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Sample records for psychosocial variables assessed

  1. Resiliency and subjective health assessment. Moderating role of selected psychosocial variables

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    Michalina Sołtys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Resiliency is defined as a relatively permanent personality trait, which may be assigned to the category of health resources. The aim of this study was to determine conditions in which resiliency poses a significant health resource (moderation, thereby broadening knowledge of the specifics of the relationship between resiliency and subjective health assessment. Participants and procedure The study included 142 individuals. In order to examine the level of resiliency, the Assessment Resiliency Scale (SPP-25 by N. Ogińska-Bulik and Z. Juczyński was used. Participants evaluated subjective health state by means of an analogue-visual scale. Additionally, in the research the following moderating variables were controlled: sex, objective health status, having a partner, professional activity and age. These data were obtained by personal survey. Results The results confirmed the relationship between resiliency and subjective health assessment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sex, having a partner and professional activity are significant moderators of associations between level of resiliency and subjective health evaluation. However, statistically significant interaction effects for health status and age as a moderator were not observed. Conclusions Resiliency is associated with subjective health assessment among adults, and selected socio-demographic features (such as sex, having a partner, professional activity moderate this relationship. This confirms the significant role of resiliency as a health resource and a reason to emphasize the benefits of enhancing the potential of individuals for their psychophysical wellbeing. However, the research requires replication in a more homogeneous sample.

  2. Psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile.

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    Barrientos, Jaime E; Páez, Dario

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile using data from the COSECON survey. Participants were 5,407 subjects (2,244 min and 3,163 women, aged 18-69 years). We used a cross-sectional questionnaire with a national probability sample. Data were collected using a thorough sexual behavior questionnaire consisting of 190 face-to-face questions and 24 self-reported questions. A single item included in the COSECON questionnaire assessed sexual satisfaction. Results showed that high education level, marital status, and high socioeconomic levels were associated with sexual satisfaction in women but not in men. The results also showed important gender differences and sustain the idea that sexuality changes may be more present in middle and high social classes. The proximal variables typically used for measuring sexual satisfaction, such as the frequency of sexual intercourse and orgasm, showed a positive but smaller association with sexual satisfaction. Other important variables related to sexual satisfaction were being in love with the partner and having a steady partner. The results confirmed previous findings and are discussed in the frame of approaches like the exchange, equity, and sexual scripts theories.

  3. Multiple comorbidities of 21 psychological disorders and relationships with psychosocial variables: a study of the online assessment and diagnostic system within a web-based population.

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    Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2015-02-26

    While research in the area of e-mental health has received considerable attention over the last decade, there are still many areas that have not been addressed. One such area is the comorbidity of psychological disorders in a Web-based sample using online assessment and diagnostic tools, and the relationships between comorbidities and psychosocial variables. We aimed to identify comorbidities of psychological disorders of an online sample using an online diagnostic tool. Based on diagnoses made by an automated online assessment and diagnostic system administered to a large group of online participants, multiple comorbidities (co-occurrences) of 21 psychological disorders for males and females were identified. We examined the relationships between dyadic comorbidities of anxiety and depressive disorders and the psychosocial variables sex, age, suicidal ideation, social support, and quality of life. An online complex algorithm based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision, was used to assign primary and secondary diagnoses of 21 psychological disorders to 12,665 online participants. The frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders for males and females were calculated for all disorders. A series of hierarchical loglinear analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the dyadic comorbidities of depression and various anxiety disorders and the variables suicidal ideation, social support, quality of life, sex, and age. A 21-by-21 frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders matrix revealed the presence of multiple significant dyadic comorbidities for males and females. Also, for those with some of the dyadic depression and the anxiety disorders, the odds for having suicidal ideation, reporting inadequate social support, and poorer quality of life increased for those with two-disorder comorbidity than for those with only one of the same two disorders. Comorbidities of

  4. Multiple Comorbidities of 21 Psychological Disorders and Relationships With Psychosocial Variables: A Study of the Online Assessment and Diagnostic System Within a Web-Based Population

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    Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2015-01-01

    Background While research in the area of e-mental health has received considerable attention over the last decade, there are still many areas that have not been addressed. One such area is the comorbidity of psychological disorders in a Web-based sample using online assessment and diagnostic tools, and the relationships between comorbidities and psychosocial variables. Objective We aimed to identify comorbidities of psychological disorders of an online sample using an online diagnostic tool. Based on diagnoses made by an automated online assessment and diagnostic system administered to a large group of online participants, multiple comorbidities (co-occurrences) of 21 psychological disorders for males and females were identified. We examined the relationships between dyadic comorbidities of anxiety and depressive disorders and the psychosocial variables sex, age, suicidal ideation, social support, and quality of life. Methods An online complex algorithm based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision, was used to assign primary and secondary diagnoses of 21 psychological disorders to 12,665 online participants. The frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders for males and females were calculated for all disorders. A series of hierarchical loglinear analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the dyadic comorbidities of depression and various anxiety disorders and the variables suicidal ideation, social support, quality of life, sex, and age. Results A 21-by-21 frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders matrix revealed the presence of multiple significant dyadic comorbidities for males and females. Also, for those with some of the dyadic depression and the anxiety disorders, the odds for having suicidal ideation, reporting inadequate social support, and poorer quality of life increased for those with two-disorder comorbidity than for those with only one of the same

  5. Psychosocial screening and assessment in oncology and palliative care settings.

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    Grassi, Luigi; Caruso, Rosangela; Sabato, Silvana; Massarenti, Sara; Nanni, Maria G; The UniFe Psychiatry Working Group Coauthors

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric and psychosocial disorders among cancer patients have been reported as a major consequence of the disease and treatment. The problems in applying a pure psychiatric approach have determined the need for structuring more defined methods, including screening for distress and emotional symptoms and a more specific psychosocial assessment, to warrant proper care to cancer patients with psychosocial problems. This review examines some of the most significant issues related to these two steps, screening and assessment of psychosocial morbidity in cancer and palliative care. With regard to this, the many different variables, such as the factors affecting individual vulnerability (e.g., life events, chronic stress and allostatic load, well-being, and health attitudes) and the psychosocial correlates of medical disease (e.g., psychiatric disturbances, psychological symptoms, illness behavior, and quality of life) which are possibly implicated not only in "classical" psychiatric disorders but more broadly in psychosocial suffering. Multidimensional tools [e.g., and specific psychosocially oriented interview (e.g., the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research)] represent a way to screen for and assess emotional distress, anxiety and depression, maladaptive coping, dysfunctional attachment, as well as other significant psychosocial dimensions secondary to cancer, such as demoralization and health anxiety. Cross-cultural issues, such as language, ethnicity, race, and religion, are also discussed as possible factors influencing the patients and families perception of illness, coping mechanisms, psychological response to a cancer diagnosis.

  6. Psychosocial screening and assessment in oncology and palliative care settings

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    Luigi eGrassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric and psychosocial disorders among cancer patients have been reported as a major consequence of the disease and treatment. The problems in applying a pure psychiatric approach have determined the need for structuring more defined methods, including screening for distress and emotional symptoms and a more specific psychosocial assessment, to warrant proper care to cancer patients with psychosocial problems. This review examines some of the most significant issues related to these two steps, screening and assessment of psychosocial morbidity in cancer and palliative care. With regard to this , the many different variables, such as the factors affecting individual vulnerability (e.g. life events, chronic stress and allostatic load, well-being, and health attitudes and the psychosocial correlates of medical disease (e.g. psychiatric disturbances, psychological symptoms, illness behavior, and quality of life which are possibly implicated not only in classical psychiatric disorders but more broadly in psychosocial suffering. Multidimensional tools (e.g. and specific psychosocially oriented interview (e.g. the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research - DCPR represent a way to screen for and assess emotional distress, anxiety and depression, maladaptive coping, dysfunctional attachment, as well as other significant psychosocial dimensions secondary to cancer, such as demoralization and health anxiety. Cross-cultural issues, such as language, ethnicity, race, and religion, are also discussed as possible factors influencing the patients and families perception of illness, coping mechanisms, psychological response to a cancer diagnosis.

  7. High Suicidal Ideation and Psychosocial Variables in University Students

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    Sanchez-Teruel, David; Garcia-Leon, Ana; Muela-Martinez, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The college students have high rates of suicidal ideation often associated with psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether some of these psychosocial variables are related to the high prevalence of suicidal ideation in a College Spanish. Method: Participants (n = 40), aged between 21 and 34 years, Mean =…

  8. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

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    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  9. The Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplantation: A Prospective Study of Medical and Psychosocial Outcomes.

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    Maldonado, José R; Sher, Yelizaveta; Lolak, Sermsak; Swendsen, Heavenly; Skibola, Danica; Neri, Eric; David, Evonne E; Sullivan, Catherine; Standridge, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial factors may significantly affect post-transplant outcomes. The Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplantation (SIPAT) was developed as an assessment tool to enhance the pre-transplant psychosocial evaluation. We identified heart, lung, liver, or kidney transplant recipients assessed with the SIPAT pre-transplantation and transplanted between June 1, 2008, and July 31, 2011, at our institution. We analyzed prospectively accumulated psychosocial and medical outcomes at 1 year of follow-up. 217 patients were identified and included in the analysis. The primary outcomes of organ failure and mortality occurred in 12 and 21 patients, respectively, and were not significantly associated with the pre-transplant SIPAT scores. On the other hand, SIPAT scores were significantly correlated with the probability of poor medical and psychosocial outcomes (secondary outcomes). In fact, higher SIPAT scores predicted higher rates of rejection episodes (Spearman ρ = 0.15, 95% 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02-0.28, p = .023), medical hospitalizations (ρ = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.16-0.41, p relationship with nonadherence suggested a trend, but no statistical significance was observed (area under the curve = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.50-0.71, p = .058). Study outcomes suggest that SIPAT is a promising pre-transplantation assessment tool that helps identify candidate's areas of psychosocial vulnerability and whose scores are associated with both psychosocial and medical outcomes after transplantation.

  10. Clinical and psychosocial variables associated with behavioral intentions to undergo surveillance endoscopy.

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    Hollier, John M; Hinojosa-Lindsey, Marilyn; Sansgiry, Shubhada; El-Serag, Hashem B; Naik, Aanand D

    2014-06-10

    Many patients with Barrett's esophagus do not adhere to guideline-recommended endoscopic surveillance. Among patient factors related to cancer prevention behaviors, patients' stated behavioral intention is a strong predictor of behavior performance. Little is known about the patient factors associated with having a strong behavioral intention to pursue surveillance endoscopy. This study explores the association of clinical and psychosocial variables and behavioral intention to pursue surveillance endoscopy among patients with Barrett's Esophagus and no or low-grade dysplasia. Potential subjects were screened using electronic medical records of a regional Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a pathologically confirmed Barrett's esophagus registry. Eligible participants were recruited by a mailer or phone call and completed a questionnaire to measure six distinct psychosocial factors, their behavioral intention to undergo surveillance endoscopy, and various demographic and clinical variables. Univariate and multivariate linear regression identified the relation of behavioral intention with each of six psychosocial variables. One-hundred and one subjects consented and returned surveys. The analytical sample for this study consists of the 94% of surveys with complete responses to the behavior intention items. Three of the six psychosocial domains were statistically significant predictors of intention in both univariate and adjusted univariate analysis (salience/coherence β = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.45-0.76, P intention. This study established the validity of a scale to measure psychosocial variables associated with behavioral intentions to undergo surveillance endoscopy. Results demonstrate the importance of assessing self-efficacy, social influences, and bottom-line belief in the value of surveillance endoscopy when evaluating a patient's likelihood of completing surveillance endoscopy.

  11. Negative aging stereotypes and their relation with psychosocial variables in the elderly population.

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    Sánchez Palacios, C; Trianes Torres, M V; Blanca Mena, M J

    2009-01-01

    This study explores whether there is a relationship between the level of belief in negative aging stereotypes in 65-year-old people and their results concerning some psychosocial variables. These were selected for their relevance for health and well being in elderly people. These were: living situation, responsibilities toward others, subjective health, frequency of medical appointments, subjective age, participation in community social activities and regular physical activity. The sample consisted of 757 people of low educational level, ranged from 65 to 96 years. Age and gender were homogeneously distributed. Participants were non-institutionalized people. Firstly, the psychosocial variables under focus were assessed by means of seven questions. Secondly, a questionnaire about negative aging stereotypes (CENVE) was administered. It was composed of three factors: health, motivational-social and character-personality. Results show that a high score in negative stereotypes is significantly associated to the studied variables, except for living situation, showing a worse quality of life (QoL) profile. Results are discussed in terms of their utility for assessment and psychosocial intervention, which is meant to improve health in the elderly.

  12. A New Psychosocial Variable in Mental Health Studies: Agency

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    Hasan Atak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The term agency has been defined as a sense of responsibility for one’s life course, the belief that one is in control of one’s decisions and is responsible for their outcomes, and the confidence that one will be able to overcome obstacles that impede one’s progress along one’s chosen life course. Agency is an upper psychological structure which consists of self-esteem, purpose in life, self-efficacy (ego strength, and internal locus of control. Literature offers quite different explanations for agency concept. The reason of this situation may be the attribution of different meanings to the concept by psychologists and sociologists. When considering the agency literature in Turkey and other countries, it can be said that the number of studies on agency subject is lower than the number of studies on other psychosocial study subjects. Agency should be taken into consideration as a psychosocial variable in the studies to be made in Turkey.

  13. Assessment of psychosocial functioning and its risk factors in children with pectus excavatum

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    Wang Xuejun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial functioning is poor in patients with pectus excavatum (PE. However, a comprehensive understanding of this issue does not exist. The aim of this study was to assess the severity of psychosocial problems as associated with PE, as well as to identify its risk factors. Methods A comparative study was performed at the Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences/Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital in Chengdu, China. Patients age 6 to 16 who admitted to the outpatient department for the evaluation or treatment for PE were included in the study. In addition to parental reports of child psychosocial problems on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, parents also filled in other structured questionnaires, including socio-demographic variables, patients' medical and psychological characteristics. The severity of malformation was assessed by CT scan. For comparison, an age- and gender- matched control group was recruited from the general population. The socio-demographic and scores on CBCL were compared between patients and control subjects. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to examine risk factors for psychosocial problems in patients. Results No statistically significant differences were found with respect to social-demographic variables between children with PE and control subjects. Compared with control subjects, children with PE displayed higher prevalence of psychosocial problems in the different scales of the CBCL questionnaire such as 'withdraw', 'anxious-depressed', 'social problems' and 'total problems'. Both univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that age, severity of malformation, and being teased about PE were significantly associated with patients' psychosocial problems. Conclusions The information derived from this study supports the opinion that children with PE have more psychosocial problems than children from the general population. Multiple medical and psychosocial factors were

  14. Psychosocial Keys to African American Achievement? Examining the Relationship between Achievement and Psychosocial Variables in High Achieving African Americans

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    Dixson, Dante D.; Roberson, Cyrell C. B.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2017-01-01

    Grit, growth mindset, ethnic identity, and other group orientation are four psychosocial variables that have been associated with academic achievement in adolescent populations. In a sample of 105 high achieving African American high school students (cumulative grade point average [GPA] > 3.0), we examined whether these four psychosocial…

  15. Measuring psychosocial variables that predict older persons' oral health behaviour.

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    Kiyak, H A

    1996-12-01

    The importance of recognising psychosocial characteristics of older people that influence their oral health behaviours and the potential success of dental procedures is discussed. Three variables and instruments developed and tested by the author and colleagues are presented. A measure of perceived importance of oral health behaviours has been found to be a significant predictor of dental service utilization in three studies. Self-efficacy regarding oral health has been found to be lower than self-efficacy regarding general health and medication use among older adults, especially among non-Western ethnic minorities. The significance of self-efficacy for predicting changes in caries and periodontal disease is described. Finally, a measure of expectations regarding specific dental procedures has been used with older people undergoing implant therapy. Studies with this instrument reveal that patients have concerns about the procedure far different than those focused on by dental providers. All three instruments can be used in clinical practice as a means of understanding patients' values, perceived oral health abilities, and expectations from dental care. These instruments can enhance dentist-patient rapport and improve the chances of successful dental outcomes for older patients.

  16. Psycho-social and Mental Variables and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Traffic Accident Survivors in Northern Iran.

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    Khodadadi-Hassankiadeh, Naema; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Shahsavari, Hooman; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    To assess the psycho-social and mental variables associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a series of Iranian patients. A total of 528 eligible accident survivors in pre-sampling of a randomized controlled trial targeting PTSD were included in this cross-sectional study. Psycho-social characteristics associated to PTSD were explored in these survivors in an outpatient clinic. They completed the questionnaires via interview between six weeks to six months after accident. Data collection tools were PSS (DSM-V version) for PTSD and BDI-II for depression and a researcher-made questionnaire for psycho-social variables. There was a significant association between PTSD and the following variables; family communication, current depression, return to work, history of death of relatives, witnessed the death, length of amnesia, hospitalization, injured situation, and accident severity. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that some variables were associated with PTSD such as accident severity, (paccident and poor family communication who do not return to work. Thus, routine assessment of PTSD, depression and psycho-social variables after traffic accidents must be taken into account.

  17. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

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    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between Whole-Grain Intake, Psychosocial Variables, and Home Availability among Elementary School Children

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    Rosen, Renee A.; Burgess-Champoux, Teri L.; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Develop, refine, and test psychosocial scales for associations with whole-grain intake. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Minneapolis/St. Paul suburban elementary school with children in fourth through sixth grades (n = 98) and their parents (n = 76). Variables of interest were child whole-grain intake, self-efficacy,…

  19. Associations between Whole-Grain Intake, Psychosocial Variables, and Home Availability among Elementary School Children

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    Rosen, Renee A.; Burgess-Champoux, Teri L.; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Develop, refine, and test psychosocial scales for associations with whole-grain intake. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Minneapolis/St. Paul suburban elementary school with children in fourth through sixth grades (n = 98) and their parents (n = 76). Variables of interest were child whole-grain intake, self-efficacy,…

  20. Treatment success in neck pain: The added predictive value of psychosocial variables in addition to clinical variables.

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    Groeneweg, Ruud; Haanstra, Tsjitske; Bolman, Catherine A W; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Tulder, Maurits W; Ostelo, Raymond W J G

    2017-01-01

    Identification of psychosocial variables may influence treatment outcome. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine whether psychosocial variables, in addition to clinical variables (pain, functioning, general health, previous neck pain, comorbidity), are predictive factors for treatment outcome (i.e. global perceived effect, functioning and pain) in patients with sub-acute and chronic non-specific neck pain undergoing physical therapy or manual therapy. Psychosocial factors included treatment outcome expectancy and treatment credibility, health locus of control, and fear avoidance beliefs. This study reports a secondary analysis of a primary care-based pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Potential predictors were measured at baseline and outcomes, in 181 patients, at 7 weeks and 26 weeks. Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that treatment outcome expectancy predicted outcome success, in addition to clinical and demographic variables. Expectancy explained additional variance, ranging from 6% (pain) to 17% (functioning) at 7 weeks, and 8% (pain) to 16% (functioning) at 26 weeks. Locus of control and fear avoidance beliefs did not add significantly to predicting outcome. Based on the results of this study we conclude that outcome expectancy, in patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic neck pain, has additional predictive value for treatment success above and beyond clinical and demographic variables. Psychological processes, health perceptions and how these factors relate to clinical variables may be important for treatment decision making regarding therapeutic options for individual patients. Copyright © 2016 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parental divorce during early adolescence in Caucasian families: the role of family process variables in predicting the long-term consequences for early adult psychosocial adjustment.

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    Summers, P; Forehand, R; Armistead, L; Tannenbaum, L

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between parental divorce occurring during adolescence and young adult psychosocial adjustment was examined, as was the role of family process variables in clarifying this relationship. Participants were young Caucasian adults from divorced (n = 119) and married (n = 123) families. Assessments were conducted during adolescence and 6 years later during early adulthood. Young adults from married families reported more secure romantic attachments than those from divorced families; however, differences were not evident in other domains of psychosocial adjustment after demographic variables were controlled. Three family process variables (parent-adolescent relationship, interparental conflict, and maternal depressive symptoms) were examined as potential mediators and moderators of the association between parental divorce and young adult adjustment. No evidence supporting mediation or moderation was found; however, the parent-adolescent and parent-young adult relationships, particularly when the identified parent was the father, emerged as significant predictors of young adult psychosocial adjustment.

  2. Elderly recipients of liver transplantation: impact of age and psychosocial variables on outcome.

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    Niazi, Shehzad; Schneekloth, Terry; Taner, C Burcin

    2017-09-12

    With expanding experience and success of liver transplantation, increasing numbers of elderly candidates await and undergo liver transplantation. There is accumulating evidence that graft survival and mortality does not appear to differ significantly between the young and carefully selected elderly liver transplantation recipients. Although existing evidence suggests that psychosocial factors impact outcomes after liver transplantation in general, no such information is available specifically for elderly (age ≥65 years) liver transplantation recipients. We conducted a broad medical literature review of outcome studies of elderly liver transplantation recipients. In this review article, we summarize the findings and comment on psychosocial variables included in these studies. Ten outcome studies have reported on the impact of age on the liver transplantation outcomes. There is increasing evidence of favorable outcomes in elderly liver transplantation recipients. Few of these studies include measures of quality of life, functional improvement and other psychosocial variables. Very limited information is available about the impact of psychosocial factors on outcomes in elderly liver transplantation recipients. This dearth of information represents a critical gap in our knowledge and has implications for optimal candidate selection and outcomes after liver transplantation.

  3. Psychosocial Variables Contribute to Length of Stay and Discharge Destination after Lumbar Surgery Independent of Demographic and Clinical Variables.

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    Mancuso, Carol A; Duculan, Roland; Craig, Chad M; Girardi, Federico P

    2017-07-03

    Prospective analysis of resource utilization (RU) after lumbar surgery. To determine contributions of patient psychosocial variables to RU, specifically length of stay (LOS) and discharge destination. Associations between demographic/clinical variables and RU are well-established; less is known about associations between psychosocial variables, such as social support and depressive/anxiety symptoms, and RU. Preoperatively 532 patients provided standard ratings of depressive and anxiety symptoms and amount of social support. Clinical variables included calculation of a composite score reflecting invasiveness of surgery. Two outcomes were considered: LOS ≤ 3 or > 3 days; and discharged home without external services or discharged with external services. Independent variables in multivariable logistic models were demographic/clinical and psychosocial variables. Mean age was 56 years, 55% were men, 87% had degenerative conditions, 40% had a positive depression screen, 62% had anxiety greater than population norms, and 77% reported as much social support as wanted. Variables that remained associated with a LOS > 3 days (53%) in multivariable analysis were: older age (OR 1.8, CI 1.2-2.8); female gender (OR 1.9, CI 1.2-2.9), less social support (OR1.4, CI 1.1-1.7); obesity (OR1.8, CI 1.1-2.8), worse functional status (OR 1.0, CI 1.0-1.0) and more invasive surgery (OR 3.0, CI 2.4-3.7). Variables that remained associated with discharged with external services (17%) in multivariable analysis were: older age (OR 3.3, CI 1.9-5.9); less social support (OR 1.3, CI 1.0-1.7); positive depression screen (OR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.4); more anxiety (OR 2.4, CI 1.3-4.2); major comorbidity (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8); and more invasive surgery (OR 1.9, CI 1.5-2.5). This study confirms the importance of demographic/clinical variables as predictors of greater RU after lumbar surgery and provides preliminary evidence for the importance of concurrent psychosocial variables, particularly less social

  4. The perception of midwives regarding psychosocial risk assessment during antenatal care

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    Johanna M. Mathibe-Neke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physiological and psychological changes caused by pregnancy may increase a woman’s vulnerability to depression, which may in turn have adverse effects on both maternal and foetal wellbeing. Inadequate psychosocial risk assessment of women by midwives may lead to lack of psychosocial support during pregnancy and childbirth. Pregnant women who lack psychosocial support may experience stress, anxiety and depression that could possibly affect foetal wellbeing. Objective:The objective of this study was toexplore and describe the perception of psychosocial risk assessment and psychosocial care by midwives providing antenatal care to pregnant women. Method: An interpretive and descriptive qualitative approach was adopted. Three focus group interviews were conducted with midwives working in three Maternal Obstetric Units in Gauteng Province, using a semi-structured interview guide. The constant comparison data analysis approach was used. Results:Findings revealed that midwives are aware of and have encountered a high prevalence of psychosocial problems in pregnant women. Furthermore, they acknowledged the importance of psychosocial care for pregnant women although they stated that they were not equipped adequately to offer psychosocial assessment and psychosocial care. Conclusion:The findings provided a basis for incorporation of psychosocial care into routine antenatal care.

  5. Mass conflict and care in war affected areas. In search of assessment and psychosocial intervention

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    de Jong, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Research in this thesis is focused on the relevance of psychosocial programs in areas of mass violence. Central questions are: how to assess needs in terms of psychosocial health, how to best address those needs, and what is the effectiveness of these mental health interventions? Our findings in Che

  6. Mass conflict and care in war affected areas. In search of assessment and psychosocial intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Research in this thesis is focused on the relevance of psychosocial programs in areas of mass violence. Central questions are: how to assess needs in terms of psychosocial health, how to best address those needs, and what is the effectiveness of these mental health interventions? Our findings in Che

  7. Longitudinal changes in quality of life and related psychosocial variables in australians with multiple sclerosis.

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    Wollin, Judy Ann; Spencer, Nancy; McDonald, Elizabeth; Fulcher, Gary; Bourne, Maureen; Simmons, Rex D

    2013-01-01

    This study explored changes in quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial variables in a large cohort of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 1287 Australians with MS were administered self-report questionnaires at baseline and 24 months later to examine the impact of disease severity and duration, perceived stress, self-efficacy, depression, and social support on QOL and self-care. Over the 2-year survey period, MS remained stable for 70% of respondents. Disease severity correlated with social support at baseline but not at 24 months, when the only significant correlation with disease severity was that of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 instrument (WHOQOL-100) domain of Level of Independence. Although QOL improved across the WHOQOL-100 domains Physical, Psychological, Level of Independence, Social Relationships, and Environment, decreases were found in the WHOQOL-100 facet overall QOL and well-being as well as self-efficacy over the same time period. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the utility of four control measures. MS disease severity and MS disease duration were entered at Step 1, explaining 16.1% of the variance in QOL. After entry of perceived stress, self-efficacy, social support, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) at Step 2, the total variance explained by the model as a whole was 55.8% (F6,1028 = 216.495, P QOL and self-efficacy had decreased at 2 years after the collection of baseline data. Loss of self-efficacy, increased stress, and depression are key factors in reduced QOL in people with MS.

  8. Longitudinal Changes in Quality of Life and Related Psychosocial Variables in Australians with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, Judy Ann; Spencer, Nancy; McDonald, Elizabeth; Fulcher, Gary; Bourne, Maureen; Simmons, Rex D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored changes in quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial variables in a large cohort of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 1287 Australians with MS were administered self-report questionnaires at baseline and 24 months later to examine the impact of disease severity and duration, perceived stress, self-efficacy, depression, and social support on QOL and self-care. Over the 2-year survey period, MS remained stable for 70% of respondents. Disease severity correlated with social support at baseline but not at 24 months, when the only significant correlation with disease severity was that of the World Health Organization Quality of Life–100 instrument (WHOQOL-100) domain of Level of Independence. Although QOL improved across the WHOQOL-100 domains Physical, Psychological, Level of Independence, Social Relationships, and Environment, decreases were found in the WHOQOL-100 facet overall QOL and well-being as well as self-efficacy over the same time period. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the utility of four control measures. MS disease severity and MS disease duration were entered at Step 1, explaining 16.1% of the variance in QOL. After entry of perceived stress, self-efficacy, social support, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21) at Step 2, the total variance explained by the model as a whole was 55.8% (F6,1028 = 216.495, P QOL and self-efficacy had decreased at 2 years after the collection of baseline data. Loss of self-efficacy, increased stress, and depression are key factors in reduced QOL in people with MS. PMID:24453768

  9. Using an integrated approach to the assessment of the psychosocial work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Italian regulatory guidelines have been issued consisting of a stepwise procedure for the assessment and management of work-related stress. However, research that empirically examines whether this procedure proves effective in accurately identifying critical psychosocial fact...

  10. Psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees living in Jordan: systematic review of unpublished needs assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ruth; Steel, Zachary; Abo-Hilal, Mohammad; Hassan, Abdul Halim; Lawsin, Catalina

    2016-08-01

    Humanitarian organisations supporting Syrian refugees in Jordan have conducted needs assessments to direct resources appropriately. To present a model of psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees and a peer review of research practices. Academic and grey literature databases, the United Nations Syria Regional Response website, key humanitarian organisation websites and Google were searched for needs assessments with Syrian refugees in Jordan between February 2011 and June 2015. Information directly reporting the views of Syrian refugees regarding psychosocial needs was extracted and a qualitative synthesis was conducted. Respondents reported that psychological distress was exacerbated by both environmental (financial, housing, employment) and psychosocial outcomes (loss of role and social support, inactivity), which are themselves stressors. Need for improvement in research methodology, participatory engagement and ethical reporting was evident. Participatory engagement strategies might help to address identified psychosocial outcomes. More rigorous qualitative methods are required to ensure accuracy of findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  11. Identifying psychosocial variables that predict safer-sex intentions in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eBrüll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections. The triad of deliberate and effective safer-sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors (i.e. perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and intention taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA, were combined with more distal variables (e.g. behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections. Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse during the last twelve months and reasons for using barrier protection during first sexual intercourse. In particular, past condom nonuse behavior moderated perceived behavioral control related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer-sex programs designed to promote health sustaining sexual behavior.

  12. Psychosocial characteristics of drunk drivers assessed by the Addiction Severity Index, prediction of relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicka, Beata; Laurell, Hans; Bergman, Hans

    2010-02-01

    To investigate psychosocial characteristics and problems of a representative sample of Swedish drunk drivers with special consideration of the gender of the driver; analyze criminal records of the drivers before and after enrollment in the study; identify psychosocial predictors of relapse to drunk driving. Psychosocial characteristics were assessed by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Alcohol problems were additionally assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Criminal records were collected for the five year period before the enrollment, and for the subsequent two years, from Sweden's official crime statistics. About half of the investigated drivers had other psychosocial problems besides the drink driving offence. Female drivers had more alcohol, drug, psychiatric and relational problems, including with parents when growing up, than male drivers, but less previous and subsequent criminality. Heavily drunk drivers (blood alcohol concentration > or = 0.1%) had more problems with alcohol, legal status and employment and support than the other drunk drivers. Problems with legal status, family and social relations and alcohol use increased the risk of relapse in drunk driving, while medical problems seemed to be a protective factor. Different ASI risk factors were identified for relapse in either traffic offences or other crimes. As well as the drunk driving offence, drunk drivers often have other psychosocial problems, female drivers in particular. Already the blood alcohol concentration per se gives some indication of the psychosocial problem profile of a drunk driver and the ASI profile has some prognostic value for relapse in drunk driving.

  13. Quality of life assessment of patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders from Psychosocial Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessing the quality of life and the clinical and social-demographic factors associated in schizophrenic spectrum patients (ICD-10 F20-F29 attending CAPS at the programmatic area 3.0. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of schizophrenic spectrum patients who have been enrolled in 2008 in CAPS in programmatic area (AP 3 at Rio de Janeiro city, using MINIPLUS to assess schizophrenia spectrum disorder and use of psychoactive substances, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS to assess psychiatric symptoms and Quality of Life Scale (QLS-BR to assess the quality of life. RESULTS: Seventy nine patients were included, of whom 74 (93.7% presented some impairment in quality of life. The most frequently affected area was occupational performance. Variables that showed a significant association with severe impairment of quality of life were: marital status, race, occupation, who patients lived with, homelessness, having children, previous psychiatric hospitalization, negative symptoms and symptoms designated as not applicable (being characterized by a lack of typical positive and negative symptoms. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of these factors should be crucial to implement health policies and psychosocial rehabilitation programs focused on improving the quality of life of these patients.

  14. Psychosocial risk assessment: French validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, E; Bocerean, C; Teherani, M

    2012-01-01

    ) is composed of 32 items grouped into 17 scales measuring five domains and eight additional questions assessing aggressive behaviour at work. METHOD: The questionnaire was administered to 935 employees of a large firm in the Parisian area. RESULTS: All psychometric analyses performed (internal consistency...

  15. Physiotherapists' assessment of patients' psychosocial status: are we standing on thin ice? A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Mukul; Jones, Mark; Edwards, Ian; Kumar, Saravana

    2015-04-01

    Pain is a complex problem and one that confronts many physiotherapists' working in private practice on a daily basis. While physiotherapists' understanding of pain has matured a great deal in recent times, especially the role of psychosocial (PS) factors, it is unclear if and how, physiotherapists assess their patients' psychosocial status in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to explore private practice physiotherapists' assessment of patients' psychosocial status. A qualitative descriptive research design was used in this study. Participants were recruited through purposeful sampling and potential informants were invited to participate through letters or phone calls and data was collected via semi-structured interviews. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted at the participants' workplaces. Data collection and analysis were conducted simultaneously and common concepts and themes were recognised, coded and grouped together into themes. Analysis of the data resulted in identification of various themes related to physiotherapists' assessment of patients' PS status. These themes relate to; physiotherapists capacity to conduct PS assessment, the barriers they face while conducting PS assessment and the suggestions they have provided to overcome these barriers. In general the physiotherapists' in this study demonstrated and acknowledged a poor understanding of the role of PS factors in their patients' clinical presentation. They were also unclear about the assessment of psychosocial factors. The barriers to assessment of psychosocial factors ranged from individual shortcomings to limitations in professional networks and time constraints. The most consistent barrier highlighted was participants' lack of formal education in PS theory and assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Who needs chaplain's visitation in general hospitals? Assessing patients with psychosocial and religious needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter-Pfändler, Urs; Morgenthaler, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the declining length of patients' hospital stay in recent years, chaplains need evidence-based criteria to decide which patients are likely to have the greatest psychosocial and/or religious-spiritual needs. Therefore, the present pilot study aims at sorting out evidence-based criteria to assess patients with lack of coping resources. A total of 610 patients in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were surveyed with regard to their psychosocial health. The results suggest that lack of vitality (including health condition), lack of support and lack of faith (including spiritual struggle) are valid and reliable criteria for chaplains as internal triggers for pastoral visitation.

  17. Assessment of the Long-Term Benefits of Life Skills Programming on Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruby; Reddon, John R.; Hoglin, Brenda; Woodman, Mary-Ann

    2008-01-01

    The durability of the psychosocial benefits of Life Skills programming on outpatient adults with mental health/forensic issues was examined. Participants were 52 adults (28 males, 24 females) who completed 16 weeks of Life Skills at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and were re-assessed between six months and six years following treatment.…

  18. Quality of Life in Patients With Schizophrenia in China: Relationships Among Demographic Characteristics, Psychosocial Variables, and Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunfeng; Yu, Liping

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationships among demographic characteristics, psychosocial variables, symptom severity, and quality of life (QOL), and the way these variables affect QOL in patients with schizophrenia living in Hubei, China. A convenience sample of 178 individuals with schizophrenia participated. The results suggest that the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale was positively and statistically significantly correlated with employment status (r = 0.232, p empowerment (r = 0.692; p empowerment (accounting for 22.1% of variance) was the best positive predictor, whereas symptom severity (accounting for 7.6% of variance) was the best negative predictor of QOL in patients with schizophrenia. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(8), 48-54.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Context specificity in the assessment of psychosocial risk at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Fattori, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following EU requirements, in recent years standard procedures for the assessment of work-related stress have been developed in Italy. However, while such standardization has facilitated the spread and use of these procedures, it has brought a lack of specificity in risk assessment. O...

  20. Context specificity in the assessment of psychosocial risk at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Fattori, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following EU requirements, in recent years standard procedures for the assessment of work-related stress have been developed in Italy. However, while such standardization has facilitated the spread and use of these procedures, it has brought a lack of specificity in risk assessment....... Objectives: To exemplify a method for the assessment of work-related stress that was developed by the University of Milan to allow the definition of risk profiles tailored to the different organizational settings. Methods: We examined risk factors for work-related stress in call centre operators employed......” and the “subjective” evaluation instruments. Results: Results obtained by means of the standardized “Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire“ and “Job Content Questionnaire”, interpreted in the light of consultations with key organizational figures and individual interviews with employees, have allowed the detection...

  1. In search of psychosocial variables linked to the recidivism in young offenders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Cano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature on juvenile delinquency is aimed to the identification of the protective and risk factors of the antisocial and criminal behaviors. In this line, a study was carried out to assess whether the family setting, personal variables of the youngster and variables linked to the judicial measure execution mediate in recidivism. For this reason, all the closed judicial files of the young offenders from the Service of Juvenile Justice in Jaén (Spain have been analysed. The results showed that such family setting variables as broken homes, large families, low incomes, deprived neighborhoods, criminal records, drug abuse, children protection records and crime legitimacy are linked to recidivism. As for personal variables of the youngster, the findings illustrate that re-offenders are characterized by external attribution, deficits in social skills, deficits in self-control, violent behaviors and low tolerance to frustration. In relation to the judicial measure execution variables, data support that the non re-offenders are defined in contrast to re-offenders, by a high compliance with rules and timetables and with the established objectives, as well as a high family involvement during the judicial measure execution. The implications of the results for prevention of recidivism are discussed.

  2. Using an integrated approach to the assessment of the psychosocial work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Italian regulatory guidelines have been issued consisting of a stepwise procedure for the assessment and management of work-related stress. However, research that empirically examines whether this procedure proves effective in accurately identifying critical psychosocial...... examined a sample of 306 healthcare employees in a large-size hospital in Northern Italy, using a series of tools, both quantitative (an observational checklist and the HSE-IT and MOHQ questionnaires) and qualitative (Focus Groups). Through instrument-specific reference values, we then compared risk...... profiles between different homogeneous groups within the institution. Results: The psychosocial work environment resulted to be far more positive when adopting the first compared to the second approach to risk assessment. The latter approach was also more sensitive in detecting between-groups differences...

  3. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment in healthy children and adolescents: A latent variable modelling investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish latent executive function (EF) and psychosocial adjustment factor structure, to examine associations between EF and psychosocial adjustment, and to explore potential development differences in EF-psychosocial adjustment associations in healthy children and adolescents. Using data from the multisite National Institutes of Health (NIH) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development, the current investigation examined latent associations between theoretically and empirically derived EF factors and emotional and behavioral adjustment measures in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (7-18 years old; N = 352). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the primary method of data analysis. CFA results revealed that, in the whole sample, the proposed five-factor model (Working Memory, Shifting, Verbal Fluency, Externalizing, and Internalizing) provided a close fit to the data, χ(2)(66) = 114.48, p psychosocial adjustment associations. Findings indicate that childhood EF skills are best conceptualized as a constellation of interconnected yet distinguishable cognitive self-regulatory skills. Individual differences in certain domains of EF track meaningfully and in expected directions with emotional and behavioral adjustment indices. Externalizing behaviors, in particular, are associated with latent Working Memory and Verbal Fluency factors.

  4. Assessment of family psychosocial functioning in survivors of pediatric cancer using the PAT2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleland, Jordan; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Brand, Sarah; Griffin, Anya; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Meacham, Lillian; Mertens, Ann

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to examine clinical validity and utility of a screening measure for familial psychosocial risk, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool 2.0 (PAT2.0), among pediatric cancer survivors participating in long-term survivorship care. Caregivers (N=79) completed the PAT2.0 during their child's survivorship appointment. Caregivers also reported on family engagement in outpatient mental health treatment. Medical records were reviewed for treatment history and oncology provider initiated psychology consults. The internal consistency of the PAT2.0 total score in this survivorship sample was strong. Psychology was consulted by the oncology provider to see 53% of participant families, and families seen by psychology had significantly higher PAT2.0 total scores than families without psychology consults. PAT2.0 total scores and corresponding subscales were higher for patients, parents, and siblings enrolled in outpatient mental health services since treatment completion. Results were consistent with psychosocial risk categories presented within the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model. Fifty-one percent of families presenting for survivorship care scored in the "universal" category, 34% scored in the "targeted" category, and 15% scored in the "clinical" category. Data indicate that the overall proportions of families experiencing "universal", "targeted", and "clinical" levels of familial distress may be constant from the time of diagnosis into survivorship care. Overall, the PAT2.0 demonstrated strong psychometric properties among survivors of pediatric cancer and shows promise as a psychosocial screening measure to facilitate more effective family support in survivorship care. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Standardized assessment of psychosocial factors and their influence on medically confirmed health outcomes in workers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Susel; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; da Costa, José Torres

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of psychosocial work factors have indicated their importance for workers' health. However, to what extent health problems can be attributed to the nature of the work environment or other psychosocial factors is not clear. No previous systematic review has used inclusion criteria based on specific medical evaluation of work-related health outcomes and the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence assessing the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and workers' health based on studies that used standardized and validated instruments to assess the psychosocial work environment and that focused on medically confirmed health outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching the databases PubMed, B-ON, Science Direct, Psycarticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and the search engine (Google Scholar) using appropriate words for studies published from 2004 to 2014. This review follows the recommendations of the Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). Studies were included in the review if data on psychosocial validated assessment method(s) for the study population and specific medical evaluation of health-related work outcome(s) were presented. In total, the search strategy yielded 10,623 references, of which 10 studies (seven prospective cohort and three cross-sectional) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (7/10) observed an adverse effect of poor psychosocial work factors on workers' health: 3 on sickness absence, 4 on cardiovascular diseases. The other 3 studies reported detrimental effects on sleep and on disease-associated biomarkers. A more consistent effect was observed in studies of higher methodological quality that used a prospective design jointly with the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment and clinical

  6. Prenatal psychosocial risk assessment using event history calendars with Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Michelle L; Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Lori, Jody R; Martyn, Kristy K

    2012-01-01

    To explore the clinical acceptability and perceptions of use of a prenatal event history calendar (EHC) for prenatal psychosocial risk assessment in Black pregnant women. A qualitative descriptive study focused on interviews and prenatal EHCs completed by Black pregnant women. Inner city hospital prenatal care clinic in Southeastern Michigan. Thirty 18-35 year old pregnant Black women receiving prenatal care at the participating clinic. Women completed the prenatal EHCs and their perceptions of its use were obtained through face to face interviews. The constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser, 1978, 1992) revealed themes from participants' descriptions about use of a prenatal EHC for prenatal psychosocial risk assessment. Three main themes emerged describing how the prenatal EHC enhanced communication. The prenatal EHC provided "an opening" for disclosure, "an understanding with you," and a way for providers to "know you, your life, and future plans." The participants' completed prenatal EHCs included information regarding their pre-pregnancies, trimester histories, and future plans. These completed prenatal EHCs showed patterns of change in life events and behaviors that included worries, stressors, and risk behaviors. The participants perceived the prenatal EHC as an easy to use tool that should be used to improve communication with health care providers. The prenatal EHC allows the patient and provider to "start on the same page" and provides an additional avenue for discussion of sensitive psychosocial issues with Black pregnant women. As a clinical tool, the prenatal EHC facilitated patient-provider communication for pregnant women often marked by health disparities. The prenatal EHC is a clinically acceptable tool to assess for psychosocial risk factors of Black women in a prenatal clinical setting. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  7. Vitiligo impact scale: An instrument to assess the psychosocial burden of vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurang S Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo is a disease that significantly impairs quality of life. Previous studies have shown that vitiligo has an impact that may not correlate with the size and extent of depigmentation, indicating a need for an independent measure of the psychosocial burden. Aims : To develop a rating scale to assess the psychosocial impact of vitiligo. Methods : The study was undertaken in three broad phases: item generation, pre- and pilot testing, and test administration. Items were generated largely from a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of patients. Face and content validity were assessed through pre- and pilot testing in 80 patients and the final version was administered to 100 patients who also received the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI and the Skindex-16. Each patient also underwent a physician global assessment (PGA of the impact of vitiligo. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 20 patients. Results: Of 72 items initially generated for the scale, 27 were retained in the final version. Subjects were able to comprehend the items and took about 5-7 min to complete the instrument. The scale was internally consistent (Cronbach′s α = 0.85. Scores on the scale correlated moderately well with the DLQI and the Skindex (Spearman rank correlation: 0.51 and 0.65, respectively. The scale was able to discriminate between patients having mild and those having moderate and severe impact as assessed by PGA. The test-retest reliability coefficient (Spearman rank correlation was 0.80. Conclusion: The Vitiligo Impact Scale appears to be a valid measure of the psychosocial impact of vitiligo and this instrument may be useful both in the clinic and in clinical trials.

  8. Relation between psychosocial variables and the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional and prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai Keisuke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional and prospective study used a variety of psychological inventories to evaluate the relationship between psychosocial factors and the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants were 304 patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated as outpatients at diabetes clinics. All participants were assessed for HbA1c and completed the following self-report psychological inventories: 1 Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ, 2 Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey (PAID, 3 Well-being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12, 4 Self-Esteem Scale (SES, 5 Social Support Scale, and 6 Self-Efficacy Scale. HbA1c was again measured one year later. The relationships between the psychosocial variables obtained by analysis of the psychological inventories and baseline or one-year follow-up HbA1c were determined. Results Baseline HbA1cwas significantly correlated with age, diet treatment regimen, number of microvascular complication of diabetes, and the total scores of DTSQ, W-BQ12, PAID, SES and the Self-Efficacy Scale. Hierarchical stepwise multiple regression revealed that significant predictors of baseline HbA1c were total DTSQ and PAID scores, along with age, diet treatment regimen, and number of microvascular complication of diabetes after adjustment for demographic, clinical and other psychosocial variables. Two hundred and ninety patients (95.4% of 304 were followed and assessed one year after baseline. Hierarchical stepwise multiple regression analysis showed the significant predictors of follow-up HbA1c to be total DTSQ and PAID scores, along with age and diet treatment regimen. However, the correlation between baseline and follow-up HbA1c was so high that the only other variable to retain significance was diet treatment regimen once baseline HbA1c was included in the regression of follow-up HbA1c. Conclusion The DTSQ and the PAID predicted both current and future HbA1c to a similar and

  9. The relationship between psychosocial variables and pain reporting in osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, P; Hochberg, M C

    1998-02-01

    Psychosocial factors may explain some of the variation in pain reporting among individuals with knee OA. This has important potential implications for management; indeed, several studies (reviewed in ref. 56) have demonstrated that interventions may reduce knee pain without apparent halting or reversing of structural damage. Such interventions have included the simple provision of support by monthly telephone calls (57), self-management programs (58), and cognitive-behavioral approaches designed to teach patients ways of coping with their pain (59). These programs are even more effective if the spouse is involved (60). It should be noted that there may be a large placebo effect in these interventions, and the degree to which patients are responding simply to an interest being taken in them and their problems is unclear; at least one study has shown that formal cognitive-behavioral therapy is no better than didactic education at improving pain and function in knee OA (though both are beneficial) (61). Many studies examining the role of psychosocial factors have suffered from poor design; many, for example, fail to control for radiographic severity. Future studies should define how pain is identified (dichotomous, ever/never/current, severity), differentiate community and hospital subjects, and separate patients by type and location of OA. Studies should also control for other factors potentially associated with pain: obesity, comorbidity, muscle weakness, and aerobic fitness. Prospective studies would allow clarification of the cause and effect relationship between anxiety, depression, and pain, both in the community and in patients who have elected to seek medical help. In this way, we may increase our understanding of the complex interaction between mood, social factors, and pain reporting in knee OA and, thus, improve the effectiveness, already equivalent to many pharmacologic interventions, of treatments designed to address psychosocial factors.

  10. Assessment effects in educational and psychosocial intervention trials: an important but often-overlooked problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E

    2015-06-01

    Baseline assessments and repeated measures are an essential part of educational and psychosocial intervention trials, but merely measuring an outcome of interest can modify that outcome, either by the measurement process alone or by interacting with the intervention to strengthen or weaken the intervention effects. Assessment effects can result in biased estimates of intervention effects and may not be controlled by the usual two-group randomized controlled trial design. In this paper, we review the concept of assessment effects and other related phenomena, briefly describe study designs that estimate assessment effects separately from intervention effects and discuss their strengths and limitations, review evidence regarding the strength of assessment effects in intervention trials targeting behavior change, and discuss implications for intervention research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Study protocol for a comparative effectiveness trial of two models of perinatal integrated psychosocial assessment: the PIPA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Nicole; Black, Emma; Chambers, Georgina M; Schmied, Virginia; Matthey, Stephen; Farrell, Josephine; Kingston, Dawn; Bisits, Andrew; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2017-07-20

    Studies examining psychosocial and depression assessment programs in maternity settings have not adequately considered the context in which psychosocial assessment occurs or how broader components of integrated care, including clinician decision-making aids, may optimise program delivery and its cost-effectiveness. There is also limited evidence relating to the diagnostic accuracy of symptom-based screening measures used in this context. The Perinatal Integrated Psychosocial Assessment (PIPA) Project was developed to address these knowledge gaps. The primary aims of the PIPA Project are to examine the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of two alternative models of integrated psychosocial care during pregnancy: 'care as usual' (the SAFE START model) and an alternative model (the PIPA model). The acceptability and perceived benefit of each model of care from the perspective of both pregnant women and their healthcare providers will also be assessed. Our secondary aim is to examine the psychometric properties of a number of symptom-based screening tools for depression and anxiety when used in pregnancy. This is a comparative-effectiveness study comparing 'care as usual' to an alternative model sequentially over two 12-month periods. Data will be collected from women at Time 1 (initial antenatal psychosocial assessment), Time 2 (2-weeks after Time 1) and from clinicians at Time 3 for each condition. Primary aims will be evaluated using a between-groups design, and the secondary aim using a within group design. The PIPA Project will provide evidence relating to the clinical- and cost- effectiveness of psychosocial assessment integrated with electronic clinician decision making prompts, and referral options that are tailored to the woman's psychosocial risk, in the maternity care setting. It will also address research recommendations from the Australian (2011) and NICE (2015) Clinical Practice Guidelines. ACTRN12617000932369.

  12. How to measure prenatal stress? A systematic review of psychometric instruments to assess psychosocial stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, Irina; Bolten, Margarete; Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Hellhammer, Dirk H

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of literature documents associations of maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy with fetal, infant and child behaviour and development. However, findings across studies are often inconsistent, which may in part be due to differences in stress definitions and assessments. We systematically reviewed methods applied to assess maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy in studies looking at associations with biobehavioural outcomes in the offspring. A systematic literature search was performed on Web of Science and PubMed for the time period between January 1999 and October 2009. Psychometric instruments assessing maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy were identified and described if data on psychometric properties were available. We identified 115 publications that assessed psychosocial stress during pregnancy with validated methods. These publications applied overall 43 different instruments assessing constructs falling under seven categories, ordered according to their frequency of use: anxiety, depression, daily hassles, aspects of psychological symptomatology (not reduced to anxiety or depression), life events, specific socio-environmental stressors and stress related to pregnancy and parenting. If available, we provide information on validity and reliability of the instruments for samples of pregnant women. Within the 'prenatal stress' research, a broad range of instruments is applied to assess psychosocial stress during pregnancy. Prenatal stress research should take into consideration that the variety of methods in use might hamper the comparability of stress research results. In each category of stress constructs, one instrument with good psychometric properties in pregnant women is highlighted as the best currently available measure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Being Nontraditional and Learning Online: Assessing the Psychosocial Learning Environments, Self-Efficacy, and Affective Outcomes among College Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Roslyn La'Toya

    2014-01-01

    The study compared traditional and nontraditional students' attitudes about the psychosocial learning environment and their influence on self-efficacy, enjoyment of online learning, and student satisfaction by using Moos' (1979) Model of Environmental and Personal Variables and the three dimensions of social climate as its theoretical framework.…

  14. Risk assessment of groundwater level variability using variable Kriging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the water table level spatial variability in aquifers provides useful information regarding optimal groundwater management. This information becomes more important in basins where the water table level has fallen significantly. The spatial variability of the water table level in this work is estimated based on hydraulic head measured during the wet period of the hydrological year 2007-2008, in a sparsely monitored basin in Crete, Greece, which is of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest. Three Kriging-based methodologies are elaborated in Matlab environment to estimate the spatial variability of the water table level in the basin. The first methodology is based on the Ordinary Kriging approach, the second involves auxiliary information from a Digital Elevation Model in terms of Residual Kriging and the third methodology calculates the probability of the groundwater level to fall below a predefined minimum value that could cause significant problems in groundwater resources availability, by means of Indicator Kriging. The Box-Cox methodology is applied to normalize both the data and the residuals for improved prediction results. In addition, various classical variogram models are applied to determine the spatial dependence of the measurements. The Matérn model proves to be the optimal, which in combination with Kriging methodologies provides the most accurate cross validation estimations. Groundwater level and probability maps are constructed to examine the spatial variability of the groundwater level in the basin and the associated risk that certain locations exhibit regarding a predefined minimum value that has been set for the sustainability of the basin's groundwater resources. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the

  15. Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study......Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study...

