; and IL-6. TCZ and anti-TCZ antibodies were detected using LISA-TRACKER Duo TCZ. TCZ levels of 10 µg/mL high. After 6 months of treatment only one patient was positive for anti-TCZ antibodies. There were correlations between DAS28, ESR, and CRP and IL-6 levels in all patients. Comparison of the 84 patients with TCZ levels of 10 µg/mL showed the following differences: DAS28: 3.09±1.32 vs 2.78±1.32, P=0.0005; ESR: 27±14.8 vs 14±12 mm/hour, P=0.0001; CRP: 1.47±1.05 vs 0.65±0.80 mg/dL, P=0.0086; TNF-α: 10.2±1.2 vs 9.9±1.1 pg/mL, P=0.999; IL-6: 3.65±4.75 vs 3.62±4.41 pg/mL, P=0.97; anti-citrullinated peptide antibody: 85.2±93.7 vs 86.7±90.3 IU/mL, P=0.94; RF IgM: 72.4±62.7 vs 68.3±61.6 IU/mL, P=0.754; RF IgA: 41.7±36.4 vs 47.8±42.1 U/mL, P=0.449; and RF IgG: 46.4±46.1 vs 59.3±58.2 U/mL, P=0.212. These findings show that the occurrence of anti-drug antibodies against TCZ is very rare and that

  17. Risk-taking in disorders of natural and drug rewards: neural correlates and effects of probability, valence, and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Morris, Laurel S; Irvine, Michael A; Ruck, Christian; Worbe, Yulia; Derbyshire, Katherine; Rankov, Vladan; Schreiber, Liana Rn; Odlaug, Brian L; Harrison, Neil A; Wood, Jonathan; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T; Grant, Jon E

    2015-03-01

    Pathological behaviors toward drugs and food rewards have underlying commonalities. Risk-taking has a fourfold pattern varying as a function of probability and valence leading to the nonlinearity of probability weighting with overweighting of small probabilities and underweighting of large probabilities. Here we assess these influences on risk-taking in patients with pathological behaviors toward drug and food rewards and examine structural neural correlates of nonlinearity of probability weighting in healthy volunteers. In the anticipation of rewards, subjects with binge eating disorder show greater risk-taking, similar to substance-use disorders. Methamphetamine-dependent subjects had greater nonlinearity of probability weighting along with impaired subjective discrimination of probability and reward magnitude. Ex-smokers also had lower risk-taking to rewards compared with non-smokers. In the anticipation of losses, obesity without binge eating had a similar pattern to other substance-use disorders. Obese subjects with binge eating also have impaired discrimination of subjective value similar to that of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Nonlinearity of probability weighting was associated with lower gray matter volume in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in healthy volunteers. Our findings support a distinct subtype of binge eating disorder in obesity with similarities in risk-taking in the reward domain to substance use disorders. The results dovetail with the current approach of defining mechanistically based dimensional approaches rather than categorical approaches to psychiatric disorders. The relationship to risk probability and valence may underlie the propensity toward pathological behaviors toward different types of rewards.

  18. Psychosocial functioning, quality of life and clinical correlates of comorbid alcohol and drug dependence syndromes in people with schizophrenia across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Johnson, Sonia; Crocamo, Cristina; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Brugha, Traolach; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Toumi, Mondher; Bebbington, Paul E

    2016-05-30

    Little is known about the correlates of comorbid drug and alcohol dependence in people with schizophrenia outside the USA. We tested hypotheses that dependence on alcohol/drugs would be associated with more severe symptoms, and poorer psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The EuroSC Cohort study (N=1204), based in France, Germany and the UK, used semi-structured clinical interviews for diagnoses, and standardized tools to assess correlates. We used mixed models to compare outcomes between past-year comorbid dependence on alcohol/drugs, controlling for covariates and modelling both subject and country-level effects. Participants dependent on alcohol or drugs had fewer negative symptoms on PANSS than their non-dependent counterparts. However, those dependent on alcohol scored higher on PANSS general psychopathology than those who were not, or dependent only on drugs. People with schizophrenia dependent on drugs had poorer quality of life, more extrapyramidal side effects, and scored worse on Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) than those without dependence. People with alcohol dependence reported more reasons for non-compliance with medication, and poorer functioning on GAF, though not on Global Assessment of Relational Functioning. In people with schizophrenia, comorbid dependence on alcohol or drugs is associated with impaired clinical and psychosocial adjustment, and poorer quality of life.

  19. Correlates of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of HIV-positive drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, M R; Obeng-Aduasare, Y; Sheehan, H; Hong, S Y; Terrin, N; Duong, D V; Trung, N V; Wanke, C; Kinh, N V; Tang, A M

    2014-08-01

    The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is concentrated, with high prevalence estimates among injection drug users and commercial sex workers. Socio-demographics, substance use and clinical correlates of antiretroviral therapy non-adherence were studied in 100 HIV-1 infected drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months in Hanoi, Vietnam. All study participants were men with a mean age of 29.9 ± 4.9 years. The median duration on antiretroviral therapy was 16.2 ± 12.7 months; 83% reported 'very good' or 'perfect' adherence in the past 30 days on a subjective one-item Likert scale at time of study enrollment; 48% of participants reported drug use within the previous 6 months, with 22% reporting current drug use. Injection drug use with or without non-injection drug use in the past 6 months (95% C.I. 2.19, 1.30-3.69) and years on antiretroviral therapy (95% C.I. 1.43, 1.14-1.78) were correlated with suboptimal adherence. These findings support Vietnam's ongoing scale-up of harm reduction programmes for injection drug users and their integration with antiretroviral therapy delivery. Moreover, results highlight the need to identify and implement new ways to support high levels of antiretroviral therapy adherence as duration on antiretroviral therapy increases.

  20. The Relationship of Students' Awareness on Drug Policy, Procedures, and Intervention Programs to the Drug and Alcohol Use on College Campuses: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love-Quick, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most pressing concerns that universities and colleges face today is the drug and alcohol abuse of students. In order to address this, there is a need to strengthen university policies in order to mitigate the increasing rate and cases of drug and alcohol abuse among students. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the…

  1. The Relationship of Students' Awareness on Drug Policy, Procedures, and Intervention Programs to the Drug and Alcohol Use on College Campuses: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love-Quick, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most pressing concerns that universities and colleges face today is the drug and alcohol abuse of students. In order to address this, there is a need to strengthen university policies in order to mitigate the increasing rate and cases of drug and alcohol abuse among students. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the…

  2. Effectiveness of different modalities of psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with cluster C personality disorder: results of a large prospective multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartak, A.; Spreeuwenberg, M.D.; Andrea, H.; Holleman, H.; Rijnierse, P.; Rossum, B.V.; Hamers, E.F.M; Meerman, A.M.M.A.; Aerts, J.; Busschbach, J.J.V.; Verheul, R.; Stijnen, T.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: No previous studies have compared the effectiveness of different modalities of psychotherapeutic treatment, as defined by different settings and durations, for patients with cluster C personality disorders. The aim of this multicentre study was to compare the effectiveness of 5 treatment

  3. Effectiveness of different modalities of psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with cluster C personality disorders: results of a large prospective multicentre study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bartak (Anna); M.D. Spreeuwenberg (Marieke); H. Andrea (Helene); L. Holleman (Lot); P. Rijnierse (Piet); B. van Rossum (Bert); E.F.M. Hamers (Elisabeth); A.M.M.A. Meerman (Anke); J. Aerts (Janneke); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); R. Verheul (Roel); Th. Stijnen (Theo); P.M.G. Emmelkamp (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: No previous studies have compared the effectiveness of different modalities of psychotherapeutic treatment, as defined by different settings and durations, for patients with cluster C personality disorders. The aim of this multicentre study was to compare the effect

  4. Effectiveness of different modalities of psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with cluster C personality disorder: results of a large prospective multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bartak; M.D. Spreeuwenberg; H. Andrea; H. Holleman; P. Rijnierse; B.V. Rossum; E.F.M Hamers; A.M.M.A. Meerman; J. Aerts; J.J.V. Busschbach; R. Verheul; T. Stijnen; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2010-01-01

    Background: No previous studies have compared the effectiveness of different modalities of psychotherapeutic treatment, as defined by different settings and durations, for patients with cluster C personality disorders. The aim of this multicentre study was to compare the effectiveness of 5 treatment

  5. Correlating coating characteristics with the performance of drug-coated balloons--a comparative in vitro investigation of own established hydrogel- and ionic liquid-based coating matrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kaule

    Full Text Available Drug-coated balloons (DCB, which have emerged as a therapeutic alternative to drug-eluting stents in percutaneous cardiovascular intervention, are well described with regard to clinical efficacy and safety within a number of clinical studies. In vitro studies elucidating the correlation between coating additive and DCB performance are however rare but considered important for the understanding of DCB requirements and the improvement of established DCB. In this regard, we examined three different DCB-systems, which were developed in former studies based on the ionic liquid cetylpyridinium salicylate, the body-own hydrogel hyaluronic acid and the pharmaceutically well-established hydrogel polyvinylpyrrolidone, considering coating morphology, coating thickness, drug-loss, drug-transfer to the vessel wall, residual drug-concentration on the balloon surface and entire drug-load during simulated use in an in vitro vessel model. Moreover, we investigated particle release of the different DCB during simulated use and determined the influence of the three coatings on the mechanical behavior of the balloon catheter. We could show that coating characteristics can be indeed correlated with the performance of DCB. For instance, paclitaxel incorporation in the matrix can reduce the drug wash-off and benefit a high drug transfer. Additionally, a thin coating with a smooth surface and high but delayed solubility can reduce drug wash-off and decrease particle burden. As a result, we suggest that it is very important to characterize DCB in terms of mentioned properties in vitro in addition to their clinical efficacy in order to better understand their function and provide more data for the clinicians to improve the tool of DCB in coronary angioplasty.

  6. Evaluating outcome-correlated recruitment and geographic recruitment bias in a respondent-driven sample of people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Abby E; Gaines, Tommi L.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly C.

    2014-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling’s (RDS) widespread use and reliance on untested assumptions suggests a need for new exploratory/diagnostic tests. We assessed geographic recruitment bias and outcome-correlated recruitment among 1048 RDS-recruited people who inject drugs (Tijuana, Mexico).

  7. Correlations between immunogenicity, drug levels, and disease activity in an Italian cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with tocilizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benucci M

    2016-03-01

    6 months of treatment only one patient was positive for anti-TCZ antibodies. There were correlations between DAS28, ESR, and CRP and IL-6 levels in all patients. Comparison of the 84 patients with TCZ levels of <10 µg/mL and the 42 with TCZ levels of >10 µg/mL showed the following differences: DAS28: 3.09±1.32 vs 2.78±1.32, P=0.0005; ESR: 27±14.8 vs 14±12 mm/hour, P=0.0001; CRP: 1.47±1.05 vs 0.65±0.80 mg/dL, P=0.0086; TNF-α: 10.2±1.2 vs 9.9±1.1 pg/mL, P=0.999; IL-6: 3.65±4.75 vs 3.62±4.41 pg/mL, P=0.97; anti-citrullinated peptide antibody: 85.2±93.7 vs 86.7±90.3 IU/mL, P=0.94; RF IgM: 72.4±62.7 vs 68.3±61.6 IU/mL, P=0.754; RF IgA: 41.7±36.4 vs 47.8±42.1 U/mL, P=0.449; and RF IgG: 46.4±46.1 vs 59.3±58.2 U/mL, P=0.212. These findings show that the occurrence of anti-drug antibodies against TCZ is very rare and that there are statistically significant correlations between TCZ levels of >10 µg/mL and ESR, CRP levels, and DAS28.Keywords: tocilizumab, TCZ drug level, antibodies anti-TCZ

  8. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  9. Urine toxicology screen in multiple sleep latency test: the correlation of positive tetrahydrocannabinol, drug negative patients, and narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzodzomenyo, Samuel; Stolfi, Adrienne; Splaingard, Deborah; Earley, Elizabeth; Onadeko, Oluwole; Splaingard, Mark

    2015-01-15

    Drugs can influence results of multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We sought to identify the effect of marijuana on MSLT results in pediatric patients evaluated for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). This is a retrospective study of urine drug screens performed the morning before MSLT in 383 patients narcolepsy, 0% consistent with idiopathic hypersomnia, 29% other, and 29% normal. This was statistically different from those with (-) screens (24% narcolepsy, 20% idiopathic hypersomnia, 6% other, 50% normal), and those (+) for drugs other than THC (17% narcolepsy, 33% idiopathic hypersomnia, 4% other, 46% normal (p = 0.01). Six percent (6/93) of patients with MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy were drug screen (+) for THC; 71% of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had multiple sleep onset REM periods (SOREMS). There were no (+) urine drug screens in patients narcolepsy or had multiple SOREMs. Drug screening is important in interpreting MSLT findings for children ≥13 years. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  10. Intracranial EEG seizure onset-patterns correlate with high-frequency oscillations in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Perucca, Piero; Dubeau, Francois; Gotman, Jean

    2016-11-01

    High-frequency oscillations (80-500Hz; HFOs) have been shown to be a specific biomarker of the seizure-onset zone. The relationship of HFOs with seizures having different intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) morphological onsets, however, has shown significant relationships in experimental animals but has not been studied in humans. We investigated how interictal and ictal HFOs relate to different seizure-onset morphological patterns. We analyzed the most representative seizure type of 37 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who underwent iEEG for diagnostic evaluation. According to the morphology, 211 seizure-onset zone channels were classified in six patterns (low-voltage fast activity; sharp activity at ≤13Hz; low-frequency high-amplitude periodic spikes; burst of high-amplitude polyspikes; spike-and-wave activity; and delta brush). Interictal and ictal HFOs were compared between the six seizure-onset patterns. Interictal ripple and fast ripple rates differed significantly across seizure-onset patterns (ppatterns (ppattern is more likely to be generated in a region of seizure spread. Regarding the difference in HFO density between pre-ictal baseline and seizure-onset section across the six patterns, burst of high-amplitude polyspikes and delta brushes had the highest densities of both ripples and fast ripples (ppatterns correlate specific interictal and ictal HFO profiles confirming that seizures with different morphological patterns likely have different mechanisms of generation. This study emphazises that, in clinical practice, seizure-onset patterns should be distinguished and specified when analyzing HFOs, particularly if they are used in presurgical evaluation to better localize the seizure-onset zone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In Situ Formed Phase Transited Drug Delivery System of Ketoprofen for Achieving Osmotic, Controlled and Level A In Vitro In Vivo Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A. K.; Pathak, Kamla

    2008-01-01

    A dry process induced phase transited, non disintegrating, controlled release, in situ formed asymmetric membrane capsular system for poorly water soluble drug, ketoprofen, was developed and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for osmotic and controlled release of the drug. In situ formed asymmetric membrane capsules were prepared using fabricated glass capsule holders via dry, phase inversion process. Effect of varying osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium on drug release was studied. Membrane characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed an outer dense region with less pores and an inner porous region for the prepared asymmetric membrane. In vitro release studies and statistical test for all the prepared and marketed formulation were done at P >0.05. The drug release was found to be independent of the pH, but dependent on the osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed a level A correlation (R2>0.99) with 39.24 % relative bioavailability compared to immediate release tablet of ketoprofen. Excellent correlation achieved suggested that the in vivo performance of the phase transited in situ formed AMCs could be accurately predicted from their in vitro release profiles and could a means for controlled delivery of drugs with varying solubility. PMID:21369435

  12. In situ formed phase transited drug delivery system of ketoprofen for achieving osmotic, controlled and level a in vitro in vivo correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A dry process induced phase transited, non disintegrating, controlled release, in situ formed asymmetric membrane capsular system for poorly water soluble drug, ketoprofen, was developed and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for osmotic and controlled release of the drug. In situ formed asymmetric membrane capsules were prepared using fabricated glass capsule holders via dry, phase inversion process. Effect of varying osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium on drug release was studied. Membrane characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed an outer dense region with less pores and an inner porous region for the prepared asymmetric membrane. In vitro release studies and statistical test for all the prepared and marketed formulation were done at P > 0.05. The drug release was found to be independent of the pH, but dependent on the osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed a level A correlation (R 2> 0.99 with 39.24 % relative bioavailability compared to immediate release tablet of ketoprofen. Excellent correlation achieved suggested that the in vivo performance of the phase transited in situ formed AMCs could be accurately predicted from their in vitro release profiles and could a means for controlled delivery of drugs with varying solubility.

  13. Prevalence, correlates, and temporal trends in antiarrhythmic drug use at discharge after implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement (from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry [NCDR]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Sandesh; Peterson, Pamela N; Wang, Yongfei; Curtis, Jeptha P; Varosy, Paul D; Masoudi, Frederick A

    2014-01-15

    Patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) can require antiarrhythmic drugs to manage arrhythmias and prevent device shocks. We sought to determine the prevalence, clinical correlates, and institutional variation in the use of antiarrhythmic drugs over time after ICD implantation. From the ICD Registry (2006 to 2011), we analyzed the trends in the use of antiarrhythmic agents prescribed at hospital discharge for patients undergoing first-time ICD placement. The patient, provider, and facility level variables associated with antiarrhythmic use were determined using multivariate logistic regression models. A median odds ratio was calculated to assess the hospital-level variation in the use of antiarrhythmic drugs. Of the cohort (n = 500,995), 15% had received an antiarrhythmic drug at discharge. The use of class III agents increased modestly (13.9% to 14.9%, p <0.01). Amiodarone was the most commonly prescribed drug (82%) followed by sotalol (10%). Among the subgroups, the greatest increase in prescribing was for patients who had received a secondary prevention ICD (26% in 2006% and 30% in 2011, p <0.01) or with a history of ventricular tachycardia (23% to 27%, p <0.01). The median odds ratio for antiarrhythmic prescription was 1.45, indicating that 2 randomly selected hospitals would have had a 45% difference in the odds of treating identical patients with an antiarrhythmic drug. In conclusion, antiarrhythmic drug use, particularly class III antiarrhythmic drugs, is common among ICD recipients at hospital discharge and varies by hospital, suggesting an influence from local treatment patterns. The observed hospital variation suggests a role for augmentation of clinical guidelines regarding the use of antiarrhythmic drugs for patients undergoing implantation of an ICD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. In vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC) for drugs in extended release formulations which are extensively metabolized or absorbed with transporters

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of commercially available garlic supplements especially by chronic patients is continuously rising due to disease preventing effects, recognized in numerous preclinical and clinical studies. However, combining inconventional therapy utilized drugs with garlic phytochemicals can lead to serious pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Namely, in some cases significant plasma profile changes of applied drugs and their metabolites, caused by intestinal and hepatic CYP in...

  15. Preclinical Efficacy of an Antibody-Drug Conjugate Targeting Mesothelin Correlates with Quantitative Zr-89-ImmunoPET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, Anton; Ogasawara, Annie; Pacheco, Glenn; Vanderbilt, Alexander N.; Tinianow, Jeff N.; Gupta, Nidhi; Li, Dongwei; Firestein, Ron; Marik, Jan; Scales, Suzie J.; Williams, Simon-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) use monoclonal antibodies (mAb) as vehicles to deliver potent cytotoxic drugs selectively to tumor cells expressing the target. Molecular imaging with zirconium-89 (Zr-89)-labeled mAbs recapitulates similar targeting biology and might help predict the efficacy of these

  16. Young people at risk of transitioning to injecting drug use in Sydney, Australia: social disadvantage and other correlates of higher levels of exposure to injecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Toby; Bryant, Joanne; Ellard, Jeanne; Howard, John; Treloar, Carla

    2015-03-01

    While numerous studies have examined characteristics of young people who have recently initiated injecting, little attention has focused on young people who may be at high risk of transitioning to injecting. This study sought to examine the extent that socially disadvantaged young people were exposed to injecting, determine their level of hepatitis C (HCV) knowledge and identify correlates of higher injecting exposure. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 210 young people in 2010-2011 who were exposed to injecting drug use, but had not transitioned to injecting. Respondents were primarily recruited from youth services in metropolitan Sydney. Exposure to injecting in the previous 12 months was assessed with four items that examined whether close friends, romantic/sexual partners or family members/acquaintances injected drugs, and whether they were offered an injection. Most respondents had at least a few close friends who injected drugs (65%) and almost half had been offered drugs to inject in the previous 12 months (48%). It was less common for respondents to report having a partner who injects (11%). Correlates of higher injecting exposure were examined with multivariate ordinal regression. In the multivariate model, higher exposure to injecting was independently associated with the experience of abuse or violent crime [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.80] and reporting more favourable attitudes towards injecting (AOR = 0.86). Higher exposure to injecting was not independently associated with patterns or history of drug use. HCV knowledge was low to moderate and was not associated with higher exposure to injecting. That drug use was not independently associated with higher injecting exposure may suggest that exposure is shaped more by social disadvantage than by drug use patterns. Additional research is required to investigate this, using an improved measure of exposure to injecting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. New Drugs of Abuse and Withdrawal Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrabi, Sara; Greene, Spencer; Moukaddam, Nidal; Moukkadam, Nidal; Li, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    New drugs of abuse continue to emerge, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and hallucinogens. It is important to recognize their individual psychopharmacologic properties, symptoms of intoxication, and symptoms of withdrawal. Providers must be vigilant of acute medical or psychiatric complications that may arise from use of these substances. Treatment of the patient also includes recognition of any substance use disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although pharmacologic treatments for substance use disorder (of the drugs included in this article) are limited, there are a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities that may be of some benefit.

  18. Influence of drug property and product design on in vitro-in vivo correlation of complex modified-release dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yihong; Li, Xia; Duan, John Z

    2014-02-01

    The present study examines how drug's inherent properties and product design influence the evaluation and applications of in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) for modified-release (MR) dosage forms consisting of extended-release (ER) and immediate-release (IR) components with bimodal drug release. Three analgesic drugs were used as model compounds, and simulations of in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles were conducted using different release rates of the ER component and various IR percentages. Plasma concentration-time profiles exhibiting a wide range of tmax and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) were obtained from superposition of the simulated IR and ER profiles based on a linear IVIVC. It was found that depending on the drug and dosage form design, direct use of the superposed IR and ER data for IVIVC modeling and prediction may (1) be acceptable within errors, (2) become unreliable and less meaningful because of the confounding effect from the non-negligible IR contribution to Cmax, or (3) be meaningless because of the insensitivity of Cmax to release rate change of the ER component. Therefore, understanding the drug, design and drug release characteristics of the product is essential for assessing the validity, accuracy, and reliability of IVIVC of complex MR products obtained via directly modeling of in vivo data.

  19. Identifying the correlation between drug/stabilizer properties and critical quality attributes (CQAs) of nanosuspension formulation prepared by wet media milling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Maya; Ghosh, Indrajit

    2013-01-23

    Wet media milling by top down method has proved to be an effective method to prepare nanosuspension of poorly soluble drugs/APIs. Few or no attempts have been made so far to understand the feasibility of nanosuspension formulation in terms of the mechanism of stabilization as a function of drug properties. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of drug substance and stabilizer properties to form a successful nanosuspension product. From this study, logP and enthalpy were concluded to have a direct correlation on the feasibility of formation of a stable nanosuspension. The most likely candidate for media milling was a drug substance with a high enthalpy and hydrophobicity which can be stabilized either electrostatically or sterically. The least likely candidate will be one that is hydrophilic and having a very low enthalpy value. Also the choice of an ideal stabilizer/surfactant was found to be influenced by the degree of hydrophobicity of the drug itself. Finally the morphology of the starting drug was found to significantly affect the milling time required to produce submicron particles.

  20. In vitro-in vivo correlation of the effect of supersaturation on the intestinal absorption of BCS Class 2 drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Haruki; Hasegawa, Tsubasa; Yamamoto, Mari; Matsui, Rie; Masaoka, Yoshie; Kataoka, Makoto; Sakuma, Shinji; Yamashita, Shinji

    2014-03-03

    The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro method for evaluating the effect of supersaturation on oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs in vivo. Albendazole, dipyridamole, gefitinib, and ketoconazole were used as model drugs. Supersaturation of each drug was induced by diluting its stock solution by fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) (solvent-shift method), then dissolution and precipitation profile of the drug was observed in vitro. The crystalline form of the precipitate was checked by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For comparison, control suspension was prepared by suspending a drug powder directly into FaSSIF (powder-suspending method). In vivo intestinal absorption of the drug was observed in rats by determined the plasma concentration after intraduodenal administration of drug suspensions. For all drugs, suspensions prepared by solvent-shift method showed significantly higher dissolved concentration in vitro than that prepared by powder-suspending method, clearly indicated the induction of supersaturation. DSC analysis revealed that crystalline form of the precipitate profoundly affects the extent and the duration of supersaturation. A rat in vivo study confirmed that the supersaturation of these drugs increased the fraction absorbed from the intestine, which corresponded well to the in vitro dissolution and precipitation profile of drugs except for ketoconazole. For ketoconazole, an in vivo absorption study was performed in rats pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP mediated metabolism. CYP inhibition study suggested that the high luminal concentration of ketoconazole caused by supersaturation saturated the metabolic enzymes and further increased the systemic exposure of the absorbed drug. The additional effects of supersaturation on the absorption of ketoconazole are consistent with previous studies in humans under differing gastric pH conditions. In conclusion, effects of supersaturation on

  1. Correlation between drug–drug interaction-induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome and related deaths in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jen Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant use of some drugs can lead to interactions between them resulting in severe adverse effects. To date, there are few reports of incidences of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS associated with combination drug administration. Therefore, we studied the relationship between drug combinations and SJS-related mortality, with the hope that a retrospective study of this nature would provide information crucial for the prevention of future drug-drug interaction related deaths attributable to SJS. This retrospective longitudinal study used mortality cases from 1999 to 2008 that were diagnosed as erythema multiforme (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 695.1 from the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan. Statistical comparisons of the results were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA, independent sample t-tests, and odds ratio (OR. In this way, the relationship between combinations of SJS-inducing drugs and mortality could be determined. A total of 111 patients who had died, including 63 males and 48 females (66.0 ± 20 and 70.0 ± 17.7 years, respectively, were suspected of having experienced drug-drug interaction-related adverse effects. The associated drug combinations included allopurinol and ampicillin (p = 0.049, carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (TMP (p < 0.0001, carbamazepine and phenytoin (p < 0.0001, sulfamethoxazole/TMP and phenytoin (p = 0.015, sulfadoxine and piroxicam (p = 0.045, phenobarbital and cephalexin (p < 0.0001, ampicillin and erythromycin (p < 0.0001, erythromycin and minocycline (p < 0.0001, and vancomycin and ethambutol (p < 0.0001 administered 1 month before the patients' deaths. Caution should be exercised when administering any drugs that may possibly induce SJS. In addition, attention should be paid to ensure prompt identification of possible drug-drug interactions, and patients should be closely monitored. Furthermore

  2. Momentary affect and risky behavior correlates of prescription drug misuse among young adult dating couples: An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Blumenstock, Shari M

    2016-02-01

    Although published research based on retrospective survey designs has established prescription drug misuse as a serious health issue for individuals and society, misuse behavior has not been investigated as it occurs in daily life and important relationships. To address this gap, young adult romantic couples were recruited from the community to participate in an experience sampling study. Participants were identified through phone screen procedures as having engaged in recent prescription drug misuse behavior. Participants (n=46 couples) completed electronic diary reports throughout the day for 10days, tapping momentary affect, sexual experiences, prescription drug misuse, and alcohol and other drug use. Dyadic multilevel modeling revealed a more consistent pattern of associations between prescription drug misuse and problematic affective and behavioral outcomes for female partners than male partners. Specifically, during epochs of females' prescription drug misuse, they experienced relatively higher levels of negative affect and sexual regret. Also, females who misused prescriptions more during the study period evidenced lower levels of sexual enjoyment and engaged in more unprotected sex, alcohol use, and heavy alcohol use in daily life. Males' in-the-moment prescription drug misuse was not associated with their concurrent outcomes, though males with relatively more misuse across the reporting period were more likely to engage in heavy drinking. Couples' time together emerged as a moderator of prescription drug misuse in daily life: Females who spent relatively more time with their partner across the study were less likely to engage in misuse, and proportion of time spent together moderated several of the momentary misuse-outcome linkages. This study supports the use of ecologically-valid sampling methods for characterizing young adults' prescription drug misuse in daily life and relationship contexts.

  3. Correlates of sex trading among male non-injecting drug users in Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Yu Mon; Saw, Thu Nandar; Wai, Kyi Mar; Poudel, Krishna C; Win, Hla Hla

    2016-12-05

    Sex trading is a recognized risk factor for human immune deficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs). However, very little research has addressed the factors associated with sex trading among male NIDUs in Myanmar. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2010 using the respondent-driven sampling method. In total, 210 NIDUs aged between 18 and 49 years, with no history of injecting drug use, and who used non-injected illicit drugs in the last 6 months were recruited. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire to collect information on participants' sexual and drug use behaviors. Binary and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to analyze the resulting data. Of 210 NIDUs, 84 (40%) reported involvement in the sex trade during the last 3 months. In the adjusted model, factors associated with sex trade involvement included homosexual preference (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-14.95), having more than two partners (AOR = 3.88; 95% CI 1.55-9.72), had a regular job (AOR = 5.10; 95% CI 1.65-15.72), use of stimulant drugs rather than opiate (AOR = 2.38; 95% CI 1.10-5.15), and who used drugs more than twice per day. More than one third of NIDUs were involved in sex trading. This study suggested that further comprehensive intervention programs that aim to reduce risk factors of trading sex among NIDUs may consider including NIDUs who used stimulant drugs, had regular/full-time jobs, used drugs more than twice per day, and had homosexual preferences.

  4. Correlates of Injection Drug Use among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Philbin, Morgan M.; Semple, Shirley J.; Pu, Minya; Orozovich, Prisci; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Fraga, Miguel; de la Torre, Adela; Staines, Hugo; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the overlap between injection drug use and sex work by women in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez, situated on the Mexico-U.S. border. Methods: FSWs aged ≥18 years who were not knowingly HIV-positive and reported having unprotected sex with ≥1 client in the prior two months underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression identified factors associated with injecting drugs within the last month. Results: Of 924 FSWs, 18.0% had ever injected drugs. Among FSW-IDUs (N=114), prevalence of HIV, syphilis titers >1:8, gonorrhea and Chlamydia was significantly higher at 12.3%, 22.7%, 15.2% and 21.2% compared to 4.8%, 13.1%, 5.2% and 11.9% among other FSWs (N=810). FSW-IDUs also had more clients in the past six months (median: 300 vs. 240, p=0.02). Factors independently associated with injecting drugs in the past month included living in Tijuana, being younger, being married/common-law, longer duration in the sex trade, speaking English, earning less for sex without condoms, often using drugs before sex, and knowing other FSWs who injected drugs. Conclusions: FSW-IDUs had higher STI levels, engaged in riskier behaviors and were more vulnerable to having unsafe sex with clients compared to other FSWs, indicating that this subgroup is an important bridge population requiring focused prevention. PMID:17714888

  5. Application of PC-SAFT and cubic equations of state for the correlation of solubility of some pharmaceutical and statin drugs in SC-CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah El Hadj. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the solubilities of some anti-inflammatory (nabumetone, phenylbutazone and salicylamide and statin drugs (fluvastatin, atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin and rosuvastatin were correlated using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT with one-parameter mixing rule and commonly used cubic equations of state Peng-Robinson (PR and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK combining with van-der Waals-1 parameter (VDW1 and van-der Waals-2 parameters (VDW2 mixing rules. The experimental data for studied compounds were taken from literature at temperature and pressure in ranges (308-348 K and (100-360 bar respectively. The critical properties required for the correlation with PR and SRK were estimated using Gani and Noonalol contribution group methods whereas, PC-SAFT pure-component parameters; segment number (m, segment diameter (σ and energy parameter (ε/k have been estimated by tihic’s group contribution method for nabumetone. For phenylbutazone and salicylamide those parameters were determined using a linear correlation. For statin drugs, PC-SAFT parameters were fitted to solubility data, and binary interaction parameters (kij and lij have been obtained by fitting the experimental data. The result was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data and showed that PC-SAFT approach can be used to model solid-SCF equilibrium with better correlation accuracy than cubic equations of state.

  6. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of accompanied and unaccompanied minor refugees and asylum seekers with trauma-related disorders in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Franka; Reher, Cornelia; Kindler, Heinz; Pawils, Silke

    2016-05-01

    Germany is one of the most important host countries for minor refugees and asylum seekers in Europe. The number of children who leave their home country has significantly risen worldwide in recent years; a further rise is to be expected due to the increasing number of crisis zones. A literature review demonstrates the state of research on traumatization, post-traumatic stress disorders and psychotherapy in minor refugees and asylum seekers. Many minor refugees and asylum seekers have made mainly interpersonal traumatic experiences within their home country or during their flight and develop simple or complex post-traumatic stress disorders. Left untreated, there is a risk of chronification. The psychotherapeutic treatment of minor refugees and asylum seekers in Germany takes place primarily in specialized psychosocial treatment centers. For an involvement of therapists in private practices, a reduction of organizational barriers as well as evidence-based treatment methods for interpreter-aided psychotherapy of minor refugees and asylum seekers that also consider their developmental state, are still lacking. In research, as well as in practice, there is further need for an early and systematic identification and treatment of minor refugees and asylum seekers with post-traumatic stress disorders or high risk of disease in Germany.

  7. Psychotherapeutic treatment of eating disorders improve dissociative experiences and impulse regulation but not alexithymia. A case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslini, Manuela; Rivolta, Laura; Zappa, Luigi Enrico; Carrà, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are complex conditions associated with disability and a high rate of mortality. Typical characteristics of these diseases are dissociation, alexithymia and impulse dysregulation, all strategies dealing with negative emotions and regulate negative affect and anxiety. Our study aimed to assess the effectiveness of intensive psychological treatment for EDs, with particular reference to the above mentioned clinical characteristics. Eight outpatients with eating disorders in psychotherapeutic treatment were evaluated in two stages after one year (T1 and T2), using the Eating Disorder Inventory II, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Wilcoxon test showed significant reductions in DES score as well as in two subscales of the EDI-2, Impulse Regulation and Body Dissatisfaction (I-EDI2 and BD-EDI2), while alexithymia levels did not show any difference. We can confirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy in people with EDs as regards dissociative moments, impulsivity and body dissatisfaction. However, alexithymia remains unchanged, possibly because of its deep emotional nature.

  8. Correlates of property crime in a cohort of recently released prisoners with a history of injecting drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Amy; Quinn, Brendan; Winter, Rebecca; Kinner, Stuart A; Dietze, Paul; Stoové, Mark

    2015-08-04

    Injecting drug use (IDU) is a strong predictor of recidivism and re-incarceration in ex-prisoners. Although the links between drug use and crime are well documented, studies examining post-release criminal activity and re-incarceration risk among ex-prisoners with a history of IDU are limited. We aimed to explore factors associated with property crime among people with a history of IDU recently released from prison. Individuals with a history of IDU released from prison within the past month were recruited via targeted and snowball sampling methods from street drug markets and services for people who inject drugs (PWID) into a 6-month cohort study. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of baseline data identified adjusted associations with self-reported property crime soon after release. Interviews were conducted a median of 23 days post-release with 141 participants. Twenty-eight percent reported property crime in this period and 85% had injected drugs since release. Twenty-three percent reported injecting at least daily. Reporting daily injecting (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.45-13.07), illicit benzodiazepine use (aOR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.02-5.67), being arrested (aOR = 6.12; 95% CI = 1.83-20.45) and contact with mental health services (aOR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.45-12.60) since release were associated with property crime. Criminal activity soon after release was common in this sample of PWID, underscoring the need for improved pre-release, transitional and post-release drug use dependence and prevention programmes. Addressing co-occurring mental disorder and poly-pharmaceutical misuse among those with a history of IDU in prison, and during the transition to the community, may reduce property crime in this group.

  9. Psychotropic drug prescription in nursing home patients with dementia : influence of environmental correlates and staff distress on physicians' prescription behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, Sytse U; de Jonghe, Jos F M; Verhey, Frans R J; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine whether staff distress and aspects of the nursing home environment were associated with psychotropic drug use (PDU) in patients with dementia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 1289 nursing home patients with dementia from 56 Dementia Specia

  10. The Correlation between the Communication of the Health Risks of Ecstasy (MDMA) and the Drug's Use among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campe, Brian; Frye, Kristin; Hood, Caitlin; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey; Parsons, Michael

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between college students and their awareness of the hazardous effects of the drug Ecstasy. Ecstasy use has risen among college students even though readily available research shows Ecstasy use having extremely hazardous effects on its users. Research also shows a lack of communication about…

  11. Structural brain abnormalities correlate with clinical features in patients with drug-naïve OCD: A DARTEL-enhanced voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wanjie; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Bin; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Fei; Xu, Jiuping; Yang, Yanchun; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-11-01

    Abnormal brain structure has been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but findings from these reports have been inconsistent. This study aimed to gain more detailed insights into gray matter structure and correlate this structure with clinical features in patients with drug-naïve OCD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Voxel-based morphometry and tools of Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) were used to investigate structural differences in gray matter volume between 26 drug-naïve OCD patients and 32 healthy controls. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze associations of gray matter abnormalities with Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores and illness duration. Compared to healthy controls, drug-naïve OCD patients showed significantly smaller gray matter volume in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left superior temporal gyrus, left precuneus and right precentral gyrus, as well as significantly greater gray matter volume in the left anterior insula and right parahippocampal gyrus (psuperior temporal gyrus and connected limbic structures such as the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior insula. Longitudinal studies are needed that integrate anatomical, functional and diffusion MRI data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating outcome-correlated recruitment and geographic recruitment bias in a respondent-driven sample of people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Abby E; Gaines, Tommi L; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2014-12-01

    Respondent-driven sampling's (RDS) widespread use and reliance on untested assumptions suggests a need for new exploratory/diagnostic tests. We assessed geographic recruitment bias and outcome-correlated recruitment among 1,048 RDS-recruited people who inject drugs (Tijuana, Mexico). Surveys gathered demographics, drug/sex behaviors, activity locations, and recruiter-recruit pairs. Simulations assessed geographic and network clustering of active syphilis (RPR titers ≥1:8). Gender-specific predicted probabilities were estimated using logistic regression with GEE and robust standard errors. Active syphilis prevalence was 7 % (crude: men = 5.7 % and women = 16.6 %; RDS-adjusted: men = 6.7 % and women = 7.6 %). Syphilis clustered in the Zona Norte, a neighborhood known for drug and sex markets. Network simulations revealed geographic recruitment bias and non-random recruitment by syphilis status. Gender-specific prevalence estimates accounting for clustering were highest among those living/working/injecting/buying drugs in the Zona Norte and directly/indirectly connected to syphilis cases (men: 15.9 %, women: 25.6 %) and lowest among those with neither exposure (men: 3.0 %, women: 6.1 %). Future RDS analyses should assess/account for network and spatial dependencies.

  13. Nonlinear mixed-effects modelling of in vitro drug susceptibility and molecular correlates of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Simpson

    Full Text Available The analysis of in vitro anti-malarial drug susceptibility testing is vulnerable to the effects of different statistical approaches and selection biases. These confounding factors were assessed with respect to pfmdr1 gene mutation and amplification in 490 clinical isolates. Two statistical approaches for estimating the drug concentration associated with 50% effect (EC50 were compared: the commonly used standard two-stage (STS method, and nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. The in vitro concentration-effect relationships for, chloroquine, mefloquine, lumefantrine and artesunate, were derived from clinical isolates obtained from patients on the western border of Thailand. All isolates were genotyped for polymorphisms in the pfmdr1 gene. The EC50 estimates were similar for the two statistical approaches but 15-28% of isolates in the STS method had a high coefficient of variation (>15% for individual estimates of EC50 and these isolates had EC50 values that were 32 to 66% higher than isolates derived with more precision. In total 41% (202/490 of isolates had amplification of pfmdr1 and single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in 50 (10%. Pfmdr1 amplification was associated with an increase in EC50 for mefloquine (139% relative increase in EC50 for 2 copies, 188% for 3+ copies, lumefantrine (82% and 75% for 2 and 3+ copies respectively and artesunate (63% and 127% for 2 and 3+ copies respectively. In contrast pfmdr1 mutation at codons 86 or 1042 were associated with an increase in chloroquine EC50 (44-48%. Sample size calculations showed that to demonstrate an EC50 shift of 50% or more with 80% power if the prevalence was 10% would require 430 isolates and 245 isolates if the prevalence was 20%. In conclusion, although nonlinear mixed-effects modelling did not demonstrate any major advantage for determining estimates of anti-malarial drug susceptibility, the method includes all isolates, thereby, potentially improving confirmation of candidate

  14. Correlation between HIV and sexual behavior, drug use, trichomoniasis and candidiasis among female sex workers in a Mekong Delta province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong Vu; Khuu, Nghia Van; Truong, Phong Hoai; Nguyen, Anh Phuong; Truong, Lien Xuan Thi; Detels, Roger

    2009-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV and correlates of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Soc Trang province, Vietnam, a survey of 406 FSWs in Soc Trang province was conducted between May and August, 2003. The participants were interviewed, using a standardized interview, to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, and gynecologic and sexually transmitted infection (STI) history. The prevalence of HIV was 3.3%. An increased risk for HIV was associated with ever using illicit drugs, direct sex work, early sexual debut, age of FSWs, and infection with candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Reduced likelihood of HIV was only associated with withdrawal as a contraceptive method. A strong association of HIV with drug use and candidiasis and trichomoniasis infection among FSWs was found. Needle/syringe exchange, STI treatment, and methadone programs targeting FSWs should be implemented, and should include 100% condom use promotion.

  15. High prevalence of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia: Correlates of overdose and implications for overdose prevention from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazazi, Alexander R; Zelenev, Alexei; Fu, Jeannia J; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-07-01

    Overdose is the leading cause of death among opioid users, but no data are available on overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. We present the first estimates of the prevalence and correlates of recent non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Klang Valley to assess health outcomes associated with injection drug use. Self-reported history of non-fatal overdose in the previous 6 months was the primary outcome. Sociodemographic, behavioral and structural correlates of non-fatal overdose were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Most injected daily (91.3%) and were male (96.3%) and ethnically Malay (90.4%). Overall, 20% of participants had overdosed in the prior 6 months, and 43.3% had ever overdosed. The RDS-adjusted estimate of the 6-month period prevalence of overdose was 12.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9-16.6%). Having injected for more years was associated with lower odds of overdose (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.6 per 5 years of injection, CI: 0.5-0.7). Rushing an injection from fear of the police nearly doubled the odds of overdose (AOR 1.9, CI: 1.9-3.6). Alcohol use was associated with recent non-fatal overdose (AOR 2.1, CI: 1.1-4.2), as was methamphetamine use (AOR 2.3, CI: 1.3-4.6). When adjusting for past-month drug use, intermittent but not daily methadone use was associated with overdose (AOR 2.8, CI: 1.5-5.9). This study reveals a large, previously undocumented burden of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia and highlights the need for interventions that might reduce the risk of overdose, such as continuous opioid substitution therapy, provision of naloxone to prevent fatal overdose, treatment of polysubstance use, and working with police to improve the risk environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  16. The Comparison of Attentional Bias and Difficulty of Emotional States Regulation and Their Correlation with Craving Severity in Drug Abuser Methamphetamines and Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Haghiaght

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, within creased substance, type of substance used has changed. Therefore, drug abuse in population of crack to the stimulant drugs (amphetamine particularly crystal is expanding and increasing. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was the comparison of attentional bias and difficulty of emotional states regulation and their correlation with craving severity in drug abuser methamphetamines and crack. Materials and Methods: Type of research was descriptive analytical correlation. Population was total of users with methamphetamines and crack in summer and fall 2011 at the city of Isfahan, and 34 users with crystal with daily at least one year were selected on the basis of the snow ball sampling and 31 users with crack with daily at least one year were selected on the basis of the sample sampling. The difficulties emotion regulation scale (DERS, Stroop test and OCDUS were used as the outcome measures. For findings used of descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and regression analysis were used. Results: The results of analysis of variance showed that between drug abuser crystal and crack significantly differed of attentional bias and difficulty of emotional states regulation. The greatest differences to components of a lack of transparency, lack of emotional awareness, limit emotional states regulation strategies and of emotional responses. But, only the variable non-acceptance negative emotional of subscale of the difficulty of emotional states regulation was able to craving (as an important indicator of durable use substance in of both crack and crystal predicted. This variable is only 13% of the variance craving in drug abuser crack and crystal can be explained. Other findings showed that although there is no difference between the two groups in the intensity of craving, but attentional bias among drug abuser crack and crystal was a significant difference. Conclusion: Overall, can be said

  17. Continuous In-The-Field Measurement of Heart Rate: Correlates of Drug Use, Craving, Stress, and Mood in Polydrug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ashley P.; Epstein, David H.; Jobes, Michelle L.; Agage, Daniel; Tyburski, Matthew; Phillips, Karran A.; Ali, Amin Ahsan; Bari, Rummana; Hossain, Syed Monowar; Hovsepian, Karen; Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Ertin, Emre; Kumar, Santosh; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ambulatory physiological monitoring could clarify antecedents and consequences of drug use and could contribute to a sensor-triggered mobile intervention that automatically detects behaviorally risky situations. Our goal was to show that such monitoring is feasible and can produce meaningful data. Methods We assessed heart rate (HR) with AutoSense, a suite of biosensors that wirelessly transmits data to a smartphone, for up to four weeks in 40 polydrug users in opioid-agonist maintenance as they went about their daily lives. Participants also self-reported drug use, mood, and activities on electronic diaries. We compared HR with self-report using multilevel modeling (SAS Proc Mixed). Results Compliance with AutoSense was good; the data yield from the wireless electrocardiographs was 85.7%. HR was higher when participants reported cocaine use than when they reported heroin use (F(2,9) = 250.3, p<.0001) and was also higher as a function of the dose of cocaine reported (F(1,8) = 207.7, p<.0001). HR was higher when participants reported craving heroin (F(1,16)=230.9, p<.0001) or cocaine (F(1,14)=157.2, p<.0001) than when they reported of not craving. HR was lower (p<.05) in randomly prompted entries in which participants reported feeling relaxed, feeling happy, or watching TV, and was higher when they reported feeling stressed, being hassled, or walking. Conclusions High-yield, high-quality heart-rate data can be obtained from drug users in their natural environment as they go about their daily lives, and the resultant data robustly reflect episodes of cocaine and heroin use and other mental and behavioral events of interest. PMID:25920802

  18. Social inequalities and correlates of psychotropic drug use among young adults: a population-based questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of psychotropic drugs is widespread in Europe, and is markedly more common in France than elsewhere. Young adults often fare less well than adolescents on health indicators (injury, homicide, and substance use. This population-based study assessed disparities in psychotropic drug use among people aged 18–29 from different socio-occupational groups and determined whether they were mediated by educational level, health status, income, health-related behaviours, family support, personality traits, or disability. Methods A total of 1,257 people aged 18–29, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering sex, date of birth, height, weight, educational level, occupation, smoking habit, alcohol abuse, income, health-status, diseases, reported disabilities, self-reported personality traits, family support, and frequent psychotropic medication for tiredness, nervousness/anxiety or insomnia. The data were analyzed using the adjusted odds ratios (ORa computed with logistic models. Results Use of psychotropic drugs was common (33.2%. Compared with upper/intermediate professionals, markedly high odds ratios adjusted for sex were found for manual workers (2.57, 95% CI 1.02–6.44, employees (2.58, 1.11–5.98, farmers/craftsmen/tradesmen (4.97, 1.13–21.8, students (2.40, 1.06–5.40, and housewives (3.82, 1.39–10.5. Adjusting for all the confounders considered reduced the estimates to a pronounced degree for manual workers (adjusted OR 1.49, non-significant but only slightly for the other socio-occupational groups. The odds ratio for unemployed people did not reach statistical significance. The significant confounders were: sex, not-good health status, musculoskeletal disorders and other diseases, being worried, nervous or sad, and lack of family support (adjusted odds ratios between 1.60 and 2.50. Conclusion There were marked disparities among young adults from different socio

  19. Formation of antibodies against infliximab and adalimumab strongly correlates with functional drug levels and clinical responses in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radstake, T R D J; Svenson, M; Eijsbouts, A M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) neutralising antibody constructs are increasingly being used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: To determine potential differences in clinical responses, soluble drug levels and antibody formation between patients with RA receiving......-infliximab/anti-adalimumab antibodies. RESULTS: 35 patients received infliximab, 34 received adalimumab. At 6 months, 15 (43%), 6 (17%) and 14 (40%) of the infliximab-treated patients fulfilled the EULAR criteria for good, moderate and non-responders, respectively, whereas the corresponding figures for adalimumab-treated patients were...

  20. Investigation and correlation of physical stability, dissolution behaviour and interaction parameter of amorphous solid dispersions of telmisartan: a drug development perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukeck, R; Sieger, P; Karmwar, P

    2013-07-16

    The aim of this study was to investigate if amorphous solid dispersions of telmisartan, prepared in presence of different polymers, exhibit different structural and thermodynamic characteristics and whether these differences can be correlated to their physical stability (time to crystallisation) and dissolution behaviour. Amorphous samples were prepared by melt quenching. The resulting amorphous materials were characterised using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. All freshly prepared samples were completely X-ray amorphous (with a halo being the only feature in the diffractograms). The shape of the halos in the diffractograms varied suggesting structural variations in the near order of the molecules between the different amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). Principal component analysis of the Raman spectra of the various ASD revealed that the samples clustered in the scores plot, again suggesting structural differences due to the presence of different drug-polymer interaction. The ranking of the samples with respect to physical stability and interaction parameter was: ASD of telmisartan:eudragit>ASD of telmisartan:soluplus>ASD of telmisartan:HPMC>ASD of telmisartan:PVP>amorphous telmisartan. The interaction parameter, calculated by using the Flory Huggins theory, showed a good correlation with the experimentally determined stability whereas a weak correlation was found with dissolution behaviour of different ASD. This study showed that correlation of physical stability and dissolution behaviour with calculated interaction parameter is possible for the same amorphous systems prepared by using different polymers. This could aid in selecting the most appropriate polymer for the development of optimised formulations containing amorphous drugs. It can be concluded that ASD prepared by using different polymers have different structural and thermal properties. These differences affect the physical stability and dissolution

  1. Drug–drug conditioning between citalopram and haloperidol or olanzapine in a conditioned avoidance response model: implications for polypharmacy in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Sparkman, Nathan L; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often have anxiety and depression, and thus are treated with multiple psychotherapeutic medications. This practice of polypharmacy increases the possibility for drug–drug interactions. However, the pharmacological and behavioral mechanisms underlying drug–drug interactions in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In the present study, we adopted a preclinical approach and examined a less known behavioral mechanism, drug–drug conditioning (DDC) between haloperidol...

  2. In-vitro/in-vivo correlation of pulsatile drug release from press-coated tablet formulations: a pharmacoscintigraphic study in the beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Manish; McInnes, Fiona J; Watson, David G; Mullen, Alexander B; Stevens, Howard N E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo performance of a press-coated tablet (PCT) intended for time delayed drug release, consisting of a rapidly disintegrating theophylline core tablet, press-coated with barrier granules containing glyceryl behenate (GB) and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC). The PCTs showed pulsatile release with a lag time dependent upon the GB and L-HPC composition of the barrier layer. In-vivo gamma-scintigraphic studies were carried out for PCTs containing GB:L-HPC at 65:35 w/w and 75:25 w/w in the barrier layer in four beagle dogs, in either the fed or fasted state. The in-vivo lag time in both the fed and fasted states did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from the in-vitro lag time. Additionally, no significant difference (p<0.05) between in-vivo fed and fasted disintegration times was observed, demonstrating that in-vivo performance of the PCT was not influenced by the presence or absence of food in the gastrointestinal tract. A distinct lag time was obtained prior to the appearance of drug in plasma and correlated (R2=0.98) with disintegration time observed from scintigraphic images. However, following disintegration, no difference in pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0-6 dis), K(el), Cmax) was observed. The current study highlighted the potential use of these formulations for chronopharmaceutical drug delivery.

  3. Dimethadione embryotoxicity in the rat is neither correlated with maternal systemic drug concentrations nor embryonic tissue levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolinš, Terence R S; Weston, Andrea D; Perretta, Anthony; Thomson, Jason J; Brown, Nigel A

    2015-11-15

    Pregnant rats treated with dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, produce offspring having a 74% incidence of congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the incidence of CHD has high inter-litter variability (40-100%) that presents a challenge when studying the initiating events prior to the presentation of an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that the variability in CHD incidence was the result of differences in maternal systemic concentrations or embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO. To test this hypothesis, dams were administered 300 mg/kg DMO every 12h from the evening of gestational day (GD) 8 until the morning of GD 11 (six total doses). Maternal serum levels of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 21. Embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13 and 14. In a separate cohort of GD 12 embryos, DMO concentrations and parameters of growth and development were assessed to determine if tissue levels of DMO were correlated with these endpoints. Embryos were exposed directly to different concentrations of DMO with whole embryo culture (WEC) and their growth and development assessed. Key findings were that neither maternal systemic concentrations nor tissue concentrations of DMO identified embryos that were sensitive or resistant to DMO in vivo. Direct exposure of embryos to DMO via WEC also failed to show correlations between embryonic concentrations of DMO with developmental outcomes in vitro. We conclude that neither maternal serum nor embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO predict embryonic outcome.