  16. Do weather changes influence pain levels in women with fibromyalgia, and can psychosocial variables moderate these influences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedslund, Geir; Eide, Hilde; Kristjansdottir, Ólöf Birna; Nes, Andrea Aparecida Gonçalves; Sexton, Harold; Fors, Egil A.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between fibromyalgia pain and weather, and to investigate whether psychosocial factors influence this relationship. Women with chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia ( N = 50) enrolled in a larger study, were recruited from a 4-week inpatient rehabilitation program in Norway ( 2009-2010), and reported their pain and psychological factors up to three times per day (morning, afternoon, evening) for 5 weeks. These ratings were then related to the official local weather parameters. Barometric pressure recorded simultaneously impacted pain significantly while temperature, relative humidity, and solar flux did not. No psychological variables influenced the weather-pain interaction. No weather parameter predicted change in the subsequent pain measures. The magnitude of the inverse association between pain and barometric pressure was very small, and none of the psychological variables studied influenced the association between pain and barometric pressure. All in all, the evidence for a strong weather-pain association in fibromyalgia seems limited at best.

  17. Training Effects on Older Adults in Information and Communication Technologies Considering Psychosocial Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sónia; Torres, Ana; Mealha, Óscar; Veloso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to contribute knowledge about the impact of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) on the self-concept, mood, and quality of life of institutionalized older adults in retirement homes and day care centers (Portuguese institutions). It also studies the influence of independent variables such as…

  18. Training Effects on Older Adults in Information and Communication Technologies Considering Psychosocial Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sónia; Torres, Ana; Mealha, Óscar; Veloso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to contribute knowledge about the impact of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) on the self-concept, mood, and quality of life of institutionalized older adults in retirement homes and day care centers (Portuguese institutions). It also studies the influence of independent variables such as…

  19. Assessing psychosocial correlates of parental safety behaviour using Protection Motivation Theory : Stair gate presence and use among parents of toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); J. Brug (Hans); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); R. Dekker (Rieneke); P. den Hertog (Paul); H. Raat (Hein)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractUnintentional injury due to falls is one of the main reasons for hospitalization among children 0–4 years of age. The goal of this study was to assess the psychosocial correlates of parental safety behaviours to prevent falls from a staircase due to the lack of or the lack of adequate us

  20. Psychosocial assessment and monitoring in the new era of non-interferon-alpha hepatitis C virus treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; J; Rowan; Nizar; Bhulani

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus(HCV) is a global concern. With the 2014 Food and Drug Administration approvals of two direct-acting antiviral(DAA) regimens, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimen and the ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir regimen, we may now be in the era of all-pill regimens for HCV. Until this development, interferon-alpha along with Ribavirin has remained part of the standard of care for HCV patients. That regimen necessitates psychosocial assessment of factors affecting treatment eligibility, including interferon-alpharelated depressive symptoms, confounding psychiatric conditions, and social aspects such as homelessness affecting treatment eligibility. These factors have delayed as much as 70% of otherwise eligible candidates from interferon-based treatment, and have required treating physicians to monitor psychiatric as well as medical side effects throughout treatment. Allpill DAA regimens with the efficaciousness that would preclude reliance upon interferon-alpha or ribavirin have been anticipated for years. Efficacy studies for these recently approved DAA regimens provide evidence to assess the degree that psychosocial assessment and monitoring will be required. With shorter treatment timelines, greatly reduced side effect profiles, and easier regimens, psychosocial contraindications are greatly reduced. However, current or recent psychiatric comorbidity, and drug-drug interactions with psychiatric drugs, will require some level of clinical attention. Evidence from these efficacy studies tentatively demonstrate that the era of needing significant psychosocial assessment and monitoring may be at an end, as long as a manageable handful of clinical issues are managed.

  1. Gifted Education in Science and Chemistry: Perspectives and Insights into Teaching, Pedagogies, Assessments, and Psychosocial Skills Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. CHOWDHURY

    2016-01-01

    This article provides gifted education perspectives and creative insights with a particular focus on chemistry and science, and discusses associated teaching, learning, pedagogies, curriculum developments and assessments in the context of gifted education. The article emphasizes the cluster grouping approach, hidden curriculum, mentoring and proper counselling provisions in school that may significantly impact on gifted students’ developments. The article discusses gifted students’ psychosoci...

  2. A pilot with computer-assisted psychosocial risk –assessment for refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugees experience multiple health and social needs. This requires an integrated approach to care in the countries of resettlement, including Canada. Perhaps, interactive eHealth tools could build bridges between medical and social care in a timely manner. The authors developed and piloted a multi-risk Computer-assisted Psychosocial Risk Assessment (CaPRA tool for Afghan refugees visiting a community health center. The iPad based CaPRA survey was completed by the patients in their own language before seeing the medical practitioner. The computer then generated individualized feedback for the patient and provider with suggestions about available services. Methods A pilot randomized trial was conducted with adult Afghan refugees who could read Dari/Farsi or English language. Consenting patients were randomly assigned to the CaPRA (intervention or usual care (control group. All patients completed a paper-pencil exit survey. The primary outcome was patient intention to see a psychosocial counselor. The secondary outcomes were patient acceptance of the tool and visit satisfaction. Results Out of 199 approached patients, 64 were eligible and 50 consented and one withdrew (CaPRA = 25; usual care = 24. On average, participants were 37.6 years of age and had lived 3.4 years in Canada. Seventy-two percent of participants in CaPRA group had intention to visit a psychosocial counselor, compared to 46 % in usual care group [X2 (1=3.47, p = 0.06]. On a 5-point scale, CaPRA group participants agreed with the benefits of the tool (mean = 4 and were ‘unsure’ about possible barriers to interact with the clinicians (mean = 2.8 or to privacy of information (mean = 2.8 in CaPRA mediated visits. On a 5-point scale, the two groups were alike in patient satisfaction (mean = 4.3. Conclusion The studied eHealth tool offers a promising model to integrate medical and social care to address the health and settlement

  3. Assessment of reservoir system variable forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistenmacher, Martin; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2015-05-01

    Forecast ensembles are a convenient means to model water resources uncertainties and to inform planning and management processes. For multipurpose reservoir systems, forecast types include (i) forecasts of upcoming inflows and (ii) forecasts of system variables and outputs such as reservoir levels, releases, flood damage risks, hydropower production, water supply withdrawals, water quality conditions, navigation opportunities, and environmental flows, among others. Forecasts of system variables and outputs are conditional on forecasted inflows as well as on specific management policies and can provide useful information for decision-making processes. Unlike inflow forecasts (in ensemble or other forms), which have been the subject of many previous studies, reservoir system variable and output forecasts are not formally assessed in water resources management theory or practice. This article addresses this gap and develops methods to rectify potential reservoir system forecast inconsistencies and improve the quality of management-relevant information provided to stakeholders and managers. The overarching conclusion is that system variable and output forecast consistency is critical for robust reservoir management and needs to be routinely assessed for any management model used to inform planning and management processes. The above are demonstrated through an application from the Sacramento-American-San Joaquin reservoir system in northern California.

  4. Physiotherapy students’ assessment of psychosocial yellow flags in low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Parker

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back Pain (LBP makes up a large proportion of referrals to physiotherapy worldwide. Thus training in its effective assessment and management is essential. With psychosocial yellow flags having been recognised as the strongest predictors of chronicity in LBP, guidelines on the management of LBP emphasise the importance of assessing and managing yellow flags. Aim: The aim of this research was to explore whether physiotherapy students were able to assess risk of chronicity based on the presence of yellow flags in descriptions of people with LBP.Method: A postal semi-structured questionnaire based on clinicalvignettes was sent to all the Level 3 physiotherapy students studying at Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh.Results: The survey was responded to by 15 of the students (35%. The respondents overestimated risk of chronic LBP from the vignettes. Evaluation of risk for chronicity was based on few yellow flags i.e. the strongest predictors of chronicity were not effectively interpreted resulting in incorrect determination of risk for chronic LBP. All respondents included at least one risk factor not supported by the evidence. Conclusions: Physiotherapy students in this study did not appear to respond appropriately to the presence ofyellow flags in the presented vignettes.

  5. Assessment of safety and health of storage workers - a psychosocial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadłowska-Wrzesińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is still a lot to do as far as prevention and elimination of traditional health and work safety hazards is concerned, the problem of psychosocial risk prevention is extremely important nowadays. It is crucial to take into consideration the health of workers and promotion of health in the workplace, as the occupational stress epidemics is getting more and more widespread. Methods: The article is based on the statistic analysis of accidents at work as well as the analysis of health problems resulting from the job itself. The latest work safety reports have been reviewed and special attention has been paid to psychosocial risk analysis. The author has tried to explicate the terms of new and emerging risks as regards storage work. Results: Various threat aspects of storage work have been evaluated. Deficits in psychosocial hazard identification have been indicated. What is more, no correlation between occupational tasks of storage workers and their knowledge about psychosocial risks has been emphasized.  An exemplified approach to warehouse psychosocial threat identification has been presented. The approach is based on the diagnosis of the current situation.  Conclusions: The psychosocial risk of storage work may lead to health deterioration, greater accident risk and worse performance at work. Such consequences mean that the psychosocial risks affect both an individual and the organization. Therefore, we should expect more intense efforts to increase psychosocial risk awareness of both employers and employees.

  6. Psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods as defined by the Midwest Food Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ramona; Smith, Chery

    2002-01-01

    To examine psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods using an expanded Theory of Planned Behavior. Consumers were approached at the store entrance and asked to complete a self-administered survey. Three metropolitan Minnesota grocery stores. Participants (n = 550) were adults who shopped at the store: the majority were white, female, and highly educated and earned >or= 50,000 dollars/year. Participation rates averaged 62%. The major domain investigated was consumer support for sustainably produced foods. Demographics, beliefs, attitudes, subjective norm, and self-identity and perceived behavioral control were evaluated as predictors of intention to purchase them. Descriptive statistics, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson product moment correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses (P Consumers were supportive of sustainably produced foods but not highly confident in their ability to purchase them. Independent predictors of intention to purchase them included attitudes, beliefs, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, past buying behavior, and marital status. Beliefs, attitudes, and confidence level may influence intention to purchase sustainably produced foods. Nutrition educators could increase consumers' awareness of sustainably produced foods by understanding their beliefs, attitudes, and confidence levels.

  7. Obstetric care providers assessing psychosocial risk factors during pregnancy: validation of a short screening tool - the KINDEX Spanish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridou, Andria; Schauer, Maggie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina

    2014-01-01

    High levels of stress due to diverse psychosocial factors have a direct impact on the mothers' wellbeing during pregnancy and both direct and indirect effects on the fetus. In most cases, psychosocial risk factors present during pregnancy will not disappear after delivery and might influence the parent-child relationship, affecting the healthy development of the offspring in the long term. We introduce a short innovative prenatal assessment to detect psychosocial risk factors through an easy to use instrument for obstetrical medical staff in the daily clinical practice, the KINDEX Spanish Version. In the present study midwives and gynecologists interviewed one hundred nineteen pregnant women in a public health center using the KINDEX Spanish Version. Sixty-seven women were then randomly selected to participate in an extended standardized validation interview conducted by a clinical psychologist using established questionnaires to assesses current stress (ESI, PSS-14), symptoms of psychopathology (HSCL-25, PDS) and traumatic experiences (PDS, CFV). Ethical approval was granted and informed consent was required for participation in this study. The KINDEX sum score, as assessed by medical staff, correlated significantly with stress, psychopathology and trauma as measured during the clinical expert interview. The KINDEX shows strong concurrent validity. Its use by medical staff in daily clinical practice is feasible for public health contexts. Certain items in the KINDEX are related to the respective scales assessing the same risks (e.g.PSS-4 as the shorter version of the PSS-14 and items from the ESI) used in the validation interview. The KINDEX Spanish Version is a valid tool in the hands of medical staff to identify women with multiple psychosocial risk factors in public health settings. The KINDEX Spanish Version could serve as a base-instrument for the referral of at-risk women to appropriate psychosocial intervention. Such early interventions could prove pivotal

  8. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) in clinical practice--substance and reliability as judged by intraclass correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, J; Larsen, F W; Nielsen, S;

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the inter-rater reliability on the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and the Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) involving different subgroups of 145 outpatients from 4 to 16 years of age showed fair to substantial intraclass correlations of 0.59 to 0.90. Raters...

  9. Misuse of prescription stimulants for weight loss, psychosocial variables, and eating disordered behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy; Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs among young adults including an increase in the use of prescription stimulants normally used to treat ADHD. Reported motivations for the non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) include enhancing academic performance and to get high. Although a common side effect of these medications is appetite suppression, research examining weight loss as a motivation for NPS among young adults is sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=705) completed an online survey assessing weight loss behaviors, motivations for weight loss, and eating behaviors. Nearly 12% of respondents reported using prescription stimulants to lose weight. Participants who reported using prescription stimulants for weight loss had greater appearance-related motivations for weight loss, greater emotion and stress-related eating, a more compromised appraisal of their ability to cope, lower self-esteem, and were more likely to report engaging in other unhealthy weight loss and eating disordered behaviors. Results suggest some young adults are misusing prescription stimulants for weight loss and that this behavior is associated with other problematic weight loss strategies. Interventions designed to reduce problematic eating behaviors in young adults may wish to assess the misuse of prescription stimulants.

  10. Psycho-social outcome in liver transplanted children: beware of emotional self-assessment!

    OpenAIRE

    Calinescu Ana; McLin Valérie A; Belli Dominque; Wildhaber Barbara E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Psycho-social outcome in children after liver transplantation (LT) is known to be inferior to age-related peers. Yet, when children and their parents are questioned by their nurse or physician about the child’s psycho-social well-being, the answers usually are very positive. We hypothesized that patients and their parents after LT report their psycho-social well-being too enthusiastically when enquired by their personal care takers. Methods Inclusion criteria: LT at the Ch...

  11. Assessing psychosocial functioning of bariatric surgery candidates with the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Windover, Amy; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Merrell, Julie; Ashton, Kathleen; Lavery, Megan; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2013-11-01

    Psychological comorbidity is common in bariatric surgery candidates. Many multidisciplinary teams incorporate psychometric testing to screen for psychological factors that, if left unattended, may negatively impact surgical results. Here, we report descriptive findings and empirical correlates of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales among of bariatric surgery candidates undergoing a pre-surgical psychological evaluation. The sample consisted of male (n = 324) and female (n = 658) patients seeking bariatric surgery who were administered the MMPI-2-RF at their psychological evaluation. Psychosocial and medical variables were retrospectively coded from the patients' medical records. These criteria included history/current mental health diagnoses and treatments, maladaptive eating behaviors/diagnoses, past/current substance use, abuse history, sleep apnea, and denial of surgery. Descriptive analyses demonstrated similar findings for male and female candidates and replicated previous reports. MMPI-2-RF scales measuring emotional dysfunction were associated with maladaptive eating patterns, a history of Major Depressive Disorder, and previous suicide attempts. Scale scores measuring behavioral dysfunction were associated with current/past substance use and previous physical abuse. MMPI-2-RF scale scores measuring somatic problems were associated with a higher BMI at the time of surgery, sleep apnea diagnosis/adherence, physical/sexual abuse history, active mood disorder, previous mental health diagnoses, and maladaptive eating patterns. The MMPI-2-RF can aid in identifying a broad range of psychological comorbidity among bariatric surgery candidates. When used in conjunction with a pre-surgical psychological interview, it can aid in the assessment of psychological factors relevant to pre-surgical psychological assessment of bariatric surgery candidates.

  12. Assessment of auditory and psychosocial handicap associated with unilateral hearing loss among Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Ann Mary; Chrysolyte, Shipra B; Thenmozhi, K; Rupa, V

    2013-04-01

    In order to assess psychosocial and auditory handicap in Indian patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL), a prospective study was conducted on 50 adults with USNHL in the ENT Outpatient clinic of a tertiary care centre. The hearing handicap inventory for adults (HHIA) as well as speech in noise and sound localization tests were administered to patients with USNHL. An equal number of age-matched, normal controls also underwent the speech and sound localization tests. The results showed that HHIA scores ranged from 0 to 60 (mean 20.7). Most patients (84.8 %) had either mild to moderate or no handicap. Emotional subscale scores were higher than social subscale scores (p = 0.01). When the effect of sociodemographic factors on HHIA scores was analysed, educated individuals were found to have higher social subscale scores (p = 0.04). Age, sex, side and duration of hearing loss, occupation and income did not affect HHIA scores. Speech in noise and sound localization were significantly poorer in cases compared to controls (p handicap. When present, the handicap is more emotional than social. USNHL significantly affects sound localization and speech in noise. Yet, affected patients seldom seek a rehabilitative device.

  13. Some psychosocial aspects of nonlethal chondrodysplasias: I. Assessment using a Life-Styles Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A G

    1998-06-16

    Studies concerning the psychosocial aspects of skeletal dysplasias that cause disproportionate short stature have been few and have usually involved small numbers of patients. As part of a study involving patients with chondrodysplasias and their families, an assessment battery of standardised instruments designed to measure depression, anxiety, self-esteem, personal support networks, marital adjustment, and family structure were completed by patients and, in many cases, their sibs, spouses, and/or parents. This first in a series of six papers reports the results of a Life-Styles Questionnaire which provides some insights into the levels of satisfaction with various aspects of life, including friendships, employment, the use of some substances and services, and the impact of the skeletal dysplasia on career, marriage, and childbearing. Results are presented for patients and the unaffected parents of patients. Overall, the study has shown a high level of satisfaction with many aspects of life. However, there are important differences in attitudes between the married and unmarried patients, and in some cases the unaffected parents, in a number of areas including health, overall satisfaction with life, and concerns surrounding child bearing and employment.

  14. Validity of Pro Children Project questionnaire for assessing psychosocial factors of fruit and vegetable intake in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ochoa-Meza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine content and construct validity for the Mexican version of Pro Children Project questionnaire for assessing psychosocial factors, related to fruit and vegetable intake in samples of 10-12 year-old schoolchildren. Materials and methods. The questionnaire consisted of 87 items. It was administered to 2084 children in an instrumental study conducted in 2011 in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Results. Kappa statistic resulted in good agreement between experts (kappa=0.69, very good agreement in children (kappa=0.93. Seven factors were obtained that explained 37.87% of the variance in fruit and 48.18% of the variance in vegetable. Cronbach´s alpha values were low to moderate (range 0.55 to 0.83. An internal structure of seven first order factors was confirmed in fruits and six linked to vegetables. Conclusion. The questionnaire provides sufficient validity for assessing psychosocial factors related to fruit and vegetable intake in 10-12 year old schoolchildren. Finally, implications of the findings in the test adaptation process for assessing psychosocial factors of fruit and vegetable intake and for future research in this instrument are discussed.

  15. PARTNER INVOLVEMENT: NEGOTIATING THE PRESENCE OF PARTNERS IN PSYCHOSOCIAL ASSESSMENT AS CONDUCTED BY MIDWIVES AND CHILD AND FAMILY HEALTH NURSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollans, Mellanie; Kohlhoff, Jane; Meade, Tanya; Kemp, Lynn; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Universal screening for maternal depression and assessment of psychosocial risks has been integrated into the routine perinatal care provided in many Australian hospitals, but to date, partners/fathers have been largely excluded from the process. This study explored the ways in which clinicians in health service settings include partners who attend antenatal and postnatal visits with women. Qualitative data were collected using observations (n = 54), interviews (n = 60), and discussion groups (n = 7) with midwives and child and family health nurses who conducted the appointments. Transcripts from observations, interviews, and discussion groups underwent qualitative analysis, and key themes were identified. Results showed partners to have little or no involvement in psychosocial assessment and depression screening. Thematic analysis revealed four key themes: negotiating partner exclusion, partial inclusion, women's business or a couple concern? and they know anyway. Partner involvement appeared to be challenged particularly by mandatory interpersonal violence screening, which, according to health service policy, is to be conducted confidentially. Overall, results highlighted partner involvement in perinatal depression screening and psychosocial assessment processes and identified some of the benefits such as partner disclosure, but also the challenges and complexities of inclusion of partners. Clinical implications and directions for further education and research are discussed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Negotiating policy in practice: child and family health nurses' approach to the process of postnatal psychosocial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollans, Mellanie; Schmied, Virginia; Kemp, Lynn; Meade, Tanya

    2013-04-08

    There is growing recognition internationally of the need to identify women with risk factors for poor perinatal mental health in pregnancy and following birth. In the state of New South Wales, Australia the Supporting Families Early policy provides a framework of assessment and support for women and families and includes routine psychosocial assessment and depression screening. This study investigated the approach taken by Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs) following birth to assessment and screening as recommended by state policy. This was a qualitative ethnographic study that included 83 CFHN and 20 women. Observations occurred with thirteen nurses; with 20 women, in the home or the clinic environment. An additional 70 nurses participated in discussion groups. An observational tool (4D&4R) and field notes were used to record observations and analysed descriptively using frequencies. Field notes, interview data and discussion group transcripts were analysed thematically. This was a qualitative ethnographic study that included 83 CFHN and 20 women. Observations occurred with thirteen nurses; with 20 women, in the home or the clinic environment. An additional 70 nurses participated in discussion groups. An observational tool (4D&4R) and field notes were used to record observations and analysed descriptively using frequencies. Field notes, interview data and discussion group transcripts were analysed thematically. CFHNs demonstrated a range of approaches to assessment and screening. Psychosocial assessment was conducted in 50% (10 out of the 20) of the interactions observed; however, all the women were screened using the Edinburgh Depression Scale. Four major themes that represent the approach taken to the assessment process were identified: 'Engagement: getting that first bit right', 'Doing some paperwork', 'Creating comfort' and 'Psychosocial assessment: doing it another way'. Nurses utilised other skills such as observing the women interacting with their baby

  17. Psycho-social outcome in liver transplanted children: beware of emotional self-assessment!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calinescu Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psycho-social outcome in children after liver transplantation (LT is known to be inferior to age-related peers. Yet, when children and their parents are questioned by their nurse or physician about the child’s psycho-social well-being, the answers usually are very positive. We hypothesized that patients and their parents after LT report their psycho-social well-being too enthusiastically when enquired by their personal care takers. Methods Inclusion criteria: LT at the Children’s University Hospital of Geneva 1992–2007, age >3 years, 2 years. Children and their parents were questioned by their well-known, familiar nurse at the annual follow up visit about their personal well-being. To allow for evaluation of answers, scores (good, medium, bad were attributed to the different questions. 46 children were included in the study. Results Mean age at enquiry was 9.7 years (SD 4 years, mean time after LT was 7.5 years (SD 4.2 years. The different themes were reported as good for: parent–child relationship (83%, relationship with peers (98%, relation with siblings (39%, sport activities (54%, play activities (78%, school performance (87%, expression skills (67%, and general behavior (89%. Conclusion Most of our LT children and their parents consider, during a personal interview with a closely related, familiar nurse, that the child’s psycho-social outcome is good. Yet, it is generally acknowledged that children after LT have negatively altered psycho-social outcomes. Thus, emotionally influenced reports about psycho-social outcome in children after LT must be looked at with care.

  18. The effects of internet communication on adolescents' psychosocial development: an assessment of risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss both the appeal and psychosocial consequences of different types of Internet communication, such as instant messaging and social network sites. We identify five characteristics of Internet communication that may explain both the attraction of Internet communication for

  19. The effects of internet communication on adolescents' psychosocial development: an assessment of risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss both the appeal and psychosocial consequences of different types of Internet communication, such as instant messaging and social network sites. We identify five characteristics of Internet communication that may explain both the attraction of Internet communication for ad

  20. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  1. The effects of internet communication on adolescents' psychosocial development: an assessment of risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss both the appeal and psychosocial consequences of different types of Internet communication, such as instant messaging and social network sites. We identify five characteristics of Internet communication that may explain both the attraction of Internet communication for ad

  2. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  3. Obstetric care providers are able to assess psychosocial risks, identify and refer high-risk pregnant women: validation of a short assessment tool - the KINDEX Greek version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridou, Andria; Schauer, Maggie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina

    2015-02-21

    Prenatal assessment for psychosocial risk factors and prevention and intervention is scarce and, in most cases, nonexistent in obstetrical care. In this study we aimed to evaluate if the KINDEX, a short instrument developed in Germany, is a useful tool in the hands of non-trained medical staff, in order to identify and refer women in psychosocial risk to the adequate mental health and social services. We also examined the criterion-related concurrent validity of the tool through a validation interview carried out by an expert clinical psychologist. Our final objective was to achieve the cultural adaptation of the KINDEX Greek Version and to offer a valid tool for the psychosocial risk assessment to the obstetric care providers. Two obstetricians and five midwives carried out 93 KINDEX interviews (duration 20 minutes) with pregnant women to assess psychosocial risk factors present during pregnancy. Afterwards they referred women who they identified having two or more psychosocial risk factors to the mental health attention unit of the hospital. During the validation procedure an expert clinical psychologist carried out diagnostic interviews with a randomized subsample of 50 pregnant women based on established diagnostic instruments for stress and psychopathology, like the PSS-14, ESI, PDS, HSCL-25. Significant correlations between the results obtained through the assessment using the KINDEX and the risk areas of stress, psychopathology and trauma load assessed in the validation interview demonstrate the criterion-related concurrent validity of the KINDEX. The referral accuracy of the medical staff is confirmed through comparisons between pregnant women who have and have not been referred to the mental health attention unit. Prenatal screenings for psychosocial risks like the KINDEX are feasible in public health settings in Greece. In addition, validity was confirmed in high correlations between the KINDEX results and the results of the validation interviews. The

  4. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users’ Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. Objective This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Results Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users’ experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. Conclusions There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main

  5. Variability in endotoxin exposure levels and consequences for exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.; Schinkel, J.; Wouters, I.M.; Preller, L.; Tielemans, E.; Nij, E.T.; Heederik, D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Workers in many industries are exposed to endotoxins, which may cause adverse health effects. In exposure assessment, information about exposure variability is essential. However, variability in exposure has rarely been investigated for biological agents and more specifically for

  6. [The NETWASS prevention model for early identification and assessment of adolescents in psychosocial crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Friederike; Fiedler, Nora; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research-based NETWASS prevention model aims to enable school staff to identify students experiencing a psychosocial crisis that could lead to severe targeted school violence and to initiate appropriate support measures. A detailed analysis of the adolescent psychosocial crisis is conducted at an early stage by evaluating possible warning behaviors, crisis symptoms, a student’s individual and social background, and resources. The model was implemented in 98 schools. During the project duration of seven months staff from 59 schools reported 99 cases of a student’s psychosocial crisis. Three experts conducted a content analysis of the reported qualitative data focusing on crisis symptoms of the students as well as the initiated measures. Results show a broad spectrum of risk factors, whereas aggressive behavior of students was reported most frequently. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, the reported cases were divided into three distinct risk groups. A total of eight high-risk cases were observed and reported by the school staff. The school staff mostly reacted to the student crisis by initiating resource-orientated measures, the expertise of child and youth therapists was mostly requested for the high risk cases. By describing the impact of cases and choice of measures undertaken, the study aims to give an overview of incidents schools as well as clinical psychologists and therapists are confronted with.

  7. CBRC and psychosocial counselling: assessing needs and developing an ethical framework for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Eric; Thorn, Petra; Wischmann, Tewes

    2011-11-01

    Encountering infertility and involuntary childlessness and undergoing infertility treatment are acknowledged as stressful experiences that impact on individuals' psychological and emotional health – and for which access to psychosocial counselling by a skilled mental health professional may be beneficial. Evidence of patients', gamete donors' and surrogates' experiences indicates that utilization of infertility treatment in another country may not only exacerbate these psychosocial adversities, but may also pose additional risks to the psychological or physical health of participants, thus further emphasizing the need for competent psychosocial counselling services in cross-border reproductive care. However, this is a largely neglected topic in recent discussions of both CBRC itself and of infertility counselling practice. This paper extends the previous work undertaken by two of the authors to begin to map out practice issues within an ethical framework for counsellors when working with clients, donors, surrogates, individuals conceived following infertility treatment and existing children in clients', donor's and surrogates' families where cross-border reproductive treatment is considered or undertaken.

  8. The Iranian version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for assessment of psychological risk factors at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminian, Mohammad; Dianat, Iman; Miri, Anvar; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) is a widely used tool for evaluation of psychosocial risk factors at work. The aims of this study were to describe the short version of Farsi COPSOQ and to present its psychometric properties. Methods: A total of 427 administrative health care staff participated in this descriptive methodological study. Forward–backward procedure was adopted to translate the questionnaire from English into Farsi. Content validity was assessed by a panel of 10 experts. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC), respectively. The feasibility was assessed using ceiling and floor effect. Results: The short version of Farsi COPSOQ was configured with 16 dimensions (32 items).Content validity of the questionnaire was established. Factor analysis supported the conceptual multi-dimensionality (four factors), and therefore confirmed the construct validity of the Farsi COPSOQ. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α ranging between 0.75 and 0.89) and test retest reliability (ICC values ranged from 0.75 to 0.89) were both approved and the results showed no ceiling or floor effect. Conclusion: The results support the use of Farsi COPSOQ for evaluation of psychological risks and for research purposes in Iranian population. PMID:28058236

  9. Cross-sectional study showed psychosocial variables, gender and family involvement played an important role in an adolescent weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioste, Ana; Fonseca, Helena; Sousa, Pedro; Gaspar, Pedro; Machado, Maria do Céu

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the psychosocial gains perceived by overweight adolescents attending a 12-week weight management programme and to analyse gender-specific differences. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 70 overweight adolescents aged between 12 and 18 (52.9% girls), evaluated at baseline and at week 12 using anthropometric measurements and self-reported questionnaires. We analysed gender-specific differences related to body self-esteem, social life, relationships with their family, physical comfort, health responsibility, perceived benefits of the intervention, self-efficacy and adherence. We further investigated whether the variables at week 12 would predict changes in their body mass index. While weight had a greater impact on the body self-esteem of girls, both at baseline and week 12, boys reported higher self-efficacy and adherence as well as a greater perception of the benefits of the intervention at week 12. The body mass index change was positively associated with body self-esteem, relationships within the family and self-efficacy and adherence. Gender specifics and the role of psychosocial variables must be taken into account during weight management programmes for adolescents, and it is important to include the family throughout the entire process. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Addressing Human Variability in Next-Generation Human Health Risk Assessments of Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Frederic Y.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Hattis, Dale; Rusyn, Ivan; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment. Objective: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to-outcome continuum. Methods: This review was informed by a National Research Council workshop titled “Biological Factors that Underlie Individual Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors and Their Implications for Decision-Making.” We considered current experimental and in silico approaches, and emerging data streams (such as genetically defined human cells lines, genetically diverse rodent models, human omic profiling, and genome-wide association studies) that are providing new types of information and models relevant for assessing interindividual variability for application to human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Discussion: One challenge for characterizing variability is the wide range of sources of inherent biological variability (e.g., genetic and epigenetic variants) among individuals. A second challenge is that each particular pair of health outcomes and chemical exposures involves combinations of these sources, which may be further compounded by extrinsic factors (e.g., diet, psychosocial stressors, other exogenous chemical exposures). A third challenge is that different decision contexts present distinct needs regarding the identification—and extent of characterization—of interindividual variability in the human population. Conclusions: Despite these inherent challenges, opportunities exist to incorporate evidence from emerging data streams for addressing interindividual variability in a range of decision-making contexts. PMID:23086705

  11. Assessment of differences in psychosocial resources and state of health of rural and urban residents – based on studies carried out on students during examination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zarzycka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Civilization changes of the environment shaping the psychosocial resources from rural to urban influence human health. [b]aim.[/b] The study aimed to identify the differences due to the place of residence (rural, urban as far as health resources are concerned (social support, sense of coherence, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration in plasma and health in examination stress situations. The study also determined the concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (health resource and cortisol (stress indicator. [b]material and methods.[/b] The psychosocial variables were assessed using the scales: ISEL-48v. Coll., SOC-29, SF-36v.2™ o and analogue scale (perception of examination stress. The study included, based on a stratified sampling (year of study and purposive sampling (written examination, major, 731 students representing the six universities in Lublin, south-east Poland. Among the respondents, 130 students were rural residents. [b]results.[/b] Health resources of students living in rural and urban areas generally differ statistically significantly in social support and the subscales of availability of tangible support, availability of appreciative support, the availability of cognitive-evaluative support and a sense of resourcefulness. The study recorded a sstatistically significantly larger network of family ties among students living in rural areas. The demonstrated diversity of resources did not substantially affect the perceived health, with the exception of pain sensation. Examination stress assessed by subjective opinion of the respondents and plasma cortisol levels vary relative to the place of residence. Students residing in rural areas showed significantly lower cortisol levels values, but subjectively perceived the situation of examation as more stressful. [b]conclusions[/b]. Differences in health resources and their mechanism of impact on health, to a limited extent, were conditioned by the place

  12. Relationship of psychological symptoms, antipsychotics and social data with psychosocial function in schizophrenia patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlelawati, A Talib; Kartini, Abdullah; Norsidah, Kuzaifah; Ramli, Musa; Wan Azizi, Wan Sulaiman; Tariq, Abdul Razak

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial function and the role of relevant sociodemographic data and antipsychotic use in the prediction of psychosocial function among multiracial schizophrenia outpatients in Malaysia. A total of 223 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Psychological symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale whilst the psychosocial function was assessed using the Personal and Social Performance scale. Sociodemographic and treatment variables were gathered through interview or review of the medical records. All dimensions of psychosocial functions were inversely correlated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale sub-domains. Only the disorganization sub-domain significantly predicts all dimensions of psychosocial function. For social data, body mass index and employment status were significant predictors of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. Typical antipsychotics significantly predict social function negatively as compared to sulpiride (β = -0.152, P = 0.028). We found that the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial functions were relatively consistent with the findings from the Caucasian population. Additionally, disorganization was the only significant predictor of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. This further emphasized the importance of cognition in psychosocial function. The roles of sulpiride, body mass index and employment status as predictors of psychosocial function were also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Development and psychometric properties of the HPV Impact Profile (HIP) to assess the psychosocial burden of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, T Christopher; Zhu, Xingshu; Demuro-Mercon, Carla; Cummings, Holly W; Sings, Heather L; Ferris, Daron G

    2009-11-01

    A comprehensive questionnaire designed to assess the full spectrum of potential human papillomavirus (HPV)-related psychosocial effects in women does not exist. The HPV Impact Profile (HIP) was developed to determine the psychosocial impact of HPV infection and related interventions. Draft instrument items and domains were developed using a literature review and cognitive debriefing interviews with women who had experienced HPV-related conditions. An importance rating questionnaire guided item ranking and reduction. A draft questionnaire was pilot-tested for comprehension and ease of completion. Psychometric evaluation of the final HIP was conducted in a survey of 583 women. Data quality, item acceptability, scale acceptability, reliability, and discriminate construct validity were assessed. The final HIP contained 29 items rated on a 0-10 point discretized visual analog scales grouped into seven hypothesized domains. Total HIP scores ranged from 0 (no impact) to 100 (worst impact). Data quality was high, with missing data for items ranging from 0 to 0.7% and over 99% of the scores were computable. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.64 to 0.90 and was > or =0.7 for 5/7 domains. Discriminant construct validity was demonstrated. Appropriate modifications could potentially be made to improve some aspects of the HIP, including modification to include other HPV diseases such as head and neck, anal, and vulvovaginal cancers and HPV disease in men. The disease-specific HIP has favorable reliability and construct validity and a good ability to discriminate among disease severity.

  14. [PSP Scale: German version of the Personal and Social Performance Scale: valid instrument for the assessment of psychosocial functioning in the treatment of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, D; Juckel, G

    2011-09-01

    In the treatment of schizophrenia, the domain of psychosocial functioning is an important aspect of therapeutic success that should be considered in addition to the reduction of psychopathology. Valid and standardised measures are necessary for diagnostics and the assessment of patients" personal, social and professional functioning. The German version of the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) Scale (with its four subdimensions: "socially useful activities, work and study included", "personal and social relationships", "self-care" and "disturbing and aggressive behaviour") was administered to patients with schizophrenia in previous studies. These data demonstrated this scale to be a reliable, valid and efficient tool for measuring psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Thus, it is argued that, for everyday clinical practice, the PSP Scale is useful for the assessment of psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia during short, medium and long-term treatment courses.

  15. Assessment of psychosocial outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review of available instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield CE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Pandora Patterson,3 Fiona E J McDonald,3 Helen L Wilson,1,2 Esther Davis,3 Ursula M Sansom-Daly2,41School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders, Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3CanTeen, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Given the burgeoning body of research relating to the psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer, this review aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and appropriateness of the instruments available for use in this unique population. Specifically, we reviewed published instruments developed to assess psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress, and fear of recurrence, psychological growth (resilience, posttraumatic growth, and benefit finding, unmet needs, coping, quality of life, identity, and mindfulness-based practices and skills in AYAs with cancer. Given the dearth of validated instruments targeting AYAs with cancer, this review also provides a summary of promising measures yet to be formally validated in this population.Methods: Five electronic databases were searched by a team of six researchers, and studies involving AYAs (who have or have had cancer aged 15–30 years, and published between 1982 and 2012 were reviewed. Of 410 abstracts, 7 instruments were identified as validated in this population, with a further 19 identified as promising.Results: While there are numerous scales to assess psychosocial outcomes in cancer, few have been specifically validated for AYAs affected by cancer, particularly in the domains of psychological distress, psychological growth, coping, unmet needs, and identity. There are relatively more instruments validated, or promising, for assessment of quality of life than scales for other domains.Conclusion: In the AYA context

  16. Construction of a scale for assessing at work psychosocial risk factors in professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Unda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to create a valid and reliable instrument to measure psychosocial risk factorsat work in Mexican professors. A 66-item scale with 5 response choices was built. In order to validate thescale, it was administered to 500 public professors at Mexico city, aged between 21 an 76, 331 males and168 females, belonging to nine higher education schools. Statistical analyses were made to know the itemdiscriminant power, reliability, and factor structure. The scale rendered five factors: perceived inequity,difficult students, perceived insecurity, academic overload, and lack of resources at the workplace. Thescales had a Cronbach´s alpha between .75 and 92. As a conclusion, the scale fulfills the requirements ofreliability and validity in a population of professors.

  17. Using personal and fictional documents to assess psychosocial development: a case study of Vera Brittain's generativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B E; Stewart, A J

    1990-09-01

    Adult diaries and novels written by the British feminist and pacifist Vera Brittain (1893-1970) were content analyzed for Eriksonian themes of identity, intimacy, and generativity. Brittain's concerns with identity and intimacy decreased over time, while her generative concerns increased, suggesting that she expressed the issue of generativity vs. stagnation in her mid-life diaries and fiction. The large number of identity themes relative to both intimacy and generativity provokes speculations about Brittain's personality, the characteristics of writers, the influence of gender, the impact of society, and the possibility that the crisis of identity vs. role confusion involves the last major structural change in personality development. This archival case study is consistent with Erikson's notion of a sequence of concerns with psychosocial issues, although directions for theoretical revision and elaboration are discussed.

  18. 0173 Grouping strategies for exposure assessment of the psychosocial work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejs Willert, Morten; Schlünssen, Vivi; Basinas, Ioannis;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Individual response style, mood, expectations, and health status may affect reporting of the psychosocial work environment, and bias associations with outcomes. Reporting bias may be avoided by aggregating individual responses, ideally preserving exposure contrast. In this study, we...... (n = 751), and 3 occupational levels: sector (n = 7), profession (n = 46), and job title (n = 77). Exposures, calculated as means of items scored on 5-point Likert scales, included psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, effort, reward, and procedural and relational justice......: Within each hierarchy contrasts rose with increasing group-level detail. Grouping by either work unit (wu) or by job title (jt) contrasts were: psychological demands: 0.28(wu); 0.26(jt), decision latitude: 0.24(wu); 0.32(jt), social support: 0.24(wu); 0.06(jt), effort: 0.23(wu); 0.16(jt), reward: 0.19(wu...

  19. Resolution of psychosocial crises associated with flying in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena

    2011-07-01

    Erikson (1959) proposed a theoretical basis for healthy psychosocial development. His theory posits eight critical conflict situations throughout one's lifetime, each of which can result in a favorable or unfavorable resolution. Autobiographies, memoirs, interviews, personal diaries, and oral histories of 97 international astronauts were content analyzed to assess reported resolutions of Erikson's psychosocial crises, regardless of chronological sequence. We made comparisons across flight phases (before, during, and after), gender, nationality of home space agency, and flight duration. Astronauts reported more favorable than unfavorable outcomes across flight phases and demographic variables. Differences across demographic variables and flight phases, as well as the changes as a result of the flight are discussed.

  20. Assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis: Variability of different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troelsen, Anders; Elmengaard, Brian; Soeballe, Kjeld (Orthopedic Research Unit, Univ. Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)), e-mail: a_troelsen@hotmail.com; Roemer, Lone (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)); Kring, Soeren (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Aabenraa Hospital, Aabenraa (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    Background: Reliable assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis is crucial in young adults who may benefit from joint-preserving surgery. Purpose: To investigate the variability of different methods for diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Material and Methods: By each of four observers, two assessments were done by vision and two by angle construction. For both methods, the intra- and interobserver variability of center-edge and acetabular index angle assessment were analyzed. The observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis were assessed. All measures were compared to those made on computed tomography scan. Results: Intra- and interobserver variability of angle assessment was less when angles were drawn compared with assessment by vision, and the observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia improved when angles were drawn. Assessment of osteoarthritis in general showed poor agreement with findings on computed tomography scan. Conclusion: We recommend that angles always should be drawn for assessment of hip dysplasia on pelvic radiographs. Given the inherent variability of diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia, a computed tomography scan could be considered in patients with relevant hip symptoms and a center-edge angle between 20 deg and 30 deg. Osteoarthritis should be assessed by measuring the joint space width or by classifying the Toennis grade as either 0-1 or 2-3

  1. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  2. The Hispanic Stress Inventory--Adolescent Version: a culturally informed psychosocial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C; Fisher, Dennis G; Córdova, David; Napper, Lucy E

    2012-03-01

    A 2-phase study was conducted to develop a culturally informed measure of psychosocial stress for adolescents: the Hispanic Stress Inventory--Adolescent Version (HSI-A). Phase 1 involved item development through the collection of open-ended focus group interview data (n = 170) from a heterogeneous sample of Hispanic youths residing in the southwest and northeast United States. In Phase 2, we examined the psychometric properties of the HSI-A (n = 1,651), which involved the use of factor analytic procedures to determine the underlying scale structure of the HSI-A for foreign-born and U.S.-born participants in an aggregated analytic approach. An 8-factor solution was established, with factors that include Family Economic Stress, Acculturation-Gap Stress, Culture and Educational Stress, Immigration-Related Stress, Discrimination Stress, Family Immigration Stress, Community and Gang-Related Stress, and Family and Drug-Related Stress. Concurrent, related validity estimates were calculated to determine relations between HSI-A and other measures of child psychopathology and behavioral and emotional disturbances. HSI-A total stress appraisal scores were significantly correlated with both the Children's Depression Inventory and the Youth Self Report (p stress appraisal score reliability alpha at .92.

  3. Addressing Mental Health Disparities through Clinical Competence Not Just Cultural Competence: The Need for Assessment of Sociocultural Issues in the Delivery of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Brekke, John S

    2008-01-01

    Recognition of ethnic/racial disparities in mental health services has not directly resulted in the development of culturally responsive psychosocial interventions. There remains a fundamental need for assessment of sociocultural issues that have been linked with the expectations, needs, and goals of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. The authors posit that embedding the assessment of sociocultural issues into psychosocial rehabilitation practice is one step in designing culturally relevant empirically supported practices. It becomes a foundation on which practitioners can examine the relevance of their interventions to the diversity encountered in everyday practice. This paper provides an overview of the need for culturally and clinically relevant assessment practices and asserts that by improving the assessment of sociocultural issues the clinical competence of service providers is enhanced. The authors offer a conceptual framework for linking clinical assessment of sociocultural issues to consumer outcomes and introduce an assessment tool adapted to facilitate the process in psychosocial rehabilitation settings. Emphasizing competent clinical assessment skills will ultimately offer a strategy to address disparities in treatment outcomes for understudied populations of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. PMID:18778881

  4. Trajectories of Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents Predicted by Findings From Early Well-Child Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods: Data from three assessment waves of adolescents (n = 1,816) of the TRAILS were used

  5. Trajectories of Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents Predicted by Findings From Early Well-Child Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods: Data from three assessment waves of adolescents (n = 1,816) of the TRAILS were used

  6. The role of psychosocial and biological variables in separating chronic and non-chronic major depression and early-late-onset dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szádóczky, E; Fazekas, I; Rihmer, Z; Arató, M

    1994-09-01

    Psychosocial (sociodemographic characteristics, loss and separation and family atmosphere in childhood, recent life events) and biological (family history, DST, TRH-test) variables were investigated in 180 patients with Major Depression (MD) and Dysthymic Disorder (DD). The aim of the study was to reveal certain differences between the chronic and non-chronic course of MD and the early- and late-onset subtypes of dysthymia. When comparing the two course patterns of MD, a higher rate of malignant tumours among first-degree relatives, a greater number of long-lasting stress situations before the index depressive episode, longer duration of the previous episodes, less frequent DST nonsuppression, and a blunted TSH response to TRH were found in patients with a chronic course of MD. Several factors seem to influence the course pattern of MD, or else the chronic form represents a subgroup within MD. The late-onset dysthymics were mainly women with a low level of education, a lower suicidal tendency, normal suppression in DST, and a lack of blunted TSH responses to TRH administration during the period of double depression. The early-onset dysthymics showed a higher number of persons who had never married, who presented a more traumatic and frustrating childhood background, and who had a higher rate of DST non-suppressors and blunted TSH responses after TRH administration during the period of their double depression. Our data suggest that late-onset dysthymia might be a biologically distinct subgroup of chronic depression.

  7. Self-assessed health and mortality: could psychosocial factors explain the association?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); J.G. Simon (Jeanette); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); I.M.A. Joung (Inez)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The single-item question of self-assessed health has consistently been reported to be associated with mortality, even after controlling for a wide range of health measurements and known risk factors for mortality. It has been suggested that this association

  8. Assessment of Marijuana Use and Psychosocial Behaviors at Two Historically Black Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen-Reid, Terra L.; Rhodes, Warren A.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed three constructs (resilient, invulnerable, and vulnerable) as they related to marijuana use, examining the role of spirituality and social support as potential buffering mechanisms. Data on 103 African American undergraduates from two historically black colleges indicated that students who continued to use marijuana were less spiritual…

  9. [The Current State of Intercultural Opening in Psychosocial Services--The Results of an Assessment in an Inner-City District of Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, Simone; Faißt, Hanna; Vardar, Azra; Borde, Theda; Mösko, Mike Oliver; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Koch, Uwe; Kluge, Ulrike; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The need for intercultural opening of supply facilities for improving access and treatment of people with migration background is acknowledged in Germany. The purpose of the survey was to determine the current state of intercultural opening of psychosocial services in one Berlin district. 127 representatives of institutions were interviewed using a semi-structured assessment tool. The response rate was very high. The cross-cultural opening was implemented on a small scale. Staff as well as users with migration background were underrepresented. Varying and missing standardized documentation as well as problems in assessing users with migration background might be responsible for their low utilization rates. The use of professional interpreters was often not implemented. To judge the low level of implementation of cross-cultural opening in the psychosocial supply system in general, a review of responsible causes is required. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Acceptability and utility of an electronic psychosocial assessment (myAssessment) to increase self-disclosure in youth mental healthcare: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Sally; Rickwood, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Technology is increasingly being used in youth mental healthcare to support service delivery and improve health outcomes. The current study trialed a new electronic psychosocial application (myAssessment) that aims to provide a holistic assessment of relevant risk and protective factors in youth mental healthcare. The study aimed to determine whether myAssessment was acceptable to all users, and whether it affected: reporting of certain behaviors and ratings of self-disclosure; youth ratings of control, fears of judgmental reactions or time-efficiency; clinician ratings of time-efficiency or their ability to formulate a treatment plan; and the therapeutic alliance. The application was tested at a youth mental health service using a quasi-experimental two phase Treatment-as-Usual/Intervention design. Three hundred thirty nine youth and 13 clinicians participated across both phases. Reporting of behaviors, self-disclosure, youth control, judgmental reactions, time efficiency, ability to formulate treatment plans, and the therapeutic alliance were compared between groups. myAssessment was found to be widely accepted by both young people and clinicians. Use of myAssessment resulted in reporting of behaviors that were 2.78 through 10.38 times higher for a variety of substances (use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, sedatives, hallucinogens, and opioids), in identifying non-heterosexual sexual orientation, having had sex, an STI check, sex without a condom, having felt pressured to have sex in the past, having self-harmed, and in having put themselves in an unsafe situation. Participants who used the application also reported being less likely to lie on past experiences of being bullied, substance use, and self-harm. Use of the application resulted in improved youth ratings of time efficiency in session. The application was found to have no impact on youth control, judgmental reactions, formulation of treatment plans, or the therapeutic alliance. Electronic psychosocial

  11. Internet Addiction in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: Assessment, Profiles, and Psychosocial Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction behavior was examined in 6,121 Chinese primary and secondary school students in Hong Kong based on the assessment frameworks of Ivan Goldberg and Kimberly Young. Results showed that scales derived from both frameworks (CIA-Goldberg Scale and CIA-Young Scale were internally consistent and evidence supporting their validity was found. Descriptive statistical analyses revealed that roughly one-fifth of the respondents could be classified as Internet addicted based on either scale. Further analyses showed that Internet-addicted and -nonaddicted respondents differed in their Internet use and related behavior. Logistic regression analyses showed that engagement in certain on-line activities (such as playing on-line games and downloading software and replacement of pastimes activities (such as watching TV and going out with friends with Internet activities predicted a higher probability of Internet addiction.

  12. On the role of "internal variability" on soil erosion assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongho; Ivanov, Valeriy; Fatichi, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Empirical data demonstrate that soil loss is highly non-unique with respect to meteorological or even runoff forcing and its frequency distributions exhibit heavy tails. However, all current erosion assessments do not describe the large associated uncertainties of temporal erosion variability and make unjustified assumptions by relying on central tendencies. Thus, the predictive skill of prognostic models and reliability of national-scale assessments have been repeatedly questioned. In this study, we attempt to reveal that the high variability in soil losses can be attributed to two sources: (1) 'external variability' referring to the uncertainties originating at macro-scale, such as climate, topography, and land use, which has been extensively studied; (2) 'geomorphic internal variability' referring to the micro-scale variations of pedologic properties (e.g., surface erodibility in soils with multi-sized particles), hydrologic properties (e.g., soil structure and degree of saturation), and hydraulic properties (e.g., surface roughness and surface topography). Using data and a physical hydraulic, hydrologic, and erosion and sediment transport model, we show that the geomorphic internal variability summarized by spatio-temporal variability in surface erodibility properties is a considerable source of uncertainty in erosion estimates and represents an overlooked but vital element of geomorphic response. The conclusion is that predictive frameworks of soil erosion should embed stochastic components together with deterministic assessments, if they do not want to largely underestimate uncertainty. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1D1A1B03931886).

  13. Assessing the variability in respiratory acoustic thoracic imaging (RATHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston-Villalobos, S; Torres-Jiménez, A; González-Camarena, R; Chi-Lem, G; Aljama-Corrales, T

    2014-02-01

    Multichannel analysis of lung sounds (LSs) has enabled the generation of a functional image for the temporal and spatial study of LS intensities in healthy and diseased subjects; this method is known as respiratory acoustic thoracic imaging (RATHI). This acoustic imaging technique has been applied to diverse pulmonary conditions, but it is important to contribute to the understanding of RATHI characteristics, such as acoustic spatial distribution, dependence on airflow and variability. The purpose of the current study is to assess the intra-subject and inter-subject RATHI variabilities in a cohort of 12 healthy male subjects (24.3±1.5 years) using diverse quantitative indices. The indices were obtained directly from the acoustic image and did not require scores from human raters, which helps to prevent inter-observer variability. To generate the acoustic image, LSs were acquired at 25 positions on the posterior thoracic surface by means of airborne sound sensors with a wide frequency band from 75 up to 1000 Hz under controlled airflow conditions at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 L/s. To assess intra-subject variability, the degree of similitude between inspiratory acoustic images was evaluated through quadratic mutual information based on the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality (I(CS)). The inter-subject variability was assessed by an image registration procedure between RATHIs and X-ray images to allow the computation of average and variance acoustic image in the same coordinate space. The results indicated that intra-subject RATHI similitude, reflected by I(CS-global), averaged 0.960±0.008, 0.958±0.008 and 0.960±0.007 for airflows of 1.0, 1.5, and 2L/s, respectively. As for the inter-subject variability, the variance image values for three airflow conditions indicated low image variability as they ranged from 0.01 to 0.04. In conclusion, the assessment of intra-subject and inter-subject variability by similitude indices indicated that the acoustic image pattern is repeatable along

  14. Applying the revised Chinese Job Content Questionnaire to assess psychosocial work conditions among Taiwan's hospital workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ. Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts. Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation to experts to make job strain assessment easier and quicker than ever, Rasch rating scale model was used to analyze data from 1,644 hospital employees who enrolled in 2008 for a job strain survey. We determined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could evaluate job strain of individual employees in work sites. The respective item responding to specific groups' occupational hazards causing job stress was investigated by using skewness coefficient with its 95% CI through item-by-item analyses. Results Each of those 22 items on the questionnaire was examined to have five factors. The prevalence rate of Chinese hospital workers with high job strain was 16.5%. Conclusions Graphical representations of four quadrants, item-by-item bar chart plots and skewness 95% CI comparison generated in Excel can help employers and consultants of an organization focusing on a small number of key areas of concern for each worker in job strain.

  15. Whole scalp resting state EEG of oscillatory brain activity shows no parametric relationship with psychoacoustic and psychosocial assessment of tinnitus: A repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzycki, Robert H; McNamara, Adam J; Hoare, Derek J; Hall, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a perception of sound that can occur in the absence of an external stimulus. A brief review of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) literature demonstrates that there is no clear relationship between tinnitus presence and frequency band power in whole scalp or source oscillatory activity. Yet a preconception persists that such a relationship exists and that resting state EEG could be utilised as an outcome measure for clinical trials of tinnitus interventions, e.g. as a neurophysiological marker of therapeutic benefit. To address this issue, we first examined the test-retest correlation of EEG band power measures in tinnitus patients (n = 42). Second we examined the evidence for a parametric relationship between numerous commonly used tinnitus variables (psychoacoustic and psychosocial) and whole scalp EEG power spectra, directly and after applying factor reduction techniques. Test-retest correlation for both EEG band power measures and tinnitus variables were high. Yet we found no relationship between whole scalp EEG band powers and psychoacoustic or psychosocial variables. We conclude from these data that resting state whole scalp EEG should not be used as a biomarker for tinnitus and that greater caution should be exercised in regard to reporting of findings to avoid confirmation bias. The data was collected during a randomised controlled trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01541969).

  16. Evaluating variability and uncertainty in radiological impact assessment using SYMBIOSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cornu, M; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Boyer, P; Calmon, P; Garcia-Sanchez, L; Mourlon, C; Nicoulaud, V; Sy, M; Gonze, M A

    2015-01-01

    SYMBIOSE is a modelling platform that accounts for variability and uncertainty in radiological impact assessments, when simulating the environmental fate of radionuclides and assessing doses to human populations. The default database of SYMBIOSE is partly based on parameter values that are summarized within International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) documents. To characterize uncertainty on the transfer parameters, 331 Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) were defined from the summary statistics provided within the IAEA documents (i.e. sample size, minimal and maximum values, arithmetic and geometric means, standard and geometric standard deviations) and are made available as spreadsheet files. The methods used to derive the PDFs without complete data sets, but merely the summary statistics, are presented. Then, a simple case-study illustrates the use of the database in a second-order Monte Carlo calculation, separating parametric uncertainty and inter-individual variability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the Possibility of Leadership Education as Psychosocial-Based Problem Behavior Prevention for Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine theoretical connections between adolescent leadership education and problem behavior prevention. Both the problem behavior prevention literature and the leadership education literature were reviewed for studies pertaining to the development of psychosocial traits. In the leadership education literature this…

  18. Assessment of psychosocial factors and distress in women having adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: the relationship among emotional distress and patient and treatment-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozturk; Soylu, Cem; Babacan, Taner; Sarici, Furkan; Kertmen, Neyran; Allen, Deborah; Sever, Ali Riza; Altundag, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to comprehensively describe the psychosocial and medical characteristics of women who initiated tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer and to compare levels of emotional distress according to their medical (tumor demographics, treatment type, treatment duration) and psychosocial (self-esteem, perceived social support, sociodemographic) characteristics. A total of 104 women currently receiving tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors was recruited from outpatient clinics and they were asked to complete self-report questionnaires including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale during their routine follow-up. Psychosocial and medical characteristics of the patients were first described and subsequently the score of emotional distress was compared with these. The patients' mean age was 52.49 ± 10.30 and they were being treated for an average of 24.3 months. Out of the patients' characteristics, educational and marital status, level of perceived social support and self-esteem were all significantly related with emotional distress. As for medical variables, the score of distress was relatively higher among patients in the first 2 years of their treatment than the patients who were in the second to fifth years of treatment, but this was not statistically significant. Given the results of this study, it appeared that patient variables, rather than the medical or treatment characteristics, were related with emotional distress in women undergoing endocrine treatment. For that reason it is critical that medical staff are aware of patient factors that relate to distress during a long period of adjuvant endocrine therapy.

  19. Psychosocial problems in asylum seekers' children: the parent, child, and teacher perspective using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegersma, P Auke; Stellinga-Boelen, Annette A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2011-02-01

    Children of asylum seekers are at risk for psychosocial problems because of their flight history and exceptional living circumstances. This study aims to assess the association of sociodemographic factors and asylum procedural factors with psychosocial problems of asylum seekers' children, and differences herein by informant (parents, teachers, and children). To this end, we obtained data on psychosocial problems among a random sample of 267 children aged 4 to 16, living in Dutch asylum seekers' centers, using the multi-informant Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results show that the prevalence rate of psychosocial problems among asylum seekers' children was high. The occurrence was not associated with asylum-procedural variables but only with child-contextual factors such as mental health of the mother and leaving behind a parent in the country of origin. The associations varied in strength by informant. Therefore, preventive and supportive measures to improve psychosocial health of young asylum-seekers should concentrate on these contextual issues.

  20. Clients' psychosocial communication and midwives' verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Pereboom, M.T.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Dulmen, A.M. van

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study focuses on facilitation of clients' psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives' psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling du

  1. Clients’ psychosocial communication and midwives’ verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study focuses on facilitation of clients’ psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives’ psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling du

  2. Clients’ psychosocial communication and midwives’ verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study focuses on facilitation of clients’ psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives’ psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling du

  3. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  5. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  6. Randomized Trial Comparing the Electronic Composite Psychosocial Screener YouthCHAT With a Clinician-Interview Assessment for Young People: A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabrew, Hiran; Corter, Arden; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Goldfinch, Mary

    2017-07-31

    Psychosocial problems such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse are common and burdensome in young people, particularly those with long-term physical conditions such as asthma and diabetes. In New Zealand, "screening" for such problems is undertaken routinely only with Year 9 students in low-decile schools and opportunistically in pediatric settings using a nonvalidated and time-consuming clinician-administered Home, Education/employment, Eating, Activity, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression, Safety (HEEADSSS) interview. The Youth version, Case-finding and Help Assessment Tool (YouthCHAT) is a relatively new, locally developed, eTablet-based composite screener for identifying similar psychosocial issues to HEEADSSS. Based on individually validated screening instruments, it is self-administered within minutes. Preliminary testing has revealed its acceptability to young people, but further research is required to expand its modules to cover all HEEADSSS domains, to evaluate its acceptability for young people with and without long-term physical conditions, and to compare its effectiveness against HEEADSSS. Our aim is to (1) ascertain acceptability and utility of YouthCHAT for children with long-term physical illness and high school students, (2) validate three additional YouthCHAT domains against comparable HEEADSSS domains, and (3) compare the performance of YouthCHAT and HEEADSSS in the high school setting. During the first phase of the study, three additional YouthCHAT domains were codesigned with high school students. During the second phase of the study, the updated version of YouthCHAT will be administered to 30 young people with long-term physical conditions, and to 150 high school students either before or after HEEADSSS in the form of a randomized trial with counter-balanced design. Primary outcomes include comparability between HEEADSSS and YouthCHAT in detecting psychosocial issues, and time to administer; acceptability of YouthCHAT as an acceptable

  7. The psychosocial burden of childhood overweight and obesity: evidence for persisting difficulties in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lisa Y; Allen, Karina L; Davis, Elizabeth; Blair, Eve; Zubrick, Stephen R; Byrne, Susan M

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence that overweight and obese children tend to remain overweight or obese into adolescence and adulthood. However, little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of childhood overweight and obesity. This study aimed to investigate the course of psychosocial difficulties over a 2-year period for children who were overweight or obese at baseline, and a sample of children who were a healthy weight at baseline. Participants were 212 children aged 8 to 13 years at baseline, who were participating in the Childhood Growth and Development (GAD) Study. Questionnaire and interview measures were used to assess children's self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body image, eating disorder symptoms, experiences with bullying, family satisfaction and quality of life. Linear mixed models were used to consider longitudinal changes in psychosocial variables. Overweight and obese children reported greater psychosocial distress than healthy weight children, and these differences were more pronounced for girls than boys. Weight and psychosocial impairment showed stability from baseline to 2-year follow-up. The results of this study suggest that psychosocial difficulties show considerable stability in childhood, for overweight/obese and healthy weight children. What is Known: • Childhood obesity tracks into adolescence and adulthood. • Physical health problems associated with childhood obesity also persist to adulthood. What is New: • Overweight and obese children are at risk of ongoing psychosocial distress from childhood into early adolescence.

  8. Chlamydia screening in young people as an outcome of a HEADSS; Home, Education, Activities, Drug and alcohol use, Sexuality and Suicide youth psychosocial assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eade, Donna M; Henning, Dorothy

    2013-12-01

    To identify the percentage of young people presenting to a primary healthcare service targeting homeless youth, in Melbourne, Australia, who, based on youth-specific Home, Education, Activities, Drug and alcohol use, Sexuality and Suicide (HEADSS) psychosocial assessment tool, were screened for the sexually transmitted infection Chlamydia and tested positive. Homeless young people are at high risk of poor health outcomes including sexual health. Chlamydia prevalence is highest in 16-24 years. Youth psychosocial assessment tools such as the HEADSS can engage young people and provide comprehensive health assessment that identifies health risks. A retrospective audit. One hundred consecutive client files of youth who presented to a primary healthcare service for the first time were selected. Client data were collected at the health services' inner city drop-in clinic and clinical refuge outreach (CRO). HEADSS assessments were made on new presentations to identify those at risk of Chlamydia. These young people were then offered screening for Chlamydia using a first-pass urine sample. One hundred HEADSS assessments were audited, of which 15 were incomplete. Of the 85 completed HEADSS assessments, 43 were tested and 11 had Chlamydia-positive results. Comprehensive youth assessment tools, such as the HEADSS, can provide a valuable resource in identifying sexual health risks such as Chlamydia. In turn, skilled nursing staff can provide opportunistic screening. Early identification and treatment for Chlamydia can reduce the spread and sequela of this highly infectious STI. Youth health nurses can enhance their nursing practice in working with young people at risk of homelessness and improve their health outcomes by employing youth-specific assessments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Psychosocial assessment of nursing home residents via MDS 3.0: recommendations for social service training, staffing, and roles in interdisciplinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Kelsey; Connolly, Robert P; Bonifas, Robin; Allen, Priscilla D; Bailey, Kathleen; Downes, Deirdre; Galambos, Colleen

    2012-02-01

    The Minimum Data Set 3.0 has introduced a higher set of expectations for assessment of residents' psychosocial needs, including new interviewing requirements, new measures of depression and resident choice, and new discharge screening procedures. Social service staff are primary providers of psychosocial assessment and care in nursing homes; yet, research demonstrates that many do not possess the minimum qualifications, as specified in federal regulations, to effectively provide these services given the clinical complexity of this client population. Likewise, social service caseloads generally exceed manageable levels. This article addresses the need for enhanced training and support of social service and interdisciplinary staff in long term care facilities in light of the new Minimum Data Set 3.0 assessment procedures as well as new survey and certification guidelines emphasizing quality of life. A set of recommendations will be made with regard to training, appropriate role functions within the context of interdisciplinary care, and needs for more realistic staffing ratios. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Complexity Variability Assessment of Nonlinear Time-Varying Cardiovascular Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Garcia, Ronald G.; Taylor, Jessica Noggle; Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The application of complex systems theory to physiology and medicine has provided meaningful information about the nonlinear aspects underlying the dynamics of a wide range of biological processes and their disease-related aberrations. However, no studies have investigated whether meaningful information can be extracted by quantifying second-order moments of time-varying cardiovascular complexity. To this extent, we introduce a novel mathematical framework termed complexity variability, in which the variance of instantaneous Lyapunov spectra estimated over time serves as a reference quantifier. We apply the proposed methodology to four exemplary studies involving disorders which stem from cardiology, neurology and psychiatry: Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Major Depression Disorder (MDD), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients with insomnia under a yoga training regime. We show that complexity assessments derived from simple time-averaging are not able to discern pathology-related changes in autonomic control, and we demonstrate that between-group differences in measures of complexity variability are consistent across pathologies. Pathological states such as CHF, MDD, and PD are associated with an increased complexity variability when compared to healthy controls, whereas wellbeing derived from yoga in PTSD is associated with lower time-variance of complexity. PMID:28218249

  11. Complexity Variability Assessment of Nonlinear Time-Varying Cardiovascular Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Garcia, Ronald G.; Taylor, Jessica Noggle; Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2017-02-01

    The application of complex systems theory to physiology and medicine has provided meaningful information about the nonlinear aspects underlying the dynamics of a wide range of biological processes and their disease-related aberrations. However, no studies have investigated whether meaningful information can be extracted by quantifying second-order moments of time-varying cardiovascular complexity. To this extent, we introduce a novel mathematical framework termed complexity variability, in which the variance of instantaneous Lyapunov spectra estimated over time serves as a reference quantifier. We apply the proposed methodology to four exemplary studies involving disorders which stem from cardiology, neurology and psychiatry: Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Major Depression Disorder (MDD), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients with insomnia under a yoga training regime. We show that complexity assessments derived from simple time-averaging are not able to discern pathology-related changes in autonomic control, and we demonstrate that between-group differences in measures of complexity variability are consistent across pathologies. Pathological states such as CHF, MDD, and PD are associated with an increased complexity variability when compared to healthy controls, whereas wellbeing derived from yoga in PTSD is associated with lower time-variance of complexity.

  12. The Ob Estuary (Kara Sea) Coastal Dynamics Interannual Variability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopa-Ovdienko, N.; Volobueva, N.; Ogorodov, S.

    2012-04-01

    There are several promising gas fields in the Ob Estuary. For their development comprehensive research, including coastal dynamics assessment, is required. To estimate current and speak about future coastal dynamics rates we need to investigate its interannual variability connecting it with variability of major coastal dynamics factors. It is known that in this region one of the main coastal dynamics factors is wave action, which, in turn, depends on wind velocity and direction. Wind data for ice-free period were derived from nearby hydro-meteorological stations. The research was conducted for two sections of the Ob Estuary coast. One section is located on the eastern coast of the estuary (Taz peninsula); the other is located on the western one (Yamal peninsula). Each of these sections is 10 km length. For key-sites of the coast wave-dangerous rhumbs were determined. For ice-free period of each year accumulated summer storm duration (ASSD) - number of hours with strong winds (≥10 m/s) from wave-dangerous directions - was calculated for both sections of coast. Supposing that coast retreat rate is proportional to number of hours with strong winds from wave-dangerous rhumbs, we can approximately assess interannual variability of coast retreat rate. Our research revealed that: 1)There are significant (from hours to a few hundreds of hours) differences in ASSD from year to year due to short ice-free period and high variability of wind velocity and direction. So, we can expect sharp interannual differences in coastal retreat rate. 2)The duration of strong winds from wave-dangerous rhumbs during ice-free period is more on the eastern coast of the estuary than on the western. This goes from the predominance of northern and northwestern winds during ice-free period. These winds cause waves leading to coastal erosion on the eastern coast of estuary and don't cause such waves on the western one. However, we can't draw conclusions about the comparative rates of coastal

  13. Psychosocial benefits of cardiac rehabilitation among women compared with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Garrett; Williams, Jennifer W; Wakefield, Jessica; Perlman, Adam; Kraus, William E; Wolever, Ruth Q

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to reduce cardiac risk and improve the psychosocial functioning of participants. This study examines gender differences on several psychosocial indicators across the course of CR. Patients (N = 380; 67.9% men and 32.1% women) referred from local inpatient and outpatient settings at a southeastern US academic medical facility were assessed on reported levels of depression, anxiety, panic, anger, and relationship satisfaction, using the Burns Brief Mood Survey, at the start and conclusion of a CR program. Medical variables were also assessed but are not the focus of this report. Statistical analyses included 1-way, Kruskal-Wallis, and repeated-measures analysis of variance procedures, as well as χ analyses. Women reported more psychosocial symptoms at pre-CR than men, and overall, both groups improved across CR. Women with significant depression, anxiety, and panic experienced clinically significant benefit across CR. Although the percentage of men reporting clinically significant levels of anger decreased significantly across CR, clinically significant levels of anger did not significantly change among women. In addition, women did not report benefits in relationship dissatisfaction. This study provides further evidence that CR offers psychosocial benefit for women, as has been reported in several small clinical samples. Some notable gender differences on anger and relationship satisfaction were observed. Clinical attention may be warranted to facilitate improvement for symptoms of anger and relationship concerns among selected women who participate in CR.

  14. Psychosocial Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Watkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay advocates for a paradigm shift in psychology toward the activity and ethics of accompaniment. Accompaniment requires a reorientation of the subjectivity, interpersonal practices, and critical understanding of the accompanier so that (she can stand alongside others who desire listening, witnessing, advocacy, space to develop critical inquiry and research, and joint imagination and action to address desired and needed changes. The idea of “accompaniment” emerged in liberation theology in Latin America, and migrated into liberatory forms of psychology as “psychosocial accompaniment.” This essay explores accompaniment and its ethics from a phenomenological perspective, highlighting differences from mainstream stances in psychology. Attention is also given to the effects of accompaniment on the accompanier. Efforts to decolonize psychology require careful attention to the psychic decolonization of its practitioners and to the cultivation of decolonizing interpersonal practices that provide a relational and ethical foundation for joint research, restorative healing, and transformative action. Such practices endeavor through dialogue to build mutual respect and understanding, promote effective solidarity, and contribute to the empowerment of those marginalized. The decolonization of psychology should enable practitioners to be more effective in working for increased social, economic, and environmental justice; peace building and reconciliation; and local and global ecological sustainability.

  15. Heart rate variability monitoring and assessment system on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massagram, Wansuree; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Macchiarulo, Luca; Chen, Mingqi

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system on a chip for heart rate variability monitoring and assessment. The system design applies digital techniques to measure RR intervals from ECG signals, then categorizes and stores HRV measures in an internal memory. The system has been tested for functionality, synthesized and laid out in a 0.5 μm CMOS technology in a 3x3 mm2chip with less than 1.5 μW power dissipation. The chip detects all R peaks with millisecond accuracy after the initial 2 seconds of data, and stores up to 2 minutes of continuous ECG data and up to 4 minutes of HRV histogram. Compact size, low cost, and low power consumption make this chip suitable for employment in modern implantable and portable devices.

  16. Assessment of intraseasonal variabilities in China Ocean Reanalysis (CORA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; ZHOU Lei; FU Hongli; JIANG Lianghong; ZHANG Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    A regional reanalysis product—China Ocean Reanalysis (CORA)—has been developed for the China's seas and the adjacent areas. In this study, the intraseasonal variabilities (ISVs) in CORA are assessed by comparing with observations and two other reanalysis products (ECCO2 and SODA). CORA shows a better performance in capturing the intraseasonal sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and the intraseasonal sea surface heights (SSHs) than ECCO2 and SODA do, probably due to its high resolution, stronger response to the intraseasonal forcing in the atmosphere (especially the Madden-Julian Oscillation), and more available regional data for assimilation. But at the subsurface, the ISVs in CORA are likely to be weaker than reality, which is probably attributed to rare observational data for assimilation and weak diapycnal eddy diffusivity in the CORA model. According to the comparison results, CORA is a good choice for the study related to variabilities at the surface, but cares have to be taken for the study focusing on the subsurface processes.

  17. Assessing heart rate variability from real-world Holter reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Phyllis K

    2002-09-01

    Real world clinical Holter reports are often difficult to interpret from a heart rate variability (HRV) perspective. In many cases HRV software is absent. Step-by-step HRV assessment from clinical Holter reports includes: making sure that there is enough usable data, assessing maximum and minimum heart rates, assessing circadian HRV from hourly average heart rates, and assessing HRV from the histogram of R-R intervals and from the plot of R-R intervals or heart rate vs. time. If HRV data are available, time domain HRV is easiest to understand and less sensitive to scanning errors. SDNN (the standard deviation of all N-N intervals in ms) and SDANN (the standard deviation of the 5-min average of N-N intervals in ms) are easily interpreted. SDNN < 70 ms post-MI is a cut point for increased mortality risk. Two times ln SDANN is a good surrogate for ln ultra low frequency power and can be compared with published cut points. SDNNIDX (the average of the standard deviations of N-N intervals for each 5-min in ms) < 30 ms is associated with increased risk in patients with congestive heart failure. RMSSD (the root mean square of successive N-N interval difference in ms) < 17.5 ms has also been associated with increased risk post-myocardial infarction. Frequency domain HRV values are often not comparable to published data. However, graphical power spectral plots can provide additional information about whether the HRV pattern is normal and can also identify some patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  18. Self-assessment of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthognathic surgery is a well-accepted treatment for patients with skeletal discrepancies. The primary motivation of many patients who seek orthognathic surgery is esthetics and not for correction of functional disability. The treatment is incomplete if the surgeon attempts to correct the physical deformity alone without adequate understanding and regard for the emotional framework. The purpose of this study is aimed at patient′s self-perceptions of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery. Fifty patients were included in the study, of which 21 were used as control. Twenty-two questions were asked to evaluate the problem in all four areas as mentioned earlier. Each question takes a score from one to five. In group I, the internal consistency of each scale indicates moderate to high internal reliability, ranging from α = 0.71 for general health to α = 0.88 for psychosocial problem. In group II, except for functional problems, the internal consistency of each scale has moderate to high reliability. The psychological wellbeing of an orthognathic surgery patient is enhanced by careful preoperative counseling regarding the expected surgical treatment objectives, the operative course, and the expected postoperative sequelae. Patients who undergo orthognathic surgery readily accept the changes in their postoperative appearance and are satisfied with achieved results.

  19. Satisfacción vital y su relación con otras variables psicosociales en población española residente en Alemania (Life satisfaction and its connection with other psycho-social variables in Spanish residents in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Vallejo-Martín

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the psychosocial variables related to life satisfaction in a population of Spanish residents in Germany. The psychosocial variables were as follows: social support, self-esteem, job satisfaction, and attachment to and identification with the place of residence. Sociodemographic factors were also considered: job position, level of ability in the German language, monthly income, and perceived social class. The sample comprised 206 participants. The results showed that the participants had medium or medium-high scores on all the psychosocial variables and that there were significant correlations between them.Regarding the sociodemographic factors, although no significant association was found between life satisfaction and having a job, significant associations were found between life satisfaction and the other factors. Of these factors, perceived social class had the biggest effect. The results also showed that intrinsic job satisfaction, perceived social class, attachment to the place of residence, and self-esteem predicted life satisfaction (explaining 55.5% of variance. These results are in contrast with other studies on life satisfaction in immigrant populations.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among people living with HIV in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Brian T; Pradeep, Amrose; Prasad, Lakshmi; Murugesan, Vinothini; Chandrasekaran, Ezhilarasi; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-06-01

    Psychosocial conditions such as depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been associated with poor HIV-related outcomes. In India, which has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world, little is understood about the impact of psychosocial conditions on people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to understand the prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among PLHIV entering into HIV care at the Y.R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education in Chennai, India. Thirteen questions were added to the standard voluntary counseling and testing questionnaire, including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (a depression scale) and questions assessing for CSA and IPV. We fitted logistic regression models, stratified by gender, with psychosocial condition as the outcome of interest and substance use variables and socio-demographic variables as the correlates of interest. Three hundred and eighty-three persons were enrolled into the study; of these, 253 (66%) tested positive for HIV, including 149 men and 104 women, and were included in the models. More than one-quarter (28%) of the men and 19% of the women reported at least one psychosocial condition (probable depression, CSA, or IPV). In adjusted analysis, current alcohol use was associated with greater than two times higher odds of a psychosocial condition (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.24, 95% CI, 1.04-4.85) among men. In conclusion, we estimated the prevalence of probable depression, CSA, and IPV among PLHIV presenting for HIV care in southern India and found that, among male PLHIV, alcohol use was associated with a markedly higher odds of reporting a psychosocial condition. Further study is needed to characterize alcohol use among male PLHIV and the possible deleterious impact of psychosocial conditions and alcohol use on HIV-related outcomes in India.

  1. Variables and Challenges in Assessing EU Experts’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Holst

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Expert advice in political processes is supposed to improve decisions. If expertise fails in this function, a legitimacy problem occurs: granting political power to experts may be defensible, but only on the grounds that it contributes to enlightening political processes and facilitate problem-solving. The paper provides a theoretical exploration of four variables that are key when assessing the epistemic quality of expert deliberations: the degree to which these deliberations are 1 informed by technical expertise, 2 regulated by epistemically optimal respect and inclusion norms, 3 focused on politically relevant and applicable knowledge, and 4 approaching questions involving moral judgment and standard setting competently. Previous research on the European Commission’s use of expert advice has more or less overlooked the question of experts’ epistemic performance, and this paper discusses the possible reasons for this in light of well-known methodological challenges in studies of elite behaviour; access and bias problems. A discussion of the merits and limitations of different available data on the Commission experts shows that the biggest obstacle in the study of experts’ epistemic performance is rather the problem of epistemic asymmetry, i.e. of how researchers as non-experts can assess the epistemic quality of experts’ contributions and behaviour. The paper offers, finally, a set of strategies to get research going despite this problem.

  2. Plant natural variability may affect safety assessment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Rita; Oliveira, Margarida

    2010-12-01

    Before market introduction, genetic engineered (GE) food products, like any other novel food product, are subjected to extensive assessment of their potential effects on human health. In recent years, a number of profiling technologies have been explored aiming to increase the probability of detecting any unpredictable unintended effect and, consequently improving the efficiency of GE food safety assessment. These techniques still present limitations associated with the interpretation of the observed differences with respect to their biological relevance and toxicological significance. In order to address this issue, in this study, we have performed 2D-gel electrophoresis of five different ears of five different MON810 maize plants and of other five of the non-transgenic near-isogenic line. We have also performed 2D-gel electrophoresis of the pool of the five protein extractions of MON810 and control lines. We have notice that, in this example, the exclusive use of data from 2D-electrophoresed pooled samples, to compare these two lines, would be insufficient for an adequate safety evaluation. We conclude that, when using "omics" technologies, it is extremely important to eliminate all potential differences due to factors not related to the ones under study, and to understand the role of natural plant-to-plant variability in the encountered differences.

  3. An attempt to assess the energy related climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iotova, A. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology

    1995-12-31

    A lot of efforts are directed now to study the interactions between energy and climate because of their significant importance for our planet. Globally, energy related emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) contribute for atmospheric warming. On regional level, where it is more difficult to determine concrete direction of climate variability and change, the role of energy remains considerable being not so direct as in the case of emissions` impact. Still there is essential necessity for further analyses and assessments of energy related climate variations and change in order to understand better and to quantify the energy - climate relations. In the presentation an attempt is made to develop approach for assessment of energy related climate variations on regional level. For this purpose, data and results from the research within Bulgarian Case Study (BCS) in the DECADES Inter-Agency Project framework are used. Considering the complex nature of the examined interconnections and the medium stage of the Study`s realisation, at the moment the approach can be presented in conceptual form. Correspondingly, the obtained results are illustrative and preliminary

  4. Variables and Challenges in Assessing EU Experts’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Holst

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Expert advice in political processes is supposed to improve decisions. If expertise fails in this function, a legitimacy problem occurs: granting political power to experts may be defensible, but only on the grounds that it contributes to enlightening political processes and facilitate problem-solving. The paper provides a theoretical exploration of four variables that are key when assessing the epistemic quality of expert deliberations: the degree to which these deliberations are 1 informed by technical expertise, 2 regulated by epistemically optimal respect and inclusion norms, 3 focused on politically relevant and applicable knowledge, and 4 approaching questions involving moral judgment and standard setting competently. Previous research on the European Commission’s use of expert advice has more or less overlooked the question of experts’ epistemic performance, and this paper discusses the possible reasons for this in light of well-known methodological challenges in studies of elite behaviour; access and bias problems. A discussion of the merits and limitations of different available data on the Commission experts shows that the biggest obstacle in the study of experts’ epistemic performance is rather the problem of epistemic asymmetry, i.e. of how researchers as non-experts can assess the epistemic quality of experts’ contributions and behaviour. The paper offers, finally, a set of strategies to get research going despite this problem.

  5. Heart rate variability analysis for newborn infants prolonged pain assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonckheere, J; Rakza, T; Logier, R; Jeanne, M; Jounwaz, R; Storme, L

    2011-01-01

    Pain management is a general concern for healthcare quality. In the particular context of neonatal care, it's well known that an efficient pain management will decrease mortality and morbidity of newborn infants. Furthermore, the plasticity of developing brain is vulnerable to pain and/or stress, that in turn may cause long term neurodevelopmental changes, including altered pain sensitivity and neuroanatomic and behavioural abnormalities. During neonatal intensive care stay, large number of painful procedures are performed, the majority of which are not accompanied by adequate analgesia. Optimal management requires competent pain assessment which can be especially difficult to perform in this non verbal population. We have developed an instantaneous heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method, non intrusive and user-friendly, based on the ECG signal acquisition. This analysis method enabled us to design parameters related to the influence of pain on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) activity. This paper presents the application of this method, previously validated for adults under general anesthesia, to the domain of newborn infants prolonged pain assessment.

  6. Suicidal Ideation vs. Suicide Attempts: Clinical and Psychosocial Profile Differences Among Depressed Patients: A Study on Personality Traits, Psychopathological Variables, and Sociodemographic Factors in 228 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, Ute; Spirling, Sina; Ritter, Dirk; Smolka, Michael; Goodday, Sarah; Bauer, Michael; Felber, Werner; Bschor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated whether personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors in depressed patients differentiate patients with only suicidal thoughts from those who have attempted suicide. We investigated two groups of patients with an affective disorder: 198 patients with a suicide attempt within the last 3 months (sex ratio male to female, 1:1.3; mean age male to female, 44.8/44.7 years) and 30 patients without a suicide attempt but with suicidal thoughts (sex ratio male to female, 1:2; mean age male to female, 39.4/42.6 years) using a comprehensive measurement (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-4 Axis II disorders, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Beck-Hopelessness Scale, Scale for Suicide Ideation, Impulsivity Rating Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Inventory for the Assessment of Aggression Factors, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Ways of Coping Checklist). Several differences distinguished the two groups, namely, in personality traits such as anxiety or coping strategies and sociodemographics (e.g., education level). Personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors are useful tools for assessing suicidal risk. Our findings encourage us to suggest that clinicians pay particular attention to sociodemographic variables such as separation/divorce and a lower education level when conducting risk assessments on suicidal patients.

  7. Assessment of Variable Planting Date as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Variability in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture accounts for approximately 70% of global freshwater withdrawals. Changes in precipitation patterns due to climate change as well as increasing demands for water necessitate an increased understanding of the water-­food intersection, notably at a local scale to inform farmer adaptations to improve water productivity, i.e., to get more food with less water. Local assessments of water-food security are particularly important for nations with self-sufficiency policies, which prioritize in-country production of certain resources. An ideal case study is the small island nation of Sri Lanka, which has a self-sufficiency policy for its staple food of rice. Because rice is a water-intensive crop, assessment of irrigation water requirements (IWRs) and the associated changes over time is especially important. Previous studies on IWRs of rice in Sri Lanka have failed to consider the Yala (dry) season, when water is scarcest.The goal of this study is to characterize the role that a human decision, setting the planting date, can play in buffering declines in rice yield against changes in precipitation patterns. Using four meteorological stations in the main rice-growing zones in Sri Lanka, we explore (1) general changes in IWRs over time during the Yala season and (2) the impact of the rice planting date. We use both historical data from meteorological stations as well as future projections from regional climate models. Our results indicate that gains can be achieved using a variable planting date relative to a fixed date, in accordance with a similar conclusion for the Maha (wet) season. This local scale assessment of Sri Lanka IWRs will contribute to the growing global literature on the impacts of water scarcity on agriculture and the role that one adaptation measure can play in mitigating deleterious impacts.

  8. Assessing the need for an online decision-support tool to promote evidence-based practices of psychosocial counseling in HIV care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukafka, Rita; Millery, Mari; Chan, Connie; LaRock, William; Bakken, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial counselors have a vital and challenging role in supporting persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH/A) to better manage their disease. However, gaps in training, education, and skills limit the effectiveness of counselors' efforts. We propose that the use of a decision-support tool for counselors at the point of care can support them in their work as well as help alleviate many training and practice gaps. Decision-support tools aimed at reducing knowledge and practice gaps are used extensively to assist clinical providers at the point of care; however, there is a need for decision-support tools designed specifically for HIV/AIDS counselors. To identify requirements for such a tool, we conducted a needs assessment through interviews of 19 HIV/AIDS clinic counselors who provide 20 or more hours per week of psychosocial support to PLWH/A. The assessment explored their education and training backgrounds, the extent to which evidence-based practices are implemented, and how a decision-support tool can support counselor work practices. Qualitative analysis was organized around seven main categories: counselor characteristics, patient characteristics, barriers, definitions of key concepts, use of guidelines, client assessments, and resources. The resulting coding schemes revealed knowledge and practice gaps among the interviewees, as well as barriers and challenges of counseling. Education and training background of the counseling staff varied widely. When asked to define five key concepts related to HIV counseling, 26-47% of respondents were unable to articulate an adequate definition. Less than half of the interviewees recalled sources of guidelines used in their work and specific models of care introduced during trainings. Interviews identified environmental barriers, language and literacy, patient education, and patient communication as the most prominent challenges to counseling work. The results from this study inform the need for and development of a

  9. Exposure to psychosocial risks at work in prisons: does contact with inmates matter? A pilot study among prison workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Ali; Ronda, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Álvares, Nahum; Mateo, Inmaculada

    2011-04-01

    Research has lately increased its focus on work conditions as predictors of stress among prison workers but only few studies have focused on how the exposure of workers to psychosocial risks vary according to their occupational groups and their contact with inmates. Work psychosocial risks (demands, control and social support) were assessed using the Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire among 164 Spanish prison workers (43 per cent of those surveyed). Regression analysis was used to explore how psychosocial hazards and their combinations (outcome variables) vary according to occupational groups. Results suggest that psychosocial risks were highest among guards that have more contact with inmates. Implications of the findings for policy making and practice application are discussed.

  10. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  11. Assessment of potential risk factors for new onset disabling low back pain in Japanese workers: findings from the CUPID (cultural and psychosocial influences on disability) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mika; Matsudaira, Ko; Sawada, Takayuki; Koga, Tadashi; Ishizuka, Akiko; Isomura, Tatsuya; Coggon, David

    2017-08-02

    Most studies of risk factors for new low back pain (LBP) have been conducted in Western populations, but because of cultural and environmental differences, the impact of causal factors may not be the same in other countries. We used longitudinal data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study to assess risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP among Japanese workers. Data came from a 1-year prospective follow-up of nurses, office workers, sales/marketing personnel, and transportation workers, initially aged 20-59 years, who were employed in or near Tokyo. A baseline questionnaire included items on past history of LBP, personal characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related psychosocial factors. Further information about LBP was collected at follow-up. Analysis was restricted to participants who had been free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess baseline risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP (i.e. LBP that had interfered with work) during the 12 months of follow-up. Among 955 participants free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline, 58 (6.1%) reported a new episode of disabling LBP during the 12-month follow-up period. After mutual adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, which included the four factors that showed associations individually (p 3.0). When past history of LBP was excluded from the model, ORs for the remaining risk factors were virtually unchanged. Our findings suggest that among Japanese workers, as elsewhere, past history of LBP is a major risk factor for the development of new episodes of disabling back pain. They give limited support to the association with occupational lifting that has been observed in earlier research, both in Japan and in Western countries. In addition, they suggest a possible role of long working hours, which merits further investigation.

  12. Assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes and their families: the added value of using standardised questionnaires in addition to clinical estimations of nurses and paediatricians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, E.A.; Damhuis, A.M.; Velden, J.A.M. van der; Steeghs, M.C.C.H.; Noordam, C.; Verhaak, C.M.; Vermaes, I.P.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes by means of clinical estimations made by nurses and paediatricians and by using standardised questionnaires. BACKGROUND: Although children with type 1 diabetes and their parents show increase

  13. Assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes and their families: The added value of using standardised questionnaires in addition to clinical estimations of nurses and paediatricians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, E.A.; Damhuis, A.M.A.; Alfen-van der Velden, A.A.E.M. van; Steeghs, M.C.C.H.; Noordam, C.; Verhaak, C.M.; Vermaes, I.P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To investigate the assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes by means of clinical estimations made by nurses and paediatricians and by using standardised questionnaires. Background Although children with type 1 diabetes and their parents show increased

  14. Assessment of Global Variability in UTBB MOSFETs in Subthreshold Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Makovejev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The global variability of ultra-thin body and buried oxide (UTBB MOSFETs in subthreshold and off regimes of operation is analyzed. The variability of the off-state drain current, subthreshold slope, drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL, gate leakage current, threshold voltage and their correlations are considered. Two threshold voltage extraction techniques were used. It is shown that the transconductance over drain current (gm/Id method is preferable for variability studies. It is demonstrated that the subthreshold drain current variability in short channel devices cannot be described by threshold voltage variability. It is suggested to include the effective body factor incorporating short channel effects in order to properly model the subthreshold drain current variability.

  15. COSVAM : A technique for assessing software variability in software product families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelstra, S; Sinnema, M; Nijhuis, J; Bosch, J

    2004-01-01

    Evolution of variability is a key factor in the successful exploitation of commonalities in software product families. Assessment of variability can be used to determine how the variability provided by a product family should evolve. In this paper, we present COSVAM (COVAMOF Software Variability Ass

  16. The Wicked Character of Psychosocial Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Anne Helbo; Hasle, Peter; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft

    2016-01-01

    regulation, and particularly the enforcement in the form of inspection and audits of certified occupational health and safety management systems, face challenges in assessing psychosocial risks and the strategies used by regulators to overcome these challenges. While regulation has become more effective......Psychosocial risks constitute a significant problem in most workplaces, and they are generally considered more difficult to regulate than many other occupational health and safety risks. This article investigates the challenges of regulating psychosocial risks in the workplace. The difficulties lie...... in the particular nature of psychosocial risks: their complexity, uncertainty, value, and power divergences. Psychosocial risks therefore resemble ‘wicked problems’, typically characterized by unclear cause-effect relationships and uncertain solutions. We use the ‘wicked problems’ concept to show how workplace...

  17. Feed Variability and Bulk Vitrification Glass Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Vienna, John D.

    2005-01-10

    The supplemental treatment (ST) bulk vitrification process will obtain its feed, consisting of low-activity waste (LAW), from more than one source. One purpose of this letter report is to describe the compositional variability of the feed to ST. The other is to support the M-62-08 decision by providing a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of bulk vitrification (BV), the process that has been selected to perform supplemental treatment, in handling the ST feed envelope. Roughly nine-tenths of the ST LAW feed will come from the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment. This processed waste is expected to combine (1) a portion of the same LAW feed sent to the WTP melters and (2) a dilute stream that is the product of the condensate from the submerged-bed scrubber (SBS) and the drainage from the electrostatic precipitator (WESP), both of which are part of the LAW off-gas system. The manner in which the off-gas-product stream is concentrated to reduce its volume, and the way in which the excess LAW and off-gas product streams are combined, are part of the interface between WTP and ST and have not been determined. This letter report considers only one possible arrangement, in which half of the total LAW is added to the off-gas product stream, giving an estimated ST feed stream from WTP. (Total LAW equals that portion of LAW sent to the WTP LAW vitrification plant (WTP LAW) plus the LAW not currently treatable in the LAW vitrification plant due to capacity limitations (excess)).

  18. Lack of time management as a psychosocial work risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Cladellas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to explore the possible relationship between workers' lack of time management and several psychosocial risks. The psychosocial risks were assessed by means of the ISTAS21 Questionnaire, the Spanish version of the CoPsoQ (Copenhagen Psychological Questionnaire. More specifically, nine dimensions, which are directly related with time management, satisfaction, health and stress, were selected for evaluation. Time management was measured through the following variables: quantitative demands, influences and control of the time. Drawing on a sample of 142 workers from four departments (development, implantation, support and administration, the research results show that the employees who belong to a department that offers few opportunities for individual time management are less satisfied, have worse general and mental health, and experience more behavioral, symptomatic and cognitive stress than those who can manage their work schedule.

  19. The importance of leadership style and psychosocial work environment to staff-assessed quality of care: implications for home help services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Kristina; Tafvelin, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    Work in home help services is typically conducted by an assistant nurse or nursing aide in the home of an elderly person, and working conditions have been described as solitary with a high workload, little influence and lack of peer and leader support. Relations between leadership styles, psychosocial work environment and a number of positive and negative employee outcomes have been established in research, but the outcome in terms of quality of care has been addressed to a lesser extent. In the present study, we aimed to focus on working conditions in terms of leadership and the employee psychosocial work environment, and how these conditions are related to the quality of care. The hypothesis was that the relation between a transformational leadership style and quality of care is mediated through organisational and peer support, job control and workload. A cross-sectional survey design was used and a total of 469 questionnaires were distributed (March-April 2012) to assistant nurses in nine Swedish home help organisations, including six municipalities and one private organisation, representing both rural and urban areas (302 questionnaires were returned, yielding a 65% response rate). The results showed that our hypothesis was supported and, when indirect effects were also taken into consideration, there was no direct effect of leadership style on quality of care. The mediated model explained 51% of the variance in quality of care. These results indicate that leadership style is important not only to employee outcomes in home help services but is also indirectly related to quality of care as assessed by staff members.

  20. Three-pronged assessment and diagnosis of personality disorder and its consequences: personality functioning, pathological traits, and psychosocial disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe

    2014-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self-functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality) and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the 3 dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the 5-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were cofactored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the 5-factor level, included (a) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction); (b) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness); (c) disinhibition; (d) poor basic functioning; and (e) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD diagnostic

  1. Three-Pronged Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorder and its Consequences: Personality Functioning, Pathological Traits, and Psychosocial Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe

    2014-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality), and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the three dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the five-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were co-factored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the five-factor level, included (1) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction), (2) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness), (3) disinhibition, (4) poor basic functioning, and (5) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD

  2. Hearing ability and its relationship with psychosocial health, work-related variables, and health care use: the National Longitudinal Study on Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nachtegaal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, more than 250 million people experience problems with hearing (Mathers et al. 2003. Depending on the definition of hearing impairment and the criteria applied, prevalence rates in adult populations vary from 10 to 20 percent (Davis, 1989; Karlsmose et al. 2000; Mathers et al. 2003; Hannaford et al. 2005. Although the prevalence of auditory disability is highest in older age groups (i.e. >65 years, there is still a large number of younger people with hearing problems. In 2004, Dutch Statistics estimated that about 1.5 million persons aged 12 years and older experienced problems with hearing when in a conversation with three or more persons, whereas in a conversation with one other person 290.000 individuals reported difficulties (Gommer & Poos 2010. The numbers of individuals younger than 75 years in these groups were 1.2 million and 227.000 respectively (Gommer & Poos 2010. The most prevalent type of hearing impairment is irreversible, which makes it a common chronic condition in human populations. There is a wide range of disabilities that people may experience as a result of their hearing loss, varying from difficulties using the telephone to communicate, to feeling restricted to participate in leisure activities. Another area which might be influenced by reduced hearing ability is psychosocial health.

  3. Assessing variable speed pump efficiency in water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions are increasingly becoming important design targets in many industrial systems where fossil fuel based electrical energy is heavily utilised. In water distribution systems (WDSs a significant portion of operational cost is related to pumping. Recent studies have considered variable speed pumps (VSPs which aim to vary the operating point of the pump to match demand to pumping rate. Depending on the system characteristics, this approach can lead to considerable savings in operational costs. In particular, cost reductions can take advantage of the demand variability and can decrease energy consumption significantly. One of the issues in using variable speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive discussion about the components of WDS that incorporate variable speed pumps (including electric motors, variable frequency drives and the pumps themselves to provide an insight of ways of increasing the system efficiency and hence to reduce energy consumption. In addition, specific attention is given to selection of motor types, sizing, duty cycle of pump (ratio of on-time and time period, losses due to installation and motor faults. All these factors affect the efficiency of motor drive/pump system.

  4. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  5. Assessing variable speed pump efficiency in water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions are increasingly becoming important design targets in many industrial systems where fossil fuel based electrical energy is heavily utilised. In water distribution systems (WDSs a significant portion of operational cost is related to pumping. Recent studies have considered variable speed pumps (VSPs which aim to vary the operating point of the pump to match demand to pumping rate. Depending on the system characteristics, this approach can lead to considerable savings in operational costs. In particular, cost reductions can take advantage of the demand variability and can decrease energy consumption significantly. One of the issues in using variable speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive discussion about the components of WDS that incorporate variable speed pumps (including electric motors, inverters and the pumps themselves to provide an insight of ways of increasing the system efficiency and hence to reduce energy consumption. In addition, specific attention is given to selection of motor types, sizing, duty cycle of pump (ratio of on-time and time period, losses due to installation and motor faults. All these factors affect the efficiency of motor drive/pump system.

  6. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Liu, Dong; Fu, Qiang; Azmat, Muhammad; Luo, Mingjie; Hu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yongjia; Abrar, Faiz M.

    2016-07-01

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the research entropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitation during 1964-2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy was applied on precipitation data on a monthly, seasonally, annually, decade scale and the number of rainy days for each selected station. Intensity entropy and apportionment entropy were used to calculate the variability over individual year and decade, respectively. Subsequently, Spearman's Rho and Mann-Kendall tests were applied to observe for trends in the precipitation time series. The statistics of sample disorder index showed that the precipitation during February (mean 1.09, max. 1.26 and min. 0.80), April (mean 1.12, max. 1.29 and min. 0.99) and July (mean 1.10, max. 1.20 and min. 0.98) contributed significantly higher than those of other months. Overall, the contribution of the winter season was considerably high with a standard deviation of 0.10. The precipitation variability on decade basis was observed to increase from decade 1964-1973 and 1994-2003 with a mean value of decadal apportionment disorder index 0.023 and 0.053, respectively. In addition, the Mann-Kendall test value (1.90) showed a significant positive trend only at the Shangzhi station.

  7. Assessing heart rate variability through wavelet-based statistical measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, Mark P; Hay, Dean C; Johnson, Michel J

    2016-10-01

    Because of its utility in the investigation and diagnosis of clinical abnormalities, heart rate variability (HRV) has been quantified with both time and frequency analysis tools. Recently, time-frequency methods, especially wavelet transforms, have been applied to HRV. In the current study, a complementary computational approach is proposed wherein continuous wavelet transforms are applied directly to ECG signals to quantify time-varying frequency changes in the lower bands. Such variations are compared for resting and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) conditions using statistical and information-theoretic measures, and compared with standard HRV metrics. The latter confirm the expected lower variability in the LBNP condition due to sympathetic nerve activity (e.g. RMSSD: p=0.023; SDSD: p=0.023; LF/HF: p=0.018). Conversely, using the standard Morlet wavelet and a new transform based on windowed complex sinusoids, wavelet analysis of the ECG within the observed range of heart rate (0.5-1.25Hz) exhibits significantly higher variability, as measured by frequency band roughness (Morlet CWT: p=0.041), entropy (Morlet CWT: p=0.001), and approximate entropy (Morlet CWT: p=0.004). Consequently, this paper proposes that, when used with well-established HRV approaches, time-frequency analysis of ECG can provide additional insights into the complex phenomenon of heart rate variability.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of a two-dimensional quantitative microbiological risk assessment: keeping variability and uncertainty separated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Pieter; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Van Impe, Jan F

    2011-08-01

    The aim of quantitative microbiological risk assessment is to estimate the risk of illness caused by the presence of a pathogen in a food type, and to study the impact of interventions. Because of inherent variability and uncertainty, risk assessments are generally conducted stochastically, and if possible it is advised to characterize variability separately from uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis allows to indicate to which of the input variables the outcome of a quantitative microbiological risk assessment is most sensitive. Although a number of methods exist to apply sensitivity analysis to a risk assessment with probabilistic input variables (such as contamination, storage temperature, storage duration, etc.), it is challenging to perform sensitivity analysis in the case where a risk assessment includes a separate characterization of variability and uncertainty of input variables. A procedure is proposed that focuses on the relation between risk estimates obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and the location of pseudo-randomly sampled input variables within the uncertainty and variability distributions. Within this procedure, two methods are used-that is, an ANOVA-like model and Sobol sensitivity indices-to obtain and compare the impact of variability and of uncertainty of all input variables, and of model uncertainty and scenario uncertainty. As a case study, this methodology is applied to a risk assessment to estimate the risk of contracting listeriosis due to consumption of deli meats.

  9. Sex attribution, gender identity and quality of life in disorders of sex development due to 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: methods for clinical and psychosocial assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Risso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of sex in newborns with genital ambiguity is challenging. Information concerning the satisfaction of subjects with disorders of sex development from childhood to adulthood is required in order to address sex attribution policies. This study focuses on the methods that enable clinicians to investigate the alignment of phenotypes with gender identity and quality of life in people with disorders of this kind. These methods are presented as tools for studying a cohort of ten subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism examined between 1985 and 2014 in the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Regina Margherita Children's Hospital, Turin: five children and five young adults, four reared as females and six as males. Clinical outcome was assessed by means of a clinical scoring system considering height, genital appearance, gonads and pubertal development. The Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children and the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment were adopted. The four male children strongly identified with their assigned sex: male attribution was satisfactory until pubertal age. In young adults the clinical scores ranged between 55-65% for both genders. In the young male, the reduced sexual activity and the poor body image perception strongly affected his quality of life. The clinical scores of the two young female adults (60% for both were not balanced with their quality of life scores (87.5% and 68.75% respectively: individual traits and social-familial context should be investigated in order to explain these differences. Clinical and psychosocial assessment in people with disorders of sex development is mandatory in order to plan care procedures; a detailed analysis requires adequate tools. Clinical scoring system, Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment can be used to investigate the alignment of physical phenotype with gender identity and quality of life.

  10. Psychosocial rehabilitation and democratic development in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter; Sassene, Michel

    2011-01-01

    interventions have made critics proclaim that Western psychosocial expertise subjects the bereaved of the Third World to repressive administrative power by objectifying and colonizing their minds. Meanwhile, advocates of psychosocial rehabilitation maintain that such criticisms fail to appreciate the ability...... of local healing strategies to actually empower torture victims through rehabilitation programmes. Inspired by Michel Foucault's concept of government, this article argues that both these assessments of torture rehabilitation overlook forms of power that work through the constitution of subjectivities...

  11. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  12. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult attachment and psychosocial functioning, predominately in the realm of close relationships. In the first part of the thesis, the focus lay on the assessment of the adult attachment construct. In Cha...

  13. Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

  14. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua River basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Imran Khan; Dong Liu; Qiang Fu; Muhammad Azmat; Mingjie Luo; Yuxiang Hu; Yongjia Zhang; Faiz M Abrar

    2016-07-01

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the researchentropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitationduring 1964–2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy wasapplied on precipitation data on a monthly, seasonally, annually, decade scale and the number of rainydays for each selected station. Intensity entropy and apportionment entropy were used to calculate thevariability over individual year and decade, respectively. Subsequently, Spearman’s Rho and Mann–Kendall tests were applied to observe for trends in the precipitation time series. The statistics of sampledisorder index showed that the precipitation during February (mean 1.09, max. 1.26 and min. 0.80),April (mean 1.12, max. 1.29 and min. 0.99) and July (mean 1.10, max. 1.20 and min. 0.98) contributedsignificantly higher than those of other months. Overall, the contribution of the winter season wasconsiderably high with a standard deviation of 0.10. The precipitation variability on decade basis wasobserved to increase from decade 1964–1973 and 1994–2003 with a mean value of decadal apportionmentdisorder index 0.023 and 0.053, respectively. In addition, the Mann–Kendall test value (1.90) showed asignificant positive trend only at the Shangzhi station.