  4. Un esquema clasificatorio para las intervenciones en terapia interpersonal A classificatory schema for psychotherapeutic interventions In interpersonal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Etchebarne

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo exponemos la evolución de las tareas que, como miembros de EIPSI (Equipo de Investigación en Psicología Clínica, venimos desarrollando sobre la evaluación de las intervenciones clínicas de distintos marcos teóricos. En trabajos anteriores hemos descripto la estructura general para la clasificación de intervenciones en tratamientos psicoterapéuticos adherentes a los marcos teóricos psicoanalítico, por un lado, y cognitivo-conductual, por el otro (para mayor información ver: Roussos, Etchebarne y Waizmann, 2006; y Roussos, Waizmann y Etchebarne, 2003. En el presente artículo, presentamos su expansión hacia un nuevo marco teórico: el marco teórico de la Terapia Interpersonal (TIP. Por lo cual, se detalla y se discute la metodología empleada para integrar nuevos elementos específicos sobre un marco de evaluación ya organizado (obstáculos y formas de solucionarlo y se presentan las tablas para la clasificación de intervenciones específicas interpersonales. Asimismo se presentan los resultados preliminares obtenidos mediante la aplicación de la presente metodología de evaluación de intervenciones en los tratamientos cognitivos y los tratamientos psicoanalíticos.The present paper exposes the evolution of the tasks that we have developed, as members of EIPSI (Equipo de Investigación en Psicología Clínica, about the assessment of clinical interventions from different theoretical frameworks. In previous papers we have described the general structure for the classification of interventions in psychotherapeutic treatments adherent to the psychoanalytic theoretical framework on the one side, and to the cognitive-behavioral, on the other (for more information read: Etchebarne & Waizmann, 2006; and Roussos, Waizmann & Etchebarne, 2003. In the present article we present its expansion toward a new theoretical framework: the Interpersonal Therapy's (IPT theoretical framework. Thus, the methodology employed to

  5. Subchronic treatment with antiepileptic drugs modifies pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice: Its correlation with benzodiazepine receptor binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Rocha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Luisa RochaPharmacobiology Department, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Calz, Tenorios, MéxicoAbstract: Experiments using male CD1 mice were carried out to investigate the effects of subchronic (daily administration for 8 days pretreatments with drugs enhancing GABAergic transmission (diazepam, 10 mg/kg, ip; gabapentin, 100 mg/kg, po; or vigabatrin, 500 mg/kg, po on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced seizures, 24 h after the last injection. Subchronic administration of diazepam reduced latencies to clonus, tonic extension and death induced by PTZ. Subchronic vigabatrin produced enhanced latency to the first clonus but faster occurrence of tonic extension and death induced by PTZ. Subchronic gabapentin did not modify PTZ-induced seizures. Autoradiography experiments revealed reduced benzodiazepine receptor binding in several brain areas after subchronic treatment with diazepam or gabapentin, whereas subchronic vigabatrin did not induce significant receptor changes. The present results indicate differential effects induced by the subchronic administration of diazepam, vigabatrin, and gabapentin on the susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures, benzodiazepine receptor binding, or both.Keywords: diazepam, gabapentin, vigabatrin, pentylenetetrazol, benzodiazepine receptors

  6. Hypothesizing Music Intervention Enhances Brain Functional Connectivity Involving Dopaminergic Recruitment: Common Neuro-correlates to Abusable Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Simpatico, Thomas; Febo, Marcelo; Rodriquez, Chris; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Braverman, Eric R; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this review is to explore the clinical significance of music listening on neuroplasticity and dopaminergic activation by understanding the role of music therapy in addictive behavior treatment. fMRI data has shown that music listening intensely modifies mesolimbic structural changes responsible for reward processing (e.g., nucleus accumbens [NAc]) and may control the emotional stimuli's effect on autonomic and physiological responses (e.g., hypothalamus). Music listening has been proven to induce the endorphinergic response blocked by naloxone, a common opioid antagonist. NAc opioid transmission is linked to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine release. There are remarkable commonalities between listening to music and the effect of drugs on mesolimbic dopaminergic activation. It has been found that musical training before the age of 7 results in changes in white-matter connectivity, protecting carriers with low dopaminergic function (DRD2A1 allele, etc.) from poor decision-making, reward dependence, and impulsivity. In this article, we briefly review a few studies on the neurochemical effects of music and propose that these findings are relevant to the positive clinical findings observed in the literature. We hypothesize that music intervention enhances brain white matter plasticity through dopaminergic recruitment and that more research is needed to explore the efficacy of these therapies.

  7. Infertility: psychotherapeutic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M B

    1992-01-01

    In supportive therapy with infertility patients, the clinician tries to relieve dysphoria and enhance self-esteem. Dynamically informed supportive interventions are designed to decrease guilt that may relate to past sexual activities, sexually related diseases, or abortions. These interventions should also be empathetic, promote optimism and reality testing, help with problem solving, allow catharsis and ventilation, decrease feelings of isolation and loneliness, educate and clarify, and praise and encourage where appropriate. Mental health clinicians have an important role to play in the treatment of these patients, provided they learn enough about the psychology of the experience of infertility and about the technology utilized in its treatment. As the number of people seeking treatment for infertility grows, the need for skilled therapists for this population will grow at a parallel rate.

  8. Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users: Time to Antitoxin Correlates with Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offerman, Steven R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to identify factors associated with need for mechanical ventilation (MV, length of intensive care unit (ICU stay, length of hospital stay, and poor outcome in injection drug users (IDUs with wound botulism (WB.Methods: This is a retrospective review of WB patients admitted between 1991-2005. IDUs were included if they had symptoms of WB and diagnostic confirmation. Primary outcome variables were the need for MV, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, hospital-related complications, and death.Results: Twenty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two (76% admitted to heroin use only and seven (24% admitted to heroin and methamphetamine use. Chief complaints on initial presentation included visual changes, 13 (45%; weakness, nine (31%; and difficulty swallowing, seven (24%. Skin wounds were documented in 22 (76%. Twenty-one (72% patients underwent mechanical ventilation (MV. Antitoxin (AT was administered to 26 (90% patients but only two received antitoxin in the emergency department (ED. The time from ED presentation to AT administration was associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 2.5; 95% CI 0.45, 4.5. The time from ED presentation to wound drainage was also associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 13.7; 95% CI = 2.3, 25.2. There was no relationship between time to antibiotic administration and length of ICU stay.Conclusion: MV and prolonged ICU stays are common in patients identified with WB. Early AT administration and wound drainage are recommended as these measures may decrease ICU length of stay.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:251-256.

  9. [Electrophysiological correlates of efficacy of nootropic drugs in the treatment of consequences of traumatic brain injury in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iznak, E V; Iznak, A F; Pankratova, E A; Zavadenko, N N; Guzilova, L S; Guzilova, Iu I

    2010-01-01

    To assess objectively a dynamics of brain functional state, EEG spectral power and peak latency of the P300 component of cognitive auditory evoked potentials have been analyzed in adolescents during the course of nootropic therapy of residual asthenic consequences of traumatic brain injury (ICD-10 F07.2). The study included 76 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who have undergone severe closed head trauma with brain commotion 1/2--5 years ago. Patients have been divided into 3 groups treated during one month with cerebrolysin, piracetam or magne-B6, respectively. After the end of the nootropic therapy, 77% of patients treated with cerebrolysin as well as 50% of patients treated with piracetam and magne-B6 have demonstrated the positive dynamics of their brain functional state that manifested itself in the appearance of occipital EEG alpha rhythm or in the increase of its spectral power; in the normalization of alpha rhythm frequency; in the decrease in the spectral power of slow wave (theta and delta) EEG activity, in the amount (up to the disappearance) of paroxysmal EEG activity, in the EEG response to hyperventilation and in the shortening of the P300 peak latency. Such positive changes of neurophysiological parameters have been associated with the improvement of clinical conditions of patients and correlated significantly with the dynamics of psychometric scores of attention and memory.

  10. Drug-Eluting Beads Loaded With Doxorubicin (DEBDOX) Chemoembolisation Before Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Imaging/Histologic Correlation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, Xavier, E-mail: xpauwels@hotmail.com; Azahaf, Mustapha, E-mail: mustapha.azahaf@chru-lille.fr [CHRU Lille, Hôpital Claude Huriez, Department of Digestive Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (France); Lassailly, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.lassailly@chru-lille.fr [CHRU Lille, Hôpital Claude Huriez, Department of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition (France); Sergent, Géraldine, E-mail: geraldine.sergent@chru-lille.fr [CHRU Lille, Hôpital Claude Huriez, Department of Digestive Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (France); Buob, David, E-mail: david.buob@chru-lille.fr [CHRU Lille, Department of Pathology (France); Truant, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.truant@chru-lille.fr; Boleslawski, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.boleslawski@gmail.com [CHRU Lille, Hôpital Claude Huriez, Department of Digestive Surgery and Transplantation (France); Louvet, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.louvet@chru-lille.fr [CHRU Lille, Hôpital Claude Huriez, Department of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition (France); Gnemmi, Vivianne, E-mail: viviane.gnemmi@chru-lille.fr [CHRU Lille, Department of Pathology (France); Canva, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.canva@chru-lille.fr; Mathurin, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.mathurin@chru-lille.fr [CHRU Lille, Hôpital Claude Huriez, Department of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition (France); Pruvot, François-René, E-mail: francois-rene.pruvot@chru-lille.fr [CHRU Lille, Hôpital Claude Huriez, Department of Digestive Surgery and Transplantation (France); Leteurtre, Emmanuelle, E-mail: emmanuelle.leteurtre@chru-lille.fr [CHRU Lille, Department of Pathology (France); and others

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Most transplant centers use chemoembolisation as locoregional bridge therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before liver transplantation (LT). Chemoembolisation using beads loaded with doxorubicin (DEBDOX) is a promising technique that enables delivery of a large quantity of drugs against HCC. We sought to assess the imaging–histologic correlation after DEBDOX chemoembolisation.Materials and Methods All consecutive patients who had undergone DEBDOX chemoembolisation before receiving liver graft for HCC were included. Tumour response was evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) and modified RECIST (mRECIST) criteria. The result of final imaging made before LT was correlated with histological data to predict tumour necrosis.ResultsTwenty-eight patients underwent 43 DEBDOX procedures for 45 HCC. Therapy had a significant effect as shown by a decrease in the mean size of the largest nodule (p = 0.02) and the sum of viable part of tumour sizes according to mRECIST criteria (p < 0.001). An objective response using mRECIST criteria was significantly correlated with mean tumour necrosis ≥90 % (p = 0.03). A complete response using mRECIST criteria enabled accurate prediction of complete tumour necrosis (p = 0.01). Correlations using RECIST criteria were not significant.ConclusionOur data confirm the potential benefit of DEBDOX chemoembolisation as bridge therapy before LT, and they provide a rational basis for new studies focusing on recurrence-free survival after LT. Radiologic evaluation according to mRECIST criteria enables accurate prediction of tumour necrosis, whereas RECIST criteria do not.

  11. 665株鲍曼不动杆菌耐药性变化与用药频度相关性分析%Correlation between drug resistance and drug comsuption in 665 strains ofAcinetobacter Baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金浩; 仇凡; 孙明忠

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter Baumannii to this drug, Piperacillin/tazobactam (r=0.98,P<0.01), Gentamicin (r=0.87,P<0.01), Czidime (r=0.75,P<0.05), Cefoxitin (r=-0.74,P<0.05). Cefoperazone/sulbactam usage was also negatively correlated with aminoglycoside use frequency (r=-0.84,P<0.05), the drug resistance rate of Amikacin was positively correlated with the frequency of Cephalothin drug usage (r=0.98,P<0.01).Conclusion: hTe drug resistance to common antibiotics by Bauman is more serious, and there is a certain correlation between the use of antibacterial drugs and the rate of bacterial resistance.

  12. Towards mHealth Systems for Support of Psychotherapeutic Practice: A Qualitative Study of Researcher-Clinician Collaboration in System Design and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Halje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined clinicians’ and researchers’ experiences from participation in collaborative research on the introduction of Internet and mobile information systems (mHealth systems in psychotherapeutic routines. The study used grounded theory methodology and was set in a collaboration that aimed to develop and evaluate mHealth support of psychotherapy provided to young people. Soundness of the central objects developed in the design phase (the collaboration contract, the trial protocol, and the system technology was a necessary foundation for successful collaborative mHealth research; neglect of unanticipated organizational influences during the trial phase was a factor in collaboration failure. The experiences gained in this study can be used in settings where collaborative research on mHealth systems in mental health is planned.

  13. Prevalence, Clinical Correlates, and Use of Glucose-Lowering Drugs among Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Living in Long-Term Care Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence, clinical correlates, and use of glucose-lowering drugs were comprehensively evaluated among 863 nursing home older patients with diabetes (mean age 82.9 ± 2.1 years: functional dependence and cognitive impairment were present in 84.1% and 68% of patients, respectively, and 66.3% of patients had 2–4 comorbidities. HbA1c values < 7.0% were documented in 54.9% of diabetic; significantly lower HbA1c levels were observed in demented patients than in nondemented subjects. Documented hypoglycemic episodes were reported for 57 patients (6.6%, without significant association with age, functional dependence, cognitive impairment, or HbA1c levels. About one-fifth of older long-term facilities residents have diabetes, with concomitant poor health conditions and high prevalence of cognitive impairment and functional dependence. Roughly three-fourths of these older and frail diabetic patients have HbA1c values lower than optimal, suggesting a potential for hypoglycemic harm especially among patients with severe cognitive impairment.

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Detection of β-Lactamase Activity in Various Clinical Bacterial Isolates by Three Different Methods and its Correlation with Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M Wavare

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: β-lactams such as penicillins are the most widely used antibiotics, and β-lactamases are the greatest source of resistance to penicillins. Aims and Objectives: To study β-lactamase production in clinical isolates of family Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococci by three different methods and to correlate its potential with drug resistance; with an endeavour to evaluate convenient and economical method duly supported by relevant Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC studies. Material and Methods: Total 240 clinical isolates (Gram-negative bacilli-191, staphylococci-49 were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and MIC for ampicillin and penicillin was determined by agar dilution method. β-lactamase was detected by broth acidometric, iodometric cell suspension and microbiological method. Results: Multidrug resistance was observed in more than 90% isolates. One hundred and ninety Gram-negative bacilli were resistant to ampicillin and 47 staphylococcal isolates were resistant to both penicillin and ampicillin. Though microbiological method gave highest positive results 210 (87.5%, iodometric method could detect β-lactamase in apparently sensitive isolates as well giving satisfactory [207 (86.25%] comparable results. Conclusion: In view of the noted bacterial resistance, tests for β-lactamase should be carried out on a routine basis for an early implementation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Iodometric method is eminently convenient, economical and reliable method. Isolates showing MIC <0.125µg/ml for penicillin and MIC <8µg/ml for ampicillin should be checked for β-lactamase production.

  15. In Situ Formed Phase Transited Drug Delivery System of Ketoprofen for Achieving Osmotic, Controlled and Level A In Vitro In Vivo Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A dry process induced phase transited, non disintegrating, controlled release, in situ formed asymmetric membrane capsular system for poorly water soluble drug, ketoprofen, was developed and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for osmotic and controlled release of the drug. In situ formed asymmetric membrane capsules were prepared using fabricated glass capsule holders via dry, phase inversion process. Effect of varying osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium on drug release was studied. M...

  16. What to Do When there is Nothing to Do: The psychotherapeutic value of Meaning Therapy in the treatment of late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Morgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic treatment with the goal of cure, of course, is the standard within the healing professions but when we are dealing with late life depression where there is no hope for longevity, the agenda necessarily must shift from cure to care, from treatment with the goal of renewed healthy living to a focus upon the palliative aspects of a limited prognosis. Here, then, the clinician is faced with the challenge of existential intervention with an emphasis upon the “moment” rather than the future. The encroachment of ennui upon the elderly, particularly and especially those who have been actively engaged in a full life of service such as the clergy, physicians, teachers, and attorneys, can be a traumatic and debilitating experience.When hope for the future is not being sought but rather an effective and celebrative address to the existential realities confronting the elderly patient who is facing decline and death, the quest for those “happy moments” conjured in the patient’s memory constitute a promising field of treatment.Geriatric logotherapy is uniquely constructed to do just that. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  17. Anorexia nervosa e bulimia nervosa: abordagem cognitivo-construtivista de psicoterapia Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a psychotherapeutic cognitive-constructivist approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Nabuco de Abreu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos transtornos alimentares, a anorexia nervosa e a bulimia nervosa são os que mais têm levado pacientes adolescentes, geralmente do sexo feminino e cada vez mais jovens, a buscar ajuda. Essa ajuda se dá através de um tratamento multidisciplinar envolvendo médicos psiquiatras, psicólogos e nutricionistas. A psicoterapia tem se mostrado um componente eficaz para a melhora dessas pacientes. O presente artigo tem por objetivo expor uma proposta de tratamento psicoterápico a partir da abordagem cognitivo-construtivista.Among the eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the ones that have made adolescent patients - often females and aged younger and younger - seek for help. This help is provided through a multidisciplinary treatment involving psychiatrists, psychologists and dietists. Psychotherapy has shown to be an efficient component for these patients' improvement. The present article aims at presenting a proposal of psychotherapeutic treatment based on a cognitive-constructivist approach.

  18. Global alteration of the drug-binding pocket of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) by substitution of fifteen conserved residues reveals a negative correlation between substrate size and transport efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Shahrooz; Chufan, Eduardo E; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2017-11-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump, is linked to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. However, the drug-binding sites and translocation pathways of this transporter are not yet well-characterized. We recently demonstrated the important role of tyrosine residues in regulating P-gp ATP hydrolysis via hydrogen bond formations with high affinity modulators. Since tyrosine is both a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, and non-covalent interactions are key in drug transport, in this study we investigated the global effect of enrichment of tyrosine residues in the drug-binding pocket on the drug binding and transport function of P-gp. By employing computational analysis, 15 conserved residues in the drug-binding pocket of human P-gp that interact with substrates were identified and then substituted with tyrosine, including 11 phenylalanine (F72, F303, F314, F336, F732, F759, F770, F938, F942, F983, F994), two leucine (L339, L975), one isoleucine (I306), and one methionine (M949). Characterization of the tyrosine-rich P-gp mutant in HeLa cells demonstrated that this major alteration in the drug-binding pocket by introducing fifteen additional tyrosine residues is well tolerated and has no measurable effect on total or cell surface expression of this mutant. Although the tyrosine-enriched mutant P-gp could transport small to moderate size (1000 Daltons) substrates such as NBD-cyclosporine A, Bodipy-paclitaxel and Bodipy-vinblastine was significantly decreased. This was further supported by the physico-chemical characterization of seventeen tested substrates, which revealed a negative correlation between drug transport and molecular size for the tyrosine-enriched P-gp mutant. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Parenting Styles as Correlates of Adolescents Drug Addiction among Senior Secondary School Students in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwufor, Jonathan N.; Chukwu, Mercy Anwuri

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the relationship between parenting styles and secondary students' drug addiction among adolescents in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Rivers State Nigeria. The study was guided by three research questions and similar number of null hypotheses. The study adopted a correlation…

  20. Clinical Features and Correlates of Outcomes for High-Risk, Marginalized Mothers and Newborn Infants Engaged with a Specialist Perinatal and Family Drug Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a paucity of research in Australia on the characteristics of women in treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and the health outcomes of their neonates. Aims. To determine the clinical features and outcomes of high-risk, marginalized women seeking treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and their neonates. Methods. 139 women with a history of substance abuse/dependence engaged with a perinatal drug health service in Sydney, Australia. Maternal (demographic, drug use, psychological, physical, obstetric, and antenatal care and neonatal characteristics (delivery, early health outcomes were examined. Results. Compared to national figures, pregnant women attending a specialist perinatal and family drug health service were more likely to report being Australian born, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, younger, unemployed, and multiparous. Opiates were the primary drug of concern (81.3%. Pregnancy complications were common (61.9%. Neonates were more likely to be preterm, have low birth weight, and be admitted to special care nursery. NAS was the most prevalent birth complication (69.8% and almost half required pharmacotherapy. Conclusion. Mother-infant dyads affected by substance use in pregnancy are at significant risk. There is a need to review clinical models of care and examine the longer-term impacts on infant development.

  1. Creación de una técnica psicoterapéutica para niños A new Psychotherapeutic technique device for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Sofía Quiñones Varela

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio experimental aplicado en el cual se introdujo una técnica psicoterapéutica de Imaginería escrita para niños cubanos. La muestra estudiada quedó formada por 25 niños que reciben tratamiento en el Centro Provincial de Retinosis Pigmentaria de la ciudad de Camaguey. La técnica consiste en un relato de un viaje con representaciones de paisajes terrestres, marinos y aéreos, reforzando esta imaginería con recursos de respiración y cromoterapia, para lograr estados afectivos placenteros en los niños. Al finalizar la sesión los pacientes dibujaron las visualizaciones vivenciadas. Los resultados reflejaron que todos los niños aceptaron la técnica y sus representaciones pictóricas y se ajustaron al tema ofertado. Los temas mas representados fueron árboles y palmas, cielo y nubes, aeropuerto, avión y montañasAn experimental study in which it was introduced a psychotherapeutic technique devised for a Cuban child was applied. The studied sample was formed by 25 children that receive treatment in the Night Blindness Provincial Center in the city of Camagüey. The technique consists of a story about a trip with representations of marine and terrestrial landscapes, reinforcing this imagery with breathing resources and chromotherapy, to achieve pleasant affective states in children. When concluding the session the patients drew the visualizations. The results reflected that all children accepted the technique and their pictorial representations and that they adjusted to the topic. The topics the students represented the most were trees and palms, sky and clouds, airports, airplanes and mountains

  2. Frontal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients correlates with positive psychotic symptoms and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben; Svarer, Claus

    2006-01-01

    with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using the D(2/3)-receptor ligand [123I]epidepride. RESULTS: In the hitherto largest study on extrastriatal D(2/3) receptors we detected a significant correlation between frontal D(2/3) BP values and positive schizophrenic symptoms in the larger group......; the patients, however, had significantly higher BP in the right compared to the left thalamus, whereas no significant hemispheric imbalances were observed in the healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The present data are the first to confirm a significant correlation between frontal D(2/3) receptor BP values...

  3. The rebirth of psychosocial importance in a drug-filled world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Roger P

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, the public is heavily lobbied to accept medications as the main answer for dealing with mental maladies like depression. However, examination of the empirical evidence reveals that even when drugs are the primary treatments, findings of benefit are often more dependent on psychosocial, interpersonal factors than commonly believed. This article highlights the reemerging worth of psychotherapeutic relationships in quelling emotional discomfort. It also touches on the roles of business and research bias in overselling the idea of unique merits and specificity of gains derived purely from psychopharmacological solutions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn Children Drug Use Hurts Your Health Drug Use Hurts ... Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Prevent Drug Use Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn ...

  6. Pharmacodynamics of cisplatin in human head and neck cancer : correlation between platinum content, DNA adduct levels and drug sensitivity in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welters, M.J.P.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Baan, R.A.; Jacobs-Bergmans, A.J.; Kegel, A.; Vijgh, W.J.F. van der; Braakhuis, B.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Total platinum contents and cisplatin-DNA adduct levels were determined in vivo in xenografted tumour tissues in mice and in vitro in cultured tumour cells of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and correlated with sensitivity to cisplatin. In vivo, a panel of five HNSCC tumour lines grow

  7. Pharmacodynamics of cisplatin in human head and neck cancer : correlation between platinum content, DNA adduct levels and drug sensitivity in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welters, M.J.P.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Baan, R.A.; Jacobs-Bergmans, A.J.; Kegel, A.; Vijgh, W.J.F. van der; Braakhuis, B.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Total platinum contents and cisplatin-DNA adduct levels were determined in vivo in xenografted tumour tissues in mice and in vitro in cultured tumour cells of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and correlated with sensitivity to cisplatin. In vivo, a panel of five HNSCC tumour lines grow

  8. 强制戒毒模式下戒毒者应对方式与心理因素的相关性分析%CORRELATION ANALYSIS ON COPING STYLES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF DRUG ADDICTS UNDER COMPULSORY TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 杨玉祥; 刘新民; 韦克诚; 金明琦; 李桦; 徐东彪; 滕永升; 周黎红; 刘涛

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the correlation between the coping styles and their psychological factors under compulsory treatment of drug addicts, to provide information for lower relapse of drug addicts, to maintain their psychological health, and to improve their adaptability to society. Methods-. A survey of the trait coping styles of drug addicts and their psychological factors was conducted using a Self -Made General Questionnaire, Symptom Checklist 90 ( SCL - 90 ) , Trait Coping Style Questionnaire ( TCSQ) , Eysenck Personality Questionnaire ( EPQ) and the Social Support Rating Scale ( SSRS) . The trait coping styles among drug addicts and control group were compared and the correlation between the coping styles of drug addicts and their psychological factors was analyzed. Results-. ( 1) The coping styles of drug addicts were insignificantly different between the different marriage status and were gender. Male drug addicts had higher scores than the female on both positive and negative coping styles. There were differences among drug addicts with different education background in both positive and negative coping styles. ( 2) There were negative correlations between scores on positive coping style and scores of SCL -90 ( except interpersonal sensitivity factor) . There were positive correlations between scores on negative coping style and scores of SCL - 90 ( except interpersonal sensitivity factor) . ( 3) There were negative correlations between scores on positive coping style and E factor score, and positive correlations between negative coping style and N factor score. ( 4 ) Positive coping styles of drug addicts had positive correlations with scores of object support, subject supportive and the application of support. Conclusions: Coping styles are closely related to various psychological factors, and are important to the psychological health of drug addicts and their adaptability to society.%目的:了解强制戒毒模式下戒毒者的应对方式及与心理各因素

  9. Improvement of cognitive flexibility and cingulate blood flow correlates after atypical antipsychotic treatment in drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Bernardo M; Garolera, Maite; Ariza, Mar; Pareto, Deborah; Salamero, Manel; Valles, Vicenç; Delgado, Luis; Alberni, Joan

    2011-12-30

    The aim of this study was to examine the changes in cognitive flexibility and associated cerebral blood flow in the anterior cingulate lobe of drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia who were treated with atypical antipsychotics for 6 weeks. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained from 8 healthy subjects both at rest and while performing the flexibility subtest of the TAP (Test for Attentional Performance). SPECT images were obtained in parallel from 8 first-episode drug-naive schizophrenic patients while they were performing the same task both before and after 6 weeks of neuroleptic treatment. In the control group, an increase in the perfusion indices of the dorsal section of the anterior cingulate gyrus was observed in the activation condition. Task performance was altered and the level of perfusion of the brain region related to the task execution was significantly decreased in the patients at baseline. After treatment, there was a significant improvement in both task performance and the level of perfusion of the dorsal section of the anterior cingulate. We conclude that treatment with second-generation neuroleptics improves cognitive flexibility, and there was a relationship between such improvements and normalization of perfusion indices of the involved brain areas.

  10. Linezolid Trough Concentrations Correlate with Mitochondrial Toxicity-Related Adverse Events in the Treatment of Chronic Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeksun Song

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term linezolid use is limited by mitochondrial toxicity-associated adverse events (AEs. Within a prospective, randomized controlled trial of linezolid to treat chronic extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, we serially monitored the translational competence of mitochondria isolated from peripheral blood of participants by determining the cytochrome c oxidase/citrate synthase activity ratio. We compared this ratio with AEs associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Linezolid trough concentrations were determined for 38 participants at both 600 mg and 300 mg doses. Those on 600 mg had a significantly higher risk of AE than those on 300 mg (HR 3·10, 95% CI 1·23–7 · 86. Mean mitochondrial function levels were significantly higher in patients before starting linezolid compared to their concentrations on 300 mg (P = 0·004 or 600 mg (P 2 μg/ml developing an AE related to mitochondrial toxicity, whether on 300 mg or 600 mg. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful to prevent the development of mitochondrial toxicity associated with long-term linezolid use.

  11. Utilizing Social Action Theory as a framework to determine correlates of illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E; Holloway, Ian W; Schrager, Sheree M; Kipke, Michele D

    2012-03-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to be at elevated risk for substance use; however, models explaining this phenomenon have often focused on a limited array of explanatory constructs. This study utilizes Social Action Theory (SAT) as a framework to address gaps in research by documenting the social, behavioral, and demographic risk factors associated with illicit drug use among YMSM. Structural equation modeling was used to apply SAT to a cross-sectional sample of 526 men from the Healthy Young Men Study, a longitudinal study of substance use and sexual risk behavior among YMSM in Los Angeles. The final model possessed very good fit statistics (Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.936, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.925, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.040) indicating that SAT is appropriate for use with YMSM. Substance use interventions for YMSM could be enhanced by employing SAT as conceptualized in this study and using a multitargeted strategy for impacting illicit drug use.

  12. Striatal D2/3 Binding Potential Values in Drug-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients Correlate With Treatment Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    One of best validated findings in schizophrenia research is the association between blockade of dopamine D2 receptors and the effects of antipsychotics on positive psychotic symptoms. The aim of the present study was to examine correlations between baseline striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential...... (BPp) values and treatment outcome in a cohort of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we wished to investigate associations between striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade and alterations of negative symptoms as well as functioning and subjective well-being. Twenty...... antagonist amisulpride. There was a significant negative correlation between striatal D2/3 receptor BPp at baseline and improvement of positive symptoms in the total group of patients. Comparing patients responding to treatment to nonresponders further showed significantly lower baseline BPp...

  13. Food-drug interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated......, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers...... are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those...

  14. Correlation of 18F-FDG PET/CT assessments with disease activity and markers of inflammation in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis following the initiation of combination therapy with triple oral antirheumatic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Anne; Hautaniemi, Sannamari; Möttönen, Timo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Oikonen, Vesa; Parkkola, Riitta; Pricop, Luminita; Ress, Rudyard; Seneca, Nicholas; Seppänen, Marko; Yli-Kerttula, Timo

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the potential of functional imaging to monitor disease activity and response to treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in DMARD-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study involved 17 patients with active RA in whom combination therapy was initiated with methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, and low-dose oral prednisolone. Clinical disease activity was assessed at screening, at baseline and after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of therapy. (18)F-FDG PET/CT of all joints was performed at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of therapy. (18)F-FDG maximum standardized uptake values showed a reduction of 22 ± 13 % in 76 % of patients from baseline to week 2 and a reduction of 29 ± 13 % in 81 % of patients from baseline to week 4. The percentage decrease in (18)F-FDG uptake from baseline to week 2 correlated with clinical outcome, as measured by the disease activity score (DAS-28) at week 12. In addition, changes in C-reactive protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were positively associated with changes shown by PET. (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings after 2 and 4 weeks of triple combination oral DMARD therapy correlated with treatment efficacy and clinical outcome in patients with early RA. (18)F-FDG PET/CT may help predict the therapeutic response to novel drug treatments.

  15. Correlation of tissue-plasma partition coefficients between normal tissues and subcutaneous xenografts of human tumor cell lines in mouse as a prediction tool of drug penetration in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Patrick; Hop, Cornelis Eca; Salphati, Laurent; Liederer, Bianca M

    2013-04-01

    Understanding drug distribution and accumulation in tumors would be informative in the assessment of efficacy in targeted therapy; however, existing methods for predicting tissue drug distribution focus on normal tissues and do not incorporate tumors. The main objective of this study was to describe the relationships between tissue-plasma concentration ratios (Kp ) of normal tissues and those of subcutaneous xenograft tumors under nonsteady-state conditions, and establish regression equations that could potentially be used for the prediction of drug levels in several human tumor xenografts in mouse, based solely on a Kp value determined in a normal tissue (e.g., muscle). A dataset of 17 compounds was collected from the literature and from Genentech. Tissue and plasma concentration data in mouse were obtained following oral gavage or intraperitoneal administration. Linear regression analyses were performed between Kp values in several normal tissues (muscle, lung, liver, or brain) and those in human tumor xenografts (CL6, EBC-1, HT-29, PC3, U-87, MCF-7-neo-Her2, or BT474M1.1). The tissue-plasma ratios in normal tissues reasonably correlated with the tumor-plasma ratios in CL6, EBC-1, HT-29, U-87, BT474M1.1, and MCF-7-neo-Her2 xenografts (r(2) in the range 0.62-1) but not with the PC3 xenograft. In general, muscle and lung exhibited the strongest correlation with tumor xenografts, followed by liver. Regression coefficients from brain were low, except between brain and the glioblastoma U-87 xenograft (r(2) in the range 0.62-0.94). Furthermore, reasonably strong correlations were observed between muscle and lung and between muscle and liver (r(2) in the range 0.67-0.96). The slopes of the regressions differed depending on the class of drug (strong vs. weak base) and type of tissue (brain vs. other tissues and tumors). Overall, this study will contribute to our understanding of tissue-plasma partition coefficients for tumors and facilitate the use of physiologically

  16. SICU鲍氏不动杆菌耐药率与抗菌药物使用剂量相关性分析%Correlation between consumption of antibiotics and drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in SICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晴; 胡必杰; 黄声雷; 诸杜明; 钟鸣

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析鲍氏不动杆菌耐药率与抗菌药物使用剂量的相关性.方法 回顾性查阅2009年4月-2011年9月,复旦大学附属中山医院外科重症监护病房抗菌药物使用量及同期该病房送检的临床标本中检出的鲍氏不动杆菌耐药率,分析两者之间的相关性.结果 鲍氏不动杆菌对碳青霉烯类抗菌药物的耐药率显著升高,由52.94%上升至90.00% (P<0.01),碳青霉烯类抗菌药物的使用强度由2.12上升至2.88;耐碳青霉烯类鲍氏不动杆菌的检出率与碳青霉烯类抗菌药物的使用强度显著相关(R=0.773,P=0.005).结论 鲍氏不动杆菌耐药率的增加与碳青霉烯类抗菌药物的大量使用相关.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlation between the drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and the consumption of antibiotics. METHODS From Apr 2009 to Sep 2011, the antibiotic consumption and the drug resistance of A. baumannii isolated from the submitted specimens in surgical care unit (SICU) of Zhongshan Subsidiary Hospital of Fudan University were retrospectively reviewed, the correlation between the two was analyzed. RESULTS The drug resistance rate of A. baumannii to carbapenems was elevated significantly, increasing from 52. 94% to 90. 00% (P<0. 01); the intensity of using carbapenem antibiotics increased from 2. 12% to 2. 88%; there was significant correlation between the detection of carbapenems-resistant A. baumannii and the intensity of using carbapenems antibiotics (R = 0. 773,P = 0. 005). CONCLUSION The increase in the drug resistance of A. baumannii is associated with the extensive use of carbapenem antibiotics.

  17. Memory reconsolidation and psychotherapeutic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Israel; Javanbakht, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Lane et al. propose a heuristic model in which distinct, and seemingly irreconcilable, therapies can coexist. Authors postulate that memory reconsolidation is a key common neurobiological process mediating the therapeutic effects. This conceptualization raises a set of important questions regarding neuroscience and translational aspects of fear memory reconsolidation. We discuss the implications of the target article's memory reconsolidation model in the development of more effective interventions, and in the identification of less effective, or potentially harmful approaches, as well as concepts of contextualization, optimal arousal, and combined therapy.

  18. 口服药物溶出技术与体内外相关性的研究进展%Recent Evolvement of Oral Drug Dissolution Technology and In Vitro and In Vivo Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓峰; 柯学

    2012-01-01

    溶出度不仅是口服药物质量评价的重要手段,而且是建立体内外相关性的基础.传统溶出方法由于自身局限,所建立的体内外相关性程度不高.近年来,国内外对口服药物溶出技术进行了大量的研究和改进,以提高其预测体内外相关性的水平.本文对溶出介质、溶出装置以及模型药物与体内外相关性进行了综述.根据模型药物的BCS分类,选择合适的溶出装置和生物相关介质能够获得较好的体内外相关性.%Dissolution is not only an important index to evaluate oral drug quality, but also the basis to study the in vitro and in vivo correlation (IVIVC). Due to their natural limitations, traditional dissolution methods can't establish desirable IVIVC. In recent years, both domestic and overseas agents have done a great deal of research and improvement on the dissolving techniques of oral drugs in order to enhance the ability of predicting IVIVC. This article reviewCd the relationship among the dissolution media, dissolution apparatus, model drugs and IVIVC. According to the classification of a model drug in the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, appropriate choice of dissolution apparatus and biorelevant media can achieve a better IVIVC.

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction? Addiction Risk Factors Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts Families Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn ...

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use Hurts Unborn Children Drug Use Hurts Your Health Drug Use Hurts Bodies Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  1. Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction? Addiction Risk Factors Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts Families Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? ... and Family Can Help Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Prevent Drug Use Help Children and Teens Stay Drug- ...

  4. Quinidine as an ABCB1 probe for testing drug interactions at the blood-brain barrier: an in vitro in vivo correlation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziráki, István; Erdo, Franciska; Beéry, Erzsébet; Molnár, Petra Magdolna; Fazakas, Csilla; Wilhelm, Imola; Makai, Ildikó; Kis, Emese; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Abonyi, Tibor; Krizbai, István; Tóth, Gábor K; Krajcsi, Péter

    2011-09-01

    This study provides evidence that quinidine can be used as a probe substrate for ABCB1 in multiple experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo relevant to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The combination of quinidine and PSC-833 (valspodar) is an effective tool to assess investigational drugs for interactions on ABCB1. Effects of quinidine and substrate-inhibitor interactions were tested in a membrane assay and in monolayer assays. The authors compared quinidine and digoxin as ABCB1 probes in the in vitro assays and found that quinidine was more potent and at least as specific as digoxin in ATPase and monolayer efflux assays employing MDCKII-MDR1 and the rat brain microcapillary endothelial cell system. Brain exposure to quinidine was tested in dual-/triple-probe microdialysis experiments in rats by assessing levels of quinidine in blood and brain. Comparing quinidine levels in dialysate samples from valspodar-treated and control animals, it is evident that systemic/local administration of the inhibitor diminishes the pumping function of ABCB1 at the BBB, resulting in an increased brain penetration of quinidine. In sum, quinidine is a good probe to study ABCB1 function at the BBB. Moreover, quinidine/PSC-833 is an ABCB1-specific substrate/inhibitor combination applicable to many assay systems both in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Correlation Parameters to Measure and Safety evaluation of cultivating level mushroom using Mixed drug processing residues%混合药渣栽培平菇试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金茜; 罗宿星; 曾启华; 朱彬; 魏福能; 张世仙

    2012-01-01

    为混合药渣栽培平菇提供参考依据,进行了混合药渣栽培平菇试验。结果表明:用混合药渣栽培平菇的生物转化率高,粗蛋白、总糖等含量高,微量元素含量丰富,重金属元素砷、铅、镉、汞等符合国家食品(食用菌)卫生限量标准,六六六、滴滴涕等未检出。%The level mushroom was cultivated by using mixed drug processing residues and its biological transformation rate was high. The to- tal sugar and crude protein in cultivated level mushroom were higher than that of the contrast and the trace elements was in rich. The heavy metals content,includingarsenic, plumbum, hydrargyrum, cadmium, was in accords with national relevant test standard of food and sanitation (edible fungi ). Dichlorodiphenyhrichloroethane and ? hexachlorocyclohexane were not detected in cultivated level mushroom. This method was nutritious and safe.

  6. Counselors' Clinical Use of Definitive Drug Testing Results in Their Work with Substance-Use Clients: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzetelny, Adam; Zeller, Barbara; Miller, Nicholas; City, Kathy Egan; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Passik, Steven D

    We conducted a psychotherapeutic examination of the use of definitive drug testing (liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD). Employing a generic qualitative method (Caelli et al. in International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(2), 2003; Merriam, 2009) we asked SUD counselors to provide narratives about cases where drug testing had revealed new or unexpected information about clients' drug-taking behaviors. Semi-structured interviews with 12 SUD counselors were conducted by phone and analyzed for themes derived from the literature. These counselors reported many new positive drug tests in clients previously believed to be adherent with treatment. Key themes assessed in counselors' narratives included initial client denial that was often followed by later acknowledgement of relapse and increased motivation, at times presenting new opportunities for clients to engage in treatment and enhance the therapeutic alliance. These results suggest that definitive drug testing can be used in a non-stigmatizing and therapeutic manner.

  7. Particle-size distribution (PSD) of pulverized hair: A quantitative approach of milling efficiency and its correlation with drug extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Aline Garcia da Rosa; Spinelli, Eliani; Fiaux, Sorele Batista; Barreto, Adriana da Silva; Rodrigues, Silvana Vianna

    2017-08-01

    Different types of hair were submitted to different milling procedures and their resulting powders were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction (LD). SEM results were qualitative whereas LD results were quantitative and accurately characterized the hair powders through their particle size distribution (PSD). Different types of hair were submitted to an optimized milling conditions and their PSD was quite similar. A good correlation was obtained between PSD results and ketamine concentration in a hair sample analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Hair samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen for 5min and pulverized at 25Hz for 10min, resulting in 61% of particles 90% of particles were PSD is a key feature on analysis of pulverized hair as it can affect the method recovery and reproducibility. In addition, PSD is an important issue on sample retesting and quality control procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Scoring of senescence signalling in multiple human tumour gene expression datasets, identification of a correlation between senescence score and drug toxicity in the NCI60 panel and a pro-inflammatory signature correlating with survival advantage in peritoneal mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Sharon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular senescence is a major barrier to tumour progression, though its role in pathogenesis of cancer and other diseases is poorly understood in vivo. Improved understanding of the degree to which latent senescence signalling persists in tumours might identify intervention strategies to provoke "accelerated senescence" responses as a therapeutic outcome. Senescence involves convergence of multiple pathways and requires ongoing dynamic signalling throughout its establishment and maintenance. Recent discovery of several new markers allows for an expression profiling approach to study specific senescence phenotypes in relevant tissue samples. We adopted a "senescence scoring" methodology based on expression profiles of multiple senescence markers to examine the degree to which signals of damage-associated or secretory senescence persist in various human tumours. Results We first show that scoring captures differential induction of damage or inflammatory pathways in a series of public datasets involving radiotherapy of colon adenocarcinoma, chemotherapy of breast cancer cells, replicative senescence of mesenchymal stem cells, and progression of melanoma. We extended these results to investigate correlations between senescence score and growth inhibition in response to ~1500 compounds in the NCI60 panel. Scoring of our own mesenchymal tumour dataset highlighted differential expression of secretory signalling pathways between distinct subgroups of MPNST, liposarcomas and peritoneal mesothelioma. Furthermore, a pro-inflammatory signature yielded by hierarchical clustering of secretory markers showed prognostic significance in mesothelioma. Conclusions We find that "senescence scoring" accurately reports senescence signalling in a variety of situations where senescence would be expected to occur and highlights differential expression of damage associated and secretory senescence pathways in a context-dependent manner.

  9. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy in Drug Discovery: Study of Alexa532-Endothelin 1 Binding to the Endothelin ETA Receptor to Describe the Pharmacological Profile of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherina Caballero-George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and the newly synthesized Alexa532-ET1 were used to study the dynamics of the endothelin ETA receptor-ligand complex alone and under the influence of a semisynthetic selective antagonist and a fungal extract on living A10 cells. Dose-dependent increase of inositol phosphate production was seen for Alexa532-ET1, and its binding was reduced to 8% by the selective endothelin ETA antagonist BQ-123, confirming the specific binding of Alexa532-ET1 to the endothelin ETA receptor. Two different lateral mobilities of the receptor-ligand complexes within the cell membrane were found allowing the discrimination of different states for this complex. BQ-123 showed a strong binding affinity to the “inactive” receptor state characterized by the slow diffusion time constant. A similar effect was observed for the fungal extract, which completely displaced Alexa532-ET1 from its binding to the “inactive” receptor state. These findings suggest that both BQ-123 and the fungal extract act as inverse agonists.

  10. In vitro activity of beta-lactams, macrolides, telithromycin, and fluoroquinolones against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: correlation between drug resistance and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Hashikita, Giichi; Takahashi, Shun; Itabashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Maesaki, Shigefumi

    2005-10-01

    The in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae was determined using 16 strains of penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) and 26 strains of penicillin intermediately resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP) + penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) in Japan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of potent antibiotics, including eight beta-lactams (benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, cefotiam, cefepime, cefditoren, faropenem, panipenem, and biapenem), three macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin), telithromycin, and three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and gatifloxacin), were determined. Twenty-three strains exhibited genetic variations at pbp1a + pbp2x + pbp2b, which are genetic-PRSP (g-PRSP). g-PISP strains accounted for 62.5% (10/16) of the PSSP strains. The existence of an abnormal pbp gene conferred not only penicillin resistance but resistance to cephems; however, panipenem and biapenem had potent in vitro efficacy against alterations. Regarding the macrolide resistance mechanisms (mefA or ermB): 16 isolates had only mefA, 18 isolates had ermB, and 2 isolates had both mefA and ermB. There was no correlation between the existence of an abnormal pbp gene and the existence of the mefA gene or the ermB gene.

  11. In vivo in vitro correlations for a poorly soluble drug, danazol, using the flow-through dissolution method with biorelevant dissolution media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Vibeke Hougaard; Pedersen, Betty Lomstein; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to design dissolution tests that were able to distinguish between the behaviour of danazol under fasted and fed conditions, by using biorelevant media. In vitro dissolution of 100mg danazol capsules was performed using the flow-through dissolution method. Flow rates...... were 8, 16 or 32 ml/min, corresponding to total volumes dissolution medium of 960, 1920 and 3840 ml, respectively. The media used contained bile salt and phospholipid levels relevant for either fasted or fed conditions in vivo. Crude and inexpensive bile components, Porcine Bile Extract and soybean...... with a medium containing 6.3 mM bile salts and 1.25 mM phospholipids (8 ml/min). A medium containing 18.8 mM bile salts, 3.75 mM phospholipids, 4.0 mM monoglycerides and 30 mM fatty acids (8 ml/min) gave the closest correlation with fed state in vivo results. By using the flow-through dissolution method...

  12. Development of a drug-in-adhesive patch combining ion pair and chemical enhancer strategy for transdermal delivery of zaltoprofen: pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and in vitro/in vivo correlation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongxia; Quan, Peng; Zhou, Zhuang; Fang, Liang

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a drug-in-adhesive patch system for transdermal delivery of zaltoprofen (ZAL). The formulation was designed in combination with the ion pair and chemical enhancer strategy. Seven organic amines were chosen as counter ions, and the prepared ion pairs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of ZAL was studied on rabbits following transdermal and intravenous administration. A deconvolution method was applied to determine the correlation between the in vitro permeation and the in vivo absorption. Acetic acid-induced writhing response was conducted on mice to evaluate the analgesic effect. In vitro permeation results showed that both ion pairs and chemical enhancers were effective in modulating ZAL skin permeation from patches. The enhancement ratio was negatively correlated to the polar surface area (PSA) of counter ions, and was positively correlated to the octanol-water partition coefficient (log Ko/w) of chemical enhancers, respectively. The optimized formulation contained 10% (w/w) ZAL-triethylamine and 10% (w/w) isopropyl myristate, with DURO-TAK® 87-4098 as the pressure sensitive adhesive matrix. Furthermore, the in vitro permeation data were well correlated with the in vivo absorption data. The analgesic effect of the optimized patch was comparable to the commercial indometacin plasters. In conclusion, it was feasible for transdermal delivery of ZAL by the synergistic action of ion pair and chemical enhancer, and the in vitro permeation data were indicative of the in vivo performance for the developed patches.

  13. 川芎嗪眼部植入剂的制备及体内外释药相关性研究%Study on preparation of ligustrazine ocular implant and correlation between in vivo and in vitro drug release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俊花; 李佩; 马鹏凯; 慕宏杰; 陈大全; 孙考祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To prepare ligustrazine (TMPZ) ocular sustained-release implant,and investigate its in vitro drug release,pharmacokinetics in rabbit vitreum and in vitro correlation.Method:Ligustrazine ocular sustained-release implants were prepared by micro-twin conical screw mixers with hot-melting extrusion method,with polyactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) as the matrix.HPLC was adopted to determine the concentration in vitreum after ligustrasine was implanted in rabbit eyes,in order to examine its in vivo sustained-release behavior,and study the correlation between in vitro and in vivo.Result:Ligustrazine implants were prepared with a drug-loading rate between 10% and 30%,which was in conformity to the pharmacopoeia in terms of the content uniformity.Its in vitro release was in conformity to the zero-order release model.With PLGA 5050,2.5A as a vector,ligustrazine implants with a drug-loading rate of 30% could slowly release drug for more than 3 weeks,indicating a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo release.Conclusion:Ligustrazine ocular implants prepared with hot-melting extrusion method is practicable.Ligustrazine ocular implants release drug smoothly in rabbit vitreous vitreums,suggesting good sustained-release effect.%目的:制备川芎嗪(TMPZ)眼部缓释植入剂,考察其体外释放、兔眼玻璃体内药动学行为及体内外相关性.方法:使用微量锥形双螺杆混合机,采用热熔融挤出法,以聚乳酸-羟基乙酸共聚物(PLGA)为基质材料制备川芎嗪眼部植入剂,HPLC测定川芎嗪植入剂植入兔眼后玻璃体的浓度,考察其体内缓释行为,并对体内外相关性进行研究.结果:载药量为10%~ 30%时,可制备得到川芎嗪植入剂,含量均匀度符合2010年版《中国药典》规定.体外释放符合零级释放模型.以PL-GA 5050,2.5A为载体,载药量为30%的川芎嗪植入剂在玻璃体内可缓慢释放药物达到3周以上,体内外释放相关性良好.结论:热熔融挤

  14. Correlation between Clindamycin Use Density and Drug Resistance of Main Target Bacteria%克林霉素使用强度与其主要目标菌耐药相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋林; 张奇兵; 刘航

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析医院克林霉素使用强度与金黄色葡萄球菌(简称金葡菌)、表皮葡萄球菌(简称表葡菌)耐药性之间的相关性。方法统计医院2011年4季度至2014年2季度克林霉素使用强度和金葡菌和表葡菌敏感率,分析二者之间的相关性。结果克林霉素的使用强度与金葡菌对其敏感率呈显著负相关( P<0.05);克林霉素的使用强度与表葡菌对其敏感率呈显著负相关( P<0.05)。结论金葡菌和表葡菌对克林霉素的耐药性与克林霉素的使用强度有关,促进临床合理使用克林霉素,可延缓耐药菌出现。%Objective To analyze the correlation between the clindamycin use density and the drug resistance of staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis in our hospital. Methods The clindamycin use density and the sensitive rate of staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis in our hospital from the fourth quarter of 2011 to the second quarter of 2014 were performed the statistics and their correlation was analyzed. Results The clindamycin use density was significantly negatively correlated with the sensi-tive rate of staphylococcus aureus( P < 0. 05)and staphylococcus epidermidis ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion The resistance of staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis to clindamycin is correlated with the clindamycin use density. Rational use of clindamycin can effectively delay the emergence of the drug-resistant strains.

  15. Drugs and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Robert, Comp.; And Others.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Drugs and drug abuse. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several sections, each of which is in outline or list form. It is xeroxed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The major portion of the guide contains a…

  16. Pharmacology and drug distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.R.; Weatherall, T.J.

    1979-08-01

    An overview of the pharmacology of drugs in the treatment of cancer is presented. The discussion begins with the simplest relationship of drugs and particles to one another then proceeds to demonstrate the interrelationship in a biologic system to produce a chemobiodynamic response. The basic principles of pharmacokinetics are reviewed and their correlation with investigational and standard drug therapies is discussed. Voids in the consideration of interactions between chemotherapy and radiotherapy are discussed.

  17. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  18. 医院鲍曼不动杆菌耐药性与抗菌药物使用相关性分析%Correlation Analysis of Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter Baumannii and Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇为民

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the drug resistance of acinetobacter baumannii and its correlation with antibiotics use. Methods Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated from specimen of sputum, blood and urine of inpatients between Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2011. Drug sensitive test were performed by disc diffusion test (k-b). Data of antibiotics use in hospital Drug monitoring database were collected for calculating AUD. The relationship between drug resistance of acinetobacter baumannii and AUD were analysied by Pearson methods. Results The drug resistance rate of acinetobacter baumannii was increased between 2009 and 2011, in which resistance rate to cefuroxime Sodium ranked the top, followed by ciprofloxacin, piperacillin sodium/ tazobactam sodium. There were correlation between resistance of acinetobacter baumannii and AUD of ceftazidime ( =0.871, =0.024), meropenem ( =0.897,=0.015) and imipenem (r=0.993,P=0.000). Conclusion Drug resistance of acinetobacter baumannii is associated with increased use of antibiotics, which can be regulated by rational clinical medication.%目的观察医院鲍曼不动杆菌的耐药性,分析其与抗药药物使用情况的相关性。方法收集2009年1月~2011年12月扬州市江都人民医院住院患者的痰液、血液、尿液等送检标本中分离的鲍曼不动杆菌,采用 K-B 纸片扩散法进行药敏试验,从医院抗菌药物监测网数据库查取相关药物的使用情况,计算抗菌药物使用强度(AUD),采用 Pearson 相关法分析耐药率与 AUD 的相关性。结果从2009年~2011年鲍曼不动杆菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药率普遍呈上升趋势,其对头孢呋辛钠的耐药率最高,其次为环丙沙星、哌拉西林钠/他唑巴坦钠。头孢他啶、美罗培南、亚胺培南的药物 AUD 与耐药率之间有正相关性(r=0.871,=0.024;r=0.897,P=0.015;r=0.993,=0.000)。结论抗菌药物使用情况与耐药率之间存在一定相关性,临床合理用药可在一定程度上降低耐药率。

  19. Correlation of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations determined by LC-MS-MS in oral fluid and plasma from impaired drivers and evaluation of the on-site Dräger DrugTest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloup, Marleen; Del Mar Ramirez Fernandez, Maria; Wood, Michelle; De Boeck, Gert; Maes, Viviane; Samyn, Nele

    2006-09-12

    Oral fluid (collected with the Intercept((R)) device) and plasma samples were obtained from 139 individuals suspected of driving under the influence of drugs and analyzed for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive constituent of cannabis, using a validated quantitative LC-MS-MS method. The first aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between the analytical data obtained in the plasma and oral fluid samples, to evaluate the use of oral fluid as a 'predictor' of actual cannabis influence. The results of the study indicated a good accuracy when comparing THC detection in oral fluid and plasma (84.9-95.7% depending on the cut-off used for plasma analysis). ROC curve analysis was subsequently used to determine the optimal cut-off value for THC in oral fluid with plasma as reference sample, in order to 'predict' a positive plasma result for THC. When using the LOQ of the method for plasma (0.5 ng/mL), the optimal cut-off was 1.2 ng/mL THC in oral fluid (sensitivity, 94.7%; specificity, 92.0%). When using the legal cut-off in Belgium for driving under the influence in plasma (2 ng/mL), an optimal cut-off value of 5.2 ng/mL THC in oral fluid (sensitivity, 91.6%; specificity, 88.6%) was observed. In the second part of the study, the performance of the on-site Dräger DrugTest for the screening of THC in oral fluid during roadside controls was assessed by comparison with the corresponding LC-MS-MS results in plasma and oral fluid. Since the accuracy was always less than 66%, we do not recommend this Dräger DrugTest system for the on-site screening of THC in oral fluid.