  15. Observer variability in the histologic assessment of oral premalignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabulut, A; Reibel, J; Therkildsen, M H

    1995-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of oral leukoplakias has a major impact on the assessment of prognosis and treatment planning. We investigated the extent of agreement in grading epithelial dysplasia between pathologists with the same or different educational backgrounds. Two general pathologists and ...

  16. Do Psychosocial Factors Predict Muscle Strength, Pain, or Physical Performance in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Isabel A C; Meeus, Mira; Mahmoudian, Armaghan; Luyten, Frank P; Nijs, Jo; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of psychosocial factors, namely, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and maladaptive coping strategies, with muscle strength, pain, and physical performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related symptoms. A total of 109 women (64 with knee OA-related symptoms) with a mean age of 65.4 years (49-81 years) were recruited for this study. Psychosocial factors were quantified by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Pain Coping Inventory. Clinical features were assessed using isometric and isokinetic knee muscle strength measurements, visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and functional tests. Associations were examined using correlation and regression analysis. In knee OA patients, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy explained a significant proportion of the variability in isometric knee extension and flexion strength (6.3%-9.2%), accounting for more overall variability than some demographic and medical status variables combined. Psychosocial factors were not significant independent predictors of isokinetic strength, knee pain, or physical performance. In understanding clinical features related to knee OA, such as muscle weakness, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy might offer something additional beyond what might be explained by traditional factors, underscoring the importance of a biopsychosocial approach in knee OA management. Further research on individual patient characteristics that mediate the effects of psychosocial factors is, however, required in order to create opportunities for more targeted, personalized treatment for knee OA.

  17. Assessment of psychosocial factors and distress in women having adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: the relationship among emotional distress and patient and treatment-related factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ates, Ozturk; Soylu, Cem; Babacan, Taner; Sarici, Furkan; Kertmen, Neyran; Allen, Deborah; Sever, Ali Riza; Altundag, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to comprehensively describe the psychosocial and medical characteristics of women who initiated tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer and to compare levels...

  18. Project EASE: a study to test a psychosocial model of epilepsy medication managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiIorio, Collen; Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Letz, Richard; Henry, Thomas R; Schomer, Donal L; Yeager, Kate

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a psychosocial model of medication self-management among people with epilepsy. This model was based primarily on social cognitive theory and included personal (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, stigma, and depressive symptoms), social (social support), and provider (patient satisfaction and desire for control) variables. Participants for the study were enrolled at research sites in Atlanta, Georgia, and Boston, Massachusetts and completed computer-based assessments that included measures of the study variables listed above. The mean age of the 317 participants was 43.3 years; about 50% were female, and 81%white. Self-efficacy and patient satisfaction explained the most variance in medication management. Social support was related to self-efficacy; stigma to self-efficacy and depressive symptoms; and self-efficacy to outcome expectations and depressive symptoms. Findings reinforce that medication-taking behavior is affected by a complex set of interactions among psychosocial variables.

  19. The Relationship between Psychosocial Factors and Cognition in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; AlMulhem, Alaa; Moscovici, Mario; AlShalan, Hanan; Alqazlan, Mohammad; Aldaif, Abdulgader; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common disorder in some regions of the world, with over 2.3 million people diagnosed worldwide. Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest symptoms to present in the course of the disease and can cause significant morbidity. We proposed a study to explore the psychosocial predictors of cognitive impairment in MS patients in Saudi Arabia, a previously unexplored patient population. Demographic data, depression scale (PHQ9), symptom burden (PHQ15), anxiety (GAD7), disease duration, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) scores were collected from 195 patients in a neurology clinic in Ryiadh, Saudi Arabia. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify variables that are significantly associated with cognitive impairment. Variables that were identified to be significantly associated with cognition, p < 0.05, were education level, disease duration, and family history. Both education level and disease duration were variables identified in previous studies. We showed family history to be a significant variable, and no association was found with depression or anxiety, which is unique to our study population. We identified several psychosocial predictors that are associated with cognition in our patient population. It was also noted that a difference exists between patient populations, highlighting the need for further studies in specific geographical regions.

  20. The Relationship between Psychosocial Factors and Cognition in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad D. Alosaimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple sclerosis (MS is a common disorder in some regions of the world, with over 2.3 million people diagnosed worldwide. Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest symptoms to present in the course of the disease and can cause significant morbidity. We proposed a study to explore the psychosocial predictors of cognitive impairment in MS patients in Saudi Arabia, a previously unexplored patient population. Methods. Demographic data, depression scale (PHQ9, symptom burden (PHQ15, anxiety (GAD7, disease duration, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA scores were collected from 195 patients in a neurology clinic in Ryiadh, Saudi Arabia. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify variables that are significantly associated with cognitive impairment. Results. Variables that were identified to be significantly associated with cognition, p<0.05, were education level, disease duration, and family history. Discussion. Both education level and disease duration were variables identified in previous studies. We showed family history to be a significant variable, and no association was found with depression or anxiety, which is unique to our study population. Conclusions. We identified several psychosocial predictors that are associated with cognition in our patient population. It was also noted that a difference exists between patient populations, highlighting the need for further studies in specific geographical regions.

  1. An Assessment of the Length and Variability of Mercury's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Slavin, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We employ Mariner 10 measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field in the vicinity of Mercury to estimate the rate of magnetic reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the Hermean magnetosphere. We derive a time-series of the open magnetic flux in Mercury's magnetosphere. from which we can deduce the length of the magnetotail The length of the magnetotail is shown to be highly variable. with open field lines stretching between 15R(sub H) and 8S0R(sub H) downstream of the planet (median 150R(sub H)). Scaling laws allow the tail length at perihelion to be deduced from the aphelion Mariner 10 observations.

  2. Ordinal pattern statistics for the assessment of heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, G.; Graff, B.; Kaczkowska, A.; Makowiec, D.; Amigó, J. M.; Piskorski, J.; Narkiewicz, K.; Guzik, P.

    2013-06-01

    The recognition of all main features of a healthy heart rhythm (the so-called sinus rhythm) is still one of the biggest challenges in contemporary cardiology. Recently the interesting physiological phenomenon of heart rate asymmetry has been observed. This phenomenon is related to unbalanced contributions of heart rate decelerations and accelerations to heart rate variability. In this paper we apply methods based on the concept of ordinal pattern to the analysis of electrocardiograms (inter-peak intervals) of healthy subjects in the supine position. This way we observe new regularities of the heart rhythm related to the distribution of ordinal patterns of lengths 3 and 4.

  3. Visibility assessment : Monte Carlo characterization of temporal variability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laulainen, N.; Shannon, J.; Trexler, E. C., Jr.

    1997-12-12

    Current techniques for assessing the benefits of certain anthropogenic emission reductions are largely influenced by limitations in emissions data and atmospheric modeling capability and by the highly variant nature of meteorology. These data and modeling limitations are likely to continue for the foreseeable future, during which time important strategic decisions need to be made. Statistical atmospheric quality data and apportionment techniques are used in Monte-Carlo models to offset serious shortfalls in emissions, entrainment, topography, statistical meteorology data and atmospheric modeling. This paper describes the evolution of Department of Energy (DOE) Monte-Carlo based assessment models and the development of statistical inputs. A companion paper describes techniques which are used to develop the apportionment factors used in the assessment models.

  4. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eBuruck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  5. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  6. Psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the availability of better treatment regimen, life span of thalassemic patients is increasing. Chronic nature of thalassemia and its intensive and demanding treatment result in significant psychologic burden on the patients and their families. A lot has been studied about beta-thalassemia major but little attention has been paid to the psychological aspect of this disease. Hence, the study was planned to analyse the psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from January 2007 to March 2008 in thalassemic day-care centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Fifty four thalassemic children and controls above 9 years of age were enrolled. Psychosocial assessment done with assessment of Finer Psychopathology using ICMR Symptom checklist (ICMR task force, 1983. The prevalence of various problems was calculated and compared with controls. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for testing differences in variables. Results: Patients were divided into three groups - Group A (10-15 years, 30 patients; Group B (15-20 years, 18 patients, and Group C (20-25 years, 6 patients. In group A, behavior problems were common (12 patients -40% (P< 0.001, significant. In group B, mood disorders were common (8 patients, 44% (P< 0.001, significant. In group C, psychotic symptoms were common (3 patients, 50% (P< 0.05, significant. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that psychosocial problems are more in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial aspects need to be addressed in the overall treatment of children with thalassemia.

  7. Assessment of genetic and chemical variability in Thymus caramanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadian, Javad; Bigdeloo, Mahdi; Nazeri, Vahideh; Khadivi-Khub, Abdollah

    2014-05-01

    Thymus caramanicus is an endemic species grown in Iran with interesting pharmacological and biological properties. In the present work, essential oil compositions and inter-simple sequences repeat (ISSR) markers were used to estimate the relationships among and within seven populations of T. caramanicus, belonging to three provinces in Iran. The studied individuals were distinguished on the basis of ISSR markers and constituents of essential oil. A total of 127 band positions were produced by 12 ISSR primers, of which 105 were found polymorphic with 82.68% polymorphism. Genetic similarity values among individuals ranged between 0.15 and 0.82 which was indicative of a high level of genetic variation. On the basis of their genetic similarities, ISSR analysis allowed to group the samples into two main clusters. One of these included populations originated from Kerman and Isfahan provinces, and the other cluster consists of populations from Semnan province. Chemical compounds of essential oils were found variable in the various individuals and all samples were principally composed of phenolic constituents (carvacrol and/or thymol). As a consequence, the plants were classified into two major chemotypes including carvacrol and thymol/carvacrol. A relationship between genetic and chemical variability and geographic distribution has been observed in studied populations of T. caramanicus.

  8. Psychosocial impact of the summer 2007 floods in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrage David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The summer of 2007 was the wettest in the UK since records began in 1914 and resulted in severe flooding in several regions. We carried out a health impact assessment using population-based surveys to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for the psychosocial consequences of this flooding in the United Kingdom. Methods Surveys were conducted in two regions using postal, online, telephone questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Exposure variables included the presence of flood water in the home, evacuation and disruption to essential services (incident management variables, perceived impact of the floods on finances, house values and perceived health concerns. Validated tools were used to assess psychosocial outcome (mental health symptoms: psychological distress (GHQ-12, anxiety (GAD-7, depression (PHQ-9 and probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD checklist-shortform. Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe the association between water level in the home, psychological exposure variables and incident management variables, and each mental health symptom, adjusted for age, sex, presence of an existing medical condition, employment status, area and data collection method. Results The prevalence of all mental health symptoms was two to five-fold higher among individuals affected by flood water in the home. People who perceived negative impact on finances were more likely to report psychological distress (OR 2.5, 1.8-3.4, probable anxiety (OR 1.8, 1.3-2.7 probable depression (OR 2.0, 1.3-2.9 and probable PTSD (OR 3.2, 2.0-5.2. Disruption to essential services increased adverse psychological outcomes by two to three-fold. Evacuation was associated with some increase in psychological distress but not significantly for the other three measures. Conclusion The psychosocial and mental health impact of flooding is a growing public health concern and improved strategies for minimising disruption to essential

  9. Psychosocial impact of the summer 2007 floods in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The summer of 2007 was the wettest in the UK since records began in 1914 and resulted in severe flooding in several regions. We carried out a health impact assessment using population-based surveys to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for the psychosocial consequences of this flooding in the United Kingdom. Methods Surveys were conducted in two regions using postal, online, telephone questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Exposure variables included the presence of flood water in the home, evacuation and disruption to essential services (incident management variables), perceived impact of the floods on finances, house values and perceived health concerns. Validated tools were used to assess psychosocial outcome (mental health symptoms): psychological distress (GHQ-12), anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9) and probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD checklist-shortform). Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe the association between water level in the home, psychological exposure variables and incident management variables, and each mental health symptom, adjusted for age, sex, presence of an existing medical condition, employment status, area and data collection method. Results The prevalence of all mental health symptoms was two to five-fold higher among individuals affected by flood water in the home. People who perceived negative impact on finances were more likely to report psychological distress (OR 2.5, 1.8-3.4), probable anxiety (OR 1.8, 1.3-2.7) probable depression (OR 2.0, 1.3-2.9) and probable PTSD (OR 3.2, 2.0-5.2). Disruption to essential services increased adverse psychological outcomes by two to three-fold. Evacuation was associated with some increase in psychological distress but not significantly for the other three measures. Conclusion The psychosocial and mental health impact of flooding is a growing public health concern and improved strategies for minimising disruption to essential services and

  10. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers.......To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers....

  11. Psychosocial risk at work and mental illness in hospital workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ansoleaga M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence on the association between exposure to psychosocial risk at work and adverse health outcomes. Objective: to describe and analyze the presence of psychosocial risks at work and mental health symptoms in non-clinical workers from a public hospital. Methods: a crosssectional study was conducted at a public hospital in Santiago (Chile. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to assess exposure to psychosocial risks (demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models. The outcome variables were depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and psychotropic drug consumption. The analysis was descriptive and associative (Fisher’s exact test Results: 47% of the workers showed high psychological demands, 46% low autonomy, 61% low social support and 75% imbalance between effort expended and rewards received. The prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms in the total sample was 10% and 30% respectively, while 25% reported having used psychotropic drugs. The consumption of psychotropic drugs was significantly higher (p < 0.05 among those with low social support and effort-reward imbalance. Discussion: the consumption of psychotropic drugs was associated with low social support and imbalance between efforts expended and rewards received. This might have implications in the workers’ health and performance; therefore, further research is required, particularly on this kind of population, to understand this relationship and thus develop prevention programs in this regard.

  12. Psychosocial factors associated with acute cervical radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Conradie

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an individual multi-dimensional experience, depending on contributions from the sensory, affective and cognitive dimensions. Only a few studies investigated the psychosocial factors associated with cervical radiculopathy (CR. These studies suggested that chronic CR affects functional abilities, emotional and cognitive states. This descriptive study determined (1 whether psychological factors were present, (2 the impact of pain on the ability to perform activities of daily living, and (3 the correlation between pain intensity, emotional state and functional abilities. The researcher, a physiotherapist, interviewed 21 subjects whose clinical diagnosis of acute CR made by a neurosurgeon [and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI], to determine the cognitive dimension. Three  standardized questionnaires, namely the Neck Disability Index (NDI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD Scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ long form were administrated to assess the pain intensity, emotional state, total pain experience and functional abilities. Central tendencies were determined by calculating the mean andmedian. The Spearman rank order correlation coefficient test was performed to establish correlations between variables.Results suggested that radicular pain is not only a sensory experience since altered emotional and cognitive stateswere present, which frequently influenced functional abilities. Correlations existed between functional abilities, emotional state and total pain experience, as well as anxiety and depression levels. Higher anxiety than depression levels were found. Thoughts on beliefs and coping strategies were affected. We concluded that clinicians should also address the psychosocial factors and consider the functional impact of the disease, during the assessment and management of acute CR.

  13. Assessment and interpretation of internal doses: uncertainty and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, F; Bailey, M R; Leggett, R W; Harrison, J D

    2016-06-01

    Internal doses are calculated on the basis of knowledge of intakes and/or measurements of activity in bioassay samples, typically using reference biokinetic and dosimetric models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These models describe the behaviour of the radionuclides after ingestion, inhalation, and absorption to the blood, and the absorption of the energy resulting from their nuclear transformations. They are intended to be used mainly for the purpose of radiological protection: that is, optimisation and demonstration of compliance with dose limits. These models and parameter values are fixed by convention and are not subject to uncertainty. Over the past few years, ICRP has devoted a considerable amount of effort to the revision and improvement of models to make them more physiologically realistic. ICRP models are now sufficiently sophisticated for calculating organ and tissue absorbed doses for scientific purposes, and in many other areas, including toxicology, pharmacology and medicine. In these specific cases, uncertainties in parameters and variability between individuals need to be taken into account.

  14. Stuttering severity, psychosocial impact and lexical diversity as predictors of outcome for treatment of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Susanne; Donlan, Chris; Howell, Peter

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed factors that predicted therapy outcome for children and adolescents who stuttered after attendance at an intensive therapy course. The factors examined were stuttering severity, lexical diversity measured by Type Token Ratio, and psychosocial impact of stuttering on the child's life. Fifty-four children who stuttered (CWS) participated in the study. The hypotheses were: (1) CWS with high initial stuttering severity would be more likely to persist than those with low initial severity; (2) lexical diversity before treatment should be related to therapy outcome; (3) psychosocial factors would affect therapy outcome. The predictions were assessed by linear and logistic regression analyses. Initial stuttering severity was the only significant predictor for stuttering severity after therapy. However, psychosocial impact correlated with improvement in fluency, and lexical diversity correlated with therapy outcome. Only initial stuttering severity was a significant predictor of therapy outcome after an intensive therapy intervention. This is in agreement with the study of Howell and Davis (2011). Readers will get an overview of the literature on risk factors that are considered to predict therapy outcomes for CWS. They will be able to (a) identify what variable represent potential risk factors, (b) describe the psychosocial impact of stuttering, (c) explain how lexical diversity is measured, and (d) describe different assessment instruments used to decide on the outcome of therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High interobserver variability in the assessment of epsilon waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platonov, Pyotr G; Calkins, Hugh; Hauer, Richard N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Revision of the Task Force diagnostic criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) has increased their sensitivity for the diagnosis of early and familial forms of the disease. The epsilon wave is a major diagnostic criterion in the context of ARVC....../D, which, however, remains not quantifiable and therefore may leave room for substantial subjective interpretation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess interobserver agreement in epsilon wave definition and epsilon wave importance for ARVC/D diagnosis. METHODS: Electrocardiographic (ECG......) tracings depicting leads V1, V2, and V3 collected from individuals evaluated for ARVC/D (n = 30) were given to panel members who were asked to respond to the question whether ECG patterns meet epsilon wave definition outlined by the Task Force diagnostic criteria. The prevalence and importance of epsilon...

  16. Assessing practice-based influences on adolescent psychosocial development in sport: the activity context in youth sport questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Bengoechea, Enrique; Sabiston, Catherine M; Wilson, Philip M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide initial evidence of validity and reliability of scores derived from the Activity Context in Youth Sport Questionnaire (ACYSQ), an instrument designed to offer a comprehensive assessment of the activities adolescents take part in during sport practices. Two studies were designed for the purposes of item development and selection, and to provide evidence of structural and criterion validity of ACYSQ scores, respectively (N = 334; M age = 14.93, SD = 1.76 years). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the adequacy of a 20-item ACYSQ measurement model, which was invariant across gender, and comprised the following dimensions: (1) stimulation; (2) usefulness-value; (3) authenticity; (4) repetition-boredom; and (5) ineffectiveness. Internal consistency reliability estimates and composite reliability estimates for ACYSQ subscale scores ranged from 0.72 to 0.91. In regression analyses, stimulation predicted enjoyment and perceived competence, ineffectiveness was significantly associated with perceived competence and authenticity emerged as a predictor of commitment in sport. These findings indicate that the ACYSQ displays adequate psychometric properties and the use of the instrument may be useful for studying selected activity-based features of the practice environment and their motivational consequences in youth sport.

  17. A cohort study of psychosocial work stressors on work ability among Brazilian hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-07-01

    Hospital work is characterized by stressors that can influence work ability. The present study aims to assess the association between psychosocial work stressors and changes in work ability in a group of Brazilian hospital employees. From 1,022 workers included in a 3-year cohort started in 2009, 423 (41.4%) returned the applied questionnaires in 2012. Changes in work ability were considered as the dependent variable and the investigated psychosocial work stressors as independent variables. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential con-founders (demographic, occupational features, social support, overcommitment, and situations liable to cause pain/injury). High levels of exposure to psychosocial work stressors were significantly associated with decreased work ability: job strain (OR = 2.81), effort-reward imbalance (OR = 3.21). Strategies to reduce psychosocial work stressors should be considered to maintain hospital employees' work ability. Such strategies have implications for institutional and social policies and might be included in quality management programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluación de la inestabilidad laboral como estresor psicosocial en el trabajo Assessment Of Job Instability As A Psychosocial Stressor In Work Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Leibovich de Figueroa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad laboral se presenta como un estresor psicosocial en los contextos laborales y se hace imprescindible evaluar su impacto en los trabajadores. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis factorial exploratorio del Inventario de Malestar Percibido en la Inestabilidad Laboral (IMPIL. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio (método de componentes principales, rotación promax para examinar cómo se agrupaban los ítems. Se comenzó con una solución forzada de ocho factores para ver si se mantenía la agrupación conceptual original del inventario. Se descartaron los ítems con cargas inferiores a .40 y con doble pesaje. Esto dejó un total de 44 ítems, con los que se llegó a una solución forzada de ocho factores que describen el 64.11% de la varianza de las puntuaciones. Los ítems agrupados en los 8 factores reproducen pensamientos positivos y negativos del trabajador y su relación con el contexto laboral.Job Instability appears as a psychosocial stressor in work contexts and it is imperative to assess its impact among workers. Results of an exploratory factor analysis of the Inventory of Perceived Uneasiness in an Unstable Work Setting (IMPIL are presented. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted (method of principal components, promax rotation, to discuss how the items were grouped. To see if original grouping maintained, an eight factors solution was forced. Items with loads less than .40 and dual weighing were discarded. This left a total of 44 items, and we arrived at a forced eight factors solution that describes the 64.11% of the variance. The items grouped in the eight factors reproduced positive and negative thoughts of the workers and their relationship to the employment context.

  19. Use of topographic variability for assessing plant diversity in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, G.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Edwards, P.J.; Szerencsits, E.; Wagner, H.H.; Herzog, F.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between plant diversity and topographic variability in agricultural landscapes was investigated, with the aim of determining whether sampling landscape units of 1 km(2) (LUs) across a gradient of topographic variability is more efficient than a random design for assessing the range

  20. Aspectos psicossociais em cirurgia bariátrica: a associação entre variáveis emocionais, trabalho, relacionamentos e peso corporal Psychosocial aspects in bariatric surgery: the association among emotional variables, job, relationships and body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela A Nogueira de Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Operações bariátricas têm sido consideradas alternativa para o tratamento de obesidade mórbida. Alguns eventos adversos que as pessoas experimentam após o tratamento frequentemente são consequência da falta de conhecimento consistente associada a fatores psicossociais que estão relacionadas ao status pré-operatório dos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as variáveis ?psicossociais de 414 candidatos ? cirurgia bari?trica do Hospital de Cl?nicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de S?o Paulo, Ribeir?o Preto, SP, Brasil. psicossociais de 414 candidatos à cirurgia bariátrica do Hospital de Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados entrevista semi-estruturada, Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI, Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck (BAI e Binge Eating Scale (BES. RESULTADOS: IMC foi maior entre os pacientes que não tinham emprego (p = 0,019, do sexo feminino, os que tinham um parceiro e os pacientes com IMC 50 kg / m² (p 50 kg / m² foram mais propensos a apresentar sintomas de ansiedade.BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgeries have been considered an alternative for treatment of morbid obesity. Some adverse events that people experience after the treatment frequently are the consequence of the lack of consistent knowledge associated with psychosocial factors that are related to the pre-surgery status of the patients. AIM: To evaluate psychosocial variables of 414 candidates for bariatric surgery from Clinical Hospital of Medical School at University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. METHODS: Semi-structured interview, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Binge Eating Scale (BES were used. RESULTS: BMI was higher among patients who had no employment (p = 0.019. Female, patients who had a partner and patients with a BMI 50 kg/m² (p 50 kg / m² were more likely to experience anxiety symptoms.

  1. Attenuation of treatment effect due to measurement variability in assessment of progression-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S; Schmitt, N; Stone, A; Denne, J

    2012-01-01

    For normally distributed data analyzed with linear models, it is well known that measurement error on an independent variable leads to attenuation of the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. However, for time-to-event variables such as progression-free survival (PFS), the effect of the measurement variability in the underlying measurements defining the event is less well understood. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the impact of measurement variability in tumor assessment on the treatment effect hazard ratio for PFS and on the median PFS time, for different tumor assessment frequencies. Our results show that scan measurement variability can cause attenuation of the treatment effect (i.e. the hazard ratio is closer to one) and that the extent of attenuation may be increased with more frequent scan assessments. This attenuation leads to inflation of the type II error. Therefore, scan measurement variability should be minimized as far as possible in order to reveal a treatment effect that is closest to the truth. In disease settings where the measurement variability is shown to be large, consideration may be given to inflating the sample size of the study to maintain statistical power.

  2. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Peterson, David L; McKelvey, Kevin S; Hicke, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability assessment conducted by the US Forest Service. During this assessment, five subregional workshops were held to capture variability in vulnerability and to develop adaptation tactics. At each workshop, participants answered a questionnaire to: 1) identify species, resources, or other information missing from the regional assessment, and 2) describe subregional vulnerability to climate change. Workshop participants divided into six resource groups; here we focus on wildlife resources. Participants identified information missing from the regional assessment and multiple instances of subregional variability in climate change vulnerability. We provide recommendations for improving the process of capturing subregional variability in a regional vulnerability assessment. We propose a revised conceptual framework structured around pathways of climate influence, each with separate rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. These revisions allow for a quantitative ranking of species, pathways, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity across subregions. Rankings can be used to direct the development and implementation of future regional research and monitoring programs. The revised conceptual framework is equally applicable as a stand-alone model for assessing climate change vulnerability and as a nested model within a regional assessment for capturing subregional variability in vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enamel microstructure in Lemuridae (Mammalia, Primates): assessment of variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M C

    1994-10-01

    This study describes the molar enamel microstructure of seven lemurid primates: Hapalemur griseus, Varecia variegata, Lemur catta, Lemur macaco, Lemur fulvus rufus, Lemur fulvus fulvus, and Lemur fulvus albifrons. Contrary to earlier accounts, which reported little or no prism decussation in lemurid enamel, both Lemur and Varecia molars contain a prominent inner layer of decussating prisms (Hunter-Schreger bands), in addition to an outer radial prism layer, and a thin, nonprismatic enamel surface layer. In contrast, Hapalemur enamel consists entirely of radial and, near the surface, nonprismatic enamel. In addition, for all species, prism packing patterns differ according to depth from the tooth surface, and for all species but Varecia (which also has the thinnest enamel of any lemurid), average prism area increases from the enamel-dentine junction to the surface; this may be a developmental solution to the problem of accommodating a larger outer surface area with enamel deposited from a fixed number of cells. Finally, contradicting some previous reports, Pattern 1 prisms predominate only in the most superficial prismatic enamel. In the deeper enamel, prism cross-sections include both closed (Pattern 1) and arc-shaped (Pattern 2 or, most commonly, Pattern 3). This sequence of depth-related pattern change is repeated in all taxa. It should also be emphasized that all taxa can exhibit all three prism patterns in their mature enamel. The high degree of quantitative and qualitative variation in prism size, shape, and packing suggests that these features should be used cautiously in phylogenetic studies. Hapalemur is distinguished from the other lemurids by unique, medially constricted or rectangular prism cross-sections at an intermediate depth and the absence of prism decussation, but, without further assessment of character polarity, these differences do not clarify lemurid phylogenetic relations. Some characters of enamel microstructure may represent synapomorphies

  4. Towards a psychosocial psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Frosh, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    From its beginning, psychoanalysis has always been a 'personal' affair. This paper presents an autobiographical account of engagement with psychoanalysis as an academic discipline, exploring particularly how it has become central to my concerns in psychosocial studies.

  5. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eMatuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  6. Guidance for treatment of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Uncertainty is a seemingly simple concept that has caused great confusion and conflict in the field of risk assessment. This report offers guidance for the analysis and presentation of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments, an important issue in the remedial investigation and feasibility study processes. This report discusses concepts of probability in terms of variance and uncertainty, describes how these concepts differ in ecological risk assessment from human health risk assessment, and describes probabilistic aspects of specific ecological risk assessment techniques. The report ends with 17 points to consider in performing an uncertainty analysis for an ecological risk assessment of a contaminated site.

  7. Psychosocial risk factors in home and community settings and their associations with population health and health inequalities: A systematic meta-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petticrew Mark

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of psychosocial risk factors on population health and health inequalities has featured prominently in epidemiological research literature as well as public health policy strategies. We have conducted a meta-review (a review of reviews exploring how psychosocial factors may relate to population health in home and community settings. Methods Systematic review (QUORUM of literature reviews (published in any language or country on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised. Results Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations – and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health. Conclusion From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial

  8. Family caregivers’ assessment of symptoms in persons with dementia using the GBS-scale: differences in rating after psychosocial intervention – an 18-month follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Dahlrup

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Beth Dahlrup, Eva Nordell, Signe Andrén, Sölve ElmståhlDepartment of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, SwedenAbstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if psychosocial intervention for family caregivers made any differences in describing symptoms of dementia in the persons they cared for. The study population comprised family caregivers of persons aged 70 years and older receiving social services and diagnosed with dementia disorders. A group of 129 family caregivers underwent psychosocial intervention including education, information, and provision of a support group, while 133 family caregivers did not and these formed the control group. Family caregivers were followed-up every 6 months for a total of 18 months. They rated intellectual, emotional, and activity of daily living (ADL functions in persons with dementia using the Gottfries-Bråne-Steen scale (GBS-scale. Family caregivers who underwent psychosocial intervention rated the intellectual and emotional symptoms of dementia significantly higher 6 months later compared to controls and the effect was sustained during the 18-month follow-up irrespective of relationship and education. Most notably, decrease in function of recent memory, ability to increase tempo, long-windedness, distractibility, and blunting were better identified. Our findings suggest that the family caregivers who underwent psychosocial intervention achieved better understanding of different symptoms and the behaviors of dementia. These findings may explain earlier findings of positive effects after psychosocial intervention on family caregivers’ sense of burden, satisfaction, and ability to delay nursing home placement.Keywords: intervention, dementia, family caregivers, education, GBS-scale

  9. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  10. Generalization of Muscle Strength Capacities as Assessed From Different Variables, Tests, and Muscle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Ivan; Prebeg, Goran; Sreckovic, Sreten; Mirkov, Dragan M; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-02-01

    Cuk, I, Prebeg, G, Sreckovic, S, Mirkov, DM, and Jaric, S. Generalization of muscle strength capacities as assessed from different variables, tests, and muscle groups. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 305-312, 2017-The muscle strength capacities to exert force under various movement conditions have been indiscriminately assessed from various strength tests and variables applied on different muscles. We tested the hypotheses that the distinctive strength capacities would be revealed (H1) through different strength tests, and (H2) through different strength variables. Alternatively, (H3) all strength variables independent of the selected test could depict the same strength capacity of the tested muscle. Sixty subjects performed both the standard strength test and the test of alternating contractions of 6 pairs of antagonistic muscles acting in different leg and arm joints. The dependent variables obtained from each test and muscle were the maximum isometric force and the rate of force development. A confirmatory principle component analysis set to 2 factors explained 31.9% of the total variance. The factor loadings discerned between the tested arm and leg muscles, but not between the strength tests and variables. An exploratory analysis applied on the same data revealed 6 factors that explained 60.1% of the total variance. Again, the individual factors were mainly loaded by different tests and variables obtained from the same pair of antagonistic muscles. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of the muscle strength capacity of the tested individual should be based on a single strength test and variable obtained from a number of different muscles, than on a single muscle tested through different tests and variables. The selected muscles should act in different limbs and joints, while the maximum isometric force should be the variable of choice.

  11. Predicting functional remission in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study of symptomatic remission, psychosocial remission, functioning, and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia M

    2015-09-01

    patients achieved our predefined functional remission outcome. The logistic regression model included five predictive variables for functional remission: (1 being employed, (2 use of atypical antipsychotics, (3 lower number of medications, (4 lower negative symptom severity, and (5 lower excitement symptom severity.Conclusion: The study demonstrated that symptomatic remission, psychosocial remission, and functioning could be achievable goals for a considerable number of patients. The outcome of functional remission was achieved by a minority of patients, less than 15%. New approaches should include multidimensional measures to assess functional outcome in schizophrenia research. Keywords: Predictors, functional remission, symptomatic remission, psychosocial functioning, clinical outcome, Mexico

  12. Factores psicosociales asociados a la evaluación del docente1 Factores psicossociais associados á avaliagao do docente The Psycho-social Factors Associated with Teacher Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Páramo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta a continuación recoge los principales hallazgos de la revisión del estado del arte sobre los factores extraacadémicos que afectan la evaluación del profesor, y se propone una modalidad de entrevista para identificar de forma libre conceptos que usan los estudiantes para evaluar a sus profesores. Mediante el empleo de una entrevista en la clasificación libre de tarjetas que contienen los nombres de los profesores evaluados, el estudio muestra la participación de factores psicosociales o conceptualizaciones de las que se valen los estudiantes para evaluar a sus profesores. Se cuestiona al final la objetividad y validez de las evaluaciones que se hacen de los profesores, a partir de cuestionarios estructurados.Este artigo recolhe os principáis achados do estado da arte acerca dos factores extra-académicos que afeitam a avaliagao do professor, e propóe urna modalidade de entrevista para identificar livremente conceitos usados pelos estudantes para avahar os seus professores. Aplicando urna entrevista na classificacáo livre de tarjetas que contém os nomes dos professo-res avahados, o estudo mostra a participando de factores psicosociais ou conceptualizacóes que aproveitam os estudantes para avahar os seus professores. Ao final, questiona-se a objetividade e a validez das avaliacóes aos professores com questionários estruturadosThe following paper outlines the major findings of a state-of-the-art review of non-academic factors that influence teacher evaluations, and proposes an interview technique to identify freely the concepts students use to evalúate their teachers. Through interview on classification without cards that contain the ñames of the teachers being assessed, the study shows the psycho-social factors or conceptualizations students employ when evaluating their teachers. In the end, doubts are expressed about the objectivity and validity of teacher evaluations based on structured questionnaires.

  13. Variability in activity and results from drug assessments by pharmacy and therapeutics committees in Spanish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigventós Latorre, F; Santos-Ramos, B; Ortega Eslava, A; Durán-García, M E

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the Spanish Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees (P&TC) activity with regard to assessing and selecting drugs and describing variability in decisions made to include them. Descriptive, cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire aimed to 513 hospitals with more than 75 beds. We included questions referring to the P&TC resolutions, the therapeutic positioning and assessment reports. Recruitment was carried out between November 2007 and January 2008. Variability among P&TC conclusions were presented in five categories or levels of coincidence. One hundred and seventy-five hospitals participated, with a response rate of 34% (54% of beds). The mean (SD) number of drug-indications assessed per hospital was 10.35 (7.45). The proportion of assessments that conclude with drug inclusion or rejection was 75.3 and 21.4%, respectively. 16.2% concluded with therapeutic equivalence. Conditions for use were established for 64% of them, and 33% were included in a clinical guide. With regard to variability, 81.0% of assessments coincided with the conclusion to include or reject the drug. A contradictory decision was made for 19.0%. Drug assessment and selection activity in hospitals involve an amount of work. The proportion of drugs approved is similar in different types of hospitals. There is extensive variability as regards deciding upon inclusion and is similar to studies conducted in other countries. They indicate that a standardising methodology would be recommendable. Copyright © 2010 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activities on streamflow variation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jianxia; Zhang, Hongxue; Wang, Yimin; Zhu, Yuelu

    2016-01-01

    Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impact of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impact on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resource management. By using an elasticity-based method and calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrological models, we quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activities and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in the Jinghe basin, located...

  15. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activity to streamflow variation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, J.; Zhang, H.; Y. Wang; Zhu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impacts of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impacts on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resources management. By using an elasticity-based method, calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrologic models, we have quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activity and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in Jinhe b...

  16. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activities on streamflow variation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, J.; Zhang, H.; Y. Wang; Zhu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impact of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impact on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resource management. By using an elasticity-based method and calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrological models, we quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activities and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in Jinghe basin, located in ...

  17. Assessment of Human Health Vulnerability to Climate Variability and Change in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Bultó, Paulo Lázaro Ortíz; Rodríguez,Antonio Pérez; Valencia, Alina Rivero; Vega, Nicolás León; Gonzalez, Manuel Díaz; Carrera, Alina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we assessed the potential effects of climate variability and change on population health in Cuba. We describe the climate of Cuba as well as the patterns of climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern, particularly dengue fever. Analyses of the associations between climatic anomalies and disease patterns highlight current vulnerability to climate variability. We describe current adaptations, including the application of climate predictions to prevent disease outbreaks. Finally...

  18. A hybrid approach to incorporating climate change and variability into climate scenario for impact assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Gebretsadik, Yohannes; Strzepek, Kenneth; Schlosser, C. Adam

    2014-01-01

    Traditional 'delta-change' approach of scenario generation for climate change impact assessment to water resources strongly depends on the selected base-case observed historical climate conditions that the climate shocks are to be super-imposed. This method disregards the combined effect of climate change and the inherent hydro-climatological variability in the system. Here we demonstrated a hybrid uncertainty approach in which uncertainties in historical climate variability are combined with...

  19. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Carole; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sexually active girls (n=64) at a clinic were surveyed. When those with a history of pregnancy were compared with never-pregnant girls, 2 significant differences were found: girls with pregnancy history had first intercourse at the mean age of 15 instead of 16, and scored higher on the "Powerful Other" Health Locus of Control subscale, a measure…

  20. Avaliação da adaptação psicossocial na gravidez em gestantes brasileiras Assessment of psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy in brazilian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiny Lima e Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO OBJETIVO: avaliar a adaptação psicossocial na gravidez, por intermédio da tradução e adaptação de instrumento específico, para ser usado em gestantes brasileiras. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional de corte transversal. Foi realizada a tradução e adaptação transcultural do PSeQ (Prenatal Self-evaluation Questionnaire seguindo todas as etapas metodológicas exigidas. aplicou-se um questionário contendo perguntas abertas e fechadas de forma a caracterizar os dados sócio-demográficos e clínicos das gestantes (n=36. a análise estatística constou de média, desvio padrão (DP, freqüência absoluta e relativa. Para análise da consistência interna utilizou-se o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, por meio do SPSS versão 17.0. RESULTADOS: as voluntárias apresentaram baixo nível sócio-econômico, média de idade de 25,1 anos ( 5,5, idade gestacional média de 25,9 semanas ( 8,1. Destas, 58,3% não haviam planejado a atual gravidez. O pré-teste mostrou que 75% das gestantes consideraram o questionário de fácil entendimento. Quanto ao instrumento PSEQ, a identificação com o papel materno foi a sub-escala que apresentou maior média 24,8 ( 5,6, enquanto o relacionamento com a mãe apresentou a menor média 15,4 ( 7,7. a consistência interna variou entre 0,52-0,89. CONCLUSÃO:a avaliação psicossocial materna no pré-natal mostra-se importante no acompanhamento da progressão da gestação e permite a intervenção mediante ações de promoção e prevenção no bem-estar materno-infantil.PURPOSE:to evaluate psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy by translating and cross-culturally adapting a specific assessment instrument to be used with Brazilian women. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional observational study. the translation and cross-cultural adaptation and of the Prenatal Self-evaluation Questionnaire (PSeQ was performed following all the required methodological steps. another questionnaire was applied to characterize the

  1. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost utility of early psychosocial intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers. DESIGN: Cost utility evaluation alongside a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with 3 years of follow-up. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics...

  2. Effect of Adding McKenzie Syndrome, Centralization, Directional Preference, and Psychosocial Classification Variables to a Risk-Adjusted Model Predicting Functional Status Outcomes for Patients With Lumbar Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneke, Mark W; Edmond, Susan; Deutscher, Daniel; Ward, Jason; Grigsby, David; Young, Michelle; McGill, Troy; McClenahan, Brian; Weinberg, Jon; Davidow, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Patient-classification subgroupings may be important prognostic factors explaining outcomes. Objectives To determine effects of adding classification variables (McKenzie syndrome and pain patterns, including centralization and directional preference; Symptom Checklist Back Pain Prediction Model [SCL BPPM]; and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire subscales of work and physical activity) to a baseline risk-adjusted model predicting functional status (FS) outcomes. Methods Consecutive patients completed a battery of questionnaires that gathered information on 11 risk-adjustment variables. Physical therapists trained in Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy methods classified each patient by McKenzie syndromes and pain pattern. Functional status was assessed at discharge by patient-reported outcomes. Only patients with complete data were included. Risk of selection bias was assessed. Prediction of discharge FS was assessed using linear stepwise regression models, allowing 13 variables to enter the model. Significant variables were retained in subsequent models. Model power (R(2)) and beta coefficients for model variables were estimated. Results Two thousand sixty-six patients with lumbar impairments were evaluated. Of those, 994 (48%), 10 (variables to the baseline model did not result in significant increases in R(2). McKenzie syndrome or pain pattern explained 2.8% and 3.0% of the variance, respectively. When pain pattern and SCL BPPM were added simultaneously, overall model R(2) increased to 0.44. Although none of these increases in R(2) were significant, some classification variables were stronger predictors compared with some other variables included in the baseline model. Conclusion The small added prognostic capabilities identified when combining McKenzie or pain-pattern classifications with the SCL BPPM classification did not significantly improve prediction of FS outcomes in this study. Additional research is

  3. Psychosocial Development and First Substance Use in Third and Fourth Grade Students: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall M. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Third and fourth grade students (=509 completed measures of psychosocial development, substance use, and intentions to use in January, and again in May, 1998. A revised Erikson Psychosocial Inventory Scale (EPSI was employed to assess psychosocial development while estimates of substance use and intentions were obtained from anonymous self-reports. The sample was split on the basis of change in substance use and intentions from January to May. Using this grouping scheme as an independent variable, scores on the EPSI subscales (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, and identity were compared over time. Interestingly, no differences in psychosocial development were evident for the initial substance use comparisons, but differences were evident five months later. Respondents who initiated substance use and/or increased intentions during the five-month interval exhibited small gains (averaging less than 2.0% on measures of trust, autonomy, and initiative and modest declines in industry and identity (−1.2%. Respondents who neither initiated substance use nor increased intentions during the five-month interval experienced significant gains (averaging 6.0% on all five of the EPSI subscales. These findings suggest that early substance use may impede psychosocial development, thus justifying prevention efforts in the earlier grades as well as efforts to delay onset.

  4. Psychopathology and Related Psychosocial Factors in Children with Office Discipline Referrals at School: Evidence from a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, İbrahim Selçuk; Dursun, Onur Burak; Acemoğlu, Hamit; Baykara, Burak

    2015-10-01

    Many childhood psychiatric disorders present their first symptoms as challenging behaviors at school. Evidence from cross-national studies enhance the understanding of the biological and cultural variables underlying these behaviours. In this study, we aim to identify the psychopathology among children with office disciplinary referrals and assess psychosocial risk factors related to this situation. Forty-seven students who had received an office discipline referral and eighty-three controls who had never been given an office disciplinary referral participated in this study. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children--Present and Lifetime, socio-demographic data form were administered to children to assess their respective psychopathologies and psychosocial risk factors. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder were significantly higher in children with Office discipline referrals. Psychiatric assessment should be one of the first steps in the evaluation processes of assessing challenging behaviors at school.

  5. Clinical Insight Into Latent Variables of Psychiatric Questionnaires for Mood Symptom Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kate; Bilderbeck, Amy; Palmius, Niclas; Goodwin, Guy; De Vos, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Background We recently described a new questionnaire to monitor mood called mood zoom (MZ). MZ comprises 6 items assessing mood symptoms on a 7-point Likert scale; we had previously used standard principal component analysis (PCA) to tentatively understand its properties, but the presence of multiple nonzero loadings obstructed the interpretation of its latent variables. Objective The aim of this study was to rigorously investigate the internal properties and latent variables of MZ using an algorithmic approach which may lead to more interpretable results than PCA. Additionally, we explored three other widely used psychiatric questionnaires to investigate latent variable structure similarities with MZ: (1) Altman self-rating mania scale (ASRM), assessing mania; (2) quick inventory of depressive symptomatology (QIDS) self-report, assessing depression; and (3) generalized anxiety disorder (7-item) (GAD-7), assessing anxiety. Methods We elicited responses from 131 participants: 48 bipolar disorder (BD), 32 borderline personality disorder (BPD), and 51 healthy controls (HC), collected longitudinally (median [interquartile range, IQR]: 363 [276] days). Participants were requested to complete ASRM, QIDS, and GAD-7 weekly (all 3 questionnaires were completed on the Web) and MZ daily (using a custom-based smartphone app). We applied sparse PCA (SPCA) to determine the latent variables for the four questionnaires, where a small subset of the original items contributes toward each latent variable. Results We found that MZ had great consistency across the three cohorts studied. Three main principal components were derived using SPCA, which can be tentatively interpreted as (1) anxiety and sadness, (2) positive affect, and (3) irritability. The MZ principal component comprising anxiety and sadness explains most of the variance in BD and BPD, whereas the positive affect of MZ explains most of the variance in HC. The latent variables in ASRM were identical for the patient groups

  6. Non-invasive assessment of endothelial function. Intra and inter-observer variability

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor González,Arturo; Kostine,Andrea; Gómez-Flores,Jorge R; Márquez, Manlio F; Hermosillo,Antonio G; Verdejo París,Juan; Iturralde Torres,Pedro; Colin Lizalde,Luis; Nava Townsend,Santiago; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives: Non-invasive evaluation of endothelial function with high resolution ultrasound has become a widely accepted tool in determination of high risk subjects for early atherosclerosis. Despite its simple appearance, ultrasonographic assessment of brachial artery changes, is technically challenging and has a significant learning curve. In the present study, we evaluate the intra and inter-observer variability in assessing peripheral endothelial function with high resoluti...

  7. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, A. de; Baat, C. de; Horstman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with ha

  8. Variability of Acoustic Features of Hypernasality and it’s Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahina Haque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypernasality (HP is observed across voiced phonemes uttered by Cleft-Palate (CP speakers with defective velopharyngeal (VP opening. HP assessment using signal processing technique is challenging due to the variability of acoustic features across various conditions such as speakers, speaking style, speaking rate, severity of HP etc. Most of the study for hypernasality (HP assessment is based on isolated sustained vowels under laboratory conditions. We measure the variability of acoustic features and detect HP using vowel /i/, /a/ and /u/ in continuous read speech with gradually increasing severity of HP of CP speakers. Linear predictive coding (LPC method is used for acoustic feature extraction. In first part of our study, we observe the variation in acoustic parameters within and across vowel category with gradually increasing HP. We observe that inter-speaker variability in spectral features among CP subjects for vowel /i/ is 0.96, /a/ has 1.13 and vowel /u/ has 2.05. The inter-speaker variability measurement suggests that high back vowel /u/ is mostly affected and has the highest variability. High front vowel /i/ is least affected and has the lowest variability with HP. In the second part, ratio of vowel space area (VSA of hypernasal and normal speech is calculated and used as a measure for HP detection. We observe that VSA spanned by CP subjects is 0.65 times less than isolated uttered Bangla nasal VSA and 0.43 times less than read speech uttered English oral VSA.

  9. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; David L. Peterson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability...

  10. Assessment of Job Satisfaction among Faculty Members and Its Relationship with Some Variables in Najran University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Marwan Saleh; Qblan, Yahya Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    It is vital that colleges and universities monitor the satisfaction levels of their employees to secure high levels of their performance. The current study aimed to identify the impact of some variables (gender, Teaching experience and college type) on assessing the level of job satisfaction among faculty of Najran University. A survey was…

  11. Peer Assessment as a Collaborative Learning Activity: The Role of Interpersonal Variables and Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gennip, Nanine A. E.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Tillema, Harm H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the role of interpersonal variables (psychological safety, value diversity, interdependence, and trust) and conceptions of peer assessment in vocational education. An intervention was conducted (N=45) with a control group (N=17), which indicated change in psychological safety, value diversity, and trust in the peer as an…

  12. Changes in Rice with Variable Temperature Parboling: Thermal and Spectroscopic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid visco analysis (RVA) and differential scannning calorimetry (DSC)provided overall assessments of the effects of variable temperature soaking at 30, 50, 70, and 90°C and steaming at 4, 8, and 12 min. Calculation of the relative parboiling index (RPI) and percent gelatinization provided good met...

  13. Assessing the Potential of a Mechanical Continuously Variable Transmission for Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrell, J.

    2005-08-01

    This paper provides an update to a previous report that summarizes the results of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Fallbrook Technologies, Inc. (Fallbrook). The purpose of the CRADA is to assess the usefulness of a continuously variable transmission (CVT) for wind turbine applications.

  14. Risk assessment and risk management for safe foods: Assessment needs inclusion of variability and uncertainty, management needs discrete decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwietering, M H

    2015-11-20

    The introduction of relevant food safety changes in legislation, like time-temperature criteria for pasteurisation and sterilisation, microbiological criteria, HACCP and FSOs, generally took several decades. All these approaches have helped to define specific targets or systems to improve the management of food safety. More and more the measures could be related to specific efficiency in public health protection. With the use of quantitative risk assessment, theoretically the effect of all interventions on the final risk can be determined, which can help to design the appropriate controls in the food safety management system. In such an assessment in practice, however results have understandably large variability and also uncertainty. There is large variability and uncertainty in the biological parts of the assessment, the dose response (infectivity, human susceptibility) the micro-organism kinetics in the chain (growth, inactivation, stress response) and also in the more technological parts, the conditions in the chain and the consumer behaviour. Often the results of risk assessments are probability distributions of the variability in illness probability, also sometimes represented with their uncertainty. To make a link from these distributions to managerial decisions, that need to be black and white, should not be considered the job of risk managers. This link needs investment from both the assessor and the manager.

  15. Psycho-social Issues among Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psycho-social Issues among Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus: Experience from ... assessed as well as their knowledge and attitudes towards diabetes mellitus. ... adolescents with diabetes mellitus, indicating the need to assist the patients ...

  16. Assessment of the variability of atmospheric pollution in National Parks of mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, M.; Lozano, A.; Hierro, J.; Tapia, O.; del Valle, J.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Anzano, J.; Querol, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Air quality in nine National Parks in mainland Spain was assessed analysing SO2, NOx, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 data from background stations. As emissions in and around parks are limited, the levels of primary pollutants are low. Concentrations of secondary pollutants are high especially in summer due to photochemical production. The geographical variability of pollutants responds to regional emission patterns and the dominant circulation regimes in different regions resulting in west-east gradients for O3 and PM. Seasonal variability of pollutants was also interpreted in virtue of transport scenarios, changes in photochemical activity and emissions variability. NOx and SO2, maximize in winter due to higher emissions while O3 and PM do it in summer due to photochemical production, lower precipitation and, in the case of PM, the occurrence of African dust outbreaks. The diurnal evolution was interpreted in virtue of variability in emissions and changes in the Planetary Boundar Layer height.

  17. Variability of single trial brain activation predicts fluctuations in reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stephan; Banaschewski, Tobias; Roessner, Veit; Klein, Christoph; Rietschel, Marcella; Feige, Bernd; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Brain activation stability is crucial to understanding attention lapses. EEG methods could provide excellent markers to assess neuronal response variability with respect to temporal (intertrial coherence) and spatial variability (topographic consistency) as well as variations in activation intensity (low frequency variability of single trial global field power). We calculated intertrial coherence, topographic consistency and low frequency amplitude variability during target P300 in a continuous performance test in 263 15-year-olds from a cohort with psychosocial and biological risk factors. Topographic consistency and low frequency amplitude variability predicted reaction time fluctuations (RTSD) in a linear model. Higher RTSD was only associated with higher psychosocial adversity in the presence of the homozygous 6R-10R dopamine transporter haplotype. We propose that topographic variability of single trial P300 reflects noise as well as variability in evoked cortical activation patterns. Dopaminergic neuromodulation interacted with environmental and biological risk factors to predict behavioural reaction time variability.

  18. Real-time Continuous Assessment Method for Mental and Physiological Condition using Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is necessary to monitor the daily health condition for preventing stress syndrome. In this study, it was proposed the method assessing the mental and physiological condition, such as the work stress or the relaxation, using heart rate variability at real time and continuously. The instantanuous heart rate (HR), and the ratio of the number of extreme points (NEP) and the number of heart beats were calculated for assessing mental and physiological condition. In this method, 20 beats heart rate were used to calculate these indexes. These were calculated in one beat interval. Three conditions, which are sitting rest, performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie, were assessed using our proposed algorithm. The assessment accuracies were 71.9% and 55.8%, when performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie respectively. In this method, the mental and physiological condition was assessed using only 20 regressive heart beats, so this method is considered as the real time assessment method.