  20. [Integrated management of patients with schizophrenia: beyond psychotropic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda Zapata, Eliana; Montoya Gonzalez, Laura Elisa; Gómez Sierra, Natalia María; Arteaga Morales, Laura María; Correa Rico, Oscar Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease with severe functional repercussions; therefore it merits treatment which goes beyond drugs. It requires an approach that considers a diathesis-stress process that includes rehabilitation, psychotherapeutic strategies for persistent cognitive, negative and psychotic symptoms, psychoeducation of patient and communities, community adaptation strategies, such as the introduction to the work force, and the community model, such as a change in the asylum paradigm. It is necessary to establish private and public initiatives for the integrated care of schizophrenia in the country, advocating the well-being of those with the disease. The integrated management of schizophrenic patients requires a global view of the patient and his/her disease, and its development is essential. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. [Nutritional study in geriatric patients (older than 65 years of age) with ambulatory enteral nutrition: correlation between underlying disease, nutritional support, and drug treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Vázquez, M J; Piñeiro Corrales, G; Martínez Olmos, M

    2002-01-01

    To identify the current status of out-patient enteral nutrition among elderly patients in Galicia: indications, access routes, forms of administration, types of diet, complications, disability status. Assessment of nutritional status and concomitant pharmacological treatment. Prospective, observational, multi-centric study lasting for one month. Data capture by means of a questionnaire regarding: age, sex, diagnosed pathology leading to nutritional analysis, disability status, current nutritional status, type of diet, months under treatment with NEA (out-patient enteral nutrition in its Spanish acronym), form of administration, complications, concomitant medication. The statistical methodology included a descriptive analysis and a study of the correlations between the different variables. For the comparison of both groups, Student's t test or Mann-Whitney's U test was used for quantitative variables and chi-squared, Yate's correction or Fisher's exact test was used for qualitative variables. 469 patients were studied, corresponding to 13 publicly-funded centres. Age: 81.15 years (95% CI 80.8-82.3), women (70.6%). neurological disorders (46.1%), cerebrovascular accidents (27.5%), neoplasia (12.4%) and others (14.1%). 45.2% presented a bedbound disability status and 53.5% presented communication difficulties. Standard diet was the most common (39.4%). DURATION OF THE NUTRITION: > 1 year in 36.7% of cases, between 6 months and 1 year for 21.3%, between 3 and 6 months for 10.9% and < 3 months in 13.7% of cases. Nasogastric tube was the route for administration in 55.2%. Patients with nutrition treatment lasting over 1 year presented a significantly lower rate of malnutrition (p < 0.0001). Neurological patients and those with communication difficulties had a lower prevalence of malnutrition (p < 0.0001), as did those with a greater degree of disability (p < 0.01). Undernourished patients presented a greater prevalence of bedsores (49.1% versus 25.8%, p < 0.0001). The

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  3. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses. Other uses of these drugs are abuse. Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can ...

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? Do You or a Loved One Have a Drug Use Problem? Signs of Drug Use and Addiction How Does Drug Use Become Addiction? Addiction Risk ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & ...

  6. Optical correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boden, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of the most common types of coherent optical correlators, which are classified as spatial plane correlators, frequency plane correlators and special reference correlators. Only the spatial plane correlators are dealt with rather thoroughly. Basic principles, some special features,

  7. Fluconazole and Echinocandin Resistance of Candida glabrata Correlates Better with Antifungal Drug Exposure Rather than with MSH2 Mutator Genotype in a French Cohort of Patients Harboring Low Rates of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellière, Sarah; Healey, Kelley; Gits-Muselli, Maud; Carrara, Bastien; Barbaro, Alessandro; Guigue, Nicolas; Lecefel, Christophe; Touratier, Sophie; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Perlin, David S.; Bretagne, Stéphane; Alanio, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is a major pathogenic yeast in humans that is known to rapidly acquire resistance to triazole and echinocandin antifungal drugs. A mutator genotype (MSH2 polymorphism) inducing a mismatch repair defect has been recently proposed to be responsible for resistance acquisition in C. glabrata clinical isolates. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of antifungal resistance in a large cohort of patients in Saint-Louis hospital, Paris, France, some of whom were pre-exposed to antifungal drugs, as well as to determine whether MSH2 polymorphisms are associated with an increased rate of fluconazole or echinocandin resistance. We collected 268 isolates from 147 patients along with clinical data and previous antifungal exposure. Fluconazole and micafungin minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) were tested, short tandem repeat genotyping was performed, and the MSH2 gene was sequenced. According to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility breakpoints, 15.7% of isolates were resistant to fluconazole (MIC > 32 mg/L) and 0.7% were resistant to micafungin (MIC > 0.03 mg/L). A non-synonymous mutation within MSH2 occurred in 44% of the isolates, and 17% were fluconazole resistant. In comparison, fluconazole resistant isolates with no MSH2 mutation represented 15% (P = 0.65). MSH2 polymorphisms were associated with the short tandem repeat genotype. The rate of echinocandin resistance is low and correlates with prior exposure to echinocandin. The mutator genotype was not associated with enrichment in fluconazole resistance but instead corresponded to rare and specific genotypes. PMID:28066361

  8. Correlation Between Body Reproductive Hormone Level and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding After Drug Abortion%药物流产后机体生殖激素水平与子宫异常出血的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉丽萍; 冉爱冬

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between body reproductive hormone level and abnormal uterine bleeding after drug abortion. Methods The patients with uterine bleeding less than 16 days after drug abortion were selected as the normal group, while the patients with uterine bleeding more than 16 days were selected as the abnormal group. Surgical abortion women were served as the control group. The levels of E2, P, FSH, LH, and HCG in the women of three groups were continuously monitored during 10 ~ 22 days after abortion. Results The changes of E2 level in the three groups were generally identical and showed an ascendant trend. P level of the abnormal group was significantly higher than those of the control group and the normal group all the time (P<0.05). FSH levels of the three groups fluctuated repeatedly, and LH levels showed a decreased trend. HCG level in abnormal group was significantly higher than those in the control group and the normal group all the time (P<0.05). Conclusions The abnormal uterine bleeding after drug abortion is related to high levels of P and HCG, but irrelevant to the levels of E2, LH, and FSH.%目的 探讨药物流产后机体生殖激素水平与子宫异常出血的相关性.方法 选取药流后子宫出血小于16d者为正常组,子宫出血大于16 d者为异常组,手术流产妇女为对照组.连续监测三组妇女流产10~22 d的E2、P、FSH、LH、HCG水平.结果 三组E2水平变化基本相同,呈上升趋势;异常组P水平始终显著高于对照组和正常组(P<0.05);三组FSH水平均在反复波动,LH水平呈下降趋势;异常组HCG水平始终显著高于对照组和正常组(P<0.05).结论 药物流产后子宫异常出血与高水平的P和HCG有关,而与E2、LH、FSH无关.

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of ... to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of ...

  10. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as ginkgo and blood thinners ...

  11. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  12. Role of drug transporters and drug accumulation in the temporal acquisition of drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veitch Zachary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracyclines and taxanes are commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer. However, tumor resistance to these drugs often develops, possibly due to overexpression of drug transporters. It remains unclear whether drug resistance in vitro occurs at clinically relevant doses of chemotherapy drugs and whether both the onset and magnitude of drug resistance can be temporally and causally correlated with the enhanced expression and activity of specific drug transporters. To address these issues, MCF-7 cells were selected for survival in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (MCF-7DOX-2, epirubicin (MCF-7EPI, paclitaxel (MCF-7TAX-2, or docetaxel (MCF-7TXT. During selection cells were assessed for drug sensitivity, drug uptake, and the expression of various drug transporters. Results In all cases, resistance was only achieved when selection reached a specific threshold dose, which was well within the clinical range. A reduction in drug uptake was temporally correlated with the acquisition of drug resistance for all cell lines, but further increases in drug resistance at doses above threshold were unrelated to changes in cellular drug uptake. Elevated expression of one or more drug transporters was seen at or above the threshold dose, but the identity, number, and temporal pattern of drug transporter induction varied with the drug used as selection agent. The pan drug transporter inhibitor cyclosporin A was able to partially or completely restore drug accumulation in the drug-resistant cell lines, but had only partial to no effect on drug sensitivity. The inability of cyclosporin A to restore drug sensitivity suggests the presence of additional mechanisms of drug resistance. Conclusion This study indicates that drug resistance is achieved in breast tumour cells only upon exposure to concentrations of drug at or above a specific selection dose. While changes in drug accumulation and the expression of drug transporters does

  13. Correlation between mtrR gene mutation and multi-drug resistant of Neisseria gonorrhoeae%mtrR基因突变与淋病奈瑟菌多重耐药的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志萍; 吴爱武

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is to study the drug resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae for common antibacterial agents, and to explore the correlation between mtrR system, mtrR gene mutation and multi-drug resistant of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.Methods Agar dilution method was used to detect the minimum bacteriostatic concentration ( MIC) of 30 strains of Neisseria gonorrhea clinical strains to 6 kinds of antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinic including ciprofloxacin, penicillin, tetracycline, az-ithromycin, spectinomycin and ceftriaxone, at the same time penicillin enzyme production was determined by paper iodine vol-ume method.The clinical strains with antimicrobial resistance for one kind of antimicrobial agents, the ones for two kinds and the ones with multi-drug resistance were selected and their DNA was extracted to detect mtrR gene by PCR method, and its differences with Neisseria gonorrhea standard sensitive strains were compared.Results There were 3 clinical strains (10%) with antimicrobial resistance for one kind of antimicrobial agents, 16 ones (53%) for two kinds and 9 ones (30%) for three kinds, 2 ones (7%) for 4 four kinds.The mulit-drug resistance rate was 37%.There were 7 strains whose penicillin enzyme was positive.Gene mutation of mtrR gene was not found in the strains with antimicrobial resistance for one and two kinds of antimicrobial agents, but all the strains with multi-drug resistance had gene mutation, in which 7 strains with Gly( GGC-GAC) Asp mutation on the 45th position, 7 strains with Phe( TTC-GTC) Val mutation on the 51th position.Conclusion Neisseria gonorrhoeae separated in clinic has a high multi-drug resistance rate, and their resistance should be continuously monitored.Gly(GGC-GAC) Asp mutation on the 45th position, Phe(TTC-GTC)Val mutation on the 51th position of mtrR gene are closely related with multi-drug resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.%目的:了解临床分离的淋病奈瑟菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,

  14. STUDY ON THE CORRELATION OF SOCIAL SUPPORT, COGNITION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PRESSURE OF DRUG ADDICTS%吸毒者社会支持、认知和心理压力相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩美芳; 李桂松; 侯峰; 李遵清

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the correlation of social support,cognition and psychological pressure of drug addicts, and provide basis for clinical psychological intervention. Methods:An evaluation was conducted among 100 drug addicts (study group)and 100 healthy individuals (control group) with Chinese Perceived Stress Scale( CPSS) ,Dysfunctional Attitudes Scales(DAS) and Social Supporting Rating Scale ( SSRS) , the relation of which was analyzed and compared. Results: (1) the score of CPSS (25.63 ± 5 6.45)in the study group was higher than the score (19.75 ±s 5.16) in the control group(t = 7.12,P < 0.001);(2)the score of DAS(149.33 ±s 25.58)in the study group was higher than the score (127.32 ±5 21.26)in the control grpup(t =6.62,P <0.001); (3) the score of SSRS(31.32 ±s 5.25)in the study group was lower than the score (38.28 ±s 6.58)in the control group(t= 8.27,P<0.001); (4) There was high negative correlation between social support and psychological pressure and cognition (r =0.259 -0.348, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Drug addicts have heavy psychological pressure with various degrees of cognition distortion, and their social support is low. There is correlation among social support, cognition and psychological pressure. Improving social support level of drug addicts is an effective method to change their cognition distortion, and relieve their psychological pressure.%目的:调查了解吸毒者社会支持、认知和心理压力状况,探讨它们之间的关系,为心理干预提供依据.方法:采用中文版知觉心理压力量表(CPSS)、功能失调性态度问卷(DAS)和社会支持评定量表(SSRS)对100例吸毒者(研究组)和100例相匹配的正常健康人群(对照组)进行评定比较,分析其相关性.结果:(1)研究组CPSS总分为25.63±s 6.45,明显高于对照组CPSS总分(19.75±s 5.16),差异具有统计学意义(t=7.12,P<0.001);(2)研究组DAS总分为149.33±s 25.58,明显高于对照组DAS总分(127.32±s 21.26),

  15. Quality representation and correlation analysis of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. based on characteristic spectrum of drug system%基于酚类成分特征图谱的女贞子质量表征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽敏; 石任兵; 卢广英; 杨书娟; 许舒娅; 彭平; 李钢; 李焕娟; 冯朵; 阳长明

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立基于酚类成分特征图谱的女贞子质量表征及关联分析方法,以精确全面地评价女贞子饮片质量。方法采用所建立的反相高效液相色谱(HPLC-PDA)法表征女贞子药材的特征图谱质量,基于特征图谱中特征峰的数量及所属化学类型对14批女贞子饮片进行质的表征。基于特征图谱中特征指标性成分红景天苷、酪醇、特女贞苷、槲皮素的含量及环烯醚萜类(以特女贞苷表征)、黄酮类(以槲皮素表征)的含量对14批女贞子饮片进行量的表征,并基于基准饮片将14批女贞子饮片质与量的表征结果分别进行关联性分析。结果以批号S10为基准,女贞子饮片特征图谱中含有酚类特征共有峰11个,其中苯乙醇苷类成分特征峰2个、环烯醚萜类成分特征峰5个、黄酮类成分特征峰4个,14批饮片色谱图中均含有此11个特征峰。样品S14、S12、S5、S8、S9、S6、S11中特征指标性成分含量总体较高,样品S14、S12、S5、S8、S9与基准样品S10关联性最高,综合评价得出样品S5、S8、S9、S12、S14质量优良度居前。结论基于特征图谱的质与量及其关联性的系统表征所建立的基于药物体系的女贞子特征图谱质量表征关联分析评价模式,关注了女贞子质量整体关联性与应用有效性,能够有效精准评价其质量。%Objective To establish qualityrep resentation and correlation analysis method of Ligustrum lucidum Ait.(Glossy Privet Fruit,Nüzhenzi)based on characteristic spectrum of drug system,so as to evaluate thequality of Nüzhenzi decoction pieces accurately and comprehensively.Methods Usinges-tablished HPLC-PDA method to represent the quality of Nüzhenzi characteristic spectrum of drug system. Then the qualitative representation of 14 batches of Nüzhenzi decoction pieces was based on the quantity and type of characteristic peaks of specific chromatograms,the quantitative

  16. Stress is dominant in patients with depression and chronic low back pain. A qualitative study of psychotherapeutic interventions for patients with non-specific low back pain of 3–12 months’ duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellegaard Hanne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is continuing uncertainty in back pain research as to which treatment is best suited to patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP. In this study, Gestalt therapy and the shock trauma method Somatic Experiencing® (SE were used as interventions in parallel with the usual cross-disciplinary approach. The aim was to investigate how these treatments influence a patient’s capacity to cope with CLBP when it is coupled with depression. Methods In this qualitative explorative study, a phenomenological–hermeneutic framework was adopted. Patients were recruited on the basis of following criteria: A moderate depression score of 23–30 according to the Beck Depression Inventory Scale and a pain score of 7–10 (Box scale from 0–10 and attendance at five- six psychotherapeutic sessions. Six patients participated in the study. The data was comprised of written field notes from each session, which were subsequently analysed and interpreted at three levels: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation and discussion. Results Three areas of focus emerged: the significance of previous experiences, restrictions in everyday life and restoration of inner resources during the therapy period. The study revealed a diversity of psychological stressors that related to loss and sorrow, being let down, violations, traumatic events and reduced functioning, which led to displays of distress, powerlessness, reduced self-worth, anxiety and discomfort. Overall, the sum of the stressors together with pain and depression were shown to trigger stress symptoms. Stress was down-played in the psychotherapeutic treatment and inner resources were re-established, which manifested as increased relaxation, presence, self-worth, sense of responsibility and happiness. This, in turn, assisted the patients to better manage their CLBP. Conclusions CLBP is a stress factor in itself but when coupled with depression, they can be

  17. Score Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián, Z. (Zdeněk)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a distribution-dependent correlation coefficient based on the concept of scalar score. This new measure of association of continuous random variables is compared by means of simulation experiments with the Pearson, Kendall and Spearman correlation coefficients.

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  20. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts ... Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs ...

  2. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Google Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu ... misuse of prescription drugs can make driving a car unsafe—just like driving after drinking alcohol. Drugged ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice ( ...

  6. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study drugs: amphetamines like Adderall, Dexedrine, or Vyvanse methylphenidates like Ritalin or Concerta Most people get study ... How Much Sleep Do I Need? Prescription Drug Abuse How to Make Homework Less Work Organizing Schoolwork & ...

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts ... addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain ...

  9. Drugs (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs for fever, cough, stuffy nose, runny nose, diarrhea, and allergies are common drugs which are especially helpful during times of illness. All medications should be kept out of the reach of children.

  10. Drug Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug. "Max" was addicted to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop using marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to ...

  12. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  13. 泛耐药鲍曼不动杆菌医院获得性感染相关因素分析%Correlation factor analysis of pan-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains in acquired infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳飞; 王俊瑞; 顾海彤; 尚欣荣; 曹晶晶; 王玫; 范艳艳; 隋文君; 鲁辛辛

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the clinical factors, drug resistance and molecular epidemiology homologous characteristics of pan-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ( PDRAB ) in acquired infections and analyze the correlation factor between epidemic characteristics and acquired infections.MethodsA total of 60 PDRAB strains from nine acquired infections and related clinic data were collected from January 2009 to January 2011.The drug-resistant phenotype was tested by disk diffusion methods.The isolate identification and homology were studied by automation repetitive-element sequence-based (REP)-PCR typing platform from genes and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF-TOF MS) from proteins. ResultsAll strains were resistant to 12 antibiotics except 2 strains to imipenem and meropenem. The strains in this study were divided into 12 types (A-L) by REP-PCR. And 60 strains were also clustered to a-e types by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Compared with MALDI-TOF-TOF MS,REP-PCR tended to be more accurate.Breathing machine carriage and cross transmission were the main reasons for a major epidemic outbreak at department of pulnonary medicine from July 2009 to October 2009.Hand transmission of medical care personnel was a key factor for SICU 2010 January to February.The contamination and transmission to environment of PDRAB innasal pharynx or respiratory tract by superspreader were the main reasons for the other 7 epidemic outbreaks. Department of emergency medicine was the source of acquired infections. ConclusionThe key control measures of acquired infections are early identification and isolation of spreader, environment and instrument disinfection, hand washing and rational uses of antibiotics. MALDI-TOF-TOF MS will become a preferred tool of identification and classification of microorganisms because of its simple operation, affordable price and handling rapidity.%目的 研究泛耐药鲍曼不动杆菌(PDRAB)医院获得性感染的临

  14. Correlation between drug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing pneumonia and mortality%医院铜绿假单胞菌性肺炎对抗菌药物耐药性及死亡率相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯娜娜; 李华茵; 宋元林; 王琴; 周春妹; 谢红梅

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the drug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing pneumonia and the related risk factors for mortality. METHODS This prospective cohort clinical study was conducted in a tertiary surgical intensive care unit (SICU) in Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. From Jan 2007 to Dec 2010. a total of 53 patients who underwent endotracheal intubation and ventilated for more than 48 hours and were with positive culture of P. aeruginosa were enrolled in this study; the drug susceptibility testing was performed by KB method. The vital signs, ventilation parameters, treatment regiments of the patients were recorded, the follow-up of the mortality within 28 days was carried out. RESULTS Of 8 commonly used antibiotics against P. aeruginosa, amikacin was with the lowest resistance rate of 15. 1%, followed by cefoperazone/sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, cefepime, and imipenem) the resistance rate to piperacillin/tazobactam was the highest (47. 2%), the multidrug-resistant rate was 32.1% ; of 53 patients, 17 patients died and 11 patients died within 28 days; the drug resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem and the multidrug-resistance rate were much higher in death group than in the survival group (76. 5% vs 33. 3%, 58. 8% vs 27. 8%, and 58. 8% vs. 19.4%, respectively) (P<0. 05). There was significant difference between survivors and non-survivors for age (75. 5 vs 56. 0 respectively) (P<0. 05); of the patients in the death group, the survival days of the patients resistant to imipenem were less than those of the patients without imipenem-resistance (P=0. 025) ; multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that there was significant correlation between the age, duration of mechanical ventilation, multidrug-resistance of P. aeruginosa, resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam and the mortality. CONCLUSION For the dead patients,the survival days of imipenem-resistant patients are significantly shortened) the age, duration

  15. A study of correlations between the release of drugs from petrolatum-based gels containing nonionic surfactants and some physical and physico-chemical characteristics of the gel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colo, G D; Nannipieri, E; Serafini, M F; Vitale, D

    1986-06-01

    Synopsis The in vitro release of benzocaine and 2-ethyIhexyl p-di-methylaminobenzoate (EH-PABA) from petrolatum-based gels either containing two nonionic surfactants, or not, was compared with some physical and/or physico-chemical characteristics of the drugs, the gels and the drug-gel systems. The surfactants had no effect on the release of EH-PABA, the less polar drug, whereas they decreased the release of benzocaine. Moreover, the release data show a complex dependence of diffusive properties of ben-zocaine on drug and surfactant concentration. Benzocaine appears to form mixed micelles with each of the two surfactants and/or undergoes self-aggregation phenomena within surfactant micelles. The results indicate that drug diffusion is influenced by gel porosity, drug molecular size and polarity and molecular interactions. Etude des corrélations entre la disponibilité des medicaments dans les gels a base de vaseline contenant des surfactifs non ioniques et quelques propriétés physiques et physicochimiques des gels.

  16. Orphan drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goločorbin-Kon Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. The beginning of orphan drugs development. This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the ”Orphan Drug Act” was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. Conclusion. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41012

  17. Correlator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooneveld, C. van

    1968-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of designs of cross-correlation receivers for the detection of active underwater transmissions. Particular attention is given to the various structures of phase insensitive receivers, and to the problems concerned with clipping of the input signal and the reference functio

  18. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ...

  19. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gül Dülger

    2014-01-01

    Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions ...

  20. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Age Adults in 2015 Teens and E-cigarettes Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Substance Use in Women and Men View All NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts Mind Over Matter Research Reports NIDA Home ...

  1. Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010263 Drug resistance mechanism of non-small cell lung cancer PC9/AB2 cell line with acquired drug resistance to gefitinib.JU Lixia(鞠立霞),et al. Dept Oncol,Shanghai Pulm Hosp,Tongji Univ,Shanghai 200433. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2010;33(5):354-358. Objective To

  2. Drug Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Raj K.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of such drugs as marijuana and LSD, with emphasis on drug abuse. It is suggested that it can be used in science classes at the middle level of school. No prerequisites are suggested. The teacher's guide lists the behavioral objectives, the equipment needed to complete the experience and suggests…

  3. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Flemming, Jeb H.; Jones, Gary D.; Tigges, Chris P.

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  4. Dance practice and well-being correlates in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Artero, Natàlia

    2016-10-04

    Clinical research has shown the mental health benefits of dance practice. This has become a significant subject of inquiry in psychotherapeutic settings for the elderly and adolescents. However, the relationship between dance practice and correlates of psychological well-being, such as mindfulness and life satisfaction (LS)-two relevant indicators of mental health, has been explored relatively little in young women. The present study contrasted mindfulness and LS in young women (n = 81) who practiced dance regularly in three modern dance schools in the Province of Barcelona with a control group of non-practitioners (n = 120) studying at a university in Barcelona. The data were collected during the first semester of 2015, and the total sample had an average age of 20.88 ± 3.36 years. Analyses of covariance showed higher levels of both mindfulness and LS in the dance practitioners, while a multiple regression analysis showed that, after controlling for age, dance was the factor most strongly associated with LS, explaining 28% of the variance in LS. These results are discussed in terms of the embodiment theory, and conclusions suggest that dance may be an effective gender-focused practice to enhance well-being and promote mental health in young women.

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery What is Treatment? Why Does a Person Need ... Work? What Are the Treatment Options? What Is Recovery? What Is a Relapse? How Can Friends and ...

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco ... Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You ...

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA ( ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/ ...

  10. Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulants Stimulants include amphetamines, meth (methamphetamine), cocaine and methylphenidate (Ritalin). They are often used and abused in ... a medication, talk to your doctor. Preventing drug abuse in children and teenagers Take these steps to ...

  11. Antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2010-10-01

    In October 2010, it will be exactly 25 years ago that the first antiretroviral drug, AZT (zidovudine, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine), was described. It was the first of 25 antiretroviral drugs that in the past 25 years have been formally licensed for clinical use. These antiretroviral drugs fall into seven categories [nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs) and integrase inhibitors (INIs). The INIs (i.e. raltegravir) represent the most recent advance in the search for effective and selective anti-HIV agents. Combination of several anti-HIV drugs [often referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)] has drastically altered AIDS from an almost uniformly fatal disease to a chronic manageable one.

  12. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and ... Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  14. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jackets, Yellows, and Zombie Pills Stimulants: Bennies, Black Beauties, Hearts, Roses, Skippy, The Smart Drug, Speed, and ... used to relieve anxiety or help a person sleep, such as Valium or Xanax Stimulants — used for ...

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth ( ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  16. Drug-drug interactions: antiretroviral drugs and recreational drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staltari, Orietta; Leporini, Christian; Caroleo, Benedetto; Russo, Emilio; Siniscalchi, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    With the advances in antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are living longer, however, some patients encounter co- morbidities which sometimes require treatment. Therefore, during the treatment with ARV drugs these patients could take several recreational drugs (e.g. amphetamines, hallucinogenes, opiates, or alcohol) with a possible development of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In particular, Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs) are mainly excreted through the kidney and are not substrates of the cytochrome P450 or P-glycoprotein, therefore the DDIs during this treatment are minimal. In contrast, the other ARV drugs (i.e. non-nucleoside reversetranscriptase inhibitors, Protease inhibitors, Integrase inhibitors, chemokine receptor 5 antagonists and HIV-fusion inhibitors) are an important class of antiretroviral medications that are frequent components of HAART regimens but show several DDIs related to interaction with the cytochrome P450 or P-glycoprotein. In this paper we will review data concerning the possibility of DDI in HIV patients treated with ARV and taking recreational drugs.

  17. Project United Families: psychotherapeutic care offered to a social risk population Projeto Famílias Unidas: atendimento psicoterapêutico à população em situação de risco social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Márcia Souza Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this report is encouraging reflection about psychotherapeutic care delivered to a community at social risk. During the period July 2005-July 2006 counseling sessions were held at a philanthropic institution, the Association for SocialWorks of the St. Michael’s Parish in the city of Simões Filho (Bahia, Brazil. The initiative was part of the Project United Families, implemented by the before mentioned association. Issues such as self-esteem and the possibility of social reinclusion were discussed in weekly meetings to enable the individuals introduce changes into their reality of life and help them adopt an attitude towards good citizenship. This work was conducted following the concepts of “Extended General Practice” which provides us with a new way of dealing with and trying to minimize poverty and of revitalizing the individuals desire outside the doctor’s office, at informal community-based institutions that represent potential resources capable of producing sense, contractibility and wellbeing.

    Este relato tem o objetivo de promover reflexão sobre atendimento psicológico em uma comunidade em situação de risco social. O atendimento foi realizado em instituição filantrópica, no município de Simões Filho (BA, através do Projeto Famílias Unidas da Associação Obras Sociais da Paróquia de São Miguel, no período compreendido entre julho de 2005 e julho de 2006. O atendimento aconteceu em encontros semanais onde foram abordadas a autoestima e a possibilidade de reinserção social do sujeito, o que possibilitou mudança na sua realidade de vida e um posicionamento direcionado à cidadania. O trabalho realizado, nos moldes da Clínica Ampliada, traz-nos uma nova forma de lidar com a pobreza, na tentativa de ajudar a minimizá-la, na revitalização do desejo do sujeito em uma clínica extraconsultório, utilizando as instituições informais da comunidade, pois as mesmas representam recursos potenciais

  18. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - ...

  19. Psychotherapeutic Allegories and Some Metaphors of Harmony ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and higher order beings (God or gods) or other revered things) that the Chief of Bingo ... with the steps he took to facilitate the achievement of harmony his life. ... of metaphors in psychotherapy and therapeutic characteristics of metaphors in ...

  20. Psychotherapeutic strategies in hypochondriasis: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, R

    1982-04-01

    Thirty-six patients who had hypochondriacal neurosis for six months or longer were treated with individual psychotherapy. The therapy focused mainly on: accurate information about the psychophysiologic processes involved, emphasis on the innocuousness of the phenomena and the good prognosis, and making the patient aware of his selective perception. Physical examinations were repeated with reassurance when necessary and antianxiety medication was prescribed when appropriate. A substantial proportion of patients recovered or improved and the improvement was maintained on follow-up.

  1. Psychotherapeutic strategies for coping with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilber, C

    2000-01-01

    Psychotherapy promotes adaptation to the medical, neuropsychiatric, and psychosocial challenges faced by people with HIV infection. This chapter describes a range of individual and group psychotherapy techniques with demonstrated efficacy in this population.

  2. Extending Psychotherapeutic Strategies to People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, William A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reflects on contributions of Milton H. Erickson from which modern mind-body counseling interventions originate using Beatrice Wright's principles of attention to individual needs, respect for situational complexities, and flexibility. Includes strategies to develop rapport, therapeutic use of imagery, reframing, and other paradoxical techniques…

  3. Extending Psychotherapeutic Strategies to People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, William A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reflects on contributions of Milton H. Erickson from which modern mind-body counseling interventions originate using Beatrice Wright's principles of attention to individual needs, respect for situational complexities, and flexibility. Includes strategies to develop rapport, therapeutic use of imagery, reframing, and other paradoxical techniques…

  4. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Dülger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of some most commanly used herbals (St John's wort, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, ginger, garlic, echinacea, ephedra and valerian with the conventional drugs were reviewed. Pharmacokinetic interactions involve mainly induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isozymes and p-glycoproteins by the herbal medicine, thus changing the absorption and/or elimination rate and consequently the efficacy of the concommitantly used drugs. St John's wort, a well known enzyme inducer, decreases the efficacy of most of the other drugs that are known to be the substrates of these enzymes.Pharmacodynamic interactions may be due to additive or synergistic effects which results in enhanced effect or toxicity, or herbal medicines with antagonistic properties reduce drug efficacy and result in therapeutic failure. For exampla, St John's wort may have synergistic effects with other antidepressant drugs used by the patient, resulting in increased CNS effects.Herbals like ginseng, ginkgo, garlic, ginger were reported to increase bleeding time, thus potentiating the effect of anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents. In conclusion, patients should be warned against the interaction between the herbal products and conventional medicines.

  5. In vitro-In vivo Correlation: Perspectives on Model Development

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In vitro – in vivo correlation (IVIVC) allows prediction of the in vivo performance of a drug based on the in vitro drug release profiles. To develop an effective IVIVC, the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of the drug as well as the physiological environment in the body must be taken into consideration. Key factors include drug solubility, pKa, drug permeability, octanol-water partition coefficient and pH of environment. In general, construction of an IVIVC involves three sta...

  6. 252株肺炎克雷伯菌耐药率与抗菌药物使用强度相关性分析%Correlation between Drug-Resistant Rates in 252 Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and An-tibacterial Use Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    忻志鸣; 叶根深; 牛洪敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between the drug-resistant rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae(Kp)and antibacterial use density(AUD)to provide the basis for the reasonable use of antibacterial drugs in clinic. Methods The drug-resistant rates of Kp in de-tected 252 strains of Kp during 2012 were summarized and statistically analyzed,which was combined with contemporaneous AUD for ana-lyzing the correlation between them;the difference of resistant rates of Kp to different categories of antibacterial drugs was statistically ana-lyzed. Results The drug-resistant rate of Kp exhibited extremely significant positive correlation with AUD. The resistant rates of Kp to dif-ferent categories of antibacterial drugs were different,the difference of resistant rate to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones had no statistical significance,the resistant rate to broad spectrum penicillins was highest and which to carbapenems and cephalosporins containing enzyme in-hibitors was lowest. Conclusion The drug-resistant rate of Kp is correlated with AUD. Clinic may give preference to cephalosporins con-taining enzyme inhibitors,aminoglycosides,fluoroquinolones and carbapenems and suspends the use of broad-spectrum penicillins.%目的:探讨医院肺炎克雷伯菌耐药率与抗菌药物使用强度的相关性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法统计医院2012年检出的252株肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药率,结合同期抗菌药物使用强度,分析两者相关性;分析肺炎克雷伯菌对不同类别抗菌药物耐药率的差异。结果肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药率与抗菌药物的使用强度呈极显著线性正相关关系;对不同类别抗菌药物的耐药率不尽相同,对氨基苷类和喹诺酮类的耐药率差异无显著性,对广谱青霉素类的耐药率最高,对碳青霉烯类、含酶抑制剂头孢类的耐药率最低。结论肺炎克雷伯菌耐药率与抗菌药物的使用强度有关,临床可酌情优选含酶

  7. Drug trafficking routes and hepatitis B in injection drug users, Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sibnarayan; Banerjee, Arup; Chandra, Partha K; Mahapatra, Pradip K; Chakrabarti, Shekhar; Chakravarty, Runu

    2006-12-01

    Prevalence of hepatitis B genotype C in injection drug users in the northeastern Indian state of Manipur, neighboring the "Golden Triangle," correlates well with overland drug-trafficking routes, the injection drug use epidemic, and the spread of HIV. Further spread to other regions of India through mobile populations is possible.

  8. The Correlation Analysis of Bacterial Drug Resistance and Utilization of Antibiotics in the Fifth People's Hospital of Qujing in 2011%2011年曲靖市第五人民医院细菌耐药性和抗菌药性物使用情况的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周石桥

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variation of bacterial drug resistance and the utilization of antibiotics and discuss the correlation between the bacterial drug resistance and the DDDs of antibiotics so as to provide a reference for clinical rational use of antibiotics. Methods The related data from 2011 were collected from our hospital for analysis of the variation of bacterial drug resistance and the utilization of antibiotics as well as the correlation between the bacterial drug resistance and the DDDs of antibiotics. Results The bacteria separated were mainly gram-negative bacteria. Great importance should be attached to the resistance of the pseudomonas aeruginosa to the third generation cephalosporin. Staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus aureus showed least resistance to Vancomycin. The DDDs of cephalosporins dominated the first place. The second line broad spectrum antibiotics with higher price were used preferably in the clinic. The drugs ranked at the leading places on DDDs list were usually with high drug resistance. There was a marked positive correlation between DDDs of some of the antibacterials and the bacterial drug resistance. Conclusions The main types of bacteria that our hospital patients infected with are gram-negative bacteria with high rate of resistance characteristics. Hospitals should spare no effort to tighten control on antibacterials to promote rational use of antibacteirals, reduce bacterial drug resistance and enhance curative effect of anti-infective therapy.%目的 分析2011年曲靖市第五人民医院细菌耐药性和抗菌药物使用情况的变化趋势,探讨抗菌药物使用频度(DDDs)与细菌耐药性之间的关系,为临床合理应用抗菌药物提供参考依据.方法 统计曲靖市第五人民医院2011年的相关数据资料,回顾性分析细菌耐药性和抗菌药物使用情况,分析细菌耐药性与用药频度之间的相关性.结果 临床分离的细菌以革兰阴性杆菌为主,第3代头孢菌

  9. Medication development of ibogaine as a pharmacotherapy for drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, D C; Kovera, C A; Buck, B E; Norenberg, M D; Shapshak, P; Hearn, W L; Sanchez-Ramos, J

    1998-05-30

    The potential for deriving new psychotherapeutic medications from natural sources has led to renewal interest in rain forest plants as a source of lead compounds for the development of antiaddiction medications. Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid found in the roots of Tabernanthe iboga (Apocynaceae family), a rain forest shrub that is native to equatorial Africa. Ibogaine is used by indigenous peoples in low doses to combat fatigue, hunger and in higher doses as a sacrament in religious rituals. Members of American and European addict self-help groups have claimed that ibogaine promotes long-term drug abstinence from addictive substances, including psychostimulants and cocaine. Anecdotal reports attest that a single dose of ibogaine eliminates withdrawal symptoms and reduces drug cravings for extended periods of time. The purported antiaddictive properties of ibogaine require rigorous validation in humans. We have initiated a rising tolerance study using single administration to assess the safety of ibogaine for treatment of cocaine dependency. The primary objectives of the study are to determine safety, pharmacokinetics and dose effects, and to identify relevant parameters of efficacy in cocaine-dependent patients. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of ibogaine in humans are assessed by analyzing the concentration-time data of ibogaine and its desmethyl metabolite (noribogaine) from the Phase I trial, and by conducting in vitro experiments to elucidate the specific disposition processes involved in the metabolism of both parent drug and metabolite. The development of clinical safety studies of ibogaine in humans will help to determine whether there is a rationale for conducting efficacy trials in the future.

  10. Drug induced lung disease; Medikamenteninduzierte Lungenveraenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia [Medizinisches Zentrum Meander (MMC) Amersfoort (Netherlands). Abt. fuer Radiologie; Eisenhuber, Edith [Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Radiologie

    2010-12-15

    There is an ever increasing number of drugs that can cause lung disease. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, since the clinical symptoms are mostly nonspecific. Various HRCT patterns can be correlated - though with overlaps - to lung changes caused by certain groups of drugs. Alternative diagnosis such as infection, edema or underlying lung disease has to be excluded by clinical-radiological means. Herefore is profound knowledge of the correlations of drug effects and imaging findings essential. History of drug exposure, suitable radiological findings and response to treatment (corticosteroids and stop of medication) mostly provide the base for the diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Correlation analysis on drug resistance ofKlebsiella pneumoniae and dose of antibiotics in Central People’s Hospital of Zhanjiang from 2010 to 2014%2010-2014年湛江中心人民医院肺炎克雷伯菌耐药性与抗菌药物用量的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何清华; 张亮; 曹堃; 郭卫; 黎汉坤; 黄云平

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析湛江中心人民医院肺炎克雷伯菌耐药性与抗菌药物用量的相关性,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法采用回顾性调查方法,统计湛江中心人民医院2010—2014年13种抗菌药物的用药频度(DDDs)及同期肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药率,采用Pearson法对肺炎克雷伯菌耐药性与抗菌药物用量的相关性进行统计分析。结果肺炎克雷伯菌对亚胺培南的耐药率与亚胺培南用量呈显著正相关,与头孢噻肟用量呈显著负相关;对莫西沙星的耐药率与头孢哌酮/舒巴坦、头孢西丁用量呈显著正相关;对美罗培南的耐药率与头孢唑林、左氧氟沙星用量呈显著负相关(P<0.05)。结论肺炎克雷伯菌对抗菌药物耐药水平变化与抗菌药物用量存在相关关系,临床应合理选用抗菌药物,以减少或延缓耐药菌株的产生。%Objective To analyze the correlation between drug resistance ofKlebsiella pneumoniae and dose of antibiotics in Central People’s Hospital of Zhanjiang, and to provide reference for rational drug use.MethodsDefined daily doses (DDDs) of 13 antibiotics and drug resistance rate of K. pneumoniae in Central People’s Hospital of Zhanjiang from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed, retrospectively. The correlation between drug resistance ofK. pneumoniae and dose of antibiotics were analyzed by Pearson method.ResultsThe resistance rate ofK. pneumoniae against immipenam had positive correlation with the dose of immipenam, and negative correlation with the dose of cefotaxime. The resistance rate against moxifloxacin had positive correlation with the doses of cefoperazone/sulbactam and cefoxitin. The resistance rate against meropenem had negative correlation with the doses of cefozolin and levofloxacin, respectively (P < 0.05).ConclusionsThe resistance changes ofK. pneumoniae have correlation with the doses of antibiotics. The proper choice of antibiotics could reduce or delay the

  12. Antineoplastic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antineoplastic drugs is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...

  14. Mucoactive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balsamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucus hypersecretion is a clinical feature of severe respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Airway mucosal infection and/or inflammation associated with these diseases often gives rise to inflammatory products, including neutrophil-derived DNA and filamentous actin, in addition to bacteria, apoptotic cells and cellular debris, that may collectively increase mucus production and viscosity. Mucoactive agents have been the medication of choice for the treatment of respiratory diseases in which mucus hypersecretion is a clinical complication. The main purpose of mucoactive drugs is to increase the ability to expectorate sputum and/or decrease mucus hypersecretion. Many mucoactive drugs are currently available and can be classified according to their putative mechanism of action. Mucoactive medications include expectorants, mucoregulators, mucolytics and mucokinetics. By developing our understanding of the specific effects of mucoactive agents, we may result in improved therapeutic use of these drugs. The present review provides a summary of the most clinically relevant mucoactive drugs in addition to their potential mechanism of action.

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  16. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure f

  17. 小儿癫(癎)药物治疗的相关问题及其对策%Correlative Problem and Stratege of Drug Treatment in Children with Epilepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周水珍

    2006-01-01

    @@ 癫(癎)是儿科神经学常见疾病,癫(癎)治疗的目的是控制癫(癎)发作,提高癫(癎)患儿的生活质量.正确的诊断是合理治疗的前提,癫(癎)的治疗包括以抗癫(癎)药物(anti-epileptic drugs,AED)为主的药物治疗和其他非药物治疗,如预防危险因素、心理治疗、外科治疗、酮源性饮食治疗及病因治疗等;其中AED是控制癫(癎)发作的主要手段.本文就儿童AED治疗过程中相关问题介绍如下.

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  20. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  2. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  3. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  4. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  5. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  6. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  7. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  8. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  9. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  10. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  11. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  12. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  13. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  14. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  15. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  20. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  2. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  3. 吸毒人群行为特征与梅毒、丙肝感染的相关性分析%Correlation analysis on the behavior characteristic of drug users and infection status of syphilis and hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文育锋; 张振; 齐少波; 蒋超; 王演春; 李本和

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解吸毒人员梅毒、丙肝感染状况及其与吸毒行为特征间的关系,为制订吸毒人群传染病的防治措施提供依据。方法:根据国家吸毒人群监测方案进行问卷调查和检测。结果:调查对象梅毒、丙肝感染率分别为8.99%和41.47%。不同性别(χ2=17.05,P<0.001)和文化程度(χ2=8.46,P=0.037)梅毒感染差异有统计学意义,而丙肝感染则与年龄(χ2=118.06,P<0.001)、性别(χ2=5.01,P=0.025)以及婚姻状况(χ2=24.05,P<0.001)有关。有无注射吸毒行为(88.20% vs 8.98%:χ2=271.45,P<0.001)和过去1年有无商业性行为(25.96% vs 46.36%:χ2=13.56,P<0.001)与丙肝感染率有关,注射吸毒行为在商业性行为对丙肝感染的影响作用中起完全中介作用(t=-1.13,P=0.259)。但有无注射吸毒和商业性行为与梅毒感染无关。结论:加强对注射吸毒人群的行为干预,以降低梅毒和丙肝的传播。%Objective:To investigate the behavior characteristics in drug abusers and infection status of syphilis and hepatitis C virus ( HCV) for evidence to plan preventive measures for this group of population .Methods:Questionnaires were performed in this group of population on national monitoring pro-grams basis for the drug use behaviors,and all subjects were undergone the examination for the infection status of syphilis and HCV .Results:The infection rates of syphilis and HCV were 8.99% and 41.47%,respectively.The syphilis prevalence was significantly different regarding the genders (χ2 =17.05, P<0.001),education background (χ2 =8.46,P=0.037),and HCV infection was related to ages (χ2 =118.06,P<0.001),genders (χ2 =5.01,P<0.001) and marital state(χ2 =24.05,P=0.025).HCV infection rate was associated with intravenous drug use(88.20% vs.8.98%;χ2 =271.45,P<0.001) and commercial sexual behavior(25.96% vs

  4. 286株铜绿假单胞菌耐药谱及其Ⅰ类整合子的相关性研究%Study on correlation between drug resistance spectrum and class Ⅰ integron in 286 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈富; 李岳军; 周强; 廖焕兰; 许振杰; 陈中华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify the role of class Ⅰ integron in multi‐drug resistance of Pseudomonas aerugi‐nosa by analyzing the resistance situation of 286 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from our hospital in 2013 to 16 kinds of antibacterial drugs .Methods The drug susceptibility test was performed by the K‐B test .The class Ⅰintegron gene was detected by PCR .The correlation between the class Ⅰ integron carrying rate and multi‐drug resist‐ance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was statistically analyzed with chi‐square test .Results In isolated 286 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ,89 strains were the class Ⅰ integron with the detection rate of 31 .1% ;the resistance rate to various antimicrobial agents in class Ⅰ integron‐positive strains was significantly higher than that in integron‐neg‐ative strains .Conclusion The drug resistance situation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is serious .The classⅠ integron is an important factor in multi‐drug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa .%目的:通过分析2013年分离的286株铜绿假单胞菌对16种抗菌药物的耐药情况,明确Ⅰ类整合子在铜绿假单胞菌多重耐药中所起的作用。方法采用纸片扩散法进行药物敏感试验,并以聚合酶链反应(PCR)进行Ⅰ类整合子的检测,用χ2检验对Ⅰ类整合子携带率与铜绿假单胞菌多重耐药的相关性进行统计学分析。结果在分离出的286株细菌中,检出Ⅰ类整合子89株,检出率为31.1%;Ⅰ类整合子阳性株对多种抗菌药物的耐药率明显高于整合子阴性株。结论铜绿假单胞菌的耐药情况严重,Ⅰ类整合子是铜绿假单胞菌多重耐药的重要因素。

  5. Correlation between integron and drug-resistance in clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii%弗氏柠檬酸杆菌临床分离株整合子与耐药相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞燕; 魏取好; 王卫忠

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解临床分离弗氏柠檬酸杆菌中整合子的分布,分析整合子与细菌耐药性的关系.方法 选取2011年7月至2013年2月非重复分离自浙江省人民医院就诊患者临床样本中的37株弗氏柠檬酸杆菌,用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测菌株第Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ类整合子.抗生素药敏试验采用微量肉汤稀释法.结果 37株弗氏柠檬酸杆菌中,有14株(37.8%)检测到第Ⅰ类整合子,未检出第Ⅱ类和第Ⅲ类整合子.对15种常用抗生素的耐药性检测显示,第Ⅰ类整合子阳性菌株对复方磺胺甲(噁)唑及环丙沙星的耐药率高于第Ⅰ类整合子阴性菌株(P均<0.05);对其他抗生素的耐药性,第Ⅰ类整合子阳性和阴性菌株间差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).结论 第Ⅰ类整合子在弗氏柠檬酸杆菌中分布普遍.第Ⅰ类整合子与复方磺胺甲(噁)唑及环丙沙星的耐药性密切相关.%Objective To investigate the distribution of integrons in clinical Citrobacterfreundii strains and analyze the relationship between integrons and antibiotic resistance.Methods A total of 37 non-repeated clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii from Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital were selected from July 2011 to February 2013.The types of the interons(intIl、intI2、intI3) were identified by PCR and the drug-sensitivity tests were carried out by broth dilution method.Results Among 37 non-repeated isolates of Citrobacter freundii,intIl was detected in 14 isolates (37.8 %),intI2 and intI3 genes were not detected.After drug-resistance test of 15 common used antibiotics,the intI1-positive strains showed higher resistant rates of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin than the intIl-negative strains (P all < 0.05).For resistance rates of the other antibiotics,there was no difference between theintIl-positive and intIl-negative strains(P all > 0.05).Conclusions In this study,the class Ⅰ integron is extensively found in clinical isolates

  6. Correlação entre fratura por queda em idosos e uso prévio de medicamentos Correlation between fractures resulting from falls and previous drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Hamra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de medicamentos por idosos é freqüente e tem crescido a cada dia em virtude do aumento da expectativa de vida no Brasil. Algumas destas drogas quando administradas, podem provocar efeitos colaterais como tontura e diminuição dos reflexos podendo ocasionar quedas e conseqüentes fraturas. Este trabalho verificou se o uso de medicamentos pode ser considerado como fator de risco para fratura por queda no idoso. Para isso fez-se um estudo no ano de 2004 com 205 pacientes a partir de 60 anos de idade internados com fratura por queda e comparou-se estatisticamente com grupo-controle de 205 pacientes do mesmo grupo etário sem fratura. Verificou-se que o uso de medicamentos pode ser considerado como fator de risco para fratura por queda. Os resultados também podem servir como orientação para equipe médica, pacientes e seus familiares, no sentido de se tentar evitar quedas, principalmente quando o uso de medicamentos é necessário.The use of medication by elderly individuals is frequently and is constantly growing due to the increase of life expectance rates in Brazil. When some of these drugs are administered, they can cause collateral effects like dizziness and decreased reflex, potentially causing the occurrence of falls resulting in fractures. This study examined whether the use of medications by the elderly could be regarded as a risk factor to fractures resulting from falls. The study, conducted in 2004, assessed 205 hospitalized patients > 60 years old, with fractures resulting from falls. These patients were statistically compared to a control group (205 patients in the same age group and without fractures. We’ve found that the use of medication can be regarded as a risk factor to fractures resulting from falls. Our results could be useful to raise the awareness of doctors, patients and their families so that to avoid accidents when any drug therapy is required.

  7. Optimal drug use and rational drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey F

    2011-12-01

    The Müller & Schumann (M&S) view of drug use is courageous and compelling, with radical implications for drug policy and research. It implies that most nations prohibit most drugs that could promote happiness, social capital, and economic growth; that most individuals underuse rather than overuse drugs; and that behavioral scientists could use drugs more effectively in generating hypotheses and collaborating empathically.

  8. Therapeutic drug monitoring of levetiracetam by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array ultraviolet detection: preliminary observations on correlation between plasma concentration and clinical response in patients with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancelin, Frédérique; Franchon, Emilie; Kraoul, Linda; Garciau, Isabelle; Brovedani, Sophie; Tabaouti, Khalid; Landré, Elisabeth; Chassoux, Francine; Paubel, Pascal; Piketty, Marie-Liesse

    2007-10-01

    Levetiracetam is a new antiepileptic drug prescribed for the treatment of patients with refractory partial seizures with or without secondary generalization as well as for the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. A rapid and specific method by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection was developed to measure the concentration of levetiracetam in human plasma. The trough plasma concentrations measured in 69 epileptic patients treated with 500 to 3000 mg/d of levetiracetam ranged from 1.1 to 33.5 microg/mL. The mean (range) levetiracetam plasma concentrations in responders and nonresponders were 12.9 microg/mL (4.6-21 microg/mL) and 9.5 microg/mL (1.1-20.9 microg/mL), respectively. A wide variability in concentration-response relationships was observed in patients. Using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the threshold levetiracetam concentration for a therapeutic response was 11 microg/mL. The sensitivity and specificity for this threshold levetiracetam concentration were 73% and 71%, respectively. According to chi analysis, this finding was not significant probably because of the small number of patients and because of their refractory seizure type. Nevertheless, the levetiracetam plasma concentration could be used to help clinicians detect severe intoxication or to verify compliance by repeating the measurement in patients.

  9. Some thoughts about the epidemiology of alcohol and drug use among American Indian/Alaska Native populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert S; Joe, Jennie R

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have established that rates of alcohol and illicit drug use among American Indians/Alaska Natives vary by tribe, gender, and age group, making it difficult to get an accurate estimate of the actual extent of the problem of substance abuse within this population group. Although percentage rates of alcohol consumption are higher in non-Hispanic Whites, American Indians/Alaska Natives nevertheless have the highest alcohol-related mortality rates and rates of substance use and dependence of all ethnic groups. Alcohol-related motor vehicle accidents are especially high for American Indian/Alaska Natives. Similarly, illicit drug use is higher among American Indians/Alaska Natives across all age groups compared to non-Indians. Data indicate that American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest rates of use for marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, and non-medical use of psychotherapeutics compared to other ethnic groups. Anecdotally, use of amphetamine appears to be high within some American Indian/Alaska Native tribes and has become a serious concern for most American Indian/Alaska Native communities. The percentage of American Indian/Alaska Native women using illicit drugs is lower than that found in men, except in younger age groups, in which percentage rates of illicit drug use by women in some tribes are comparable to rates for men.

  10. [Emergent drugs (I): smart drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, G; Díaz, B Climent; Pazos, J L Echarte; Mas, P Munné; Miró, O; Puiguriguer, J; Dargan, P

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a series of new drugs, known as smart drugs or legal highs, have gaining in popularity. They are easily obtainable through online shops. This is happening amongst younger segments of the population and is associated with recreational consumption, at weekends. In general, they are synthetic derivatives of natural products. There has been hardly any clinical research into them and they are not detectable in hospital laboratories. Three of these products, BZP (1- benzylpiperazine), mefedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and Spice are probably the most widely used in Europe. The first two are consumed as an alternative to ecstasy and cocaine and are characterized by their producing a clinical profile of a sympathetic mimetic type; on occasion, they have serious consequences, with convulsions and even death. Spice (a mixture of herbs with synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP 47497-C8) is giving rise to profiles of dependence and schizophrenia. Although the emergent drugs have an aura of safety, there is an increasing amount of experience on their secondary effects.