  19. The wicked character of psychosocial risks: Implications for regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo Jespersen, Anne; Hasle, Peter; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft

    2016-01-01

    regulation, and particularly the enforcement in the form of inspection and audits of certified occupational health and safety management systems, face challenges in assessing psychosocial risks and the strategies used by regulators to overcome these challenges. While regulation has become more effective......Psychosocial risks constitute a significant problem in most workplaces, and they are generally considered more difficult to regulate than many other occupational health and safety risks. This article investigates the challenges of regulating psychosocial risks in the workplace. The difficulties lie...... in the particular nature of psychosocial risks: their complexity, uncertainty, value, and power divergences. Psychosocial risks therefore resemble ‘wicked problems’, typically characterized by unclear cause-effect relationships and uncertain solutions. We use the ‘wicked problems’ concept to show how workplace...

  20. Associations between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among Egyptian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbheiry, Abd-Elraqeep; Emam, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among a sample of 817 Egyptian adolescents (408 males and 409 females). Using 15 subscales from the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale (APS-long form) we assessed prevalence rates of a number of internalizing and externalizing psychosocial disorders. Additionally, we investigated whether there are gender differences in psychopathology among Egyptian adolescents and to what extent can psychosocial problems predict specific personality disorders. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that the participants experienced higher levels of PD, AV, and BD. Gender differences were found in certain personality disorders as well as in externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems. A number of externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems were highly predictive of specific personality disorders.

  1. Clients' psychosocial communication and midwives' verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda; Gitsels-van der Wal, Janneke T; Pereboom, Monique T R; Spelten, Evelien R; Hutton, Eileen K; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on facilitation of clients' psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives' psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling duration. During 184 videotaped prenatal counseling consultations with 20 Dutch midwives, verbal psychosocial and affective behavior was measured by the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). We rated the duration of client-directed gaze. We performed multilevel analyses to assess the relation between clients' psychosocial communication and midwives' psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling duration. Clients' psychosocial communication was higher if midwives' asked more psychosocial questions and showed more affective behavior (β=0.90; CI: 0.45-1.35; pcommunication was not related to midwives" client-directed gaze. Additionally, psychosocial communication by clients was directly, positively related to the counseling duration (β=0.59; CI: 0.20-099; p=0.004). In contrast with our expectations, midwives' client-directed gaze was not related with psychosocial communication of clients. In addition to asking psychosocial questions, our study shows that midwives' affective behavior and counseling duration is likely to encourage client's psychosocial communication, known to be especially important for facilitating decision-making. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, PScale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  3. Behavioural and psychosocial correlates of nondipping blood pressure pattern among middle-aged men and women at work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clays, E; Van Herck, K; De Buyzere, M; Kornitzer, M; Kittel, F; De Backer, G; De Bacquer, D

    .... Especially the role of psychosocial correlates remains unclear. The aim was to assess the association between nondipping BP pattern, behavioural and psychosocial factors in a sample of working men and women...

  4. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  5. Psychosocial aspects in cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogosova, N. V.; Saner, H.; Pedersen, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health- related quality ......, the success of CR may critically depend on the interdependence of the body and mind and this interaction needs to be reflected through the assessment and management of PSRFs in line with robust scientific evidence, by trained staff, integrated within the core CR team.......A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health- related quality...... questions, standardised questionnaires, or structured clinical interviews. Psychotherapy and medication can be considered to alleviate any PSRF-related symptoms and to enhance HRQoL, but the evidence for a definite beneficial effect on cardiac endpoints is inconclusive. A multimodal behavioural intervention...

  6. Psychosocial aspects in cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogosova, Nana; Saner, Hugo; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2015-01-01

    A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health-related quality o......, the success of CR may critically depend on the interdependence of the body and mind and this interaction needs to be reflected through the assessment and management of PSRFs in line with robust scientific evidence, by trained staff, integrated within the core CR team.......A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health-related quality...... questions, standardised questionnaires, or structured clinical interviews. Psychotherapy and medication can be considered to alleviate any PSRF-related symptoms and to enhance HRQoL, but the evidence for a definite beneficial effect on cardiac endpoints is inconclusive. A multimodal behavioural intervention...

  7. Assessing the need for an online decision-support tool to promote evidence-based practices of psychosocial counseling in HIV care

    OpenAIRE

    Kukafka, Rita; Millery, Mari; Chan, Connie; LaRock, William; Bakken, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial counselors have a vital and challenging role in supporting persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH/A) to better manage their disease. However, gaps in training, education, and skills limit the effectiveness of counselors’ efforts. We propose that the use of a decision-support tool for counselors at the point of care can support them in their work as well as help alleviate many training and practice gaps. Decision-support tools aimed at reducing knowledge and practice gaps are used ext...

  8. Psycho-social impact of orthogathic sugery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rocío; Martínez-Lara, Ildefonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Orthognathic surgery is a branch of maxillofacial surgery. It carries out the treatment of the facial skeleton asymmetries and deformities. The patients who ask for this surgery are often young people who usually refer symptoms related to dental malocclusion, difficulty eating and temporo-mandibular pain. These physical symptoms are often accompanied by psychological symptoms triggered by their physical appearance such as low self-esteem, self-confidence and negativism about their social and emotional future. Material and Methods Patients with skeletal malformation of facial bones, consisting in Class II, III, open bite and asymmetries, underwent to orthognathic surgery in our center agreed to participate voluntarily in this study. They answered a questionnaire regarding several psychosocial variables. Results Orthognathic surgery helps to improve patient’s psychosocial well-being. Conclusions Patients with dentofacial deformitiesexperience physical and psychological, oftentimes underestimated by society. A combination of orthodontic treatment and reconstructive surgery is often a necessity to restore function and psychosocial well-being. Key words:Orthogathic surgery, psychosocial consequences, mood, emotions, sense of power, motivation, satisfaction, social changes, satisfaction. PMID:27957267

  9. Acculturative and Psychosocial Predictors of Academic-Related Outcomes among Cambodian American High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Dinh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the acculturative and psychosocial predictors of academic-related outcomes among Cambodian American high school students from an urban school district in the State of Massachusetts. Student participants (N = 163 completed an anonymous survey that assessed demographic characteristics, acculturative experiences, intergenerational conflict, depression, and academic-related outcomes. The main results indicated that acculturative and psychosocial variables were significant predictors of academic-related outcomes. Specifically, Cambodian and Anglo/White cultural orientations and depression played significant roles across the four dimensions of academic-related outcomes, including grade point average, educational aspirations, beliefs in the utility of education, and psychological sense of school membership. This study provides important implications for school-based and family-based prevention and intervention programs in addressing the acculturative and academic challenges faced by Cambodian American students.

  10. Acculturative and Psychosocial Predictors of Academic-Related Outcomes among Cambodian American High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Dinh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the acculturative and psychosocial predictors of academic-related outcomes among Cambodian American high school students from an urban school district in the State of Massachusetts. Student participants (N = 163 completed an anonymous survey that assessed demographic characteristics, acculturative experiences, intergenerational conflict, depression, and academic-related outcomes. The main results indicated that acculturative and psychosocial variables were significant predictors of academic-related outcomes. Specifically, Cambodian and Anglo/White cultural orientations and depression played significant roles across the four dimensions of academic-related outcomes, including grade point average, educational aspirations, beliefs in the utility of education, and psychological sense of school membership. This study provides important implications for school-based and family-based prevention and intervention programs in addressing the acculturative and academic challenges faced by Cambodian American students.

  11. Psychosocial Adjustment of Family Caregivers of Head and Neck Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie; Mosher, Catherine E.; Ronis-Tobin, Victor; Hermele, Sandy; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the psychosocial adjustment and needs of family caregivers of head and neck cancer survivors at 6–24 months post-treatment. Methods Family caregivers of head and neck cancer survivors (N = 89) completed mailed questionnaires that assessed demographic variables, mental health, quality of life, and practical and informational needs. Results Thirty-eight percent of caregivers reported moderate to high distress. However, quality of life scores for the entire sample (N = 89) were better than the scores reported in initial validation studies on caregivers of patients undergoing active cancer treatment. Greater time spent caregiving was associated with worse psychological well-being, but also more positive adaptation to caregiving. In addition, 39% of caregivers reported that all of their practical and informational needs were being met. Conclusions Findings suggest that research and clinical efforts are needed to address the psychosocial concerns of this population. PMID:19390870

  12. Impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on hysterosalpingography pain and discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Ugwu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hysterosalpingography (HSG is an important diagnostic procedure in the investigation of infertility. It is the radiographic delineation of uterine and tubal cavities and is part of the diagnostic evaluation of conjugal infertility. This diagnostic procedure is associated with high levels of anxiety, pain and stress from various causes. This study was designed to investigate the impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on HSG pain and discomfort.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on hysterosalpingography pain and discomfort.Method: One hundred hysterosalpingography referrals were recruited for this study. Verbal detector scales were used to assess pain perception, Likert scales were used to assess the psychosocial variables, while visual analogue scales were used to assess discomfort. Pearson’s correlations were conducted. Tests were two-tailed, with p < 0.05 indicating statistical signifcance.Results: Some of the patients (34% indicated that the administration of analgesics prior to the procedure reduced the pain and discomfort associated with the procedure. Mean ± standard deviation of pain and discomfort were 2.82 ± 0.77 and 6.36 ± 2.19 respectively. Age correlated signifcantly with pain perception (r = -0.22, P < 0.05, while pain correlated signifcantly with perception of discomfort (r = -0.46, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Age signifcantly correlated with pain. This is a factor that could be harnessed for clinical use.

  13. Improving water quality assessments through a hierarchical Bayesian analysis of variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, Andrew D; Borsuk, Mark E

    2010-10-15

    Water quality measurement error and variability, while well-documented in laboratory-scale studies, is rarely acknowledged or explicitly resolved in most model-based water body assessments, including those conducted in compliance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. Consequently, proposed pollutant loading reductions in TMDLs and similar water quality management programs may be biased, resulting in either slower-than-expected rates of water quality restoration and designated use reinstatement or, in some cases, overly conservative management decisions. To address this problem, we present a hierarchical Bayesian approach for relating actual in situ or model-predicted pollutant concentrations to multiple sampling and analysis procedures, each with distinct sources of variability. We apply this method to recently approved TMDLs to investigate whether appropriate accounting for measurement error and variability will lead to different management decisions. We find that required pollutant loading reductions may in fact vary depending not only on how measurement variability is addressed but also on which water quality analysis procedure is used to assess standard compliance. As a general strategy, our Bayesian approach to quantifying variability may represent an alternative to the common practice of addressing all forms of uncertainty through an arbitrary margin of safety (MOS).

  14. Comparing demographic, health status and psychosocial strategies of audience segmentation to promote physical activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boslaugh, Sarah E; Kreuter, Matthew W; Nicholson, Robert A; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    .... This study compares the results of audience segmentation for physical activity that is based on either demographic, health status or psychosocial variables alone, or a combination of all three types of variables...

  15. Evaluation of Stochastic Rainfall Models in Capturing Climate Variability for Future Drought and Flood Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. F. M. K.; Lockart, N.; Willgoose, G. R.; Kuczera, G. A.; Kiem, A.; Nadeeka, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    One of the key objectives of stochastic rainfall modelling is to capture the full variability of climate system for future drought and flood risk assessment. However, it is not clear how well these models can capture the future climate variability when they are calibrated to Global/Regional Climate Model data (GCM/RCM) as these datasets are usually available for very short future period/s (e.g. 20 years). This study has assessed the ability of two stochastic daily rainfall models to capture climate variability by calibrating them to a dynamically downscaled RCM dataset in an east Australian catchment for 1990-2010, 2020-2040, and 2060-2080 epochs. The two stochastic models are: (1) a hierarchical Markov Chain (MC) model, which we developed in a previous study and (2) a semi-parametric MC model developed by Mehrotra and Sharma (2007). Our hierarchical model uses stochastic parameters of MC and Gamma distribution, while the semi-parametric model uses a modified MC process with memory of past periods and kernel density estimation. This study has generated multiple realizations of rainfall series by using parameters of each model calibrated to the RCM dataset for each epoch. The generated rainfall series are used to generate synthetic streamflow by using a SimHyd hydrology model. Assessing the synthetic rainfall and streamflow series, this study has found that both stochastic models can incorporate a range of variability in rainfall as well as streamflow generation for both current and future periods. However, the hierarchical model tends to overestimate the multiyear variability of wet spell lengths (therefore, is less likely to simulate long periods of drought and flood), while the semi-parametric model tends to overestimate the mean annual rainfall depths and streamflow volumes (hence, simulated droughts are likely to be less severe). Sensitivity of these limitations of both stochastic models in terms of future drought and flood risk assessment will be discussed.

  16. Does psychosocial compliance have an impact on long-term outcome after heart transplantation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sponga, Sandro; Travaglini, Clara; Pisa, Federica; Piani, Daniela; Guzzi, Giorgio; Nalli, Chiara; Spagna, Enrico; Tursi, Vincenzo; Livi, Ugolino

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Since patient compliance following organ transplantation is considered a limiting factor for long-term outcome, psychosocial assessment is commonly employed to evaluate suitability for organ transplantation...

  17. Psychosocial work factors and shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; White, Mary C; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas

    2010-07-01

    Hotel room cleaners have physically demanding jobs that place them at high risk for shoulder pain. Psychosocial work factors may also play a role in shoulder pain, but their independent role has not been studied in this group. Seventy-four percent (941 of 1,276) of hotel room cleaners from five Las Vegas hotels completed a 29-page survey assessing health status, working conditions, and psychosocial work factors. For this study, 493 of the 941 (52%) with complete data for 21 variables were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Fifty-six percent reported shoulder pain in the prior four weeks. Room cleaners with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were three times as likely to report shoulder pain (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.95-4.59, P = 0.000) even after adjustment for physical workload and other factors. After adjustment for physical workload, job strain and iso-strain were not significantly associated with shoulder pain. ERI is independently associated with shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners even after adjustment for physical workload and other risk factors. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: A cross-sectional study

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    Heidi Janssens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at investigating cross-sectional relationships between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism in a sample of Belgian middle-aged workers. Material and Methods: Data were collected from 1372 male and 1611 female workers in the Belstress III study. Psychosocial characteristics assessed by the use of self-administered questionnaires were: job demands, job control, social support, efforts, rewards, bullying, home-to-work conflict and work-to-home conflict. Presenteeism was measured using a single item question, and it was defined as going to work despite illness at least 2 times in the preceding year. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and presenteeism, while adjusting for several socio-demographic, health-related variables and neuroticism. An additional analysis in a subgroup of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism was conducted. Results: The prevalence of presenteeism was 50.6%. Overall results, adjusted for major confounders, revealed that high job demands, high efforts, low support and low rewards were associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, a significant association could be observed for both bullying and work-to-home conflict in relation to presenteeism. The subgroup analysis on a selection of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism generally confirmed these results. Conclusions: Both job content related factors as well as work contextual psychosocial factors were significantly related to presenteeism. These results suggest that presenteeism is not purely driven by the health status of a worker, but that psychosocial work characteristics also play a role.

  19. Psychosocial covariates of physical activity in recently diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Nair

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Regular physical activity can be effective not only in preventing diabetes and managing its complications but also be effective in minimizing the risk of developing other chronic diseases among diabetics. The overall aim of study was to determine probable causes of change in physical activity so as to generate evidences for future interventions and to identify psychosocial covariates of self reported physical activity in recently diagnosed Type 2 diabetes cases. Methods Participants n=478 (239 intervention arm and 239 control arm of an observational cohort were randomized into the ADDITION Plus trial and were recruited from 36 practices in East Anglia region. Participants were people recently diagnosed with diabetes (screen detected and clinically diagnosed within the preceding 3 years were individually randomized and were between the age group of 40-69 years, (mean age 59.2 years. The self reported data regarding physical activity was measured at baseline and one year were used. Demographic and psychosocial (treatment control, consequences, anxiety covariates were assessed at the baseline. Linear univariate and multivariable linear regression analysis was used to quantify the associations between demographic and psychosocial correlates. Results: With regard to the psychosocial correlates(except for participants’ perceptions about the consequences of diabetes, no significant associations with physical activity were found. Treatment control and anxiety failed to predict physical activity. Conclusion The result suggests to further investigate the change in physical activity by including other variables related to demography, other psycho-social and environment influences. Based on the available literature, it is suggested that other factors were found consistently associated with physical activity such as self efficacy, attitude, sensation seeking, family-friend social support, goal orientation, motivation could be studied.

  20. Assessing the reporting of categorised quantitative variables in observational epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabikwa, Onkabetse V; Greenwood, Darren C; Baxter, Paul D; Fleming, Sarah J

    2017-03-14

    One aspect to consider when reporting results of observational studies in epidemiology is how quantitative risk factors are analysed. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines recommend that researchers describe how they handle quantitative variables when analysing data. For categorised quantitative variables, the authors are required to provide reasons and justifications informing their practice. We investigated and assessed the practices and reporting of categorised quantitative variables in epidemiology. The assessment was based on five medical journals that publish epidemiological research. Observational studies published between April and June 2015 and investigating the relationships between quantitative exposures (or risk factors) and the outcomes were considered for assessment. A standard form was used to collect the data, and the reporting patterns amongst eligible studies were quantified and described. Out of 61 articles assessed for eligibility, 23 observational studies were included in the assessment. Categorisation of quantitative exposures occurred in 61% of these studies and reasons informing the practice were rarely provided. Only one article explained the choice of categorisation in the analysis. Transformation of quantitative exposures into four or five groups was common and dominant amongst studies using equally spaced categories. Dichotomisation was not popular; the practice featured in one article. Overall, the majority (86%) of the studies preferred ordered or arbitrary group categories. Other criterions used to decide categorical boundaries were based on established guidelines such as consensus statements and WHO standards. Categorisation of continuous variables remains a dominant practice in epidemiological studies. The reasons informing the practice of categorisation within published work are limited and remain unknown in most articles. The existing STROBE guidelines could provide stronger

  1. Psychosocial risk factors in medical personnel of a health service in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Y. Castillo Á

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the variables associated with psychosocial risk factors among the doctors of a stateowned social welfare enterprise providing health services in Cartagena. Methodology: a cross-sectional study on a population of 197 doctors from the enterprise’s outpatient and emergency services. The istas21 questionnaire, a Spanish adaptation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (copsoq, was used to assess psychosocial factors. Statistical analysis was performed using the program SPSS® version 17, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was applied to estimate the associations between variables. Results: 170 doctors participated in this study; 88.8% of which had favorable exposure to risk factors in the following dimensions: social support and quality of leadership and Double presence. 69.4% showed adverse exposure in the insecurity dimension. In the dimensions Insecurity and Double Presence, general practitioners were in worse conditions than specialists (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05. Additionally, doctors from the outpatient service showed more deterioration in the social support and quality of leadership dimensions than those from the emergency service (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05. As for the psychological demands dimension, doctors from higher socioeconomic strata showed higher unfavorable scores than those from lower strata (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05.

  2. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    criticises the reductionistic dichotomy - either own or parental choice - and appeals for broader concepts, which focus both on own choice and parental acceptance. The article also throws light on some strategic services dealing with ethnic minority youths' intimate partnership formation problems U.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  3. A psychosocial perspective of medication side effects, experiences, coping approaches and implications for adherence in hypertension management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kretchy, Irene A; Owusu-Daaku, Frances T; Danquah, Samuel A; Asampong, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether psychosocial variables influenced patients' perception and experience of side effects of their medicines, how they coped with these experiences and the impact on medication...

  4. Psychosocial aspects of strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Binocular vision is characterized by a harmonious relation between sensory and motor systems of both eyes. This relation enables directing visual axes toward the observed object simultaneously, fusing images from two eyes, and the sense of threedimensionality. Motility and binocular vision disorders occur in manifest and latent strabismus. The irregular position of eyes in strabismus is perceived by most people as an esthetic defect. Also, psychosocial consequences and the importance of treating strabismus are very superficially explained in this context. Bearing in mind the results of recent researches, which indicate that individuals of all ages with strabismus face different difficulties in psychosocial functioning, we believe that this issue in our surroundings should be dealt with. Strabismus leads to forming prejudices which usually have a negative impact on socialization and employment opportunities. Timely treatment of strabismus has a positive influence on the functionality of binocular vision, building self-esteem and self-satisfaction, being accepted by typically developing population, the quality and quantity of social interaction. The aim of this paper is to present the relation between strabismus and psychosocial reactions with regard to the available literature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179025: Kreiranje Protokola za procenu edukativnih potencijala dece sa smetnjama u razvoju kao kriterijuma za izradu individualnih obrazovnih programa i br. 179017: Socijalna participacija osoba sa intelektualnom ometenošću

  5. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  6. Variability of vascular CT measurement techniques used in the assessment abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Andrew, E-mail: a.england@liv.ac.u [Directorate of Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy, University of Liverpool, Johnston Building, Quadrangle, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Niker, Amanda; Redmond, Claire [Directorate of Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy, University of Liverpool, Johnston Building, Quadrangle, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GB (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this project is to assess the variability of six CT measurement techniques for sizing abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Method: 37 CT scans with known AAAs were loaded on to a departmental picture archiving and communication system (PACS). A team of three observers, with experience in aortic CT measurements and the PACS performed a series of 2D and 3D measurements on the abdominal aorta. Each observer was asked to measure 3 quantities; anterior-posterior AAA diameter, maximum oblique AAA diameter, maximum aneurysm area using both 2D and 3D techniques. In order to test intra-observer variability each observer was asked to repeat their measurements. All measurements were taken using electronic callipers, under standardised viewing conditions using previously calibrated equipment. 3D measurements were conducted using a computer generated central luminal line (CLL). All measurements for this group were taken perpendicular to the CLL. Results: A total of 972 independent measurements were recorded by three observers. Mean intra-observer variability was lower for 2D diameter measurements (AP 1.3 {+-} 1.6 mm; 2D Oblique 1.2 {+-} 1.3 mm) and 2D areas (0.7 {+-} 1.3 cm{sup 2}) when compared to inter-observer variability (AP 1.7 {+-} 1.9 mm; Oblique 1.6 {+-} 1.7 mm; area 1.1 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 2}). When comparing 2D with 3D measurements, differences were comparable except for 3D AP diameter and area which had lower inter-observer variability than their 2D counterparts (AP 2D 1.7 {+-} 1.9 mm, 3D 1.3 {+-} 1.3 mm; area 2D 1.1 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 2}, 3D 0.7 {+-} 0.7 cm{sup 2}). 3D area measurement was the only technique which had equal variability for intra- and inter-observer measurements. Overall observer variability for the study was good with 94-100% of all paired measurements within 5.00 mm/cm{sup 2} or less. Using Pitman's test it can be confirmed that area measurements in the 3D plane have the least variability (r = 0.031) and 3D oblique measurements have

  7. Controlling for exogenous environmental variables when using data envelopment analysis for regional environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Alexander J; Principe, Peter P; Shao, Yang

    2013-04-15

    Researchers are increasingly using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to examine the efficiency of environmental policies and resource allocations. An assumption of the basic DEA model is that decisionmakers operate within homogeneous environments. But, this assumption is not valid when environmental performance is influenced by variables beyond managerial control. Understanding the influence of these variables is important to distinguish between characterizing environmental conditions and identifying opportunities to improve environmental performance. While environmental assessments often focus on characterizing conditions, the point of using DEA is to identify opportunities to improve environmental performance and thereby prevent (or rectify) an inefficient allocation of resources. We examine the role of exogenous variables such as climate, hydrology, and topography in producing environmental impacts such as deposition, runoff, invasive species, and forest fragmentation within the United States Mid-Atlantic region. We apply a four-stage procedure to adjust environmental impacts in a DEA model that seeks to minimize environmental impacts while obtaining given levels of socioeconomic outcomes. The approach creates a performance index that bundles multiple indicators while adjusting for variables that are outside management control, offering numerous advantages for environmental assessment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Psychosocial staffing at National Comprehensive Cancer Network member institutions: data from leading cancer centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshields, Teresa; Kracen, Amanda; Nanna, Shannon; Kimbro, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) is comprised of 25 National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers and arguably could thus set the standard for optimal psychosocial staffing for cancer centers; therefore, information was sought from NCCN Member Institutions about their current staffing for psychosocial services. These findings are put into perspective given the limited existing literature and consensus reports. The NCCN Best Practices Committee surveyed member institutions about their staffing for psychosocial services. The survey was administered electronically in the winter of 2012. The survey was completed by 20 cancer centers. Across institutions, case managers and mental health therapists, typically social workers, were utilized most frequently to provide psychosocial services (67% of full-time-equivalents (FTEs)), with other psychosocial professionals also represented but less consistently. Most psychosocial services are institutionally funded (ranging from 64 to 100%), although additional sources of support include fee for service and grant funding. Training of psychosocial providers is unevenly distributed across responding sites, ranging from 92% of institutions having training programs for psychiatrists to 36% having training programs for mental health therapists. There was variability among the institutions in terms of patient volume, psychosocial services provided, and psychosocial staff employed. As accreditation standards are implemented that provide impetus for psychosocial services in oncology, it is hoped that greater clarity will develop concerning staffing for psychosocial services and uptake of these services by patients with cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  10. Assessing reconstruction techniques of the Atlantic Ocean circulation variability during the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Ortega, Pablo; González-Rouco, Fidel; Montoya, Marisa

    2017-02-01

    We assess the use of the meridional thermal-wind transport estimated from zonal density gradients to reconstruct the oceanic circulation variability during the last millennium in a forced simulation with the ECHO-G coupled climate model. Following a perfect-model approach, model-based pseudo-reconstructions of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the Florida Current volume transport (FCT) are evaluated against their true simulated variability. The pseudo-FCT is additionally verified as proxy for AMOC strength and compared with the available proxy-based reconstruction. The thermal-wind component reproduces most of the simulated AMOC variability, which is mostly driven by internal climate dynamics during the preindustrial period and by increasing greenhouse gases afterwards. The pseudo-reconstructed FCT reproduces well the simulated FCT and reasonably well the variability of the AMOC strength, including the response to external forcing. The pseudo-reconstructed FCT, however, underestimates/overestimates the simulated variability at deep/shallow levels. Density changes responsible for the pseudo-reconstructed FCT are mainly driven by zonal temperature differences; salinity differences oppose but play a minor role. These results thus support the use of the thermal-wind relationship to reconstruct the oceanic circulation past variability, in particular at multidecadal timescales. Yet model-data comparison highlights important differences between the simulated and the proxy-based FCT variability. ECHO-G simulates a prominent weakening in the North Atlantic circulation that contrasts with the reconstructed enhancement. Our model results thus do not support the reconstructed FC minimum during the Little Ice Age. This points to a failure in the reconstruction, misrepresented processes in the model, or an important role of internal ocean dynamics.

  11. Family dynamics and psychosocial functioning in children with SCI/D from Colombia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolais, Christina J.; Perrin, Paul B.; Panyavin, Ivan; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the connections between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Participants were recruited from communities in Neiva, Colombia. Participants Thirty children with SCI/D and their primary caregiver participated. Children were between 8 and 17 years of age, and had sustained their injury at least six months prior to data collection. Interventions NA. Outcome measures Participating children completed measures assessing their own psychosocial functioning (Children's Depression Inventory, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-2, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), and their primary caregiver completed measures of family dynamics (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale- Fourth Edition, Family Communication Scale, Family Assessment Device- General Functioning, Family Satisfaction Scale, Relationship-Focused Coping Scale). Results A correlation matrix showed a number of significant bivariate correlations between child and family variables, and three multiple regressions showed that family satisfaction, empathy, and flexibility significantly explained 27% of the variance in child worry; family satisfaction and communication explained 18% of the variance in child social anxiety; and family cohesion and communication explained 23% of the variance in child emotional functioning. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of rehabilitation professionals considering the association between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with SCI/D when working with this population. PMID:25582185

  12. Childhood circumstances, psychosocial factors and the social impact of adult oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne E; Spencer, A John

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether childhood familial conditions are associated with the social impact of adult oral health and to investigate the role of psychosocial attributes as potential mechanisms by which risk might be conveyed from childhood to adulthood. Using a cross-sectional design, self-report data were obtained from a representative sample of adults in Australia with a telephonic interview and a self-completed questionnaire. The dependent variable was the sum of impacts on the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Childhood familial conditions included socioeconomic position assessed by paternal occupation group, family structure and quality of rearing. Current adult sense of control, perceived stress and satisfaction with life were assessed with standard scales and social support was evaluated with four items. Data were obtained for 3678 dentate adults aged 18-91 years. In bivariate analysis controlling for sex, age and household income in adulthood, parenting style was significantly associated with OHIP-14 scores (anova, P parental rearing style was significantly associated with social impact after adjusting for sex, age and household income in adulthood, but was no longer significant in the presence of the psychosocial factors. The importance of parental rearing to adult oral health may be mediated through the quality and nature of psychosocial attributes.

  13. Psychosocial Indicators in North African Immigrant Women in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Rinaldo, Natascia; Caccialupi, Maria Giovanna; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2017-03-03

    The present research evaluated the psychosocial health and quality of life of North African (NA) immigrant women living in Italy. A survey of 205 NA-born and Italian-born women was carried out. Psychosocial, sociodemographic and migration data were collected. Anthropometric indices were computed by direct measurements of height, weight, waist and hip circumferences. Multivariate analysis showed that the main explanatory variable for all dimensions of psychosocial status was the migrant status. Other explanatory variables were educational level and number of children for psychological discomfort, and weight status for well-being, quality of life and stress. Anthropometric indices were explanatory variables for quality of life. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence of higher psychological stress and discomfort and lower well-being and quality of life in immigrant women. Public social support is necessary to control, maintain and improve the mental health outcomes of immigrant communities in the host country.

  14. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Walking, Cycling, Public Transport and Passive Transport to Various Destinations in Flemish Older Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Verhoeven

    Full Text Available Active transport is a convenient way to incorporate physical activity in adolescents' daily life. The present study aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with walking, cycling, public transport (train, tram, bus, metro and passive transport (car, motorcycle, moped over short distances (maximum eight kilometres among older adolescents (17-18 years, to school and to other destinations.562 older adolescents completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables, environmental variables and transport to school/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed.More social modelling and a higher residential density were positively associated with walking to school and walking to other destinations, respectively. Regarding cycling, higher self-efficacy and a higher social norm were positively associated with cycling to school and to other destinations. Regarding public transport, a higher social norm, more social modelling of siblings and/or friends, more social support and a higher land use mix access were positively related to public transport to school and to other destinations, whereas a greater distance to school only related positively to public transport to school. Regarding passive transport, more social support and more perceived benefits were positively associated with passive transport to school and to other destinations. Perceiving less walking and cycling facilities at school was positively related to passive transport to school only, and more social modelling was positively related to passive transport to other destinations.Overall, psychosocial variables seemed to be more important than environmental variables across the four transport modes. Social norm, social modelling and social support were the most consistent psychosocial factors which indicates that it is important to target both older adolescents and their social

  15. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Walking, Cycling, Public Transport and Passive Transport to Various Destinations in Flemish Older Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Hannah; Simons, Dorien; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; de Geus, Bas; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Active transport is a convenient way to incorporate physical activity in adolescents' daily life. The present study aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with walking, cycling, public transport (train, tram, bus, metro) and passive transport (car, motorcycle, moped) over short distances (maximum eight kilometres) among older adolescents (17-18 years), to school and to other destinations. 562 older adolescents completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables, environmental variables and transport to school/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed. More social modelling and a higher residential density were positively associated with walking to school and walking to other destinations, respectively. Regarding cycling, higher self-efficacy and a higher social norm were positively associated with cycling to school and to other destinations. Regarding public transport, a higher social norm, more social modelling of siblings and/or friends, more social support and a higher land use mix access were positively related to public transport to school and to other destinations, whereas a greater distance to school only related positively to public transport to school. Regarding passive transport, more social support and more perceived benefits were positively associated with passive transport to school and to other destinations. Perceiving less walking and cycling facilities at school was positively related to passive transport to school only, and more social modelling was positively related to passive transport to other destinations. Overall, psychosocial variables seemed to be more important than environmental variables across the four transport modes. Social norm, social modelling and social support were the most consistent psychosocial factors which indicates that it is important to target both older adolescents and their social environment

  16. Social Entrepreneurship from a Psychosocial look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bargsted A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of social entrepreneurship, defined as any business initiative, with or nonprofit, whose primary objective is to generate social value. This is a recent and attractive field of research which progressively makes information gathering, although little of it is empirical. The aim of this review is to identify, relevant research questions from social psychology about social entrepreneurship. From the study of various investigations, possible psychosocial variables are identified, which are required for this type of entrepreneurship,such as individual characteristics, social reasons and a specific work identity. In addition, some looks on society, on the goals of organizations and on psychosocial aspects of organizational behavior are incorporated.

  17. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  18. Beyond Lees Ferry: Assessing the Long-term Hydrologic Variability of the Lower Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J. J.; Kanzer, D.

    2011-12-01

    The future reliability of Colorado River Basin water supplies depends on natural hydrologic variability, climate change impacts and other human factors. Natural variability is the dominant component at annual to decadal time scales and thus, capturing and understanding the full range of such variability is critical to assessing risks to near- and mid-term water supplies. Paleohydrologic reconstructions of annual flow using tree rings provide much longer (400+ years) records of annual flow than do historical gage records, and thus a more complete representation of potential flow sequences. While the long-term natural variability of the Upper Colorado River Basin has been well-captured by high-quality multi-century reconstructions of the annual flow of the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, AZ, there has been no equivalent effort for the whole of the Lower Colorado River Basin, including the Gila River. The contribution of the Lower Basin to overall basin flows is estimated to be 15% on average, but this percentage varies significantly from year to year, potentially impacting water supply risk and management for the entire basin. We present preliminary results from an ongoing effort to assess the hydroclimatic variability of the Lower Basin and to develop reconstructions of annual streamflows for the Gila River and Lower Colorado River near Yuma, AZ, commensurate with the existing Lees Ferry reconstructions. We model the flow of the Gila at the confluence with the Colorado River using Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) and a generalized linear model (GLM) using Lower Basin tributaries, including the upper Gila River and its tributaries (e.g., Salt, Tonto, and Verde Rivers). We also present preliminary reconstructions of Lower Basin streamflows from tree-ring data using different modeling approaches, including GLM and non-parametric k-nearest-neighbor (KNN). These reconstructions of the Lower Basin flows should facilitate more robust estimation of water supply risk to

  19. Electrocardiography versus photoplethysmography in assessment of maternal heart rate variability during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Pinto, Paula; Silva, Manuela; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Bernardes, João

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of maternal heart rate (MHR) variability provides useful information on the maternal-fetal clinical state. Electrocardiography (ECG) is the most accurate method to monitor MHR but it may not always be available, and pulse oximetry using photoplethysmography (PPG) can be an alternative. In this study we compared ECG and PPG signals, obtained with conventional fetal monitors, to evaluate signal loss, MHR variability indices, and the ability of the latter to predict fetal acidemia and operative delivery. Both signals were simultaneously acquired in 51 term pregnancies during the last 2 h of labor (H1 and H2). Linear time- and frequency-domain, and nonlinear MHR variability indices were estimated, and the dataset was divided into normal and acidemic cases, as well as into normal and operative deliveries. Differences between ECG and PPG signals were assessed using non-parametric confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, correlation coefficient and a measure of disagreement. Prediction of fetal acidemia and operative delivery was assessed using areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (auROC). Signal loss was higher with ECG during the first segments of H1, and higher with PPG in the last segment of H2, and it increased in both signals with labour progression. MHR variability indices were significantly different when acquired with ECG and PPG signals, with low correlation coefficients and high disagreement for entropy and fast oscillation-based indices, and low disagreement for the mean MHR and slow oscillation-based indices. However, both acquisition modes evidenced significant differences between H1 and H2 and comparable auROC values were obtained in the detection of fetal acidemia and operative vaginal delivery. Although PPG captures the faster oscillations of the MHR signal less well than ECG and is prone to have higher signal loss in the last 10-min preceding delivery, it can be considered an alternative for MHR monitoring during labor

  20. Inter-observer variability within BI-RADS and RANZCR mammographic density assessment schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damases, Christine N.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; McEntee, Mark F.

    2016-03-01

    This study compares variability associated with two visual mammographic density (MD) assessment methods using two separate samples of radiologists. The image test-set comprised of images obtained from 20 women (age 42-89 years). The images were assessed for their MD by twenty American Board of Radiology (ABR) examiners and twenty-six radiologists registered with the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR). Images were assessed using the same technology and conditions, however the ABR radiologists used the BI-RADS and the RANZCR radiologists used the RANZCR breast density synoptic. Both scales use a 4-point assessment. The images were then grouped as low- and high-density; low including BIRADS 1 and 2 or RANZCR 1 and 2 and high including BI-RADS 3 and 4 or RANZCR 3 and 4. Four-point BI-RADS and RANZCR showed no or negligible correlation (ρ=-0.029 p<0.859). The average inter-observer agreement on the BI-RADS scale had a Kappa of 0.565; [95% CI = 0.519 - 0.610], and ranged between 0.328-0.669 while the inter-observer agreement using the RANZCR scale had a Kappa of 0.360; [95% CI = 0.308 - 0.412] and a range of 0.078-0.499. Our findings show a wider range of inter-observer variability among RANZCR registered radiologists than the ABR examiners.

  1. Variability in vulnerability assessment of older people by individual general practitioners: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne M Drewes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, GPs appeared to have an internalized concept of "vulnerability." This study investigates the variability between general practitioners (GPs in their vulnerability-assessment of older persons. METHODS: Seventy-seven GPs categorized their 75-plus patients (n = 11392 into non-vulnerable, possibly vulnerable, and vulnerable patients. GPs personal and practice characteristics were collected. From a sample of 2828 patients the following domains were recorded: sociodemographic, functional [instrumental activities in daily living (IADL, basic activities in daily living (BADL], somatic (number of diseases, polypharmacy, psychological (Mini-Mental State Examination, 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS-15 and social (De Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale; DJG. Variability in GPs' assessment of vulnerability was tested with mixed effects logistic regression. P-values for variability (pvar were calculated by the log-likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Participating GPs assessed the vulnerability of 10,361 patients. The median percentage of vulnerable patients was 32.0% (IQR 19.5 to 40.1%. From the somatic and psychological domains, GPs uniformly took into account the patient characteristics 'total number of diseases' (OR 1.7, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1, 'polypharmacy' (OR 2.3, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1 and 'GDS-15' (OR 1.6, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1. GPs vary in the way they assessed their patients' vulnerability in the functional domain (IADL: median OR 2.8, 90% range 1.6, p var < 0.001, BADL: median OR 2.4, 90% range 2.9, p var < 0.001 and the social domain (DJG: median OR 1.2, 90% range  = 1.2, p var < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: GPs seem to share a medical concept of vulnerability, since they take somatic and psychological characteristics uniformly into account in the vulnerability-assessment of older persons. In the functional and social domains, however, variability was found. Vulnerability assessment by GPs might be a

  2. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, H.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the re

  3. The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Neirita Hazarika; M Archana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January...

  4. Brief Report: Teen Sexting and Psychosocial Health

    OpenAIRE

    Temple, Jeff R.; Le, Vi Donna; Van Den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A.; Temple, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and...

  5. [Psychosocial aspects of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Bernadett; Baji, Ildikó; Rigó, János

    2015-12-13

    Distress conditions during pregnancy may contribute to the development of preeclampsia by altering functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, e.g. activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines. Preeclampsia may also precipitate mental health problems due to long-term hospitalization or unpredictable and uncontrollable events such as preterm labor and newborn complications. Besides, preeclampsia may induce persistent neurocognitive complaints with a negative impact on patients' quality of life. As growing evidence indicates that poor maternal mental health has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, psychosocial interventions may be beneficial for women with preeclampsia.

  6. Closing the loop: an interactive action-research conference format for delivering updated medical information while eliciting Latina patient/family experiences and psychosocial needs post-genetic cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Deborah J; Deri, Julia; Ricker, Charité; Perez, Martin A; Ogaz, Raquel; Feldman, Nancy; Viveros, Lori A; Paz, Benjamin; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Blazer, Kathleen R

    2012-09-01

    A patient/family-centered conference was conducted at an underserved community hospital to address Latinas' post-genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) medical information and psychosocial support needs, and determine the utility of the action research format. Latinas seen for GCRA were recruited to a half-day conference conducted in Spanish. Content was partly determined from follow-up survey feedback. Written surveys, interactive discussions, and Audience Response System (ARS) queries facilitated the participant-healthcare professional action research process. Analyses included descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The 71 attendees (41 patients and 27 relatives/friends) were primarily non-US born Spanish-speaking females, mean age 43 years. Among patients, 73 % had a breast cancer history; 85 % had BRCA testing (49 % BRCA+). Nearly all (96 %) attendees completed the conference surveys and ARS queries; ≥48 % participated in interactive discussions. Most (95 %) agreed that the format met their personal interests and expectations and provided useful information and resources. Gaps/challenges identified in the GCRA process included pre-consult anxiety, uncertainty about reason for referral and expected outcomes, and psychosocial needs post-GCRA, such as absorbing and disseminating risk information to relatives and concurrently coping with a recent cancer diagnosis. The combined action research and educational conference format was innovative and effective for responding to continued patient information needs and addressing an important data gap about support needs of Latina patients and family members following genetic cancer risk assessment. Findings informed GCRA process improvements and provide a basis for theory-driven cancer control research.

  7. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire

  8. Assessing affective variability in eating disorders: affect spins less in anorexia nervosa of the restrictive type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Probst, Michel; Pieters, Guido

    2013-08-01

    Differences in affective variability in eating disorders are examined using an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol. It is hypothesized that restriction serves to pre-empt the activation of affect whereas bulimic behavior serves to cope with overwhelming affect once activated. Therefore, we expect anorexia nervosa (AN) patients of the restricting type (AN-RT) to have lower mean levels of affect and less affective variability than Bulimia Nervosa (BN) patients. Patients' successive affective states over time are represented as different positions in a two-dimensional space defined by the orthogonal dimensions of valence and activation. Affective variability is measured by the within person variance and the new concepts of pulse and spin. Results of this exploratory study suggest that the diagnostic groups have the same mean levels of affect but affect spins less in patients with AN-RT. Using an EMA protocol and measures like pulse and spin may reveal insights in eating disorders that remain hidden with more traditional assessment methods.

  9. Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis to assess climate variability for the European wind industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, Philip E.; Thornton, Hazel E.; Clark, Robin T.

    2017-01-01

    We characterise the long-term variability of European near-surface wind speeds using 142 years of data from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR), and consider the potential of such long-baseline climate data sets for wind energy applications. The low resolution of the 20CR would severely restrict its use on its own for wind farm site-screening. We therefore perform a simple statistical calibration to link it to the higher-resolution ERA-Interim data set (ERAI), such that the adjusted 20CR data has the same wind speed distribution at each location as ERAI during their common period. Using this corrected 20CR data set, wind speeds and variability are characterised in terms of the long-term mean, standard deviation and corresponding trends. Many regions of interest show extremely weak trends on century timescales, but contain large multidecadal variability. Since reanalyses such as ERAI are often used to provide the background climatology for wind farm site assessments, but contain only a few decades of data, our results can be used as a way of incorporating decadal-scale wind climate variability into such studies, allowing investment risks for wind farms to be reduced.

  10. Assessment of Sentinel-3/OLCI Sub-Pixel Variability and Platform Impact Using Landsat-8/OLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhellemont, Quinten; Ruddick, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    Validation and calibration of ocean colour sensors with in situ data is key for successful exploitation of their data. Ship campaigns are expensive and provide a low number of good matchups, whereas autonomous systems can typically provide a matchup for each cloud-free scene. With the distribution of free and high quality imagery from Landsat-8, the amount of natural spatial variability in the coastal zone becomes quantifiable, and the possible impact of measurement platforms (ships, moorings, structures) on the signal measured by the satellite becomes clear. Here we present the use of Landsat-8/OLI imagery (30m) to assess the spatial variability within a Sentinel-3/OLCI pixel (300m) at validation sites, as well as an illustration of the impacts of the measurement platforms on the satellite measurement.

  11. Assessing terpene content variability of whitebark pine in order to estimate representative sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In studies of population variability, particular attention has to be paid to the selection of a representative sample. The aim of this study was to assess the size of the new representative sample on the basis of the variability of chemical content of the initial sample on the example of a whitebark pine population. Statistical analysis included the content of 19 characteristics (terpene hydrocarbons and their derivates of the initial sample of 10 elements (trees. It was determined that the new sample should contain 20 trees so that the mean value calculated from it represents a basic set with a probability higher than 95 %. Determination of the lower limit of the representative sample size that guarantees a satisfactory reliability of generalization proved to be very important in order to achieve cost efficiency of the research. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-173011, br. TR-37002 i br. III-43007

  12. Nutritional and Functional Assessment of Hospitalized Elderly: Impact of Sociodemographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emam M. M. Esmayel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This work was constructed in order to assess the nutritional and functional status in hospitalized elderly and to study the associations between them and sociodemographic variables. Methods. 200 elderly patients (>65 years old admitted to Internal Medicine and Neurology Departments in nonemergency conditions were included. Comprehensive geriatric assessments, including nutritional and functional assessments, were done according to nutritional checklist and Barthel index, respectively. Information was gathered from the patients, from the ward nurse responsible for the patient, and from family members who were reviewed. Results. According to the nutritional checklist, 56% of participants were at high risk, 18% were at moderate risk of malnutrition, and 26% had good nutrition. There was a high nutritional risk in patients with low income and good nutrition in patients with moderate income. Also, there was a high nutritional risk in rural residents (61.9% in comparison with urban residents (25%. Barthel index score was significantly lower in those at high risk of malnutrition compared to those at moderate risk and those with good nutrition. Conclusions. Hospitalized elderly are exposed to malnutrition, and malnourished hospitalized patients are candidates for functional impairment. Significant associations are noticed between both nutritional and functional status and specific sociodemographic variables.

  13. Evaluating variability and uncertainty separately in microbial quantitative risk assessment using two R packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Régis; Delignette-Muller, Marie Laure

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative risk assessment has emerged as a valuable tool to enhance the scientific basis of regulatory decisions in the food safety domain. This article introduces the use of two new computing resources (R packages) specifically developed to help risk assessors in their projects. The first package, "fitdistrplus", gathers tools for choosing and fitting a parametric univariate distribution to a given dataset. The data may be continuous or discrete. Continuous data may be right-, left- or interval-censored as is frequently obtained with analytical methods, with the possibility of various censoring thresholds within the dataset. Bootstrap procedures then allow the assessor to evaluate and model the uncertainty around the parameters and to transfer this information into a quantitative risk assessment model. The second package, "mc2d", helps to build and study two dimensional (or second-order) Monte-Carlo simulations in which the estimation of variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates is separated. This package easily allows the transfer of separated variability and uncertainty along a chain of conditional mathematical and probabilistic models. The usefulness of these packages is illustrated through a risk assessment of hemolytic and uremic syndrome in children linked to the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef. These R packages are freely available at the Comprehensive R Archive Network (cran.r-project.org).

  14. Combining psychosocial data to improve prediction of cardiovascular disease risk factors and events:: The NHLBI-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Kerry S.; Krantz, David S.; Rutledge, Thomas; Johnson, B. Delia; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J.; Bittner, Vera; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Eteiba, Wafia; Cornell, Carol E.; Pepine, Carl J.; Vido, Diane A.; Handberg, Eileen; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2012-01-01

    Background There is overlap among psychosocial variables associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and utility of combining psychosocial variables as risk markers for understanding CVD is largely unknown. Methods Women (n=493) in the NHLBI Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study were evaluated. The predictive value for CVD events was determined for multivariate combination of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Social Network Index (SNI), and Cook-Medley hostility (Ho) scales. Principal components analysis of psychosocial scales revealed composite psychosocial risk markers, and their relationships to CVD events and risk factors were assessed. Results In a multivariate model, the block of SNI, Hostile Affect, STAI and BDI predicted CVD events (χ2[6]=27.8, p<0.001). Scale-wise factor analysis revealed two factors: Negative Affectivity (NA) and Hostility(explained variance 45.6% and 17.1%, respectively). SNI didn't load on either factor. NA was associated with BMI (β [SE] = 0.18[0.09], p=0.04), Hostility with metabolic syndrome (Exp(β)= 0.60[0.28], p=0.04), both factors with blood pressure (BP). NA with SBP β=2.53[1.04], p=0.02, DBP β=1.66[0.60], p=0.02; Hostility with SBP β=2.72[1.13], p=0.02, DBP β =1.83[0.65], p=0.005). Neither factor predicted CVD events. In multivariable analyses, original scales were associated with CVD events (lower SNI HR=0.74, CI=0.57–0.96), low Hostile Affect (HR=0.80, CI=0.56–1.03), and higher BDI(HR=1.33, CI=1.08–1.74). Conclusion In women with suspected ischemia, there is shared variance among psychosocial variables. Multivariate combination of psychosocial risk markers predicts CVD events; derived psychosocial factors were associated with CVD risk factors but not events. Measuring common and unique variance among psychosocial variables may be useful for understanding and predicting CVD. PMID:22434916

  15. Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pravina

    2002-05-01

    Social attitudes towards epilepsy cause more distress to the patient and his/her near and dear ones, than the disease itself. The major psychosocial issues related to epilepsy are: Quality of medical management, overprotection, education, employment, marriage and pregnancy. Inadequate treatment is the major reason involved in psychosocial issues. Constant overprotection and pampering leads to behavioural pattern which makes epileptic patient dependent for ever. Education is hampered in epileptic persons. Teachers and students should have proper information regarding seizures. If seizures are well controlled, job opportunities increase. Employers and employees need to be educated about epilepsy. Self-employment is the best in epileptic patients. Regarding marriage, each patient is to be judged on individual merits and type of epilepsy. Society needs to be educated about the facts and consequences of epilepsy. Risk of anti-epileptic drug's usage is very insignificant compared to risk of seizures in pregnancy. So girls are advised to seek medical advice before pregnancy and during follow-up. With more and more support from the society, persons with epilepsy will have the courage and confidence to speak about themselves and their illness. It is only then that we will realise that persons with epilepsy are 'normal' or 'near-normal' and this will break the vicious cycle of stigma.

  16. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on physi

  17. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  18. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on physi

  19. [Psychosocial factors in duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Gándara Martín, J J; de Dios Francos, A; de Diego Herrero, E; Goñi Labat, A I; Hernández Herrero, H; Pozo de Castro, J V

    1994-01-01

    "Burn-out" is a kind of assistential laboral stress which affects the professions which involve an interpersonal relationship with beneficiaries of the job, such us health workers. It originates emotional alterations which lead to feelings of emptiness and personal failure or laboral inability. The revisions about studies of mental disorders in health workers fall upon such laboral stress and remark that in such professional people there is a bigger prevalence of disorders because of the use of substances and of depression. To analyse the mental disorders in health workers by means of the retrospective study of a sample in a general hospital which asked for a psychiatric consultation, sociodemographic variables, clinico-diagnostic and variables related to laboral activity were analysed. The sample is constituted by 112 patients of an average age of forty years old and preferentially females (79.5%). In the sample, some professions are represented above all expectations; they are nurses, physicians, the laboral category of "boss and managers" and the laboral regimen of "permanents". The more frequent psychiatric disorders were the adjustment disorders and code V, the affective disorders and the anxiety disorders (23-33%), the disorders caused by the use of substances and the psychotic disorders are limited (5%). The laboral activity was considered an important factor in 43% of the cases and the mental disorder caused laboral inability, transitory or permanent in half of the patients. It is detected a relationship between the diagnostic and variables such as sex, laboral category, laboral inability, psychosocial stress level and GAF and there hasn't been detected any association between mental disorders and age, profession, laboral regimen and laboral stress.