  11. Drug resistance and antiretroviral drug development

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, Robert W.; Jonathan M Schapiro

    2005-01-01

    As more drugs for treating HIV have become available, drug resistance profiles within antiretroviral drug classes have become increasingly important for researchers developing new drugs and for clinicians integrating new drugs into their clinical practice. In vitro passage experiments and comprehensive phenotypic susceptibility testing are used for the pre-clinical evaluation of drug resistance. Clinical studies are required, however, to delineate the full spectrum of mutations responsible fo...

  12. ICU常见革兰阴性菌的耐药性与抗菌药物使用强度相关性研究%Correlation between drug resistance of common gram-negative bacteria in ICUs and antibiotics use density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡素佩; 陈琳; 许小敏; 孙一民; 刘鹏; 蔡挺

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the relationship between the drug resistance of common gram‐negative bacteria in ICUs and the use density of commonly used antibiotics so as to choose appropriate drugs for antimicrobial treatment in the ICUs and facilitate the reasonable use of antibiotics .METHODS The changes of the drug resistance rates of the top 5 gram‐negative bacteria that were isolated from Jul 2010 to Jun 2014 and the use density of top 5 antibiotics were observed ,and the correlation between the two sets of data was analyzed .RESULTS In the five years ,the drug resistance rates of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem were 50 .2% ,52 .5% ,45 .9% , 53 .1% ,and 58 .9% ,respectively ;the drug resistance rates of the Acinetibacter baumannii to imipenem were 74 .2% ,76 .3% ,71 .1% ,and 84 .1% ,and 90 .0% ,respectively ;the drug resistance to imipenem was positively correlated with the use density (r=0 .900 ,P<0 .05 and r=0 .900 ,P<0 .05) .The drug resistance rates of the Escherichia coli to levofloxacin were 83 .3% ,80 .3% ,58 .2% ,70 .6% ,and 82 .1% ,respectively ;the drug resistance rates of the Burkholderia cepacia to levofloxacin were 79 .3% ,70 .3% ,39 .4% ,69 .9% ,and 80 .6% , respectively ;the drug resistance rates to levofloxacin were positively correlated with the use density (r=1 .000 ,P<0 .05 and r= 0 .900 , P< 0 .05) .CONCLUSIONS The use of imipenem and levofloxacin is associated with the drug resistance of the common gram‐negative bacteria , and it is necessary for the ICU to strengthen the management of antibiotics so as to prevent the emergence of bacterial resistance .%目的:研究IC U常见革兰阴性菌的耐药性与常用抗菌药物使用强度的关系,为IC U抗菌治疗的药物选择提供参考,促进抗菌药物的合理应用。方法分析2010年7月-2014年6月IC U检出前5位革兰阴性菌的耐药率和前5位抗菌药物的使用强度变化,并对这两部分数据进行相关性分析。结果5年IC U铜绿假单胞菌

  13. 某院抗生素使用情况与耐药性的关系%The correlation between consumption of antibiotics and their drug resistance in our hospital Duan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段金菊; 刘卓拉; 张润梅; 张瑞琴

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the consumption of antibiotic and the resistance of Pseudo monas aeruginosa arid Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from the clinic in our hospital from 1998 to 2006,and analyze the correlation between them.Methods The medication frequency of antibiotics was calculated according to the defined daily dose(DDD)method recommended by WHO.The clinical isolates were identified by VITEK2 analytical system.Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out with Kirby-Bauer method.The result was judged with the CLSI standard(2004).The data was analyzed with WHONET5.3 software.The correlation between the resistance of bacteria and the consumptionof antibiotics was analyzed with SPSS statistical software.Results The resistance rates of P.aeruginosa to ceftazidime(CAZ)and imipenem(IMP)were about 20%,and exceeded 40% to other antibioties.The most active antibiotic against A.baumannii was still sensitive to imipenem and the resistancerate was less than 5%,but exceeded 40% to other antibiotics.During the 9 years,the total DDDreached the peak in 2003.The total DDD of β-lactamase inhibitors has sharply increased since 2003.There were positive correlations between the following resistances of the two bacteria and the DDD of antibiotics(P<0.05):P.aeruginosa to imipenem;P.aeruginosa to cefoperazone-sulbactam;A.baumannii to sulbactam/Tazobactam as well as its compound preparations of β-lactamase inhibitors;A.baumannii to ceftazidime;A.baumannii to cefepime;A.baumannii to cefoperazone-sulbactam as wellas its compound preparations of β-lactamase inhibitors.Conclusion There were direct associations anvong the resistance of P.aeruginosa,A.Baumannii and the excessive consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotic especially the compound preparations of β-lactamase inhibitors.It should be prudent to use these antibiotics.%目的 了解1998-2006年该院抗生素使用和铜绿假单胞菌、鲍曼不动杆菌的耐药情况,以及它们之间的相关关系.方法 采用世

  14. Drug Coverage (Part D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insurance Find health & drug plans Drug coverage (Part D) How to get drug coverage Get Medicare prescription drug coverage either from a Part D plan or a Medicare Advantage Plan offering Medicare ...

  15. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs...

  16. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured,...

  17. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter medications. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-over-counter- ... 2015. Prescription drug abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/prescription-drugs/ ...

  18. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  19. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  2. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  3. Analysis of Utilization of Carbapenem Drugs and Correlation of Bacterial Resistance Rate in Yangquan Coalmine Group General Hospital during 2011-2013%2011-2013年阳煤集团总医院碳青霉烯类药物应用情况与细菌耐药率相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘苗

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对碳青霉烯类药物应用情况及非发酵菌鲍曼不动杆菌( Acinetobacter baumannii, AB )和铜绿假单胞菌( Pseudomonas aeruginosa,P.aeruginosa,PA)对碳青霉烯类药物的耐药率进行相关性分析,从而促进临床合理用药。方法:采用回顾性分析,对山西省阳泉市阳煤集团总医院(以下简称“我院”)2011—2013年碳青霉烯类抗菌药物应用情况进行统计,同时将AB和PA对碳青霉烯类药物的耐药率进行统计和排序,分别使用SPSS 13.0统计软件和世界卫生组织细菌耐药性监测网提供WHONET 5.4软件进行数据分析。结果:2011—2013年我院碳青霉烯类药物使用强度分别为0.917、0.8432、0.5687,AB对碳青霉烯类药物的耐药率在2011、2012、2013年分别为79.58%、70.68%、81.91%,与使用强度无关;PA对碳青霉烯类药物的耐药率在2011、2012、2013年分别为56.05%、50.38%、38.35%,与使用强度呈显著正相关,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:及时了解碳青霉烯类药物的耐药现状,掌握耐药机制及其用药原则,能延缓耐药菌株的发生并能促进该药的合理应用,同时对加强医院感染细菌学监测,杜绝感染爆发流行具有积极意义。%OBJECTIVE:To promote the clinical rational drug use through the analysis of utilization of carbapenem drugs and the correlation of resistance rate of non-fermenting bacteria-acinetobacterbaumannii(AB) and pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P.aeruginosa,PA) to carbapenem drugs.METHODS:Retrospective analysis was used to proceed statistics about utilization of carbapenem antibiotics in Yangquan Coalmine Group General Hospital ( hereinafter referred to as “our hospital”) during 2011-2013, meanwhile drug resistance rates about AB and PA to carbapenem drugs were statistically sorted.SPSS 13.0 statistical software and WHONET 5.4 software provided by WHO bacterial resistance monitoring

  4. Drug use pattern of antidepressant agents in psychiatric patients – A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksha Memon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is a major public health problem. It causes clinically significant distress, impairment of social, occupational or other important areas of function. Objective: To evaluate the prescribing pattern of antidepressant agents in patients attending psychiatry OPD at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Method: A prospective study was carried out at psychiatry outpatient department (OPD at VS General Hospital for 6 months. Patients who were prescribed any of the antidepressant medications irrespective of clinical indication either as monotherapy or in combination with other psychotherapeutic agents were included in the study. Result: Total 455 patients were enrolled for 6 months. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD was the most common diagnosis (85.93%. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs was the most commonly prescribed drug group (56.7% followed by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs (46.8%. Amongst TCAs, imipramine was most frequently prescribed drug (65.89% followed by sertraline (56.8% among the SSRIs. Both the TCAs and newer antidepressants were prescribed with equal frequencies. Conclusion: Amongst antidepressants most frequently prescribed medication was imipramine followed by sertraline.

  5. DrugCentral: online drug compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Oleg; Holmes, Jayme; Knockel, Jeffrey; Bologa, Cristian G; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L; Nelson, Stuart J; Oprea, Tudor I

    2017-01-04

    DrugCentral (http://drugcentral.org) is an open-access online drug compendium. DrugCentral integrates structure, bioactivity, regulatory, pharmacologic actions and indications for active pharmaceutical ingredients approved by FDA and other regulatory agencies. Monitoring of regulatory agencies for new drugs approvals ensures the resource is up-to-date. DrugCentral integrates content for active ingredients with pharmaceutical formulations, indexing drugs and drug label annotations, complementing similar resources available online. Its complementarity with other online resources is facilitated by cross referencing to external resources. At the molecular level, DrugCentral bridges drug-target interactions with pharmacological action and indications. The integration with FDA drug labels enables text mining applications for drug adverse events and clinical trial information. Chemical structure overlap between DrugCentral and five online drug resources, and the overlap between DrugCentral FDA-approved drugs and their presence in four different chemical collections, are discussed. DrugCentral can be accessed via the web application or downloaded in relational database format. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Drug Preferences of Multiple Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Examined drug preferences of a group of active multiple drug abusers referred for treatment. Nearly half the respondents preferred drugs other than type they most frequently used. Preferences were related to method of administration. Results suggest preference is one among several determinants of drug use. (Author/BEF)

  7. Quantitative bioassay to identify antimicrobial drugs through drug interaction fingerprint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Zohar B; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2017-02-16

    Drug interaction analysis, which reports the extent to which the presence of one drug affects the efficacy of another, is a powerful tool to select potent combinatorial therapies and predict connectivity between cellular components. Combinatorial effects of drug pairs often vary even for drugs with similar mechanism of actions. Therefore, drug interaction fingerprinting may be harnessed to differentiate drug identities. We developed a method to analyze drug interactions for the application of identifying active pharmaceutical ingredients, an essential step to assess drug quality. We developed a novel approach towards the identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients by comparing drug interaction fingerprint similarity metrics such as correlation and Euclidean distance. To expedite this method, we used bioluminescent E. coli in a simplified checkerboard assay to generate unique drug interaction fingerprints of antimicrobial drugs. Of 30 antibiotics studied, 29 could be identified based on their drug interaction fingerprints. We present drug interaction fingerprint analysis as a cheap, sensitive and quantitative method towards substandard and counterfeit drug detection.

  8. Correlation analysis between daily dose of clozapine and steady serum drug concentration in schizophrenia patients%氯氮平日剂量与精神分裂症患者稳态血药浓度相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文英; 刘利盛; 沈广虎

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨精神分裂症患者服用氯氮平日剂量与稳态血药浓度之间的关系,为指导临床合理用药提供参考。方法回顾分析服用氯氮平的精神分裂症患者病历,选取2013年6月-2014年6月在天津市安定医院住院的精神病患者,男性218例,女性157例。均采用高效液相色谱法检测住院患者血清氯氮平稳态血药浓度,并按日剂量分组,将其中位数进行等级相关性分析。结果氯氮平日剂量与稳态血药浓度呈正相关(男性组r=0.951, P﹤0.01;女性组r=0.983,P﹤0.01)。结论氯氮平稳态血药浓度与精神分裂症患者服药日剂量呈正相关。%Objective To explore the relationship ketween daily dose of clozapine and steady serum drug concentration in pa=tients with schizophrenia,and to provide guidelines for rational application of clozapine in clinical practice. Methods Medical records of psychiatric patients with clozapine were researched retrospectively,select of hospitalized patients from June 2013 to June 2014 in Tianjin Anding Hospital,including male 218,female 157. Serum drug concentration of clozapine which was determined ky HPLC. Data was grouped according to the daily dose and analyzes the rand correlativity ketween the median and the daily dose. Results Steady se=rum drug concentration is direct proportion to daily dose,male patients(r=0. 951,P﹤0. 01),female patients(r=0. 983,P﹤0. 01). Conclusion Daily dose of clozapine is closely related with steady serum drug concentration,thereˊs a vast individual difference.

  9. An Empirical Examination of the Anomie Theory of Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between anomie theory, as measured by Srole's Anomie Scale, and self-admitted drug use in an adult population (N=1,449). Bivariate cross-comparison correlations indicated anomie was significantly correlated with several drug variables, but these associations were extremely weak and of little explanatory value.…

  10. An Empirical Examination of the Anomie Theory of Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between anomie theory, as measured by Srole's Anomie Scale, and self-admitted drug use in an adult population (N=1,449). Bivariate cross-comparison correlations indicated anomie was significantly correlated with several drug variables, but these associations were extremely weak and of little explanatory value.…

  11. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  12. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  13. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  14. Raman Barcode for Counterfeit Drug Product Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Latevi S; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-05-03

    Potential infiltration of counterfeit drug products-containing the wrong or no active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-into the bona fide drug supply poses a significant threat to consumers worldwide. Raman spectroscopy offers a rapid, nondestructive avenue to screen a high throughput of samples. Traditional qualitative Raman identification is typically done with spectral correlation methods that compare the spectrum of a reference sample to an unknown. This is often effective for pure materials but is quite challenging when dealing with drug products that contain different formulations of active and inactive ingredients. Typically, reliable identification of drug products using common spectral correlation algorithms can only be made if the specific product under study is present in the library of reference spectra, thereby limiting the scope of products that can be screened. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the Raman barcode for identification of drug products by comparing the known peaks in the API reference spectrum to the peaks present in the finished drug product under study. This method requires the transformation of the Raman spectra of both API and finished drug products into a barcode representation by assigning zero intensity to every spectral frequency except the frequencies that correspond to Raman peaks. By comparing the percentage of nonzero overlap between the expected API barcode and finished drug product barcode, the identity of API present can be confirmed. In this study, 18 approved finished drug products and nine simulated counterfeits were successfully identified with 100% accuracy utilizing this method.

  15. 甲氨蝶呤血药浓度与患者肝肾功能指标的相关性分析%Correlation analysis between therapeutic drug monitoring of methotrexate by high performance liquid chromatography and hepatic and renal function index in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松柳; 沈炳香; 段自皞; 蒋俊杰; 王法财

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对22例次应用大剂量甲氨蝶呤(HD-MTX)化疗的急性淋巴细胞白血病(ALL)患者血药浓度监测、肝肾功能实验室检查数据进行分析总结,探讨 MTX 20 h 和44 h 血药浓度与 MTX 实验室肝肾功能指标之间的联系。方法对 ALL 患者应用 HD-MTX 化疗后20、44 h 进行血药浓度监测,患者 HD-MTX 化疗后进行血常规、肝肾功能、血糖、血脂、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)等相关实验室检查,收集资料。采用 SPSS 19.0软件 Spearman 相关分析两变量之间的相关性。结果MTX 20、44 h 血药浓度与患者化疗后血肌酐(CRE)值呈正相关,而与血尿素氮(BUN)、尿酸(UA)值无关。MTX 20 h 血药浓度与患者化疗后血总胆红素(STB)、直接胆红素(DBIL)、谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、谷草转氨酶(AST)值均呈正相关,而44 h 血 MTX 浓度与 STB、DBIL、ALT、AST 值无相关性。结论MTX 20、44 h 血药浓度监测可以预测 MTX 化疗造成的肌酐升高型肾损害,而 MTX 20 h血药浓度监测对于 MTX 造成的肝损害也有一定的预测作用。%Objective To investigate the relationship between hepatic,renal function index in patients and therapeutic drug monitoring of methotrexate 20 h,44 h serum concentrations by analyzing and summarizing therapeutic drug monitoring of high-dose methotrexate in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and hepatic,renal function index in patients.Methods We monitored methotrexate 20 h,44 h serum concentrations in patients with HD-MTX after chemotherapy and performed blood routine,liver and kidney function,blood glu-cose,blood lipid,LDH and related lab tests and collected the relative data.Two variables were analyzed with Spearman method correla-tion analysis by using SPSS 19.0 software.Results Methotrexate 20 h,44 h serum concentrations had positive correlation with blood creatinine(Cre),yet had no correlation with blood urea nitrogen(Bun)and uric acid

  16. [Inpatient treatment of depression. Should one combine psychotherapy and drugs?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, T J

    2005-03-01

    Antidepressants as well as different psychotherapeutic strategies have been proven efficacious in the treatment of unipolar depression. In the clinical setting both are often combined using psychotherapeutic methods varying from psychoeducation to formal psychotherapy. The present article provides a critical overview of the evidence base for this combination in the inpatient treatment of depression. The current literature is contradictory and difficult to compare. However, combination therapy appears advantageous in therapy-resistant, chronic and severe forms of depressive disorders. Much further research is needed to facilitate well-founded guidelines.

  17. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z All Drugs Drug News Thursday, February 2, 2017 Sustiva Drug Label Updated ... Drug Label Updated Tuesday, January 31, 2017 Stribild Drug Label Updated More News Mobile Apps iPhone/iPad App Android App Back ...

  18. Reaction phenotyping to assess victim drug-drug interaction risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Li

    2017-08-18

    Reaction phenotyping provides critical information regarding the fraction metabolized (fm) of drug candidates. It has become increasingly important in drug discovery and development as it can be used to assess victim drug-drug interaction potential, guide structural modification to reduce fm, inform clinical study design, predict individual variability in pharmacokinetics, and evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms. Areas covered: The currently available in vitro and in vivo methods for reaction phenotyping are summarized along with their advantages, limitations and timings for application during the different stages of drug discovery and development. Challenges of reaction phenotyping for low clearance compounds, non-Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, extrahepatic contribution and atypical kinetics are highlighted and various approaches are discussed. Expert opinion: Certain areas of reaction phenotyping remain challenging with the current state of the science. In order to better define fm in this challenging space, there needs to be future advances in selective inhibitors and specific substrate reactions for non-CYP enzymes, availability of high quality and low cost recombinant enzymes, tissue distribution and in vitro-in vivo correlation, scaling factors for extrahepatic enzymes and the next generation of low clearance tools.

  19. Drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and novel cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Greco, Cesare; Gaudio, Carlo; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2015-10-15

    The combination of aspirin and the thienopyridine clopidogrel is a cornerstone in the prevention of atherothrombotic events. These two agents act in concert to ameliorate the prothrombotic processes stimulated by plaque rupture and vessel injury complicating cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend the use of clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, and the drug remains the most utilized P2Y12 receptor inhibitor despite the fact that newer antiplatelet agents are now available. In recent years, numerous studies have shown inconsistency in the efficacy of clopidogrel to prevent atherothrombotic events. Studies of platelet function testing have shown variability in the response to clopidogrel. One of the major reason for this phenomenon lies in the interaction between clopidogrel and other drugs that may affect clopidogrel absorption, metabolism, and ultimately its antiplatelet action. Importantly, these drug-drug interactions have prognostic implications, since patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity associated with reduced clopidogrel metabolism have an increased risk of ischemia. Previous systematic reviews have focused on drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and specific pharmacologic classes, such as proton pump inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and statins. However, more recent pieces of scientific evidence show that clopidogrel may also interact with newer drugs that are now available for the treatment of cardiovascular patients. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to highlight and discuss recent data on drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and third-generation proton pump inhibitors, pantoprazole and lansoprazole, statins, pitavastatin, and antianginal drug, ranolazine.

  20. 我院2006-2010年抗菌药物用量与大肠埃希菌耐药的相关性分析%Correlation of Antibacterials Consumption and Drug Resistance of Escherichia coli in Our Hospital from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建平; 周红辉; 肖建宁

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the change of drug resistance of Escherichia coli and explore the relation between its development and antibacterials consumption to provide reference for antibacterials management. METHODS: Retrospective review was used to calculate the DDDs of 13 kinds of antibacterialsper 100 persons per day and resistant rate of Escherichia coli. The correlation of antibacterials consumption and drug resistance was analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. RESULTS: Consumption of expensive antibacterials increased year by year, contrary to ordinary ones. Drug resistance of Escherichia coli to various antibacterials also increased year by year. The consumptions of gentamycin, ampicillin, piperacillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, ceftri-axome, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and imipenem/cilastin were related to the drug resistance of Escherichia coli to amikacin, gentamycin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime in varying degree. CONCLUSION: High resistance rate has been found in Escherichia coli to various antibacterials. Antibacterials consumption is related to drug resistance of Escherichia coli.%目的:了解我院大肠埃希菌耐药性的现状和变迁,探讨其发展与抗菌药物用量之间的关系,为抗菌药物管理提供依据.方法:采用回顾性调查方法,计算13种抗菌药物平均每日每百张床位所消耗的用药频度(DDDs)及同期大肠埃希菌的耐药率,用SPSS 17.0统计软件对抗菌药物用量与耐药率进行相关性分析.结果:高档次的抗菌药物用量逐年增长,低档次的抗菌药物用量逐年缩减.大肠埃希菌对多种抗菌药物呈广泛耐药,且逐年增长.庆大霉素、氨苄西林、哌拉西林/舒巴坦、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛、头孢西丁、头孢曲松、头孢他啶、环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星、亚胺培南/西司他丁的用量与大肠埃希菌对阿米卡星、庆大霉素、氨苄西林、头孢唑林、头

  1. KEGG DRUG / Acutect (TN) [KEGG DRUG

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DRUG: D06027 Entry D06027Drug Name Technetium Tc 99m apcitide (USP); Acutect (TN) F... 1 838085 1 848586 1 857781 1 868182 1 878280 1 888687 1 898288 2 908689 2 918390 1 929091 2 939092 1 949495 2 KEGG DRUG / Acutect (TN) ...

  2. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  3. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  4. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  5. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself ... drug plan How Part D works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules ...

  6. Drugs: Shatter the Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ML. Tobacco, alcohol, and other risk behaviors in film: how well do MPAA ratings distinguish content? J ... about drugs and drug abuse. NDFW includes local school and community events and Drug Facts Chat Day, ...

  7. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  8. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Melanoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome ( ...

  9. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  10. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  11. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  12. Drug: D06912 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06912 *Quercus cortex; Bokusoku Drug...s for external use Drugs for external use D06912 *Quercu

  13. Nuclear Receptors in Drug Metabolism, Drug Response and Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prakash

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally delivered small-molecule therapeutics are metabolized in the liver and intestine by phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs, and transport proteins coordinate drug influx (phase 0 and drug/drug-metabolite efflux (phase III. Genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition are induced by xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (NRs, i.e. PXR (pregnane X receptor and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor, and by the 1α, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-activated vitamin D receptor (VDR, due to transactivation of xenobiotic-response elements (XREs present in phase 0-III genes. Additional NRs, like HNF4-α, FXR, LXR-α play important roles in drug metabolism in certain settings, such as in relation to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. The phase I enzymes CYP3A4/A5, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2A6, CYP2J2, and CYP2E1 metabolize >90% of all prescription drugs, and phase II conjugation of hydrophilic functional groups (with/without phase I modification facilitates drug clearance. The conjugation step is mediated by broad-specificity transferases like UGTs, SULTs, GSTs. This review delves into our current understanding of PXR/CAR/VDR-mediated regulation of DME and transporter expression, as well as effects of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and epigenome (specified by promoter methylation, histone modification, microRNAs, long non coding RNAs on the expression of PXR/CAR/VDR and phase 0-III mediators, and their impacts on variable drug response. Therapeutic agents that target epigenetic regulation and the molecular basis and consequences (overdosing, underdosing, or beneficial outcome of drug-drug/drug-food/drug-herb interactions are also discussed. Precision medicine requires understanding of a drug's impact on DME and transporter activity and their NR-regulated expression in order to achieve optimal drug efficacy without adverse drug reactions. In future drug screening, new tools such as humanized mouse

  14. Correlation and Entanglement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-long Luo; You-feng Luo

    2003-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, it is long recognized that there exist correlations between observables which are much stronger than the classical ones. These correlations are usually called entanglement, and cannot be accounted for by classical theory. In this paper, we will study correlations between observables in terms of covariance and the Wigner-Yanase correlation, and compare their merits in characterizing entanglement. We will show that the Wigner-Yanase correlation has some advantages over the conventional covariance.

  15. 女子戒毒所警察职业倦怠与自我效能、社会支持关系研究%Job burnout and its correlation with self-efficacy and social support among policemen serving in female drug rehabilitation center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚家辉; 李孟洁; 杨松达; 刘宝宝; 郭丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解女子强制戒毒所(以下简称“戒毒所”)警察职业倦怠的发生情况及其与自我效能、社会支持的相关关系。方法采用《一般情况调查表》、《Maslach职业倦怠问卷通用版》、《领悟社会支持量表》和《一般自我效能感量表》对254名女子戒毒所警察进行问卷调查。结果女子戒毒所女性警察情绪耗竭维度得分高于男性(P<0.01);工龄>15年的女子戒毒所警察情绪耗竭和去个性化维度得分均低于工龄≤15年者(P<0.05);职务为办事员或科员的女子戒毒所警察情绪耗竭维度得分高于副科级以上者( P<0.01);工作中接触获得性免疫缺陷综合征患者的女子戒毒所警察情绪耗竭维度得分高于工作中不接触者( P<0.05)。偏相关分析结果显示:女子戒毒所警察的职业倦怠的情绪耗竭、去个性化和低个人成就感维度得分与自我效能得分均呈负相关( P<0.05),情绪耗竭维度得分与社会支持的其他支持维度得分呈负相关( P<0.01),去个性化维度得分与社会支持总分及其家庭支持、朋友支持、其他支持各维度的得分均呈负相关( P<0.01)。结论女子戒毒所警察职业倦怠因性别、工龄、职务及工作类别而异,职业倦怠和自我效能及社会支持存在一定程度的相关关系。%Objective To investigate the incidence of job burnout in policemen in female drug rehabilitation center and its correlation with self-efficacy and social support.Methods The General Condition Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey, Perceived Social Support Scale and General Self-Efficacy Scale were used to evaluate the mental health status of 254 policemen of female drug rehabilitation center.Results The scores of policewomen in emotional exhaustion dimension were higher than those of policemen (P15 years ( P<0.05 ) . The scores of ordinary

  16. General correlation and partial correlation analysis in finding interactions: with Spearman rank correlation and proportion correlation as correlation measures

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang; Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Between-taxon interactions can be detected by calculating the sampling data of taxon sample type. In present study, Spearman rank correlation and proportion correlation are chosen as the general correlation measures, and their partial correlations are calculated and compared. The results show that for Spearman rank correlation measure, in all predicted candidate direct interactions by partial correlation, about 16.77% (x, 0-45.4%) of them are not successfully detected by Spearman rank correla...

  17. Drug: D06722 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ranthes bidentata root Major component: Ecdysterone [CPD:C02633] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06...ude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06722 Achyranthes root; Achyranthese root Crude drugs

  18. Drug: D06697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ceae (buckwheat family) Polygonum tuber Major component: Chrysophanol [CPD:C10315] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishing blood D06697 Polygonum root Crude drugs [BR

  19. Correlation comparative analysis on the high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence polarization immunoassay in the determination of serum concentrations of antiepileptic drugs%高效液相色谱法与荧光偏振免疫法在抗癫痫药血清浓度测定中的相关性比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章佳佳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation of two methods of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) in the determination of serum concentrations of antiepileptic drugs. Methods The serum of 103 patients with epilepsy treated by phenytoin(PT), phenobarbital(PB) and carbamazepine(CBZ) in our hospital were collected, and the serum concentrations were determined by respectively using HPLC and FPIA and dong linear regression analysis. Results The linear regression equation was YPT=-1.421+1.141X (r=0.963), YPB= -0.128+0.956X (r=0.949), YCBZ=0.183+0.954X (r=0.944), and the value obtained by the two methods showed the linear correlation; The paired t-test showed that the difference was not statistically significant between the both (P > 0.05). Conclusion The serum concentrations of antiepileptic drugs determined by the two methods of HPLC and FPIA is relevant. The determination of serum concentrations of CBZ, PT, PB by using HPLC and FPIA have their pros and cons, the monitoring methods are reasonably chosen by combining with the number of drugs and subjects.%目的:探究HPLC与FPIA两种方法在抗癫痫药血清浓度测定中的相关性。方法采集本院收治的经苯妥英钠(PT)、苯巴比妥(PB)、卡马西平(CBZ)治疗的103例癫痫患者血清,分别采用高效液相色谱法、荧光偏振免疫法测定其血药浓度并进行线性回归分析。结果所得的线性回归方程为YPT=-1.421+1.141X(r=0.963);YPB=-0.128+0.956X(r=0.949);YCBZ=0.183+0.954X(r=0.944),且两种方法测得的值呈线性相关;经配对t检验后,两者差异有统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论高效液相色谱法与荧光偏振免疫法两种方法测定抗癫痫药血清浓度具有相关性。采用HPLC法和FPIA法进行CBZ、PT、PB的血清浓度测定各有利弊,须结合检测药物种类数目、受检人数等合理选择监测方式。

  20. CONCEPT OF DRUG INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nidhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR, and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug. Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or actual clinical effect. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and, in particular, rifampin are common precipitant drugs prescribed in primary care practice. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range or low therapeutic index are more likely to be the objects for serious drug interactions. Object drugs in common use include warfarin, fluoroquinolones, antiepileptic drugs, oral contraceptives, cisapride and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Many other drugs, act as precipitants or objects, and a number of drugs act as both. The aim of present review is to throw light on the concept of drug interaction.

  1. 茴拉西坦自乳化给药系统与片剂的药代动力学及体内外相关性的研究%Pharmacokinetics and in vitro-in vivo correlation evaluation of self-emulsifying drug delivery system and conventional tablets of aniracetam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 张燕; 王广基

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究茴拉西坦自乳化制剂和普通片剂的体内外相关关系;评价其大鼠口服给药的体内药代动力学.方法:通过测定自乳化制剂和普通片剂的体外溶出度考察其释药特性,采用RP-HPLC法测定活性代谢产物对氨基甲氧基丁酸的浓度血浆中,通过Wagner-Nelson法计算体内吸收分数(f),研究两制剂的吸收分数(f)与体外累积溶出度(Q%)的相关性.结果:自乳化微乳体外 15 min 的溶出度为(80±4)%,比片剂的溶出度(50%)明显提高;体内代谢产物的回收率为90%,日内日间精密度分别小于4%和6%,该方法灵敏度高、准确可靠.自乳化微乳的AUC0-∞为(11 168±2 395)ng·mL-1·h,是普通片剂的3倍.自乳化微乳和片剂的MRT0-∞分别为(2.7±0.6) h和(1.7±0.5) h,具有统计学差异(P<0.05).体内外相关性结果表明,片剂的体内吸收与体外溶出度呈线性相关,线性方程的斜率为 0.7765,截距为-2.9527;自乳化微乳的体内外相关性符合二次模型,其拟合系数为 0.972.结论:茴拉西坦自乳化给药系统可显著提高药物体内的生物利用度.自乳化制剂处方中含有促吸收的复合表面活性剂和油相,其体外药物呈快速释放的特性,而体内自发与胃肠液形成o/w型微乳后可通过淋巴转运的吸收途径.%AIM: To evaluate the correlation between in vitro release and in vivo absorption of aniracetam in conventional tablets and self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), to investigate pharmacokinetics of aniracetam self-emulsifying drug delivery system and conventional tablets of aniracetam after oral administration to rats. METHODS: Dissolution behavior of these formulations was evaluated in vitro to assess the properties of dosage forms. And a new RP-HPLC method was developed for the in vivo quantitative determination of 4-p-anisamidobutyric acid (PABA), the active metabolite of aniracetam. To approach the in vitro-in vivo correlation, fraction absorbed in vivo (f

  2. Explicit correlation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cole M.; Hirata, So; Ten-no, Seiichiro

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the performance of 17 different correlation factors in explicitly correlated second-order many-body perturbation calculations for correlation energies. Highly performing correlation factors are found to have near-universal shape and size in the short range of electron-electron distance (0 1.5 a.u.) is insignificant insofar as the factor becomes near constant, leaving an orbital expansion to describe decoupled electrons. An analysis based on a low-rank Taylor expansion of the correlation factor seems limited, except that a negative second derivative with the value of around -1.3 a.u. correlates with high performance.

  3. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  4. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully developed. As a result, the brains of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs include Amphetamines Anabolic ... better to prevent drug abuse in the first place. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

  5. Utah Drug Use Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in junior and senior high school students. The 21 multiple choice items pertain to drug use practices, use history, available of drugs, main reason for drug use, and demographic data. The questionnaire is untimed, group administered, and may be given by the classroom teacher in about 10 minutes. Item…

  6. Drug: D06758 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available component: Zizyphus saponin Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese m...edicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06758 Jujub...e (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs St...omachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06758 *Jujube; Jujube Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06758 *Jujube; Jujube Crude drugs

  7. New drug update: 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2010-10-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often encountered in the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. In the NDCR system, a rating from 1 to 5 (5 being the highest rating) is assigned for each new drug. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  8. 2016 New Drug Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2016-04-01

    Six new drugs marketed within the last year, which are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly, have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are discussed, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating. The drugs include a hypnotic, an anticoagulant, two drugs for heart failure, and two drugs to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  9. New drug update: 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2012-04-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often encountered in the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. In the NDCR system, a rating from 1 to 5 (5 being the highest rating) is assigned for each new drug. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  10. Comparing dependent robust correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2016-11-01

    Let r1 and r2 be two dependent estimates of Pearson's correlation. There is a substantial literature on testing H0  : ρ1  = ρ2 , the hypothesis that the population correlation coefficients are equal. However, it is well known that Pearson's correlation is not robust. Even a single outlier can have a substantial impact on Pearson's correlation, resulting in a misleading understanding about the strength of the association among the bulk of the points. A way of mitigating this concern is to use a correlation coefficient that guards against outliers, many of which have been proposed. But apparently there are no results on how to compare dependent robust correlation coefficients when there is heteroscedasicity. Extant results suggest that a basic percentile bootstrap will perform reasonably well. This paper reports simulation results indicating the extent to which this is true when using Spearman's rho, a Winsorized correlation or a skipped correlation.

  11. Optomechanical Quantum Correlation Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, T. P.; Grutter, K. E.; Davanco, M. I.; Srinivasan, K.; Taylor, J. M.

    We present an optomechanical approach for producing accurate thermometry over a wide temperature range using quantum Brownian motion. Optical measurements induce quantum correlations in an optomechanical system when quantum-limited intensity fluctuations of a probe laser drive mechanical motion. The size of the correlations in the weak probe limit are dictated by the scale of individual phonons. We have recently measured optomechanical quantum correlations in the cross correlation spectrum between the amplitude and phase fluctuations of a single probe laser interacting with a silicon nitride optomechanical crystal. These correlations are independent of thermally-induced Brownian motion. However, Brownian motion does simultaneously produce much larger correlation signals between other optical quadratures. A comparison of the size of thermally-induced correlations to quantum correlations allows us to absolutely calibrate Brownian motion thermometry to the mechanical energy quantization scale.

  12. The Correlation Confocal Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, D S

    2010-01-01

    A new type of confocal microscope is described which makes use of intensity correlations between spatially correlated beams of light. It is shown that this apparatus leads to significantly improved transverse resolution.

  13. International Correlation Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Mueller; Andreas Stathopoulos; Andrea Vedolin

    2012-01-01

    Foreign exchange correlation is a key driver of risk premia in the cross-section of carry trade returns. First, we show that the correlation risk premium, defined as the difference between the risk-neutral and objective measure correlation is large (15% per year) and highly time-varying. Second, sorting currencies according to their exposure with correlation innovations yields portfolios with attractive risk and return characteristics. We also find that high (low) interest rate currencies hav...

  14. Correlation in business networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souma, Wataru; Aoyama, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Kaizoji, Taisei

    2006-10-01

    This paper considers business networks. Through empirical study, we show that business networks display characteristics of small-world networks and scale-free networks. In this paper, we characterize firms as sales and bankruptcy probabilities. A correlation between sales and a correlation between bankruptcy probabilities in business networks are also considered. The results reveal that the correlation between sales depends strongly on the type of network, whereas the correlation between bankruptcy probabilities does so only weakly.

  15. Teager Correlation Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Hamila, R.; Gabbouj, M.

    1998-01-01

    A new correlation function called the Teager correlation function is introduced in this paper. The connection between this function, the Teager energy operator and the conventional correlation function is established. Two applications are presented. The first is the minimization of the Teager error...... norm and the second one is the use of the instantaneous Teager correlation function for simultaneous estimation of TDOA and FDOA (Time and Frequency Difference of Arrivals)....

  16. Food and drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Đaković-Švajcer Kornelija

    2002-01-01

    Food can exert a significant influence on the effects of certain drugs. The interactions between food and drugs can be pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. Pharmacokinetic interactions most often take place on absorption and drug metabolism levels. Absorption can be either accelerated or delayed, increased or decreased, while drug metabolism can be either stimulated or inhibited. The factors which influence food-drug interactions are as follows: composition and physic-chemical properties of d...

  17. New drug update: 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2013-04-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  18. Drug interactions with oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J M; Christensen, L K

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs may be influenced by a large number of other drugs. Some of these combinations (e.g. phenylbutazone, sulphaphenazole) may result in cases of severe hypoglycaemic collapse. Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide should never be given to a patient without a prior careful check of which medicaments are already being given. Similarly, no drug should be given to a diabetic treated with tolbutamide and chlorpropamide without consideration of the possibility of interaction phenomena.

  19. Drug Products in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Active drugs that have been reported by participating drug manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. All drugs are identified by National Drug Code...

  20. Universal correlators from geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Korteweg-de Vries Institute for Mathematics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Temuerhan, Mine; Sinkovics, Annamaria [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: sinkovic@science.uva.nl

    2004-11-01

    Matrix model correlators show universal behaviour at short distances. We provide a derivation for these universal correlators by inserting probe branes in the underlying effective geometry. We generalize these results to study correlators of branes and their universal behaviour in the Calabi-Yau crystals, where we find a role for a generalized brane insertion. (author)

  1. Universal Correlators from Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Temurhan, Mine

    2004-11-01

    Matrix model correlators show universal behaviour at short distances. We provide a derivation for these universal correlators by inserting probe branes in the underlying effective geometry. We generalize these results to study correlators of branes and their universal behaviour in the Calabi-Yau crystals, where we find a role for a generalized brane insertion.

  2. Universal Correlators from Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Temurhan, M; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Temurhan, Mine

    2004-01-01

    Matrix model correlators show universal behaviour at short distances. We provide a derivation for these universal correlators by inserting probe branes in the underlying effective geometry. We generalize these results to study correlators of branes and their universal behaviour in the Calabi-Yau crystals, where we find a role for a generalized brane insertion.

  3. Modified Biserial Correlation Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura

    1981-01-01

    Asymptotic distribution theory of Brogden's form of biserial correlation coefficient is derived and large sample estimates of its standard error obtained. Its relative efficiency to the biserial correlation coefficient is examined. Recommendations for choice of estimator of biserial correlation are presented. (Author/JKS)

  4. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Peter J

    2017-07-14

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  5. Correlates of Immunity to Filovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Bavari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses can cause severe, often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Recent advances in vaccine and therapeutic drug development have provided encouraging data concerning treatment of these infections. However, relatively little is known about immune responses in fatal versus non-fatal filovirus infection. This review summarizes the published literature on correlates of immunity to filovirus infection, and highlights deficiencies in our knowledge on this topic. It is likely that there are several types of successful immune responses, depending on the type of filovirus, and the presence and timing of vaccination or drug treatment.

  6. Drug: D06742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Crude drugs D06742 Houttuynia herb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drug...s for clearing heat D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Drugs... for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Crude drugs [B

  7. Correlations in Werner States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Li; LUO Shun-Long; XIU Xiao-Ming; LI Nan; GAO Ya-Jun; CHI Feng

    2008-01-01

    Werner states are paradigmatic examples of quantum states and play an innovative role in quantum information theory. In investigating the correlating capability of Werner states, we find the curious phenomenon that quantum correlations, as quantified by the entanglement of formation, may exceed the total correlations, as measured by the quantum mutual information. Consequently, though the entanglement of formation is so widely used in quantifying entanglement, it cannot be interpreted as a consistent measure of quantum correlations per se if we accept the folklore that total correlations are measured (or rather upper bounded) by the quantum mutual information.

  8. Experimental fully contextual correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Amselem, Elias; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J; Portillo, Jose R; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan

    2011-01-01

    Quantum correlations are contextual yet, in general, nothing prevents the existence of even more contextual correlations. We identify and test a simple noncontextual inequality in which the quantum violation cannot be improved by any hypothetical post-quantum resource, and use it to experimentally obtain correlations in which the maximum noncontextual content, defined as the maximum fraction of noncontextual correlations, is less than 0.06. Our correlations are experimentally generated from the outcomes of sequential compatible measurements on a four-state quantum system encoded in the polarization and path of a single photon.

  9. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Product Data for Drugs in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The rebate drug product data file contains the active drugs that have been reported by participating drug...

  10. Drug: D06736 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ehmannia root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs... for replenishing Ying D06736 *Rehmannia root; Rehmannia root Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishin

  11. Drug: D06813 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nent: Scopoletin [CPD:C01752] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and a...ntidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06813 *Dolichos seed Drugs for dampness Drugs

  12. Drug: D09185 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic ...and antidiarrheal drugs D09185 *Myrica Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D09185 *Myrica Crude dr

  13. Drug: D09151 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D09151 Sw...eetflag rhizome Other drugs Drugs for resuscitation D09151 Acorus gramineus rhizo

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ...

  15. 头孢哌酮/舒巴坦的使用量与鲍曼不动杆菌耐药性变迁的相关性分析%Correlation Analysis of Drug-Resistance of Acinetobacter Baumannii and Use of Cefoperazone/Sulbactam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晴霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解笔者所在医院2004-2011年5种抗菌药物的使用及其与鲍曼不动杆菌耐药的相关性.方法 通过电脑程序调取2004-2011年药库抗菌药物的消耗数量;本院临床分离菌用药敏卡和K-B法进行药敏试验.结果 对5种抗菌药物的DDDs和耐药率做相关性分析,其中只有头孢哌酮/舒巴坦的使用量与耐药率具有正相关性(r=0.88,P<0.05),其他组数据无统计学意义.同时结果显示,头孢哌酮/舒巴坦使用量不仅与它本身的耐药性相关,而且与其他2种抗菌药物头孢吡肟、左氧氟沙星的耐药率有不同程度的相关性.结论 鲍曼不动杆菌耐药性与头孢哌酮/舒巴坦的用量具有一定的相关性,并且头孢哌酮/舒巴坦诱导的鲍曼不动杆菌耐药菌株具有多重耐药的特点.因此有计划地控制头孢哌酮/舒巴坦的用量以及使用时间,可能是减少鲍曼不动杆菌耐药率的有效措施.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the relevance of antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter Baumannii(AB) and 5 commonly used antibiotics in our hospital during 2004-2011. METHODS Data of drug utilization during 2004-2011 was collected from hospital information system. Frequency of drug usage (DDDs) was analysed. The pathogenic bacteria were isolated from examined specimens, their identification and drug-resistant character were carried out by automatic analysis machine. RESULTS For the 5 antibiotics, only the DDDs of cefoperazone/sulbactam(CS) was positive related (r=0.88, P<0.05) to the resistance of AB. In addition, the DDDs of CS was positive related to resistance of AB to cefepime, levofloxacin. CONCLUSION The resistance of AB was correlated with the consumption of CS, and the CS has multiple resistance to AB. Controlling the amount and use time of CS and alternate using different antibiotics may be an effective way to reduce the AB resistance.

  16. Drug: D06732 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r component: Loganin [CPD:C01433] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs...ine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06732 Cornus fruit; Sanshuyu Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06732 Cornus fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medic

  17. Teratogenicity of Antiepileptic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güveli, Betül Tekin; Rosti, Rasim Özgür; Güzeltaş, Alper; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Ataklı, Dilek; Sencer, Serra; Yekeler, Ensar; Kayserili, Hülya; Dirican, Ahmet; Bebek, Nerses; Baykan, Betül; Gökyiğit, Ayşen; Gürses, Candan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Antiepileptic drugs (AED) have chronic teratogenic effects, the most common of which are congenital heart disease, cleft lip/palate, urogenital and neural tube defects. The aim of our study is to examine teratogenic effects of AED and the correlation between these malformations and AED in single or multiple pregnancies. Methods This is a retrospective study of malformations in children born to mothers currently followed up by our outpatient clinics who used or discontinued AED during their pregnancy. Their children were then investigated using echocardiography, urinary ultrasound, cranial magnetic resonance image, and examined by geneticists and pediatric dentists. Results One hundred and seventeen children were included in the study. Ninety one of these children were exposed to AED during pregnancy. The most commonly used AED were valproic acid and carbamazepine in monotherapy. The percentage of major anomaly was 6.8% in all children. Dysmorphic features and dental anomalies were observed more in children exposed especially to valproic acid. There were 26 mothers with two and four mothers with three pregnancies from the same fathers. No correlation was found between the distribution of malformations in recurring pregnancies and AED usage. Conclusion Our study has the highest number of dysmorphism examined in literature, found in all the children exposed to valproic acid, which may account for the higher rate of facial dysmorphism and dental anomalies. On lower doses of valproic acid, major malformations are not seen, although the risk increases with polytherapy. Our data also indicate possible effects of genetic and environmental factors on malformations. PMID:28138106

  18. Food-Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Yar Khan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction, food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction. A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least fooddrug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.

  19. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against

  20. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against illeg

  1. Drug development, radiolabelled drugs and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaalburg, W; Hendrikse, NH; de Vries, EFJ

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides noninvasive in vivo quantitative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information on novel and established drugs. Because only very low amounts of the (potential) drug have to be administered, far below toxicity levels, human studies can be carried out even

  2. 医院获得性尿路感染肠球菌耐药性与毒力基因型相关研究%Correlation of drug resistance with virulence genotypes of Enterococcus in hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小丽; 赵瑞珂; 李艳萌; 余佳佳; 张险峰; 钱雪峰; 韩清珍; 徐杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of virulence factors and drug resistance of Enterococcus in hospital‐acquired urinary tract infections ,and their correlation to provide the basis for rationally using antibacterial drugs and controlling infection .Methods 74 strains of Enterococcus isolated from clinical specimens of urinary tract infection were performed the bacterial strain identification and the antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted by the K‐B method .Virulence genes of cylL‐L ,cylL‐S ,cylL‐A ,esp ,acm ,gelE ,asa‐I ,cpd and ace were detected by PCR . Results Among 74 strains of enterococcal ,45(60 .8% ) strains and 29(39 .2% ) strains were E .faecalis and E .faeci‐um ,respectively .The resistance rates of Enterococci isolates to penicillin G ,ampicillin and ciprofloxacin were 89 .66% ,89 .66% and 79 .3% ,which were significantly higher than that of E .faecalis .Among E .faecalis ,the resist‐ance rate was 46 .67% to gentamicin ,53 .33% to tetracycline ,which were slightly higher than that of E .faecium .The positive rates of cylL‐L ,cylL‐S ,cylL‐A ,esp ,acm ,gelE ,asa‐1 ,cpd ,ace were 24 .32% ,44 .59% ,22 .97% ,44 .59% , 60 .81% ,22 .97% ,25 .67% ,22 .97% and 9 .46% ,respectively .A significant correlation was found between distribu‐tion of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of E .faecium(P<0 .05) .Conclusion E .faecalis is the predomi‐nant species in hospital‐acquired urinary infection ;the majority of E .faecium was multidrug‐resistant ;E .faecalis has more virulence genes than E .faecium .There is a close relationship between the virulence genes and the drug resist‐ance .Thus it is necessary for clinic to pay attention to the reasonable use of antibacterial drugs so as to prevent the e‐mergence and spread of Enterococcus .%目的:研究医院获得性尿路感染肠球菌毒力因子和耐药分布,以及两者间的关系,为临床合理使用抗菌药物和控制感染提供依据。方

  3. Hub discovery in partial correlation graphical models

    CERN Document Server

    Hero, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    This paper treats the problem of screening a p-variate sample for strongly and multiply connected vertices in the partial correlation graph associated with the the partial correlation matrix of the sample. This problem, called hub screening, is important in many applications ranging from network security to computational biology to finance to social networks. In the area of network security, a node that becomes a hub of high correlation with neighboring nodes might signal anomalous activity such as a coordinated flooding attack. In the area of computational biology the set of hubs of a gene expression correlation graph can serve as potential targets for drug treatment to block a pathway or modulate host response. In the area of finance a hub might indicate a vulnerable financial instrument or sector whose collapse might have major repercussions on the market. In the area of social networks a hub of observed interactions between criminal suspects could be an influential ringleader. The techniques and theory pr...

  4. Experiences with urine drug testing by police among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Ti, Lianping; Buxton, Jane A; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Thailand has relied on drug law enforcement in an effort to curb illicit drug use. While anecdotal reports suggest that Thai police frequently use urine toxicology to identify drug users, little is known about the prevalence or impacts of this practice among people who inject drugs (IDU). Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with urine drug testing by police among IDU in Bangkok. Data were derived from a community-recruited sample of IDU in Bangkok participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project between July and October 2011. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of being subjected to urine toxicology testing by police using multivariate Poisson regression. In total, 438 IDU participated in this study, with 293 (66.9%) participants reporting having been tested for illicit drugs by police. In multivariate analyses, reports of drug testing by police were independently and positively associated with younger age (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR]: 1.28), a history of methamphetamine injection (APR: 1.22), a history of incarceration (APR: 1.21), having been in compulsory drug detention (APR: 1.43), avoiding healthcare (APR: 1.15), and HIV seropositivity (APR: 1.19), and negatively associated with access to voluntary drug treatment (APR: 0.82) (all p<0.05). A high proportion of IDU in Bangkok were subjected to drug testing by police. Young people and methamphetamine injectors were more likely to have been tested. The findings indicate that drug testing by police is associated with the compulsory drug detention system and may be interfering with IDU's access to healthcare and voluntary drug treatment. These findings raise concern about the widespread practice of drug testing by police and its associated impacts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiepileptic drugs: newer targets and new drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihang S. Chawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. Majority of patients respond to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, but a small percentage of patients have shown poor and inadequate response to AEDs in addition to various side effects and drug interactions while on therapy. Thus there is a need to develop more effective AEDs in drug resistant epilepsy which have a better safety profile with minimal adverse effects. The United States food and drug administration (USFDA has approved eslicarbazepine acetate, ezogabine, perampanel and brivaracetam which have shown a promising future as better AEDs and drugs like ganaxolone, intranasal diazepam, ICA- 105665, valnoctamide, VX-765, naluzotan are in the pipeline. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 587-592

  6. Anticancer drug sensitivity by human tumor clonogenic assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraki,Shunkichi

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer drug sensitivity of human cancers was tested by the human tumor clonogenic assay (HTCA. Of 152 human cancer specimens tested, 63 (41% formed more than 30 tumor cell colonies in control plates and could be used to evaluate the drug sensitivity of tumor cells. In 42 (93% of 45 clinical trials in 24 patients, a parallel correlation was observed between the in vitro anticancer drug sensitivity measured by the HTCA and the clinical response of tumors to anticancer drugs. These results suggest that the HTCA is a good technique for the in vitro test of the anticancer drug sensitivity of human cancers.

  7. Analytical evaluation of five oral fluid drug testing devices

    OpenAIRE

    Isalberti, Cristina; Van Stechelman, Sylvie; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Van der Linden, Gertrude; Verstraete, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The correlation with blood drug presence and the easiness of sample collection make oral fluid an ideal matrix for roadside drug tests targeting impaired drivers. Aim: To evaluate the reliability of five oral fluid testing devices: Varian OraLab®6, Dräger DrugTest® 5000, Cozart® DDS 806, Mavand RapidSTAT® and Innovacon OrAlert. Method: More than 760 samples were collected from volunteers either at drug addiction treatment centres or during roadside sessions. Target drug ...

  8. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs

  9. Drugs of Abuse Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Drug Abuse Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... of Abuse Screen Related tests: Emergency and Overdose Drug Testing ; Ethanol ; Nicotine ; Phenobarbital ; Testosterone ; Growth Hormone ; Erythropoietin ; IGF- ...

  10. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  11. CMS Drug Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released several information products that provide spending information for prescription drugs in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The CMS Drug Spending...

  12. Drug use first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or extreme social withdrawal. Cannabis drugs such as marijuana may cause relaxation, impaired motor skills, and increased appetite. When prescription drugs are taken in higher than normal amounts, serious side effects may occur.

  13. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ctrl+c to copy Additional Drug Facts Other Articles of Interest NIDA Notes Prevention Program Reduces Substance Use By Participants' Friends Elevated Rates of Drug Abuse Continue for Second Year Nora's ...

  14. Drugs@FDA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about FDA-approved brand name and generic prescription and over-the-counter human drugs and biological therapeutic products. Drugs@FDA includes most of...

  15. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge ... Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 National Drug IQ Challenge ...

  16. Life after Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUDONGPING

    2004-01-01

    THE famous Kunming Drug Rehabilitation Center, founded in 1989, is located in the suburbs of Kunming City. Yunnan Province. It is the first drug rehabilitation center in China and the biggest in Asia.Covering 200 hectares, the center is

  17. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  18. Drugs to be Discontinued

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Companies are required under Section 506C of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

  19. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the past 70 years, antimicrobial drugs, such as antibiotics, have been successfully used to treat patients with bacterial and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, many infectious ...

  20. Particle Correlations at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kress, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Particle correlations are extensively studied to obtain information about the dynamics of hadron production. From 1989 to 2000 the four LEP collaborations recorded more than 16 million hadronic Z0 decays and several thousand W+W- events. In Z0 decays, two-particle correlations were analysed in detail to study Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations for various particle species. In fully-hadronic W+W- decays, particle correlations were used to study whether the two W bosons decay independently. A review of selected results is presented.