  20. Family Violence and Aggression and Their Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Jamaican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E.; Moore, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among selected family interaction variables and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. The authors hypothesized that adolescent psychosocial outcomes would be negatively associated with physical violence, verbal aggression would be more potent than physical…

  1. Quantitative sensory testing in patients with postthoracotomy pain syndrome: Part 2: variability in thermal threshold assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgaard, Kim; Ringsted, Thomas K; Kehlet, Henrik; Werner, Mads U

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative sensory testing is a reference method for characterization of postsurgical neuropathic components. Correct interpretation of data requires detailed information concerning the validity of the testing methods. The objective of the study was to assess the test-retest variability of thermal thresholds in patients (n = 14) with the postthoracotomy pain syndrome. Sensory mapping with a metal roller (25°C) on the surgical side delineated an area with cool sensory dysfunction. In this area and in a contralateral area, 4 prespecified sites (2.6 cm) were outlined, in addition to the maximum pain site on the surgical side. In these total 9 sites, warmth detection threshold, cool detection threshold, and heat pain threshold were assessed. Comparisons of thermal test-retest assessments did not demonstrate any significant intraside differences. The SDs of the thermal assessments in nonpain sites and in the maximum pain site ranged from 1.9 to 2.5°C and 3.5 to 6.9°C, respectively. The estimated within-patient and between-patient variances were 5% to 28% and 72% to 95%, respectively, of the total variances. Although a generally poor test-retest agreement was demonstrated, the much lower within-patient than between-patient variances facilitated estimations of highly statistical significant, within-patient differences in thermal thresholds. In patients with postthoracotomy pain syndrome, several statistical methods indicated an excessively high variability in thermal thresholds, questioning the use of single quantitative sensory testing in assessments to characterize patients with chronic pain states.

  2. Assessment of a climate model to reproduce rainfall variability and extremes over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J. R.; Kniveton, D. R.; Layberry, R.

    2010-01-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The sub-continent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall extremes is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite-derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infrared Rainfall Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993 to 2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1° longitude/latitude. This paper concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of present-day rainfall variability over southern Africa and is not intended to discuss possible future changes in climate as these have been documented elsewhere. Simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall extremes is assessed, again by a comparison with

  3. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activity to streamflow variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impacts of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impacts on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resources management. By using an elasticity-based method, calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrologic models, we have quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activity and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in Jinhe basin located in northwest of China. This is an important watershed of Shaanxi Province that supplies drinking water for a population of over 6 million. The results from the three methods show that both human activity and climatic differences can have major effects on catchment streamflow, and the estimates of climate variability impacts from the hydrological models are similar to those from the elasticity-based method. Compared with the baseline period of 1960–1970, streamflow greatly decreased during 2001–2010. The change impacts of human activity and climate variability in 2001–2010 were about 83.5 and 16.5% of the total reduction respectively when averaged over the three methods. The maximum contribution value of human activity was appeared in 1981–1990 due to the effects of soil and water conservation measures and irrigation water withdrawal, which was 95, 112.5 and 92.4% from TOPMODEL, VIC model and elasticity-based method respectively. The maximum value of the aridity index (E0/P was 1.91 appeared in 1991–2000. Compared with 1960–1970 baseline period, climate variability made the greatest contributions reduction in 1991–2000, which was 47.4, 43.9 and 29.9% from TOPMODEL, VIC model and elasticity-based method respectively. We emphasized various source of errors and uncertainties that may occurre in the hydrological model (parameter and structural uncertainty and elasticity-based method (model parameter in climate change impact studies.

  4. Assessing display variability in wild brown anoles Anolis sagrei using a mechanical lizard model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. PARTAN, Peter OTOVIC, Virginia L. PRICE, Scott E. BROWN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Signals used for species identity ought to be highly stereotyped so as to facilitate immediate recognition by conspecifics. It is surprising therefore to find variability in putative species signature displays. The brown anole Anolis sagrei has a high degree of variability in its signature bobbing display. In this study we collected descriptive data on variability in the temporal structure of wild brown anole bobbing patterns, finding that no two displays analyzed had the same temporal structure, and we also tested whether wild brown anoles prefer the signature display over an alternate display pattern by using mechanical robot playbacks in the field. As a response metric we assessed whether or not the lizards showed social responses (pushup, dewlap extension, or head-nod in response to the robotic presentations. We found that the lizards responded slightly more to the signature than to the alternate pattern, providing support for the idea that despite the variability seen in displays, the signature pattern is meaningful to them. We tested two other independent variables: speed of the display and elevation of the robot during its display, neither of which was significant. Dewlap extensions were given predominantly by adult males and were more likely to be given in the breeding season than the nonbreeding season. Pushups and head-nods were given equally by males and a combined class of females and juveniles, and were not seasonal. Head-nods increased after the robot turned off, suggesting that they may be used in a conversational turn-taking style during communication [Current Zoology 57 (2: 140–152, 2011].

  5. Assessing display variability in wild brown anoles Anolis sagrei using a mechanical lizard model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah R.PARTAN; Peter OTOVIC; Virginia L.PRICE; Scott E.BROWN

    2011-01-01

    Signals used for species identity ought to be highly stereotyped so as to facilitate immediate recognition by conspecifics.It is surprising therefore to find variability in putative species signature displays.The brown anole Anolis sasrei has a high degree of variability in its signature bobbing display.In this study we collected descriptive data on variability in the temporal stiucture of wild brown anole bobbing patterns,finding that no two displays analyzed had the same temporal structure,and we also tested whether wild brown anoles prefer the signature display over an alternate display pattern by using mechanical robot playbacks in the field.As a response metric we assessed whether or not the lizards showed social responses(pushup,dewlap extension,or head-nod)in response to the robotic presentations.We found that the lizards responded slightly more to the signature than to the alternate pattern,providing support for the idea that despite the variability seen in displays,the signature pattern is meaningful to them.We tested two other independent variables:speed of the display and elevation of the robot during its display,neither of which was significant.Dewlap extensions were given predominantly by adult males and were more likely to be given in the breeding season than the nonbreeding season.Pushups and head-nods were given equally by males and a combined class of females and juveniles,and were not seasonal.Head-nods increased after the robot turned off,suggesting that they may be used in a conversational turn-taking style during communication.

  6. Assessing multiscale complexity of short heart rate variability series through a model-based linear approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Ranuzzi, Giovanni; De Maria, Beatrice; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    We propose a multiscale complexity (MSC) method assessing irregularity in assigned frequency bands and being appropriate for analyzing the short time series. It is grounded on the identification of the coefficients of an autoregressive model, on the computation of the mean position of the poles generating the components of the power spectral density in an assigned frequency band, and on the assessment of its distance from the unit circle in the complex plane. The MSC method was tested on simulations and applied to the short heart period (HP) variability series recorded during graded head-up tilt in 17 subjects (age from 21 to 54 years, median = 28 years, 7 females) and during paced breathing protocols in 19 subjects (age from 27 to 35 years, median = 31 years, 11 females) to assess the contribution of time scales typical of the cardiac autonomic control, namely in low frequency (LF, from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF, from 0.15 to 0.5 Hz) bands to the complexity of the cardiac regulation. The proposed MSC technique was compared to a traditional model-free multiscale method grounded on information theory, i.e., multiscale entropy (MSE). The approach suggests that the reduction of HP variability complexity observed during graded head-up tilt is due to a regularization of the HP fluctuations in LF band via a possible intervention of sympathetic control and the decrement of HP variability complexity observed during slow breathing is the result of the regularization of the HP variations in both LF and HF bands, thus implying the action of physiological mechanisms working at time scales even different from that of respiration. MSE did not distinguish experimental conditions at time scales larger than 1. Over a short time series MSC allows a more insightful association between cardiac control complexity and physiological mechanisms modulating cardiac rhythm compared to a more traditional tool such as MSE.

  7. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  8. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    between psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. Using a combination of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire and data from the firms’ balanced scorecard system we show a positive......Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports the first findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship...... significant correlation between performance and psychosocial work environment. A sample of 12 departments was selected for in-depth qualitative study based on their relative change in performance and psychosocial work environment between 2005 and 2007. Through the qualitative study we are able to identity...

  9. Assessing genetic variability in two ancient chicken breeds of Padova area

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    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in two ancient indigenous chicken breeds of the Veneto region was assessed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers. A total of 63 individuals were analysed using three selected AFLP primer combinations that produced 66 clear polymorphisms. The breeds analyzed were the Padovana and the Polverara (two ancient breeds and a reference broiler line. The expected heterozygosity (Het did not differ significantly among breeds. The variability at AFLP loci was largely maintained across breeds, as indicated by the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst value. The lowest genetic distance is found between the Padovana and Polverara breeds suggesting that they could be genetically close.

  10. Assessment of the Impact of Geomechanical Parameters Variability on Underground Excavations Stability Using Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Witold; Świtoń, Joanna

    2013-03-01

    Recognition of properties of the rock mass surrounding a mineral deposit is particularly important for the mining operations at greater depths. Since the rock mass is usually not homogeneous, and its parameters have characteristics of randomness, underground workings safety issue should always be analysed taking into account the dispersion of the values of these parameters around their mean values. In order to assess the impact of geotechnical parameters uncertainty on the excavation stability one uses the appropriate statistical approach. In this paper, by analysing successive combinations of geomechanical parameters of the rock in the measured range, we examined the effect of their variability on risk of underground excavation instability using response surface method.

  11. Psychosocial factors associated with in postsurgical prognosis of temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Neide Barreira; Mazetto, Lenon; de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Centeno, Ricardo Silva

    2015-12-01

    We examined the long-term psychosocial trajectory in a consecutive and homogeneous series of 120 patients followed up for five years after corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH). Evaluation of psychosocial variables at baseline and at five-year follow-up were compared. After five years of CAH, a significant improvement in educational level (p=0.004) and employment status (p0.05). A more favorable surgical outcome (Engel IA) was related to better psychiatric status (p=0.012). Poor psychosocial adjustment before surgery was the most important predictor of QOL outcome (p<0.05). Patients' trajectory after surgical treatment showed positive effects mainly in those with better seizure outcome. Our results emphasized the influence regarding baseline psychosocial functioning on postoperative psychosocial adjustment. Furthermore, many psychosocial gains and difficulties after surgery may be similar in developing and developed countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Confidence Region Approach for Assessing Bioequivalence and Biosimilarity Accounting for Heterogeneity of Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For approval of generic drugs, the FDA requires that evidence of bioequivalence in average bioequivalence in terms of drug absorption be provided through the conduct of a bioequivalence study. A test product is said to be average bioequivalent to a reference (innovative product if the 90% confidence interval of the ratio of means (after log-transformation is totally within (80%, 125%. This approach is considered a one-parameter approach, which does not account for possible heterogeneity of variability between drug products. In this paper, we study a two-parameter approach (i.e., confidence region approach for assessing bioequivalence, which can also be applied to assessing biosimilarity of biosimilar products. The proposed confidence region approach is compared with the traditional one-parameter approach both theoretically and numerically (i.e., simulation study for finite sample performance.

  13. Psychosocial distress and periodontitis in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Valeria; Marró, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease associated with predominantly gram negative biofilms and characterized by the progressive destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Some studies conducted among adults have found a significant association between periodontitis and dimensions...... of psychosocial distress and it is unclear whether this association can be found among younger subjects in which destruction of periodontal tissues as a result of periodontitis are less severe. Purpose: The main aim of this study was to assess whether adolescents with periodontitis presented with higher scores...... for non-psychotic psychosocial disorders than control subjects without periodontitis. Materials and Methods: We used a case control study (n=160) nested in a well-defined adolescent population (n=9,163) and the 28-item Spanish version of the General Health Questionnaire. The inclusion criterion for being...

  14. Psychosocial distress and periodontitis in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Valeria; Marró, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease associated with predominantly gram negative biofilms and characterized by the progressive destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Some studies conducted among adults have found a significant association between periodontitis and dimensions...... of psychosocial distress and it is unclear whether this association can be found among younger subjects in which destruction of periodontal tissues as a result of periodontitis are less severe. Purpose: The main aim of this study was to assess whether adolescents with periodontitis presented with higher scores...... for non-psychotic psychosocial disorders than control subjects without periodontitis. Materials and Methods: We used a case control study (n=160) nested in a well-defined adolescent population (n=9,163) and the 28-item Spanish version of the General Health Questionnaire. The inclusion criterion for being...

  15. Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis to assess climate variability for the European wind industry

    CERN Document Server

    Bett, Philip E; Clark, Robin T

    2014-01-01

    We characterise the long-term variability of European near-surface wind speeds using 140 years of data from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR), and consider the potential of such long-baseline climate data sets for wind energy applications. The low resolution of the 20CR would severely restrict its use on its own for wind farm site-screening. We therefore perform a simple statistical calibration to link it to the higher-resolution ERA-Interim data set (ERAI), such that the adjusted 20CR data has the same wind speed distribution at each location as ERAI during their common period. Using this corrected 20CR data set, wind speeds and variability are characterised in terms of the long-term mean, standard deviation, and corresponding trends. Many regions of interest show extremely weak trends on century timescales, but contain large multidecadal variability. Variations in the form of the wind speed distribution are assessed in terms of its deciles; we find that the commonly-used Weibull distribution often pro...

  16. Comparative assessment of lowland and highland Smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, D. Y., Sr.; Abshare, M. W. M.; Desta, S. D.; Filho, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Desalegn Yayeh Ayal P.O.BOX 150129 Addis Ababa University Ethiopia Mobil +251910824784 Abstract Smallholder farmers' near term scenario (2010-2039) vulnerability nature and magnitude was examined using twenty-two exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity vulnerability indicators. Assessment of smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability revealed the importance of comprehending exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity induces. Due to differences in level of change in rainfall, temperature, drought frequency, their environmental interaction and variations on adaptive capacity the nature and magnitude of smallholder farmers vulnerability to physical, biological and epidemiological challenges of crop and livestock production varied within and across agro-ecologies. Highlanders' sensitive relates with high population density, erosion and crop disease and pest damage occurrence. Whereas lowlanders will be more sensitive to high crop disease and pest damage, provenance of livestock disease, absence of alternative water sources, less diversified agricultural practices. However, with little variations in the magnitude and nature of vulnerability, both highlanders and lowlanders are victims of climate variability and change. Given the ever increasing population, temperature and unpredictable nature of rainfall variability, the study concluded that future adaptation strategies should capitalize on preparing smallholder farmers for both extremes- excess rainfall and flooding on the one hand and severe drought on the other.

  17. Mapping and Assessing Variability in the Antarctic Marginal Ice Zone, the Pack Ice and Coastal Polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Jenouvrier, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice variability within the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and polynyas plays an important role for phytoplankton productivity and krill abundance. Therefore mapping their spatial extent, seasonal and interannual variability is essential for understanding how current and future changes in these biological active regions may impact the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Knowledge of the distribution of different ice types to the total Antarctic sea ice cover may also help to shed light on the factors contributing towards recent expansion of the Antarctic ice cover in some regions and contraction in others. The long-term passive microwave satellite data record provides the longest and most consistent data record for assessing different ice types. However, estimates of the amount of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and polynyas depends strongly on what sea ice algorithm is used. This study uses two popular passive microwave sea ice algorithms, the NASA Team and Bootstrap to evaluate the distribution and variability in the MIZ, the consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas. Results reveal the NASA Team algorithm has on average twice the MIZ and half the consolidated pack ice area as the Bootstrap algorithm. Polynya area is also larger in the NASA Team algorithm, and the timing of maximum polynya area may differ by as much as 5 months between algorithms. These differences lead to different relationships between sea ice characteristics and biological processes, as illustrated here with the breeding success of an Antarctic seabird.

  18. Rainfall variability and extremes over southern Africa: Assessment of a climate model to reproduce daily extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J. R.; Kniveton, D. R.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall extremes is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. The ability of a climate model to simulate current climate provides some indication of how much confidence can be applied to its future predictions. In this paper, simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. This concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall variability over southern Africa. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall extremes will

  19. Body composition and morphological assessment of nutritional status in adults: a review of anthropometric variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, A M; Smith, S

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of body composition is an important part of assessing nutritional status and provides prognostically useful data and an opportunity to monitor the effects of nutrition-related disease progression and nutritional intervention. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate body composition methodology in adults, focusing on anthropometric variables. The variables considered include height, weight, body mass index and alternative indices, trunk measurements (waist and hip circumferences and sagittal abdominal diameter) and limb measurements (mid-upper arm and calf circumferences) and skinfold thickness. The importance of adhering to a defined measurement protocol, checking measurement error and the need to interpret measurements using appropriate population-specific cut-off values to identify health risks were highlighted. Selecting the optimum method for assessing body composition using anthropometry depends on the purpose (i.e. evaluating obesity or undernutrition) and requires practitioners to have a good understanding of both practical and theoretical limitations and to be able to interpret the results wisely.

  20. Variable delay-to-signal: a fast paradigm for assessment of aspects of impulsivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo eLeite-Almeida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Testing impulsive behavior in rodents is challenging and labor-intensive. We developed a new behavioral paradigm – the Variable Delay-to-Signal (VDS test – that provides rapid and simultaneous assessment of response and decision impulsivity in rodents. Presentation of a light at variable delays signals the permission for action (nose poke contingent with a reward. Two blocks of 25 trials at 3s delay flank a block of 70 trials in which light is presented with randomly selected 6s or 12s delays. Exposure to such large delays boosts the rate of premature responses when the delay drops to 3s in the final block, an effect that is blunted by an acute methamphetamine challenge and that correlates with the delay-discounting paradigm (choice impulsivity. Finally, as expected, treatment with the NMDA antagonist MK-801 caused a generalized response increase in all VDS blocks. The pharmacological validation, particularly with methamphetamine which has a well established dual effect on response and decision impulsivity, and the correlations between the impulsive behavior in the delay-discounting and VDS paradigms, suggests that the later is able to provide, in a single session, a multi-dimensional assessment of impulsive behavior.

  1. Assessment of Seasonal and Annual Rainfall Trends and Variability in Sharjah City, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Merabtene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a few studies on rainfall spatial and temporal variability in the UAE have been carried out, evidence of the impact of climate change on rainfall trends has not been reported. This study aims at assessing the significance of long-term rainfall trends and temporal variability at Sharjah City, UAE. Annual rainfall and seasonal rainfall extending over a period of 81 years (1934–2014 recorded at Sharjah International Airport have been analyzed. To this end, several parametric and nonparametric statistical measures have been applied following systematic data quality assessment. The analyses revealed that the annual rainfall trend decreased from −3 mm to −9.4 mm per decade over the study periods. The decreasing annual rainfall trend is mainly driven by the significant drop in winter rainfall, particularly during the period from 1977 to 2014. The results also indicate that high probability extreme events have shifted toward low frequency (12.7 years with significant variations in monthly rainfall patterns and periodicity. The findings of the present study suggest reevaluating the derivation of design rainfall for infrastructure of Sharjah City and urge developing an integrated framework for its water resources planning and risk under climate change impacts scenarios.

  2. Use of coefficient of variation in assessing variability of quantitative assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, George F; Lynn, Freyja; Meade, Bruce D

    2002-11-01

    We have derived the mathematical relationship between the coefficient of variation associated with repeated measurements from quantitative assays and the expected fraction of pairs of those measurements that differ by at least some given factor, i.e., the expected frequency of disparate results that are due to assay variability rather than true differences. Knowledge of this frequency helps determine what magnitudes of differences can be expected by chance alone when the particular coefficient of variation is in effect. This frequency is an operational index of variability in the sense that it indicates the probability of observing a particular disparity between two measurements under the assumption that they measure the same quantity. Thus the frequency or probability becomes the basis for assessing if an assay is sufficiently precise. This assessment also provides a standard for determining if two assay results for the same subject, separated by an intervention such as vaccination or infection, differ by more than expected from the variation of the assay, thus indicating an intervention effect. Data from an international collaborative study are used to illustrate the application of this proposed interpretation of the coefficient of variation, and they also provide support for the assumptions used in the mathematical derivation.

  3. [Classification and variability of drug assessment reports on the GENESIS group (SEFH) webpage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Eslava, A; Puigventós Latorre, F; Santos-Ramos, B; Calderon Hernanz, B; Vilanova Boltó, M

    2011-01-01

    To analyse the assessment reports published on the GENESIS webpage (Group for Innovation, Assessment, Standardisation and Research in the Selection of Drugs) and assess the variability of the group's proposals to include drugs in the Formulary. We analysed reports published by hospitals on the GENESIS webpage between 2004 and 2007. Data were collected on drugs and indications, ATC group, open or restricted access publications, hospital, and publication date. We drafted a questionnaire that would measure to what extent to what extent the 9-section model recommended by GENESIS was included in each report. For drugs with two or more reports, we analysed whether the recommendation coincided and the possible cause in the event of conflict. We analysed 416 reports corresponding to 185 different drug indications. 93% included 6 or more of the recommended sections, a number which increased over time. The most frequently included sections were: approved indications (92%), mechanism of action (95%), and references (86%) (percentages from 2007). Sections which had an increasing but lower percentage were: differential characteristics (60%), literature search method (40%) and conclusions with a summary of efficacy, safety and cost data (52%). 73% of which had definite recommendations, which coincided for 42 out of the 67 drugs with more than one recommendation report. The work carried out by the GENESIS group has enabled Spanish hospitals to share their drug assessment reports and making them more complete, although there are still some aspects that can be improved. Copyright © 2010 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activities on streamflow variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianxia; Zhang, Hongxue; Wang, Yimin; Zhu, Yuelu

    2016-04-01

    Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impact of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impact on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resource management. By using an elasticity-based method and calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrological models, we quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activities and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in the Jinghe basin, located in the northwest of China. This is an important watershed of the Shaanxi province that supplies drinking water for a population of over 6 million people. The results showed that the maximum value of the moisture index (E0/P) was 1.91 and appeared in 1991-2000, and the decreased speed of streamflow was higher since 1990 compared with 1960-1990. The average annual streamflow from 1990 to 2010 was reduced by 26.96 % compared with the multiyear average value (from 1960 to 2010). The estimates of the impacts of climate variability and human activities on streamflow decreases from the hydrological models were similar to those from the elasticity-based method. The maximum contribution value of human activities was 99 % when averaged over the three methods, and appeared in 1981-1990 due to the effects of soil and water conservation measures and irrigation water withdrawal. Climate variability made the greatest contribution to streamflow reduction in 1991-2000, the values of which was 40.4 %. We emphasized various source of errors and uncertainties that may occur in the hydrological model (parameter and structural uncertainty) and elasticity-based method (model parameter) in climate change impact studies.

  5. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    OpenAIRE

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via...

  6. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  7. Psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics on periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Deborah; Katz, Ralph V; Bush, Anneke C; Farley, Victoria K; McGerr, Trevor J; Min, Hoon; Carbonella, Anthony M; Kayne, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether the self-perceived image of a young adult's anterior dental esthetics is linked with periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices. Two hundred subjects were assessed via a clinical examination, including intraoral photographs. The subjects were questioned about their demographics and oral hygiene practices and given the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) to measure their self-perceived variables related to dental esthetics. A high PIDAQ score indicates a negative image of one's own dental esthetics, while a low PIDAQ score indicates a positive outlook. A self-perceived negative psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics was detected in subjects with higher levels of dental caries and visible gingival inflammation in the anterior region of the mouth.

  8. Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.

  9. Anxiety disorders in adolescents and psychosocial outcomes at age 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Olaya, Beatriz; Seeley, John R

    2014-07-01

    Anxiety disorders are associated with adverse psychosocial functioning, and are predictive of a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. The present study examined the associations between anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence and psychosocial outcomes at age 30, and sought to address the extent to which psychopathology after age 19 mediated these relations. Eight hundred and sixteen participants from a large community sample were interviewed twice during adolescence, at age 24, and at age 30. They completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning and semi-structured diagnostic interviews during adolescence and young adulthood. Adolescent anxiety predicted poor total adjustment, poor adjustment at work, poor family relationships, problems with the family unit, less life satisfaction, poor coping skills, and more chronic stress. Adolescent anxiety predicted, substance (SUD), alcohol abuse/dependence (AUD), and anxiety in adulthood. No adult psychopathology mediated the relationship between childhood anxiety disorders and psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adult, SUD, AUD and anxiety mediated the association between adolescent anxiety and most domains of psychosocial functioning at age 30. The participants are ethically and geographically homogenous, and changes in the diagnostic criteria and the interview schedules across the assessment periods. Adolescent anxiety, compared to childhood anxiety, is associated with more adverse psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adolescent anxiety affects negative outcomes at age 30 directly and through adult anxiety, SUD and AUD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The trauma of ongoing conflict and displacement in Chechnya: quantitative assessment of living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status among war displaced in Chechnya and Ingushetia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boots Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflict in Chechnya has resulted in over a decade of violence, human rights abuses, criminality and poverty, and a steady flow of displaced seeking refuge throughout the region. At the beginning of 2004 MSF undertook quantitative surveys among the displaced populations in Chechnya and neighbouring Ingushetia. Methods Surveys were carried out in Ingushetia (January 2004 and Chechnya (February 2004 through systematic sampling. Various conflict-related factors contributing to ill health were researched to obtain information on displacement history, living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status. Results The average length of displacement was five years. Conditions in both locations were poor, and people in both locations indicated food shortages (Chechnya (C: 13.3%, Ingushetia (I: 11.3%, and there was a high degree of dependency on outside help (C: 95.4%, I: 94.3%. Most people (C: 94%, I: 98% were confronted with violence in the past. Many respondents had witnessed the killing of people (C: 22.7%, I: 24.1% and nearly half of people interviewed witnessed arrests (C: 53.1%, I: 48.4% and maltreatment (C: 56.2%, I: 44.5%. Approximately one third of those interviewed had directly experienced war-related violence. A substantial number of people interviewed – one third in Ingushetia (37.5% and two-thirds in Chechnya (66.8% – rarely felt safe. The violence was ongoing, with respondents reporting violence in the month before the survey (C: 12.5%, I: 4.6%. Results of the general health questionnaire (GHQ 28 showed that nearly all internally displaced persons interviewed were suffering from health complaints such as somatic complaints, anxiety/insomnia, depressive feelings or social dysfunction (C: 201, 78.5%, CI: 73.0% – 83.4%; I: 230, 81.3%, CI: 76.2% – 85.6%. Poor health status was reflected in other survey questions, but health services were difficult to access for around half the population (C: 54.3%, I: 46

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Variable Speed Power Turbine Technology on Civil Tiltrotor Size and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Acree, Cecil W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nm at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper performs a preliminary assessment of variable-speed power turbine technology on LCTR2 sizing, while maintaining the same, advanced technology engine core. Six concepts were studied; an advanced, single-speed engine with a conventional power turbine layout (Advanced Conventional Engine, or ACE) using a multi-speed (shifting) gearbox. There were five variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) engine concepts, comprising a matrix of either three or four turbine stages, and fixed or variable guide vanes; plus a minimum weight, twostage, fixed-geometry VSPT. The ACE is the lightest engine, but requires a multi-speed (shifting) gearbox to maximize its fuel efficiency, whereas the VSPT concepts use a lighter, fixed-ratio gearbox. The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) design code was used to study the trades between rotor and engine efficiency and weight. Rotor performance was determined by Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II), and engine performance was estimated with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). Design trades for the ACE vs. VSPT are presented in terms of vehicle gross and empty weight, propulsion system weight and mission fuel burn for the civil mission. Because of its strong effect on gearbox weight and on both rotor and engine efficiency, rotor speed was chosen as the reference design variable for comparing design trades. Major study assumptions are presented and discussed. Impressive engine power-to-weight and fuel efficiency reduced vehicle sensitivity to propulsion system choice

  12. Assessing spatial variability of soil petroleum contamination using visible near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Weindorf, David C; Zhu, Yuanda; Li, Bin; Morgan, Cristine L S; Ge, Yufeng; Galbraith, John

    2012-11-01

    Visible near-infrared (VisNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a rapid, non-destructive method for sensing the presence and amount of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination in soil. This study demonstrates the feasibility of VisNIR DRS to be used in the field to proximally sense and then map the areal extent of TPH contamination in soil. More specifically, we evaluated whether a combination of two methods, penalized spline regression and geostatistics could provide an efficient approach to assess spatial variability of soil TPH using VisNIR DRS data from soils collected from an 80 ha crude oil spill in central Louisiana, USA. Initially, a penalized spline model was calibrated to predict TPH contamination in soil by combining lab TPH values of 46 contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples and the first-derivative of VisNIR reflectance spectra of these samples. The r(2), RMSE, and bias of the calibrated penalized spline model were 0.81, 0.289 log(10) mg kg(-1), and 0.010 log(10) mg kg(-1), respectively. Subsequently, the penalized spline model was used to predict soil TPH content for 128 soil samples collected over the 80 ha study site. When assessed with a randomly chosen validation subset (n = 10) from the 128 samples, the penalized spline model performed satisfactorily (r(2) = 0.70; residual prediction deviation = 2.0). The same validation subset was used to assess point kriging interpolation after the remaining 118 predictions were used to produce an experimental semivariogram and map. The experimental semivariogram was fitted with an exponential model which revealed strong spatial dependence among soil TPH [r(2) = 0.76, nugget = 0.001 (log(10) mg kg(-1))(2), and sill 1.044 (log(10) mg kg(-1))(2)]. Kriging interpolation adequately interpolated TPH with r(2) and RMSE values of 0.88 and 0.312 log(10) mg kg(-1), respectively. Furthermore, in the kriged map, TPH distribution matched with the expected TPH variability of the study site. Since the

  13. Entropy Measures in the Assessment of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Cardiodepressive Vasovagal Syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Graff

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sample entropy (SampEn was reported to be useful in the assessment of the complexity of heart rate dynamics. Permutation entropy (PermEn is a new measure based on the concept of order and was previously shown to be accurate for short, non-stationary datasets. The aim of the present study is to assess if SampEn and PermEn obtained from baseline recordings might differentiate patients with various outcomes of the head-up tilt test (HUTT. Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV indices and several nonlinear parameters were calculated using 500 RR interval-long ECG recordings done before tilting in patients with a history suggesting vasovagal syncope. Groups of patients with so-called cardiodepressive vasovagal syncope (VVS_2 during HUTT and patients who did not faint during the test were compared. Two types of HUT tests were analyzed: with spontaneous (SB or controlled breathing (CB. In our study, SampEn was higher in VVS_2 patients during SB, and PermEn was higher in VVS_2 patients during CB. Irrespective of the type of breathing during the test, SampEn and PermEn were similar in patients with the same type of reaction during HUTT. The use of several entropy-based parameters seems to be useful in HRV assessment in patients with vasovagal fainting.

  14. Dynamic Assessment of Water Quality Based on a Variable Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiguo Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality assessment is an important foundation of water resource protection and is affected by many indicators. The dynamic and fuzzy changes of water quality lead to problems for proper assessment. This paper explores a method which is in accordance with the water quality changes. The proposed method is based on the variable fuzzy pattern recognition (VFPR model and combines the analytic hierarchy process (AHP model with the entropy weight (EW method. The proposed method was applied to dynamically assess the water quality of Biliuhe Reservoir (Dailan, China. The results show that the water quality level is between levels 2 and 3 and worse in August or September, caused by the increasing water temperature and rainfall. Weights and methods are compared and random errors of the values of indicators are analyzed. It is concluded that the proposed method has advantages of dynamism, fuzzification and stability by considering the interval influence of multiple indicators and using the average level characteristic values of four models as results.

  15. The Current and Future Role of Heart Rate Variability for Assessing and Training Compassion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, James N.; Doty, James R.; Petrocchi, Nicola; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of mammalian caregiving involving hormones, such as oxytocin, vasopressin, and the myelinated vagal nerve as part of the ventral parasympathetic system, enables humans to connect, co-regulate each other’s emotions and create prosociality. Compassion-based interventions draw upon a number of specific exercises and strategies to stimulate these physiological processes and create conditions of “interpersonal safeness,” thereby helping people engage with, alleviate, and prevent suffering. Hence, compassion-based approaches are connected with our evolved caring motivation and attachment and our general affiliative systems that help regulate distress. Physiologically, they are connected to activity of the vagus nerve and corresponding adaptive heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is an important physiological marker for overall health, and the body–mind connection. Therefore, there is significant value of training compassion to increase HRV and training HRV to facilitate compassion. Despite the significance of compassion in alleviating and preventing suffering, there remain difficulties in its precise assessment. HRV offers a useful form of measurement to assess and train compassion. Specific examples of what exercises can facilitate HRV and how to measure HRV will be described. This paper argues that the field of compassion science needs to move toward including HRV as a primary outcome measure in its future assessment and training, due to its connection to vagal regulatory activity, and its link to overall health and well-being. PMID:28337432

  16. Psychosocial Care Needs of Melanoma Survivors: Are They Being Met?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fischbeck

    Full Text Available Patients who have survived malignant melanoma for more than five years may lack the opportunity to talk about their burden. As a consequence their psychosocial care needs remain undetected and available supportive interventions may not be utilised. Therefore, the psychosocial burden of this patient group needs to be assessed using specific screening instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial burden of long-term melanoma survivors, their psychosocial care needs and the determinants of these needs. We wanted to find out if the use of professional support corresponds to the care needs defined by experts. Using the cancer registry of Rhineland-Palatinate, melanoma patients diagnosed at least 5 years before the survey were contacted by physicians. N = 689 former patients completed the Hornheide Questionnaire (short form HQ-S to identify psychosocial support need (scale cut off ≥ 16 or item-based cut-off score and the potential psychosocial determinants of these needs. Additionally, they were asked about their utilisation of the professional support system. More than one third (36% of them was in need for professional psychosocial support. The highest burden scores concerned worry about tumour progression. Younger age (< 50, higher general fatigue, higher symptom burden, lower general health, negative social interactions and unfulfilled information needs were significant predictors of the need for psychosocial intervention. Related to the percentage of survivors identified as 'in need', the professional support system was underused. Further studies should investigate whether using the HQ-S to routinely identify burdened melanoma patients could lead to better fulfilment of their intervention needs, ultimately enhancing health-related quality of life.

  17. Long-Term Effects of Psychological Trauma on Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Derek; Hill, Jonathan; O'Ryan, Dominic; Udwin, Orlee; Boyle, Stephanie; Yule, William

    2004-01-01

    Background: Most studies of the effects of trauma on mental health have generally not separately assessed psychosocial functioning, and in those that have key issues have received little attention, such as the relation between the time courses of the two kinds of outcome, and detailed assessment of social functioning in a range of domains. The…

  18. The Contribution of Sleep Problems to Academic and Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Archbold, Kristen; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations among sleep problems with academic and psychosocial functioning in a prospective cohort study, the Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study (TuCASA). Children were assessed between the ages of 6 and 11 years and again approximately 5 years later. Sleep disordered…

  19. Determinants of quality of life in elderly patients of a psychosocial care center in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottan, Gabriela; Morais, Eliane Pinheiro de; Schneider, Jacó Fernando; Trentini, Clarissa; Heldt, Elizeth

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the sociodemographic, clinical, and functional determinants of quality of life in elderly (older than 60 years) patients from a Psychosocial Care Center. The sample was randomly selected patients undergoing treatment at the center during the study period. Quality of life was assessed using the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for older adults (WHOQOL-OLD). A total of 50 elderly individuals with a mean age of 67.5 (SD = 5.72) years were included in the study. A hierarchical linear regression showed that clinical characteristics, such as severe symptoms of depression and a higher number of comorbidities, were related to lower quality of life. Better functional capacity and more frequent visits to the center were determinants of higher quality of life. These findings underscore the importance of assessing quality of life and of taking this variable into account when planning health interventions for elderly patients at a Psychosocial Care Center.

  20. Major depressive disorder during teenage pregnancy: socio-demographic, obstetric and psychosocial correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Monteiro da Cunha Coelho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD during pregnancy in teenage mothers and to assess its association with socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history and psychosocial variables. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of pregnant teenagers enrolled in the national public health system in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. MDD was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Abuse Assessment Screen was used to identify physical abuse within the last 12 months and during pregnancy, and social support was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Social Support Scale. RESULTS: Forty-three (4.94% potential subjects refused to participate, resulting in 828 total participants. The prevalence of MDD was 17.8%, 9.2% reported they had been subjected to violence within the last 12 months, while 5.8% had suffered violence during pregnancy, and the mean (SD overall social support score was 87.40 (11.75. After adjustment, we found the highest incidence of MDD in adolescents with less than 8 years of education, followed by those with previous episodes of MDD and those with lower overall social support. CONCLUSIONS: MDD is a relatively common condition in pregnant teenagers and appears to be more prevalent in young mothers who are both socioeconomically and psychosocially underprivileged.

  1. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.

  2. Quantification of Inter-Tsunami Model Variability for Hazard Assessment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalan, P. A.; Alcantar, A.; Cortés, P. I.

    2014-12-01

    There is a wide range of numerical models capable of modeling tsunamis, most of which have been properly validated and verified against standard benchmark cases and particular field or laboratory cases studies. Consequently, these models are regularly used as essential tools in estimating the tsunami hazard on coastal communities by scientists, or consulting companies, and treating model results in a deterministic way. Most of these models are derived from the same set of equations, typically the Non Linear Shallow Water Equations, to which ad-hoc terms are added to include physical effects such as friction, the Coriolis force, and others. However, not very often these models are used in unison to address the variability in the results. Therefore, in this contribution, we perform a high number of simulations using a set of numerical models and quantify the variability in the results. In order to reduce the influence of input data on the results, a single tsunami scenario is used over a common bathymetry. Next, we perform model comparisons as to asses sensitivity to changes in grid resolution and Manning roughness coefficients. Results are presented either as intra-model comparisons (sensitivity to changes using the same model) and inter-model comparisons (sensitivity to changing models). For the case tested, it was observed that most models reproduced fairly consistently the arrival and periodicity of the tsunami waves. However, variations in amplitude, characterized by the standard-deviation between model runs, could be as large as the mean signal. This level of variability is considered too large for deterministic assessment, reinforcing the idea that uncertainty needs to be included in such studies.

  3. Assessment of a three-variable reduced kinetic scheme in prescribed turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sanjay M.

    1995-05-01

    A chemical kinetic scheme for the combustion of complex hydrocarbon fuels is developed and assessed at conditions typical of high-intensity turbulent combustion. In the starting scheme, the fuel is assumed to pyrolyze at a global rate to CO and H2, which subsequently are oxidized in a series of elementary steps. The reduced scheme requires three variables: the mixture fraction xi, the fuel mass fraction Y(f), and a combined variable Y for CO and H2. The oxyhydrogen radical pool is assumed to be in a state of partial equilibrium, and the CO and H2 burn out as the radical pool decays via recombination reactions. The reduced scheme is compared with the starting scheme on combustion stability and CO/UHC emissions, in the context of the 'partially stirred reactor' (PaSR) model developed earlier. The conditions are 30 atm, 1000 K inlet temperature, 2500 K equilibrium temperature (premixture equivalence ratio = 0.8), and 5 ms reactor residence time (in the perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) limit). PaSR simulations are conducted in the range 10-1000 Hz (mixing frequency), and in each case converge to a stochastic steady state and span the plug flow reactor-PSR limits smoothly. The reduced scheme performs well on flame stability (temperature) and fuel mass fraction, but not as well on CO and H2, because the partial equilibrium assumption breaks down under conditions where significant amounts of fuel are present. Since only three variables are needed, the scheme is computationally fast enough for use in computational fluid dynamic studies of high-intensity turbulent combustion.

  4. Motor activity as an unbiased variable to assess anaphylaxis in allergic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril-Gil, Mar; Garcia-Just, Alba; Cambras, Trinitat; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castellote, Cristina; Franch, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    The release of mediators by mast cells triggers allergic symptoms involving various physiological systems and, in the most severe cases, the development of anaphylactic shock compromising mainly the nervous and cardiovascular systems. We aimed to establish variables to objectively study the anaphylactic response (AR) after an oral challenge in an allergy model. Brown Norway rats were immunized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin with alum and toxin from Bordetella pertussis. Specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibodies were developed in immunized animals. Forty days after immunization, the rats were orally challenged with the allergen, and motor activity, body temperature and serum mast cell protease concentration were determined. The anaphylaxis induced a reduction in body temperature and a decrease in the number of animal movements, which was inversely correlated with serum mast cell protease release. In summary, motor activity is a reliable tool for assessing AR and also an unbiased method for screening new anti-allergic drugs. PMID:25716015

  5. Introduction to instrumental variables and their application to large-scale assessment data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Pokropek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the social sciences, estimating causal effects is particularly difficult. Gold standards are set by randomized experiments in many cases expensive, unenforceable for ethical and practical reasons. Recent research has drawn attention to techniques that under some conditions, could estimate causal effects on non-experimental observable data. One technique is the instrumental-variables (IVs approach. This approach is used to determine variation that is exogenous in treatment and to estimate causal inferences. This paper begins by explaining the logic of IVs and then reviews the literature on the use of the IVs approach in the educational context. The most common types of IVs and the guidelines for selecting appropriate variables are explained. The statistical background of IVs estimation is described, which is followed by a discussion of the assumptions that underlie statistical procedures. Finally, empirical examples that use data from the Polish extension of the Programme for International Student Assessment are presented to estimate the effects on student learning outcomes of having at least one neighborhood friend in the classroom.

  6. Shannon information entropy for assessing space-time variability of rainfall and streamflow in semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues da Silva, Vicente de P; Belo Filho, Adelgcio F; Rodrigues Almeida, Rafaela S; de Holanda, Romildo Morant; da Cunha Campos, João Hugo Baracuy

    2016-02-15

    The principle of maximum entropy can provide consistent basis to analyze water resources and geophysical processes in general. In this paper, we propose to assess the space-time variability of rainfall and streamflow in northeastern region of Brazil using the Shannon entropy. Mean values of marginal and relative entropies were computed for a 10-year period from 189 stations in the study area and entropy maps were then constructed for delineating annual and seasonal characteristics of rainfall and streamflow. The Mann-Kendall test was used to evaluate the long-term trend in marginal entropy as well as relative entropy for two sample stations. High degree of similarity was found between rainfall and streamflow, particularly during dry season. Both rainfall and streamflow variability can satisfactorily be obtained in terms of marginal entropy as a comprehensive measure of the regional uncertainty of these hydrological events. The Shannon entropy produced spatial patterns which led to a better understanding of rainfall and streamflow characteristics throughout the northeastern region of Brazil. The total relative entropy indicated that rainfall and streamflow carried the same information content at annual and rainy season time scales.

  7. Transferability and inter-laboratory variability assessment of the in vitro bovine oocyte fertilization test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessaro, Irene; Modina, Silvia C; Crotti, Gabriella; Franciosi, Federica; Colleoni, Silvia; Lodde, Valentina; Galli, Cesare; Lazzari, Giovanna; Luciano, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the number of animals required for reproductive toxicity testing imposes the validation of alternative methods to reduce the use of laboratory animals. As we previously demonstrated for in vitro maturation test of bovine oocytes, the present study describes the transferability assessment and the inter-laboratory variability of an in vitro test able to identify chemical effects during the process of bovine oocyte fertilization. Eight chemicals with well-known toxic properties (benzo[a]pyrene, busulfan, cadmium chloride, cycloheximide, diethylstilbestrol, ketoconazole, methylacetoacetate, mifepristone/RU-486) were tested in two well-trained laboratories. The statistical analysis demonstrated no differences in the EC50 values for each chemical in within (inter-runs) and in between-laboratory variability of the proposed test. We therefore conclude that the bovine in vitro fertilization test could advance toward the validation process as alternative in vitro method and become part of an integrated testing strategy in order to predict chemical hazards on mammalian fertility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Do psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U.; Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Rikke Voss;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work unit-levels of psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: A total of 5,416 Danish female eldercare workers from 309 work units were surveyed...... using questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and psychosocial working conditions. LTSA was derived from a national register. We aggregated scores of psychosocial working conditions to the work unit-level and conducted multi-level Poisson regression analyses. Results: Depressive symptoms......, but not psychosocial working conditions, predicted LTSA. Psychosocial working conditions did not statistically significantly modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. Conclusions: Psychosocial working conditions did not modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. The results, however, need...

  9. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  10. Psychosocial work dimensions, personality, and body mass index: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2013-08-01

    The association between psychosocial work dimensions (i.e. demand and control) and obesity has been found to be inconclusive, indicating that individual differences factors might also contribute to explain the variability in BMI. The interaction between work dimensions and personality variables in a group of male and female workers (N = 506), and its associations with BMI were analyzed with a cross-sectional study with self-report data. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the BMI levels from work and individual differences variables and their interactions for males and females. The main effects of personality variables were not significant, physical workload interacted with neuroticism for males, whereas control interacted with activity for females. Psychosocial work dimensions and personality traits were related to BMI for men and women. These outcomes reinforce the notion that different models might account for the explanatory mechanisms of BMI in regard to sex.

  11. Psychosocial work dimensions, personality, and body mass index: Sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Blanch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The association between psychosocial work dimensions (i.e. demand and control and obesity has been found to be inconclusive, indicating that individual differences factors might also contribute to explain the variability in BMI. Materials and Methods: The interaction between work dimensions and personality variables in a group of male and female workers (N = 506, and its associations with BMI were analyzed with a cross-sectional study with self-report data. Hierarhical regression analyses were used to predict the BMI levels from work and individual differences variables and their interactions for males and females. Results: The main effects of personality variables were not significant, physical workload interacted with neuroticism for males, whereas control interacted with activity for females. Conclusions: Psychosocial work dimensions and personality traits were related to BMI for men and women. These outcomes reinforce the notion that different models might account for the explanatory mechanisms of BMI in regard to sex.

  12. Psychosocial dysfunction associated with skin picking disorder and trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2016-05-30

    Skin picking disorder (SPD) and trichotillomania (TTM) are common and oftentimes disabling disorders. 125 Participants with SPD and 152 with TTM undertook clinical and neurocognitive evaluation, and were grouped according to mild, moderate, or severe levels of psychosocial dysfunction. Relationships between functional impairment and other variables were explored using linear regression and categorical analyses. Greater functional impairment was associated with worse disease severity in both groups, and by later symptom onset and lower quality of life in TTM subjects. These results indicate that levels of self-reported psychosocial dysfunction have a strong association with specific clinical aspects of SPD and TTM.

  13. Work Experience and Style Explain Variation Among Pediatricians in the Detection of Children With Psychosocial Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Antonius G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether variation in the proportion of children identified as having psychosocial problems by individual preventive pediatricians can be explained by pediatrician characteristics, over and above variations in the mix of children. Furthermore, to assess whether the

  14. Work experience and style explain variation among pediatricians in the detection of children with psychosocial problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether variation in the proportion of children identified as having psychosocial problems by individual preventive pediatricians can be explained by pediatrician characteristics, over and above variations in the mix of children. Furthermore, to assess whether the

  15. Work experience and style explain variation among pediatricians in the detection of children with psychosocial problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether variation in the proportion of children identified as having psychosocial problems by individual preventive pediatricians can be explained by pediatrician characteristics, over and above variations in the mix of children. Furthermore, to assess whether the characteristic

  16. Professional Identification of Psychosocial Problems among Children from Ethnic Minority Groups: Room for Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.; Bekkema, N.; Wiefferink, C.H.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of child health care professionals (CHP) in identifying psychosocial problems among children originating from industrialized and nonindustrialized countries and to assess whether parental concerns enhance CHP problem-identification. Study design: During routine

  17. Insight, self-stigma and psychosocial outcomes in Schizophrenia: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Y-J; Chang, H-A; Kao, Y-C; Tzeng, N-S; Lu, C-W; Loh, C-H

    2016-12-15

    schizophrenia in non-Western societies, in which self-stigma plays a pivotal role. These findings elucidate the direct and indirect effects of insight on psychosocial outcomes and imply that identifying and correcting self-stigma in people with schizophrenia could be beneficial. Additional studies are required to identify whether several other neurocognitive or psychosocial variables mediate or moderate the association of insight with self-esteem, depression and QoL in patients with schizophrenia. Studies with detailed longitudinal assessments are necessary to confirm our findings.

  18. Brief communication: Effect of size biases in the coefficient of variation on assessing intraspecific variability in the prosimian skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulwood, Ethan L; Kramer, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the effect of a measurement size bias in coefficients of variation on the evaluation of intraspecific skeletal variability in a sample of eight prosimian species (Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus, Lemur catta, Varecia variegata, Galago senegalensis, Otolemur crassicaudatus, Nycticebus coucang, and Tarsius syrichta). Measurements with smaller means were expected to have higher coefficients of variation (CVs) due to the impact of instrumental precision on the ability to assess variability. This was evaluated by testing for a negative correlation between CVs and means in the total sample, within each species, and within each measurement, and by testing for the leveraging impact of small measurements on the significance of comparisons of variability between regions of the prosimian skeleton. Three comparisons were made: cranial versus postcranial variability, epiphysis versus diaphysis variability, and forelimb versus hindlimb variability. CVs were significantly negatively correlated with means within the total sample (r(2) = 0.208, P < 0.0001) and within each species. CVs and means were significantly correlated within only three of the measurements, which may reflect the relatively low body size range of the species studied. As predicted by the higher variability of smaller measurements, removing the smallest measurements from comparisons of variable classes containing measurements of different mean magnitudes pushed the comparisons below significance. These results indicate caution should be exercised when using CVs to assess variability across sets of measurements with different means.

  19. Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Steinke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV on small-scales of less than 10 km and hours is assessed with data from the two months of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE. The statistical intercomparison of the unique set of observations during HOPE (microwave radiometer (MWR, Global Positioning System (GPS, sunphotometer, radiosondes, Raman Lidar, infrared and near infrared Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on the satellites Aqua and Terra measuring close together reveals a good agreement in terms of standard deviation (≤ 1 kg m−2 and correlation coefficient (≥ 0.98. The exception is MODIS, which appears to suffer from insufficient cloud filtering. For a case study during HOPE featuring a typical boundary layer development, the IWV variability in time and space on scales of less than 10 km and less than 1 h is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the measurements are complemented by simulations with the novel ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic modelling framework (ICON which for this study has a horizontal resolution of 156 m. These runs show that differences in space of 3–4 km or time of 10–15 min induce IWV variabilities in the order of 4 kg m−2. This model finding is confirmed by observed time series from two MWRs approximately 3 km apart with a comparable temporal resolution of a few seconds. Standard deviations of IWV derived from MWR measurements reveal a high variability (> 1 kg m−2 even at very short time scales of a few minutes. These cannot be captured by the temporally lower resolved instruments and by operational numerical weather prediction models such as COSMO-DE (an application of the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling covering Germany of Deutscher Wetterdienst, which is included in the comparison. However, for time scales larger than 1 h, a sampling resolution of 15 min is sufficient

  20. Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, S.; Eikenberg, S.; Löhnert, U.; Dick, G.; Klocke, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Crewell, S.

    2015-03-01

    The spatio-temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV) on small scales of less than 10 km and hours is assessed with data from the 2 months of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). The statistical intercomparison of the unique set of observations during HOPE (microwave radiometer (MWR), Global Positioning System (GPS), sun photometer, radiosondes, Raman lidar, infrared and near-infrared Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellites Aqua and Terra) measuring close together reveals a good agreement in terms of random differences (standard deviation ≤1 kg m-2) and correlation coefficient (≥ 0.98). The exception is MODIS, which appears to suffer from insufficient cloud filtering. For a case study during HOPE featuring a typical boundary layer development, the IWV variability in time and space on scales of less than 10 km and less than 1 h is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the measurements are complemented by simulations with the novel ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic modelling framework (ICON), which for this study has a horizontal resolution of 156 m. These runs show that differences in space of 3-4 km or time of 10-15 min induce IWV variabilities on the order of 0.4 kg m-2. This model finding is confirmed by observed time series from two MWRs approximately 3 km apart with a comparable temporal resolution of a few seconds. Standard deviations of IWV derived from MWR measurements reveal a high variability (> 1 kg m-2) even at very short time scales of a few minutes. These cannot be captured by the temporally lower-resolved instruments and by operational numerical weather prediction models such as COSMO-DE (an application of the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling covering Germany) of Deutscher Wetterdienst, which is included in the comparison. However, for time scales larger than 1 h, a sampling resolution of 15 min is

  1. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, A; de Baat, C; Horstman, M

    2012-09-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with halitosis at least once a week, men significantly more frequently than women. Although less strongly than body odour, halitosis was reported as being one of the most severe 'let-downs' in social interactions. The greater the social distance between subjects, the less likely is the chance that a person's attention will be drawn to halitosis experienced. When it comes to an unknown person, the chance was no more than 7%, suggesting that it is problematic to draw a person's attention to the presence of halitosis. Considering the potential social consequences of halitosis is it important that dentists and dental hygienists draw patients' attention to the presence of halitosis, when this is the case, thereby encouraging them to seek adequate treatment.

  2. Assessing spatio-temporal variability of rainfall using a simple physically based statistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. F.; Xu, T.; Kesteven, J.

    2010-12-01

    Reliable assessment of spatio-temporal variability of observed rainfall is difficult in the current climate because of the complex spatial variability displayed by daily and shorter time scale rainfall data. As demonstrated in a recent analysis of Canadian daily precipitation data by Hutchinson et al. (2009), direct interpolation of short time scale precipitation data is a poor way to address spatial patterns of rainfall extremes. Addressing the behaviour of projected future precipitation extremes is made even more difficult by the limited temporal and spatial resolution of precipitation as simulated by global climate models. The “uniform drizzle” that tends to be produced by these models makes the assessment of even straightforward statistics, such as daily rainfall occurrence, problematic. Putting aside significant inter-model variability, the more reliable outputs of global models include mean fluxes, such as monthly rainfall amounts, and associated insight into the nature of the modelled precipitation in relation to forcing synoptic systems. The truncated power of normal distribution, as described by Hutchinson (1995), offers a relatively simple way to make progress. Two of the three model parameters are simply calibrated in terms of monthly mean fluxes and the model is able to accurately describe precipitation extremes. These model parameters can also be robustly determined from serially incomplete data. It can be argued that the model has a broad physical process basis by modelling rainfall as an event that occurs as an appropriate threshold is exceeded. This analysis extends the approach of Stidd (1954, 1973) who suggested the cube root as a universal normalising power. We show that the power parameter, once robustly calibrated, displays a broadly spatially varying distribution of around 0.5. This corresponds well with the two dimensional synoptic convergence that is required to produce precipitation. The power parameter appears to be related to the

  3. [Changes in work organization and management of psychosocial risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, major changes have occurred in Italian working conditions and employment patterns due to several concurrent factors: increasing occupation in the tertiary sector, implementation of new technologies, labour market globalization, higher variability of working time arrangements, decrease of traditional physical-chemical risks, ageing of general/working population, access to work of people with disabilities, growing immigration of extra-community workers. Thus, psychosocial risk factors are becoming crucial issues of the present work organization, dealing with job content (complexity, meaning, uncertainties), mental work load, time pressure, variable working hours; career perspectives, role conflicts and ambiguity, education and training, personal relations, social support, work/family conflicts; age and cultural discrimination. The Occupational Health Physician has to deal with these multidimensional and multifaceted aspects of work stress by different and concurrent approaches, at both group and individual levels, with epidemiological and clinical perspectives, enacting preventive and therapeutic strategies. Both "external" work load and individual "responses" have to be properly considered and risk has to be assessed with "relative" rather than "absolute" criteria, addressed not only at fitness to work, but also to corrective actions. Hence, the OHP has to act in closer collaboration with work psychologists, sociologists, human resources managers and work organisation experts.

  4. Autonomic nervous functions in fetal type Minamata disease patients: assessment of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tomoko; Matsukura, Makoto; Okamoto, Miwako; Harada, Noriaki; Kitano, Takao; Miike, Teruhisa; Futatsuka, Makoto

    2002-12-01

    In order to assess the cardiovascular autonomic nervous functions in patients with fetal type Minamata disease (FMD), we investigated blood pressure (BP), and conducted time and frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Subjects were 9 patients in Meisuien recognized as FMD, and 13 healthy age matched control subjects. HRV and BP were assessed after subjects rested in a supine position for 10 minutes. Electrocardiographic (ECG) data were collected for 3 minutes during natural breathing. Time domain analysis (the average of R-R intervals [Mean RR], standard deviation of R-R intervals [SD RR], coefficient of variation [CV]), and frequency domain analysis by fast Fourier transformation (FFT) (power of low frequency [LF] and high frequency [HF] component, expressed in normalized units[nu]) were then conducted. In the time domain analysis, the mean RR of the FMD group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Neither SD RR nor CV showed significant differences between the two groups, but both tended to be lower in the FMD group. In the frequency domain analysis, the HF component of the FMD group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Pulse pressure (PP) was significantly lower in the FMD subjects. These findings suggest that parasympathetic nervous dysfunction might exist in FMD patients, who were exposed to high doses of methylmercury (MeHg) during the prenatal period. Decrease of PP might be due to degenerative changes of blood vessels driven by exposure to high doses of MeHg.

  5. Interobserver variability in the assessment of aneurysm occlusion with the WEB aneurysm embolization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, David; Arthur, Adam; Byrne, James; Pierot, Laurent; Molyneux, Andy; Duckwiler, Gary; McCarthy, Thomas; Strother, Charles

    2015-08-01

    The WEB (WEB aneurysm embolization system, Sequent Medical, Aliso Viejo, California, USA) is a self-expanding, nitinol, mesh device designed to achieve aneurysm occlusion after endosaccular deployment. The WEB Occlusion Scale (WOS) is a standardized angiographic assessment scale for reporting aneurysm occlusion achieved with intrasaccular mesh implants. This study was performed to assess the interobserver variability of the WOS. Seven experienced neurovascular specialists were trained to apply the WOS. These physicians independently reviewed angiographic image sets from 30 patients treated with the WEB under blinded conditions. No additional clinical information was provided. Raters graded each image according to the WOS (complete occlusion, residual neck or residual aneurysm). Final statistics were calculated using the dichotomous outcomes of complete occlusion or incomplete occlusion. The interobserver agreement was measured by the generalized κ statistic. In this series of 30 test case aneurysms, observers rated 12-17 as completely occluded, 3-9 as nearly completely occluded, and 9-11 as demonstrating residual aneurysm filling. Agreement was perfect across all seven observers for the presence or absence of complete occlusion in 22 of 30 cases. Overall, interobserver agreement was substantial (κ statistic 0.779 with a 95% CI of 0.700 to 0.857). The WOS allows a consistent means of reporting angiographic occlusion for aneurysms treated with the WEB device. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Relationship between diabetic autonomic dysfunction and heart rate variability assessed by recurrence plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestivier, D; Chau, N P; Chanudet, X; Bauduceau, B; Larroque, P

    1997-03-01

    Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were measured by the Finapres system in 44 healthy and 64 diabetic subjects in the at-rest condition. Autonomic control in diabetic subjects was assessed by the Ewing test. HR variability was explored by both linear and nonlinear methods. Linear methods used HR standard deviation and power spectrum. The percentage of the spectrum in the low frequencies was used to assess the sympathetic tone of the autonomic control. The nonlinear method used the "recurrence plot." This method explored long parallel subsequences in the HR time series. These sequences characterize the dependence of the HR dynamics on initial values. The HR standard deviation was reduced in the diabetic subjects compared with the healthy subjects (2.80 +/- 1.17 vs. 3.64 +/- 1.45 beats/min; P 0.10). In contrast, the longest length index was very strongly correlated to the Ewing score (r = -0.60; P < 0.0001). The results suggest that nonlinear methods might be powerful to explore the autonomic dysfunction in diabetic subjects.

  7. Frequency Domain Analysis for Assessing Fluid Responsiveness by Using Instantaneous Pulse Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the ICU, fluid therapy is conventional strategy for the patient in shock. However, only half of ICU patients have well-responses to fluid therapy, and fluid loading in non-responsive patient delays definitive therapy. Prediction of fluid responsiveness (FR has become intense topic in clinic. Most of conventional FR prediction method based on time domain analysis, and it is limited ability to indicate FR. This study proposed a method which predicts FR based on frequency domain analysis, named instantaneous pulse rate variability (iPRV. iPRV provides a new indication in very high frequency (VHF range (0.4-0.8Hz of spectrum for peripheral responses. Twenty six healthy subjects participated this study and photoplethysmography signal was recorded in supine baseline, during head-up tilt (HUT, and passive leg raising (PLR, which induces variation of venous return and helps for quantitative assessment of FR individually. The result showed the spectral power of VHF decreased during HUT (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 348.00±434.92 ms2 in HUT and increased during PLR (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 718.92±973.70 ms2 in PLR, which present the compensated regulation of venous return and FR. This study provides an effective indicator for assessing FR in frequency domain and has potential to be a reliable system in ICU.

  8. Variable fuzzy assessment of water use efficiency and benefits in irrigation district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hui Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to scientifically and reasonably evaluate water use efficiency and benefits in irrigation districts, a variable fuzzy assessment model was established. The model can reasonably determine the relative membership degree and relative membership function of the sample indices in each index’s standard interval, and obtain the evaluation level of the sample through the change of model parameters. According to the actual situation of the Beitun Irrigation District, which is located in Fuhai County, in Altay City, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, five indices were selected as evaluation factors, including the canal water utilization coefficient, field water utilization coefficient, crop water productivity, effective irrigation rate in farmland, and water-saving irrigation area ratio. The water use efficiency and benefits in the Beitun Irrigation District in different years were evaluated with the model. The results showed that the comprehensive evaluation indices from 2006 to 2008 were all at the third level (medium efficiency, while the index in 2009 increased slightly, falling between the second level (relatively high efficiency and third level, indicating an improvement in the water use efficiency and benefits in the Beitun Irrigation District, which in turn showed that the model was reliable and easy to use. This model can be used to assess the water use efficiency and benefits in similar irrigation districts.

  9. [Psychosocial rehabilitation: perceptions of the mental health staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Randemark, Norma Faustino Rocha; Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Ruiz, Erasmo Miessa

    2006-01-01

    This study is inserted in assumptions of research's analysis qualitative which objective was to interpretate the Mental Health professional's perspectives about psychosocial rehabilitation of mental disorder's porter to know as them proceed it in their professional practice. Data collection came up by the application of semi-structured interviews to 8 Mental Health professionals that work in the Center of Psychosocial Attention. After the readings, notes of pieces of talk, subcategories and categories were composed after the interpretation based on the literature. The results pointed that psychosocial rehabilitation is a process which implementation and still needs effective overcome of traditional paradigma of health mental disease, that form conception and therapeutic practices and requires trust of professionals about the users' capacity of live as citizen in the most variable segments of social life.

  10. Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.; Hoogendoorn, L.

    2000-01-01

    Study Design. A systematic review of observational studies. Objectives. To assess whether psychosocial factors at work and in private life are risk factors for the occurrence of back pain. Summary of Background Data. Several reviews on risk factors for back pain have paid attention to psychosocial f

  11. Four of a kind: asthma control, FEV1, FeNO, and psychosocial problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibosch, M.M.; Ridder, J. de; Landstra, A.; Hugen, C.A.; Brouwer, M.; Gerrits, P.; Gent, R. van; Roukema, J.; Verhaak, C.M.; Merkus, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many adolescents have poor asthma control and are at high risk for psychosocial problems. However, structured assessment of asthma control or psychosocial problems is still not implemented in routine asthma care. Pediatricians typically rely on their clinical view and physiological measu

  12. Recovery from Schizophrenia in Community-Based Psychosocial Rehabilitation Settings: Rates and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Caroline; Barrio, Concepción; Hernandez, Mercedes; Barragán, Armando; Brekke, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the rate of recovery from schizophrenia in community-based psychosocial rehabilitation and whether psychosocial attributes predicted the achievement of recovery beyond demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: We used data from 246 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorder collected at baseline and at 6 and…

  13. Assessing Regional Scale Variability in Extreme Value Statistics Under Altered Climate Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsell, Nathaniel [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Mechem, David [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Ma, Chunsheng [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Recent studies have suggested that low-frequency modes of climate variability can significantly influence regional climate. The climatology associated with extreme events has been shown to be particularly sensitive. This has profound implications for droughts, heat waves, and food production. We propose to examine regional climate simulations conducted over the continental United States by applying a recently developed technique which combines wavelet multi–resolution analysis with information theory metrics. This research is motivated by two fundamental questions concerning the spatial and temporal structure of extreme events. These questions are 1) what temporal scales of the extreme value distributions are most sensitive to alteration by low-frequency climate forcings and 2) what is the nature of the spatial structure of variation in these timescales? The primary objective is to assess to what extent information theory metrics can be useful in characterizing the nature of extreme weather phenomena. Specifically, we hypothesize that (1) changes in the nature of extreme events will impact the temporal probability density functions and that information theory metrics will be sensitive these changes and (2) via a wavelet multi–resolution analysis, we will be able to characterize the relative contribution of different timescales on the stochastic nature of extreme events. In order to address these hypotheses, we propose a unique combination of an established regional climate modeling approach and advanced statistical techniques to assess the effects of low-frequency modes on climate extremes over North America. The behavior of climate extremes in RCM simulations for the 20th century will be compared with statistics calculated from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). This effort will serve to establish the baseline behavior of climate extremes, the

  14. Validation of new psychosocial factors questionnaires: a Colombian national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Gloria H; Vargas, Angélica M; Rondón, Martin A; Felknor, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    The study of workers' health problems possibly associated with stressful conditions requires valid and reliable tools for monitoring risk factors. The present study validates two questionnaires to assess psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses within a sample of Colombian workers. The validation process was based on a representative sample survey of 2,360 Colombian employees, aged 18-70 years. Worker response rate was 90%; 46% of the responders were women. Internal consistency was calculated, construct validity was tested with factor analysis and concurrent validity was tested with Spearman correlations. The questionnaires demonstrated adequate reliability (0.88-0.95). Factor analysis confirmed the dimensions proposed in the measurement model. Concurrent validity resulted in significant correlations with stress and health symptoms. "Work and Non-work Psychosocial Factors Questionnaires" were found to be valid and reliable for the assessment of workers' psychosocial factors, and they provide information for research and intervention. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The influence of mental skills on motivation and psychosocial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Leigh; Pickering, Michael A; Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this observational, cross-sectional study was to assess psychosocial characteristics and intrinsic motivation in a convenience sample of Army soldiers with different mental skills profiles. Participants were recruited immediately before or immediately following regular training activities. Anonymous surveys were completed and collected in the training area. Instruments used in this study included the Ottawa Mental Skills Assessment Tool-3 Revised for Soldiers; Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; University of California, Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale; Beck Hopelessness Scale; Intrinsic Motivation Inventory; and an anger measure. Soldiers with strong mental skill profiles were more intrinsically motivated and psychosocially healthier than their peers with weaker mental skill profiles. It is recommended that a proactive approach to psychological health promotion practices in soldiers be sought rather than reactive treatment plans to psychological sequelae. Future research must examine the role of psychosocial fitness and adaptability to enhance mental skills fitness.

  16. Assessment of fetal maturation age by heart rate variability measures using random forest methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetschke, F; Schneider, U; Schleussner, E; Witte, O W; Hoyer, D

    2016-03-01

    Fetal maturation age assessment based on heart rate variability (HRV) is a predestinated tool in prenatal diagnosis. To date, almost linear maturation characteristic curves are used in univariate and multivariate models. Models using complex multivariate maturation characteristic curves are pending. To address this problem, we use Random Forest (RF) to assess fetal maturation age and compare RF with linear, multivariate age regression. We include previously developed HRV indices such as traditional time and frequency domain indices and complexity indices of multiple scales. We found that fetal maturation was best assessed by complexity indices of short scales and skewness in state-dependent datasets (quiet sleep, active sleep) as well as in state-independent recordings. Additionally, increasing fluctuation amplitude contributed to the model in the active sleep state. None of the traditional linear HRV parameters contributed to the RF models. Compared to linear, multivariate regression, the mean prediction of gestational age (GA) is more accurate with RF than in linear, multivariate regression (quiet state: R(2)=0,617 vs. R(2)=0,461, active state: R(2)=0,521 vs. R(2)=0,436, state independent: R(2)=0,583 vs. R(2)=0,548). We conclude that classification and regression tree models such as RF methodology are appropriate for the evaluation of fetal maturation age. The decisive role of adjustments between different time scales of complexity may essentially extend previous analysis concepts mainly based on rhythms and univariate complexity indices. Those system characteristics may have implication for better understanding and accessibility of the maturating complex autonomic control and its disturbance.

  17. Psychosocial Factors in Severe Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booster, Genery D; Oland, Alyssa A; Bender, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children in the United States and can impact nearly all aspects of functioning. Most research suggests that children with severe asthma display more emotional and behavioral problems than their healthy peers. These psychological difficulties are associated with increased risk for functional impairments and problematic disease course. Multidisciplinary teams that assess and treat these psychosocial factors using psychoeducational and behavioral interventions are important for children whose asthma is poorly controlled. Future research should examine the ways in which stress, emotions, and immune functions interact, so as to develop more preventative interventions.

  18. Techniques of Psychosocial Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety , hostility, phobic anxiety , paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Other self-report scales...one is attempting to understand tne etiology of stress or particular stress-related disorders , one or more independent variables must be taken into...population may be influenced by one or more of three sets of variables: agent, host, and environment. The agents of disease include etiological factors

  19. A longitudinal assessment of sleep variables during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaparthy, R; Mota, P; Khan, R; Ehsan, M; Qureshi, A; ZuWallack, R; Leidy, N

    2015-11-01

    Although sleep disturbance is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), relatively little is known on the effect of the exacerbation on sleep quality. Accordingly, we longitudinally assessed sleep variables during exacerbations and clinical stability. This is a sub-study of a larger observational analysis. Inclusion criteria were clinically stable COPD and two or more clinical exacerbations in the preceding 12 months. Patients were followed for approximately 6 months and during this time the following were recorded daily: (1) COPD exacerbations, which were determined in two ways, clinically and symptom defined using the exacerbations of chronic pulmonary disease tool (EXACT); (2) daytime sleepiness, which was measured using the Stanford Sleepiness Scale; (3) subjective awakenings, which was measured from a sleep diary; and (4) sleep duration, efficiency, and objective awakenings, which was measured from actigraphy. These variables for exacerbation and non-exacerbation days were compared. Seventeen patients (9 male, age 63 ± 12 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second 52 ± 20%) entered data over 135 ± 18 days. During this time, 15 patients had 27 symptom-defined exacerbations and 8 had 9 clinically reported exacerbations. Symptom-defined exacerbation days were 26% of the total study days. More daytime sleepiness, decreased total sleep time (TST), and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) were present during exacerbations compared with clinical stability (p < 0.001). These disturbances tended to be greater during clinically reported exacerbations than during unreported events (p < 0.05). Increased daytime sleepiness, less TST, and poorer SE are present during COPD exacerbations.

  20. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayad, Ahmed G.; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M.; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  1. Nutritional assessment of hospitalized patients in Latin America: association with prognostic variables: The ENHOLA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Castillo Pineda

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The prevalence of hospital malnutrition (HM is variable, explained by the variability of patients, the nutritional evaluation method used among others. The aim is to determine the frequency of malnutrition in hospitals in Latin America, and estimate its association with mortality and length of hospital stay. Methods: This is an analytical, observational cohort study that included 7,973 patients of both genders, 18 and older, who provided their consent. The survey was administered during the first three days of admission. The nutritional status was estimated using Subjective Global Assessment (SGA and the Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS, body mass index (BMI, percentage of change of weight (PCW and co-morbidities. Serum albumin was obtained from the clinical chart. Length of stay (LOS and the survival status at discharge (dead or alive were also recorded. Results: By SGA: 10.9% had severe malnutrition and 34% moderate malnutrition. By NRS: 36.9% had nutritional risk. Univariate analysis showed that NRS score and serum albumin were prognostic factors for mortality: NRS 3-4 (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.9-2.8, NRS 5-7 (OR: 5.8, 95% CI: 4.9-6.9, serum albumin < 2.5 g/dl, (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 2.2-3.8. These results were consistent and similar to a multivariate analysis. Both NRS and serum albumin were also independently and clinically associated to LOS. Conclusions: The prevalence of hospital malnutrition in Latin America is high. Our results show that screening with NRS and serum albumin can identify hospital malnutrition as well as providing clinically relevant prognostic value.

  2. Assessing the stochastic variability of the Benefit-Cost ratio in roadway safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; D'Agostino, Carmelo

    2016-08-01

    Road Agencies set quantitative targets and adopt related road safety strategies within the priorities and the available resources at the time of an economic crisis. In this framework, benefit-cost analyses (BCA) are carried out to support the decision making process and alternative measures are ranked according to their expected benefit and benefit-cost ratio calculated using a Safety Performance Function (SPF) and Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) as predictors of future safety performances. Due to the variance of CMFs and crash frequency we are uncertain what the benefits of some future actions will be. The chance of making wrong decisions depends on the size of the standard deviation of the probability distribution of the considered stochastic variables. To deal with the uncertainty inherent in the decision making process, a reliability based assessment of benefits must be performed introducing a stochastic approach. In the paper the variability of the CMFs, the predicted number of crashes and the crash costs are taken into account in a reliability based BCA to address improvements and issues of an accurate probabilistic approach when compared to the deterministic results or other approximated procedures. A case study is presented comparing different safety countermeasures selected to reduce crash frequency and severity on sharp curves in motorways. These measures include retrofitting of old safety barriers, delineation systems and shoulder rumble strips. The methodology was applied using the Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the probability of failure of BCA statements. Results and comparisons with alternative approaches, like the one proposed in the HSM, are presented showing remarkable differences in the evaluation of outcomes which can be achieved.

  3. Nabumetone and 6-MNA Pharmacokinetics, Assessment of Intrasubject Variability and Gender Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Světlík, Svatopluk; Štícha, Martin; Matoušková, Olga; Nespěšná, Lenka; Sklenář, Zbyněk; Bartůněk, Aleš; Perlík, František; Slanař, Ondřej

    In this open-label, laboratory-blinded, 2-way single dose study in 24 volunteers of both sexes we found that (1) nabumetone reaches mean Cmax ± SD of 0.56 ± 0.20 mg·L at mean tmax of 8.63 ± 7.05 hours, and mean area under the curve (AUC)last of 18.07 ± 7.19 h·mg·L; (2) there are no statistically significant differences between both sexes in pharmacokinetics of nabumetone; (3) 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA) reaches higher AUClast in men compared with women (mean ± SD, 721.23 ± 185.53 h·mg·L and 545.27 ± 97.69 h·mg·L, respectively; P = 0.013); (4) there is lower 6-MNA clearance in men (0.65 ± 0.22 L·h) in comparison with women (0.88 ± 0.18 L·h, P = 0.019), (5) intersubject variability of nabumetone and 6-MNA is between 35%-45% and 10%-30% for all assessed pharmacokinetics parameters (AUClast, Cmax, partial AUC values); (6) intrasubject variability (ISCV) for AUClast is low, 15.59% and 6.40% for nabumetone and 6-MNA, respectively, (7) ISCV for Cmax is 13.66% and 5.42% for nabumetone and 6-MNA, respectively. Nabumetone thus belongs to compounds with low to moderate ISCV and therefore this product is expected to produce consistent effects in clinical practice.

  4. A hybrid framework for assessing socioeconomic drought: Linking climate variability, local resilience, and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; Mazdiyasni, Omid; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Socioeconomic drought broadly refers to conditions whereby the water supply cannot satisfy the demand. Most previous studies describe droughts based on large-scale meteorological/hydrologic conditions, ignoring the demand and local resilience to cope with climate variability. Reservoirs provide resilience against climatic extremes and play a key role in water supply and demand management. Here we outline a unique multivariate approach as a measure of socioeconomic drought, termed Multivariate Standardized Reliability and Resilience Index (MSRRI). The model combines information on the inflow and reservoir storage relative to the demand. MSRRI combines (I) a "top-down" approach that focuses on processes/phenomena that cannot be simply controlled or altered by decision makers, such as climate change and variability, and (II) a "bottom-up" methodology that represents the local resilience and societal capacity to respond or adapt to droughts. MSRRI is based on a nonparametric multivariate distribution function that links inflow-demand reliability indicator to water storage resilience indicator. These indicators are used to assess socioeconomic drought during the Australian Millennium drought (1998-2010) and the 2011-2014 California drought. The results show that MSRRI is superior to univariate indices because it captures both early onset and persistence of water stress over time. The suggested framework can be applied to both individual reservoirs and a group of reservoirs in a region, and it is consistent with the currently available standardized drought indicators. MSRRI provides complementary information on socioeconomic drought development and recovery based on reservoir storage and demand that cannot be achieved from the commonly used drought indicators.

  5. Assessing amino acid racemization variability in coral intra-crystalline protein for geochronological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Erica J.; Tomiak, Peter J.; Collins, Matthew J.; Hellstrom, John; Tudhope, Alexander W.; Lough, Janice M.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.

    2012-06-01

    Over 500 Free Amino Acid (FAA) and corresponding Total Hydrolysed Amino Acid (THAA) analyses were completed from eight independently-dated, multi-century coral cores of massive Porites sp. colonies. This dataset allows us to re-evaluate the application of amino acid racemization (AAR) for dating late Holocene coral material, 20 years after Goodfriend et al. (GCA56 (1992), 3847) first showed AAR had promise for developing chronologies in coral cores. This re-assessment incorporates recent method improvements, including measurement by RP-HPLC, new quality control approaches (e.g. sampling and sub-sampling protocols, statistically-based data screening criteria), and cleaning steps to isolate the intra-crystalline skeletal protein. We show that the removal of the extra-crystalline contaminants and matrix protein is the most critical step for reproducible results and recommend a protocol of bleaching samples in NaOCl for 48 h to maximise removal of open system proteins while minimising the induced racemization. We demonstrate that AAR follows closed system behaviour in the intra-crystalline fraction of the coral skeletal proteins. Our study is the first to assess the natural variability in intra-crystalline AAR between colonies, and we use coral cores taken from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and Jarvis Island in the equatorial Pacific to explore variability associated with different environmental conditions and thermal histories. Chronologies were developed from THAA Asx D/L, Ala D/L, Glx D/L and FAA Asx D/L for each core and least squares Monte Carlo modelling applied in order to quantify uncertainty of AAR age determinations and assess the level of dating resolution possible over the last 5 centuries. AAR within colonies follow consistent stratigraphic aging. However, there are systematic differences in rates between the colonies, which would preclude direct comparison from one colony to another for accurate age estimation. When AAR age models are developed from

  6. The relationship between psychosocial distress and disability assessed by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire in patients with chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst Preuper, H.R.; Reneman, M.F.; Boonstra, Antje; Dijkstra, Pieter; Versteegen, G.J.; Geertzen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In the assessment and treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients, the biopsychosocial model is used worldwide. Psychological distress has been reported to have a strong relationship with disability as measured with several instruments. The relationship between psychosocia

  7. Assessment of electrocardiography, echocardiography, and heart rate variability in dynamic and static type athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataei A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mehrnoush Toufan,1 Babak Kazemi,1 Fariborz Akbarzadeh,1 Amin Ataei,1 Majid Khalili21Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, AzerbaijanBackground: Over the last two decades, morphological cardiac changes induced by athletic conditioning have been of great interest. Therefore, several studies have been orchestrated to delineate electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography, and heart rate variability (HRV findings in athletes.Purpose: To assess the ECG, echocardiography, and HRV in a group of dynamic and static type athletes.Methods: Fifty professional athletes (20 static and 30 dynamic exercise athletes and 50 healthy nonathletes (control group were recruited. Standard 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiography was performed on all athletes and the control group. Through echocardiography, variables including left ventricular (LV end-diastolic/systolic diameter, LV mass, and left atrial volume index were measured. In addition, both the athletes and the control group underwent ECG Holter monitoring for 15 minutes and several parameters related to HRV (time and frequency domain were recorded.Results: The most common ECG abnormalities among the athletes were sinus bradycardia and incomplete right bundle branch block. LV end-diastolic diameter and left atrial volume index were significantly greater in the dynamic athletes (P < 0.001. LV end-systolic diameter was significantly lower in the static group (P < 0.001. LV mass of the dynamic and static athletes was significantly greater than that of the controls (P < 0.001. Among the ECG Holter monitoring findings, the dynamic athletes had lower systolic blood pressure than the controls (P = 0.01. Heart rate was lowest in the control group (P < 0.001.Conclusion: The most common ECG abnormalities among adolescent Iranian athletes were sinus bradycardia and incomplete right bundle branch block. Static exercise seemed

  8. Neurodevelopmental and psychosocial aspects of Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Zinn, A; McCauley, E

    2000-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is the complex phenotype of human females with complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome, or monosomy X. A characteristic neurocognitive and psychosocial profile has also been described in TS females. Typically, specific deficits in visual-spatial/perceptual abilities, nonverbal memory function, motor function, executive function, and attentional abilities occur in TS children and adults of varying races and socioeconomic status. TS-associated psychosocial difficulties occur in the areas of maturity and social skills. We hypothesize that a subset of the neurocognitive deficits (visual-spatial/perceptual abilities) are genetically determined and result from abnormal expression of one or more X chromosome genes. In addition, a different subset of these neurocognitive deficits (memory, reaction time, and speeded motor function) result from estrogen deficiency and are at least somewhat reversible with estrogen treatment. The TS-associated psychosocial problems are most likely linked to these core neurocognitive deficits and do not reflect a separate and independent component of the syndrome. Turner syndrome research has progressed significantly over the last decade. The field has moved from descriptive reports based on single individuals or small clinical samples to the use of experimental designs with larger, more diverse and representative samples. This degree of variability among individuals with Turner syndrome in all domains (karyotype or genetic constitution, physical attributes, neurocognitive and social functioning) suggests the need to identify risk and protective factors contributing to the heterogeneity in the phenotype. Active education about TS and participation in patient advocacy groups such as the Turner Syndrome Society of the United States (http://www. turner-syndrome-us.org/) has provided new information for TS adults and families as well as a supportive peer group. MRDD Research Reviews 2000;6:135-141.

  9. Final Report: Climate Variability, Stochasticity and Learning in Integrated Assessment Models, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Charles D.

    1999-09-14

    The focus of the work has been on climate variability and learning within computational climate-economy models (integrated assessment models--IAM's). The primary objective of the research is to improve the representation of learning in IAM's. This include's both endogenous and exogenous learning. A particular focus is on Bayesian learning about climate damage. A secondary objective is to improve the representation of climate variability within IAM's.

  10. From constraints to opportunities? Provision of psychosocial support in portuguese oncogenetic counseling services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Alvaro; Sousa, Liliana; Paneque, Milena

    2013-12-01

    Although available guidelines for familial cancer risk counseling clearly state the need to provide adequate psychosocial assessments and support, this feature of care is only available in part for individuals and families in oncogenetic counseling protocols in Portugal. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial aspects of oncogenetic counseling provided by a sample of Portuguese genetics professionals. We sought to ascertain perceived need for the provision of psychosocial services and ways to enhance the psychosocial focus in service delivery. A qualitative study was designed; semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews were performed with 30 professionals from Portuguese healthcare institutions where oncogenetic counseling is offered. Findings suggest: current practice is aligned with the teaching model, with a mainly information-based focus; use of psychosocial counseling techniques and psychosocial support is limited throughout the genetic counseling timeline; there is a limited workforce of adequately trained psychosocial professionals, who are disadvantaged by structural and organizational constraints. These factors are considered to be serious barriers for psychosocial delivery. Development of multidisciplinary teams working in oncogenetics, and need for further counselling skills and training for genetics healthcare professionals were identified as priorities. Implications for practice and policy are discussed. Portuguese genetic counselors who have recently completed their training, may therefore contribute to enhanced psychosocial services delivery.

  11. A Range-Based Vehicle Life Cycle Assessment Incorporating Variability in the Environmental Assessment of Different Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Messagie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How to compare the environmental performance of different vehicle technologies? Vehicles with lower tailpipe emissions are perceived as cleaner. However, does it make sense to look only to tailpipe emissions? Limiting the comparison only to these emissions denies the fact that there are emissions involved during the production of a fuel and this approach gives too much advantage to zero-tailpipe vehicles like battery electric vehicles (BEV and fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV. Would it be enough to combine fuel production and tailpipe emissions? Especially when comparing the environmental performance of alternative vehicle technologies, the emissions during production of the specific components and their appropriate end-of-life treatment processes should also be taken into account. Therefore, the complete life cycle of the vehicle should be included in order to avoid problem shifting from one life stage to another. In this article, a full life cycle assessment (LCA of petrol, diesel, fuel cell electric (FCEV, compressed natural gas (CNG, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, hybrid electric, battery electric (BEV, bio-diesel and bio-ethanol vehicles has been performed. The aim of the manuscript is to investigate the impact of the different vehicle technologies on the environment and to develop a range-based modeling system that enables a more robust interpretation of the LCA results for a group of vehicles. Results are shown for climate change, respiratory effects, acidification and mineral extraction damage of the different vehicle technologies. A broad range of results is obtained due to the variability within the car market. It is concluded that it is essential to take into account the influence of all the vehicle parameters on the LCA results.

  12. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  13. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  14. Assessment of the structure and variability of Weddell Sea water masses in distinct ocean reanalysis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Dotto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed and evaluated the performance of five ocean reanalysis in reproducing essential hydrographic properties and their associated temporal variability for the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The products used in this assessment were ECMWF ORAS4, CFSR, MyOcean UR025.4, ECCO2 and SODA. The present study focuses on the Weddell Sea deep layer, which is composed of the following three main water masses: Warm Deep Water (WDW, Weddell Sea Deep Water (WSDW and Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW. Moreover, all the ocean reanalysis products analyzed showed limited capabilities in representing the surface water masses in the Weddell Sea. The MyOcean UR025.4 product provided the most accurate representation of the structure of the Weddell Sea water masses when compared to observations. The CFSR and ECCO2 products were not able to represent the WSBW throughout the simulation period. The expected WDW warming was only reproduced by the SODA product, while the ECCO2 product was able to represent the WSDW's hydrographic properties trends. All of these ocean reanalysis systems were able to represent the decrease in the WSBW's density. Our results also showed that a simple increase in horizontal resolution does not necessarily imply better representation of the deep layers. Rather, it is needed to observe the physics involved in each model and their parameterizations because the Southern Ocean suffers from the lack of in situ data, and it is biased by summer observations. The choice of the reanalysis product should be made carefully, taking into account the performance, the parameters of interest, and the type of physical processes to be evaluated.

  15. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giglio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001–2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees to develop relationships between burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated the global annual area burned for the years 1997–2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 12 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  16. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giglio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001–2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate burned area. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global annual area burned for the years 1997–2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 13 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  17. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Collatz, G. J.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.

    2010-03-01

    Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001-2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate burned area. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global annual area burned for the years 1997-2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 13 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  18. Cardiorespiratory optimal point: a submaximal exercise variable to assess panic disorder patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Santos Ramos

    Full Text Available Panic disorder (PD patients often report respiratory symptoms and tend to perform poorly during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX, at least partially, due to phobic anxiety. Thus, we hypothesized that a submaximal exercise variable, minimum VE/VO2 - hereafter named cardiorespiratory optimal point (COP -, may be useful in their clinical assessment. Data from 2,338 subjects were retrospectively analyzed and 52 (2.2% patients diagnosed with PD (PDG (70% women; aged 48±13 years. PD patients were compared with a healthy control group (CG precisely matched to number of cases, age and gender profiles. PDG was further divided into two subgroups, based on having achieved a maximal or a submaximal CPX (unwilling to continue until exhaustion. We compared COP, VO2 max, maximum heart rate (HR max between PDG and CG, and also COP between maximal and submaximal PD subgroups. COP was similar between PDG and CG (21.9±0.5 vs. 23.4±0.6; p = 0.07, as well as, for PD subgroups of maximal and submaximal CPX (22.0±0.5 vs. 21.6±1.3; p = 0.746. Additionally, PD patients completing a maximal CPX obtained VO2 max (mL x kg-1 x min-1 (32.9±1.57 vs 29.6±1.48; p = 0.145 and HR max (bpm similar to controls (173±2.0 vs 168±2.7; p = 0.178. No adverse complications occurred during CPX. Although clinically safe, it is sometimes difficult to obtain a true maximal CPX in PD patients. Normalcy of cardiorespiratory interaction at submaximal effort as assessed by COP may contribute to reassure both patients and physicians that there is no physiological substrate for exercise-related respiratory symptoms often reported by PD patients.

  19. Cardiorespiratory optimal point: a submaximal exercise variable to assess panic disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Plínio Santos; Sardinha, Aline; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares

    2014-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD) patients often report respiratory symptoms and tend to perform poorly during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX), at least partially, due to phobic anxiety. Thus, we hypothesized that a submaximal exercise variable, minimum VE/VO2 - hereafter named cardiorespiratory optimal point (COP) -, may be useful in their clinical assessment. Data from 2,338 subjects were retrospectively analyzed and 52 (2.2%) patients diagnosed with PD (PDG) (70% women; aged 48±13 years). PD patients were compared with a healthy control group (CG) precisely matched to number of cases, age and gender profiles. PDG was further divided into two subgroups, based on having achieved a maximal or a submaximal CPX (unwilling to continue until exhaustion). We compared COP, VO2 max, maximum heart rate (HR max) between PDG and CG, and also COP between maximal and submaximal PD subgroups. COP was similar between PDG and CG (21.9±0.5 vs. 23.4±0.6; p = 0.07), as well as, for PD subgroups of maximal and submaximal CPX (22.0±0.5 vs. 21.6±1.3; p = 0.746). Additionally, PD patients completing a maximal CPX obtained VO2 max (mL x kg-1 x min-1) (32.9±1.57 vs 29.6±1.48; p = 0.145) and HR max (bpm) similar to controls (173±2.0 vs 168±2.7; p = 0.178). No adverse complications occurred during CPX. Although clinically safe, it is sometimes difficult to obtain a true maximal CPX in PD patients. Normalcy of cardiorespiratory interaction at submaximal effort as assessed by COP may contribute to reassure both patients and physicians that there is no physiological substrate for exercise-related respiratory symptoms often reported by PD patients.

  20. Model for the Assessment of Seawater Environmental Quality Based on Multiobjective Variable Fuzzy Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Ke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of marine economy industry, the activities for exploring and exploiting the marine resources are increasing, and there are more and more marine construction projects, which contribute to the growing trend of eutrophication and frequent occurrence of red tide. Thus, seawater quality has become the topic which the people generally cared about. The seawater quality evaluation could be considered as an analysis process which combined the evaluation indexes with certainty and evaluation factors with uncertainty and its changes. This paper built a model for the assessment of seawater environmental quality based on the multiobjective variable fuzzy set theory (VFEM. The Qingdao marine dumping site in China is taken as an evaluation example. Through the quantitative research of water-quality data from 2004 to 2008, the model is more reliable than other traditional methods, in which uncertainty and ambiguity of the seawater quality evaluation are considered, and trade the stable results as the final results of seawater quality evaluation, which effectively solved the impact of the fuzzy boundary of evaluation standard and monitoring error, is more suitable for evaluation of a multi-index, multilevel, and nonlinear marine environment system and has been proved to be an effective tool for seawater quality evaluation.

  1. Basil (Ocimum basilicum Genetic Variability and Viral Disease Assessment in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Ojo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at assessing Basil’s genetic phenotypic variability and viral disease incidence in Nigeria for sustainable pathological interventions. Basil (Ocimum basilicum is important for it’s medicinal and nutritive value. It is highly adaptable as a potential crop in the tropics and could therefore enhance the food security of sub Saharan Africa nations. Germplasm seed evaluation and characterization was therefore carried out from the nationwide National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT seed collection survey to expand NIHORT basil genetic base. The field layout was completely randomized design with five replications. The treatments were: O. basilicum, O. gratissimum and the local basil. Treatments were randomly allocated per replication. There were significant phenotypic differences in the O. basilicum variety. These differences were observed in the plant coloration ranging from deep to light purple coloration of stem, leaf, leaf vein and petiole. Our observations also revealed for the first time significant tolerance to Venial Mottle Mosaic Virus (VMMV in the purple colored compared to the green O. basilicum in the early stages of growth till 50% anthesis. This is the first report of this observation in the African continent. Tolerance to VMMV symptoms increased significantly (LSD 5% with purplish coloration. We concluded that inducement of purplish coloration in Basil through breeding might improve tolerance to VMMV and thereby increase market value of Basil with sustainable pathological interventions.

  2. Valsalva and gravitational variability of the internal jugular vein and common femoral vein: Ultrasound assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddy, P. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)]. E-mail: pbeddy@eircom.net; Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Ramesh, N. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Buckley, O. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); O' Brien, J. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Colville, J. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: Central venous cannulation via the common femoral vein is an important starting point for many interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for cannulation of the femoral vein and to compare these with the relative changes in the internal jugular vein. Methods: High-resolution 2D ultrasound was utilised to determine variability of the calibre of the femoral and internal jugular veins in 10 healthy subjects. Venous diameter was assessed during the Valsalva manoeuvre and in different degrees of the Trendelenburg position. Results: The Valsalva manoeuvre significantly increased the size of the femoral and internal jugular veins. There was a relatively greater increase in femoral vein diameter when compared with the internal jugular vein of 40 and 29%, respectively. Changes in body inclination (Trendelenburg position) did not significantly alter the luminal diameter of the femoral vein. However, it significantly increased internal jugular vein diameter. Conclusions: Femoral vein cannulation is augmented by the Valsalva manoeuvre but not significantly altered by the gravitational position of the subject.

  3. Heart rate variability in the assessment and biofeedback training of common mental health problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Pop-Jordanova

    2009-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the beat-to-beat variations in heart rate related to the work of autonomic nervous system. It may serve as a psychophysiological indicator for arousal, emotional state and stress level. We used this parameter in both the assessment and biofeedback training, for dealing with five groups of common mental health problem in school children (anxious-phobic, somatoform, obsessive-compulsive, attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorders). The obtained results were compared with healthy children at the same age. In order to define the four main characteristics of personality (extroversion/introversion, neuroticism/stability, psychopathological traits and honesty) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was applied. Results showed significantly higher psychopathological traits in ADHD and somatoform group, lower extroversion in somatoform, higher neurotism in OCD and lower lie scores in ADHD and OCD groups. As HRV instrument we used Heart Math Freeze-Framer System. After 15 sessions of training, children from nearby all groups showed improved high and medium HRV which corresponded to the improved clinical outcome. Hereby, the best results were obtained for conduct and anxiety disorder, and the worst for ADHD.

  4. Assessment of variability in cerebral vasculature for neuro-anatomical surgery planning in rodent brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, J. R.; Van Kuyck, K.; Himmelreich, U.; Nuttin, B.; Maes, F.; Suetens, P.

    2011-03-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies show that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of targeted brain regions by neurosurgical techniques ameliorate psychiatric disorder such as anorexia nervosa. Neurosurgical interventions in preclinical rodent brain are mostly accomplished manually with a 2D atlas. Considering both the large number of animals subjected to stereotactic surgical experiments and the associated imaging cost, feasibility of sophisticated pre-operative imaging based surgical path planning and/or robotic guidance is limited. Here, we spatially normalize vasculature information and assess the intra-strain variability in cerebral vasculature for a neurosurgery planning. By co-registering and subsequently building a probabilistic vasculature template in a standard space, we evaluate the risk of a user defined electrode trajectory damaging a blood vessel on its path. The use of such a method may not only be confined to DBS therapy in small animals, but also could be readily applicable to a wide range of stereotactic small animal surgeries like targeted injection of contrast agents and cell labeling applications.

  5. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake cycle and of co-variates on the Body Mass Index in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Nine hundred and thirteen pupils (406 boys, 507 girls from Southwestern Germany participated in this study. Mean age was 13.7 ± 1.5 (SD years and range was between 11 – 16 years. We found that chronotype (β = .079 and social jetlag (β = .063 showed a significant influence on Body Mass Index (BMI, while sleep duration did not. Social jetlag is the absolute difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and free days. Further, screen time (in front of TV, computer, β = .13 was positively related with BMI. Self-efficacy on nutrition (β = -.11, a psychological variable important in health-behaviour models, showed an influence with high scores on self-efficacy related to lower BMI. A high BMI was correlated with low fast-food consumption (β = -.12 suggesting that adolescents with high BMI may exert some control over their eating.

  6. Inter-worker variability in lower body postures during assembly line work: implications for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyserling, W Monroe; Wiggermann, Neal; Werner, Robert A; Gell, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated inter-worker variability in lower body posture and work activity during highly-structured assembly line work. Data were collected from 79 unique assembly line workstations in an engine manufacturing plant. Because the plant utilized work teams, 4-8 workers rotated through each workstation. At least 30 min of videotape was collected from at least three workers at each workstation. A computer-assisted work sampling procedure randomly selected 200 video "freeze-frames" for each worker. Lower body posture/movement (e.g., sit, stand, walk, etc.) was determined for each frame and used to estimate the percentage of time the worker spent in various postures and activities. Chi-square analyses were performed for each workstation to assess the significance of inter-worker differences. Due to variations in individual work methods, significant differences (p <.05) were found at 57 out of 79 workstations (72%). The greatest differences occurred when workers had the option to choose between standing and sitting (significant in 8 of 8 cases; in extreme examples, sit time ranged between 0-100% on one job, and 6.5-98% on another). Studying a single worker (or "proxy") can contribute to substantial error when estimating exposures in workplace studies of ergonomic stressors, since the proxy may not be representative of all workers who perform the job. Individual measurements are preferable, particularly for jobs where workers have substantial latitude to develop individualized work methods.

  7. Changes in nutritional assessment variables caused by total parenteral nutrition in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symreng, T; Cederblad, G; Croner, S; Larsson, J; Schildt, B

    1985-05-01

    Nutritional assessment variables were measured weekly in 10 young women with severe anorexia nervosa during treatment with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for a 5 week period. Before the start of treatment the patients had lost 25-53% of their habitual weight, triceps skin fold (TSF) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) measurements were below the 5th percentile and all were anergic in the delayed hypersensitivity (DH) response. Plasma protein levels were normal except in fibronectin and prealbumin where levels below the reference interval was found in five patients. During TPN the body weight increased most likely due to rehydration and increase in lean body mass. Significant increases were seen in body weight weekly, but in TSF and AMC only after 4 and 3 weeks respectively. TSF and AMC were still below or at the 5th percentile after 5 weeks of TPN. DH response as well as fibronectin and prealbumin levels normalised in all patients. Despite only partial recovery in body cell mass the clinical picture had changed markedly so that the patients now were amenable to psychotherapy and had an adequate intake of food orally, enabling further nutritional therapy to be completed without parenteral support.

  8. Preliminary assessment of anatomical variability of nervus peroneus superficialis in the foetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagała, Zygmunt; Gworys, Bohdan; Porwolik, Krystian

    2003-11-01

    An assessment of the variability of the course and ramifications of the superficial peroneal nerve within the crus was made on a material of 33 foetuses of both sexes miscarried in the 6th month of foetal life. Particular attention was paid to the relation of the nerve under examination to the anterior intermuscular septum. To facilitate the analysis the material investigated was grouped into several types. The post mortem examination revealed that the nerve referred to followed a typical course within the shank in 54% of cases. At the same time in 15% of cases the examined nerve was split into two terminal branches within the fascial compartment of fibular muscles, leaving the fascia independently. In 19% of cases n. peroneus superficialis passes through the intermuscular septum to the anterior fascial compartment of the shank. Moreover, in 12% of cases the presence was demonstrated of n. peroneus superficialis accessorius passing together with n. peroneus profundus to the extensors chamber and further on into the medial cutaneous nerve of the foot.

  9. Assessing analytical variability of measurement of vitamin A in corn-soy blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wayne R; DeVries, Jonathan; MacDonald, John; Hare, Lynne; Carson, J; Chaudhari, P; DeVries, J; Fontana, J; Golz, P; King, J; MacDonald, J; McCullough, C; Noggle, S; Rasgorshek, E; Schorn, S; Skogerson, L; Sullins, D; Sullivan, D; Sussman, M; Weibel, M

    2010-01-01

    Two multilaboratory investigations were conducted by SUSTAIN to assess variability in the measurement of vitamin A, the marker used to verify levels of vitamin premix addition to enriched/fortified food aid products, including the widely distributed corn-soy blend (CSB). CSB specifications identify AACC Approved Method 86-06 or equivalent methods for vitamin A analysis, however there is no requirement to demonstrate equivalency. CSB samples with known and blinded levels of vitamin A and a reference standard were analyzed by 16 laboratories using their respective methods. Calculated coefficients of variation across all laboratories and methods for unknown samples and reference standard were 35 and 7.1%, respectively, suggesting the largest source of variation is the vitamin extraction procedure. Laboratories generally overestimated low levels and underestimated high levels of vitamin A within the range of 6000 and 16 000 IU/lb. Only two laboratories demonstrated excellent internal precision (+/- 300 IU vitamin A/lb) and reported values within 95% confidence interval for all blinded samples. Results of this study have implications both for quality control in food aid products (due to the use of vitamin A as a marker) and for regulatory oversight of vitamin A content in commercial food products.

  10. Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Assessing the Severity of Sleep Disordered Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yao Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an independent cardiovascular risk factor to which autonomic nervous dysfunction has been reported to be an important contributor. Ninety subjects recruited from the sleep center of a single medical center were divided into four groups: normal snoring subjects without OSA (apnea hypopnea index, AHI < 5, n = 11, mild OSA (5 ≤ AHI < 15, n = 10, moderate OSA (15 ≤ AHI < 30, n = 24, and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30, n = 45. Demographic (i.e., age, gender, anthropometric (i.e., body mass index, neck circumference, and polysomnographic (PSG data were recorded and compared among the different groups. For each subject, R-R intervals (RRI from 10 segments of 10-minute electrocardiogram recordings during non-rapid eye movement sleep at stage N2 were acquired and analyzed for heart rate variability (HRV and sample entropy using multiscale entropy index (MEI that was divided into small scale (MEISS, scale 1–5 and large scale (MEILS, scale 6–10. Our results not only demonstrated that MEISS could successfully distinguish normal snoring subjects and those with mild OSA from those with moderate and severe disease, but also revealed good correlation between MEISS and AHI with Spearman correlation analysis (r = −0.684, p < 0.001. Therefore, using the two parameters of EEG and ECG, MEISS may serve as a simple preliminary screening tool for assessing the severity of OSA before proceeding to PSG analysis.

  11. The psychosocial impact of acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen CM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Nguyen,1 Kourosh Beroukhim,2 Melissa J Danesh,3 Aline Babikian,4 John Koo,3 Argentina Leon3 1University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, 2David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, 3Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, 4Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Vallejo, CA, USA Introduction: Chronic skin conditions have been well reported to affect a patient's quality of life on multiple dimensions, including the psychosocial domain. Psychosocial is defined as the interrelation of social factors with an individual's thoughts and behavior. The assessment of the psychosocial impact of skin disease on a patient can help direct the dermatologists' treatment goals. To evaluate the psychosocial impact of skin disease, we conducted a review of the literature on three skin conditions with onsets at various stages of life: acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted in March 2015 using the terms “psychosocial” AND “acne”, “psychosocial” AND “vitiligo”, and “psychosocial” AND “psoriasis”. The results were limited to articles published in English in the past 5 years studying patients of all ages. Results and their references were evaluated for relevance according to their discussion of psychosocial qualities in their patients and the validity of psychosocial assessments. The search for acne yielded 51 results, and eleven were found to be relevant; vitiligo yielded 30 results with ten found to be relevant; and psoriasis yielded 70 results with seven found to be relevant. Results: According to the articles evaluated, 19.2% of adolescent patients with acne were affected in their personal and social lives. Social phobia was present in 45% of patients with acne compared to 18% of control subjects. Race and sex played a role in self-consciousness and social perceptions of the disease. Vitiligo

  12. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports the first findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship...... between psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. Using a combination of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire and data from the firms’ balanced scorecard system we show a positive...... and describe the mechanism underlying the observed relationship. It is observed that a specific leadership style is responsible for creating a good working environment which leads to good performance. The leadership style can be described as process oriented, supportive and consistent but also demanding....

  13. Development and evaluation of the feasibility and effects on staff, patients, and families of a new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE), to improve communication and palliative care in intensive care and during clinical uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Irene J; Koffman, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip; Prentice, Wendy; Burman, Rachel; Leonard, Sara; Rumble, Caroline; Noble, Jo; Dampier, Odette; Bernal, William; Hall, Sue; Morgan, Myfanwy; Shipman, Cathy

    2013-10-01

    There are widespread concerns about communication and support for patients and families, especially when they face clinical uncertainty, a situation most marked in intensive care units (ICUs). Therefore, we aimed to develop and evaluate an interventional tool to improve communication and palliative care, using the ICU as an example of where this is difficult. Our design was a phase I-II study following the Medical Research Council Guidance for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions and the (Methods of Researching End-of-life Care (MORECare) statement. In two ICUs, with over 1900 admissions annually, phase I modeled a new intervention comprising implementation training and an assessment tool. We conducted a literature review, qualitative interviews, and focus groups with 40 staff and 13 family members. This resulted in the new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE). Phase II evaluated the feasibility and effects of PACE, using observation, record audit, and surveys of staff and family members. Qualitative data were analyzed using the framework approach. The statistical tests used on quantitative data were t-tests (for normally distributed characteristics), the χ2 or Fisher's exact test (for non-normally distributed characteristics) and the Mann-Whitney U-test (for experience assessments) to compare the characteristics and experience for cases with and without PACE recorded. PACE provides individualized assessments of all patients entering the ICU. It is completed within 24 to 48 hours of admission, and covers five aspects (key relationships, social details and needs, patient preferences, communication and information status, and other concerns), followed by recording of an ongoing communication evaluation. Implementation is supported by a training program with specialist palliative care. A post-implementation survey of 95 ICU staff found that 89% rated PACE assessment as very or generally useful. Of 213 family members

  14. Life Science Teachers' Discourse on Assessment: A Valuable Insight into the Variable Conceptions of Assessment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halinen, Katrianna; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Katajavuori, Nina; Virtanen, Viivi

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' conceptions of teaching, including assessment practices, are substantial in directing student learning. Our article refers to assessment at tertiary level biological education. We studied life science (more specifically microbiology-related) teachers' assessment discourse describing how they understood assessment as part of their…

  15. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  16. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "bes

  17. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "bes

  18. Simple pain measures reveal psycho-social pathology in patients with Crohn’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odes, Shmuel; Friger, Michael; Sergienko, Ruslan; Schwartz, Doron; Sarid, Orly; Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Singer, Terri; Chernin, Elena; Vardi, Hillel; Greenberg, Dan; Israel IBD Research Nucleus

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether pain has psycho-social associations in adult Crohn’s disease (CD) patients. METHODS Patients completed demographics, disease status, Patient Harvey-Bradshaw Index (P-HBI), Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ), and five socio-psychological questionnaires: Brief Symptom Inventory, Brief COPE Inventory, Family Assessment Device, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. Pain sub-scales in P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ measures were recoded into 4 identical scores for univariate and multinomial logistic regression analysis of associations with psycho-social variables. RESULTS The cohort comprised 594 patients, mean age 38.6 ± 14.8 years, women 52.5%, P-HBI 5.76 ± 5.15. P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ broadly agreed in their assessment of pain intensity. More severe pain was significantly associated with female gender, low socio-economic status, unemployment, Israeli birth and smoking. Higher pain scores correlated positively with psychological stress, dysfunctional coping strategies, poor family relationships, absenteeism, presenteeism, productivity loss and activity impairment and all WPAI sub-scores. Patients exhibiting greater satisfaction with life had less pain. The regression showed increasing odds ratios for psychological stress (lowest 2.26, highest 12.17) and female gender (highest 3.19) with increasing pain. Internet-recruited patients were sicker and differed from hardcopy questionnaire patients in their associations with pain. CONCLUSION Pain measures in P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ correlate with psycho-social pathology in CD. Physicians should be aware also of these relationships in approaching CD patients with pain. PMID:28246482

  19. Application in Mexico of psychosocial rehabilitation with schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Marcelo; Rascon, Maria Luisa; Juarez, Francisco; Escamilla, Raul; Saracco, Ricardo; Liberman, Robert Paul

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether evidence-based, psychosocial treatments developed in the United States and England are applicable to Mexican outpatients with schizophrenia, the present study was carried out to evaluate the relative effectiveness of family psycho-education and psychosocial skills training added to customary treatment vs. customary treatment alone. Clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia participated in a 12-month randomized, controlled trial at the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City. An experimental group (N = 47) received the combination of psychosocial skills training, family psycho-education and customary pharmacotherapy while the comparison group (N = 36) received customary treatment alone. Patients were assessed at baseline and one year after commencement of treatment. Significant differences favoring the group that received psychosocial rehabilitation were found in ratings of adherence to medication, attendance at appointments, symptoms, social functioning, relapse, and re-hospitalization. While some adaptations were made in the psychosocial treatments to resolve cultural differences, the results provide cross-national validation of evidence-based treatments for persons with schizophrenia.

  20. Psychosocial health among immigrants in central and southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    Migration exposes people to a number of risks that threaten their health, including those related to psychosocial health. Self-perceived health is usually the main indicator used to assess psychosocial health. Electronic databases were used to examine the literature on the psychosocial health of immigrants in Europe and of North Africans living in their own countries. Immigrants of various ethnic groups show a similar risk of psychosocial disorders but generally present a higher risk than the local population. This risk is related to gender (being higher in women), poor socio-economic status and acculturation, discrimination, time elapsed since migration and age on arrival in the new country. Although the stressors and situations the different ethnic groups experience in the host country may be shared, the way they deal with them may differ according to cultural factors. There is a need to collect detailed data on psychosocial health among the various immigrant groups in Europe, as well as to monitor this aspect in North African residents who lack access to specific services.

  1. VARIABLES ECOCARDIOGRÁFICAS PARA LA EVALUACIÓN INCRUENTA DE LA HEMODINÁMICA PULMONAR / Echocardiographic variables for noninvasive assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Cruz Elizundia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa valoración de la hemodinámica pulmonar depende de muchas situaciones clínicas, debido a que el árbol vascular pulmonar puede verse afectado por diversas circunstancias fisiológicas y patológicas. La prueba de oro para evaluar estos parámetros es el cateterismo derecho, pero su uso no puede justificarse de manera rutinaria. Las técnicas de imágenes, especialmente la ecocardiografía, se han desarrollado vertiginosamente y permiten obtener una descripción completa y aproximada, así como de la magnitud de la repercusión en el corazón, de dichos parámetros. Varios son los índices ecocardiográficos que resultan de un interés particular en la evaluación de la hemodinámica pulmonar, y múltiples son las variables a analizar para garantizar una adecuada interpretación de los resultados y un diagnóstico ecocardiográfico certero. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de las diferentes variables ecocardiográficas involucradas en la evaluación hemodinámica pulmonar, así como la aplicación de éstas en el escenario clínico. / AbstractThe assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics depends on many clinical situations because the pulmonary vascular tree may be affected by various physiological and pathological circumstances. The gold test for assessing these parameters is the right heart catheterization, but its use cannot be routinely justified. Imaging techniques, especially echocardiography, have developed rapidly and allow for a full and approximate description, as well as the magnitude of the impact of these parameters on the heart. There are several echocardiographic indexes that are of particular interest in the assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics, and multiple variables should be analyzed to ensure proper interpretation of results and an accurate echocardiographic diagnosis. This article presents a review of the different echocardiographic variables involved in assessing pulmonary hemodynamics and their application

  2. Physical and psychosocial disability in elderly subjects in relation to pain in the hip and/or knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Odding, E.; Hofman, A.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To determine physical and psychosocial disability in subjects aged 55 to 74 years living in the community, in relation to pain in the hip and/or knee, and to explore the relationships between pain, physical and psychosocial disability, and selected background variables. Methods. A subsamp

  3. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanagas Giedrius

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197. Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's.

  4. Contouring Variability of the Penile Bulb on CT Images: Quantitative Assessment Using a Generalized Concordance Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carillo, Viviana [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Perna, Lucia; Calandra, Mauro [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Gianolini, Stefano [Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn (Switzerland); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello Enrico [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Cliniche Gavazzeni Humanitas, Bergamo (Italy); Villa, Sergio [Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Within a multicenter study (DUE-01) focused on the search of predictors of erectile dysfunction and urinary toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, a dummy run exercise on penile bulb (PB) contouring on computed tomography (CT) images was carried out. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess interobserver contouring variability by the application of the generalized DICE index. Methods and Materials: Fifteen physicians from different Institutes drew the PB on CT images of 10 patients. The spread of DICE values was used to objectively select those observers who significantly disagreed with the others. The analyses were performed with a dedicated module in the VODCA software package. Results: DICE values were found to significantly change among observers and patients. The mean DICE value was 0.67, ranging between 0.43 and 0.80. The statistics of DICE coefficients identified 4 of 15 observers who systematically showed a value below the average (p value range, 0.013 - 0.059): Mean DICE values were 0.62 for the 4 'bad' observers compared to 0.69 of the 11 'good' observers. For all bad observers, the main cause of the disagreement was identified. Average DICE values were significantly worse from the average in 2 of 10 patients (0.60 vs. 0.70, p < 0.05) because of the limited visibility of the PB. Excluding the bad observers and the 'bad' patients,' the mean DICE value increased from 0.67 to 0.70; interobserver variability, expressed in terms of standard deviation of DICE spread, was also reduced. Conclusions: The obtained values of DICE around 0.7 shows an acceptable agreement, considered the small dimension of the PB. Additional strategies to improve this agreement are under consideration and include an additional tutorial of the so-called bad observers with a recontouring procedure, or the recontouring by a single observer of the PB for all patients included in the DUE-01 study.

  5. Assessing variability of literature based methane indicator traits in a large dairy cow population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandel, PB.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Dairy production is identified as a major source of methane (CH4 emissions. Selective breeding represents one method for mitigating CH4 emissions but practical and cheap ways to measure this trait are not currently available. In the present study, four CH4 indicator traits based on milk fatty acid (FA contents were referenced from the literature. Objectives. The aim of the study was to use these literature CH4 indicators for assessing the variability of methane emissions emitted by dairy cows. Method. Literature CH4 indicator traits were originally defined based on the measurements of FA content by gas chromatography. However, these measurements were not available for all the available cows in our studied population. A sample of 602 gas chromatographic analyses was therefore used to develop a calibration equation for predicting the literature CH4 indicators based on milk mid-infrared (MIR spectra. This spectral information was available for all the studied cows. Then, in a second step, in order to predict the literature CH4 indicator traits, the developed MIR prediction equations were applied to the 604,028 recorded spectral data collected between 2007 and 2011 for 70,872 cows in their first three lactations. Genetic parameters for these traits were then estimated using single trait test-day random regression animal models. Results. The predicted MIR literature CH4 estimates were in the expected range from 350 ± 40 to 449 ± 65 g per day. The averaged predicted MIR CH4 emission (g per day increased from the beginning of lactation, reached the highest level at the peak of lactation and then decreased towards the end of lactation. The average daily heritability values were 0.29-.35, 0.26-.40, and 0.22-.37 for the different studied CH4 indicators for the first three lactations, respectively. The largest differences between the estimated breeding values of sires that had daughters in production eructing the highest and

  6. Positive affect and psychosocial processes related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; O'Donnell, Katie; Marmot, Michael; Wardle, Jane

    2008-05-01

    Positive affect is associated with longevity and favourable physiological function. We tested the hypothesis that positive affect is related to health-protective psychosocial characteristics independently of negative affect and socio-economic status. Both positive and negative affect were measured by aggregating momentary samples collected repeatedly over 1 day, and health-related psychosocial factors were assessed by questionnaire in a sample of 716 men and women aged 58-72 years. Positive affect was associated with greater social connectedness, emotional and practical support, optimism and adaptive coping responses, and lower depression, independently of age, gender, household income, paid employment, smoking status, and negative affect. Negative affect was independently associated with negative relationships, greater exposure to chronic stress, depressed mood, pessimism, and avoidant coping. Positive affect may be beneficial for health outcomes in part because it is a component of a profile of protective psychosocial characteristics.

  7. Diagnostic Invasiveness and Psychosocial Consequences of False-Positive Mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heleno, Bruno M.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2015-01-01

    of a cohort study of 454 womenwith abnormal screening mammography and 908 matched control women withnormal results. Using a condition-specific questionnaire (Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer), we assessed 12 psychosocial consequences at 5 time points (0, 1, 6, 18, and 36 months after final diagnosis......) and compared the 2 groups of women with false-positives (invasive and noninvasive management groups). RESULTS: Among the 252 women with false-positive mammography eligible forthis study, psychosocial consequences were similar for those managed invasivelyand those managed noninvasively during the 36 months...... between those of women withnormal mammography and those of women determined to have breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that use of more invasive diagnosticswas associated with worse psychosocial consequences. It is therefore reasonableto pool subgroups of women with false...

  8. Adesão ao tratamento da dor crônica: estudo de variáveis demográficas, terapêuticas e psicossociais Compliance with chronic pain treatment: study of demographic, therapeutic and psychosocial variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geana Paula Kurita

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar a prevalência da adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso em pacientes com dor crônica, e analisar as relações entre adesão e características do tratamento medicamentoso e fatores psicossociais (crenças frente à dor, locus de controle da saúde e depressão. Trinta indivíduos foram avaliados 5 vezes durante 6 meses. Adesão plena ocorreu entre 43,3% e 56,7% dos pacientes. A adesão parcial e a não adesão foram altas (40,0%-56,7%. Os índices de adesão não variaram ao longo de seis meses. Menor adesão relacionou-se à ocorrência de efeitos colaterais e às crenças de que o controle da saúde dependia de si próprio, de que dor é incapacitante, de que dor indica a presença de dano físico e de que comportamentos de solicitude de outrem quando há manifestação de dor são desejáveis. Conhecer os fatores envolvidos na adesão permite testar intervenções que a otimizem.The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of compliance with drug therapy in patients with chronic pain and analyze the relationships between compliance and characteristics of drug therapy and psychosocial factors (beliefs regarding pain, health locus of control and depression. Thirty patients were evaluated 5 times over a period of 6 months. Total compliance occurred in 43.3% to 56.7% of the patients. Partial compliance and non-compliance were high (40.0%-56.7%. The index of compliance did not vary over the six months. Low compliance related to occurrence of side effects and beliefs that the control of health depended on the patient, pain is a disability, that pain means the presence of physical injury and solicitous behavior of others is desirable when there is manifestation of pain. Knowing the factors involved in compliance enables us to test interventions that optimize it.

  9. Diagnostic delay is associated with psychosocial impairment in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Sonja; Streetz-van der Werf, Christine; Schott, Jennifer S; Nolte, Kay; Karges, Wolfram; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically assess health care utilisation, diagnostic delay and psychosocial impairment in patients with acromegaly in rural versus urban health care environments. 41 patients with acromegaly were questioned to time lapse of symptom onset, first seeking medical advice and time of acromegaly diagnosis. Quality of life (QoL), and psychosocial impairment (depression, daytime sleepiness, sleep disturbances, disturbances of body image) were measured by self-assessment questionnaires. Patients were grouped into living in rural health care environments (RHCE, n = 22 patients) or urban health care environments (UHCE, n = 19 patients) using data on population density from the German Federal Statistical Office. RHCE patients waited significantly longer (2.5 vs. 0.89 years; p = .025) after symptom onset before seeking medical advice, but diagnosis of acromegaly was established at least as quickly as in UHCE (1.45 vs. 2.74 years; n.s.). There was a consistent trend toward more psychosocial impairment in UHCE which reached significance for sleep disturbances (p = .004). For all patients significant correlations between time delay of diagnostic process (defined as first visit to the doctor because of acromegaly-related symptoms and establishment of acromegaly diagnosis) and psychological QoL, depression, daytime sleepiness, sleep disorders and body image emerged. Patients with acromegaly in UHCE experienced more psychosocial impairment than patients in RHCE. The correlation of significantly increased psychosocial impairment and delay of diagnosis by the physician may reflect long-lasting embitterment in patients with acromegaly and should be considered during psychosocial counselling.

  10. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  11. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Li, Weihua; Omura, Seiichi; Fujitani, Yuji; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi; Hiraku, Yusuke; Hisanaga, Naomi; Wakai, Kenji; Ding, Xuncheng; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ichihara, Gaku

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO2 particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N-N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/-) or percentage of RR 50+/- that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58-30.8 mg/m3 during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m3). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO2 particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  12. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulasso A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mulasso,1 Mattia Roppolo,1,2 Fabrizia Giannotta,3 Emanuela Rabaglietti1 1Department of Psychology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy; 2Department of Developmental Psychology, Rijksuniversiteit of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Department of Psychology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden Abstract: Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1 evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2 investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs. Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and

  13. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Large-Scale Soil Moisture, its Temporal Variability and Associated Drought-Flood Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, G.; Verrot, L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is a dynamic variable of great importance for water cycling and climate, as well as for ecosystems and societal sectors such as agriculture. Model representation of soil moisture and its temporal variability is, for instance, central for assessing the impacts of hydro-climatic change on drought and flood risks. However, our ability to assess such impacts and guide appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures is challenged by the need to link data and modeling across a range of spatiotemporal scales of relevance for the variability and change of soil moisture in long-term time series. This paper synthesizes recent advances for meeting this challenge by a relatively simple, analytical, data-driven approach to modeling the variability and change of large-scale soil moisture under long-term hydro-climatic change. Model application to two major Swedish drainage basins, and model-data comparison for ten study catchments across the United States shows the model ability to reproduce variability dynamics in long-term data series of the key soil-moisture variables: unsaturated water content and groundwater table position. The Swedish application shows that human-driven hydro-climatic shifts may imply increased risk for hydrological drought (runoff-related) and agricultural drought (soil moisture-related), even though meteorological drought risk (precipitation-related) is unchanged or lowered. The direct model-data comparison for ten U.S. catchments further shows good model representation of seasonal and longer-term fluctuation timings and frequencies for water content and groundwater level, along with physically reasonable model tendency to underestimate the local fluctuation magnitudes. Overall, the tested modeling approach can fulfill its main aim of screening long-term time series of large-scale hydro-climatic data (historic or projected for the future by climate modeling) for relatively simple, unexaggerated assessment of variability and change in key

  14. To asses inter- and intra-observer variability for breast density and BIRADS assessment categories in mammographic reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masroor, Imrana; Rasool, Mahreen; Saeed, Shaista Afzal; Sohail, Saba

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the inter- and intra-observer variability among radiologists in the characterisation of mammograms according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System assessment and breast density categories. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2014 to June 2014. Using non-probability purposive sampling, all mammograms in the study were interpreted by three radiologists on the basis of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories and by assessing the breast density composition. The inter-observer variability was recorded by comparing the difference in the interpretation and categorisation of each case. Intra-observer variability was noted by comparing the differences in the two sets of results from reading the same mammogram three months apart. A total of 254 mammograms were reviewed and the mean age of patients was 55.2±11.6 years. In the first round of diagnostic imaging, there was moderate agreement among all three possible pairs of observers regarding breast density (k= 0.50-0.41), but for Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories the agreement was less (k=0.27-0.13). After 3 months, variability of observer 1 showed substantial agreement (k=0.65).Variability between observer 2 and observer 3 showed moderate agreement (k=0.13).In terms of categories, intra-observer differences were variable: observer 1 (?=0.61; observer 2(?=0.17); observer 3 (k=0.45). Despite standardised guidelines for reporting density and assessment categories, observer variability continues to exist.

  15. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction.

  16. Psychosocial risks and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate on explaining job performance from the perspective of psychosocial risks in the work environment. Many risks may hinder good job performance. The article does not concentrate on physical (such as, carrying heavy loads) or environmental risks (such as, extreme heat or

  17. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  18. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  19. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general popula

  20. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general

  1. HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN ASSESSMENT OF CLINICAL STATUS, FUNCTIONAL CONDITIONS AND PROGNOSIS IN HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Vasyuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about heart rate variability analysis in healthy people and patients with chronic heart failure are reviewed. Prognostic value of time-domain and spectral measures is mentioned. Influence of standard therapy on heart rate variability is described.

  2. Students' Interpersonal Trust and Attitudes towards Standardised Tests: Exploring Affective Variables Related to Student Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Man-Wai; Guo, Qi; Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and psychometric variables have directed research on student test performance. However, student learning involves a substantial affective component. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between two kinds of affective variables--interpersonal trust and attitudes towards standardised tests--likely to underlie student…

  3. Depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress at work among older employees in three continents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegrist, Johannes; Lunau, Thorsten; Wahrendorf, Morten; Dragano, Nico

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether an association of psychosocial stress at work with depressive symptoms among older employees is evident in a set of comparable empirical studies from Europe, North America and Asia...

  4. Are psychosocial stressors associated with the relationship of alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruf, Esther; Baumert, Jens; Meisinger, Christa; Döring, Angela; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    .... As psychosocial stressors are among those factors that have not been sufficiently controlled for, we assessed whether they may confound the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality...

  5. Variáveis psicossociais associadas à cirurgia ortognática: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Psychosocial variables associated with orthognathic surgery: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Cortinhas Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    . This paper focuses on a review of the literature from the last nine years and seeks to determine if some of the psychosocial characteristics of the patient contribute to the effectiveness of orthodontic-surgical treatment. Our research identified 14 studies and the results are presented according to the following: (a pre-surgical phase; (b short-term and mid-term post-surgical phases; and (c long-term post-surgical phase. We observed that some of the patient's characteristics and a closer patient-caregiver relationship seem to contribute to the satisfaction of the treatment. However, it is the quality of preventive psychological support towards risk factors that seems to determine the success of this orthodontic treatment. Overvaluation of expectations towards psychological benefits, insecurity in the decision making, lack of knowledge about the emotional costs of the surgery, lack of social support (or family pressure as well as psychopathological disorders justify the need of psychological support. Finally, some positive and negative patient characteristics have been pointed out in this paper, and suggestions for future investigations have been made.

  6. Assessment of spatial structure of groundwater quality variables based on the entropy theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mogheir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental to the spatial sampling design of a groundwater quality monitoring network is the spatial structure of groundwater quality variables. The entropy theory presents an alternative approach to describe this variability. A case study is presented which used groundwater quality observations (13 years; 1987-2000 from groundwater domestic wells in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. The analyses of the spatial structure used the following variables: Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Sodium (Na, Potassium (K, Chloride (Cl, Nitrate (NO3, Sulphate (SO4, alkalinity and hardness. For all these variables the spatial structure is described by means of Transinformation as a function of distance between wells (Transinformation Model and correlation also as a function of distance (Correlation Model. The parameters of the Transinformation Model analysed were: (1 the initial value of the Transinformation; (2 the rate of information decay; (3 the minimum constant value; and (4 the distance at which the Transinformation Model reaches its minimum value. Exponential decay curves were fitted to both models. The Transinformation Model was found to be superior to the Correlation Model in representing the spatial variability (structure. The parameters of the Transinformation Model were different for some variables and similar for others. That leads to a reduction of the variables to be monitored and consequently reduces the cost of monitoring. Keywords: transinformation, correlation, spatial structure, municipal wells, groundwater monitoring, entropy

  7. The psychosocial impact of acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Beroukhim, Kourosh; Danesh, Melissa J; Babikian, Aline; Koo, John; Leon, Argentina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic skin conditions have been well reported to affect a patient’s quality of life on multiple dimensions, including the psychosocial domain. Psychosocial is defined as the interrelation of social factors with an individual’s thoughts and behavior. The assessment of the psychosocial impact of skin disease on a patient can help direct the dermatologists’ treatment goals. To evaluate the psychosocial impact of skin disease, we conducted a review of the literature on three skin conditions with onsets at various stages of life: acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Methods A PubMed search was conducted in March 2015 using the terms “psychosocial” AND “acne”, “psychosocial” AND “vitiligo”, and “psychosocial” AND “psoriasis”. The results were limited to articles published in English in the past 5 years studying patients of all ages. Results and their references were evaluated for relevance according to their discussion of psychosocial qualities in their patients and the validity of psychosocial assessments. The search for acne yielded 51 results, and eleven were found to be relevant; vitiligo yielded 30 results with ten found to be relevant; and psoriasis yielded 70 results with seven found to be relevant. Results According to the articles evaluated, 19.2% of adolescent patients with acne were affected in their personal and social lives. Social phobia was present in 45% of patients with acne compared to 18% of control subjects. Race and sex played a role in self-consciousness and social perceptions of the disease. Vitiligo negatively affected marriage potential and caused relationship problems in >50% of patients. Psoriasis negatively affected multiple domains of life, including work, relationships, and social activities. Anxiety and depression affected not only psoriasis patients but also their cohabitants; up to 88% of cohabitants had an impaired quality of life. Conclusion Though all three skin conditions resulted in an increase

  8. Assessment of Scientific Reasoning: the Effects of Task Context, Data, and Design on Student Reasoning in Control of Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaona; Han, Jing; Koenig, Kathleen; Raplinger, Amy; Pi, Yuan; Li, Dan; Xiao, Hua; Fu, Zhao; Bao, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Scientific reasoning is an important component under the cognitive strand of the 21st century skills and is highly emphasized in the new science education standards. This study focuses on the assessment of student reasoning in control of variables (COV), which is a core sub-skill of scientific reasoning. The main research question is to investigate the extent to which the existence of experimental data in questions impacts student reasoning and performance. This study also explores the effects of task contexts on student reasoning as well as students' abilities to distinguish between testability and causal influences of variables in COV experiments. Data were collected with students from both USA and China. Students received randomly one of two test versions, one with experimental data and one without. The results show that students from both populations (1) perform better when experimental data are not provided, (2) perform better in physics contexts than in real-life contexts, and (3) students have a tendency to equate non-influential variables to non-testable variables. In addition, based on the analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data, a possible progression of developmental levels of student reasoning in control of variables is proposed, which can be used to inform future development of assessment and instruction.

  9. Autonomic nervous system activity assessement by heart rate variability in experimental bladder outlet obstruction 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dobrek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A syndrome with urgency, with or without associated urine incontinence and usually accompanied by higher urinary frequency and nocturia has been named “overactive bladder; OAB”. OAB is an entity with complex pathophysiology, involving both myogenic and neurogenic (afferent / efferent bladder innervation disturbances. OAB symptoms accompany benign prostatic hypertrophy - BPH (“obstructive OAB”. The aim of the study was to estimate the autonomic nervous system activity (ANS in the experimental bladder outlet obstruction (BOO which was an animal model of the human BPH. The study was conducted using 30 female rats, divided into two groups: BOO animals (n=15, with surgically induced BOO (by partial ligation of the proximal urethra and control ones (n=15, which underwent sham procedure (without urethral ligation. Two weeks after the surgery, in both groups, ANS activity was estimated using time- and spectral analysis of the heart rate variability recordings. The bladder overactivity in BOO animals was confirmed using urodynamic recordings and bladder histological assessment, juxtaposed against the results of the control group. The key finding of our study was the development of autonomic disturbances in bladder outlet obstruction (BOO rats. Our study revealed that BOO animals were characterised by diminished rMSSD and spectral HRV parameters: TP, LF and HF, in comparison with the control group. The normalised nLF and nHF parameters did not differ significantly in both groups, although slight changes in the nLF (increased and nHF (decreased were noted in BOO group. The absolute VLF value was almost the same in both studied populations, however, the percentage part of this component in the appropriate HRV spectrum differed considerably in both studied groups. In BOO animals, VLF percentage amounted to about 90�20whereas in control animals this parameter reached only about 53�0of the total power spectrum.Thus, to sum up, our findings suggest

  10. [Social class, psychosocial occupational risk factors, and the association with self-rated health and mental health in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Borrell, Carme; Bernales, Pamela; González, María José; Ibañez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Vallebuona, Clélia

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers' exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors.

  11. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  12. Assessing the relative effects of emissions, climate means, and variability on large water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whateley, Sarah; Brown, Casey

    2016-11-01

    Some of the greatest societal risks of climate change rise from the potential impacts to water supply. Yet prescribing adaptation policies in the near term is made difficult by the uncertainty in climate projections at relevant spatial scales and the conflating effects of uncertainties in emissions, model error, and internal variability. In this work, a new framework is implemented to explore the vulnerability of reservoir systems in the northeastern U.S. to climate change and attribute vulnerabilities to changes in mean climate, natural variability, or emission scenarios. Analysis of variance is used to explore the contributions of uncertainties to system performance. Diagnosing the relative risks to water supply will help water resource engineers better adapt to uncertain future conditions. The results indicate that uncertainty in water supply system performance can be attributed mostly to uncertainty in internal variability over policy-relevant planning horizons, and thus, adaptation efforts should focus on managing variability.

  13. Application of GIS to assess rainfall variability impacts on crop yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Geospatial analysis. GIS Interpolation and other geospatial Analysis techniques were carried out to ... means of Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to plan crops ... rainwater variability on water availability for crop maize ...

  14. Psychosocial factors and functional capacity evaluation among persons with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisser, Michael E; Robinson, Michael E; Miller, Quaintance L; Bade, Suzanne M

    2003-12-01

    Psychosocial factors have been found to have a significant impact on functional activity, particularly among persons with chronic pain. While various systems have been developed to assess functional limitations through functional capacity evaluation (FCE), assessment of psychosocial factors that may impact function have been largely ignored. This paper examines the existing literature on psychosocial factors and FCE performance. Given that there are few studies that have directly addressed this issue, the paper also examines psychosocial factors that have been found to influence function in persons with pain. The results of the literature review indicate that few psychosocial factors have been found to be directly associated with FCE and functional measures, although many are related to various measures of disability. The strongest evidence that psychosocial factors are related to functional performance is based on the studies examining the association between functional activity and pain-related fear, self-efficacy, and illness behavior. Psychosocial factors have also been shown to influence measures of sincerity of effort often obtained during FCE. Proposals for modifying FCE assessment are given based on the available data, as well as suggestions for future research.

  15. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.

  16. Demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors identify a high-risk group for depression screening among predominantly Hispanic patients with Type 2 diabetes in safety net care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Kathleen; Katon, Wayne; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Guterman, Jeffrey; Wu, Shinyi

    2015-01-01

    Identify biopsychosocial factors associated with depression for patients with Type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental clinical trial of 1293 patients was predominantly Hispanic (91%) female (62%), mean age 53 and average diabetes duration 10 years; 373 (29%) patients were depressed and assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Demographic, baseline clinical and psychosocial variables were compared between depressed and nondepressed patients. Bivariate analyses found depression significantly associated (pidentified six key risk factors: greater disability, diabetes symptoms and regimen distress, female gender, less diabetes self-care and lack of A1C. In addition, after controlling for identified six factors, the number of psychosocial stressors significantly associated with increased risk of depression (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-1.58, pidentify a high-risk group of patients needing depression screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Temperature and Elevation Controls on Spatial Variability of Rainfall in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Javari

    2017-01-01

    With rainfall changes, hydrological process variability increases. This study predicts the potential effects of temperature and topography characteristics on rainfall spatial variability. Temperature and topography were considered as two effective factors that may influence monthly rainfall. This study uses rainfall and temperature data from 174 synoptic and climatic stations and 39,055 rain, elevation and temperature points extracted by ArcGIS10.3 over the 40 years (1975–2014). In this study...

  18. Prevalence and Psychosocial Factors of Aggression Among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Sharma; Palaniappan Marimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of ...

  19. Uncertainty in wave energy resource assessment. Part 2: Variability and predictability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackay, Edward B.L.; Bahaj, AbuBakr S. [Sustainable Energy Research Group, School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Challenor, Peter G. [Ocean Observing and Climate Group, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    The uncertainty in estimates of the energy yield from a wave energy converter (WEC) is considered. The study is presented in two articles. The first article considered the accuracy of the historic data and the second article, presented here, considers the uncertainty which arises from variability in the wave climate. Mean wave conditions exhibit high levels of interannual variability. Moreover, many previous studies have demonstrated longer-term decadal changes in wave climate. The effect of interannual and climatic changes in wave climate on the predictability of long-term mean WEC power is examined for an area off the north coast of Scotland. In this location anomalies in mean WEC power are strongly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. This link enables the results of many previous studies on the variability of the NAO and its sensitivity to climate change to be applied to WEC power levels. It is shown that the variability in 5, 10 and 20 year mean power levels is greater than if annual power anomalies were uncorrelated noise. It is also shown that the change in wave climate from anthropogenic climate change over the life time of a wave farm is likely to be small in comparison to the natural level of variability. Finally, it is shown that despite the uncertainty related to variability in the wave climate, improvements in the accuracy of historic data will improve the accuracy of predictions of future WEC yield. (author)

  20. A hydrochemical modelling framework for combined assessment of spatial and temporal variability in stream chemistry: application to Plynlimon, Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Foster

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent concern about the risk to biota from acidification in upland areas, due to air pollution and land-use change (such as the planting of coniferous forests, has generated a need to model catchment hydro-chemistry to assess environmental risk and define protection strategies. Previous approaches have tended to concentrate on quantifying either spatial variability at a regional scale or temporal variability at a given location. However, to protect biota from ‘acid episodes’, an assessment of both temporal and spatial variability of stream chemistry is required at a catchment scale. In addition, quantification of temporal variability needs to represent both episodic event response and long term variability caused by deposition and/or land-use change. Both spatial and temporal variability in streamwater chemistry are considered in a new modelling methodology based on application to the Plynlimon catchments, central Wales. A two-component End-Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA is used whereby low and high flow chemistry are taken to represent ‘groundwater’ and ‘soil water’ end-members. The conventional EMMA method is extended to incorporate spatial variability in the two end-members across the catchments by quantifying the Acid Neutralisation Capacity (ANC of each in terms of a statistical distribution. These are then input as stochastic variables to a two-component mixing model, thereby accounting for variability of ANC both spatially and temporally. The model is coupled to a long-term acidification model (MAGIC to predict the evolution of the end members and, hence, the response to future scenarios. The results can be plotted as a function of time and space, which enables better assessment of the likely effects of pollution deposition or land-use changes in the future on the stream chemistry than current methods which use catchment average values. The model is also a useful basis for further research into linkage between hydrochemistry

  1. Quantifying Multiple Work-Related Psychosocial Risk Factors: Proposal for a Composite Indicator Based on the COPSOQ II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, Adrienne; Nistor, Katalin; Zakor, Tünde; Szabó, Anita; Nistor, Anikó; Ádám, Szilvia; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna

    2017-05-23

    To determine national reference values for the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) across occupational sectors and develop a composite score to estimate the cumulative effect of multiple work-related stressors, in order to facilitate the implementation of occupational health directives on psychosocial risk assessment. Cross-sectional data was collected via an online questionnaire. The sample included 13,104 individuals and was representative of the general Hungarian adult working population in terms of gender, age, education, and occupation. Mean scores were calculated for 18 scales on work environment and for 5 outcome scales of the COPSOQ II across 18 occupational sectors. We analyzed the association between a composite psychosocial risk score (CPRS), reflecting severity of exposure to multiple risk factors, and high stress, burnout, sleep troubles, and poor self-rated health. We found occupation-related differences in the mean scores on all COPSOQ II scales. Scores on the "Stress" scale ranged from 47.9 to 56.2, with the highest mean score in accommodation and food services sector. Variability was greatest with respect to emotional demands (range 40.3-67.6) and smallest with respect to role clarity (range 70.3-75.7). The prevalence of negative health outcomes increased with the CPRS. Five risk categories were formed, for which the odds ratio of negative outcomes ranged from 1.6 to 56.5. The sector-specific psychosocial risk profiles covering 18 work environmental factors can be used as a reference in organizational surveys and international comparisons. The CPRS proved to be a powerful predictor of self-reported negative health outcomes.

  2. Statistical Performance of Observational Work Sampling for Assessment of Categorical Exposure Variables: A Simulation Approach Illustrated Using PATH Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Observational work sampling is often used in occupational studies to assess categorical biomechanical exposures and occurrence of specific work tasks. The statistical performance of data obtained by work sampling is, however, not well understood, impeding informed measurement strategy design. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for assessing the statistical properties of work sampling strategies evaluating categorical exposure variables and to illustrate the usefulness of this procedure to examine bias and precision of exposure estimates from samples of different sizes. Methods: From a parent data set of observations on 10 construction workers performing a single operation, the probabilities were determined for each worker of performing four component tasks and working in four mutually exclusive trunk posture categories (neutral, mild flexion, severe flexion, twisted). Using these probabilities, 5000 simulated data sets were created via probability-based resampling for each of six sampling strategies, ranging from 300 to 4500 observations. For each strategy, mean exposure and exposure variability metrics were calculated at both the operation level and task level and for each metric, bias and precision were assessed across the 5000 simulations. Results: Estimates of exposure variability were substantially more uncertain at all sample sizes than estimates of mean exposures and task proportions. Estimates at small sample sizes were also biased. With only 600 samples, proportions of the different tasks and of working with a neutral trunk posture (the most common) were within 10% of the true target value in at least 80% of all the simulated data sets; rarer exposures required at least 1500 samples. For most task-level mean exposure variables and for all operation-level and task-level estimates of exposure variability, performance was low, even with 4500 samples. In general, the precision of mean exposure estimates did not depend on the

  3. Are Psychosocial Resources Associated With Perceived Facial Aging in Men?

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    Emilou Noser MSc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Looking younger than actual age has been related to a variety of health outcomes. Optimism, self-esteem, and relationship satisfaction are important psychosocial resources for mental health. Little is known about their relation with a younger facial appearance. Objective: This study analyzed whether these psychosocial resources are associated with a younger facial appearance and if their effects were mediated through mental health. Method: A sample of N = 223 self-reporting healthy men aged 40 to 75 years filled in questionnaires to assess optimism (Life Orientation Test–Revised, self-esteem (Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale, relationship satisfaction (Relationship Assessment Scale, and mental health (Short-Form Health Survey. Five female raters estimated the visual age of each participant from a frontal face photograph. Results: Looking younger (compared with chronological age was correlated with optimism, relationship satisfaction, and mental health. Mediation analyses and structural equation modeling indicated that mental health mediated the association between each psychosocial resource and a younger appearance. Discussion: The results emphasize the importance of promoting psychosocial resources and mental health in men 40+ for the maintenance of good health and the deceleration of facial aging.

  4. The "Teachers Diploma Program" in Zambian Government Schools: A Baseline Qualitative Assessment of Teachers' and Students' Strengths and Challenges in the Context of a School-Based Psychosocial Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda; Munjile, Kelvin; Menon, Anitha; Tembo, Stephen; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Malungo, Jacob; Stanton, Bonita; Langhaug, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    In Zambia, as elsewhere throughout sub-Saharan Africa, orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) face multiple physical, emotional, social and psychological challenges which often negatively affect opportunities for educational attainment. REPSSI (Regional Psychosocial Support Initiative), in collaboration with, the University of Cape Town and other…

  5. Land agroecological quality assessment in conditions of high spatial soil cover variability at the Pereslavskoye Opolye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morev, Dmitriy; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The essential spatial variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis and agroecological interpretation of representative soil cover spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. Pereslavskoye Opolye is traditionally actively used in agriculture due to dominated high-quality cultivated soddy-podzoluvisols which are relatively reached in organic matter (especially for conditions of the North part at the European territory of Russia). However, the soil cover patterns are often very complicated even within the field that significantly influences on crop yield variability and have to be considered in farming system development and land agroecological quality evaluation. The detailed investigations of soil regimes and mapping of the winter rye yield have been carried in conditions of two representative fields with slopes sharply contrasted both in aspects and degrees. Rye biological productivity and weed infestation have been measured in elementary plots of 0.25 m2 with the following analysis the quality of the yield. In the same plot soil temperature and moisture have been measured by portable devices. Soil sampling was provided from three upper layers by drilling. The results of ray yield detailed mapping shown high differences both in average values and within-field variability on different slopes. In case of low-gradient slope (field 1) there is variability of ray yield from 39.4 to 44.8 dt/ha. In case of expressed slope (field 2) the same species of winter rye grown with the same technology has essentially lower yield and within-field variability from 20 to 29.6 dt/ha. The

  6. Clinical and psychosocial factors predicting health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gun Woo; Lee, In Hee; Ahn, Ki Sung; Lee, Jonghun; Ji, Yunmi; Woo, Jungmin

    2015-07-01

    Many patients with end-stage renal disease have significant impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Most previous studies have focused on clinical factors; however, quality of life can also be affected by psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to identify the possible predictors of HRQoL among clinical and psychosocial factors in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study included 101 patients who were undergoing HD. Psychosocial factors were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We also assessed laboratory and clinical factors, including albumin, Kt/V as a marker of dialysis adequacy, normalized protein catabolic rate, and duration of HD. The Euro Quality of Life Questionnaire 5-Dimensional Classification (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate HRQoL. The mean EQ-5D index score was 0.704 ± 0.199. The following variables showed a significant association with the EQ-5D index: age (P < 0.001), depression (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), support from friends (P < 0.001), cognitive function (P < 0.001), duration of HD (P = 0.034), triglyceride (P = 0.031), total iron-binding capacity (P = 0.036), and phosphorus (P = 0.037). Multiple regression analysis showed that age (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.008 to -0.002), anxiety (95% CI -0.025 to -0.009), and support from friends (95% CI 0.004 to 0.018) were independent predictors of impaired HRQoL. This study explored determinants of impaired HRQoL in HD patients. We found that impaired HRQoL was independently associated with age, anxiety, and support from friends. We should consider psychosocial as well as clinical factors when evaluating ways to improve HRQoL in HD patients.

  7. Analysing Psychosocial Difficulties in Depression: A Content Comparison between Systematic Literature Review and Patient Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan Kamenov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all the knowledge on depression, it is still unclear whether current literature covers all the psychosocial difficulties (PSDs important for depressed patients. The aim of the present study was to identify the gaps in the recent literature concerning PSDs and their related variables. Psychosocial difficulties were defined according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. A comparative approach between a systematic literature review, a focus group, and individual interviews with depressed patients was used. Literature reported the main psychosocial difficulties almost fully, but not in the same degree of importance as patients’ reports. Furthermore, the covered areas were very general and related to symptomatology. Regarding the related variables, literature focused on clinical variables and treatments above all but did not report that many psychosocial difficulties influence other PSDs. This study identified many existing research gaps in recent literature mainly in the area of related variables of PSDs. Future steps in this direction are needed. Moreover, we suggest that clinicians select interventions covering not only symptoms, but also PSDs and their modifiable related variables. Furthermore, identification of interventions for particular psychosocial difficulties and personalisation of therapies according to individuals’ PSDs are necessary.

  8. Analysing Psychosocial Difficulties in Depression: A Content Comparison between Systematic Literature Review and Patient Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Mellor-Marsá, Blanca; Leal, Itziar; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Cabello, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Despite all the knowledge on depression, it is still unclear whether current literature covers all the psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) important for depressed patients. The aim of the present study was to identify the gaps in the recent literature concerning PSDs and their related variables. Psychosocial difficulties were defined according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). A comparative approach between a systematic literature review, a focus group, and individual interviews with depressed patients was used. Literature reported the main psychosocial difficulties almost fully, but not in the same degree of importance as patients' reports. Furthermore, the covered areas were very general and related to symptomatology. Regarding the related variables, literature focused on clinical variables and treatments above all but did not report that many psychosocial difficulties influence other PSDs. This study identified many existing research gaps in recent literature mainly in the area of related variables of PSDs. Future steps in this direction are needed. Moreover, we suggest that clinicians select interventions covering not only symptoms, but also PSDs and their modifiable related variables. Furthermore, identification of interventions for particular psychosocial difficulties and personalisation of therapies according to individuals' PSDs are necessary. PMID:25009814

  9. Assessing geotechnical centrifuge modelling in addressing variably saturated flow in soil and fractured rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendon R; Brouwers, Luke B; Van Tonder, Warren D; Dippenaar, Matthys A

    2017-01-05

    The vadose zone typically comprises soil underlain by fractured rock. Often, surface water and groundwater parameters are readily available, but variably saturated flow through soil and rock are oversimplified or estimated as input for hydrological models. In this paper, a series of geotechnical centrifuge experiments are conducted to contribute to the knowledge gaps in: (i) variably saturated flow and dispersion in soil and (ii) variably saturated flow in discrete vertical and horizontal fractures. Findings from the research show that the hydraulic gradient, and not the hydraulic conductivity, is scaled for seepage flow in the geotechnical centrifuge. Furthermore, geotechnical centrifuge modelling has been proven as a viable experimental tool for the modelling of hydrodynamic dispersion as well as the replication of similar flow mechanisms for unsaturated fracture flow, as previously observed in literature. Despite the imminent challenges of modelling variable saturation in the vadose zone, the geotechnical centrifuge offers a powerful experimental tool to physically model and observe variably saturated flow. This can be used to give valuable insight into mechanisms associated with solid-fluid interaction problems under these conditions. Findings from future research can be used to validate current numerical modelling techniques and address the subsequent influence on aquifer recharge and vulnerability, contaminant transport, waste disposal, dam construction, slope stability and seepage into subsurface excavations.

  10. The impact of individual depressive symptoms on impairment of psychosocial functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko I Fried

    Full Text Available Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships. We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia to 20.9% (sad mood. Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms.

  11. Sexual self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in military veterans after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Maggie L; Delaney, Eileen; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Gosian, Jeffrey; Moye, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the sexual well-being of male Veteran cancer survivors, or the relationship of sexual concerns to psychosocial adaptation postcancer. This study examined the association between sexual self-esteem and psychosocial concerns in male Veteran cancer survivors. Forty-one male survivors were recruited from a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital to participate in a pilot study addressing cancer survivorship care for Veterans. Sixty- to 90-minute interviews were conducted, assessing sociodemographic, medical, stress/burden (cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression), and resource (social support, post-traumatic growth) variables. Twenty-one (51.2%) Veteran cancer survivors reported lowered sexual self-esteem as a result of cancer, which corresponded to significantly higher levels of depression and cancer-related PTSD. The lowered sexual self-esteem group also indicated significantly lower social support. Veteran cancer survivors with lowered sexual self-esteem tend to have higher levels of stress and lower levels of resources, putting them at risk for lowered quality of life. This increased risk highlights the importance of addressing sexual well-being in the survivorship care of Veterans.

  12. Psychosocial indicators among aircraft maintenance workers with and without neck and shoulder musculoskeletal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A; Nogueira, H; Diniz, A; Barbieri, D

    2012-01-01

    In the aircraft maintenance industry, most of workers performs manual handling tasks of different materials, varying from small objects up to large pieces of the aircraft. It can increase the occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), which are strongly associated with high physical demands required by the task. Moreover, psychosocial demands are considered as risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in both the upper limbs and lumbar spine. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess psychosocial indicators among aircraft maintenance workers according to the presence of neck and shoulder musculoskeletal symptoms. Eighty workers of an aircraft maintenance company were evaluated (32.69 ± 8.25 years, 79.8 ± 13.4 kg, 175 ± 7 cm). According to physical examination, 50 workers were classified as asymptomatic (AS - 4.1 ± 3.17 positive signs) whilst 30 workers were classified as symptomatic (SS - 26.72 ± 11.44 positive signs). AS and SS have shown similar profile of demand (p = 0.62), control (p = 0.66) and social support (p = 0.74) according to the Job Content Questionnaire. However, the groups are different when considering work engagement variables. In general, SS have higher scores than AS (p < 0.05).

  13. The Analysis of the Learning Strategies Utilized By Students in Music Class in Terms of Some Psychosocial Variables (Öğrencilerin Kullandığı Müziği Öğrenme Stratejilerinin Bazı Psikososyal Değişkenler Bakımından Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep SEVER

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to bring up learning strategies in music used by 4th, 5th and 6th graders in primary schools in terms of some psychosocial variables. This study is important as it lights the way for the future of our education system and specially strategy teaching in music. The problems and their possible solutions faced during learning of the music were represented. The Sample of this study was composed of totally 200, 4th, 5th and 6th graders in two different primary schools from İzmir-Bornova. The method of the study was Survey model. The opinions of the students regarding their strategies of learning music were gathered by the triple Likert type scale called “Scale for Strategies of Learning Music” which was developed by Kocabaş (1998b. The data analysis was computed under SSPS 15.0 program by using T-test and one way variance. The reliability of the scale of this study was 0,83. As a result of this study, it was observed that gender; school types, the existence of musical education outsources, a person in the family having musical background or playing a musical instrument were effective on the opinions about the strategies followed and used by students during learning music.

  14. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  15. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  16. Cardiac sympathetic denervation in familial amyloid polyneuropathy assessed by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and heart rate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, N.; Le Guludec, D. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bichat Hospital, Paris (France); Dinanian, S.; Slama, M.S. [Department of Cardiology, A. Beclere Hospital, Paris (France); Mzabi, H.; Samuel, D. [Department of Hepatic Surgery, P. Brousse Hospital, Paris (France); Adams, D. [Department of Neurology, Bicetre Hospital, Paris (France); Merlet, P. [SHFJ, DSV-CEA, Orsay (France)

    1999-04-29

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a rare and severe hereditary form of amyloidosis, due to nervous deposits of a genetic variant transthyretin produced by the liver and characterized by both sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction is rare, but conduction disturbances and sudden deaths can occur. The neurological status of the heart has not been elucidated, and an alteration of the sympathetic nerves may be involved. We studied 17 patients (42{+-}12 years) before liver transplantation by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, heart rate variability analysis, coronary angiography, radionuclide ventriculography, rest thallium single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and echocardiography. Coronary arteries, left ventricular systolic function and rest thallium SPET were normal in all patients. Only mild evidence of amyloid infiltration was found at echocardiographic examination. Cardiac MIBG uptake was dramatically decreased in patients compared with age-matched control subjects (heart-to-mediastinum activity ratio at 4 h: 1.36{+-}0.26 versus 1.98{+-}0.35, P<0.001), while there was no difference in MIBG washout rate. Heart rate variability analysis showed a considerable scatter of values, with high values in four patients despite cardiac sympathetic denervation as assessed by MIBG imaging. The clinical severity of the polyneuropathy correlated with MIBG uptake at 4 h but not with the heart rate variability indices. Cardiac MIBG uptake and the heart rate variability indices did not differ according to the presence or absence of conduction disturbances. Patients with FAP have sympathetic cardiac denervation as assessed by MIBG imaging despite a preserved left ventricular systolic function and cardiac perfusion, without correlation with conduction disturbances. Results of the heart rate variability analysis were more variable and this technique does not seem to be the best way to evaluate the extent of cardiac

  17. Health impact assessment of traffic-related air pollution at the urban project scale: influence of variability and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chart-Asa, Chidsanuphong; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-02-15

    This paper develops and then demonstrates a new approach for quantifying health impacts of traffic-related particulate matter air pollution at the urban project scale that includes variability and uncertainty in the analysis. We focus on primary particulate matter having a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The new approach accounts for variability in vehicle emissions due to temperature, road grade, and traffic behavior variability; seasonal variability in concentration-response coefficients; demographic variability at a fine spatial scale; uncertainty in air quality model accuracy; and uncertainty in concentration-response coefficients. We demonstrate the approach for a case study roadway corridor with a population of 16,000, where a new extension of the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill campus is slated for construction. The results indicate that at this case study site, health impact estimates increased by factors of 4-9, depending on the health impact considered, compared to using a conventional health impact assessment approach that overlooks these variability and uncertainty sources. In addition, we demonstrate how the method can be used to assess health disparities. For example, in the case study corridor, our method demonstrates the existence of statistically significant racial disparities in exposure to traffic-related PM2.5 under present-day traffic conditions: the correlation between percent black and annual attributable deaths in each census block is 0.37 (t(114)=4.2, p<0.0001). Overall, our results show that the proposed new campus will cause only a small incremental increase in health risks (annual risk 6×10(-10); lifetime risk 4×10(-8)), compared to if the campus is not built. Nonetheless, the approach we illustrate could be useful for improving the quality of information to support decision-making for other urban development projects.

  18. An innovative statistical approach for analysing non-continuous variables in environmental monitoring: assessing temporal trends of TBT pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José António; Galante-Oliveira, Susana; Barroso, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    The current work presents an innovative statistical approach to model ordinal variables in environmental monitoring studies. An ordinal variable has values that can only be compared as "less", "equal" or "greater" and it is not possible to have information about the size of the difference between two particular values. The example of ordinal variable under this study is the vas deferens sequence (VDS) used in imposex (superimposition of male sexual characters onto prosobranch females) field assessment programmes for monitoring tributyltin (TBT) pollution. The statistical methodology presented here is the ordered logit regression model. It assumes that the VDS is an ordinal variable whose values match up a process of imposex development that can be considered continuous in both biological and statistical senses and can be described by a latent non-observable continuous variable. This model was applied to the case study of Nucella lapillus imposex monitoring surveys conducted in the Portuguese coast between 2003 and 2008 to evaluate the temporal evolution of TBT pollution in this country. In order to produce more reliable conclusions, the proposed model includes covariates that may influence the imposex response besides TBT (e.g. the shell size). The model also provides an analysis of the environmental risk associated to TBT pollution by estimating the probability of the occurrence of females with VDS ≥ 2 in each year, according to OSPAR criteria. We consider that the proposed application of this statistical methodology has a great potential in environmental monitoring whenever there is the need to model variables that can only be assessed through an ordinal scale of values.

  19. Predonation psychosocial evaluation of living kidney and liver donor candidates: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerinckx, Nathalie; Timmerman, Lotte; Van Gogh, Johan; van Busschbach, Jan; Ismail, Sohal Y; Massey, Emma K; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating a person's suitability for living organ donation is crucial, consisting not only of a medical but also of a thorough psychosocial screening. We performed a systematic literature review of guidelines, consensus statements, and protocols on the content and process of psychosocial screening of living kidney and liver donor candidates. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until June 22, 2011, following the PRISMA guidelines, complemented by scrutinizing guidelines databases and references of identified publications. Thirty-four publications were identified, including seven guidelines, six consensus statements, and 21 protocols or programs. Guidelines and consensus statements were inconsistent and lacked concreteness for both their content and process, possibly explaining the observed variability in center-specific evaluation protocols and programs. Overall, recommended screening criteria are not evidence-based and an operational definition of the concept "psychosocial" is missing, causing heterogeneity in terminology. Variation also exists on methods used to psychosocially evaluate potential donors. The scientific basis of predonation psychosocial evaluation needs to be strengthened. There is a need for high-quality prospective psychosocial outcome studies in living donors, a uniform terminology to label psychosocial screening criteria, and validated instruments to identify risk factors.

  20. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withaya Chanchai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2 Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3 Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4 Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%. The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal