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Sample records for psychosocial variables assessed

  1. Assessment of psychosocial variables by parents of youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Malerbi Fani Eta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the impact of type 1 diabetes (T1D on family functioning and child-rearing practices from parents’ point of view, to assess parents’ health-related quality of life and to explore the relations between psychosocial variables and diabetes care outcomes in youth with diabetes. Methods This research was part of the cross-sectional multicenter Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study, conducted between December 2008 and December 2010 in 28 public clinics of 20 cities across four Brazilian geographical regions. Psychosocial questions were addressed to 1,079 parents of patients with T1D through an interview (89.3% mothers, 52.5% Caucasians, 38.6 ± 7.6 years old. Overall, 72.5% of the families were from low or very low socioeconomic levels. Parents were also submitted to health-related quality of life instruments (EQ-5D+EQ-VAS. Clinical data from the last medical appointment were collected by a physician using standardized chart review forms. The demographic, educational and socioeconomic profiles were also obtained and HbA1c levels registered. Results Discomfort and anxiety/depression were the main complaints in EQ-5D, and were significantly more frequent in mothers (37.3% and 53.4%, respectively than in fathers (25.7% and 32.7%, respectively. The mother was the only parent involved in diabetes care in 50.5% of the cases. The majority of parents (78.5% mentioned changes in family functioning after the diagnosis, although they neither treated their diabetic children differently from the others (76.3%, nor set prohibitions (69.1% due to diabetes. The majority was worried about diabetes complications (96.4% and felt overwhelmed by diabetes care (62.8%. Parents report of overwhelming was significantly associated with anxiety/depression, as measured by the EQ-5D questionnaire. Less than half of the patients had already slept over, and the permission to do it increased as a function of children’s age. Nearly half of the parents (52

  2. Resiliency and subjective health assessment. Moderating role of selected psychosocial variables

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    Michalina Sołtys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Resiliency is defined as a relatively permanent personality trait, which may be assigned to the category of health resources. The aim of this study was to determine conditions in which resiliency poses a significant health resource (moderation, thereby broadening knowledge of the specifics of the relationship between resiliency and subjective health assessment. Participants and procedure The study included 142 individuals. In order to examine the level of resiliency, the Assessment Resiliency Scale (SPP-25 by N. Ogińska-Bulik and Z. Juczyński was used. Participants evaluated subjective health state by means of an analogue-visual scale. Additionally, in the research the following moderating variables were controlled: sex, objective health status, having a partner, professional activity and age. These data were obtained by personal survey. Results The results confirmed the relationship between resiliency and subjective health assessment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sex, having a partner and professional activity are significant moderators of associations between level of resiliency and subjective health evaluation. However, statistically significant interaction effects for health status and age as a moderator were not observed. Conclusions Resiliency is associated with subjective health assessment among adults, and selected socio-demographic features (such as sex, having a partner, professional activity moderate this relationship. This confirms the significant role of resiliency as a health resource and a reason to emphasize the benefits of enhancing the potential of individuals for their psychophysical wellbeing. However, the research requires replication in a more homogeneous sample.

  3. Assessment of psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics.

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    Khan, Munizeh; Fida, Mubassar

    2008-09-01

    To assess the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics using the 'Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire' (PIDAQ) and self-rated Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Cross-sectional study. Dental Section, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from August to September 2006. Adults with no prior orthodontic treatment were asked to complete a modified version of the 'Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire' (PIDAQ). A total of four variables including 'Dental Self-confidence', 'Social impact', 'Psychological impact' and 'Perceived orthodontic treatment need' were assessed by a series of statements, whereas dental aesthetics were assessed by the respondents using the IOTN Aesthetic Component (self-rated IOTN-AC). Kruskal-Walli's test was applied to determine significance. The respondents were 120 adults (70 females and 50 males; mean age 25.8 years), all four of the above-mentioned variables measuring psychosocial impact showed positive and significant correlations with the perceived severity of malocclusion as depicted by the Aesthetic Component (AC) of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), with p-value of less than 0.01 for all variables. The results indicate the strong psychosocial impact of altered dental aesthetics on the emotional state of an individual. The association between self-rated IOTN-AC grading with psychosocial well-being stands established, indicating that the perceived aesthetics of malocclusion may be as significant a factor in determining treatment need as the degree of malocclusion.

  4. Psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile.

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    Barrientos, Jaime E; Páez, Dario

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile using data from the COSECON survey. Participants were 5,407 subjects (2,244 min and 3,163 women, aged 18-69 years). We used a cross-sectional questionnaire with a national probability sample. Data were collected using a thorough sexual behavior questionnaire consisting of 190 face-to-face questions and 24 self-reported questions. A single item included in the COSECON questionnaire assessed sexual satisfaction. Results showed that high education level, marital status, and high socioeconomic levels were associated with sexual satisfaction in women but not in men. The results also showed important gender differences and sustain the idea that sexuality changes may be more present in middle and high social classes. The proximal variables typically used for measuring sexual satisfaction, such as the frequency of sexual intercourse and orgasm, showed a positive but smaller association with sexual satisfaction. Other important variables related to sexual satisfaction were being in love with the partner and having a steady partner. The results confirmed previous findings and are discussed in the frame of approaches like the exchange, equity, and sexual scripts theories.

  5. Multiple comorbidities of 21 psychological disorders and relationships with psychosocial variables: a study of the online assessment and diagnostic system within a web-based population.

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    Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2015-02-26

    While research in the area of e-mental health has received considerable attention over the last decade, there are still many areas that have not been addressed. One such area is the comorbidity of psychological disorders in a Web-based sample using online assessment and diagnostic tools, and the relationships between comorbidities and psychosocial variables. We aimed to identify comorbidities of psychological disorders of an online sample using an online diagnostic tool. Based on diagnoses made by an automated online assessment and diagnostic system administered to a large group of online participants, multiple comorbidities (co-occurrences) of 21 psychological disorders for males and females were identified. We examined the relationships between dyadic comorbidities of anxiety and depressive disorders and the psychosocial variables sex, age, suicidal ideation, social support, and quality of life. An online complex algorithm based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision, was used to assign primary and secondary diagnoses of 21 psychological disorders to 12,665 online participants. The frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders for males and females were calculated for all disorders. A series of hierarchical loglinear analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the dyadic comorbidities of depression and various anxiety disorders and the variables suicidal ideation, social support, quality of life, sex, and age. A 21-by-21 frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders matrix revealed the presence of multiple significant dyadic comorbidities for males and females. Also, for those with some of the dyadic depression and the anxiety disorders, the odds for having suicidal ideation, reporting inadequate social support, and poorer quality of life increased for those with two-disorder comorbidity than for those with only one of the same two disorders. Comorbidities of

  6. Psychosocial screening and assessment in oncology and palliative care settings

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    Luigi eGrassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric and psychosocial disorders among cancer patients have been reported as a major consequence of the disease and treatment. The problems in applying a pure psychiatric approach have determined the need for structuring more defined methods, including screening for distress and emotional symptoms and a more specific psychosocial assessment, to warrant proper care to cancer patients with psychosocial problems. This review examines some of the most significant issues related to these two steps, screening and assessment of psychosocial morbidity in cancer and palliative care. With regard to this , the many different variables, such as the factors affecting individual vulnerability (e.g. life events, chronic stress and allostatic load, well-being, and health attitudes and the psychosocial correlates of medical disease (e.g. psychiatric disturbances, psychological symptoms, illness behavior, and quality of life which are possibly implicated not only in classical psychiatric disorders but more broadly in psychosocial suffering. Multidimensional tools (e.g. and specific psychosocially oriented interview (e.g. the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research - DCPR represent a way to screen for and assess emotional distress, anxiety and depression, maladaptive coping, dysfunctional attachment, as well as other significant psychosocial dimensions secondary to cancer, such as demoralization and health anxiety. Cross-cultural issues, such as language, ethnicity, race, and religion, are also discussed as possible factors influencing the patients and families perception of illness, coping mechanisms, psychological response to a cancer diagnosis.

  7. High Suicidal Ideation and Psychosocial Variables in University Students

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    Sanchez-Teruel, David; Garcia-Leon, Ana; Muela-Martinez, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The college students have high rates of suicidal ideation often associated with psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether some of these psychosocial variables are related to the high prevalence of suicidal ideation in a College Spanish. Method: Participants (n = 40), aged between 21 and 34 years, Mean =…

  8. The relationship between psychosocial variables and measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was found to be the most important psychosocial variable in the present study, correlating with several .... It includes eight activities of daily living on which patients have to ..... Effects of aerobic exercise versus stress management treatment in.

  9. Heart rate variability is associated with psychosocial stress in distinct social domains.

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    Lischke, Alexander; Jacksteit, Robert; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Pahnke, Rike; Hamm, Alfons O; Weippert, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    Psychosocial stress is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in biomarkers that indicate whether individuals show adaptive (i.e., stress-buffering and health-promoting) or maladaptive (i.e., stress-escalating and health-impairing) stress reactions in social contexts. As heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested to be a biomarker of adaptive behavior during social encounters, it may be possible that inter-individual differences in HRV are associated with inter-individual differences regarding stress in distinct social domains. To test this hypothesis, resting state HRV and psychosocial stress was assessed in 83 healthy community-dwelling individuals (age: 18-35years). HRV was derived from heart rate recordings during spontaneous and instructed breathing to assess the robustness of possible associations between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress. Psychosocial stress was determined with a self-report questionnaire assessing stress in distinct social domains. A series of categorical and dimensional analyses revealed an association between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress: Individuals with high HRV reported less stress in social life, but not in family life, work life or everyday life, than individuals with low HRV. On basis of these findings, it may be assumed that individuals with high HRV experience less psychosocial stress than individuals with low HRV. Although such an assumption needs to be corroborated by further findings, it seems to be consistent with previous findings showing that individuals with high HRV suffer less from stress and stress-related disorders than individuals with low HRV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nonorganic Failure to Thrive: Developmental Outcomes and Psychosocial Assessment and Intervention Issues.

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    Heffer, Robert W.; Kelley, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    This review describes Nonorganic Failure to Thrive, presents developmental outcomes, and discusses psychosocial assessment and intervention issues relevant to this developmental disability of early childhood, focusing on child-specific variables, situational and family variables, parent-child interaction variables, and biopsychosocial formulation…

  11. A New Psychosocial Variable in Mental Health Studies: Agency

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    Hasan Atak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The term agency has been defined as a sense of responsibility for one’s life course, the belief that one is in control of one’s decisions and is responsible for their outcomes, and the confidence that one will be able to overcome obstacles that impede one’s progress along one’s chosen life course. Agency is an upper psychological structure which consists of self-esteem, purpose in life, self-efficacy (ego strength, and internal locus of control. Literature offers quite different explanations for agency concept. The reason of this situation may be the attribution of different meanings to the concept by psychologists and sociologists. When considering the agency literature in Turkey and other countries, it can be said that the number of studies on agency subject is lower than the number of studies on other psychosocial study subjects. Agency should be taken into consideration as a psychosocial variable in the studies to be made in Turkey.

  12. Negative aging stereotypes and their relation with psychosocial variables in the elderly population.

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    Sánchez Palacios, C; Trianes Torres, M V; Blanca Mena, M J

    2009-01-01

    This study explores whether there is a relationship between the level of belief in negative aging stereotypes in 65-year-old people and their results concerning some psychosocial variables. These were selected for their relevance for health and well being in elderly people. These were: living situation, responsibilities toward others, subjective health, frequency of medical appointments, subjective age, participation in community social activities and regular physical activity. The sample consisted of 757 people of low educational level, ranged from 65 to 96 years. Age and gender were homogeneously distributed. Participants were non-institutionalized people. Firstly, the psychosocial variables under focus were assessed by means of seven questions. Secondly, a questionnaire about negative aging stereotypes (CENVE) was administered. It was composed of three factors: health, motivational-social and character-personality. Results show that a high score in negative stereotypes is significantly associated to the studied variables, except for living situation, showing a worse quality of life (QoL) profile. Results are discussed in terms of their utility for assessment and psychosocial intervention, which is meant to improve health in the elderly.

  13. Psychosocial Assessment as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazak, Anne E.; Abrams, Annah N.; Banks, Jaime; Christofferson, Jennifer; DiDonato, Stephen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Kabour, Marianne; Madan-Swain, Avi; Patel, Sunita K.; Zadeh, Sima; Kupst, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the evidence for a standard of care for psychosocial assessment in pediatric cancer. An interdisciplinary group of investigators utilized EBSCO, PubMed, PsycINFO, Ovid, and Google Scholar search databases, focusing on five areas: youth/family psychosocial adjustment, family

  14. Relating Psychosocial Variables in High School to Alcohol Use Trajectories During the Transition to Young Adulthood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, Craig

    2000-01-01

    .... This study examined psychosocial variables-including peer focus, social skills, affect, antisocial behavior, gender, and sex-role attitudes-in an attempt to uncover variables related to changes...

  15. [Family and psychosocial variables in the choice of university studies].

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    González-Pinto Arrillaga, A; Yllá Segura, L; Ortiz Jáuregi, A; Zupiria Gorostidi, X

    2003-01-01

    Family order of the children and family size as well as other psychosocial variables on University of the Basque Country (UBC) students are compared in order to relate these data with the choice of type of university studies. As a sample, we studied 6,013 students from the UBC in different careers and courses. Mean age was 20.26 years. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Scale and Yllá Alexithymia Scale. All them were validated for our country. The presence of women was greater in all the career studies except for engineering where the proportion of men was greater. The data verify the relationship between being the youngest or intermediate child of a family of three or more children and studying Journalism and Fine Arts and that the first born of families of two or more children are more represented in Engineering. It is interesting that there are fewer only children in Medicine where children of families of three or more, both first-born as well as intermediate, go. These variables, as well as extraversion, neuroticism and alexithymia, were different in the different career studies. It was also observed that the female university students scored higher in the neuroticism scale and that the levels of Alexithymia were higher among the men. Further, relations were found between child birth order and family size and personality, in the sense that the Medical and Odontology careers presented lower scores in Alexithymia while the more technical careers such as Engineering are those that present a higher alexithymia. Medicine and Odontology, followed by Mathematics and Journalism, obtained the highest scores in neuroticism. Engineering students obtain the lowest neuroticism. The most extroverted students are those from Journalism, Chemistry, Economics and Odontology. The choice of university studies is associated to gender, birth order, family size and personality patterns. Personality variables are related to

  16. Measuring psychosocial variables that predict older persons' oral health behaviour.

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    Kiyak, H A

    1996-12-01

    The importance of recognising psychosocial characteristics of older people that influence their oral health behaviours and the potential success of dental procedures is discussed. Three variables and instruments developed and tested by the author and colleagues are presented. A measure of perceived importance of oral health behaviours has been found to be a significant predictor of dental service utilization in three studies. Self-efficacy regarding oral health has been found to be lower than self-efficacy regarding general health and medication use among older adults, especially among non-Western ethnic minorities. The significance of self-efficacy for predicting changes in caries and periodontal disease is described. Finally, a measure of expectations regarding specific dental procedures has been used with older people undergoing implant therapy. Studies with this instrument reveal that patients have concerns about the procedure far different than those focused on by dental providers. All three instruments can be used in clinical practice as a means of understanding patients' values, perceived oral health abilities, and expectations from dental care. These instruments can enhance dentist-patient rapport and improve the chances of successful dental outcomes for older patients.

  17. The role of stressors and psychosocial variables in the stress process: a study of chronic caregiver stress.

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    Vedhara, K; Shanks, N; Anderson, S; Lightman, S

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted 1) to examine the relative importance of stressor types (ie, daily hassles, caregiving-specific stressors, and life events) on the stress response, 2) to assess the stability of relationships between psychosocial variables and stress over a 6-month period, and 3) to explore how the nature and magnitude of the contributions made by stressors and psychosocial factors to the stress process varied according to the qualitative characteristics of the stress response (ie, anxiety, depression, and stress). Fifty spousal caregivers of patients with dementia were recruited and asked to participate in a detailed psychosocial evaluation at 3-month intervals; the evaluation involved measurement of stressor frequency, psychosocial variables, and indices of the stress response (ie, anxiety, depression, and stress). The data revealed that the effects of stressors and psychosocial factors on the stress response were considerable (accounting for 49-63% of the variance in stress response measures). Furthermore, there was some evidence of stability in the effects of the stressor and mediator variables on the stress response. Specifically, the contributions of life events and caregiver difficulties were largely consistent at both 3 and 6 months, and the psychosocial factor of "reactive coping and self-appraisal" influenced all three stress response indices at both 3 and 6 months. There is some evidence of stability in the effects of stressors and psychosocial variables on the stress process over a 6-month period. However, it would also seem that the nature of the stress process differs according to the qualitative characteristics of the stress response.

  18. Psycho-social and Mental Variables and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Traffic Accident Survivors in Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi-Hassankiadeh, Naema; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Shahsavari, Hooman; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    To assess the psycho-social and mental variables associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a series of Iranian patients. A total of 528 eligible accident survivors in pre-sampling of a randomized controlled trial targeting PTSD were included in this cross-sectional study. Psycho-social characteristics associated to PTSD were explored in these survivors in an outpatient clinic. They completed the questionnaires via interview between six weeks to six months after accident. Data collection tools were PSS (DSM-V version) for PTSD and BDI-II for depression and a researcher-made questionnaire for psycho-social variables. There was a significant association between PTSD and the following variables; family communication, current depression, return to work, history of death of relatives, witnessed the death, length of amnesia, hospitalization, injured situation, and accident severity. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that some variables were associated with PTSD such as accident severity, ( p severe accident and poor family communication who do not return to work. Thus, routine assessment of PTSD, depression and psycho-social variables after traffic accidents must be taken into account.

  19. Psychosocial and Physical Assessment of Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders

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    Anitha B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial disorders in patients with TMD, and to establish correlation between these, and symptoms and physical signs of TMD. Thirty patients were included in the study. TMD history and TMJ examination findings were recorded. Subsequently psychosocial assessment was carried out. Eighteen patients were in psychiatric morbid (PM group and 12 were in psychiatric nonmorbid (PNM group. Symptoms and signs of TMD were compared between PM and PNM group. Strong association was evident between presence of psychiatric morbidity and certain parameters viz. pain duration, VAS, bruxism, mouth opening.

  20. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

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    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Bullying Behaviors among Macanese Adolescents-Association with Psychosocial Variables.

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    Weng, Xue; Chui, Wing Hong; Liu, Liu

    2017-08-07

    Bullying is a widespread public health problem among school students. Using a large sample of Macanese school adolescents, the present study examines psychosocial conditions and demographic characteristics in discriminating the following four subgroups of students: victims; bullies; bully-victims; and a comparison group of adolescents. Participants included 2288 adolescents from 13 primary and secondary schools in Macau whose ages ranged from 10 to 20 years. Statistical results revealed significant differences among the groups and indicated that adolescents who are involved in school bullying experience worse psychosocial adjustment. Specifically, among the four subgroups of students, bully-victims reported the strongest feelings of anxiety, depression, and negative affectivity, and expressed the lowest satisfaction with life. Compared with students who were not involved in bullying and victimization, bullies experienced more anxiety and depression and victims had lower levels of satisfaction with life. In addition, boys were more likely to engage in bullying behaviors and younger students had a greater probability of being victimized by their peers at school. Implications for future research and practice on bullying perpetration and the prevention of peer victimization are discussed.

  2. Ethical issues in the psychosocial assessment of bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Codie R; Rash, Joshua A; Mothersill, Kerry J

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial evaluation is recommended prior to bariatric surgery. Practice guidelines have been published on assessment methods for bariatric surgery candidates, but they have not emphasized ethical issues with this population. This review outlines ethical and professional considerations for behavioral healthcare providers who conduct pre-surgical assessments of bariatric surgery candidates by merging ethical principles for mental health professionals with current practices in pre-surgical assessments. Issues discussed include the following: (a) establishing and maintaining competence, (b) obtaining informed consent, (c) respecting confidentiality, (d) avoiding bias and discrimination, (e) avoiding and addressing dual roles, (f) selecting and using psychological tests, and (g) acknowledging limitations of psychosocial assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. The influence of psychosocial variables on adolescent suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ancel; van den Berg, Henriette S

    2012-07-01

    Increased rates of suicide among adolescents aged 15-24 years have led to suicides becoming the third leading cause of death in the Unites States. South African statistics show an equally worrying trend as suicide constitutes 11.5% of the total deaths for the age group 11-20 years (Stark et al. 2010). A national youth risk behaviour survey done in South Africa has re-emphasised the need for concern, as adolescent suicidal behaviour increased between 2002 and 2008 (Reddy et al. 2010). The objective was to investigate the influence of risk and protective factors (psychosocial and individual factors) on suicidal ideation. The Integrated Stress and Coping Process model was used as guiding theory for the inclusion of personal and contextual stressors and resources including coping strategies as potential risk and protective factors, in their relationship to suicidal ideation. A purposive, stratified sampling technique was used to study 381 adolescents in the Northern Cape Province. The instruments used were a suicidal ideation questionnaire; a biographical questionnaire; a self-esteem scale; and a survey examining stressors and resources relevant to adolescents. Suicidal ideation was significantly higher in the South African sample than in an American sample. Avoidant coping strategies (denial, emotional venting and restraint coping), negative life events and stressful romantic relationships contributed to higher levels of suicidal ideation while self-esteem and adaptive coping (acceptance and seeking social support for instrumental reasons) reduced these levels. A lack of self-esteem, ineffective coping and particular stressors contributed significantly to the vulnerability of adolescents. Future studies should explore a wider range of dispositional factors that influence effective coping and adjustment in addressing adolescent suicidal ideation.

  4. Variable Pricing Feasibility Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) and Willard Bishop Consulting (Barrington, IL) to evaluate the practicality of using a variable pricing system within DeCA to maintain an average of 30 percent customer savings and lower appropriated fund costs...

  5. Associations between Whole-Grain Intake, Psychosocial Variables, and Home Availability among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Burgess-Champoux, Teri L.; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Develop, refine, and test psychosocial scales for associations with whole-grain intake. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Minneapolis/St. Paul suburban elementary school with children in fourth through sixth grades (n = 98) and their parents (n = 76). Variables of interest were child whole-grain intake, self-efficacy,…

  6. Psychosocial Variables as Predictors of School Adjustment of Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakolade, O. A.; Oyedokun, S. O.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considered several psychosocial variables as predictors of school adjustment of 40 gifted students with learning disabilities in Junior Secondary School in Ikenne Local Government Council Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposeful random sampling was employed to select four schools from 13 junior secondary schools in the area, six…

  7. The ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT): from 'what' to 'how' of psychosocial screening - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Timmerman, Lotte; Ismail, Sohal Y; Duerinckx, Nathalie; Lopes, Alice; Maple, Hannah; Mega, Inês; Papachristou, Christina; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2018-01-01

    Thorough psychosocial screening of donor candidates is required in order to minimize potential negative consequences and to strive for optimal safety within living donation programmes. We aimed to develop an evidence-based tool to standardize the psychosocial screening process. Key concepts of psychosocial screening were used to structure our tool: motivation and decision-making, personal resources, psychopathology, social resources, ethical and legal factors and information and risk processing. We (i) discussed how each item per concept could be measured, (ii) reviewed and rated available validated tools, (iii) where necessary developed new items, (iv) assessed content validity and (v) pilot-tested the new items. The resulting ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT) consists of a selection of validated questionnaires (28 items in total), a semi-structured interview (43 questions) and a Red Flag Checklist. We outline optimal procedures and conditions for implementing this tool. The EPAT and user manual are available from the authors. Use of this tool will standardize the psychosocial screening procedure ensuring that no psychosocial issues are overlooked and ensure that comparable selection criteria are used and facilitate generation of comparable psychosocial data on living donor candidates. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  8. Differing Relationship of Psycho-Social Variables with Active Ulcerative Colitis or Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarid, Orly; Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Schwartz, Doron; Friger, Michael; Sergienko, Ruslan; Pereg, Avihu; Vardi, Hillel; Chernin, Elena; Singer, Terri; Greenberg, Dan; Odes, Shmuel

    2018-03-09

    How psycho-social variables affect the degree of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) is incompletely understood. Therefore, we measured and compared the impact of psycho-social variables on the active disease state in UC and CD. One hundred and twenty-two UC and 305 CD patients with active disease completed questionnaires detailing their psychological symptoms, threatening experiences, disease-coping strategies, satisfaction with life, quality of life, and demographics. UC and CD patients were aged (mean, SD) 38.6 ± 14.0 and 45.2 ± 15.1 years, respectively. The psychological symptom index (median, IQR) was greater in UC 1.24 (0.8) than CD 0.9 (0.8), p psycho-social variables on the active disease state differs between UC and CD, thus indicating a need for specifically tailored psychotherapies.

  9. African American adolescents and new media: associations with HIV/STI risk behavior and psychosocial variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Romer, Daniel; DiClemente, Ralph J P; Salazar, Laura E; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones and online media are used frequently but we know little about their use among African American adolescents. This study examines the frequency of such use and its relationship to psychosocial variables and STI/HIV risk behavior. 1,518 African American, aged 13-18 years, from 2 Northeast US cities (Providence, RI; Syracuse, NY) and 2 Southeast US cities (Columbia, SC; Macon, GA), were assessed from 2008-2009. Participants were assessed on frequency of cell phone and Internet use, psychological constructs (ie, depression, life satisfaction, impulsivity) and HIV/STI risk behaviors (ie, history of intercourse, sexual sensation seeking attitudes, peer sexual risks norms) with reliable scales and measures using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Over 90% of African American adolescents used cell phones every day or most days and 60% used social networking sites every day or most days (96% used Myspace). Greater frequency of cell phone use was associated with sexual sensation seeking (P = .000), riskier peer sexual norms (P = .000), and impulsivity (P = .016). Greater frequency of Internet use was associated with a history of oral/vaginal/anal sex (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.0-1.05) and sexual sensation seeking (P = .000). These findings suggest that riskier youth are online and using cell phones frequently. The Internet and cell phones may be useful platforms for targeted health promotion and prevention efforts with AA adolescents.

  10. [Drug abuse in adolescent offenders: analysis of the psychosocial variables involved].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Martínez, Lourdes; Molina Banqueri, Virginia; Cano Lozano, Ma Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that drugs and delinquency are frequently linked, the abuse of various types of substance being a widespread practice among young offenders. At the same time, some psychosocial characteristics are associated with both drug abuse and criminal/antisocial behavior. To help us explore the relationship between young offenders' drug abuse and certain psychosocial variables, we examined closed judicial files on young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service in Jaen (Spain) corresponding to the period 2001 to 2010. From the contents of these judicial files we analyzed demographic variables such as gender and age, as well as psychosocial variables such as drug abuse, peer group, violent behavior, self-control, tolerance to frustration and attributional style. The results show that most of the young offenders use some type of drug, as well as revealing differential patterns of use according to gender. Also observed is a link between drug abuse and deviant peer group, violent behavior and the above-mentioned psychological variables. Finally, we found some differences in these psychological variables depending on the type of drug used.

  11. Parental divorce during early adolescence in Caucasian families: the role of family process variables in predicting the long-term consequences for early adult psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, P; Forehand, R; Armistead, L; Tannenbaum, L

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between parental divorce occurring during adolescence and young adult psychosocial adjustment was examined, as was the role of family process variables in clarifying this relationship. Participants were young Caucasian adults from divorced (n = 119) and married (n = 123) families. Assessments were conducted during adolescence and 6 years later during early adulthood. Young adults from married families reported more secure romantic attachments than those from divorced families; however, differences were not evident in other domains of psychosocial adjustment after demographic variables were controlled. Three family process variables (parent-adolescent relationship, interparental conflict, and maternal depressive symptoms) were examined as potential mediators and moderators of the association between parental divorce and young adult adjustment. No evidence supporting mediation or moderation was found; however, the parent-adolescent and parent-young adult relationships, particularly when the identified parent was the father, emerged as significant predictors of young adult psychosocial adjustment.

  12. Rehabilitation following pediatric traumatic brain injury: variability in adherence to psychosocial quality-of-care indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Stephanie K; Jaffe, Kenneth M; Mangione-Smith, Rita; Konodi, Mark A; MacKenzie, Ellen J; Rivara, Frederick P

    2014-01-01

    To examine variations in processes of pediatric inpatient rehabilitation care related to family-centered care, management of neurobehavioral and psychosocial needs, and community reintegration after traumatic brain injury. Nine acute rehabilitation facilities from geographically diverse areas of the United States. A total of 174 children with traumatic brain injury. Retrospective chart review. Adherence to care indicators (the number of times recommended care was delivered or attempted divided by the number of times care was indicated). Across facilities, adherence rates (adjusted for difficulty of delivery) ranged from 33.6% to 73.1% (95% confidence interval, 13.4-53.9, 58.7-87.4) for family-centered processes, 21.3% to 82.5% (95% confidence interval, 6.6-36.1, 67.6-97.4) for neurobehavioral and psychosocial processes, and 22.7% to 80.3% (95% confidence interval, 5.3-40.1, 68.1-92.5) for community integration processes. Within facilities, standard deviations for adherence rates were large (24.3-34.9, family-centered domain; 22.6-34.2, neurobehavioral and psychosocial domain; and 21.6-40.5, community reintegration domain). The current state of acute rehabilitation care for children with traumatic brain injury is variable across different quality-of-care indicators addressing neurobehavioral and psychosocial needs and facilitating community reintegration of the patient and the family. Individual rehabilitation facilities demonstrate inconsistent adherence to different indicators and inconsistent performance across different care domains.

  13. Dyadic variability in mother-adolescent interactions: developmental trajectories and associations with psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Giessen, Daniёlle; Branje, Susan J T; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-01-01

    Dyadic variability is considered to be a key mechanism in the development of mother-adolescent relationships, and low levels of dyadic flexibility are thought to be associated with behavior and relationship problems. The present observational study examined heterogeneity in the development of dyadic variability in mother-adolescent interactions and associations with psychosocial functioning. Dyadic variability refers to the range of emotional states during interactions of mother-adolescent dyads. During five annual home visits, 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13; 65.2 % boys) were videotaped while discussing a conflict, and they completed several questionnaires on adolescents' aggressive behavior and adolescents' and mothers' perceived relationship quality. Two types of dyads were distinguished: low variability dyads (52 %) and high decreasing variability dyads (48 %). Over time, high decreasing variability dyads were characterized by a broader emotional repertoire than low variability dyads. Moreover, these two dyad types had distinct developmental patterns of psychosocial adjustment. Over time, high decreasing variability dyads showed lower levels of adolescents' aggressive behavior, and higher levels of perceived relationship quality than low variability dyads. These findings suggest that over time more dyadic variability is associated with less adjustment problems and a more constructive development of the mother-adolescent relationship. Adaptive interactions seem to be characterized by a wider range of emotional states and mothers should guide adolescents during interactions to express both positive and negative affect. Observing the dyadic variability during mother-adolescent interactions can help clinicians to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive mother-adolescent dyads.

  14. The perception of midwives regarding psychosocial risk assessment during antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Mathibe-Neke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physiological and psychological changes caused by pregnancy may increase a woman’s vulnerability to depression, which may in turn have adverse effects on both maternal and foetal wellbeing. Inadequate psychosocial risk assessment of women by midwives may lead to lack of psychosocial support during pregnancy and childbirth. Pregnant women who lack psychosocial support may experience stress, anxiety and depression that could possibly affect foetal wellbeing. Objective:The objective of this study was toexplore and describe the perception of psychosocial risk assessment and psychosocial care by midwives providing antenatal care to pregnant women. Method: An interpretive and descriptive qualitative approach was adopted. Three focus group interviews were conducted with midwives working in three Maternal Obstetric Units in Gauteng Province, using a semi-structured interview guide. The constant comparison data analysis approach was used. Results:Findings revealed that midwives are aware of and have encountered a high prevalence of psychosocial problems in pregnant women. Furthermore, they acknowledged the importance of psychosocial care for pregnant women although they stated that they were not equipped adequately to offer psychosocial assessment and psychosocial care. Conclusion:The findings provided a basis for incorporation of psychosocial care into routine antenatal care.

  15. Spiritual well-being in individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome: relationships with symptom pattern variability, uncertainty, and psychosocial adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Cheryl; Johnson, Mary; Zeller, Janice M; Fogg, Louis; Zetterlund, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationships among symptom pattern variability, uncertainty, spiritual well-being, and psychosocial adaptation in individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A survey design was used with 58 individuals with FMS. The Fibromyalgia Symptom Pattern Questionnaire, Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale--Community Form, Spiritual Well-Being Scale, and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self Report were used to collect data. Positive relationships were found between symptom pattern variability and uncertainty and between uncertainty and poor psychosocial adaptation; spiritual well-being moderated the relationship between uncertainty and psychosocial adaptation. A positive sense of well-being aided adaptation to symptoms and uncertainties of FMS. Spiritual well-being had a greater effect on the relationship between symptom pattern variability and uncertainty than expected.

  16. The Vienna psychosocial assessment procedure for bionic reconstruction in patients with global brachial plexus injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Antonia Hruby

    Full Text Available Global brachial plexopathies cause major sensory and motor deficits in the affected arm and hand. Many patients report of psychosocial consequences including chronic pain, decreased self-sufficiency, and poor body image. Bionic reconstruction, which includes the amputation and prosthetic replacement of the functionless limb, has been shown to restore hand function in patients where classic reconstructions have failed. Patient selection and psychological evaluation before such a life-changing procedure are crucial for optimal functional outcomes. In this paper we describe a psychosocial assessment procedure for bionic reconstruction in patients with complete brachial plexopathies and present psychosocial outcome variables associated with bionic reconstruction.Between 2013 and 2017 psychosocial assessments were performed in eight patients with global brachial plexopathies. We conducted semi-structured interviews exploring the psychosocial adjustment related to the accident, the overall psychosocial status, as well as motivational aspects related to an anticipated amputation and expectations of functional prosthetic outcome. During the interview patients were asked to respond freely. Their answers were transcribed verbatim by the interviewer and analyzed afterwards on the basis of a pre-defined item scoring system. The interview was augmented by quantitative evaluation of self-reported mental health and social functioning (SF-36 Health Survey, body image (FKB-20 and deafferentation pain (VAS. Additionally, psychosocial outcome variables were presented for seven patients before and after bionic reconstruction.Qualitative data revealed several psychological stressors with long-term negative effects on patients with complete brachial plexopathies. 88% of patients felt functionally limited to a great extent due to their disability, and all of them reported constant, debilitating pain in the deafferented hand. After bionic reconstruction the physical

  17. The Vienna psychosocial assessment procedure for bionic reconstruction in patients with global brachial plexus injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Laura Antonia; Pittermann, Anna; Sturma, Agnes; Aszmann, Oskar Christian

    2018-01-01

    Global brachial plexopathies cause major sensory and motor deficits in the affected arm and hand. Many patients report of psychosocial consequences including chronic pain, decreased self-sufficiency, and poor body image. Bionic reconstruction, which includes the amputation and prosthetic replacement of the functionless limb, has been shown to restore hand function in patients where classic reconstructions have failed. Patient selection and psychological evaluation before such a life-changing procedure are crucial for optimal functional outcomes. In this paper we describe a psychosocial assessment procedure for bionic reconstruction in patients with complete brachial plexopathies and present psychosocial outcome variables associated with bionic reconstruction. Between 2013 and 2017 psychosocial assessments were performed in eight patients with global brachial plexopathies. We conducted semi-structured interviews exploring the psychosocial adjustment related to the accident, the overall psychosocial status, as well as motivational aspects related to an anticipated amputation and expectations of functional prosthetic outcome. During the interview patients were asked to respond freely. Their answers were transcribed verbatim by the interviewer and analyzed afterwards on the basis of a pre-defined item scoring system. The interview was augmented by quantitative evaluation of self-reported mental health and social functioning (SF-36 Health Survey), body image (FKB-20) and deafferentation pain (VAS). Additionally, psychosocial outcome variables were presented for seven patients before and after bionic reconstruction. Qualitative data revealed several psychological stressors with long-term negative effects on patients with complete brachial plexopathies. 88% of patients felt functionally limited to a great extent due to their disability, and all of them reported constant, debilitating pain in the deafferented hand. After bionic reconstruction the physical component summary

  18. [Assessment of psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy in Brazilian pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima E Silva, Janiny; Ferreira, Elizângela da Fonseca; Medeiros, Marcielle; Araújo, Maristela Lopes; Silva, Ana Gabriela Câmara Batista da; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho

    2011-08-01

    to evaluate psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy by translating and cross-culturally adapting a specific assessment instrument to be used with Brazilian women. this was a cross-sectional observational study. the translation and cross-cultural adaptation and of the Prenatal Self-evaluation Questionnaire (PSeQ) was performed following all the required methodological steps. another questionnaire was applied to characterize the sociodemographic and clinical status of the pregnant women (n=36). Statistical analysis consisted of the determination of the mean and standard deviation (SD) and of absolute and relative frequency. the statistical test used for the analysis of internal consistency was Cronbach's alpha coefficient, using SPSS version 17.0. the volunteers were of low socioeconomic status, aged on average 25.1 years ( 5.5), and had an average gestational age of 25.9 weeks ( 8.1). 58.3% of these volunteers had not planned their current pregnancy. the pretest showed that 75% of the pregnant women found the questionnaire easy to understand. Regarding the PSeQ instrument, the identification with the maternal role was the subcategory which showed the highest average, 24.8 ( 5.6), while the relationship with the mother had the lowest average 15.4 ( 7.7). the internal consistency ranged from 0.52 to 0.89. the assessment of psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy in pregnant women is very important during the progress of pregnancy and permits intervention through obstetric-neonatal actions of promotion and prevention regarding the well-being of mother and child.

  19. Effects of psychosocial and situational variables on substance abuse among homeless adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Judith A; Dixon, Elizabeth L; Nyamathi, Adeline M

    2008-09-01

    Finding direct and indirect influences of salient psychosocial and situational variables on problem substance use among homeless people is important in designing evidence-based, effective, and relevant interventions for this special population. A stress-coping paradigm in conjunction with situational items specialized for homeless people was used to explore predictive relationships in a sample of homeless adults (N = 664) among (a) psychosocial variables of self-esteem, social support, positive and negative coping, and emotional distress, (b) situational variables of homelessness history and quality of recent housing, and (c) outcomes of alcohol use, injection drug use (IDU), and non-IDU. Lower self-esteem predicted greater emotional distress, lower positive coping, greater negative coping, and more alcohol use. Social support predicted less emotional distress and more positive coping. Chronic homelessness predicted more emotional distress, less positive coping, greater alcohol use, and IDU. Poor housing was associated with more alcohol use and IDU. Substance abuse interventions among the homeless should have a dual focus that includes attention to psychological issues and negative coping patterns while also addressing situational, environmental factors, including encouraging provision of permanent supportive housing. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Antiretroviral treatment adherence as a mediating factor between psychosocial variables and HIV viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attonito, Jennifer; Dévieux, Jessy G; Lerner, Brenda D G; Hospital, Michelle M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors may directly impact HIV health measures such as viral load (VL) whether or not patients are taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) consistently. Structural equation modeling plus Baron and Kenny's (1986) four-step approach were used to test a mediated model predicting VL among 246 HIV-infected adults who were on ART. Exogenous variables were social support, barriers to adherence, and stress. Moderators were alcohol use, marijuana use, and neurocognitive impairment. A small positive association between marijuana use and ART adherence approached significance. Only barriers to adherence predicted a decrease in adherence rates and an increase in VL. No other factors were significantly associated with either VL or adherence, and no interaction effects between exogenous variables and moderators were identified. The association between barriers to adherence and VL was partially mediated by ART adherence. Findings provide modest support for a direct link between psychosocial variables and a virologic response to ART. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass conflict and care in war affected areas. In search of assessment and psychosocial intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Research in this thesis is focused on the relevance of psychosocial programs in areas of mass violence. Central questions are: how to assess needs in terms of psychosocial health, how to best address those needs, and what is the effectiveness of these mental health interventions? Our findings in

  2. [Diabetes type 1 in young adults: The relationship between psycho-social variables, glycemic control, depression and anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsdottir, Fjola Katrin; Halldorsdottir, Hildur; Gudmundsdottir, Arna; Arnardottir, Steinunn; Smari, Jakop; Arnarson, Eirikur Orn

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether psycho-social variables, for example social support and task- and emotion-oriented coping would predict psychological and physical well being among young adults with diabetes. Participants were 56 individuals in their twenties suffering from type 1 diabetes. Response rate was 78%. The participants came from the whole of Iceland, 64.3% from the Greater Reykjavík area and 33.9% from rural areas. One participant did not indicate his place of residence. Self-assessment scales were used to assess depression, anxiety, task-, avoidance- and emotion-oriented coping, social support and problems relating to diabetes. Additional information was obtained from patients' records concerning the results of blood glucose measurements (HbA1c). Good social support was related to less anxiety and depression and to less self-reported problems related to having diabetes. Emotion-oriented coping was related to not feeling well and task- oriented coping to feeling better. No relationship was found between psychosocial variables and blood glucose measurements and a limited relationship between self-reported problems related to having diabetes and these measurements. Social support and coping are strongly related to measurements of depression, anxiety and problems related to having diabetes in the present age group. The results indicate that it is very important to teach and strengthen usage, as possible, of task-oriented coping instead of emotion-oriented coping. The results also indicate that social support is highly important for young adults with diabetes type 1. It is clear that friends and family have to be more involved in the treatment and also more educated about the disease and the importance of giving the right kind of support.

  3. Identifying psychosocial variables that predict safer-sex intentions in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eBrüll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections. The triad of deliberate and effective safer-sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors (i.e. perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and intention taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA, were combined with more distal variables (e.g. behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections. Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse during the last twelve months and reasons for using barrier protection during first sexual intercourse. In particular, past condom nonuse behavior moderated perceived behavioral control related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer-sex programs designed to promote health sustaining sexual behavior.

  4. Psychosocial risks assessment at hospital: development of a French questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Vincent; Baumstarck, Karine; Boufercha, Rafika; Lehucher-Michel, Marie Pascale; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Sari-Minodier, Irene

    2016-09-26

    In order to improve the well-being, health, and performance of hospital workers, it should be important to focus on the psychosocial risk (PSR) factors in the work environment and on job satisfaction. Although many epidemiological questionnaires are used to measure PSR among healthcare workers, no specific existing model can be applied to all categories of hospital workers. To develop a short French self-administered instrument for measuring the PSR for hospital workers: the PSRH questionnaire. The content of the PSRH questionnaire was partly derived from the well-known and standardized questionnaires (Karasek Job Content and Siegriest effort-reward imbalance questionnaires). The validation process was carried out in all the departments of a large public university hospital (Marseille, France). Eligible workers were adult employees present on the day of the assessment: healthcare, administrative, and technical workers. A total of 2203 subjects were included from September 2012 to October 2013. The PSRH contains 24 items describing 6 dimensions (Management, cooperation and hierarchical support; Requirements, constraints and autonomy related to work; Support and relationship with the team; Complexity of the work and unforeseen factors; Meaning of work and recognition; and Conciliation work - work out). The six-factor structure presented satisfactory internal consistency and scalability. All the scores showed significant correlations with a well-being score. Acceptability was high. The PSRH is a self-administered instrument assessing PSR at hospital that presents satisfactory psychometric properties. Future studies should identify factors that determine low- and high-risk workers in order to implement appropriate preventing strategies.

  5. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Immunosuppressive Medication Non-Adherence after Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Felicia Scheel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionNon-adherence to immunosuppressive medication is regarded as an important factor for graft rejection and loss after successful renal transplantation. Yet, results on prevalence and relationship with psychosocial parameters are heterogeneous. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association of immunosuppressive medication non-adherence and psychosocial factors.MethodsIn 330 adult renal transplant recipients (≥12 months posttransplantation, health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, social support, and subjective medication experiences were assessed, and their associations with patient-reported non-adherence was evaluated.Results33.6% of the patients admitted to be partially non-adherent. Non-adherence was associated with younger age, poorer social support, lower mental, but higher physical health-related quality of life. There was no association with depression and anxiety. However, high proportions of clinically relevant depression and anxiety symptoms were apparent in both adherent and non-adherent patients.ConclusionIn the posttransplant follow-up, kidney recipients with lower perceived social support, lower mental and higher physical health-related quality of life, and younger age can be regarded as a risk group for immunosuppressive medication non-adherence. In follow-up contacts with kidney transplant patients, physicians may pay attention to these factors. Furthermore, psychosocial interventions to optimize immunosuppressive medication adherence can be designed on the basis of this information, especially including subjectively perceived physical health-related quality of life and fostering social support seems to be of importance.

  6. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Dutch Families of a Child With Cancer: Reliability, Validity, and Usability of the Psychosocial Assessment Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Nicolaas, Simone M.; Schepers, Sasja A.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Caron, Huib N.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Verhaak, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk in families of a child diagnosed with cancer. The current study is the first describing the cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, validity, and usability of the PAT in an European country (Dutch translation).   A

  7. The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study's framework for assessing lifelong psychosocial factors in solid-organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geest, Sabina; Burkhalter, Hanna; Berben, Lut; Bogert, Laura Jane; Denhaerynck, Kris; Glass, Tracy R; Goetzmann, Lutz; Kirsch, Monika; Kiss, Alexander; Koller, Michael T; Piot-Ziegler, Chantal; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2013-09-01

    Understanding outcomes after transplant requires a biopsychosocial model that includes biomedical and psychosocial factors. The latter, to date, are assessed only in a limited way as part of transplant registries or cohort studies. The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS) is a nationwide open cohort study (starting May 2008) to systematically and prospectively assess psychosocial factors. This article describes the framework underpinning STCS's psychosocial assessment. The STCS framework was adapted from the multidimensional conceptual perspective of Dew et al to describe transplant psychosocial domains and specific outcomes by adding a time perspective, a system perspective, and interaction among domains. We propose a multidimensional, multilevel biopsychosocial framework representing mutually influencing domains from before to after transplant, and exemplify each domain by factors included in STCS and their measurement. The transplant patient, centrally positioned, is described by clinical and sociodemographic characteristics (eg, socioeconomic status, educational, professional, and relationship status). The following psychosocial domains further describe the patient: (1) physical/functional (eg, perceived health status, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness), (2) psychological (eg, depression, stress), (3) behavioral (eg, medication adherence, smoking, drug use, physical activity, sun protection), (4) social (eg, work capacity/return to work), and (5) global quality of life. Factors associated with health care system level (eg, trust in transplant team) are also included in the model. The STCS's psychosocial framework provides a basis for studying the interplay of biomedical, sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioral, and health care system factors in view of transplant outcomes and therefore has the potential to guide biopsychosocial transplant research.

  8. The perception of midwives regarding psychosocial risk assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-22

    May 22, 2014 ... parenthood, often causes anxiety and emotional changes that ... Previous conflicts in childhood and adulthood are often ... the negative influence of psychosocial factors on the .... change of residence, marriage, divorce, or death of a loved .... and how the mother is feeling [emphasizing] about the current.

  9. A module for psycho-social assessment of personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlan, Holger; Rhode, Dieter; Schmidt, Silke

    2013-01-01

    This contribution to an interdisciplinary methodology on Personal Health Monitoring (PHM) aims at developing a psycho-social module for health technology assessment on PHM applications. It covers important aspects that should be taken into account for conducting a health technology assessment from a psycho-social perspective. As it could be used in addition to other tools within the PHM-Ethics approach to health technology assessment it is considered as a module of the interdisciplinary methodology. As a prerequisite, we provide a conceptual framework on psycho-social issues of PHM applications. From that framework we delineate an integrated module for psycho-social health technology assessment for PHM applications, consisting of a map highlighting selective psycho-social issues that may appear when applying a PHM system. This psycho-social tool is at least twofold in its intention as a sole HTA tool on the one hand and as an integral part of the interdisciplinary PHM methodology on the other hand. It provides a quick overview on potential benefits and risks from the user's point of view.

  10. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Ben CH; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors’ knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as pr...

  11. Worker assessments of organizational practices and psychosocial work environment are associated with musculoskeletal injuries in hospital patient care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reme, Silje Endresen; Shaw, William S; Boden, Leslie I; Tveito, Torill H; O'Day, Elizabeth Tucker; Dennerlein, Jack T; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-07-01

    Hospital patient care (PC) workers have high rates of workplace injuries, particularly musculoskeletal injuries. Despite a wide spectrum of documented health hazards, little is known about the association between psychosocial factors at work and OSHA-recordable musculoskeletal injuries. PC-workers (n = 1,572, 79%) completed surveys assessing a number of organizational, psychosocial and psychological variables. Associations between the survey responses and injury records were tested using bivariate and multivariate analyses. A 5% of the PC-workers had at least one OSHA-recordable musculoskeletal injury over the year, and the injuries were significantly associated with: organizational factors (lower people-oriented culture), psychosocial factors (lower supervisor support), and structural factors (job title: being a patient care assistant). The results show support for a multifactorial understanding of musculoskeletal injuries in hospital PC-workers. An increased focus on the various dimensions associated with injury reports, particularly the organizational and psychosocial factors, could contribute to more efficient interventions and programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees living in Jordan: systematic review of unpublished needs assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ruth; Steel, Zachary; Abo-Hilal, Mohammad; Hassan, Abdul Halim; Lawsin, Catalina

    2016-08-01

    Humanitarian organisations supporting Syrian refugees in Jordan have conducted needs assessments to direct resources appropriately. To present a model of psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees and a peer review of research practices. Academic and grey literature databases, the United Nations Syria Regional Response website, key humanitarian organisation websites and Google were searched for needs assessments with Syrian refugees in Jordan between February 2011 and June 2015. Information directly reporting the views of Syrian refugees regarding psychosocial needs was extracted and a qualitative synthesis was conducted. Respondents reported that psychological distress was exacerbated by both environmental (financial, housing, employment) and psychosocial outcomes (loss of role and social support, inactivity), which are themselves stressors. Need for improvement in research methodology, participatory engagement and ethical reporting was evident. Participatory engagement strategies might help to address identified psychosocial outcomes. More rigorous qualitative methods are required to ensure accuracy of findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  13. Postnatal Psychosocial Assessment and Clinical Decision-Making, a Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Deborah; Fowler, Cathrine

    2018-05-18

    The aim of this study is to describe experienced child and family health nurses' clinical decision-making during a postnatal psychosocial assessment. Maternal emotional wellbeing in the postnatal year optimises parenting and promotes infant development. Psychosocial assessment potentially enables early intervention and reduces the risk of a mental disorder occurring during this time of change. Assessment accuracy, and the interventions used are determined by the standard of nursing decision-making. A qualitative methodology was employed to explore decision-making behaviour when conducting a postnatal psychosocial assessment. This study was conducted in an Australian early parenting organisation. Twelve experienced child and family health nurses were interviewed. A detailed description of a postnatal psychosocial assessment process was obtained using a critical incident technique. Template analysis was used to determine the information domains the nurses accessed, and content analysis was used to determine the nurses' thinking strategies, to make clinical decisions from this assessment. The nurses described 24 domains of information and used 17 thinking strategies, in a variety of combinations. The four information domains most commonly used were parenting, assessment tools, women-determined issues and sleep. The seven thinking strategies most commonly used were searching for information, forming relationships between the information, recognising a pattern, drawing a conclusion, setting priorities, providing explanations for the information and judging the value of the information. The variety and complexity of the clinical decision-making involved in postnatal psychosocial assessment confirms that the nurses use information appropriately and within their scope of nursing practice. The standard of clinical decision-making determines the results of the assessment and the optimal access to care. Knowledge of the information domains and the decision-making strategies

  14. Psychosocial characteristics of drunk drivers assessed by the Addiction Severity Index, prediction of relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicka, Beata; Laurell, Hans; Bergman, Hans

    2010-02-01

    To investigate psychosocial characteristics and problems of a representative sample of Swedish drunk drivers with special consideration of the gender of the driver; analyze criminal records of the drivers before and after enrollment in the study; identify psychosocial predictors of relapse to drunk driving. Psychosocial characteristics were assessed by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Alcohol problems were additionally assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Criminal records were collected for the five year period before the enrollment, and for the subsequent two years, from Sweden's official crime statistics. About half of the investigated drivers had other psychosocial problems besides the drink driving offence. Female drivers had more alcohol, drug, psychiatric and relational problems, including with parents when growing up, than male drivers, but less previous and subsequent criminality. Heavily drunk drivers (blood alcohol concentration > or = 0.1%) had more problems with alcohol, legal status and employment and support than the other drunk drivers. Problems with legal status, family and social relations and alcohol use increased the risk of relapse in drunk driving, while medical problems seemed to be a protective factor. Different ASI risk factors were identified for relapse in either traffic offences or other crimes. As well as the drunk driving offence, drunk drivers often have other psychosocial problems, female drivers in particular. Already the blood alcohol concentration per se gives some indication of the psychosocial problem profile of a drunk driver and the ASI profile has some prognostic value for relapse in drunk driving.

  15. Quality of life assessment of patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders from Psychosocial Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessing the quality of life and the clinical and social-demographic factors associated in schizophrenic spectrum patients (ICD-10 F20-F29 attending CAPS at the programmatic area 3.0. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of schizophrenic spectrum patients who have been enrolled in 2008 in CAPS in programmatic area (AP 3 at Rio de Janeiro city, using MINIPLUS to assess schizophrenia spectrum disorder and use of psychoactive substances, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS to assess psychiatric symptoms and Quality of Life Scale (QLS-BR to assess the quality of life. RESULTS: Seventy nine patients were included, of whom 74 (93.7% presented some impairment in quality of life. The most frequently affected area was occupational performance. Variables that showed a significant association with severe impairment of quality of life were: marital status, race, occupation, who patients lived with, homelessness, having children, previous psychiatric hospitalization, negative symptoms and symptoms designated as not applicable (being characterized by a lack of typical positive and negative symptoms. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of these factors should be crucial to implement health policies and psychosocial rehabilitation programs focused on improving the quality of life of these patients.

  16. From recommendation to action: psychosocial factors influencing physician intention to use Health Technology Assessment (HTA recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Emília

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the impact of recommendations based upon health technology assessment (HTA represents a challenge for both HTA agencies and healthcare policy-makers. Using a psychosocial theoretical framework, this study aimed at exploring the factors affecting physician intention to adopt HTA recommendations. The selected recommendations were prioritisation systems for patients on waiting lists for two surgical procedures: hip and knee replacement and cataract surgery. Methods Determinants of physician intention to use HTA recommendations for patient prioritisation were assessed by a questionnaire based upon the Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour. A total of 96 physicians from two medical specialties (ophthalmology and orthopaedic surgery responded to the questionnaire (response rate 44.2%. A multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA was performed to assess differences between medical specialties on the set of theoretical variables. Given the main effect difference between specialties, two regression models were tested separately to assess the psychosocial determinants of physician intention to use HTA recommendations for the prioritisation of patients on waiting lists for surgical procedures. Results Factors influencing physician intention to use HTA recommendations differ between groups of specialists. Intention to use the prioritisation system for patients on waiting lists for cataract surgery among ophthalmologists was related to attitude towards the behaviour, social norms, as well as personal normative beliefs. Intention to use HTA recommendations for patient prioritisation for hip and knee replacement among orthopaedic surgeons was explained by: perception of conditions that facilitated the realisation of the behaviour, personal normative beliefs, and habit of using HTA recommendations in clinical work. Conclusion This study offers a model to assess factors influencing the intention to adopt recommendations from health

  17. Family history assessment of personality disorders: II. Association with measures of psychosocial functioning in direct evaluations with relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M E; Ferro, T; Klein, D N

    1997-01-01

    To test the convergent validity of the Family History Interview for Personality Disorders (FHIPD), as well as the general utility of informants' reports of personality disorders, we explored the relationship between proband informant reports of Axis II diagnoses on the FHIPD and relative reports of various indices of psychosocial adjustment. Subjects were the first degree relatives (n = 454) of 224 probands participating in a family study of mood and personality disorders. Relatives provided information on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), the Personality Disorder Examination (PDE), and other variables reflecting aspects of psychosocial dysfunction that are common in personality disorders. Proband informants were interviewed about their relatives using the FHIPD Proband informant reports of personality disorders on the FHIPD were associated with a variety of forms of psychosocial dysfunction as determined in direct assessments with the relatives, even for those with no diagnosable Axis II psychopathology dysfunction as determined in direct assessments with the relatives, even for those with no diagnosable Axis II psychopathology on direct interview. These results support the convergent validity of the FHIPD, and suggest that informants may provide important information on Axis II psychopathology that is not obtained from direct interviews with the subjects themselves.

  18. The use of a patient-reported outcome questionnaire to assess cancer survivorship concerns and psychosocial outcomes among recent survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steven C; Stricker, Carrie T; DeMichele, Angela M; Schapira, Marilyn; Glanz, Karen; Griggs, Jennifer J; Jacobs, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    Survivor distress is well represented in the literature, but less is known about survivors' concerns and how these relate to adaptation. Using a newly designed Survivorship Concern Scale, we examined concerns and their relationship to psychosocial adaptation among recent breast cancer (BC) survivors. One hundred forty-three stage 0-III BC survivors completed an online assessment including the Survivorship Concern Scale (0-3 scale; alpha = 0.91), unmet needs, quality of life (QoL), and anxiety and depressive symptoms within 1 year of end of treatment. Participants were predominately white (76%), middle-aged (51 years), married (70%), and college educated (79%). Eighty-two percent were stage I or II at diagnosis. Mean degree of survivorship concern was moderate (M = 1.75, SD = 0.70) though variable (range = 0.12-3.00). Survivorship concerns were not significantly related to disease, treatment, or demographic variables except income (p = 0.02). Degree of survivorship concern was significantly associated with all indices of psychosocial adaptation: unmet need (r = 0.50), physical and mental QoL (r = -0.32 and r = -0.32, respectively), depressive symptoms (r = 0.21), and anxiety symptoms (r = 0.51; all p psychosocial adaptation. Adequately addressing concerns may be a way to improve psychosocial outcomes early in the survivorship trajectory.

  19. Tailoring Psychosocial Risk Assessment in the Oil and Gas Industry by Exploring Specific and Common Psychosocial Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Iren Vestly Bergh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosocial risk management [Psychosocial Risk Management Approach (PRIMA] has, through the years, been applied in several organizations in various industries and countries globally. PRIMA principles have also been translated into international frameworks, such as PRIMA-EF (European framework and the World Health Organization Healthy Workplace Framework. Over the past 10 years, an oil and gas company has put efforts into adopting and implementing international frameworks and standards for psychosocial risk management. More specifically, the company uses a PRIMA. Methods: This study explores available quantitative and qualitative risk data collected through the PRIMA method over the past 8 years in order to explore specific and common psychosocial risks in the petroleum industry. Results: The analyses showed a significant correlation between job resources and symptoms of work-related stress, there was a significant correlation between job demands and symptoms of work-related stress, and there were differences in psychosocial risk factors and symptoms of work-related stress onshore and offshore. The study also offers recommendations on how the results can further be utilized in building a robust system for managing psychosocial risks in the industry. Conclusion: The results from the analyses have provided meaningful and important information about the company-specific psychosocial risk factors and their impact on health and well-being. Keywords: oil and gas industry, psychosocial risk factors, psychosocial risk management

  20. Low- and high-anxious hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome patients: comparison of psychosocial and health variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Bourdon, Caroline; Montalescot, Lucile; de Cazotte, Cécile; Pailhez, Guillem; Bulbena, Antonio; Hamonet, Claude

    2018-05-01

    Despite the frequent co-ocurrence of hypermobile Ehler-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) and pathological anxiety, little is known about the psychosocial and health implications of such comorbidity. Our aim was to explore the association between high levels of anxiety and psychosocial (catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, somatosensory amplification, social support and functioning), health (pain, fatigue, BMI, tobacco/alcohol use, depression, diagnosis delay, general health), and sociodemographic factors in people with hEDS. In this cross-sectional study, 80 hEDS patients were divided into two groups according to self-reported anxiety levels: low and high. Psychosocial, sociodemographic and health variables were compared between the groups. Forty-one participants reported a high level of anxiety (51.2%). No differences were found in the sociodemographic variables between high-anxious and low-anxious patients. The percentage of participants with severe fatigue and high depressive symptomatology was significantly higher in the high-anxious group (80.5 vs 56.4; 26.8 vs 12.8%, respectively). High-anxious hEDS patients also showed significantly higher levels of pain catastrophizing, somatosensory amplification as well as a poorer social functioning and general health. Multivariate analyses showed that somatosensory amplification, pain catastrophizing and poor social functioning are variables that increase the probability of belonging to the high-anxious group. Despite limitations, this first study comparing high-anxious versus low-anxious hEDS patients with respect to health aspects, highlight the importance of considering the psychosocial factors (many susceptible to modification), to improve the adjustment to this chronic condition and provide support to those affected through a biopsychosocial approach.

  1. Combining biological and psychosocial baseline variables did not improve prediction of outcome of a very-low-energy diet in a clinic referral population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, P; Purcell, K; Kuyruk, S; Proietto, J; Prendergast, L A

    2018-02-01

    Consistent, strong predictors of obesity treatment outcomes have not been identified. It has been suggested that broadening the range of predictor variables examined may be valuable. We explored methods to predict outcomes of a very-low-energy diet (VLED)-based programme in a clinically comparable setting, using a wide array of pre-intervention biological and psychosocial participant data. A total of 61 women and 39 men (mean ± standard deviation [SD] body mass index: 39.8 ± 7.3 kg/m 2 ) underwent an 8-week VLED and 12-month follow-up. At baseline, participants underwent a blood test and assessment of psychological, social and behavioural factors previously associated with treatment outcomes. Logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis, decision trees and random forests were used to model outcomes from baseline variables. Of the 100 participants, 88 completed the VLED and 42 attended the Week 60 visit. Overall prediction rates for weight loss of ≥10% at weeks 8 and 60, and attrition at Week 60, using combined data were between 77.8 and 87.6% for logistic regression, and lower for other methods. When logistic regression analyses included only baseline demographic and anthropometric variables, prediction rates were 76.2-86.1%. In this population, considering a wide range of biological and psychosocial data did not improve outcome prediction compared to simply-obtained baseline characteristics. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Psychosocial assessments for young people: a systematic review examining acceptability, disclosure and engagement, and predictive utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sally Bradford,1 Debra Rickwood1,21Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, 2Headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation, North Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Adolescence and young adulthood are often turbulent periods in a person’s life. There are high rates of accidental deaths, suicide, mental health concerns, substance use, and sexual experimentation. Health care professionals need to conduct holistic assessments of clients in these developmental life stages to identify psychosocial risks and provide targeted early intervention and implement prevention strategies. The most useful psychosocial assessments for most health care professionals are those that can provide a complete picture of the young person’s life and circumstances. This article identifies psychosocial assessment instruments that can be used as an initial assessment and engagement tool with the general population of young people presenting for health care. We review the psychometric properties of each of the instruments, determining what type of instrument is most acceptable to young people, whether any can increase disclosure and improve engagement between young people and health professionals, and whether they have predictive utility. The search strategy complied with the relevant sections of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA statement. A total of 89 published articles were identified, covering 31 different assessment instruments. Results indicated that those that were self-administered were most acceptable to young people, although it is unclear whether pen-and-paper or computer formats were preferred. Most psychosocial assessments can improve rates of disclosure and enhance engagement between young people and health professionals; however, worryingly, we found evidence that clinicians did not always respond to some of the most serious identified risks. Only for one instrument was there any mention of

  3. In search of psychosocial variables linked to the recidivism in young offenders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Cano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature on juvenile delinquency is aimed to the identification of the protective and risk factors of the antisocial and criminal behaviors. In this line, a study was carried out to assess whether the family setting, personal variables of the youngster and variables linked to the judicial measure execution mediate in recidivism. For this reason, all the closed judicial files of the young offenders from the Service of Juvenile Justice in Jaén (Spain have been analysed. The results showed that such family setting variables as broken homes, large families, low incomes, deprived neighborhoods, criminal records, drug abuse, children protection records and crime legitimacy are linked to recidivism. As for personal variables of the youngster, the findings illustrate that re-offenders are characterized by external attribution, deficits in social skills, deficits in self-control, violent behaviors and low tolerance to frustration. In relation to the judicial measure execution variables, data support that the non re-offenders are defined in contrast to re-offenders, by a high compliance with rules and timetables and with the established objectives, as well as a high family involvement during the judicial measure execution. The implications of the results for prevention of recidivism are discussed.

  4. Multivariate Analysis of the Relationship of Psychosocial Crisis Variables to Ego Identity Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Kenneth M.

    1978-01-01

    Correlations were investigated between Erikson's psychosocial crisis stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, and intimacy) and Marcia's four identity statuses (achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion). Erikson's theory of prosocial development and Marcia's ego identity status concept were supported. Coping with the…

  5. An examination of psychosocial variables moderating the relationship between life stress and injury time-loss among athletes of a high standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, I W; Eklund, R C; Gordon, S

    2000-05-01

    Based on Williams and Andersen's model of stress and athletic injury, six psychosocial variables were assessed as possible moderators of the relationship between life stress and injury among 121 athletes (65 males, 56 females) competing in a variety of sports at state, national or international level. No significant effects of the sex of the participants were evident. Correlational analyses revealed moderator effects of several variables. Specifically, dispositional optimism and hardiness were related to decreased injury time-loss in athletes when positive life change increased, and global self-esteem was associated with decreased injury time-loss when both negative life change and total life change increased. The results indicate that athletes with more optimism, hardiness or global self-esteem may cope more effectively with life change stress, resulting in reduced injury vulnerability and recovery rates.

  6. Context specificity in the assessment of psychosocial risk at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Fattori, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following EU requirements, in recent years standard procedures for the assessment of work-related stress have been developed in Italy. However, while such standardization has facilitated the spread and use of these procedures, it has brought a lack of specificity in risk assessment...

  7. Barriers to antenatal psychosocial assessment and depression screening in private hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Tanya; Barnett, Bryanne; Waters, Donna

    2017-10-11

    The evidence of benefit for antenatal psychosocial assessment and depression screening has been sufficient to lead the implementation of screening in public hospitals in all states of Australia. Details of the implementation of perinatal screening in private obstetric settings is less well known. As any successful implementation relies on the identification of local barriers, we aimed to determine what perceived or actual barriers may exist for the implementation of evidence-based perinatal screening interventions in private obstetric care, and specifically within small private hospitals. The integrative literature review method offers a structured systematic approach to organise, synthesize and critique research from a range of sources. This method was used to determine what barriers have been identified in implementing psychosocial assessment and depression screening with women receiving obstetric care in private hospital settings. The integrative review findings suggest that barriers to implementing psychosocial screening in the private sector are similar to those experienced in the public sector but may also be influenced by the corporate focus of private services. Barriers were identified among health professionals, within the personal and psychosocial context of women and their families, and at provider or system level. Once identified, barriers can be systematically addressed to enhance the success of implementing psychosocial and depression screening in the private sector. Screening is likely to be influenced by the business models and operating systems of private service providers. Health professionals working within this environment need more support to conduct perinatal assessment within this context. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The psychosocial environment at work: an assessment of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join, A; Saeed, K; Arnaout, S; Kortum, E

    2012-04-01

    Psychosocial risks are widely recognised as major challenges to occupational health and safety. The risk management approach, which starts with an assessment of the risk that they pose, is acknowledged as the most effective way of preventing and managing psychosocial risks at the workplace. This paper presents the findings and action taken following a risk assessment of psychosocial risks, at the World health Organization Regional Officeforthe Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO) and country offices, carried outon behalf of the Committee on Health and Safety in the Workplace in EMRO. The findings show that psychosocial risks pose a threat to the mental well-being of staff. Management and co-worker support, rewards, possibilities for development, and trust mitigate the negative impact of psychosocial risks. The results of this risk assessment are being used to develop interventions aimed at enhancing the sense of well-being of staff, initially through actions at the employee level.

  9. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male cou...

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Psychosocial Assessment Tool-Chronic Pain Version in Families of Children With Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kristine; Ostrowski-Delahanty, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Children with headache disorders are at increased psychosocial risk, and no validated screening measures exist to succinctly assess for risk. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Psychosocial Assessment Tool-Chronic Pain, a previously adapted screening measure of risk, in a retrospective sample of families of children diagnosed with headaches. Participants included 127 children and caregivers presenting for behavioral health evaluation of headache. Children and their primary caregivers completed several psychosocial assessment measures. Internal consistency for the Psychosocial Assessment Tool-Chronic Pain total score was high (α = 0.80), and all subscale scores had moderate to high internal consistency (α = 0.597-0.88), with the exception of the caregiver beliefs subscale (α = 0.443). The total score and the majority of subscale scores on the Psychosocial Assessment Tool-Chronic Pain were correlated with caregiver- and child-reported scores on study measures. The results demonstrate that the Psychosocial Assessment Tool-Chronic Pain has adequate psychometric properties, and because of the brief administration time, ease of scoring, and accessibility of the measure, it is a promising measure of screening for psychosocial risk in this population.

  11. Assessing the Psychosocial Problems In Parenting Sickle-Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the psycho social problems encountered in parenting sickle-cell children in Enugu. Method: The subjects include all parents, guardian, foster parents of sickle cell children who have the responsibility of caring for sickle-cell children and who have attended the sickle-cell clinic of the UNTH between June to ...

  12. Assessment and Management of Psychosocial Needs: Social Work Utilization in Comprehensive Cleft Team Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Alison; Lybrand, Sandra; Chew, William L

    2018-01-01

    To determine family-reported psychosocial stressors and social worker assessments and interventions within a comprehensive cleft team. Single-institution prospective provider-completed survey. Four hundred one families seen by cleft team social worker over a 7-month period. Most families (n = 331; 83%) participated in the team social work assessment. At least 1 active psychosocial stressor was reported by 238 (72%) families, with 63 (19%) families reported 3 or more stressors. There were 34 types of stressors reported. Most common were financial strain, young age of patient, new cleft diagnosis, and distance from clinic (57% of families live over an hour away). Family structure and home environment were assessed in detail for 288 (87%) families. Detailed assessments for access to care and behavioral/developmental issues also figured prominently. Social work interventions were provided in 264 (80%) of the visits, of which 91 were for families of new patients with over half who had infants less than 3 months old. Of the 643 interventions provided, the most frequent were parent mental health screens and counseling, early intervention referrals, transportation assistance, securing local hotel discounts, orthodontic referrals, and orthodontic cost coverage. Approximately 10% of encounters required follow-up contact related to the psychosocial concerns identified in clinic. The inclusion of a cleft team social worker is a critical component of comprehensive cleft team care as evidenced by the large proportion of families who required assistance. Ongoing social work assessments are recommended for each patient to help address the variety of psychosocial stressors families face.

  13. African American Patients' Psychosocial Support Needs and Barriers to Treatment: Patient Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Maureen P; Bilkins, Brianna; Diamond, Guy; Willis, Alliric I; Mitchell, Edith P; Davey, Adam; Young, Faith M

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed adult patient's psychosocial support needs and treatment barriers in an urban diverse cancer center. A needs assessment was conducted with a convenience sample of adult oncology patients (n = 113; 71.7 % African American). Most patients were parenting school-age children and worried about them (96 %); 86.7 % would attend a family support program. Among patients who were married or partnered (68 %), 63.7 % were concerned about communication, coping, and emotional support; 53.9 % would attend a couple support program. Patients identified similar treatment barriers: transportation, babysitting for younger children, convenience of time/place, and refreshments. Findings suggest that behavioral health care providers should be available to screen cancer patients and improve access to appropriate psychosocial oncology support programs.

  14. An evaluation of routine antenatal depression screening and psychosocial assessment in a regional private maternity setting in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Harish; Reilly, Nicole; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2018-01-30

    There is limited information relating to routine depression screening and psychosocial assessment programs in private maternity settings in Australia. To describe the psychosocial profile of a sample of private maternity patients who participated in a depression screening and psychosocial risk assessment program as part of routine antenatal care, and to explore women's experience of receiving this component of pregnancy care. We conducted a retrospective medical records audit of 455 consecutive women having a routine psychosocial assessment and referral. Assessment was undertaken using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Antenatal Risk Questionnaire (ANRQ) for psychosocial risk; 101 women completed a feedback survey about their experience of receiving routine psychosocial care. Of the 87.7% of women who completed both EPDS and ANRQ, 4.3% scored 13 or more on the EPDS. On the ANRQ, 25.3% of women endorsed one risk factor, 11.6% two risk factors and 10.5% three or more risk factors. Elevated EPDS scores were associated with major stresses in the last 12 months, high trait anxiety and significant past mental health issue/s. Acceptability of depression screening and psychosocial risk assessment was high. This study highlights the need for, and acceptability of, depression and psychosocial assessment in the private maternity sector. These findings are particularly timely given the provision of new Medicare Benefits Scheme items for obstetricians to undertake psychosocial assessment (both antenatally and postnally) in line with recommended clinical best practice. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Assessment of family psychosocial functioning in survivors of pediatric cancer using the PAT2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleland, Jordan; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Brand, Sarah; Griffin, Anya; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Meacham, Lillian; Mertens, Ann

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to examine clinical validity and utility of a screening measure for familial psychosocial risk, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool 2.0 (PAT2.0), among pediatric cancer survivors participating in long-term survivorship care. Caregivers (N=79) completed the PAT2.0 during their child's survivorship appointment. Caregivers also reported on family engagement in outpatient mental health treatment. Medical records were reviewed for treatment history and oncology provider initiated psychology consults. The internal consistency of the PAT2.0 total score in this survivorship sample was strong. Psychology was consulted by the oncology provider to see 53% of participant families, and families seen by psychology had significantly higher PAT2.0 total scores than families without psychology consults. PAT2.0 total scores and corresponding subscales were higher for patients, parents, and siblings enrolled in outpatient mental health services since treatment completion. Results were consistent with psychosocial risk categories presented within the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model. Fifty-one percent of families presenting for survivorship care scored in the "universal" category, 34% scored in the "targeted" category, and 15% scored in the "clinical" category. Data indicate that the overall proportions of families experiencing "universal", "targeted", and "clinical" levels of familial distress may be constant from the time of diagnosis into survivorship care. Overall, the PAT2.0 demonstrated strong psychometric properties among survivors of pediatric cancer and shows promise as a psychosocial screening measure to facilitate more effective family support in survivorship care. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Standardized assessment of psychosocial factors and their influence on medically confirmed health outcomes in workers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Susel; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; da Costa, José Torres

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of psychosocial work factors have indicated their importance for workers' health. However, to what extent health problems can be attributed to the nature of the work environment or other psychosocial factors is not clear. No previous systematic review has used inclusion criteria based on specific medical evaluation of work-related health outcomes and the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence assessing the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and workers' health based on studies that used standardized and validated instruments to assess the psychosocial work environment and that focused on medically confirmed health outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching the databases PubMed, B-ON, Science Direct, Psycarticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and the search engine (Google Scholar) using appropriate words for studies published from 2004 to 2014. This review follows the recommendations of the Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). Studies were included in the review if data on psychosocial validated assessment method(s) for the study population and specific medical evaluation of health-related work outcome(s) were presented. In total, the search strategy yielded 10,623 references, of which 10 studies (seven prospective cohort and three cross-sectional) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (7/10) observed an adverse effect of poor psychosocial work factors on workers' health: 3 on sickness absence, 4 on cardiovascular diseases. The other 3 studies reported detrimental effects on sleep and on disease-associated biomarkers. A more consistent effect was observed in studies of higher methodological quality that used a prospective design jointly with the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment and clinical

  17. Relation between psychosocial variables and the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional and prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai Keisuke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional and prospective study used a variety of psychological inventories to evaluate the relationship between psychosocial factors and the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants were 304 patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated as outpatients at diabetes clinics. All participants were assessed for HbA1c and completed the following self-report psychological inventories: 1 Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ, 2 Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey (PAID, 3 Well-being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12, 4 Self-Esteem Scale (SES, 5 Social Support Scale, and 6 Self-Efficacy Scale. HbA1c was again measured one year later. The relationships between the psychosocial variables obtained by analysis of the psychological inventories and baseline or one-year follow-up HbA1c were determined. Results Baseline HbA1cwas significantly correlated with age, diet treatment regimen, number of microvascular complication of diabetes, and the total scores of DTSQ, W-BQ12, PAID, SES and the Self-Efficacy Scale. Hierarchical stepwise multiple regression revealed that significant predictors of baseline HbA1c were total DTSQ and PAID scores, along with age, diet treatment regimen, and number of microvascular complication of diabetes after adjustment for demographic, clinical and other psychosocial variables. Two hundred and ninety patients (95.4% of 304 were followed and assessed one year after baseline. Hierarchical stepwise multiple regression analysis showed the significant predictors of follow-up HbA1c to be total DTSQ and PAID scores, along with age and diet treatment regimen. However, the correlation between baseline and follow-up HbA1c was so high that the only other variable to retain significance was diet treatment regimen once baseline HbA1c was included in the regression of follow-up HbA1c. Conclusion The DTSQ and the PAID predicted both current and future HbA1c to a similar and

  18. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Skidmore Edwards

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed.

  19. Risk assessment of groundwater level variability using variable Kriging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the water table level spatial variability in aquifers provides useful information regarding optimal groundwater management. This information becomes more important in basins where the water table level has fallen significantly. The spatial variability of the water table level in this work is estimated based on hydraulic head measured during the wet period of the hydrological year 2007-2008, in a sparsely monitored basin in Crete, Greece, which is of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest. Three Kriging-based methodologies are elaborated in Matlab environment to estimate the spatial variability of the water table level in the basin. The first methodology is based on the Ordinary Kriging approach, the second involves auxiliary information from a Digital Elevation Model in terms of Residual Kriging and the third methodology calculates the probability of the groundwater level to fall below a predefined minimum value that could cause significant problems in groundwater resources availability, by means of Indicator Kriging. The Box-Cox methodology is applied to normalize both the data and the residuals for improved prediction results. In addition, various classical variogram models are applied to determine the spatial dependence of the measurements. The Matérn model proves to be the optimal, which in combination with Kriging methodologies provides the most accurate cross validation estimations. Groundwater level and probability maps are constructed to examine the spatial variability of the groundwater level in the basin and the associated risk that certain locations exhibit regarding a predefined minimum value that has been set for the sustainability of the basin's groundwater resources. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the

  20. Vitiligo impact scale: An instrument to assess the psychosocial burden of vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurang S Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo is a disease that significantly impairs quality of life. Previous studies have shown that vitiligo has an impact that may not correlate with the size and extent of depigmentation, indicating a need for an independent measure of the psychosocial burden. Aims : To develop a rating scale to assess the psychosocial impact of vitiligo. Methods : The study was undertaken in three broad phases: item generation, pre- and pilot testing, and test administration. Items were generated largely from a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of patients. Face and content validity were assessed through pre- and pilot testing in 80 patients and the final version was administered to 100 patients who also received the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI and the Skindex-16. Each patient also underwent a physician global assessment (PGA of the impact of vitiligo. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 20 patients. Results: Of 72 items initially generated for the scale, 27 were retained in the final version. Subjects were able to comprehend the items and took about 5-7 min to complete the instrument. The scale was internally consistent (Cronbach′s α = 0.85. Scores on the scale correlated moderately well with the DLQI and the Skindex (Spearman rank correlation: 0.51 and 0.65, respectively. The scale was able to discriminate between patients having mild and those having moderate and severe impact as assessed by PGA. The test-retest reliability coefficient (Spearman rank correlation was 0.80. Conclusion: The Vitiligo Impact Scale appears to be a valid measure of the psychosocial impact of vitiligo and this instrument may be useful both in the clinic and in clinical trials.

  1. An assessment of variability in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, E.M.; Baxter, M.S.; Aitchison, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of replicate experiments, involving analysis of homogenized wood and identical tree-ring sections, suggests that the 14 C counting error in radiocarbon dating quantifies only part of the total variability of measurement. Statistical modelling implies that a more realistic assessment of error is provided by a value approximately three times the counting error. The incorporation of this more realistic measure of variability into an appropriate procedure for calibrating a single date and for matching a floating chronology to a master chronology is described. (author)

  2. Mental health and psychosocial support for South Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda: a needs and resource assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Adaku, Alex; Okello, James; Lowry, Blakeley; Kane, Jeremy C.; Alderman, Stephen; Musisi, Seggane; Tol, Wietse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since December 2013, an armed conflict in South Sudan has resulted in the displacement of over 2.2 million people, more than 270,000 of whom are presently in refugee settlements located throughout Uganda. Existing literature suggests that refugees are at increased risk for a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. There is international consensus on the importance of needs and resource assessments to inform potential mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interven...

  3. Developing an African youth psychosocial assessment: an application of item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Yang, Frances; Bolton, Paul; Normand, Sharon-Lise

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to refine a dimensional scale for measuring psychosocial adjustment in African youth using item response theory (IRT). A 60-item scale derived from qualitative data was administered to 667 war-affected adolescents (55% female). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) determined the dimensionality of items based on goodness-of-fit indices. Items with loadings less than 0.4 were dropped. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the scale's dimensionality found under the EFA. Item discrimination and difficulty were estimated using a graded response model for each subscale using weighted least squares means and variances. Predictive validity was examined through correlations between IRT scores (θ) for each subscale and ratings of functional impairment. All models were assessed using goodness-of-fit and comparative fit indices. Fisher's Information curves examined item precision at different underlying ranges of each trait. Original scale items were optimized and reconfigured into an empirically-robust 41-item scale, the African Youth Psychosocial Assessment (AYPA). Refined subscales assess internalizing and externalizing problems, prosocial attitudes/behaviors and somatic complaints without medical cause. The AYPA is a refined dimensional assessment of emotional and behavioral problems in African youth with good psychometric properties. Validation studies in other cultures are recommended. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Study protocol for a comparative effectiveness trial of two models of perinatal integrated psychosocial assessment: the PIPA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Nicole; Black, Emma; Chambers, Georgina M; Schmied, Virginia; Matthey, Stephen; Farrell, Josephine; Kingston, Dawn; Bisits, Andrew; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2017-07-20

    Studies examining psychosocial and depression assessment programs in maternity settings have not adequately considered the context in which psychosocial assessment occurs or how broader components of integrated care, including clinician decision-making aids, may optimise program delivery and its cost-effectiveness. There is also limited evidence relating to the diagnostic accuracy of symptom-based screening measures used in this context. The Perinatal Integrated Psychosocial Assessment (PIPA) Project was developed to address these knowledge gaps. The primary aims of the PIPA Project are to examine the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of two alternative models of integrated psychosocial care during pregnancy: 'care as usual' (the SAFE START model) and an alternative model (the PIPA model). The acceptability and perceived benefit of each model of care from the perspective of both pregnant women and their healthcare providers will also be assessed. Our secondary aim is to examine the psychometric properties of a number of symptom-based screening tools for depression and anxiety when used in pregnancy. This is a comparative-effectiveness study comparing 'care as usual' to an alternative model sequentially over two 12-month periods. Data will be collected from women at Time 1 (initial antenatal psychosocial assessment), Time 2 (2-weeks after Time 1) and from clinicians at Time 3 for each condition. Primary aims will be evaluated using a between-groups design, and the secondary aim using a within group design. The PIPA Project will provide evidence relating to the clinical- and cost- effectiveness of psychosocial assessment integrated with electronic clinician decision making prompts, and referral options that are tailored to the woman's psychosocial risk, in the maternity care setting. It will also address research recommendations from the Australian (2011) and NICE (2015) Clinical Practice Guidelines. ACTRN12617000932369.

  5. Training Effects on Older Adults in Information and Communication Technologies Considering Psychosocial Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sónia; Torres, Ana; Mealha, Óscar; Veloso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to contribute knowledge about the impact of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) on the self-concept, mood, and quality of life of institutionalized older adults in retirement homes and day care centers (Portuguese institutions). It also studies the influence of independent variables such as…

  6. Being Nontraditional and Learning Online: Assessing the Psychosocial Learning Environments, Self-Efficacy, and Affective Outcomes among College Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Roslyn La'Toya

    2014-01-01

    The study compared traditional and nontraditional students' attitudes about the psychosocial learning environment and their influence on self-efficacy, enjoyment of online learning, and student satisfaction by using Moos' (1979) Model of Environmental and Personal Variables and the three dimensions of social climate as its theoretical framework.…

  7. The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Growth and Psychosocial Variables in Survivors of State Terrorism and Their Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Faúndez-Abarca, Ximena; Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ceruti-Mahn, Cristián

    2017-08-01

    The present study explores reports of growth in survivors and family members of victims of state terrorism ( N = 254) in Chile from 1973 to 1990. The results indicate the presence of reports of posttraumatic growth ( M = 4.69) and a positive and statistically significant correlation with variables related to the life impact of the stressful events ( r = .46), social sharing of emotions ( r = .32), deliberate rumination ( r = .37), positive reappraisal ( r = .35), reconciliation ( r = .39), spiritual practices ( r = .33), and meaning in life ( r = .51). The relationship between growth and forgiveness is not statistically significant. The variables that best predict posttraumatic growth are positive reappraisal (β = .28), life impact (β = .24), meaning in life β = .23), and reconciliation (β = .20). The forward-method hierarchical model indicates that these variables are significant predictors of growth levels, R 2 = .53, F(8, 210) = 30.08, p state terrorism manage to grow after these experiences, and the redefinition of meaning in life and the positive reappraisal of the traumatic experiences are the elements that make it possible to create a new narrative about the past.

  8. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ben Ch; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors' knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as predictors with any sample populations. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to test the predictive power of perceived stress, social support, bidirectional acculturation (i.e., Canadian acculturation and heritage acculturation), religious coping and cultural coping (i.e., collective, avoidance, and engagement coping) in explaining positive and negative affect in a multiethnic sample of 301 undergraduate students in Canada. Two hierarchal multiple regressions were conducted, one for each affect as the dependent variable, with the above described predictors. The results supported the hypotheses and showed the two overall models to be significant in predicting affect of both kinds. Specifically, a higher level of positive affect was predicted by a lower level of perceived stress, less use of religious coping, and more use of engagement coping in dealing with stress by the participants. Higher level of negative affect, however, was predicted by a higher level of perceived stress and more use of avoidance coping in responding to stress. The current findings highlight the value and relevance of empirically examining the stress-coping-adaptation experiences of diverse populations from an affective conceptual framework, particularly with the inclusion of positive affect. Implications and recommendations for advancing future research and theoretical works in this area are considered and presented.

  9. Midwives' emotional wellbeing: impact of conducting a structured antenatal psychosocial assessment (SAPSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollart, Lyndall; Newing, Carol; Foureur, Maralyn

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the impact of conducting structured antenatal psychosocial assessments (SAPSA) on midwives' emotional wellbeing. The SAPSA includes screening and assessment tools for domestic violence, childhood trauma, drug and alcohol use, depression, and vulnerability factors. Registered midwives who had conducted the SAPSA with women during the first hospital booking visit at two hospitals in NSW. Data was collected by means of focus group interviews. Four sub-themes were identified that directly impacted upon the midwives' emotional wellbeing: cumulative complex disclosures, frustration and stress, lack of support for midwives and unhealthy coping strategies. There was a cumulative emotional effect with some midwives utilising unhealthy strategies to cope with feelings of frustration, inadequacy and vicarious trauma. Establishment of structured referral pathways for women and supportive systems for midwives is essential prior to implementing the SAPSA.

  10. Relationships between occupational functioning and stress among radio journalists--Assessment by means of the Psychosocial Risk Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najder, Anna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Wójcik, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Job characteristics and the consequences of everyday stress among radio journalists who are not exposed to traumatic events have not been studied sufficiently before. We aimed at determining the most common job characteristics and their stressfulness; relationships between stress exposure, health and occupational functioning; differences between radio journalists and other journalists, and also the psychosocial risk for health and functioning in this group. The studied group involved 208 journalists, 134 of whom worked in radio stations. The respondents filled in the Psychosocial Risks Scale (PRS) developed by the Department of Health and Work Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. Requirement of mental effort and readiness to response quickly for most of the time as well as limited possibilities for promotion were the most frequent journalists' complaints. We confirmed that higher levels of stress resulted in worse functioning--the radio journalists who experienced lower stress assessed their health status and ability to work better, were more satisfied with particular aspects of their work, and were more involved in their work. They also presented a significantly lower turnover intention. Moreover, the radio journalists were more involved in their work than other journalists, but experienced lower satisfaction, took more sick leaves and had more days of absence. Well-known relationships between stress level, satisfaction and occupational functioning were confirmed. The most important conclusion refers to the fact that psychosocial risks and stress analysis should be based on the understanding of specificity of each occupation or even position. It is so, because the same job characteristic may pose a challenge for one person, while for another--it can result in extreme discomfort and anxiety--such an attitude broadens understanding of the phenomenon. We also confirmed that the PRS is a well-designed method, appropriate to

  11. Retrospectively assessed psychosocial working conditions as predictors of prospectively assessed sickness absence and disability pension among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-01-17

    The aim was to explore the association between retrospectively assessed psychosocial working conditions during working life and prospectively assessed risk of sickness absence and disability pension among older workers. The prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension was estimated from exposure to 12 different psychosocial work characteristics during working life among 5076 older workers from the CAMB cohort (Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank). Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for age, gender, physical work environment, lifestyle, education, and prior LTSA. LTSA was predicted by high levels of cognitive demands (HR 1.31 (95% CI 1.10-1.56)), high levels of emotional demands (HR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07-1.48)), low levels of influence at work (HR 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.64)), and high levels of role conflicts (HR 1.34 (95% CI 1.09-1.65)). Disability pension was predicted by low levels of influence at work (HR 2.73 (95% CI 1.49-5.00)) and low levels of recognition from management (HR 2.04 (95% CI 1.14-3.67)). This exploratory study found that retrospectively assessed high cognitive demands, high and medium emotional demands, low influence at work, low recognition from management, medium role clarity, and high role conflicts predicted LTSA and/or disability pension.

  12. Psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods as defined by the Midwest Food Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ramona; Smith, Chery

    2002-01-01

    To examine psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods using an expanded Theory of Planned Behavior. Consumers were approached at the store entrance and asked to complete a self-administered survey. Three metropolitan Minnesota grocery stores. Participants (n = 550) were adults who shopped at the store: the majority were white, female, and highly educated and earned >or= 50,000 dollars/year. Participation rates averaged 62%. The major domain investigated was consumer support for sustainably produced foods. Demographics, beliefs, attitudes, subjective norm, and self-identity and perceived behavioral control were evaluated as predictors of intention to purchase them. Descriptive statistics, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson product moment correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses (P Consumers were supportive of sustainably produced foods but not highly confident in their ability to purchase them. Independent predictors of intention to purchase them included attitudes, beliefs, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, past buying behavior, and marital status. Beliefs, attitudes, and confidence level may influence intention to purchase sustainably produced foods. Nutrition educators could increase consumers' awareness of sustainably produced foods by understanding their beliefs, attitudes, and confidence levels.

  13. Psychosocial aspects of nuclear developments: Psychiatric assessments of 100 prospective security inspectors for a nuclear establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    This presentation has a dual purpose; (1) to encourage studies on psychosocial aspects of nuclear developments; and (2) to report conclusions made by the author during the course of more than 100 recent psychiatric assessments of applicants for security inspector positions at a nuclear establishment. An appreciable proportion of the applicants had prior military or police tactical experience. One conclusion involves the judgment of the applicants in handling a challenging security situation. Without additional training, personality structure as opposed to general knowledge, experience or intelligence may be the dominant factor in determining the use of an appropriate, nonviolent response in a security situation. A second conclusion involves the degree to which the applicants were uninformed about radiation

  14. [Assessment of the impact of psycho-social environment on toddlers' physical and neuropsychic development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrariu, F D; Gavăt, Viorica; Amarandei, Magda Elena

    2007-01-01

    Psycho-social environment is influencing directly toddler's development, with a major impact in the first three years of life. Family is the first social environment for the infant, and later for toddler, and depending to the quality of this relation will evolve the adult. To assess the impact of psycho-social environment on the toddler's development. We have analyzed by using a questionnaire a number of 200 families, in order to assess their level of environmental risk and to correlate it with the toddlers' development. The highest risk scores were obtained by families who sent the toddler in a foster home, followed by the families who use a day care center, and at last by the families where toddler remains in the family's home till he is 3 years old. 51.66% of the toddlers who goes in a day care center and 85% of the toddlers who are sent to foster home are exposed to a relative risk lower by 2.7 times to be retarded compared to the situation of remaining in the natural home. On the other hand, in family environment with a mild risk there are significant more disharmonic children than in the families with a lower risk score (p = 0.0452). The toddler's chances to evolve, by physical perspective, negatively in institutional environment are significantly higher if he comes from a family with mild risk score than in a family with a lower risk score (p = 0.0157). In every life environment where lives a toddler, confronted with specific problems, should take immediate action the general practitioner, the child development specialist and the environmental health expert, in a coordinate manner, to identify and correct all the aspects who may disturb the normal evolution of the toddler's growth and development.

  15. Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study......Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study...

  16. The influence of psychosocial variables on the use of religious/spiritual coping and quality of life among Danish cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Heidi Frølund; Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Zachariae, Robert

    “THE INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOSOCIAL VARIABLES ON THE USE OF RELIGIOUS/SPIRITUAL COPING AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG DANISH CANCER PATIENTS” Pedersen, H.F., Pedersen, C.G., Zachariae, R. Psychooncology Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital and University of Aarhus, Denmark Aim: Use of religious....../spiritual resources in coping may be prevalent in patients with cancer considering the life-threatening nature of the illness. Religious/spiritual coping has been found to have both positive and negative effects on quality of life and illness adjustment among cancer patients, with adaptive religious coping styles...... on quality of life Design/Method: A prospective study of 1.500 newly diagnosed Danish lung cancer patients, will be compared to a healthy, age and gender matched control group with respect to their use of religious/spiritual coping, quality of life, and relevant psychosocial variables. Lung cancer patients...

  17. The effects of yoga on psychosocial variables and exercise adherence: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Stephanie; Pinto Zipp, Genevieve; Parasher, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious issue for the American public. Because of conditions that result from inactivity, individuals incur close to $1 trillion USD in health-care costs, and approximately 250 000 premature deaths occur per year. Researchers have linked engaging in yoga to improved overall fitness, including improved muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and balance. Researchers have not yet investigated the impact of yoga on exercise adherence. The research team assessed the effects of 10 weeks of yoga classes held twice a week on exercise adherence in previously sedentary adults. The research team designed a randomized controlled pilot trial. The team collected data from the intervention (yoga) and control groups at baseline, midpoint, and posttest (posttest 1) and also collected data pertaining to exercise adherence for the yoga group at 5 weeks posttest (posttest 2). The pilot took place in a yoga studio in central New Jersey in the United States. The pretesting occurred at the yoga studio for all participants. Midpoint testing and posttesting occurred at the studio for the yoga group and by mail for the control group. Participants were 27 adults (mean age 51 y) who had been physically inactive for a period of at least 6 months prior to the study. Interventions The intervention group (yoga group) received hour-long hatha yoga classes that met twice a week for 10 weeks. The control group did not participate in classes during the research study; however, they were offered complimentary post research classes. Outcome Measures The study's primary outcome measure was exercise adherence as measured by the 7-day Physical Activity Recall. The secondary measures included (1) exercise self-efficacy as measured by the Multidimensional Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale, (2) general well-being as measured by the General Well-Being Schedule, (3) exercise-group cohesion as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ), (4) acute feeling response

  18. Assessing psychosocial correlates of parental safety behaviour using Protection Motivation Theory : Stair gate presence and use among parents of toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); J. Brug (Hans); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); R. Dekker (Rieneke); P. den Hertog (Paul); H. Raat (Hein)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractUnintentional injury due to falls is one of the main reasons for hospitalization among children 0–4 years of age. The goal of this study was to assess the psychosocial correlates of parental safety behaviours to prevent falls from a staircase due to the lack of or the lack of adequate

  19. Art Therapy as a Cross-Cultural Means To Assess Psychosocial Health in Homeless and Orphaned Children in Kiev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Doris; Yorgin, Peter D.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on medical evaluation processes and art-based assessments used in identifying psychosocial health of children in orphanages in Kiev, Ukraine. Because American health professionals, including an art therapist/psychologist, had actually come to treat orphans, they were invited to state shelters never before open to foreigners. Includes…

  20. Combining fixed effects and instrumental variable approaches for estimating the effect of psychosocial job quality on mental health: evidence from 13 waves of a nationally representative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Kavanagh, Anne; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Pega, Frank; Petrie, Dennis

    2017-06-23

    Previous studies suggest that poor psychosocial job quality is a risk factor for mental health problems, but they use conventional regression analytic methods that cannot rule out reverse causation, unmeasured time-invariant confounding and reporting bias. This study combines two quasi-experimental approaches to improve causal inference by better accounting for these biases: (i) linear fixed effects regression analysis and (ii) linear instrumental variable analysis. We extract 13 annual waves of national cohort data including 13 260 working-age (18-64 years) employees. The exposure variable is self-reported level of psychosocial job quality. The instruments used are two common workplace entitlements. The outcome variable is the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). We adjust for measured time-varying confounders. In the fixed effects regression analysis adjusted for time-varying confounders, a 1-point increase in psychosocial job quality is associated with a 1.28-point improvement in mental health on the MHI-5 scale (95% CI: 1.17, 1.40; P variable analysis, a 1-point increase psychosocial job quality is related to 1.62-point improvement on the MHI-5 scale (95% CI: -0.24, 3.48; P = 0.088). Our quasi-experimental results provide evidence to confirm job stressors as risk factors for mental ill health using methods that improve causal inference. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. A pilot with computer-assisted psychosocial risk –assessment for refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugees experience multiple health and social needs. This requires an integrated approach to care in the countries of resettlement, including Canada. Perhaps, interactive eHealth tools could build bridges between medical and social care in a timely manner. The authors developed and piloted a multi-risk Computer-assisted Psychosocial Risk Assessment (CaPRA tool for Afghan refugees visiting a community health center. The iPad based CaPRA survey was completed by the patients in their own language before seeing the medical practitioner. The computer then generated individualized feedback for the patient and provider with suggestions about available services. Methods A pilot randomized trial was conducted with adult Afghan refugees who could read Dari/Farsi or English language. Consenting patients were randomly assigned to the CaPRA (intervention or usual care (control group. All patients completed a paper-pencil exit survey. The primary outcome was patient intention to see a psychosocial counselor. The secondary outcomes were patient acceptance of the tool and visit satisfaction. Results Out of 199 approached patients, 64 were eligible and 50 consented and one withdrew (CaPRA = 25; usual care = 24. On average, participants were 37.6 years of age and had lived 3.4 years in Canada. Seventy-two percent of participants in CaPRA group had intention to visit a psychosocial counselor, compared to 46 % in usual care group [X2 (1=3.47, p = 0.06]. On a 5-point scale, CaPRA group participants agreed with the benefits of the tool (mean = 4 and were ‘unsure’ about possible barriers to interact with the clinicians (mean = 2.8 or to privacy of information (mean = 2.8 in CaPRA mediated visits. On a 5-point scale, the two groups were alike in patient satisfaction (mean = 4.3. Conclusion The studied eHealth tool offers a promising model to integrate medical and social care to address the health and settlement

  2. Temporal relationships between awakening cortisol and psychosocial variables in inpatients with anorexia nervosa - A time series approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Beate; Stadnitski, Tatjana; Wesche, Daniela; Stroe-Kunold, Esther; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of the awakening salivary cortisol in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) using a time series design. We included ten AN inpatients, six with a very low BMI (high symptom severity, HSS group) and four patients with less severe symptoms (low symptom severity, LSS group). Patients collected salivary cortisol daily upon awakening. The number of collected saliva samples varied across patients between n=65 and n=229 (due to the different lengths of their inpatient stay). In addition, before retiring, the patients answered questions daily on the handheld regarding disorder-related psychosocial variables. The analysis of cortisol and diary data was conducted by using a time series approach. Time series showed that the awakening cortisol of the AN patients was elevated as compared to a control group. Cortisol measurements of patients with LSS essentially fluctuated in a stationary manner around a constant mean. The series of patients with HSS were generally less stable; four HSS patients showed a non-stationary cortisol awakening series. Antipsychotic medication did not change awakening cortisol in a specific way. The lagged dependencies between cortisol and depressive feelings became significant for four patients. Here, higher cortisol values were temporally associated with higher values of depressive feelings. Upon awakening, the cortisol of all AN patients was in the standard range but elevated as compared to healthy controls. Patients with HSS appeared to show less stable awakening cortisol time series compared to patients with LSS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Keloids: Assessment of effects and psychosocial- impacts on subjects in a black African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keloids are vexatious swelling on the skin or the conjuctiva. The effects and impacts of these lesions have not been assessed in a keloid endemic environment like Nigeria. Aims: The purpose of this study is to assess the psychosocial impact as well as effects of keloids on the subjects in a black African population where lesions are commonly seen. Methods: This is a prospective study which assesses the impacts of keloid on keloid patients. Consented patients who presented to the Plastic Surgery Clinic of the Lautech Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria were recruited into the study. A set of questionnaires were administered to all consented patients. The administered questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS version 10. Results: One hundred and thirty one patients were involved in this study. They comprised of 61 males and 70 females. Most (96.8% of them had the keloid lesion for more than one year. Sixteen (12.2% of the patients felt that keloids negatively affect their works, 64 (48.9% of the patients felt stigmatized by keloids, 28 (56.0% of them who had lesions in conspicuous parts while 24 (46.2% had lesions in non-conspicuous parts. Females (59.1% felt stigmatized than males. Only 47 (35.8% of the patients believed that keloid swelling limit their social interaction. Conclusion: Keloids do not appear to have significant negative impacts on keloid patients in a keloid-endemic community like a black African population.

  4. Assessment of safety and health of storage workers - a psychosocial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadłowska-Wrzesińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is still a lot to do as far as prevention and elimination of traditional health and work safety hazards is concerned, the problem of psychosocial risk prevention is extremely important nowadays. It is crucial to take into consideration the health of workers and promotion of health in the workplace, as the occupational stress epidemics is getting more and more widespread. Methods: The article is based on the statistic analysis of accidents at work as well as the analysis of health problems resulting from the job itself. The latest work safety reports have been reviewed and special attention has been paid to psychosocial risk analysis. The author has tried to explicate the terms of new and emerging risks as regards storage work. Results: Various threat aspects of storage work have been evaluated. Deficits in psychosocial hazard identification have been indicated. What is more, no correlation between occupational tasks of storage workers and their knowledge about psychosocial risks has been emphasized.  An exemplified approach to warehouse psychosocial threat identification has been presented. The approach is based on the diagnosis of the current situation.  Conclusions: The psychosocial risk of storage work may lead to health deterioration, greater accident risk and worse performance at work. Such consequences mean that the psychosocial risks affect both an individual and the organization. Therefore, we should expect more intense efforts to increase psychosocial risk awareness of both employers and employees.

  5. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) in clinical practice--substance and reliability as judged by intraclass correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, J; Larsen, F W; Nielsen, S

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the inter-rater reliability on the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and the Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) involving different subgroups of 145 outpatients from 4 to 16 years of age showed fair to substantial intraclass correlations of 0.59 to 0.90. Raters...

  6. Psychosocial Distress of Patients with Psoriasis: Protocol for an Assessment of Care Needs and the Development of a Supportive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Jördis Maria; Dirmaier, Jörg; Augustin, Matthias; Dwinger, Sarah; Christalle, Eva; Härter, Martin; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2018-02-07

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is often associated with a number of somatic and mental comorbidity. Patients with psoriasis show an increased risk of depression and (social) anxiety. The aims of this study are 1) to explore the psychosocial distress of patients with psoriasis and to assess their care needs; and 2) to develop a supportive intervention based on the prior results. A multi-stage design with four phases combining quantitative and qualitative methodology will be used and conducted in two centers. 1) A scoping review and focus groups will be used to design a questionnaire to assess the psychosocial distress and care needs of the patients. 2) The questionnaire developed in phase 1 will be used in a cross-sectional survey to assess the extent of psychosocial distress and supportive care needs in 400 patients with psoriasis. 3) A systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted to identify psychosocial and psychoeducational interventions for patients with psoriasis and to describe their effectiveness. 4) Based on the results of the phases 2 and 3 a manualized supportive intervention will be developed and the feasibility and acceptance of the intervention will be assessed. Currently, phase 1 of the project has been completed and the recruitment for phase 2 has been started. The systematic review and meta-analysis of phase 3 are conducted simultaneously to phase 2 and results are expected soon. Phase 4 has not been started yet. The expected results of this study will show the extent of psychosocial distress of patients with psoriasis in Germany and supplement previous research with findings about the supportive care needs of this patient group. Moreover, the developed intervention will help to address the psychosocial support needs of patients with psoriasis. Research shows that psychosocial support is strongly needed. ©Jördis Maria Zill, Jörg Dirmaier, Matthias Augustin, Sarah Dwinger, Eva Christalle, Martin Härter, Ulrich Mrowietz

  7. Psycho-oncology assessment in Chinese populations: a systematic review of quality of life and psychosocial measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, M K; Chambers, S K; Shum, D; Ip, D; Dunn, J

    2016-09-01

    This systematic review describes psychosocial and quality of life (QOL) measures used in psycho-oncology research with cancer patients and caregivers in China. Medline and PsycINFO databases were searched (1980-2014). Studies reviewed met the following criteria: English language; peer-reviewed; sampled Chinese cancer patients/caregivers; developed, validated or assessed psychometric properties of psychosocial or QOL outcome measures; and reported validation data. The review examined characteristics of measures and participants, translation and cultural adaptation processes and psychometric properties of the measures. Ninety five studies met review criteria. Common characteristics of studies reviewed were they: assessed primarily QOL measures, sampled patients with breast, colorectal, or head and neck cancer, and validated existing measures (>80%) originating in North America or Europe. Few studies reported difficulties translating measures. Regarding psychometric properties of the measures >50% of studies reported subscale reliabilities adaptation and psychometric testing of psychosocial measures is needed. Developing support structures for translating and validating psychosocial measures would enable this and ensure Chinese psycho-oncology clinical practice and research keeps pace with international focus on patient reported outcome measures and data management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the researchentropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitationduring 1964–2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy wasapplied on ...

  9. Coping Strategies as Predictors and Mediators of Disability-Related Variables and Psychosocial Adaptation: An Exploratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Wilson, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationships among four predictors (functional limitations, perceived visibility of condition, and two disability-associated affective responses-anxiety and depression), coping strategies, and two outcome measures of psychosocial adaptation to disability. Findings suggest that coping strategies add significantly to the variance in…

  10. 0173 Grouping strategies for exposure assessment of the psychosocial work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Morten Vejs; Schlünssen, Vivi; Basinas, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Individual response style, mood, expectations, and health status may affect reporting of the psychosocial work environment, and bias associations with outcomes. Reporting bias may be avoided by aggregating individual responses, ideally preserving exposure contrast. In this study, we e...

  11. Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale: Factor structure, reliability, and validity assessment in a sample of Greek breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokotroni, Philippa; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Missitzis, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    The study and measurement of psychosocial adjustment is important for evaluating patients' well-being, and assessing the illness's course, treatment's success, and patients' recovery. In this study, internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Greek version of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self-Report (PAIS-SR) were examined. Demographic and psychosocial data were collected from a sample of 243 women with breast cancer, recruited from September 2011 to December 2012. With some exceptions in specific items, the original conceptually-derived PAIS-SR subscales emerged in a seven-factor solution. Social Environment, Job and Household Duties, and Psychological Distress accounted for more of the total variance than other subscales. PAIS-SR showed good internal consistency reliability, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients >0.62. Correlations of PAIS-SR domains with measures of quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms supported the convergent validity of the PAIS-SR and its significance for cancer research. The Greek version of the PAIS-SR has acceptable internal consistency reliability and construct validity, as well as satisfactory convergent validity. Results provide some suggestions for the development of programs to evaluate adjustment status and implement psychosocial interventions among breast cancer survivors.

  12. Psychosocial assessment of lathyrism patients in rural Estie district of South Gondar, northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, H; Haimanot, R T

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred and thirty three patients in the lathyrism endemic rural Estie district of Northern Ethiopia were interviewed and examined to assess the psychosocial impacts of neurolathyrism. The majority of the affected were in the age group of 11-20 years (43%) followed by 21-30 years (29%). Males were more affected than females (4.8:1). Peak occurrences of neurolathyrism was observed at time of mobilization of the population in villagization and land diversification schemes. Females were affected to lesser extent and at an earlier age than males. Neurolathyrism affected matrimony among the rural farming population where marriage is considered as the most significant social achievement of any young member of the society. Divorce rate due to paralysis was 28%. It also influenced the choice of occupation among the afflicted rural people. Many males went into ecclesiastical professions. A significant number of males also took up occupations which traditionally were considered to be exclusively for women like basketry and embroidery. More females, not withstanding their age, were engaged in cattle-keeping. During the study, the rural communities were made aware of the association of neurolathyrism and consumptions of grass pea seed. It is believed that this step will enable communities to use home-based detoxifying methods and resort to alternate crops during times of food shortage.

  13. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. ... applied on precipitation data on a monthly, seasonally, annually, decade scale and the number of rainy ... 2015). As a result, such irregularities in precipitation,. i.e., droughts and floods can affect the ... (January–December), years and decades.

  14. PARTNER INVOLVEMENT: NEGOTIATING THE PRESENCE OF PARTNERS IN PSYCHOSOCIAL ASSESSMENT AS CONDUCTED BY MIDWIVES AND CHILD AND FAMILY HEALTH NURSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollans, Mellanie; Kohlhoff, Jane; Meade, Tanya; Kemp, Lynn; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Universal screening for maternal depression and assessment of psychosocial risks has been integrated into the routine perinatal care provided in many Australian hospitals, but to date, partners/fathers have been largely excluded from the process. This study explored the ways in which clinicians in health service settings include partners who attend antenatal and postnatal visits with women. Qualitative data were collected using observations (n = 54), interviews (n = 60), and discussion groups (n = 7) with midwives and child and family health nurses who conducted the appointments. Transcripts from observations, interviews, and discussion groups underwent qualitative analysis, and key themes were identified. Results showed partners to have little or no involvement in psychosocial assessment and depression screening. Thematic analysis revealed four key themes: negotiating partner exclusion, partial inclusion, women's business or a couple concern? and they know anyway. Partner involvement appeared to be challenged particularly by mandatory interpersonal violence screening, which, according to health service policy, is to be conducted confidentially. Overall, results highlighted partner involvement in perinatal depression screening and psychosocial assessment processes and identified some of the benefits such as partner disclosure, but also the challenges and complexities of inclusion of partners. Clinical implications and directions for further education and research are discussed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Negotiating policy in practice: child and family health nurses' approach to the process of postnatal psychosocial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollans, Mellanie; Schmied, Virginia; Kemp, Lynn; Meade, Tanya

    2013-04-08

    There is growing recognition internationally of the need to identify women with risk factors for poor perinatal mental health in pregnancy and following birth. In the state of New South Wales, Australia the Supporting Families Early policy provides a framework of assessment and support for women and families and includes routine psychosocial assessment and depression screening. This study investigated the approach taken by Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs) following birth to assessment and screening as recommended by state policy. This was a qualitative ethnographic study that included 83 CFHN and 20 women. Observations occurred with thirteen nurses; with 20 women, in the home or the clinic environment. An additional 70 nurses participated in discussion groups. An observational tool (4D&4R) and field notes were used to record observations and analysed descriptively using frequencies. Field notes, interview data and discussion group transcripts were analysed thematically. This was a qualitative ethnographic study that included 83 CFHN and 20 women. Observations occurred with thirteen nurses; with 20 women, in the home or the clinic environment. An additional 70 nurses participated in discussion groups. An observational tool (4D&4R) and field notes were used to record observations and analysed descriptively using frequencies. Field notes, interview data and discussion group transcripts were analysed thematically. CFHNs demonstrated a range of approaches to assessment and screening. Psychosocial assessment was conducted in 50% (10 out of the 20) of the interactions observed; however, all the women were screened using the Edinburgh Depression Scale. Four major themes that represent the approach taken to the assessment process were identified: 'Engagement: getting that first bit right', 'Doing some paperwork', 'Creating comfort' and 'Psychosocial assessment: doing it another way'. Nurses utilised other skills such as observing the women interacting with their baby

  16. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users' Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Jacqueline Susan; Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-06-30

    The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users' experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main limitations in the research were the nascency of the topic

  17. Assessing the psychosocial needs and program preferences of adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Lamia P; Galtieri, Liana R; Szalda, Dava; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) are a developmentally distinct cancer group, vulnerable to psychosocial late effects and with a range of unmet psychosocial needs. We sought to better understand psychosocial care needs and program preferences to inform development of more easily accessible and effective AYA psychosocial programs. AYA on and off treatment for cancer (n = 111, ages 12-25 years) were approached during an outpatient clinic visit and completed a survey as part of a quality improvement initiative. The survey comprised an open-ended question on challenges related to cancer and treatment and closed-ended questions on access to and preference for various services and programs. Qualitative analyses were used to summarize themes for most significant challenges, and descriptive statistics were used for closed-ended questions. Most common themes for challenges included treatments and associated physical changes, barriers to pursuit of academic/vocational goals, and social isolation. For preferred program focus, AYA ranked highest increasing strength and endurance/reintegration into sports and dealing with physical changes resulting from treatment. AYA's preferred modalities for program delivery were one-on-one/in person and message boards/Facebook. Most of the sample indicated that lack of awareness prevented their accessing available programs. New information was identified that can be used to address access barriers and to offer AYA psychosocial programs in formats that might improve interest and accessibility. Ongoing evaluation of AYA psychosocial programs is recommended to determine acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness to meet the evolving needs of AYA patients with cancer.

  18. Psycho-social outcome in liver transplanted children: beware of emotional self-assessment!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinescu, Ana Maria; McLin, Valérie A; Belli, Dominque; Wildhaber, Barbara E

    2012-08-10

    Psycho-social outcome in children after liver transplantation (LT) is known to be inferior to age-related peers. Yet, when children and their parents are questioned by their nurse or physician about the child's psycho-social well-being, the answers usually are very positive. We hypothesized that patients and their parents after LT report their psycho-social well-being too enthusiastically when enquired by their personal care takers. LT at the Children's University Hospital of Geneva 1992-2007, age >3 years, 2 years. Children and their parents were questioned by their well-known, familiar nurse at the annual follow up visit about their personal well-being. To allow for evaluation of answers, scores (good, medium, bad) were attributed to the different questions. 46 children were included in the study. Mean age at enquiry was 9.7 years (SD 4 years), mean time after LT was 7.5 years (SD 4.2 years). The different themes were reported as good for: parent-child relationship (83%), relationship with peers (98%), relation with siblings (39%), sport activities (54%), play activities (78%), school performance (87%), expression skills (67%), and general behavior (89%). Most of our LT children and their parents consider, during a personal interview with a closely related, familiar nurse, that the child's psycho-social outcome is good. Yet, it is generally acknowledged that children after LT have negatively altered psycho-social outcomes. Thus, emotionally influenced reports about psycho-social outcome in children after LT must be looked at with care.

  19. Assessment of variable application rates of biological amendment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of variable application rates of biological amendment substances on establishment and growth characteristics of maize plants. ... Hence, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in 2008 to assess the effects of variable rates (50, 75 and 100% of the recommended rates) of industrial manufactured biological ...

  20. Psychosocial factors, lifestyle, and fetal growth: the added value of both pre- and post-natal assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejin-Karlsson, Elisabeth; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2003-09-01

    Psychosocial resources as well as lifestyle habits during pregnancy have been shown to effect the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) child. Most previous studies are based on a single assessment of these exposures, which does not take into account the possibility of different effects during early and late stages of pregnancy. The impact of psychosocial and lifestyle factors on the risk of giving birth to an SGA child (as measured by ultrasound) was examined among 747 nulliparous Swedish women who completed both a prenatal baseline, and a post-partum assessment. Those registering low social participation on both assessments showed increased risk of giving birth to an SGA infant (OR = 2.44 and 95% CI: 1.06-5.66), while at one assessment (OR = 1.70 and 95% CI: 0.74-3.91). Maternal smoking confirmed by both or one assessments yielded an OR = 2.72 and 95% CI: 1.37-5.39 and OR = 1.60 and 95% CI: 0.58-4.46, respectively. During early pregnancy, poor instrumental support, maternal smoking, or passive smoking yielded increased risks of SGA, adjusted for confounding (OR = 2.39 and 95% CI: 1.11-5.17; OR = 2.38 and 95% CI: 1.27-4.49; OR = 2.92 and 95% CI: 1.17-7.32, respectively). In late pregnancy, only maternal smoking yielded a significant association (OR = 2.34 and 95% CI: 1.24-4.41). Scheduling repeated assessments of psychosocial resources and lifestyle factors during pregnancy yielded additional information. The findings suggest that there can be differential effects of such exposures depending on gestational stage. This information is of importance when designing appropriate intervention strategies for maternal health services as well as for public health relevant policy formulation (e.g. regarding exposure to environmental tobacco during pregnancy).

  1. [Feasibility and acceptance of computer-based assessment for the identification of psychosocially distressed patients in routine clinical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlen, Susanne; Ott, Martin; Marten-Mittag, Birgitt; Haimerl, Wolfgang; Dinkel, Andreas; Duehmke, Eckhart; Klein, Christian; Schaefer, Christof; Herschbach, Peter

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated feasibility and acceptance of computer-based assessment for the identification of psychosocial distress in routine radiotherapy care. 155 cancer patients were assessed using QSC-R10, PO-Bado-SF and Mach-9. The congruence between computerized tablet PC and conventional paper assessment was analysed in 50 patients. The agreement between the 2 modes was high (ICC 0.869-0.980). Acceptance of computer-based assessment was very high (>95%). Sex, age, education, distress and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) did not influence acceptance. Computerized assessment was rated more difficult by older patients (p = 0.039) and patients with low KPS (p = 0.020). 75.5% of the respondents supported referral for psycho-social intervention for distressed patients. The prevalence of distress was 27.1% (QSC-R10). Computer-based assessment allows easy identification of distressed patients. Level of staff involvement is low, and the results are quickly available for care providers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Assessing Psychosocial Impairment in Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Barkley Functional Impairment Scale (BFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Appraising psychosocial impairment is an essential enterprise of diagnostic decision-making in the field of school psychology. Despite its importance, few practitioners utilize systematic procedures when engaging in this process, despite the fact that a number of impairment measures and scales have been developed specifically for this purpose. The…

  3. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  4. The effects of internet communication on adolescents' psychosocial development: an assessment of risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss both the appeal and psychosocial consequences of different types of Internet communication, such as instant messaging and social network sites. We identify five characteristics of Internet communication that may explain both the attraction of Internet communication for

  5. Age-Related Patterns in Cancer Pain and Its Psychosocial Impact: Investigating the Role of Variability in Physical and Mental Health Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Lynn R; Dworkin, Robert H; Warr, David; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Macpherson, Alison K; Rodin, Gary; Zimmermann, Camilla; Lawrence Librach, S; Moore, Malcolm; Shepherd, Frances A; Gagliese, Lucia

    2017-03-03

    Age-related patterns in cancer pain remain equivocal. Most studies ignore heterogeneity across multiple domains of well-being, and the potential role of physical (PH) and mental health (MH) quality of life (QOL) in these age-related patterns is unknown. We investigated the relationships between age and cancer pain intensity, qualities, and interference, and physical and psychosocial adaptation and the interaction between age and PH and MH QOL on pain and adaptation to cancer pain. In this cross-sectional study, 244 patients with advanced cancer and pain completed measures of pain, QOL, physical function, and psychosocial well-being. Pearson's correlations and ANOVAs assessed relationships between age and demographic and clinical factors, pain, and physical and psychosocial measures. Regression models tested the role of age and its interaction with PH and MH QOL on pain and physical and psychosocial adaptation. Older age was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving an opioid prescription, greater likelihood of having comorbidities, and worse functional status. When we did not account for these factors, age was not associated with pain and most adaptation indices. When we did account for these factors and PH QOL, older age was associated with lower non-neuropathic and neuropathic pain and several indices of psychosocial adaptation. Most interestingly, older age was associated with lower non-neuropathic pain among those with high, but not low, MH QOL. This study addresses knowledge gaps about factors underlying age-related patterns in cancer pain. Impaired MH QOL may be a proxy for age-related patterns in cancer pain. This study investigated age-related patterns in the experience of cancer pain and the role of quality of life in resilience and vulnerability to pain and adaptation to pain. Older age is associated with lower non-neuropathic pain among those with high, but not low, mental health quality of life, suggesting that impaired mental health quality of

  6. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users’ Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. Objective This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Results Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users’ experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. Conclusions There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main

  7. Effect of routine assessment of specific psychosocial problems on personalized communication, counselors’ awareness, and distress levels in cancer genetic counseling practice: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, Willem; Aaronson, Neil K; Hahn, Daniela E E; Sidharta, Grace N; van der Kolk, Lizet E; Velthuizen, Mary E; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2014-09-20

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a cancer genetics–specific questionnaire in facilitating communication about, awareness of, and management of psychosocial problems, as well as in lowering distress levels. Individuals referred to genetic counseling for cancer at two family cancer clinics in The Netherlands were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. All participants completed the psychosocial questionnaire before counseling. In the intervention group, the counselors received the results of this questionnaire before the counseling session. All sessions were audiotaped for content analysis. Primary outcomes were the frequency with which psychosocial problems were discussed, the genetic counselors’ awareness of these problems, and their management. Secondary outcomes included cancer worries and psychological distress, duration and dynamics of the counseling, and satisfaction. The frequency with which psychosocial problems were discussed with 246 participating counselees was significantly higher in the intervention group (n = 127) than in the control group (n =119; P = .004), as was the counselors’ awareness of psychosocial problems regarding hereditary predisposition (P cancer (P = .01), and general emotions (P cancer worries (p = .005) and distress (p = .02) after counseling. The routine assessment of psychosocial problems by questionnaire facilitates genetic counselors’ recognition and discussion of their clients’ psychosocial problems and reduces clients’ distress levels.

  8. Assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis: Variability of different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troelsen, Anders; Elmengaard, Brian; Soeballe, Kjeld; Roemer, Lone; Kring, Soeren

    2010-01-01

    Background: Reliable assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis is crucial in young adults who may benefit from joint-preserving surgery. Purpose: To investigate the variability of different methods for diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Material and Methods: By each of four observers, two assessments were done by vision and two by angle construction. For both methods, the intra- and interobserver variability of center-edge and acetabular index angle assessment were analyzed. The observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis were assessed. All measures were compared to those made on computed tomography scan. Results: Intra- and interobserver variability of angle assessment was less when angles were drawn compared with assessment by vision, and the observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia improved when angles were drawn. Assessment of osteoarthritis in general showed poor agreement with findings on computed tomography scan. Conclusion: We recommend that angles always should be drawn for assessment of hip dysplasia on pelvic radiographs. Given the inherent variability of diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia, a computed tomography scan could be considered in patients with relevant hip symptoms and a center-edge angle between 20 deg and 30 deg. Osteoarthritis should be assessed by measuring the joint space width or by classifying the Toennis grade as either 0-1 or 2-3

  9. Assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis: Variability of different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troelsen, Anders; Elmengaard, Brian; Soeballe, Kjeld (Orthopedic Research Unit, Univ. Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)), e-mail: a_troelsen@hotmail.com; Roemer, Lone (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)); Kring, Soeren (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Aabenraa Hospital, Aabenraa (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    Background: Reliable assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis is crucial in young adults who may benefit from joint-preserving surgery. Purpose: To investigate the variability of different methods for diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Material and Methods: By each of four observers, two assessments were done by vision and two by angle construction. For both methods, the intra- and interobserver variability of center-edge and acetabular index angle assessment were analyzed. The observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis were assessed. All measures were compared to those made on computed tomography scan. Results: Intra- and interobserver variability of angle assessment was less when angles were drawn compared with assessment by vision, and the observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia improved when angles were drawn. Assessment of osteoarthritis in general showed poor agreement with findings on computed tomography scan. Conclusion: We recommend that angles always should be drawn for assessment of hip dysplasia on pelvic radiographs. Given the inherent variability of diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia, a computed tomography scan could be considered in patients with relevant hip symptoms and a center-edge angle between 20 deg and 30 deg. Osteoarthritis should be assessed by measuring the joint space width or by classifying the Toennis grade as either 0-1 or 2-3

  10. [The NETWASS prevention model for early identification and assessment of adolescents in psychosocial crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Friederike; Fiedler, Nora; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research-based NETWASS prevention model aims to enable school staff to identify students experiencing a psychosocial crisis that could lead to severe targeted school violence and to initiate appropriate support measures. A detailed analysis of the adolescent psychosocial crisis is conducted at an early stage by evaluating possible warning behaviors, crisis symptoms, a student’s individual and social background, and resources. The model was implemented in 98 schools. During the project duration of seven months staff from 59 schools reported 99 cases of a student’s psychosocial crisis. Three experts conducted a content analysis of the reported qualitative data focusing on crisis symptoms of the students as well as the initiated measures. Results show a broad spectrum of risk factors, whereas aggressive behavior of students was reported most frequently. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, the reported cases were divided into three distinct risk groups. A total of eight high-risk cases were observed and reported by the school staff. The school staff mostly reacted to the student crisis by initiating resource-orientated measures, the expertise of child and youth therapists was mostly requested for the high risk cases. By describing the impact of cases and choice of measures undertaken, the study aims to give an overview of incidents schools as well as clinical psychologists and therapists are confronted with.

  11. Assessment of genetic variability of maize inbred lines and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic variability of maize inbred lines and their hybrids under normal and drought conditions. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for most of the characters under study which indicates the presence of sufficient amount of variability offering ample scope for ...

  12. Heart rate variability during acute psychosocial stress: A randomized cross-over trial of verbal and non-verbal laboratory stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Agostino; Zarbo, Cristina; Tarvainen, Mika P; Marchettini, Paolo; Adorni, Roberta; Compare, Angelo

    2018-05-01

    Acute psychosocial stress is typically investigated in laboratory settings using protocols with distinctive characteristics. For example, some tasks involve the action of speaking, which seems to alter Heart Rate Variability (HRV) through acute changes in respiration patterns. However, it is still unknown which task induces the strongest subjective and autonomic stress response. The present cross-over randomized trial sought to investigate the differences in perceived stress and in linear and non-linear analyses of HRV between three different verbal (Speech and Stroop) and non-verbal (Montreal Imaging Stress Task; MIST) stress tasks, in a sample of 60 healthy adults (51.7% females; mean age = 25.6 ± 3.83 years). Analyses were run controlling for respiration rates. Participants reported similar levels of perceived stress across the three tasks. However, MIST induced a stronger cardiovascular response than Speech and Stroop tasks, even after controlling for respiration rates. Finally, women reported higher levels of perceived stress and lower HRV both at rest and in response to acute psychosocial stressors, compared to men. Taken together, our results suggest the presence of gender-related differences during psychophysiological experiments on stress. They also suggest that verbal activity masked the vagal withdrawal through altered respiration patterns imposed by speaking. Therefore, our findings support the use of highly-standardized math task, such as MIST, as a valid and reliable alternative to verbal protocols during laboratory studies on stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Retrospectively assessed psychosocial working conditions as predictors of prospectively assessed sickness absence and disability pension among older workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2018-01-01

    absence (LTSA) and disability pension was estimated from exposure to 12 different psychosocial work characteristics during working life among 5076 older workers from the CAMB cohort (Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank). Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for age, gender, physical...

  14. Assessment of differences in psychosocial resources and state of health of rural and urban residents – based on studies carried out on students during examination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zarzycka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Civilization changes of the environment shaping the psychosocial resources from rural to urban influence human health. [b]aim.[/b] The study aimed to identify the differences due to the place of residence (rural, urban as far as health resources are concerned (social support, sense of coherence, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration in plasma and health in examination stress situations. The study also determined the concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (health resource and cortisol (stress indicator. [b]material and methods.[/b] The psychosocial variables were assessed using the scales: ISEL-48v. Coll., SOC-29, SF-36v.2™ o and analogue scale (perception of examination stress. The study included, based on a stratified sampling (year of study and purposive sampling (written examination, major, 731 students representing the six universities in Lublin, south-east Poland. Among the respondents, 130 students were rural residents. [b]results.[/b] Health resources of students living in rural and urban areas generally differ statistically significantly in social support and the subscales of availability of tangible support, availability of appreciative support, the availability of cognitive-evaluative support and a sense of resourcefulness. The study recorded a sstatistically significantly larger network of family ties among students living in rural areas. The demonstrated diversity of resources did not substantially affect the perceived health, with the exception of pain sensation. Examination stress assessed by subjective opinion of the respondents and plasma cortisol levels vary relative to the place of residence. Students residing in rural areas showed significantly lower cortisol levels values, but subjectively perceived the situation of examation as more stressful. [b]conclusions[/b]. Differences in health resources and their mechanism of impact on health, to a limited extent, were conditioned by the place

  15. Momentary Assessment of Psychosocial Stressors, Context, and Asthma Symptoms in Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve; Dzubur, Eldin; Li, Marilyn; Huh, Jimi; Intille, Stephen; McConnell, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a novel real-time data capture strategy, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to examine whether within-day variability in stress and context leads to exacerbations in asthma symptomatology in the everyday lives of ethnic minority adolescents. Low-income Hispanic adolescents (N = 20; 7th-12th grade; 54% male) with chronic asthma completed 7 days of EMA on smartphones, with an average of five assessments per day during non-school time. EMA surveys queried about where (e.g., home, outdoors) and with whom (e.g., alone, with friends) participants were at the time of the prompt. EMA surveys also assessed over the past few hours whether participants had experienced specific stressors (e.g., being teased, arguing with anyone), asthma symptoms (e.g., wheezing, coughing), or used an asthma inhaler. Multilevel models tested the independent relations of specific stressors and context to subsequent asthma symptoms adjusting for age, gender, and chronological day in the study. Being outdoors, experiencing disagreements with parents, teasing, and arguing were associated with more severe self-reported asthma symptoms in the next few hours (ps time data capture strategy, results provide preliminary evidence that being outdoors and experiencing social stressors may induce asthma symptoms in low-income Hispanic children and adolescents with chronic asthma. The results of this preliminary study can serve as a basis for larger epidemiological and intervention studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. PSYCHOSOCIAL MORBIDITY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING MASTECTOMY FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Konnakkaparambil Ramakrishnan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast Cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide and carries significant psychosocial morbidity. The diagnosis of the disease and the treatment modalities like surgery and chemotherapy contribute to the morbidity. The recognition of the psychosocial morbidity associated with mastectomy can help us formulate effective counselling strategies. The objectives of this study were- to assess the psychosocial morbidity in patients undergoing mastectomy for carcinoma breast, to identify the preoperative variables that predict the morbidity and to find out the correlation between degree of neuroticism of the individual and morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS 35 female patients who had mastectomy for breast cancer were evaluated at three time-points, preoperatively, immediately after surgery and 2 months after surgery. Anxiety and depression was assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, psychological distress was measured using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and neuroticism was assessed by Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism subscale (EPI-N. RESULTS There was a high level of anxiety, depression and GHQ scores preoperatively with a further worsening of these over the three interviews. Age, marital status and menopausal status were factors which had an influence on psychosocial morbidity. Preoperative EPI-N scores positively correlated with psychosocial morbidity. CONCLUSION There is a high level of psychosocial morbidity in patients undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer and mastectomy seems to worsen it in the first two months after surgery. Our study shows that psychosocial morbidity is affected by age, marital status, menopausal status and level of neuroticism.

  17. Mental health and psychosocial support for South Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda: a needs and resource assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaku, Alex; Okello, James; Lowry, Blakeley; Kane, Jeremy C; Alderman, Stephen; Musisi, Seggane; Tol, Wietse A

    2016-01-01

    Since December 2013, an armed conflict in South Sudan has resulted in the displacement of over 2.2 million people, more than 270,000 of whom are presently in refugee settlements located throughout Uganda. Existing literature suggests that refugees are at increased risk for a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. There is international consensus on the importance of needs and resource assessments to inform potential mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions. We conducted a MHPSS needs and resource assessment in Rhino Camp refugee settlement in northern Uganda, between June and August 2014. We followed World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) guidelines for MHPSS needs assessments in humanitarian settings. The assessment used a range of methodologies including: 1) a desk (literature) review to understand the context for mental health service provision; 2) an analysis of data from existing health information systems (HIS); 3) an assessment of the current infrastructure for service provision using a shortened version of a Who does What Where until When (4Ws); and 4) semi-structured individual and group interviews (total n = 86) with key informants (n = 13) and general community members (individual interviews n = 28, four focus groups with n = 45). Data from the HIS indicated that visits to health centers in refugee settlements attributable to psychotic disorders, severe emotional disorders, and other psychological complaints increased following the refugee influx between 2013 and 2014, but overall help-seeking from health centers was low compared to estimates from epidemiological studies. In semi-structured interviews the three highest ranked mental health and psychosocial problems included "overthinking", ethnic conflict, and child abuse. Other concerns included family separation, drug abuse, poverty, and unaccompanied minors. The 4Ws assessment revealed that there were

  18. Interrelationship of Cytokines, Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Hormones, and Psychosocial Variables in the Prediction of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, B.D.; Grove, J.; Bonney, E.A.; Bliwise, N.; Dudley, D.J.; Schendel, D.E.; Thorsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims To examine the relationship of biological mediators (cytokines, stress hormones), psychosocial, obstetric history, and demographic factors in the early prediction of preterm birth (PTB) using a comprehensive logistic regression model incorporating diverse risk factors. Methods In this prospective case-control study, maternal serum biomarkers were quantified at 9–23 weeks’ gestation in 60 women delivering at order interactions. Results Among individual biomarkers, we found that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), interleukin-10, C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α were statistically significant predictors of PTB at all cutoff levels tested (75th, 85th, and 90th percentiles). We fit multifactor models for PTB prediction at each biomarker cutoff. Our best models revealed that MIF, CRP, risk-taking behavior, and low educational attainment were consistent predictors of PTB at all biomarker cutoffs. The 75th percentile cutoff yielded the best predicting model with an area under the ROC curve of 0.808 (95% CI 0.743–0.874). Conclusion Our comprehensive models highlight the prominence of behavioral risk factors for PTB and point to MIF as a possible psychobiological mediator. PMID:20160447

  19. Relationship of psychological symptoms, antipsychotics and social data with psychosocial function in schizophrenia patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlelawati, A Talib; Kartini, Abdullah; Norsidah, Kuzaifah; Ramli, Musa; Wan Azizi, Wan Sulaiman; Tariq, Abdul Razak

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial function and the role of relevant sociodemographic data and antipsychotic use in the prediction of psychosocial function among multiracial schizophrenia outpatients in Malaysia. A total of 223 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Psychological symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale whilst the psychosocial function was assessed using the Personal and Social Performance scale. Sociodemographic and treatment variables were gathered through interview or review of the medical records. All dimensions of psychosocial functions were inversely correlated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale sub-domains. Only the disorganization sub-domain significantly predicts all dimensions of psychosocial function. For social data, body mass index and employment status were significant predictors of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. Typical antipsychotics significantly predict social function negatively as compared to sulpiride (β = -0.152, P = 0.028). We found that the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial functions were relatively consistent with the findings from the Caucasian population. Additionally, disorganization was the only significant predictor of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. This further emphasized the importance of cognition in psychosocial function. The roles of sulpiride, body mass index and employment status as predictors of psychosocial function were also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Assessing psychosocial correlates of parental safety behaviour using Protection Motivation Theory: stair gate presence and use among parents of toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirens, T M J; Brug, J; van Beeck, E F; Dekker, R; den Hertog, P; Raat, H

    2008-08-01

    Unintentional injury due to falls is one of the main reasons for hospitalization among children 0-4 years of age. The goal of this study was to assess the psychosocial correlates of parental safety behaviours to prevent falls from a staircase due to the lack of or the lack of adequate use of a stair gate. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaires mailed to a population sample of 2470 parents with toddlers. Associations between self-reported habits on the presence and use of stair gates and family and psychosocial factors were analysed, using descriptive statistics and multiple regression models, based on Protection Motivation Theory. The presence of stair gates was associated with family situation, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, social norms and descriptive norms. The use of stair gates was associated with family situation, response efficacy, self-efficacy and perceived advantages of safe behaviour. The full model explained 32 and 24% of the variance in the presence of stair gates and the use of stair gates, respectively, indicating a large and medium effect size. Programmes promoting the presence and adequate use of stair gates should address the family situation, personal cognitive factors as well as social factors.

  1. Development of a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Takuya; Fukuma, Shingo; Wakita, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Miho; Yabuki, Shoji; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a manifestation of interactions among physical, psychological, and social conditions, but the latter two, that is, the nonphysical correlates of chronic pain, are only rarely measured. This study aimed to develop a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. An expert panel chose social and psychological domains considered to be relevant to patients with chronic pain and wrote questions asking about each of those domains. The questionnaire was completed by 252 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Factor analysis was used to select questionnaire items for each domain. Associations and interactions of pain severity and each domain score with pain-related quality of life (PRQOL) were examined using linear regression models. Five domains were chosen: work, family, sleep, mental health, and PRQOL. Then, a total of 17 questions were created for the work, family, and sleep domains. Using the likelihood-ratio test, we found significant interactions with PRQOL in four pairs: severity–family, severity–mental, family–sleep, and work–mental. The association between pain severity and PRQOL was related to each patient’s social and psychological situation. These results suggest that interventions for patients with chronic pain may be personalized to account for each individual’s psychosocial situation. PMID:28814896

  2. Psychosocial Adjustment over a Two-Year Period in Children Referred for Learning Problems: Risk, Resilience, and Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Lisa G.; Forbes, Peter W.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Weiler, Michael D.; Mitchell, William M.; Waber, Deborah P.

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year study evaluated the relationship among psychosocial adjustment, changes in academic skills, and contextual factors in 100 children (ages 7-11) with learning problems. Contextual variables were significantly associated with psychosocial adaptation, including the effectiveness of the clinical assessment, extent of academic support, and the…

  3. Assessment of psychosocial outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review of available instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield CE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Pandora Patterson,3 Fiona E J McDonald,3 Helen L Wilson,1,2 Esther Davis,3 Ursula M Sansom-Daly2,41School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders, Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3CanTeen, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Given the burgeoning body of research relating to the psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer, this review aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and appropriateness of the instruments available for use in this unique population. Specifically, we reviewed published instruments developed to assess psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress, and fear of recurrence, psychological growth (resilience, posttraumatic growth, and benefit finding, unmet needs, coping, quality of life, identity, and mindfulness-based practices and skills in AYAs with cancer. Given the dearth of validated instruments targeting AYAs with cancer, this review also provides a summary of promising measures yet to be formally validated in this population.Methods: Five electronic databases were searched by a team of six researchers, and studies involving AYAs (who have or have had cancer aged 15–30 years, and published between 1982 and 2012 were reviewed. Of 410 abstracts, 7 instruments were identified as validated in this population, with a further 19 identified as promising.Results: While there are numerous scales to assess psychosocial outcomes in cancer, few have been specifically validated for AYAs affected by cancer, particularly in the domains of psychological distress, psychological growth, coping, unmet needs, and identity. There are relatively more instruments validated, or promising, for assessment of quality of life than scales for other domains.Conclusion: In the AYA context

  4. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Nicolaas, S. M.; Schepers, S. A.; van den Bergh, E. M. M.; de Boer, Y.; Streng, I.; van Dijk-Lokkart, E. M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Verhaak, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare

  5. Spatial variability and parametric uncertainty in performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pensado, Osvaldo; Mancillas, James; Painter, Scott; Tomishima, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    The problem of defining an appropriate treatment of distribution functions (which could represent spatial variability or parametric uncertainty) is examined based on a generic performance assessment model for a high-level waste repository. The generic model incorporated source term models available in GoldSim ® , the TDRW code for contaminant transport in sparse fracture networks with a complex fracture-matrix interaction process, and a biosphere dose model known as BDOSE TM . Using the GoldSim framework, several Monte Carlo sampling approaches and transport conceptualizations were evaluated to explore the effect of various treatments of spatial variability and parametric uncertainty on dose estimates. Results from a model employing a representative source and ensemble-averaged pathway properties were compared to results from a model allowing for stochastic variation of transport properties along streamline segments (i.e., explicit representation of spatial variability within a Monte Carlo realization). We concluded that the sampling approach and the definition of an ensemble representative do influence consequence estimates. In the examples analyzed in this paper, approaches considering limited variability of a transport resistance parameter along a streamline increased the frequency of fast pathways resulting in relatively high dose estimates, while those allowing for broad variability along streamlines increased the frequency of 'bottlenecks' reducing dose estimates. On this basis, simplified approaches with limited consideration of variability may suffice for intended uses of the performance assessment model, such as evaluation of site safety. (author)

  6. Input-variable sensitivity assessment for sediment transport relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roberto; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2017-09-01

    A methodology to assess input-variable sensitivity for sediment transport relations is presented. The Mean Value First Order Second Moment Method (MVFOSM) is applied to two bed load transport equations showing that it may be used to rank all input variables in terms of how their specific variance affects the overall variance of the sediment transport estimation. In sites where data are scarce or nonexistent, the results obtained may be used to (i) determine what variables would have the largest impact when estimating sediment loads in the absence of field observations and (ii) design field campaigns to specifically measure those variables for which a given transport equation is most sensitive; in sites where data are readily available, the results would allow quantifying the effect that the variance associated with each input variable has on the variance of the sediment transport estimates. An application of the method to two transport relations using data from a tropical mountain river in Costa Rica is implemented to exemplify the potential of the method in places where input data are limited. Results are compared against Monte Carlo simulations to assess the reliability of the method and validate its results. For both of the sediment transport relations used in the sensitivity analysis, accurate knowledge of sediment size was found to have more impact on sediment transport predictions than precise knowledge of other input variables such as channel slope and flow discharge.

  7. Development of a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaido T

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Takuya Nikaido,1 Shingo Fukuma,2,3 Takafumi Wakita,4 Miho Sekiguchi,1 Shoji Yabuki,1 Yoshihiro Onishi,5 Shunichi Fukuhara,2,3 Shin-ichi Konno1 On behalf of the profile scoring system for multilateral assessment of social factors in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain study group 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 2Department of Healthcare Epidemiology, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health, Kyoto, 3Center for Innovative Research for Communities and Clinical Excellence (CIRC2LE, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 4Department of Sociology, Kansai University, Osaka, 5Institute for Health Outcomes and Process Evaluation Research (iHope International, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: Chronic pain is a manifestation of interactions among physical, psychological, and social conditions, but the latter two, that is, the nonphysical correlates of chronic pain, are only rarely measured. This study aimed to develop a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. An expert panel chose social and psychological domains considered to be relevant to patients with chronic pain and wrote questions asking about each of those domains. The questionnaire was completed by 252 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Factor analysis was used to select questionnaire items for each domain. Associations and interactions of pain severity and each domain score with pain-related quality of life (PRQOL were examined using linear regression models. Five domains were chosen: work, family, sleep, mental health, and PRQOL. Then, a total of 17 questions were created for the work, family, and sleep domains. Using the likelihood-ratio test, we found significant interactions with PRQOL in four pairs: severity–family, severity–mental, family–sleep, and work–mental. The association between pain severity and PRQOL was

  8. Assessing variability in results in systematic reviews of diagnostic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; Ochodo, Eleanor A; Van Enst, Wynanda A; de Groot, Joris A H; Hooft, Lotty; Leeflang, Mariska M G; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To describe approaches used in systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies for assessing variability in estimates of accuracy between studies and to provide guidance in this area. METHODS: Meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy studies published between May and September

  9. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Rami S. Habeballa*, Nada B. Hamza and Eisa I. El Gaali. Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan. P. O. Box.

  10. Resolution of psychosocial crises associated with flying in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena

    2011-07-01

    Erikson (1959) proposed a theoretical basis for healthy psychosocial development. His theory posits eight critical conflict situations throughout one's lifetime, each of which can result in a favorable or unfavorable resolution. Autobiographies, memoirs, interviews, personal diaries, and oral histories of 97 international astronauts were content analyzed to assess reported resolutions of Erikson's psychosocial crises, regardless of chronological sequence. We made comparisons across flight phases (before, during, and after), gender, nationality of home space agency, and flight duration. Astronauts reported more favorable than unfavorable outcomes across flight phases and demographic variables. Differences across demographic variables and flight phases, as well as the changes as a result of the flight are discussed.

  11. Feminist Organizing in Rural Nicaragua: Assessing a Psychosocial Process to Promote Empowered Solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Anjali

    2018-04-19

    This study examines a psychosocial process linking women's involvement in a grassroots women's organization with skills and experiences to promote empowered solidarity. Empowered solidarity is described as a process of increasing the sense of connection and capacity to create social transformation among a group of people united by interest in addressing a social issue. Data collected and analyzed for this research were 298 quantitative surveys conducted with two groups of women living in rural Nicaragua. One group of women were members of a grassroots feminist organization, and the other group lived in nearby communities where the organization did not offer programs. Findings document higher levels of leadership skills and sense of community, and lower levels of powerlessness among members of the organization. Additionally, tests of a process model using structural equation modeling provides support for a model that links involvement in the organization to women's increased interest in, capacity and experience in working to support women, broadly. Overall findings from this research are valuable to both community psychologists and groups seeking to enhance social justice and uphold feminist values of equity and community well-being. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  12. On the role of "internal variability" on soil erosion assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongho; Ivanov, Valeriy; Fatichi, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Empirical data demonstrate that soil loss is highly non-unique with respect to meteorological or even runoff forcing and its frequency distributions exhibit heavy tails. However, all current erosion assessments do not describe the large associated uncertainties of temporal erosion variability and make unjustified assumptions by relying on central tendencies. Thus, the predictive skill of prognostic models and reliability of national-scale assessments have been repeatedly questioned. In this study, we attempt to reveal that the high variability in soil losses can be attributed to two sources: (1) 'external variability' referring to the uncertainties originating at macro-scale, such as climate, topography, and land use, which has been extensively studied; (2) 'geomorphic internal variability' referring to the micro-scale variations of pedologic properties (e.g., surface erodibility in soils with multi-sized particles), hydrologic properties (e.g., soil structure and degree of saturation), and hydraulic properties (e.g., surface roughness and surface topography). Using data and a physical hydraulic, hydrologic, and erosion and sediment transport model, we show that the geomorphic internal variability summarized by spatio-temporal variability in surface erodibility properties is a considerable source of uncertainty in erosion estimates and represents an overlooked but vital element of geomorphic response. The conclusion is that predictive frameworks of soil erosion should embed stochastic components together with deterministic assessments, if they do not want to largely underestimate uncertainty. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1D1A1B03931886).

  13. Labour market participants’ competitiveness assessment based on latent variables theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Sabetova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests innovative model for assessment of labour market subjects’ competitiveness, or successfulness. The authors state that general complex indicator for individual competitiveness within the labour market cannot be identified. Instead, precise enough assessment of such competitiveness can be based on some variables, though different for in-house and external labour market. The model of latent variables’ assessment based on Rasch’s method was selected as the base for the suggested method. The assessment model gives unbiased generalized values of subjects’ competitiveness on the linear non-dimensional scale based on the partial estimates of the selected criteria. The free choice of these criteria allows the model’s appliance for various labour market segments. The article demonstrates the mathematical grounding for the model; methodic of the assessment criteria selection; the way of assessment performance using MS Excel. It also analyses the features of the obtained estimates and shows their comparison with the estimates obtained by traditional methods. The model suggested by the authors can introduce any quantitative parameter of competitiveness as a variable after analysis of the factors affecting it. The quantitative estimates of these factors become the model’s criteria, but the assessment precision does not alter.

  14. Psychosocial impact on anophthalmic patients wearing ocular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, M C; dos Santos, D M; Bannwart, L C; Moreno, A; Pesqueira, A A; Haddad, M F; dos Santos, E G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the improvement in psychosocial awareness of anophthalmic patients wearing ocular prostheses and its relationship with demographic characteristics, factors of loss/treatment, social activity, and relationship between professional and patient. Surveys including a form for evaluation of psychosocial pattern were conducted with 40 anophthalmic patients rehabilitated with ocular prosthesis at the Center of Oral Oncology in the authors' dental school from January 1998 to November 2010. The improvement in psychosocial awareness was assessed by comparing the perception of some feelings reported in the period of eye loss and currently. Wilcoxon tests were applied for comparison of patients' perception between the periods. χ(2) tests were used to assess the relationship between the improvement in psychosocial awareness and the variables of the study. In addition, the logistic regression model measured this relationship with the measure of odds ratio. The feelings of shame, shyness, preoccupation with hiding it, sadness, insecurity and fear were significant for improvement in psychosocial awareness. It was concluded that the anophthalmic patients wearing an ocular prosthesis has significant improvement in psychosocial awareness after rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using an integrated approach to the assessment of the psychosocial work environment: the case of a major hospital in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Fiorella; Alaimo, Sara; Conway, P M

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Italian regulatory guidelines have been issued consisting of a stepwise procedure for the assessment and management of work-related stress. However, research that empirically examines whether this procedure proves effective in accurately identifying critical psychosocial factors and informing risk management is scarce. To examine the differential sensitivity of two approaches to risk assessment, the first based on objective instruments only, the second consisting of an integrated approach combining different methods and theoretical perspectives. We examined a sample of 306 healthcare employees in a large-size hospital in northern Italy, using a series of tools, both quantitative (an observational checklist and the HSE-IT and MOHQ questionnaires) and qualitative (Focus Groups). Through instrument-specific reference values, we then compared risk profiles between different homogeneous groups within the institution. The psychosocial work environment resulted to be far more positive when adopting the first compared to the second approach to risk assessment. The latter approach was also more sensitive in detecting between-groups differences in risk profiles. Furthermore, the Focus Groups returned a more context-specific picture of the psychosocial work environment. Finally, going beyond the emphasis on negative working conditions inherent in the other quantitative instruments, the MOHQ allowed for also identifying health-promoting factors in need for improvement. Although more research is needed to confirm our findings, the present study suggests that using an integrated approach to assess the psychosocial work environment may be the most effective way to accurately identify risk factors and support the management process.

  16. Genetic and Psychosocial Predictors of Aggression: Variable Selection and Model Building With Component-Wise Gradient Boosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Suchting

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Given datasets with a large or diverse set of predictors of aggression, machine learning (ML provides efficient tools for identifying the most salient variables and building a parsimonious statistical model. ML techniques permit efficient exploration of data, have not been widely used in aggression research, and may have utility for those seeking prediction of aggressive behavior.Objectives: The present study examined predictors of aggression and constructed an optimized model using ML techniques. Predictors were derived from a dataset that included demographic, psychometric and genetic predictors, specifically FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5 polymorphisms, which have been shown to alter response to threatening stimuli, but have not been tested as predictors of aggressive behavior in adults.Methods: The data analysis approach utilized component-wise gradient boosting and model reduction via backward elimination to: (a select variables from an initial set of 20 to build a model of trait aggression; and then (b reduce that model to maximize parsimony and generalizability.Results: From a dataset of N = 47 participants, component-wise gradient boosting selected 8 of 20 possible predictors to model Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ total score, with R2 = 0.66. This model was simplified using backward elimination, retaining six predictors: smoking status, psychopathy (interpersonal manipulation and callous affect, childhood trauma (physical abuse and neglect, and the FKBP5_13 gene (rs1360780. The six-factor model approximated the initial eight-factor model at 99.4% of R2.Conclusions: Using an inductive data science approach, the gradient boosting model identified predictors consistent with previous experimental work in aggression; specifically psychopathy and trauma exposure. Additionally, allelic variants in FKBP5 were identified for the first time, but the relatively small sample size limits generality of results and calls for

  17. Genetic and Psychosocial Predictors of Aggression: Variable Selection and Model Building With Component-Wise Gradient Boosting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchting, Robert; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Lane, Scott D

    2018-01-01

    Rationale : Given datasets with a large or diverse set of predictors of aggression, machine learning (ML) provides efficient tools for identifying the most salient variables and building a parsimonious statistical model. ML techniques permit efficient exploration of data, have not been widely used in aggression research, and may have utility for those seeking prediction of aggressive behavior. Objectives : The present study examined predictors of aggression and constructed an optimized model using ML techniques. Predictors were derived from a dataset that included demographic, psychometric and genetic predictors, specifically FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) polymorphisms, which have been shown to alter response to threatening stimuli, but have not been tested as predictors of aggressive behavior in adults. Methods : The data analysis approach utilized component-wise gradient boosting and model reduction via backward elimination to: (a) select variables from an initial set of 20 to build a model of trait aggression; and then (b) reduce that model to maximize parsimony and generalizability. Results : From a dataset of N = 47 participants, component-wise gradient boosting selected 8 of 20 possible predictors to model Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) total score, with R 2 = 0.66. This model was simplified using backward elimination, retaining six predictors: smoking status, psychopathy (interpersonal manipulation and callous affect), childhood trauma (physical abuse and neglect), and the FKBP5_13 gene (rs1360780). The six-factor model approximated the initial eight-factor model at 99.4% of R 2 . Conclusions : Using an inductive data science approach, the gradient boosting model identified predictors consistent with previous experimental work in aggression; specifically psychopathy and trauma exposure. Additionally, allelic variants in FKBP5 were identified for the first time, but the relatively small sample size limits generality of results and calls for

  18. Wind resource in metropolitan France: assessment methods, variability and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdier, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    France has one of the largest wind potentials in Europe, yet far from being fully exploited. The wind resource and energy yield assessment is a key step before building a wind farm, aiming at predicting the future electricity production. Any over-estimation in the assessment process puts in jeopardy the project's profitability. This has been the case in the recent years, when wind farm managers have noticed that they produced less than expected. The under-production problem leads to questioning both the validity of the assessment methods and the inter-annual wind variability. This thesis tackles these two issues. In a first part are investigated the errors linked to the assessment methods, especially in two steps: the vertical extrapolation of wind measurements and the statistical modelling of wind-speed data by a Weibull distribution. The second part investigates the inter-annual to decadal variability of wind speeds, in order to understand how this variability may have contributed to the under-production and so that it is better taken into account in the future. (author) [fr

  19. The Strengths Assessment Inventory: Reliability of a New Measure of Psychosocial Strengths for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, James N.; Teatero, Missy L.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Blanchette, Loretta R.

    2012-01-01

    A new measure, the Strengths Assessment Inventory-Youth self-report (SAI-Y), was recently developed to assess the strengths of children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 years. The SAI-Y differs from similar measures in that it provides a comprehensive assessment of strengths that are intrinsic to the individual as well as strengths…

  20. Impact of an animal-assisted therapy programme on physiological and psychosocial variables of paediatric oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nathiana B; Osório, Flávia L

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to propose an intervention and safety protocol for performing animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and evaluating its efficacy in children under outpatient oncological treatment based on psychological, physiological, and quality of life indicators for the children and caregivers. The sample consisted of 24 children diagnosed with leukaemia and solid tumours (58% girls with a mean age of 8.0 years) who underwent an AAT programme consisting of three 30-min sessions in an open group. Two dogs (one Labrador retriever and one golden retriever) were used, and activities such as sensory stimulation, gait training, and socialization were conducted. The exclusion criteria were severe mental problems, inability to answer the questions included in the instruments used, allergy to animals, unavailability/lack of interest, isolation precaution, surgical wound, use of invasive devices, ostomy, no current blood count for evaluation, neutropaenia, infection, fever, diarrhoea, vomiting, respiratory symptoms at the beginning of the intervention or 1 week before the intervention, hospitalization or scheduled surgery, and non-completion of the AAT programme. The variables analysed using validated self or other evaluations were stress, pain, mood, anxiety, depression, quality of life, heart rate, and blood pressure. A quasi-experimental study design was used. We observed a decrease in pain (p = 0.046, d = -0.894), irritation (p = 0.041, d = -0.917), and stress (p = 0.005; d = -1.404) and a tendency towards improvement of depressive symptoms (p = 0.069; d = -0.801). Among the caregivers, an improvement was observed in anxiety (p = 0.007, d = -1.312), mental confusion (p = 0.006, d = -1.350), and tension (p = 0.006, d = -1.361). Therefore, the selection criteria and care protocols used for the AAT programme in the oncological context were adequate, and the programme was effective.

  1. Addressing mental health disparities through clinical competence not just cultural competence: the need for assessment of sociocultural issues in the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial rehabilitation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Brekke, John S

    2008-12-01

    Recognition of ethnic/racial disparities in mental health services has not directly resulted in the development of culturally responsive psychosocial interventions. There remains a fundamental need for assessment of sociocultural issues that have been linked with the expectations, needs, and goals of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. The authors posit that embedding the assessment of sociocultural issues into psychosocial rehabilitation practice is one step in designing culturally relevant empirically supported practices. It becomes a foundation on which practitioners can examine the relevance of their interventions to the diversity encountered in everyday practice. This paper provides an overview of the need for culturally and clinically relevant assessment practices and asserts that by improving the assessment of sociocultural issues the clinical competence of service providers is enhanced. The authors offer a conceptual framework for linking clinical assessment of sociocultural issues to consumer outcomes and introduce an assessment tool adapted to facilitate the process in psychosocial rehabilitation settings. Emphasizing competent clinical assessment skills will ultimately offer a strategy to address disparities in treatment outcomes for understudied populations of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness.

  2. Awareness of disease in dementia: factor structure of the assessment scale of psychosocial impact of the diagnosis of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Marcia C N; Mograbi, Daniel C; Santos, Raquel L; Sousa, Maria Fernanda B; Nogueira, Marcela L; Belfort, Tatiana; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Laks, Jerson

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing understanding of the conceptual complexity of awareness, there currently exists no instrument for assessing different domains of awareness in dementia. In the current study, the psychometric properties of a multidimensional awareness scale, the Assessment Scale of Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia (ASPIDD), are explored in a sample of 201 people with dementia and their family caregivers. Cronbach's alpha was high (α = 0.87), indicating excellent internal consistency. The mean of corrected item-total correlation coefficients was moderate. ASPIDD presented a four-factor solution with a well-defined structure: awareness of activities of daily living, cognitive functioning and health condition, emotional state, and social functioning and relationships. Functional disability was positively correlated with total ASPIDD, unawareness of activities of daily living, cognitive functioning, and with emotional state. Caregiver burden was correlated with total ASPIDD scores and unawareness of cognitive functioning. The results suggest that ASPIDD is indeed a multidimensional scale, providing a reliable measure of awareness of disease in dementia. Further studies should explore the risk factors associated with different dimensions of awareness in dementia.

  3. Trajectories of Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents Predicted by Findings From Early Well-Child Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods: Data from three assessment waves of adolescents (n = 1,816) of the TRAILS were used

  4. Assessment of psychosocial factors and predictors of psychopathology in a sample of heart transplantation recipients: a prospective 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Roberto; Baillès, Eva; Peri, Josep Maria; Bastidas, Anna; Pérez-Villa, Félix; Bulbena, Antonio; Pintor, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, researchers of heart transplantation (HT) programs have attempted to identify the existence of psychosocial factors that might influence the clinical outcome before and after the transplantation. The first objective of this study is the prospective description of changes in psychiatric and psychosocial factors in a sample of HT recipients through a 12-month follow-up. The second goal is to identify predictors of psychopathology 1 year after HT. Pretransplant baseline assessment consisted of clinical form; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Structured Clinical Interview; Coping questionnaire (COPE); Five Factors Inventory Revised; Apgar-Family questionnaire and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC). The assessment 1 year after HT consisted of HADS, COPE, Apgar-Family and MHLC. The sample included 78 recipients. During the waiting list period, 32.1% of them had a psychiatric disorder; personality factors profile was similar to the general population, and they showed adaptive coping strategies. Some changes in psychosocial factors were observed at 12 months after the surgery: lower scores of anxiety and depression, less necessity of publicly venting of feelings and a trend to an internal locus of control. Neuroticism and Disengagement pre-HT were predictors of psychopathology in the follow-up assessment. Pretransplant psychosocial screening is important and enables to find out markers of emotional distress like Neuroticism or Disengagement coping styles to identify patients who might benefit from psychiatric and psychological interventions. Successful HT involved some positive changes in psychosocial factors 12 months after the surgery beyond physical recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating variability and uncertainty in radiological impact assessment using SYMBIOSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Cornu, M.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Boyer, P.; Calmon, P.; Garcia-Sanchez, L.; Mourlon, C.; Nicoulaud, V.; Sy, M.; Gonze, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    SYMBIOSE is a modelling platform that accounts for variability and uncertainty in radiological impact assessments, when simulating the environmental fate of radionuclides and assessing doses to human populations. The default database of SYMBIOSE is partly based on parameter values that are summarized within International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) documents. To characterize uncertainty on the transfer parameters, 331 Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) were defined from the summary statistics provided within the IAEA documents (i.e. sample size, minimal and maximum values, arithmetic and geometric means, standard and geometric standard deviations) and are made available as spreadsheet files. The methods used to derive the PDFs without complete data sets, but merely the summary statistics, are presented. Then, a simple case-study illustrates the use of the database in a second-order Monte Carlo calculation, separating parametric uncertainty and inter-individual variability. - Highlights: • Parametric uncertainty in radioecology was derived from IAEA documents. • 331 Probability Distribution Functions were defined for transfer parameters. • Parametric uncertainty and inter-individual variability were propagated

  6. Men, hearts and minds: developing and piloting culturally specific psychometric tools assessing psychosocial stress and depression in central Australian Aboriginal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alex; Mentha, Ricky; Howard, Michael; Rowley, Kevin; Reilly, Rachel; Paquet, Catherine; O'Dea, Kerin

    2016-02-01

    The health inequalities experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are well documented but there are few empirical data outlining the burden, consequences, experience and expression of depressive illness. This paper seeks to address the lack of accessible, culturally specific measures of psychosocial stress, depression or quality of life developed for, and validated within, this population. Building on an extensive qualitative phase of research, a psychosocial questionnaire comprising novel and adapted scales was developed and piloted with 189 Aboriginal men across urban and remote settings in central Australia. With a view to refining this tool for future use, its underlying structure was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, and the predictive ability of the emergent psychosocial constructs assessed with respect to depressive symptomatology. The latent structure of the psychosocial questionnaire was conceptually aligned with the components of the a priori model on which the questionnaire was based. Regression modelling indicated that depressive symptoms were driven by a sense of injury and chronic stress and had a non-linear association with socioeconomic position. This represents the first community-based survey of psychosocial stress and depression in Aboriginal men. It provides both knowledge of, and an appropriate process for, the further development of psychometric tools, including quality of life, in this population. Further research with larger and more diverse samples of Aboriginal people is required to refine the measurement of key constructs such as chronic stress, socioeconomic position, social support and connectedness. The further refinement, validation against criterion-based methods and incorporation within primary care services is essential.

  7. Adaptation and testing of psychosocial assessment instruments for cross-cultural use: an example from the Thailand Burma border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, Emily E; Bass, Judith K; Lee, Catherine; Murray, Laura K; Robinson, Courtland; Bolton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop valid and reliable instruments to assess priority psychosocial problems and functioning among adult survivors of systematic violence from Burma living in Thailand. The process involved four steps: 1) instrument drafting and piloting; 2) reliability and validity testing; 3) instrument revision; and 4) retesting revised instrument. A total of N = 158 interviews were completed. Overall subscales showed good internal consistency (0.73-0.92) and satisfactory combined test-retest/inter rater reliability (0.63-0.84). Criterion validity, was not demonstrated for any scale. The alcohol and functioning scales underperformed and were revised (step 3) and retested (step 4). Upon retesting, the function scale showed good internal consistency reliability (0.91-0.92), and the alcohol scale showed acceptable internal consistency (0.79) and strong test-retest/inter-rater reliability (0.86-0.89). This paper describes the importance and process of adaptation and testing, illustrated by the experiences and results for selected instruments in this population.

  8. The relationships of social support, uncertainty, self-efficacy, and commitment to prenatal psychosocial adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Choi, W H; Lee, G L; Chan, Celia H Y; Cheung, Ray Y H; Lee, Irene L Y; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2012-12-01

    To report a study of the relations of prenatal psychosocial adaptation, social support, demographic and obstetric characteristics, uncertainty, information-seeking behaviour, motherhood normalization, self-efficacy, and commitment to pregnancy. Prenatal psychosocial assessment is recommended to identify psychosocial risk factors early to prevent psychiatric morbidities of mothers and children. However, knowledge on psychosocial adaptation and its explanatory variables is inconclusive. This study was non-experimental, with a cross-sectional, correlational, prospective design. The study investigated Hong Kong Chinese women during late pregnancy. Convenience sampling methods were used, with 550 women recruited from the low-risk clinics of three public hospitals. Data was collected between January-April 2007. A self-reported questionnaire was used, consisting of a number of measurements derived from an integrated framework of the Life Transition Theory and Theory of Uncertainty in Illness. Explanatory variables of psychosocial adaptation were identified using a structural equation modelling programme. The four explanatory variables of the psychosocial adaptation were social support, uncertainty, self-efficacy, and commitment to pregnancy. In the established model, which had good fit indices, greater psychosocial adaptation was associated with higher social support, higher self-efficacy, higher commitment to pregnancy, and lower uncertainty. The findings give clinicians and midwives guidance in the aspects to focus on when providing psychosocial assessment in routine prenatal screening. Since there are insufficient reliable screening tools to assist that assessment, midwives should receive adequate training, and effective screening instruments have to be identified. The explanatory role of uncertainty found in this study should encourage inquiries into the relationship between uncertainty and psychosocial adaptation in pregnancy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) : an instrument for internationally comparative assessments of psychosocial job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karasek, R.; Brisson, C.; Kawakami, N; Houtman, I.; Bongers, P.; Amick, B

    1998-01-01

    This article consists of three parts. Part 1 discusses the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), designed to measure scales assessing psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, physical demands, and job insecurity. Part 2 reports the cross-national validity, for men and women, of the JCQ

  10. Correlational indicators of psychosocial adjustment among senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant joint contribution of the independent variables (sense of coherence, optimism and self-efficacy) to the prediction of psychosocial adjustment. This suggested that the three independent variables combined accounted for 30.4% (Adj.R2= .304) variation in the prediction of psychosocial adjustment.

  11. Complexity Variability Assessment of Nonlinear Time-Varying Cardiovascular Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Garcia, Ronald G.; Taylor, Jessica Noggle; Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2017-02-01

    The application of complex systems theory to physiology and medicine has provided meaningful information about the nonlinear aspects underlying the dynamics of a wide range of biological processes and their disease-related aberrations. However, no studies have investigated whether meaningful information can be extracted by quantifying second-order moments of time-varying cardiovascular complexity. To this extent, we introduce a novel mathematical framework termed complexity variability, in which the variance of instantaneous Lyapunov spectra estimated over time serves as a reference quantifier. We apply the proposed methodology to four exemplary studies involving disorders which stem from cardiology, neurology and psychiatry: Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Major Depression Disorder (MDD), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients with insomnia under a yoga training regime. We show that complexity assessments derived from simple time-averaging are not able to discern pathology-related changes in autonomic control, and we demonstrate that between-group differences in measures of complexity variability are consistent across pathologies. Pathological states such as CHF, MDD, and PD are associated with an increased complexity variability when compared to healthy controls, whereas wellbeing derived from yoga in PTSD is associated with lower time-variance of complexity.

  12. The perception of midwives regarding psychosocial risk assessment during antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Mathibe-Neke

    2014-05-01

    Doelwit: Die doelwit van hierdie studie was om die persepsies van vroedvroue, wat voorgeboortesorg aan swanger vrouens bied, te ondersoek en te beskryf sover dit hulle persepsies oor psigososiale risiko-assessering en psigososiale aangaan. Metode: ’n Interpretatiewe en beskrywende kwalitatiewe benadering is gevolg. Drie fokusgroep-onderhoude is deur middel van ‘n gestruktureerde onderhoudsgids gevoer met verloskundiges wat in drie voorgeboorteklinieke in die Gauteng Provinsie werksaam is. ’n Benadering tot data-analise wat van voortdurende vergelyking gebruik maak, is gevolg. Resultate: Die studie het aan die lig gebring dat verloskundiges bewus is van psigososiale probleme onder swanger vroue en dat die prevalensie van sulke probleme onder swanger vroue hoog is. Vroedvroue erken die belang van psigososiale sorg aan swanger vroue alhoewel hulle nie toereikend toegerus is om psigososiale assessering en -sorg te verleen nie. Gevolgtrekking: Die bevindinge stel ’n basis daar vir die insluiting van psigososiale sorg in roetine voorgeboortesorg.

  13. INSIGHTS INTO QUALITATIVE VARIABLES ASSESSMENT IN MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a number of issues to be taken into account in assessing the marketing qualitative variables. Thus, the opinions, the preferences, the attitudes, etc. of the consumers are qualitative variables whose measurement requires the use of different scales presented in the literature and, where appropriate, the researcher must develop scales adapted to the particularities of the study undertaken. Using a certain scale it is not random action. The literature presents both comparative methods and non-comparative scaling methods. Each of these categories generates certain types of information, and also they are complementary in the evaluation of various products, brands, organizations etc. Thus, if in a non-comparative scaling method can get information about how a product is evaluated (favorable or unfavorable, for example by the respondents, comparative scaling method allows us to determine where that product is in a series of investigated competing products. Another aspect to be taken into account in the construction of the scales is the number of levels used. It is intended to obtain information with high degree of detail, but without the risk of increasing the rate of non-response due to inability of respondents to make assessments through scales with too many levels. Finally, the expression used to collect information from respondents is essential in obtaining accurate and comparable information, with the emphasis on avoiding ambiguity in drawing scales.

  14. Personality, coping, risky behavior, and mental disorders in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a comprehensive psychosocial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjar, Rami; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-09-01

    It has been proposed that the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), through genetic mechanisms and early family interactions, develop a heightened sensitivity to stress, maladaptive coping, and dysregulated behavior, which ultimately increases the risk for affective disorders. The current study tested certain predictions of this model by assessing different psychosocial and health-related outcomes in the OBD, including personality, coping style, smoking, suicidality, high-risk sexual behaviors, criminality, and mental health. The sample was composed of 74 OBD and 75 control offspring, who were between 14 and 27 years of age (mean: 19.38±3.56). Participants underwent a diagnostic interview and a structured interview to assess high-risk behavior and other maladaptive outcomes, and they completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and Coping in Stressful Situations questionnaire. The rates of affective (31.1%) and non-affective (56.8%) disorders were elevated in the OBD compared to controls (9.5% and 32.4%). Relative to controls, OBD endorsed fewer task-oriented and more distraction coping strategies [Wilk׳s λ=.83, F(1, 136) =6.92, pdisorder diagnosis. The results highlight a potential risk profile for the OBD, consisting of ineffective coping strategies and risky sexual behavior and are discussed in the context of current knowledge of stress and coping in this population. The present findings were based on cross-sectional data and relied on offspring self-report. It would be useful to corroborate these findings with biobehavioural and longitudinal measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of Psychosocial Interventions in Complex Palliative Care Patients: A Quasi-Experimental, Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Ortega, Dolors; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Maté, Jorge; Beas, Elba; Ela, Sara; Lasmarias, Cristina; Limonero, Joaquín T

    2018-03-13

    To determine whether specific psychosocial interventions can ease discomfort in palliative care (PC) patients, particularly in those with high levels of pain or emotional distress. Changes in the psychological parameters of 8333 patients were assessed in a quasi-experimental, prospective, multicenter, single group pretest/post-test study. Psychosocial care was delivered by 29 psychosocial care teams (PSTs; 137 professionals). Pre- and post-intervention changes in these variables were assessed: mood, anxiety, and emotional distress. Patients were classified as complex, when presented with high levels of anxiety, mood, suffering (or perception of time as slow), and distress (or unease, or discomfort), or noncomplex. These groups were compared to assess changes in suffering-related parameters from baseline. Psychosocial interventions reduced patients' suffering. These interventions were more effective in complex patients. After successive psychosocial interventions, the level of suffering in complex patients decreased until close to parity with noncomplex patients, suggesting that patients with major complexity could benefit most from specific psychosocial treatment. These findings support the importance of assessing and treating patients' psychosocial needs.

  16. Symptoms predicting psychosocial impairment in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Staniford, Jessica; Luck, Amy

    2017-05-12

    The current study aimed to determine which particular eating disorder (ED) symptoms and related features, such as BMI and psychological distress, uniquely predict impairment in bulimia nervosa (BN). Two hundred and twenty-two adults with BN completed questionnaires assessing ED symptoms, general psychological distress, and psychosocial impairment. Regression analyses were used to determine predictors which account for variance in impairment. Four variables emerged as significant predictors of psychosocial impairment: concerns with eating; concerns with weight and shape; dietary restraint; and general psychological distress. Findings support previous work highlighting the importance of weight and shape concerns in determining ED-related impairment. Other ED symptoms, notably dietary restraint and concerns with eating, were also significant predictors as was psychological distress. Results suggest that cognitive aspects of EDs, in addition to psychological distress, may be more important determinants of impairment than behavioural symptoms, such as binge eating or purging.

  17. Applying the revised Chinese Job Content Questionnaire to assess psychosocial work conditions among Taiwan's hospital workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ. Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts. Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation to experts to make job strain assessment easier and quicker than ever, Rasch rating scale model was used to analyze data from 1,644 hospital employees who enrolled in 2008 for a job strain survey. We determined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could evaluate job strain of individual employees in work sites. The respective item responding to specific groups' occupational hazards causing job stress was investigated by using skewness coefficient with its 95% CI through item-by-item analyses. Results Each of those 22 items on the questionnaire was examined to have five factors. The prevalence rate of Chinese hospital workers with high job strain was 16.5%. Conclusions Graphical representations of four quadrants, item-by-item bar chart plots and skewness 95% CI comparison generated in Excel can help employers and consultants of an organization focusing on a small number of key areas of concern for each worker in job strain.

  18. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  19. Assessment of Variable Planting Date as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Variability in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture accounts for approximately 70% of global freshwater withdrawals. Changes in precipitation patterns due to climate change as well as increasing demands for water necessitate an increased understanding of the water-­food intersection, notably at a local scale to inform farmer adaptations to improve water productivity, i.e., to get more food with less water. Local assessments of water-food security are particularly important for nations with self-sufficiency policies, which prioritize in-country production of certain resources. An ideal case study is the small island nation of Sri Lanka, which has a self-sufficiency policy for its staple food of rice. Because rice is a water-intensive crop, assessment of irrigation water requirements (IWRs) and the associated changes over time is especially important. Previous studies on IWRs of rice in Sri Lanka have failed to consider the Yala (dry) season, when water is scarcest.The goal of this study is to characterize the role that a human decision, setting the planting date, can play in buffering declines in rice yield against changes in precipitation patterns. Using four meteorological stations in the main rice-growing zones in Sri Lanka, we explore (1) general changes in IWRs over time during the Yala season and (2) the impact of the rice planting date. We use both historical data from meteorological stations as well as future projections from regional climate models. Our results indicate that gains can be achieved using a variable planting date relative to a fixed date, in accordance with a similar conclusion for the Maha (wet) season. This local scale assessment of Sri Lanka IWRs will contribute to the growing global literature on the impacts of water scarcity on agriculture and the role that one adaptation measure can play in mitigating deleterious impacts.

  20. Socioeconomic and psychosocial correlates of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Mejía, Gloria C; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    It has been proposed that psychosocial variables are important determinants of oral health outcomes. In addition, the effect of socioeconomic factors in oral health has been argued to work through the shaping of psychosocial stressors and resources. This study therefore aimed to examine the role of psychosocial factors in oral health after controlling for selected socioeconomic and behavioural factors. Logistic and generalised linear regression analyses were conducted on self-rated oral health, untreated decayed teeth and number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) from dentate participants in a national survey of adult oral health (n = 5364) conducted in 2004-2006 in Australia. After controlling for all other variables, more frequent dental visiting and toothbrushing were associated with poorer self-rated oral health, more untreated decay and higher DMFT. Pervasive socioeconomic inequalities were demonstrated, with higher income, having a tertiary degree, higher self-perceived social standing and not being employed all significantly associated with oral health after controlling for the other variables. The only psychosocial variables related to self-rated oral health were the stressors perceived stress and perceived constraints. Psychosocial resources were not statistically associated with self-rated oral health and no psychosocial variables were significantly associated with either untreated decayed teeth or DMFT after controlling for the other variables. Although the role of behavioural and socioeconomic variables as determinants of oral health was supported, the role of psychosocial variables in oral health outcomes received mixed support. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  1. Genetic variability in Brazilian wheat cultivars assessed by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum is one of the most important food staples in the south of Brazil. Understanding genetic variability among the assortment of Brazilian wheat is important for breeding. The aim of this work was to molecularly characterize the thirty-six wheat cultivars recommended for various regions of Brazil, and to assess mutual genetic distances, through the use of microsatellite markers. Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers (PMM delineated all 36 of the samples, revealing a total of 74 simple sequence repeat (SSR alleles, i.e. an average of 3.2 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content (PIC value calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.20 to 0.79, with a mean of 0.49. Genetic distances among the 36 cultivars ranged from 0.10 (between cultivars Ocepar 18 and BRS 207 to 0.88 (between cultivars CD 101 and Fudancep 46, the mean distance being 0.48. Twelve groups were obtained by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis (UPGMA, and thirteen through the Tocher method. Both methods produced similar clusters, with one to thirteen cultivars per group. The results indicate that these tools may be used to protect intellectual property and for breeding and selection programs.

  2. An attempt to assess the energy related climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iotova, A [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology

    1996-12-31

    A lot of efforts are directed now to study the interactions between energy and climate because of their significant importance for our planet. Globally, energy related emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) contribute for atmospheric warming. On regional level, where it is more difficult to determine concrete direction of climate variability and change, the role of energy remains considerable being not so direct as in the case of emissions` impact. Still there is essential necessity for further analyses and assessments of energy related climate variations and change in order to understand better and to quantify the energy - climate relations. In the presentation an attempt is made to develop approach for assessment of energy related climate variations on regional level. For this purpose, data and results from the research within Bulgarian Case Study (BCS) in the DECADES Inter-Agency Project framework are used. Considering the complex nature of the examined interconnections and the medium stage of the Study`s realisation, at the moment the approach can be presented in conceptual form. Correspondingly, the obtained results are illustrative and preliminary

  3. Variables and Challenges in Assessing EU Experts’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Holst

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Expert advice in political processes is supposed to improve decisions. If expertise fails in this function, a legitimacy problem occurs: granting political power to experts may be defensible, but only on the grounds that it contributes to enlightening political processes and facilitate problem-solving. The paper provides a theoretical exploration of four variables that are key when assessing the epistemic quality of expert deliberations: the degree to which these deliberations are 1 informed by technical expertise, 2 regulated by epistemically optimal respect and inclusion norms, 3 focused on politically relevant and applicable knowledge, and 4 approaching questions involving moral judgment and standard setting competently. Previous research on the European Commission’s use of expert advice has more or less overlooked the question of experts’ epistemic performance, and this paper discusses the possible reasons for this in light of well-known methodological challenges in studies of elite behaviour; access and bias problems. A discussion of the merits and limitations of different available data on the Commission experts shows that the biggest obstacle in the study of experts’ epistemic performance is rather the problem of epistemic asymmetry, i.e. of how researchers as non-experts can assess the epistemic quality of experts’ contributions and behaviour. The paper offers, finally, a set of strategies to get research going despite this problem.

  4. Accounting for inherent variability of growth in microbial risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, H M; Coleman, M E

    2005-04-15

    Risk assessments of pathogens need to account for the growth of small number of cells under varying conditions. In order to determine the possible risks that occur when there are small numbers of cells, stochastic models of growth are needed that would capture the distribution of the number of cells over replicate trials of the same scenario or environmental conditions. This paper provides a simple stochastic growth model, accounting only for inherent cell-growth variability, assuming constant growth kinetic parameters, for an initial, small, numbers of cells assumed to be transforming from a stationary to an exponential phase. Two, basic, microbial sets of assumptions are considered: serial, where it is assume that cells transform through a lag phase before entering the exponential phase of growth; and parallel, where it is assumed that lag and exponential phases develop in parallel. The model is based on, first determining the distribution of the time when growth commences, and then modelling the conditional distribution of the number of cells. For the latter distribution, it is found that a Weibull distribution provides a simple approximation to the conditional distribution of the relative growth, so that the model developed in this paper can be easily implemented in risk assessments using commercial software packages.

  5. An attempt to assess the energy related climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iotova, A. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology

    1995-12-31

    A lot of efforts are directed now to study the interactions between energy and climate because of their significant importance for our planet. Globally, energy related emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) contribute for atmospheric warming. On regional level, where it is more difficult to determine concrete direction of climate variability and change, the role of energy remains considerable being not so direct as in the case of emissions` impact. Still there is essential necessity for further analyses and assessments of energy related climate variations and change in order to understand better and to quantify the energy - climate relations. In the presentation an attempt is made to develop approach for assessment of energy related climate variations on regional level. For this purpose, data and results from the research within Bulgarian Case Study (BCS) in the DECADES Inter-Agency Project framework are used. Considering the complex nature of the examined interconnections and the medium stage of the Study`s realisation, at the moment the approach can be presented in conceptual form. Correspondingly, the obtained results are illustrative and preliminary

  6. Assessing the Possibility of Leadership Education as Psychosocial-Based Problem Behavior Prevention for Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine theoretical connections between adolescent leadership education and problem behavior prevention. Both the problem behavior prevention literature and the leadership education literature were reviewed for studies pertaining to the development of psychosocial traits. In the leadership education literature this…

  7. Evaluating Questionnaires Used to Assess Self-Reported Physical Activity and Psychosocial Outcomes Among Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer: A Cognitive Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Amanda; Brunet, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Physical activity is increasingly being studied as a way to improve psychosocial outcomes (e.g., quality of life, self-efficacy, physical self-perceptions, self-esteem, body image, posttraumatic growth) among survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer. Assessing levels of and associations between self-reported physical activity and psychosocial outcomes requires clear, appropriate, and relevant questionnaires. To explore how survivors of AYA cancer interpreted and responded to the following eight published questionnaires: Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, Rosenberg Global Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 (RAND-36), cognitive interviews were conducted with three men and four women age 18-36 years who were diagnosed with cancer at age 16-35 years. Initially, the first seven questionnaires listed above were assessed. Summaries of the interviews were prepared and compared across participants. Potential concerns were identified with the FACT-G; thus, a second interview was conducted with participants to explore the clarity, appropriateness, and relevance of the RAND-36. Concerns identified for the FACT-G related mostly to the lack of relevance of items pertaining to cancer-specific aspects of quality of life given that participants were posttreatment. No or few concerns related to comprehension and/or structure/logic were identified for the other questionnaires. In general, the questionnaires assessed were clear, appropriate, and relevant. Participants' feedback suggested they could be used to assess self-reported physical activity and varied psychosocial outcomes in studies with survivors of AYA cancer, either with or without slight modifications.

  8. An AOGCM based assessment of interseasonal variability in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, U.; Athar, H.; Nabeel, A.; Latif, M.

    2018-01-01

    The interseasonal variability of two basic climatic parameters (precipitation and temperature) is assessed, over vulnerable and data sparse region of Pakistan (23° to 37°N and 60° to 75°E), for two Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) based Atmospheric-Oceanic General Circulation Model (AOGCM) versions: CM2.0 and CM2.1 by Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), and two CMIP5 based AOGCM versions: CM2p1 and CM3.0. A recent historical 50-year period (1951-2000) is analyzed and compared with APHRODITE for precipitation and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) re-analysis based gridded datasets for temperature for the following four seasons: DJF, MAM, JJA, and SON. The study area is divided into three regions: all Pakistan, northern Pakistan, and southern Pakistan. The interseasonal variability of the precipitation and the temperature are derived from all three (five) runs of CM2.0 (CM2.1) and from all ten (five) runs of CM 2p1 (CM3.0). The bias, root mean square error (RMSE), one-sigma standard deviation (SD) and correlation coefficient (CC) are used as assessing metrics. The following individual runs have positive CC with respect to APHRODITE at ≤1% Confidence Level (CL). On seasonal basis for CMIP5 based GFDL models during DJF: CM2p1R5 (for all Pakistan), CM2p1R5 (for northern Pakistan), and during MAM: CM2p1R5 (for southern Pakistan; this run has the lowest centered RMSE of 0.11 mm/day), whereas on annual basis: CM3.0R3 (for all Pakistan). However, out of these four runs, only CM2p1 (for southern Pakistan) has SD Pakistan has SD Pakistan, in respective seasons. A variance based bias adjustment when applied displays considerable interseasonal bias reduction both in precipitation and temperature in long term mean with no change in trend.

  9. Digital Heart-Rate Variability Parameter Monitoring and Assessment ASIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massagram, W; Hafner, N; Mingqi Chen; Macchiarulo, L; Lubecke, V M; Boric-Lubecke, O

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes experimental results for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), designed for digital heart rate variability (HRV) parameter monitoring and assessment. This ASIC chip measures beat-to-beat (RR) intervals and stores HRV parameters into its internal memory in real time. A wide range of short-term and long-term ECG signals obtained from Physionet was used for testing. The system detects R peaks with millisecond accuracy, and stores up to 2 min of continuous RR interval data and up to 4 min of RR interval histogram. The prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.5 ¿m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology on a 3×3 mm(2) die area, with a measured dynamic power consumption of 10 ¿W and measured leakage current of 2.62 nA. The HRV monitoring system including this HRV ASIC, an analog-to-digital converter, and a low complexity microcontroller was estimated to consume 32.5 ¿V, which is seven times lower power than a stand-alone microcontroller performing the same functions. Compact size, low cost, and low power consumption make this chip suitable for a miniaturized portable HRV monitoring system.

  10. Assessment of genetic variability in somaclonal population of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seema, N.; Raza, S.; Yasmeen, S.; Bibi, S.; Nizamani, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study plant tissue culture technique was used to create the genetic variability in three sugarcane clones NIA98, BL4 and AEC82-1026. Callus induced in these clones in media containing MS + 2, 4 D (2mg 1it-1) and Dicamba (1mg1it-1). The embryogenic calli then regenerated in media containing MS basal media + Kinetin (2mg1it-1) + IBA (2mg1it-1) + IAA (2mglit-1). After shooting and rooting, plants were exposed to green house and acclimatization of the somaclones in the field condition. RAPD markers were used to evaluate the genetic variation at DNA level between parents and somaclones of NIA98, BL4 and AEC82-1026 developed through callus culture. Fourteen RAPD primer chosen randomly were used to amplify DNA from plant material to assess the genetic variation between parents and regenerated somaclones. The highest similarity was obtained between BL4 parent and BL4 somaclone (96%). While minimum similarity found between NIA-98 parent and AEC82-1026 somaclone (69%). In this study, we used RAPD to investigate the somaclonal variation in sugarcane clones derived from callus cultures. (author)

  11. [Psychosocial disintegration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S

    1994-08-01

    Among the patients referred for rehabilitation in the latter half of their working life, many are notable due to considerable discrepancies between their objectively ascertainable performance and its subjectively perceived decline. In these cases, the "substantial threat to earning capacity" cannot be explained by measurable organ deficiencies. Similarly, treatment efforts focussed solely at improved somatic functioning remain inefficient in terms of stabilization of earning capacity, because they do not bring about changes in the cause of subjective performance deterioration. The author in these circumstances assumes the presence of an independent syndrome, called "psychosocial disintegration". He describes the full picture of this disease entity, and suggests causal mechanisms as well as potential for remedial intervention. On account of the considerable social dimension of the disorder outlined, early identification of these gradually developing changes as well as qualified care of the insurants are indispensable. All those involved in treatment and care of the patients or working in some branch of the social security system should be familiar with this psychosocial disintegration syndrome in order to avoid the guidance and counselling mistakes that are frequently the case. As rehabilitation is impossible in case of inhibiting personal attitudes of an insurant, it is advisable to verify the individual's readiness for rehabilitation and/or to strengthen it by appropriate measures before engaging in costly in-patient service provision. If the needed motivation is to be achieved during participation in a rehabilitation measure, extended service provision will invariably be required.

  12. Psychosocial predictors of affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; González, M José; Santos, Noelia; Romero, Martín

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we propose to study the role of psychosocial variables in affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, considering that affect is a key variable in treatment adherence. Seventy-four patients (average age 33,24 ± 10,56) with metal multibracket-fixed orthodontic treatment were included. Patients were assessed twice. The first stage, at the beginning of treatment, included assessment of dental impact (Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg's self-esteem scale), and self-efficacy (General Self-efficacy Scale). In the second stage, 6 months later, positive and negative affect towards treatment was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Dental social impact differentiates between patients with high and low negative affect, while self-efficacy differentiates between patients with high and low positive affect. Trait anxiety and self-esteem differentiate between both types of affect (positive and negative). Trait anxiety and self-esteem (when trait anxiety weight is controlled) are significant predictor variables of affective balance. These results have important practical implications, because it seems essential to adopt a bio-psychosocial model incorporating assessment methods focusing on day-to-day changes in mood and well-being.

  13. Cluster subgroups based on overall pressure pain sensitivity and psychosocial factors in chronic musculoskeletal pain: Differences in clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Suzana C; George, Steven Z; Leite, Raquel D V; Oliveira, Anamaria S; Chaves, Thais C

    2018-05-17

    We aimed to empirically derive psychosocial and pain sensitivity subgroups using cluster analysis within a sample of individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and to investigate derived subgroups for differences in pain and disability outcomes. Eighty female participants with CMP answered psychosocial and disability scales and were assessed for pressure pain sensitivity. A cluster analysis was used to derive subgroups, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate differences between subgroups. Psychosocial factors (kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression) and overall pressure pain threshold (PPT) were entered into the cluster analysis. Three subgroups were empirically derived: cluster 1 (high pain sensitivity and high psychosocial distress; n = 12) characterized by low overall PPT and high psychosocial scores; cluster 2 (high pain sensitivity and intermediate psychosocial distress; n = 39) characterized by low overall PPT and intermediate psychosocial scores; and cluster 3 (low pain sensitivity and low psychosocial distress; n = 29) characterized by high overall PPT and low psychosocial scores compared to the other subgroups. Cluster 1 showed higher values for mean pain intensity (F (2,77)  = 10.58, p cluster 3, and cluster 1 showed higher values for disability (F (2,77)  = 3.81, p = 0.03) compared with both clusters 2 and 3. Only cluster 1 was distinct from cluster 3 according to both pain and disability outcomes. Pain catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety were the psychosocial variables that best differentiated the subgroups. Overall, these results call attention to the importance of considering pain sensitivity and psychosocial variables to obtain a more comprehensive characterization of CMP patients' subtypes.

  14. Assessment of Global Variability in UTBB MOSFETs in Subthreshold Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Makovejev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The global variability of ultra-thin body and buried oxide (UTBB MOSFETs in subthreshold and off regimes of operation is analyzed. The variability of the off-state drain current, subthreshold slope, drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL, gate leakage current, threshold voltage and their correlations are considered. Two threshold voltage extraction techniques were used. It is shown that the transconductance over drain current (gm/Id method is preferable for variability studies. It is demonstrated that the subthreshold drain current variability in short channel devices cannot be described by threshold voltage variability. It is suggested to include the effective body factor incorporating short channel effects in order to properly model the subthreshold drain current variability.

  15. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Leadership and the psychosocial work environment in old age care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Dan; Ernsth-Bravell, Marie; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2016-03-01

    To study leadership factors and their associations with psychosocial work environmental among nursing assistants who are engaged in old age care and to analyse (i) differences in the assessment of leadership factors and the assessment of psychosocial work environmental in nursing homes and home help services and (ii) the association between the psychosocial work environment and factors that are related to leadership in nursing homes and home help services. Leadership factors are an important element of the psychosocial work environment in old age care. The physical distance between leaders and nursing assistants is larger in home help services than in nursing homes. Therefore, it is important to study leadership separately in nursing homes and home help services. Assessments from 844 nursing assistants in nursing homes and 288 in home help services (45 nursing homes and 21 home help service units) were analysed. The data were analysed using linear regression. Age, gender, number of staff at the unit, number of years at the current working unit and educational level were controlled in Model 1. Summarised indexes that were based on all independent variables except the main independent variable were additionally controlled in Model 2. Psychosocial work environment was related to leadership factors, but stronger associations occurred more frequently in nursing homes than in home help services. Empowering leadership, support from superiors, the primacy of human resources and control over decisions were associated with higher assessments on all the variables that were related to the psychosocial work environment in both the nursing homes and home help services. Organisational differences in conducting leadership in old age care must be considered. Some leadership characteristics are better prerequisites for creating and maintaining a positive psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants in nursing homes and home help services. Due to the differences in

  17. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  18. Association between psychosocial stress and hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Yan; Li, Na; Li, William A; Khan, Hajra

    2017-06-01

    The etiology of hypertension is various and complex, involving both genetic and behavioral factors. The relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension has been hypothesized. More and more people experience increased anxiety, depression, and chronic psychosocial stress brought on by globalization, cultural changes, socioeconomic changes, and stress at the work place. Although a plethora of studies have investigated the interaction between psychosocial stress and hypertension, this relationship is still contentious. The objective of this study is twofold. First, a review of recent advancements in our understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension. Second, a meta-analysis aiming to assess the relationship between chronic psychosocial stress and blood pressure. We systematically searched and identified relevant studies from five databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), CQVIP, and the Wanfang Database until April 2016. Eleven studies encompassing 5696 participants were included in the final analysis. Data showed that psychosocial stress was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.65-3.49), and hypertensive patients had a higher incidence of psychosocial stress compared to normotension patients (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.32-3.11). Based on our meta-analysis, chronic psychosocial stress may be a risk factor for hypertension. The few cohort and case-control studies on the association between psychosocial stress and hypertension employed variable definition of stressors and the responses, making the meta-analysis difficult. Although we found an association between chronic psychosocial stress and hypertension, more studies are needed to confirm this relationship.

  19. Feed Variability and Bulk Vitrification Glass Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Vienna, John D.

    2005-01-01

    The supplemental treatment (ST) bulk vitrification process will obtain its feed, consisting of low-activity waste (LAW), from more than one source. One purpose of this letter report is to describe the compositional variability of the feed to ST. The other is to support the M-62-08 decision by providing a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of bulk vitrification (BV), the process that has been selected to perform supplemental treatment, in handling the ST feed envelope. Roughly nine-tenths of the ST LAW feed will come from the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment. This processed waste is expected to combine (1) a portion of the same LAW feed sent to the WTP melters and (2) a dilute stream that is the product of the condensate from the submerged-bed scrubber (SBS) and the drainage from the electrostatic precipitator (WESP), both of which are part of the LAW off-gas system. The manner in which the off-gas-product stream is concentrated to reduce its volume, and the way in which the excess LAW and off-gas product streams are combined, are part of the interface between WTP and ST and have not been determined. This letter report considers only one possible arrangement, in which half of the total LAW is added to the off-gas product stream, giving an estimated ST feed stream from WTP. (Total LAW equals that portion of LAW sent to the WTP LAW vitrification plant (WTP LAW) plus the LAW not currently treatable in the LAW vitrification plant due to capacity limitations (excess))

  20. Satisfacción vital y su relación con otras variables psicosociales en población española residente en Alemania (Life satisfaction and its connection with other psycho-social variables in Spanish residents in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Vallejo-Martín

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the psychosocial variables related to life satisfaction in a population of Spanish residents in Germany. The psychosocial variables were as follows: social support, self-esteem, job satisfaction, and attachment to and identification with the place of residence. Sociodemographic factors were also considered: job position, level of ability in the German language, monthly income, and perceived social class. The sample comprised 206 participants. The results showed that the participants had medium or medium-high scores on all the psychosocial variables and that there were significant correlations between them.Regarding the sociodemographic factors, although no significant association was found between life satisfaction and having a job, significant associations were found between life satisfaction and the other factors. Of these factors, perceived social class had the biggest effect. The results also showed that intrinsic job satisfaction, perceived social class, attachment to the place of residence, and self-esteem predicted life satisfaction (explaining 55.5% of variance. These results are in contrast with other studies on life satisfaction in immigrant populations.

  1. Clients’ psychosocial communication and midwives’ verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study focuses on facilitation of clients’ psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives’ psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling

  2. Psychosocial impact of malocclusion in Spanish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bellot Arcís, Carlos; Montiel Company, José María; Almerich Silla, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychosocial impact of malocclusion, determine its relationship with the severity of malocclusion, and assess the influence of gender and social class on this relationship in adolescents. METHODS: A random sample of 627 Spanish adolescents aged 12 - 15 years underwent intraoral examinations by 3 calibrated examiners (intraexaminer and interexaminer kappa > 0.85) at their schools. Psychosocial impact was measured through a self-rated Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aes...

  3. The psychosocial burden of childhood overweight and obesity: evidence for persisting difficulties in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lisa Y; Allen, Karina L; Davis, Elizabeth; Blair, Eve; Zubrick, Stephen R; Byrne, Susan M

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence that overweight and obese children tend to remain overweight or obese into adolescence and adulthood. However, little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of childhood overweight and obesity. This study aimed to investigate the course of psychosocial difficulties over a 2-year period for children who were overweight or obese at baseline, and a sample of children who were a healthy weight at baseline. Participants were 212 children aged 8 to 13 years at baseline, who were participating in the Childhood Growth and Development (GAD) Study. Questionnaire and interview measures were used to assess children's self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body image, eating disorder symptoms, experiences with bullying, family satisfaction and quality of life. Linear mixed models were used to consider longitudinal changes in psychosocial variables. Overweight and obese children reported greater psychosocial distress than healthy weight children, and these differences were more pronounced for girls than boys. Weight and psychosocial impairment showed stability from baseline to 2-year follow-up. The results of this study suggest that psychosocial difficulties show considerable stability in childhood, for overweight/obese and healthy weight children. What is Known: • Childhood obesity tracks into adolescence and adulthood. • Physical health problems associated with childhood obesity also persist to adulthood. What is New: • Overweight and obese children are at risk of ongoing psychosocial distress from childhood into early adolescence.

  4. Psychosocial distress and need for supportive counselling in patients during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, A. de; Steixner, E.; Stzankay, A.; Iglseder, W.; Soellner, W.; Auer, V.; Schiessling, G.; Lukas, P.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Psychosocial distress and patient attitude towards psychosocial support as well as the correlations with clinical and sociodemographic characteristics should be assessed. Methods: The stress due to cancer was measured in a consecutive sample of tumor patients at the start of radiotherapy (n=117) by use of the Hornheide Questionnaire. In addition, the interest of these patients in professional psychosocial support was assesed with the help of the Questionnaire for Psychosocial Support. Results: Patients in the course of radiotherapy and patients with a poor prognosis and advanced disease were more strongly distressed. 32.7% of patients wished professional psychosocial support from the oncologist treating them, 40.6% of the patients wished support from the oncologist and additionally from a psychotherapist or social worker. Interest in professional psychosocial support correlated with the amount of distress, but not with sociodemographic variables. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of training programs for oncologists in order to improve their ability to detect psychosocial distress in cancer patients and to offer adequate emotional support to them. (orig.) [de

  5. Work stress, fatigue and risk behaviors at the wheel: Data to assess the association between psychosocial work factors and risky driving on Bus Rapid Transit drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Useche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This Data in Brief (DiB article presents a hierarchical multiple linear regression model that examine the associations between psychosocial work factors and risk behaviors at the wheel in Bus Rapid Transit (BRT drivers (n=524. The data were collected using a structured self-administrable questionnaire made of measurements of wok stress (job strain and effort- reward imbalance, fatigue (need for recovery and chronic fatigue, psychological distress and demographics (professional driving experience, hours driven per day and days working per week. The data contains 4 parts: descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations between the study variables and a regression model predicting risk behaviors at the wheel and the entire study dataset. For further information, it is convenient to read the full article entitled “Stress-related Psychosocial Factors at Work, Fatigue, and Risky Driving Behavior in Bus Rapid Transport (BRT Drivers”, published in Accident Analysis & Prevention. Keywords: Professional drivers, Work stress, Fatigue, Psychological distress, Risk behaviors, Bus Rapid Transport, BRT

  6. Fatigue life assessment under multiaxial variable amplitude loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.; Kenmeugne, B.; Vidal-Salle, E.; Robert, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    A variable amplitude multiaxial fatigue life prediction method is presented in this paper. It is based on a stress as input data are the stress tensor histories which may be calculated by FEM analysis or measured directly on the structure during the service loading. The different steps of he method are first presented then its experimental validation is realized for log and finite fatigue lives through biaxial variable amplitude loading tests using cruciform steel samples. (authors). 9 refs., 7 figs

  7. Organizational variables on nurses' job performance in Turkey: nursing assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of organizational variables on hospital staff nurses' job performance as reported by staff nurses in two cities in Turkey. Hospital ownership status, employment status were examined for their effect on this influence. The reported influence of organizational variables on job performance was measured by a questionnaire developed for this study. Nurses were asked to evaluate the influence of 28 organizational variables on their job performance using a five-point Likert-type scale (1- Never effective, 5- Very effective). The study used comparative and descriptive study design. The staff nurses who were included in this study were 831 hospital staff nurses. Descriptive statistics, frequencies, t-test, ANOVA and factor analysis were used for data analysis. The study showed the relative importance of the 28 organizational variables in influencing nurses' job performance. Nurses in this study reported that workload and technological support are the most influential organizational variables on their job performance. Factor analysis yielded a five-factor model that explained 53.99% of total variance. Administratively controllable influence job organizational variables influence job performance of nurses in different magnitude.

  8. Digging over that old ground: an Australian perspective of women's experience of psychosocial assessment and depression screening in pregnancy and following birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollans, Mellanie; Schmied, Virginia; Kemp, Lynn; Meade, Tanya

    2013-04-09

    There is increasing recognition of the need to identify risk factors for poor mental health in pregnancy and following birth. In New South Wales, Australia, health policy mandates psychosocial assessment and depression screening for all women at the antenatal booking visit and at six to eight weeks after birth. Few studies have explored in-depth women's experience of assessment and how disclosures of sensitive information are managed by midwives and nurses. This paper describes women's experience of psychosocial assessment and depression screening examining the meaning they attribute to assessment and how this influences their response. This qualitative ethnographic study included 34 women who were observed antenatally in the clinic with 18 midwives and 20 of the same women who were observed during their interaction with 13 child and family health nurses after birth in the home or the clinic environment. An observational tool, 4D&4R, together with field notes was used to record observations and were analysed descriptively using frequencies. Women also participated in face to face interviews. Field note and interview data was analysed thematically and similarities and differences across different time points were identified. Most participants reported that it was acceptable to them to be asked the psychosocial questions however they felt unprepared for the sensitive nature of the questions asked. Women with a history of trauma or loss were distressed by retelling their experiences. Five key themes emerged. Three themes; 'Unexpected: a bit out of the blue', 'Intrusive: very personal questions' and 'Uncomfortable: digging over that old ground', describe the impact that assessment had on women. Women also emphasised that the approach taken by the midwife or nurse during assessment influenced their experience and in some cases what they reported. This is reflected in the themes titled: 'sensitivity and care' and 'being watched'. The findings emphasise the need for

  9. Psychosocial Treatments in Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Serkut Bulut

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its severe morbidity and mortality, studies regarding the psychosocial treatments of anorexia nervosa are limited in number. This paper aims to present the general outlines of various psychosocial interventions developed for the treatment of anorexia nervosa and to provide an up-to-date review of the randomized-controlled studies on the effectiveness of these approaches. Reviewed studies were classified by age spectrum of samples under two main headings: adolescents and mixed samples of adults and adolescents. Specific issues about other variables were then discussed separately. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 329-345

  10. Computer-based formative assessment: variables influencing feedback behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment can be used to stimulate and direct student learning. This refers to the formative function of assessment. Formative assessments contribute to learning by generating feedback. Here, feedback is conceptualised as information about learners actual state of performance intended to modify

  11. Assessment of Japanese variable speed heat pump technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of critical component technologies and design methodologies for Japanese variable speed heat pumps are presented. The market for variable speed heat pumps in Japan is predominantly residential split-type, between the fractional to 2.5 ton capacity range. Approximately 1.1 million residential inverter-driven heat pumps were sold in 1987. Based on the market trends, component technology and several advanced features are described. Similarities and differences between Japanese and US system design methodologies are discussed. Finally, the outlook for future technology trends is briefly described. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predicted mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial (including criminal) outcomes 5 years later and would thereby provide advantages over diagnosing conduct disorder (CD). Eighty-six women and 61 men were assessed in mid-adolescence when they first contacted a clinic for substance misuse and were reassessed 5 years later. Assessments in adolescence include the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV), and depending on their age, either the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children or the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID). Assessments in early adulthood included the SCID, self-reports of psychosocial functioning, aggressive behaviour, and criminality and official criminal records. The antisocial facet score positively predicted the number of anxiety symptoms and likelihood of receiving treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Lifestyle and antisocial facet scores negatively predicted Global Assessment of Functioning scores. By contrast, the interpersonal score and male sex independently and positively predicted the number of months worked or studied, as did the interaction of Lifestyle × Sex indicating that among men, but not women, an increase in lifestyle facet score was associated with less time worked or studied. Interpersonal and antisocial scores positively predicted school drop-out. Antisocial facet scores predicted the number of symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, alcohol and SUDs, and violent and nonviolent criminality but much more strongly among males than females. Predictions from numbers of CD symptoms were similar. Psychopathic traits among adolescents who misuse substances predict an array of outcomes over the subsequent 5 years. Information on the levels of these traits may be useful for planning treatment.

  13. Self-assessment of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthognathic surgery is a well-accepted treatment for patients with skeletal discrepancies. The primary motivation of many patients who seek orthognathic surgery is esthetics and not for correction of functional disability. The treatment is incomplete if the surgeon attempts to correct the physical deformity alone without adequate understanding and regard for the emotional framework. The purpose of this study is aimed at patient′s self-perceptions of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery. Fifty patients were included in the study, of which 21 were used as control. Twenty-two questions were asked to evaluate the problem in all four areas as mentioned earlier. Each question takes a score from one to five. In group I, the internal consistency of each scale indicates moderate to high internal reliability, ranging from α = 0.71 for general health to α = 0.88 for psychosocial problem. In group II, except for functional problems, the internal consistency of each scale has moderate to high reliability. The psychological wellbeing of an orthognathic surgery patient is enhanced by careful preoperative counseling regarding the expected surgical treatment objectives, the operative course, and the expected postoperative sequelae. Patients who undergo orthognathic surgery readily accept the changes in their postoperative appearance and are satisfied with achieved results.

  14. Genetic variability assessment of accessions of Corchorus olitorius L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... genetic variabilities among 14 accessions of the species using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Seven polypeptide bands were obtained ranging from. 9.73 to 88.79 KDa thus depicting variations in the banding patterns of the accessions. The unweighted.

  15. Community risk assessment of rainfall variability under rain-fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a nuanced understanding of the perspectives of climate related risks among local populations affected is often lacking and or seldom explored in vulnerability assessments due to the dominance of top-down approaches. This paper explores the potential of Community Risk Assessment (CRA) and local knowledge ...

  16. Variability of building environmental assessment tools on evaluating carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S. Thomas, E-mail: tstng@hkucc.hku.hk; Chen Yuan, E-mail: chenyuan4@gmail.com; Wong, James M.W., E-mail: jmwwong@hku.hk

    2013-01-15

    With an increasing importance of sustainability in construction, more and more clients and designers employ building environmental assessment (BEA) tools to evaluate the environmental friendliness of their building facilities, and one important aspect of evaluation in the BEA models is the assessment of carbon emissions. However, in the absence of any agreed framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking, the results generated by the BEA tools might vary significantly which could lead to confusion or misinterpretation on the carbon performance of a building. This study thus aims to unveil the properties of and the standard imposed by the current BEA models on evaluating the life cycle carbon emissions. The analyses cover the (i) weighting of energy efficiency and emission levels among various environmental performance indicators; (ii) building life cycle stages in which carbon is taken into consideration; (iii) objectiveness of assessment; (iv) baseline set for carbon assessment; (v) mechanism for benchmarking the emission level; and (v) limitations of the carbon assessment approaches. Results indicate that the current BEA schemes focus primarily on operational carbon instead of the emissions generated throughout the entire building life cycle. Besides, the baseline and benchmark for carbon evaluation vary significantly among the BEA tools based on the analytical results of a hypothetical building. The findings point to the needs for a more transparent framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking in BEA modeling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon emission evaluation in building environmental assessment schemes are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulative carbon emission is modeled for building environmental assessment schemes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon assessments focus primarily on operational stage instead of entire lifecycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baseline and benchmark of carbon assessment vary greatly among BEA

  17. Variability of building environmental assessment tools on evaluating carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, S. Thomas; Chen Yuan; Wong, James M.W.

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing importance of sustainability in construction, more and more clients and designers employ building environmental assessment (BEA) tools to evaluate the environmental friendliness of their building facilities, and one important aspect of evaluation in the BEA models is the assessment of carbon emissions. However, in the absence of any agreed framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking, the results generated by the BEA tools might vary significantly which could lead to confusion or misinterpretation on the carbon performance of a building. This study thus aims to unveil the properties of and the standard imposed by the current BEA models on evaluating the life cycle carbon emissions. The analyses cover the (i) weighting of energy efficiency and emission levels among various environmental performance indicators; (ii) building life cycle stages in which carbon is taken into consideration; (iii) objectiveness of assessment; (iv) baseline set for carbon assessment; (v) mechanism for benchmarking the emission level; and (v) limitations of the carbon assessment approaches. Results indicate that the current BEA schemes focus primarily on operational carbon instead of the emissions generated throughout the entire building life cycle. Besides, the baseline and benchmark for carbon evaluation vary significantly among the BEA tools based on the analytical results of a hypothetical building. The findings point to the needs for a more transparent framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking in BEA modeling. - Highlights: ► Carbon emission evaluation in building environmental assessment schemes are studied. ► Simulative carbon emission is modeled for building environmental assessment schemes. ► Carbon assessments focus primarily on operational stage instead of entire lifecycle. ► Baseline and benchmark of carbon assessment vary greatly among BEA schemes. ► A more transparent and comprehensive framework for carbon assessment is required.

  18. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  19. Quantitative assessment of drivers of recent climate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Ramesh, Durbha Sai; Vichare, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Identification and quantification of possible drivers of recent climate variability remain a challenging task. This important issue is addressed adopting a non-parametric information theory technique, the Transfer Entropy and its normalized variant. It distinctly quantifies actual information...... exchanged along with the directional flow of information between any two variables with no bearing on their common history or inputs, unlike correlation, mutual information etc. Measurements of greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, and N2O; volcanic aerosols; solar activity: UV radiation, total solar irradiance (TSI...... ) and cosmic ray flux (CR); El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Global Mean Temperature Anomaly (GMTA) made during 1984-2005 are utilized to distinguish driving and responding climate signals. Estimates of their relative contributions reveal that CO 2 (~24%), CH 4 (~19%) and volcanic aerosols (~23...

  20. Assessing the Effects of Climate on Global Fluvial Discharge Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, M. R.; Plink-Bjorklund, P.

    2017-12-01

    Plink-Bjorklund (2015) established the link between precipitation seasonality and river discharge variability in the monsoon domain and subtropical rivers (see also Leier et al, 2005; Fielding et al., 2009), resulting in distinct morphodynamic processes and a sedimentary record distinct from perennial precipitation zone in tropical rainforest zone and mid latitudes. This study further develops our understanding of discharge variability using a modern global river database created with data from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC). The database consists of daily discharge for 595 river stations and examines them using a series of discharge variability indexes (DVI) on different temporal scales to examine how discharge variability occurs in river systems around the globe. These indexes examine discharge of individual days and monthly averages that allows for comparison of river systems against each other, regardless of size of the river. Comparing river discharge patterns in seven climate zones (arid, cold, humid subtropics, monsoonal, polar, rainforest, and temperate) based off the Koppen-Geiger climate classifications reveals a first order climatic control on discharge patterns and correspondingly sediment transport. Four groupings of discharge patterns emerge when coming climate zones and DVI: persistent, moderate, seasonal, and erratic. This dataset has incredible predictive power about the nature of discharge in fluvial systems around the world. These seasonal effects on surface water supply affects river morphodynamics and sedimentation on a wide timeframe, ranging from large single events to an inter-annual or even decadal timeframe. The resulting sedimentary deposits lead to differences in fluvial architecture on a range of depositional scales from sedimentary structures and bedforms to channel complex systems. These differences are important to accurately model for several reasons, ranging from stratigraphic and paleoenviromental reconstructions to more

  1. Associations between alcohol use, other psychosocial factors, structural factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among South African ART recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morojele, Neo K; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Nkosi, Sebenzile

    2014-03-01

    We examined whether alcohol use is associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence independently of structural and psychosocial factors among 304 male and female ART recipients in ART sites in Tshwane, South Africa. ART adherence was assessed by the CASE Adherence Index. Independent variables were demographic, structural, psycho-social, and alcohol use (AUDIT score) factors. In hierarchical multiple regression, demographic variables (Step 1) explained 4 % of variance in ART adherence (p ≤ 0.01). Variance explained increased to 16 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering structural variables (Step 2); 19 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering psychosocial variables (Step 3); and 24 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering AUDIT score (Step 4). Alcohol use is independently associated with ART adherence.

  2. Coping with Racial Discrimination: Assessing the Vulnerability of African Americans and the Mediated Moderation of Psychosocial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Byron; Rote, Sunshine M.; Keith, Verna M.

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that the mental health of African Americans is negatively affected by discrimination, but few studies have investigated the effects of racial discrimination specifically and whether these effects vary by poverty and education levels. Using a sample of 3,372 African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), we find a positive relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms, with both lifetime and daily racial discrimination being more salient for depressive symptoms among impoverished African Americans than those living above 200% of the poverty line. Evaluating mediated moderation models, we also find that the conditional effects of socioeconomic status are mediated by poor African Americans’ having fewer psychosocial resources. Namely, lower levels of mastery are influential in accounting for poor African Americans’ greater vulnerability to both daily and lifetime discrimination. The findings highlight the importance of examining specific reasons for discrimination as well as mediated moderation in future research. PMID:25419483

  3. Community Risk Assessment of Rainfall Variability under Rain-fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... Department of Planning and Management ... Risk Assessment (CRA) and local knowledge as a bottom-up approach to community-based .... (Care International, 2010; Ghana, 2011; World Bank Group [WBG], 2010). Forecast ...

  4. An Assessment of the Length and Variability of Mercury's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Slavin, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We employ Mariner 10 measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field in the vicinity of Mercury to estimate the rate of magnetic reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the Hermean magnetosphere. We derive a time-series of the open magnetic flux in Mercury's magnetosphere. from which we can deduce the length of the magnetotail The length of the magnetotail is shown to be highly variable. with open field lines stretching between 15R(sub H) and 8S0R(sub H) downstream of the planet (median 150R(sub H)). Scaling laws allow the tail length at perihelion to be deduced from the aphelion Mariner 10 observations.

  5. Subjective well-being among family caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities: the role of affiliate stigma and psychosocial moderating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shirli; Shulman, Cory

    2013-11-01

    Studies have shown that stigmatization is linked to lower quality of life; however, only scant research has examined the association between family caregivers' internalization of stigma (affiliate stigma) and their subjective quality of life (subjective well-being, SWB). Furthermore, studies have rarely examined this association via comparison between caregivers of individuals with different developmental disabilities in addition to examining the influence of psychosocial protective factors. These were the aims of the current study. Family caregivers (N=176) of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disabilities (ID), and physical disabilities (PD) completed a self-report structured questionnaire including scales measuring SWB, affiliate stigma, burden, positive meaning in caregiving, social support and self-esteem. Results showed that SWB of family caregivers was below the average normative level and especially low for caregivers of individuals with ASD. The strongest predictors of SWB were caregivers' self-esteem, social support, positive meaning in caregiving, and affiliate stigma. Furthermore, an interaction was found between affiliate stigma and diagnosis, showing that among caregivers of individuals with ASD, greater levels of stigma were associated with lower ratings of SWB, whereas such an association was not found among caregivers of individuals with ID or PD. Findings from this study point to the importance of supporting caregivers across the life-span in order to decrease stigma, improve social support and self-esteem and improve SWB. Further, findings point to the need to respond differentially to the various developmental disabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exogenous Variables and Value-Added Assessments: A Fatal Flaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been rapid growth in value-added assessment of teachers to meet the widely supported policy goal of identifying the most effective and the most ineffective teachers in a school system. The former group is to be rewarded while the latter group is to be helped or fired for their poor performance. But, value-added approaches to…

  7. Assessment of regional air pollution variability in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Z.; Oztopal, A.

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution concentrations have temporal and spatial variations depending on the prevailing weather conditions, topographic features, city building heights and locations. When the measurements of air pollutants are available at set measurement sites, the regional variability degree of air pollutants is quantified using the point cumulative semi-variogram (PCSV). This technique provides a systematic method for calculating the changes in the concentrations of air pollutants with distance from a specific site. Regional variations of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and total suspended particulate (TSP) matter concentrations in Istanbul city were evaluated using the PCSV concept. The data were available from 16 different air pollution measurement stations scattered all over the city for a period from 1988 to 1994. Monthly regional variation maps were drawn in and around the city at different radii of influence. These maps provide a reference for measuring future changes of air pollution in the city. (author)

  8. Field testing a questionnaire assessing parental psychosocial factors related to consumption of calcium-rich foods by Hispanic, Asian, and Non-Hispanic white young adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyduna, Jennifer L; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine M; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry W; Cluskey, Mary; Edlefsen, Miriam; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Schram, Jessica; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Intervention strategies to increase calcium intake of parents and young adolescent children could be improved by identifying psychosocial factors influencing intake. The objective was to develop a tool to assess factors related to calcium intake among parents and Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white young adolescent children (10-13 years) meeting acceptable standards for psychometric properties. A parent questionnaire was constructed from interviews conducted to identify factors. Parents (n = 166) in the United States completed the questionnaire, with seventy-one completing it twice. Two constructs (Attitudes/Preferences and Social/Environmental) were identified and described by eighteen subscales with Cronbach's alpha levels from .50 to .79. Test-retest coefficients ranged from .68 to .85 (p food intake among parents and young adolescent children.

  9. Electronic gaming and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2014-09-01

    The rise of electronic games has driven both concerns and hopes regarding their potential to influence young people. Existing research identifies a series of isolated positive and negative effects, yet no research to date has examined the balance of these potential effects in a representative sample of children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to explore how time spent playing electronic games accounts for significant variation in positive and negative psychosocial adjustment using a representative cohort of children aged 10 to 15 years. A large sample of children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment and reported typical daily hours spent playing electronic games. Relations between different levels of engagement and indicators of positive and negative psychosocial adjustment were examined, controlling for participant age and gender and weighted for population representativeness. Low levels (3 hours daily) of game engagement was linked to key indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Low engagement was associated with higher life satisfaction and prosocial behavior and lower externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas the opposite was found for high levels of play. No effects were observed for moderate play levels when compared with non-players. The links between different levels of electronic game engagement and psychosocial adjustment were small (Games consistently but not robustly associated with children's adjustment in both positive and negative ways, findings that inform policy-making as well as future avenues for research in the area. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Psychosocial factors and financial literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John L

    2013-01-01

    This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to analyze the psychological and social variables associated with financial literacy. The HRS is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of individuals older than age 50 and their spouses. An ordinary least squares linear regression analysis explores the relationship between financial literacy and several economic and psychosocial variables. After controlling for earnings, level of education, and other socioeconomic variables in this exploratory study, I find that financial satisfaction and religiosity are correlated with financial literacy.

  11. Exposure to psychosocial risks at work in prisons: does contact with inmates matter? A pilot study among prison workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Ali; Ronda, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Álvares, Nahum; Mateo, Inmaculada

    2011-04-01

    Research has lately increased its focus on work conditions as predictors of stress among prison workers but only few studies have focused on how the exposure of workers to psychosocial risks vary according to their occupational groups and their contact with inmates. Work psychosocial risks (demands, control and social support) were assessed using the Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire among 164 Spanish prison workers (43 per cent of those surveyed). Regression analysis was used to explore how psychosocial hazards and their combinations (outcome variables) vary according to occupational groups. Results suggest that psychosocial risks were highest among guards that have more contact with inmates. Implications of the findings for policy making and practice application are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Observer variability in the histologic assessment of oral premalignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabulut, A.; Reibel, Jesper; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    1995-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of oral leukoplakias has a major impact on the assessment of prognosis and treatment planning. We investigated the extent of agreement in grading epithelial dysplasia between pathologists with the same or different educational backgrounds. Two general pathologists...... and two oral pathologists were each given 100 sections of oral leukoplakia to grade from no dysplasia to carcinoma in-situ. The interobserver agreement rates were in the range of 49% to 69%. The calculated kappa values were in the range of 27% to 45%, showing poor to moderate agreement between...

  13. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng-Cheng; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1) to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2) to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine), psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress), job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support), and prolonged fatigue. Results A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue. Conclusion Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers’ prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables. PMID:26930064

  14. Psychosocial predictors in the transition from acute to chronic pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschak, Valerie; Cochran, Gerald

    2018-02-28

    Chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) is a major health problem which psychosocial factors have significant implications in. There is a gap in regards to evidence for the prevention of chronicity specifically addressing psychological and social domains. Four databases were searched with terms related to "psychosocial", "acute pain", and "chronic pain". A total of 1,389 studies were identified in which titles, abstracts, and full texts were assessed for inclusion criteria. A data template was used to capture pertinent details, and overall themes and patterns were organized according to type of pain examined and psychosocial variables measured. Of the 18 articles that met inclusion criteria, fifteen (83%) of the articles reported an association between psychosocial factors and chronicity. A total of 5 of the studies (29%) demonstrated that depression was a possible predictor and 6 (35%) of the studies found fear-avoidance to be associated with chronicity. This review provides evidence that psychosocial factors are associated with chronicity within CNCP. These results suggest a need for targeting psychosocial predictors in prevention and early intervention through clinical guidelines and a national strategy to support a cultural change in pain care.

  15. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cheng Tang

    Full Text Available Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1 to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2 to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled.A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine, psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress, job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support, and prolonged fatigue.A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue.Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers' prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables.

  16. Assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes and their families: the added value of using standardised questionnaires in addition to clinical estimations of nurses and paediatricians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, E.A.; Damhuis, A.M.A.; Velden, J.A.M. van der; Steeghs, M.C.C.H.; Noordam, C.; Verhaak, C.M.; Vermaes, I.P.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes by means of clinical estimations made by nurses and paediatricians and by using standardised questionnaires. BACKGROUND: Although children with type 1 diabetes and their parents show

  17. Assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes and their families: The added value of using standardised questionnaires in addition to clinical estimations of nurses and paediatricians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, E.A.; Damhuis, A.M.A.; Alfen-van der Velden, A.A.E.M. van; Steeghs, M.C.C.H.; Noordam, C.; Verhaak, C.M.; Vermaes, I.P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To investigate the assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes by means of clinical estimations made by nurses and paediatricians and by using standardised questionnaires. Background Although children with type 1 diabetes and their parents show increased

  18. Psychosocial determinants of outcomes in knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Landon, Glenn C; Siff, Sherwin J; Edelstein, David; Pak, Chong; Kallen, Michael A; Stanley, Melinda; Zhang, Hong; Robinson, Kausha C; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2011-10-01

    To identify potential psychosocial and educational barriers to clinical success following knee replacement. The authors evaluated 241 patients undergoing total knee replacement, preoperatively and 6 months after surgery. Outcomes included the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) scale and the Knee Society rating system (KSRS). Independent variables included: the medical outcome study-social support scale; depression, anxiety and stress scale; brief COPE inventory; health locus of control; arthritis self-efficacy scale and the life orientation test-revised. Multiple regression models evaluated associations of baseline demographic and psychosocial variables with outcomes at 6 months, controlling for body mass index, comorbidities and baseline outcome scores. Patients' mean age was 65 ± 9 years; 65% were women. Most patients improved outcomes after surgery. Several psychosocial variables were associated with outcomes. Regression analyses indicated lower education, less tangible support, depression, less problem-solving coping, more dysfunctional coping, lower internal locus of control were associated with worse WOMAC scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables for pain 0.07; for function, 0.14). Older age, lower education, depression and less problem-solving coping were associated with poorer total KSRS scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables to total KSRS model 0.09). Psychosocial variables as a set contributed from 25% to 74% of total explained variance across the models tested. Patients' level of education, tangible support, depression, problem-solving coping, dysfunctional coping and internal locus of control were associated with pain and functional outcomes after knee replacement. The findings suggest that, in addition to medical management, perioperative psychosocial evaluation and intervention are crucial in enhancing knee replacement outcomes.

  19. The importance of leadership style and psychosocial work environment to staff-assessed quality of care: implications for home help services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Kristina; Tafvelin, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    Work in home help services is typically conducted by an assistant nurse or nursing aide in the home of an elderly person, and working conditions have been described as solitary with a high workload, little influence and lack of peer and leader support. Relations between leadership styles, psychosocial work environment and a number of positive and negative employee outcomes have been established in research, but the outcome in terms of quality of care has been addressed to a lesser extent. In the present study, we aimed to focus on working conditions in terms of leadership and the employee psychosocial work environment, and how these conditions are related to the quality of care. The hypothesis was that the relation between a transformational leadership style and quality of care is mediated through organisational and peer support, job control and workload. A cross-sectional survey design was used and a total of 469 questionnaires were distributed (March-April 2012) to assistant nurses in nine Swedish home help organisations, including six municipalities and one private organisation, representing both rural and urban areas (302 questionnaires were returned, yielding a 65% response rate). The results showed that our hypothesis was supported and, when indirect effects were also taken into consideration, there was no direct effect of leadership style on quality of care. The mediated model explained 51% of the variance in quality of care. These results indicate that leadership style is important not only to employee outcomes in home help services but is also indirectly related to quality of care as assessed by staff members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessing Psycho-social Barriers to Rehabilitation in Injured Workers with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Development and Item Properties of the Yellow Flag Questionnaire (YFQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salathé, Cornelia Rolli; Trippolini, Maurizio Alen; Terribilini, Livio Claudio; Oliveri, Michael; Elfering, Achim

    2018-06-01

    Purpose To develop a multidimensional scale to asses psychosocial beliefs-the Yellow Flag Questionnaire (YFQ)-aimed at guiding interventions for workers with chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. Methods Phase 1 consisted of item selection based on literature search, item development and expert consensus rounds. In phase 2, items were reduced with calculating a quality-score per item, using structure equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis on data from 666 workers. In phase 3, Cronbach's α, and Pearson correlations coefficients were computed to compare YFQ with disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy and the YFQ score based on data from 253 injured workers. Regressions of YFQ total score on disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy were calculated. Results After phase 1, the YFQ included 116 items and 15 domains. Further reductions of items in phase 2 by applying the item quality criteria reduced the total to 48 items. Phase factor analysis with structural equation modeling confirmed 32 items in seven domains: activity, work, emotions, harm & blame, diagnosis beliefs, co-morbidity and control. Cronbach α was 0.91 for the total score, between 0.49 and 0.81 for the 7 distinct scores of each domain, respectively. Correlations between YFQ total score ranged with disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy was .58, .66, .73, -.51, respectively. After controlling for age and gender the YFQ total score explained between R2 27% and R2 53% variance of disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy. Conclusions The YFQ, a multidimensional screening scale is recommended for use to assess psychosocial beliefs of workers with chronic MSK pain. Further evaluation of the measurement properties such as the test-retest reliability, responsiveness and prognostic validity is warranted.

  1. Auditory verbal memory and psychosocial symptoms are related in children with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Yael; Ben Zeev, Bruria; Cohen, Roni; Shuper, Avinoam; Geva, Ronny

    2015-07-01

    Idiopathic epilepsies are considered to have relatively good prognoses and normal or near normal developmental outcomes. Nevertheless, accumulating studies demonstrate memory and psychosocial deficits in this population, and the prevalence, severity and relationships between these domains are still not well defined. We aimed to assess memory, psychosocial function, and the relationships between these two domains among children with idiopathic epilepsy syndromes using an extended neuropsychological battery and psychosocial questionnaires. Cognitive abilities, neuropsychological performance, and socioemotional behavior of 33 early adolescent children, diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy, ages 9-14years, were assessed and compared with 27 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Compared to controls, patients with stabilized idiopathic epilepsy exhibited higher risks for short-term memory deficits (auditory verbal and visual) (pmemory deficits (plong-term memory deficits (pmemory deficits was related to severity of psychosocial symptoms among the children with epilepsy but not in the healthy controls. Results suggest that deficient auditory verbal memory may be compromising psychosocial functioning in children with idiopathic epilepsy, possibly underscoring that cognitive variables, such as auditory verbal memory, should be assessed and treated in this population to prevent secondary symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-Pronged Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorder and its Consequences: Personality Functioning, Pathological Traits, and Psychosocial Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe

    2014-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality), and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the three dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the five-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were co-factored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the five-factor level, included (1) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction), (2) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness), (3) disinhibition, (4) poor basic functioning, and (5) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD

  3. Taking a "Snapshot": Evaluation of a Conversation Aid for Identifying Psychosocial Needs in Young Adults with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poort, Hanneke; Souza, Phoebe M; Malinowski, Paige K; MacDougall, Katelyn M; Barysauskas, Constance M; Lau Greenberg, Teresa; Tulsky, James A; Fasciano, Karen M

    2018-05-21

    Young adults (YAs) aged 18-35 years with cancer often experience unmet psychosocial needs. We aimed to evaluate a conversation aid ("Snapshot") that offered a framework for discussing YA-specific psychosocial concerns between patients and clinicians. We developed and implemented Snapshot between 2014 and 2016 as part of a quality improvement initiative at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. We extracted pre- and postimplementation data from chart documentation of psychosocial concerns. YAs and social workers provided qualitative feedback on the use of Snapshot in clinical care. Postintervention chart reviews revealed a significant increase in the median number of topics documented in charts after implementation of Snapshot (preintervention median = 9 [range: 1-15] vs. postintervention median = 11 [range 6-15]; p = 0.003). Overall, YAs and social workers reported that using Snapshot improved communication and consistency of psychosocial care, with documented improvement in the following domains: understanding illness (p psychosocial needs assessment among YAs with cancer. Implementation was successful in reducing variability identified in the preintervention cohort and increasing the number of YA-specific psychosocial topics discussed. A standardized conversation aid has the potential to improve quality of care for YAs by enabling early identification and intervention of psychosocial issues for all patients.

  4. Bayesian Hierarchical Structure for Quantifying Population Variability to Inform Probabilistic Health Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kan; Allen, Bruce C; Wheeler, Matthew W

    2017-10-01

    Human variability is a very important factor considered in human health risk assessment for protecting sensitive populations from chemical exposure. Traditionally, to account for this variability, an interhuman uncertainty factor is applied to lower the exposure limit. However, using a fixed uncertainty factor rather than probabilistically accounting for human variability can hardly support probabilistic risk assessment advocated by a number of researchers; new methods are needed to probabilistically quantify human population variability. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify variability among different populations. This approach jointly characterizes the distribution of risk at background exposure and the sensitivity of response to exposure, which are commonly represented by model parameters. We demonstrate, through both an application to real data and a simulation study, that using the proposed hierarchical structure adequately characterizes variability across different populations. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Psychosocial adjustment and adherence to dialysis treatment regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbridge, G; Fielding, D M

    1994-12-01

    Sixty children and adolescents in end-stage renal failure who were undergoing either haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis at one of five United Kingdom dialysis centres were assessed on psychosocial adjustment and adherence to their fluid intake, diet and medication regimes. Parental adjustment was also measured and data on sociodemographic and treatment history variables collected. A structured family interview and standardised questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression and behavioural disturbance were used. Multiple measures of treatment adherence were obtained, utilising children's and parents' self-reports, weight gain between dialysis, blood pressure, serum potassium level, blood urea level, dietitians' surveys and consultants' ratings. Correlational analyses showed that low treatment adherence was associated with poor adjustment to diagnosis and dialysis by children and parents (P adherence than younger children, P dialysis (P treatment of this group of children. Future research should develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions aimed at improving treatment adherence.

  6. Lack of time management as a psychosocial work risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Cladellas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to explore the possible relationship between workers' lack of time management and several psychosocial risks. The psychosocial risks were assessed by means of the ISTAS21 Questionnaire, the Spanish version of the CoPsoQ (Copenhagen Psychological Questionnaire. More specifically, nine dimensions, which are directly related with time management, satisfaction, health and stress, were selected for evaluation. Time management was measured through the following variables: quantitative demands, influences and control of the time. Drawing on a sample of 142 workers from four departments (development, implantation, support and administration, the research results show that the employees who belong to a department that offers few opportunities for individual time management are less satisfied, have worse general and mental health, and experience more behavioral, symptomatic and cognitive stress than those who can manage their work schedule.

  7. Psychosocial wellbeing of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis voluntarily confined to long-term hospitalisation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Ushie, Boniface Ayanbekongshie; Udoh, Ekerette Emmanuel; Oladimeji, Kelechi Elizabeth; Ige, Olusoji Mayowa; Obasanya, Olusegun; Lekharu, Daisy; Atilola, Olayinka; Lawson, Lovett; Eltayeb, Osman; Gidado, Mustapha; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Ihekweazu, Chikwe A; Chasela, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Patient isolation, which is a widely successful treatment strategy for tuberculosis (TB), has been suspected to have effects on patient psychosocial wellbeing. We assessed the psychosocial wellbeing of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients in voluntary and isolated long-term hospitalisation in Nigeria. Methods 98 accessible and consenting patients in four drug-resistant treatment centres (University College Hospital and Government Chest Hospital, Ibadan; Mainland Hospital, Lagos, and Lawrence Henshaw Memorial Hospital, Calabar) were enrolled in this study. Data were collected using an 18-item psychosocial wellbeing questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics. We used descriptive statistics to present demographic characteristics; the χ2 test was used to assess associations between psychosocial wellbeing and independent variables and the relationship was modelled using logistic regression. Results The mean age of respondents was 36.1±11.9 years and 63% were males. Respondents had been in hospital an average of 4.5±1.9 months. Females had more psychosocial concerns compared with males. The most common concerns recorded among respondents were concern that people will get to know that the respondent had a bad type of TB (70%), discontent with being separated from and longing for the company of their marital partner (72%), concerns that they may have taken too many drugs (73%), and displeasure with being unable to continue to engage in their usual social and economic activities (75%). Respondents who were employed had eight times the odds of having more psychosocial concerns than the median number among respondents. Respondents who were supported by their own families during hospitalisation experienced a lower burden of psychosocial concerns compared with those who were supported by third parties. Conclusions Prolonged hospitalisation resulted in significant psychosocial burden for the MDR-TB patients in our study centres

  8. Multiple barriers to participation for people with psychosocial disability in Dehradun district, North India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Kaaren; Pant, Hira; Marella, Manjula; Singh, Lawrence; Murthy, Gvs; Grills, Nathan

    2018-02-27

    This study used a population-based cross-sectional survey to describe the prevalence of psychosocial disability and unmet need for access to services in North India. This study was conducted in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, in 2014. A population-based sample of 2441 people over the age of 18 years. The Rapid Assessment of Disability survey tool identified people with disability and used an adapted version of the Kessler scale to identify those with psychosocial disability. It additionally collected information on socioeconomic variables, access to community services and barriers to participation. Prevalence of psychosocial disability and unmet needs and descriptions of barriers to services were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between risk factors and psychosocial disability. Prevalence of psychosocial disability was 4.8% and 75% of participants with psychological distress also reported comorbid functional impairments. Adjusted ORs for depression of more than two were found for people who were unschooled, unemployed and of moderate or poor socioeconomic status. The unmet need for access to services was significantly higher in every domain for people with psychosocial disability and was more than 25% in the areas of employment, health service access and community consultation. People with psychosocial disability encountered greater barriers in each domain compared with controls. People who are poor, uneducated and unemployed are two to four times more likely to have psychosocial disability in Dehradun district. They face unmet needs in accessing community services and perceive negative social attitudes, lack of physical accessibility and lack of information as barriers limiting their participation. Social policy must increase access to education and reduce poverty but additionally ensure action is taken in all community services to increase information, physical accessibility and social inclusion of people with

  9. 24-Hour Blood Pressure Variability Assessed by Average Real Variability: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Luis J; Felix, Vanessa G; Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E

    2017-10-19

    Although 24-hour blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) is predictive of cardiovascular outcomes independent of absolute BP levels, it is not regularly assessed in clinical practice. One possible limitation to routine BPV assessment is the lack of standardized methods for accurately estimating 24-hour BPV. We conducted a systematic review to assess the predictive power of reported BPV indexes to address appropriate quantification of 24-hour BPV, including the average real variability (ARV) index. Studies chosen for review were those that presented data for 24-hour BPV in adults from meta-analysis, longitudinal or cross-sectional design, and examined BPV in terms of the following issues: (1) methods used to calculate and evaluate ARV; (2) assessment of 24-hour BPV determined using noninvasive ambulatory BP monitoring; (3) multivariate analysis adjusted for covariates, including some measure of BP; (4) association of 24-hour BPV with subclinical organ damage; and (5) the predictive value of 24-hour BPV on target organ damage and rate of cardiovascular events. Of the 19 assessed studies, 17 reported significant associations between high ARV and the presence and progression of subclinical organ damage, as well as the incidence of hard end points, such as cardiovascular events. In all these cases, ARV remained a significant independent predictor ( P <0.05) after adjustment for BP and other clinical factors. In addition, increased ARV in systolic BP was associated with risk of all cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.27). Only 2 cross-sectional studies did not find that high ARV was a significant risk factor. Current evidence suggests that ARV index adds significant prognostic information to 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and is a useful approach for studying the clinical value of BPV. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Hwa [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Mi [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jung Min; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography. Materials and methods: In 186 women, short term (mean interval, 27.6 days) serial digital mammograms including CC and MLO views were obtained without any treatment. Mammographic density assessments were performed by three blinded radiologists for Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS, grades 1–4) and visual percentage density (PD) estimation, and by one radiologist for computer-aided PD estimation. The variability of assessments was analyzed according to the age, breast density, and mammography types by multivariate logistic regression. Results: In BI-RADS assessments, 29% (161 of 558) of breast density categories were assessed differently after short-term reimaging and the mean absolute difference in PD for CC and MLO view was 7.6% and 8.1% for visual assessments, and 7.4% and 6.4% for computer-aided assessments, respectively. Among all computer-aided assessments, 29% (54 of 186) of CC view and 22% (41 of 186) of MLO view assessments had discrepancy over 10% in PD. Younger age (<50), greater breast density (grades 3 and 4), and different mammography types were significantly associated with the variability. Conclusion: Considerable variability in breast density assessments occurred in short-term reimaging with digital mammography, particularly in women with younger age and greater breast density and when examined using different types of mammography.

  11. Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Sun Mi; Yi, Ann; Chang, Jung Min; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography. Materials and methods: In 186 women, short term (mean interval, 27.6 days) serial digital mammograms including CC and MLO views were obtained without any treatment. Mammographic density assessments were performed by three blinded radiologists for Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS, grades 1–4) and visual percentage density (PD) estimation, and by one radiologist for computer-aided PD estimation. The variability of assessments was analyzed according to the age, breast density, and mammography types by multivariate logistic regression. Results: In BI-RADS assessments, 29% (161 of 558) of breast density categories were assessed differently after short-term reimaging and the mean absolute difference in PD for CC and MLO view was 7.6% and 8.1% for visual assessments, and 7.4% and 6.4% for computer-aided assessments, respectively. Among all computer-aided assessments, 29% (54 of 186) of CC view and 22% (41 of 186) of MLO view assessments had discrepancy over 10% in PD. Younger age (<50), greater breast density (grades 3 and 4), and different mammography types were significantly associated with the variability. Conclusion: Considerable variability in breast density assessments occurred in short-term reimaging with digital mammography, particularly in women with younger age and greater breast density and when examined using different types of mammography

  12. Effects of psychosocial work factors and psychological distress on self-assessed work ability: A 7-year follow-up in a general working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Ola; Balliu, Natalja; Lundin, Andreas; Vaez, Marjan; Kjellberg, Katarina; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Toinvestigate the effects of psychosocial work factors (PWF) and psychological distress (PD) on self-assessed work ability. This follow-up study included 7,810 individuals (55%women) with good work ability at baseline. PWFandPD (measured by GHQ-12) were assessed at baseline and work ability at 7-year follow-up. Effects of PWF and PD on work ability were analyzed by logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI, and by mediation analysisusing 4-way decomposition. Low support was associated with poor work ability for both women and men (OR 1.78 and 1.89). For men, also low skill discretion was associated with poor work ability (OR 2.07). For both women and men, PD was associated with poor work ability (OR 3.41 and 1.84). PD did not act as an intermediate variablein the association between PWF and work ability. Strategies for sustainable work ability should focus on both working conditions and health factors. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:121-130, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Can achievement goal theory provide a useful motivational perspective for explaining psychosocial attributes of medical students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjar Nir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations, for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation. Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT, is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS, psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT. Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90 and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S (β = .16, p Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.

  14. Can achievement goal theory provide a useful motivational perspective for explaining psychosocial attributes of medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir; Bachner, Yaacov G; Kushnir, Talma

    2012-01-12

    Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations), for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation). Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT), is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS), psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S) and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT). All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90) and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S) (β = .16, p frustration tolerance (β = -.22, p frustration tolerance (β = .36, p < .001). The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.

  15. Assessment of potential risk factors for new onset disabling low back pain in Japanese workers: findings from the CUPID (cultural and psychosocial influences on disability) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mika; Matsudaira, Ko; Sawada, Takayuki; Koga, Tadashi; Ishizuka, Akiko; Isomura, Tatsuya; Coggon, David

    2017-08-02

    Most studies of risk factors for new low back pain (LBP) have been conducted in Western populations, but because of cultural and environmental differences, the impact of causal factors may not be the same in other countries. We used longitudinal data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study to assess risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP among Japanese workers. Data came from a 1-year prospective follow-up of nurses, office workers, sales/marketing personnel, and transportation workers, initially aged 20-59 years, who were employed in or near Tokyo. A baseline questionnaire included items on past history of LBP, personal characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related psychosocial factors. Further information about LBP was collected at follow-up. Analysis was restricted to participants who had been free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess baseline risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP (i.e. LBP that had interfered with work) during the 12 months of follow-up. Among 955 participants free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline, 58 (6.1%) reported a new episode of disabling LBP during the 12-month follow-up period. After mutual adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, which included the four factors that showed associations individually (p working ≥60 h per week (1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.5) and lifting weights ≥25 kg by hand (1.6, 95% CI: 0.9-3.0). When past history of LBP was excluded from the model, ORs for the remaining risk factors were virtually unchanged. Our findings suggest that among Japanese workers, as elsewhere, past history of LBP is a major risk factor for the development of new episodes of disabling back pain. They give limited support to the association with occupational lifting that has been observed in earlier research, both in Japan and in Western countries. In addition, they suggest a possible role of long working

  16. Guidance for treatment of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Uncertainty is a seemingly simple concept that has caused great confusion and conflict in the field of risk assessment. This report offers guidance for the analysis and presentation of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments, an important issue in the remedial investigation and feasibility study processes. This report discusses concepts of probability in terms of variance and uncertainty, describes how these concepts differ in ecological risk assessment from human health risk assessment, and describes probabilistic aspects of specific ecological risk assessment techniques. The report ends with 17 points to consider in performing an uncertainty analysis for an ecological risk assessment of a contaminated site

  17. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Javaid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP. Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.

  18. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Umair; Isha, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam; Sabir, Asrar Ahmed; Ghazali, Zulkipli; Nübling, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP). Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.

  19. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  20. Application of Psychoanalytic, Cognitive, Psychosocial and Other Theories in the Developmentally Integrated Assessment and Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Linda; Kreger, Robert

    The authors describe their efforts to produce a global assessment scale for young emotionally disturbed children derived from an integrated synthesis of developmenta theories. Charts outline developmental stages, zones, modes, and dominant traits or characteristics of five major theorists (S. Freud, E. Erikson, A. Maslow, J. Piaget, and F.…

  1. Aspectos psicossociais em cirurgia bariátrica: a associação entre variáveis emocionais, trabalho, relacionamentos e peso corporal Psychosocial aspects in bariatric surgery: the association among emotional variables, job, relationships and body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela A Nogueira de Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Operações bariátricas têm sido consideradas alternativa para o tratamento de obesidade mórbida. Alguns eventos adversos que as pessoas experimentam após o tratamento frequentemente são consequência da falta de conhecimento consistente associada a fatores psicossociais que estão relacionadas ao status pré-operatório dos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as variáveis ?psicossociais de 414 candidatos ? cirurgia bari?trica do Hospital de Cl?nicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de S?o Paulo, Ribeir?o Preto, SP, Brasil. psicossociais de 414 candidatos à cirurgia bariátrica do Hospital de Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados entrevista semi-estruturada, Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI, Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck (BAI e Binge Eating Scale (BES. RESULTADOS: IMC foi maior entre os pacientes que não tinham emprego (p = 0,019, do sexo feminino, os que tinham um parceiro e os pacientes com IMC 50 kg / m² (p 50 kg / m² foram mais propensos a apresentar sintomas de ansiedade.BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgeries have been considered an alternative for treatment of morbid obesity. Some adverse events that people experience after the treatment frequently are the consequence of the lack of consistent knowledge associated with psychosocial factors that are related to the pre-surgery status of the patients. AIM: To evaluate psychosocial variables of 414 candidates for bariatric surgery from Clinical Hospital of Medical School at University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. METHODS: Semi-structured interview, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Binge Eating Scale (BES were used. RESULTS: BMI was higher among patients who had no employment (p = 0.019. Female, patients who had a partner and patients with a BMI 50 kg/m² (p 50 kg / m² were more likely to experience anxiety symptoms.

  2. Do Psychosocial Factors Predict Muscle Strength, Pain, or Physical Performance in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Isabel A C; Meeus, Mira; Mahmoudian, Armaghan; Luyten, Frank P; Nijs, Jo; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of psychosocial factors, namely, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and maladaptive coping strategies, with muscle strength, pain, and physical performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related symptoms. A total of 109 women (64 with knee OA-related symptoms) with a mean age of 65.4 years (49-81 years) were recruited for this study. Psychosocial factors were quantified by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Pain Coping Inventory. Clinical features were assessed using isometric and isokinetic knee muscle strength measurements, visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and functional tests. Associations were examined using correlation and regression analysis. In knee OA patients, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy explained a significant proportion of the variability in isometric knee extension and flexion strength (6.3%-9.2%), accounting for more overall variability than some demographic and medical status variables combined. Psychosocial factors were not significant independent predictors of isokinetic strength, knee pain, or physical performance. In understanding clinical features related to knee OA, such as muscle weakness, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy might offer something additional beyond what might be explained by traditional factors, underscoring the importance of a biopsychosocial approach in knee OA management. Further research on individual patient characteristics that mediate the effects of psychosocial factors is, however, required in order to create opportunities for more targeted, personalized treatment for knee OA.

  3. Enhanced Requirements for Assessment in a Competency-Based, Time-Variable Medical Education System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Ten Cate, Olle; Lingard, Lorelei A; Teunissen, Pim W; Kogan, Jennifer R

    2018-03-01

    Competency-based, time-variable medical education has reshaped the perceptions and practices of teachers, curriculum designers, faculty developers, clinician educators, and program administrators. This increasingly popular approach highlights the fact that learning among different individuals varies in duration, foundation, and goal. Time variability places particular demands on the assessment data that are so necessary for making decisions about learner progress. These decisions may be formative (e.g., feedback for improvement) or summative (e.g., decisions about advancing a student). This article identifies challenges to collecting assessment data and to making assessment decisions in a time-variable system. These challenges include managing assessment data, defining and making valid assessment decisions, innovating in assessment, and modeling the considerable complexity of assessment in real-world settings and richly interconnected social systems. There are hopeful signs of creativity in assessment both from researchers and practitioners, but the transition from a traditional to a competency-based medical education system will likely continue to create much controversy and offer opportunities for originality and innovation in assessment.

  4. Combining landscape variables and species traits can improve the utility of climate change vulnerability assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Fuller, Angela K.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation organizations worldwide are investing in climate change vulnerability assessments. Most vulnerability assessment methods focus on either landscape features or species traits that can affect a species vulnerability to climate change. However, landscape features and species traits likely interact to affect vulnerability. We compare a landscape-based assessment, a trait-based assessment, and an assessment that combines landscape variables and species traits for 113 species of birds, herpetofauna, and mammals in the northeastern United States. Our aim is to better understand which species traits and landscape variables have the largest influence on assessment results and which types of vulnerability assessments are most useful for different objectives. Species traits were most important for determining which species will be most vulnerable to climate change. The sensitivity of species to dispersal barriers and the species average natal dispersal distance were the most important traits. Landscape features were most important for determining where species will be most vulnerable because species were most vulnerable in areas where multiple landscape features combined to increase vulnerability, regardless of species traits. The interaction between landscape variables and species traits was important when determining how to reduce climate change vulnerability. For example, an assessment that combines information on landscape connectivity, climate change velocity, and natal dispersal distance suggests that increasing landscape connectivity may not reduce the vulnerability of many species. Assessments that include landscape features and species traits will likely be most useful in guiding conservation under climate change.

  5. Project EASE: a study to test a psychosocial model of epilepsy medication managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiIorio, Collen; Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Letz, Richard; Henry, Thomas R; Schomer, Donal L; Yeager, Kate

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a psychosocial model of medication self-management among people with epilepsy. This model was based primarily on social cognitive theory and included personal (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, stigma, and depressive symptoms), social (social support), and provider (patient satisfaction and desire for control) variables. Participants for the study were enrolled at research sites in Atlanta, Georgia, and Boston, Massachusetts and completed computer-based assessments that included measures of the study variables listed above. The mean age of the 317 participants was 43.3 years; about 50% were female, and 81%white. Self-efficacy and patient satisfaction explained the most variance in medication management. Social support was related to self-efficacy; stigma to self-efficacy and depressive symptoms; and self-efficacy to outcome expectations and depressive symptoms. Findings reinforce that medication-taking behavior is affected by a complex set of interactions among psychosocial variables.

  6. Assessing the role of internal climate variability in Antarctica's contribution to future sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. Y.; Forest, C. E.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) has the potential to be a major contributor to future sea-level rise (SLR). Current projections of SLR due to AIS mass loss remain highly uncertain. Better understanding of how ice sheets respond to future climate forcing and variability is essential for assessing the long-term risk of SLR. However, the predictability of future climate is limited by uncertainties from emission scenarios, model structural differences, and the internal variability that is inherently generated within the fully coupled climate system. Among those uncertainties, the impact of internal variability on the AIS changes has not been explicitly assessed. In this study, we quantify the effect of internal variability on the AIS evolutions by using climate fields from two large-ensemble experiments using the Community Earth System Model to force a three-dimensional ice sheet model. We find that internal variability of climate fields, particularly atmospheric fields, among ensemble members leads to significantly different AIS responses. Our results show that the internal variability can cause about 80 mm differences of AIS contribution to SLR by 2100 compared to the ensemble-mean contribution of 380-450 mm. Moreover, using ensemble-mean climate fields as the forcing in the ice sheet model does not produce realistic simulations of the ice loss. Instead, it significantly delays the onset of retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet for up to 20 years and significantly underestimates the AIS contribution to SLR by 0.07-0.11 m in 2100 and up to 0.34 m in the 2250's. Therefore, because the uncertainty caused by internal variability is irreducible, we seek to highlight a critical need to assess the role of internal variability in projecting the AIS loss over the next few centuries. By quantifying the impact of internal variability on AIS contribution to SLR, policy makers can obtain more robust estimates of SLR and implement suitable adaptation strategies.

  7. Independent Effects of Neighborhood Poverty and Psychosocial Stress on Obesity Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, Jamila L; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela B; Israel, Barbara A; Perkins, Denise White

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the independent effects of neighborhood poverty and psychosocial stress on increases in central adiposity over time. Data are from a community sample of 157 Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic adults collected in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008, and from the 2000 Decennial Census. The dependent variable was waist circumference. Independent variables included neighborhood poverty, perceived neighborhood physical environment, family stress, safety stress, everyday unfair treatment, and a cumulative stress index. Weighted 3-level hierarchical linear regression models for a continuous outcome were used to assess the effects of neighborhood poverty and psychosocial stress on central adiposity over time. We also assessed whether psychosocial stress mediated the association between neighborhood poverty and central adiposity. Neighborhood poverty and everyday unfair treatment at baseline were independently associated with increases in central adiposity over time, accounting for the other indicators of stress. Perceptions of the neighborhood physical environment and cumulative stress mediated associations between neighborhood poverty and central adiposity. Results suggest that residing in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of poverty and exposure to everyday unfair treatment independently heighten risk of increased central adiposity over time. Associations between neighborhood poverty and central adiposity were mediated by perceptions of the neighborhood physical environment and by the cumulative stress index. Public health strategies to reduce obesity should consider neighborhood poverty and exposure to multiple sources of psychosocial stress, including everyday unfair treatment.

  8. Are revised models better models? A skill score assessment of regional interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Participating AMIP Modelling Groups

    1999-05-01

    Various skill scores are used to assess the performance of revised models relative to their original configurations. The interannual variability of all-India, Sahel and Nordeste rainfall and summer monsoon windshear is examined in integrations performed under the experimental design of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. For the indices considered, the revised models exhibit greater fidelity at simulating the observed interannual variability. Interannual variability of all-India rainfall is better simulated by models that have a more realistic rainfall climatology in the vicinity of India, indicating the beneficial effect of reducing systematic model error.

  9. Incorporation of electricity GHG emissions intensity variability into building environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubi, Eduard; Doluweera, Ganesh; Bergerson, Joule

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Current building assessment does not account for variability in the electric grid. • A new method incorporates hourly grid variability into building assessment. • The method is complementary with peak-shaving policies. • The assessment method can affect building design decisions. - Abstract: Current building energy and GHG emissions assessments do not account for the variable performance of the electric grid. Incorporating hourly grid variability into building assessment methods can help to better prioritize energy efficiency measures that result in the largest environmental benefits. This article proposes a method to incorporate GHG emissions intensity changes due to grid variability into building environmental assessment. The proposed method encourages building systems that reduce electricity use during peak periods while accounting for differences in grid GHG emissions intensity (i.e., peak shaving is more strongly encouraged in grids that have GHG intense peak generation). A set of energy saving building technologies are evaluated in a set of building variants (office, residential) and grid types (hydro/nuclear dominated, coal/gas dominated) to demonstrate the proposed method. Differences between total GHG emissions calculated with the new method compared with the standard (which assumes a constant GHG emissions intensity throughout the year) are in the 5–15% range when the contribution of electricity to total GHG emissions is more significant. The influence of the method on the assessment of the relative performance of some energy efficiency measures is much higher. For example, the estimated GHG emissions savings with heat pumps and photovoltaics can change by −40% and +20%, respectively, using the new assessment method instead of the standard. These differences in GHG emissions estimates can influence building design decisions. The new method could be implemented easily, and would lead to better decision making and more accurate

  10. Psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the availability of better treatment regimen, life span of thalassemic patients is increasing. Chronic nature of thalassemia and its intensive and demanding treatment result in significant psychologic burden on the patients and their families. A lot has been studied about beta-thalassemia major but little attention has been paid to the psychological aspect of this disease. Hence, the study was planned to analyse the psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from January 2007 to March 2008 in thalassemic day-care centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Fifty four thalassemic children and controls above 9 years of age were enrolled. Psychosocial assessment done with assessment of Finer Psychopathology using ICMR Symptom checklist (ICMR task force, 1983. The prevalence of various problems was calculated and compared with controls. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for testing differences in variables. Results: Patients were divided into three groups - Group A (10-15 years, 30 patients; Group B (15-20 years, 18 patients, and Group C (20-25 years, 6 patients. In group A, behavior problems were common (12 patients -40% (P< 0.001, significant. In group B, mood disorders were common (8 patients, 44% (P< 0.001, significant. In group C, psychotic symptoms were common (3 patients, 50% (P< 0.05, significant. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that psychosocial problems are more in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial aspects need to be addressed in the overall treatment of children with thalassemia.

  11. The psychosocial burden of psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husni, M Elaine; Merola, Joseph F; Davin, Sara

    2017-12-01

    To assess the psychosocial impact of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), describe how health-related quality of life (QoL) is affected in patients with PsA, discuss measures used to evaluate the psychosocial impact of PsA, and review studies examining the effect of therapy on QoL. A targeted review on the impact of PsA on QoL and the role of tailored psychosocial management in reducing the psychosocial burden of the disease was performed. PubMed literature searches were conducted using the terms PsA, psychosocial burden, QoL, and mood/behavioral changes. Articles were deemed relevant if they presented information regarding the psychosocial impact of PsA, methods used to evaluate these impacts, or ways to manage/improve management of PsA and its resulting comorbidities. The findings of this literature search are descriptively reviewed and the authors׳ expert opinion on their interpretation is provided. The psychosocial burden of PsA negatively affects QoL. Patients suffer from sleep disorders, fatigue, low-level stress, depression and mood/behavioral changes, poor body image, and reduced work productivity. Additionally, each patient responds to pain differently, depending on a variety of psychological factors including personality structure, cognition, and attention to pain. Strategies for evaluating the burdens associated with PsA and the results of properly managing patients with PsA are described. PsA is associated with a considerable psychosocial burden and new assessment tools, specific to PsA, have been developed to help quantify this burden in patients. Future management algorithms of PsA should incorporate appropriate assessment and management of psychological and physical concerns of patients. Furthermore, patients with PsA should be managed by a multidisciplinary team that works in coordination with the patient and their family or caregivers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychosocial impact of the summer 2007 floods in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The summer of 2007 was the wettest in the UK since records began in 1914 and resulted in severe flooding in several regions. We carried out a health impact assessment using population-based surveys to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for the psychosocial consequences of this flooding in the United Kingdom. Methods Surveys were conducted in two regions using postal, online, telephone questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Exposure variables included the presence of flood water in the home, evacuation and disruption to essential services (incident management variables), perceived impact of the floods on finances, house values and perceived health concerns. Validated tools were used to assess psychosocial outcome (mental health symptoms): psychological distress (GHQ-12), anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9) and probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD checklist-shortform). Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe the association between water level in the home, psychological exposure variables and incident management variables, and each mental health symptom, adjusted for age, sex, presence of an existing medical condition, employment status, area and data collection method. Results The prevalence of all mental health symptoms was two to five-fold higher among individuals affected by flood water in the home. People who perceived negative impact on finances were more likely to report psychological distress (OR 2.5, 1.8-3.4), probable anxiety (OR 1.8, 1.3-2.7) probable depression (OR 2.0, 1.3-2.9) and probable PTSD (OR 3.2, 2.0-5.2). Disruption to essential services increased adverse psychological outcomes by two to three-fold. Evacuation was associated with some increase in psychological distress but not significantly for the other three measures. Conclusion The psychosocial and mental health impact of flooding is a growing public health concern and improved strategies for minimising disruption to essential services and

  13. Psychosocial Development of 5-year-old Children with Hearing Loss: Risks and protective factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cara L.; Ching, Teresa YC; Leigh, Greg; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this paper were to report on the global psychosocial functioning of 5-year-old DHH children and examine the risk and protective factors that predict outcomes. Design A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a prospective, population-based longitudinal study. Study Sample Parents/caregivers of 356 children completed questionnaires on psychosocial development (CDI, SDQ), functional communication (PEACH) and demographic information. Children completed standardised assessments of non-verbal cognitive ability (WNV) and language (PLS-4). Results On average, global psychosocial functioning was within the range of typically developing children; however, variability was high and 12% of children had scores that were more than 2 SDs below the norm. Non-verbal cognitive ability, presence of additional disabilities, language and functional communication significantly predicted outcomes. In contrast, type of hearing device, severity of hearing loss and age at intervention did not. Conclusion The global psychosocial functioning of this cohort of 5-year-old DHH children fell within the range of typically developing children. . The findings suggest that spoken language ability and functional communication skills are vital for healthy psychosocial development. PMID:27541363

  14. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eBuruck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  15. Psychometric evaluation of the Sibling Cancer Needs Instrument (SCNI): an instrument to assess the psychosocial unmet needs of young people who are siblings of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P; McDonald, F E J; Butow, P; White, K J; Costa, D S J; Millar, B; Bell, M L; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2014-03-01

    The current study sought to establish the psychometric properties of the revised Sibling Cancer Needs Instrument (SCNI) when completed by young people who have a brother or sister with cancer. The participants were 106 young people aged between 12 and 24 who had a living brother or sister diagnosed with any type or stage of cancer in the last 5 years. They were recruited from multiple settings. The initial step in determining the dimensional structure of the questionnaire was exploratory factor analysis and further assessment followed using Rasch analysis. Construct validity and test-retest reliability (n = 17) were also assessed. The final SCNI has 45 items and seven domains: information; practical assistance; "time out" and recreation; feelings; support (friends and other young people); understanding from my family; and sibling relationship. There was a reasonable spread of responses across the scale for every item. Rasch analysis results suggested that overall, respondents used the scale consistently. Support for construct validity was provided by the correlations between psychological distress and the SCNI domains. The internal consistency was good to excellent; Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.78 to 0.94. The test-retest reliability of the overall measure is 0.88. The SCNI is the first measure of psychosocial unmet needs which has been developed for young people who have a brother or sister with cancer. The sound psychometric properties allow the instrument to be used with confidence. The measure will provide a substantial clinical benefit in highlighting the unmet needs of this population to assist with the prioritisation of targeted supportive care services and evaluating the impact of interventions targeted at siblings.

  16. Predator-based psychosocial stress animal model of PTSD: Preclinical assessment of traumatic stress at cognitive, hormonal, pharmacological, cardiovascular and epigenetic levels of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2016-10-01

    Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is faced with the challenge of understanding how a traumatic experience produces long-lasting detrimental effects on behavior and brain functioning, and more globally, how stress exacerbates somatic disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the design of translational research needs to link animal models of PTSD to clinically relevant risk factors which address why only a subset of traumatized individuals develop persistent psychopathology. In this review, we have summarized our psychosocial stress rodent model of PTSD which is based on well-described PTSD-inducing risk factors, including a life-threatening experience, a sense of horror and uncontrollability, and insufficient social support. Specifically, our animal model of PTSD integrates acute episodes of inescapable exposure of immobilized rats to a predator with chronic daily social instability. This stress regimen produces PTSD-like effects in rats at behavioral, cognitive, physiological, pharmacological and epigenetic levels of analysis. We have discussed a recent extension of our animal model of PTSD in which stress exacerbated coronary pathology following an ischemic event, assessed in vitro. In addition, we have reviewed our research investigating pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies which may have value in clinical approaches toward the treatment of traumatized people. Overall, our translational approach bridges the gap between human and animal PTSD research to create a framework with which to enhance our understanding of the biological basis of trauma-induced pathology and to assess therapeutic approaches in the treatment of psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousino, Melissa K; Schumacher, Kurt R; Rea, Kelly E; Eder, Sally; Zamberlan, Mary; Jordan, Jessica; Fredericks, Emily M

    2018-03-01

    Across pediatric organ transplant populations, patient and family psychosocial functioning is associated with important health-related outcomes. Research has suggested that pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families are at increased risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes; however, recent investigation of psychosocial functioning in this population is lacking. This study aimed to provide a contemporary characterization of psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families. Associations between psychosocial function, demographic variables, and transplant-related variables were investigated. Fifty-six parents/guardians of pediatric heart transplant recipients completed a comprehensive psychosocial screening measure during transplant follow-up clinic visits. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and independent samples t tests were performed. Forty percent of pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families endorsed clinically meaningful levels of total psychosocial risk. One-third of patients presented with clinically significant psychological problems per parent report. Psychosocial risk was unassociated with demographic or transplant-related factors. Despite notable improvements in the survival of pediatric heart transplant recipients over the past decade, patients and families present with sustained psychosocial risks well beyond the immediate post-transplant period, necessitating mental health intervention to mitigate adverse impact on health-related outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Psychosocial risk at work and mental illness in hospital workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ansoleaga M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence on the association between exposure to psychosocial risk at work and adverse health outcomes. Objective: to describe and analyze the presence of psychosocial risks at work and mental health symptoms in non-clinical workers from a public hospital. Methods: a crosssectional study was conducted at a public hospital in Santiago (Chile. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to assess exposure to psychosocial risks (demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models. The outcome variables were depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and psychotropic drug consumption. The analysis was descriptive and associative (Fisher’s exact test Results: 47% of the workers showed high psychological demands, 46% low autonomy, 61% low social support and 75% imbalance between effort expended and rewards received. The prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms in the total sample was 10% and 30% respectively, while 25% reported having used psychotropic drugs. The consumption of psychotropic drugs was significantly higher (p < 0.05 among those with low social support and effort-reward imbalance. Discussion: the consumption of psychotropic drugs was associated with low social support and imbalance between efforts expended and rewards received. This might have implications in the workers’ health and performance; therefore, further research is required, particularly on this kind of population, to understand this relationship and thus develop prevention programs in this regard.

  19. Psychosocial implications of Thalassemia Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinok, Yesim; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagihan; Yilmaz, Deniz; Solak, Ufuk

    2005-02-01

    Many causes including the chronicity of disease, burden of treatment modalities, morbidities, and the expectation of early death resulting from the disease complications, may lead to psychosocial burden in Thalassemia Major (TM) patients. A total of 38 patients with TM and their mothers were recruited to evaluate the psychosocial burden as well as to disclose whether the psychological status of the patients contribute to the compliance with the therapy or to the contrary. Demographic and disease variables were obtained. Child Behavior Check-list (CBCL) was completed by the mothers of the patients. A detailed psychiatric interview based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria was performed for each patient. Symptom Distress Checklist 90 (SCL-90) scale was given to all mothers for evaluating their psychopathology. Although CBCL scores remained between the normal ranges, desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO)-compliant patients and the patients with lower ferritin values had significantly higher scores. A total of 24% of the patients had a psychiatric diagnosis including major depression, anxiety disorder, tic disorder, and enuresis nocturnal. The psychiatric diagnosis was significantly higher in the patients who were compliant with desferrioxamine compared with the non-compliant group (P = 0.007). The SCL-90 scores indicated that the mothers who had a child with good adherence to DFO had higher scale scores than the mothers with a poor adherent child. The increase risk of psychosocial and behavioral problems in thalassemics and their parents indicated the importance of a lifelong psychosocial support for the prevention of mental health issues. The patients and their parents, who were more conscious of the illness, were more worried but more compliant with the therapy and need stronger psychiatric support.

  20. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers.......To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers....

  1. Variables associated with lung congestion as assessed by chest ultrasound in diabetics undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Ultrasound is an emerging method for assessing lung congestion but is still seldom used. Lung congestion is an important risk of cardiac events and death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients on hemodialysis (HD. Objective: We investigated possible variables associated with lung congestion among diabetics with ESRD on HD, using chest ultrasound to detect extracellular lung water. Methods: We studied 73 patients with diabetes as the primary cause of ESRD, undergoing regular HD. Lung congestion was assessed by counting the number of B lines detected by chest ultrasound. Hydration status was assessed by bioimpedance analysis and cardiac function by echocardiography. The collapse index of the inferior vena cava (IVC was measured by ultrasonography. All patients were classified according to NYHA score. Correlations of the number of B lines with continuous variables and comparisons regarding the number of B lines according to categorical variables were performed. Multivariate linear regression was used to test the variables as independent predictors of the number of B lines. Results: None of the variables related to hydration status and cardiac function were associated with the number of B lines. In the multivariate analysis, only the IVC collapse index (b = 45.038; p < 0.001 and NYHA classes (b = 13.995; p = 0.006 were independent predictors of the number of B lines. Conclusion: Clinical evaluation based on NYHA score and measurement of the collapsed IVC index were found to be more reliable than bioimpedance analysis to predict lung congestion.

  2. Beyond the physical: a qualitative assessment of the burden of symptomatic uterine fibroids on women's emotional and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghant, Marissa S; Sengoba, Katherine S; Recht, Hannah; Cameron, Kenzie A; Lawson, Angela K; Marsh, Erica E

    2015-05-01

    To qualitatively assess the burden of uterine fibroids on women's emotional health. Sixty women (n = 60) with symptomatic uterine fibroids were recruited from an urban academic medical center and community-based organizations. Women completed qualitative, semi-structured interviews and demographic surveys. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Using a grounded theory approach, three coders independently identified major themes and subthemes that emerged from the interviews. The kappa among coders was 0.94. The mean age of participants was 43.0 ± 6.8. 61.7% of participants self-identified as African-American, 25.0% as Caucasian, 8.3% as Hispanic and 5.0% as Asian. Most participants exhibited a significant emotional response to their fibroids, including fear, anxiety, anger, and depression. Half of the women felt helpless and believed that they had no control over their fibroids. Many women possessed a negative self-image and cited concern over appearing less attractive, which led to difficulties becoming intimate. Several women felt that they lacked substantial support to help them deal with these issues. In addition to the known high prevalence and severe physical impact of uterine fibroids, there is a significant psychological impact on women. Many women lack support to help them deal with these issues and very few seek help from a mental health professional. There is an opportunity and a need for the mental health community to address the concerns in this population, in order to improve psychological health and quality of life in patients living with this chronic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychosocial Correlates of Academic Performance among Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a correlational design study that explored the relationship between pupils' psychosocial variables such as self-esteem, hearing status, attitude towards teachers and school; and between these and academic performance. A total of 194 pupils, 110 hearing normally and 84 hearing impaired were compared in ...

  4. Clinical significance of mobile health assessed sleep duration and variability in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Christopher N; Gershon, Anda; Eyler, Lisa T; Depp, Colin A

    2016-10-01

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent, persistent, and impairing features of bipolar disorder. However, the near-term and cumulative impact of the severity and variability of sleep disturbances on symptoms and functioning remains unclear. We examined self-reported daily sleep duration and variability in relation to mood symptoms, medication adherence, cognitive functioning, and concurrent daily affect. Forty-one outpatients diagnosed with bipolar disorder were asked to provide daily reports of sleep duration and affect collected via ecological momentary assessment with smartphones over eleven weeks. Measures of depressive and manic symptoms, medication adherence, and cognitive function were collected at baseline and concurrent assessment of affect were collected daily. Analyses examined whether sleep duration or variability were associated with baseline measures and changes in same-day or next-day affect. Greater sleep duration variability (but not average sleep duration) was associated with greater depressive and manic symptom severity, and lower medication adherence at baseline, and with lower and more variable ratings of positive affect and higher ratings of negative affect. Sleep durations shorter than 7-8 h were associated with lower same-day ratings of positive and higher same-day ratings of negative affect, however this did not extend to next-day affect. Greater cumulative day-to-day sleep duration variability, but not average sleep duration, was related to more severe mood symptoms, lower self-reported medication adherence and higher levels of negative affect. Bouts of short- or long-duration sleep had transient impact on affect. Day-to-day sleep variability may be important to incorporate into clinical assessment of sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variability and uncertainty in Swedish exposure factors for use in quantitative exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipsson, Monika; Öberg, Tomas; Bergbäck, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Information of exposure factors used in quantitative risk assessments has previously been compiled and reported for U.S. and European populations. However, due to the advancement of science and knowledge, these reports are in continuous need of updating with new data. Equally important is the change over time of many exposure factors related to both physiological characteristics and human behavior. Body weight, skin surface, time use, and dietary habits are some of the most obvious examples covered here. A wealth of data is available from literature not primarily gathered for the purpose of risk assessment. Here we review a number of key exposure factors and compare these factors between northern Europe--here represented by Sweden--and the United States. Many previous compilations of exposure factor data focus on interindividual variability and variability between sexes and age groups, while uncertainty is mainly dealt with in a qualitative way. In this article variability is assessed along with uncertainty. As estimates of central tendency and interindividual variability, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and multiple percentiles were calculated, while uncertainty was characterized using 95% confidence intervals for these parameters. The presented statistics are appropriate for use in deterministic analyses using point estimates for each input parameter as well as in probabilistic assessments. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Assessment of Job Satisfaction among Faculty Members and Its Relationship with Some Variables in Najran University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Marwan Saleh; Qblan, Yahya Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    It is vital that colleges and universities monitor the satisfaction levels of their employees to secure high levels of their performance. The current study aimed to identify the impact of some variables (gender, Teaching experience and college type) on assessing the level of job satisfaction among faculty of Najran University. A survey was…

  7. Toward ambulatory balance assessment: Estimating variability and stability from short bouts of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, K.S.; Rispens, S.M.; Elders, P.J.M.; van Dieen, J.H.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Stride-to-stride variability and local dynamic stability of gait kinematics are promising measures to identify individuals at increased risk of falling. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of using these metrics in clinical practice and ambulatory assessment, where only a small number of

  8. Assessing inter- and intraspecific variability of xylem vulnerability to embolism in oaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin; Torres-Ruiz, José M.; Burlett, Regis

    2018-01-01

    for future afforestation. However, the presence of long vessels makes it difficult to assess xylem vulnerability to embolism in these species. Thanks to the development of a flow centrifuge equipped with a large rotor, we quantified (i) the between species variability of embolism resistance in four native...

  9. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; David L. Peterson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability...

  10. Evaluación de la inestabilidad laboral como estresor psicosocial en el trabajo Assessment Of Job Instability As A Psychosocial Stressor In Work Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Leibovich de Figueroa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad laboral se presenta como un estresor psicosocial en los contextos laborales y se hace imprescindible evaluar su impacto en los trabajadores. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis factorial exploratorio del Inventario de Malestar Percibido en la Inestabilidad Laboral (IMPIL. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio (método de componentes principales, rotación promax para examinar cómo se agrupaban los ítems. Se comenzó con una solución forzada de ocho factores para ver si se mantenía la agrupación conceptual original del inventario. Se descartaron los ítems con cargas inferiores a .40 y con doble pesaje. Esto dejó un total de 44 ítems, con los que se llegó a una solución forzada de ocho factores que describen el 64.11% de la varianza de las puntuaciones. Los ítems agrupados en los 8 factores reproducen pensamientos positivos y negativos del trabajador y su relación con el contexto laboral.Job Instability appears as a psychosocial stressor in work contexts and it is imperative to assess its impact among workers. Results of an exploratory factor analysis of the Inventory of Perceived Uneasiness in an Unstable Work Setting (IMPIL are presented. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted (method of principal components, promax rotation, to discuss how the items were grouped. To see if original grouping maintained, an eight factors solution was forced. Items with loads less than .40 and dual weighing were discarded. This left a total of 44 items, and we arrived at a forced eight factors solution that describes the 64.11% of the variance. The items grouped in the eight factors reproduced positive and negative thoughts of the workers and their relationship to the employment context.

  11. Psychosocial Issues in Pediatric Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial oncology, a relatively new discipline, is a multidisciplinary application of the behavioral and social sciences, and pediatric psychosocial oncology is an emerging subspecialty within the domain of psychosocial oncology. This review presents a brief overview of some of the major clinical issues surrounding pediatric psychosocial oncology. PMID:23049457

  12. Real-time Continuous Assessment Method for Mental and Physiological Condition using Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is necessary to monitor the daily health condition for preventing stress syndrome. In this study, it was proposed the method assessing the mental and physiological condition, such as the work stress or the relaxation, using heart rate variability at real time and continuously. The instantanuous heart rate (HR), and the ratio of the number of extreme points (NEP) and the number of heart beats were calculated for assessing mental and physiological condition. In this method, 20 beats heart rate were used to calculate these indexes. These were calculated in one beat interval. Three conditions, which are sitting rest, performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie, were assessed using our proposed algorithm. The assessment accuracies were 71.9% and 55.8%, when performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie respectively. In this method, the mental and physiological condition was assessed using only 20 regressive heart beats, so this method is considered as the real time assessment method.

  13. Relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petri Tavares

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to analyze the relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers. Method: cross-sectional and analytical study with 134 military police officers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI Model scale has been used to assess psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol was collected in three samples. The following tests were used: Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn. Pearson and Spearman correlation methods were used, as well as multiple linear regression. Cortisol at night showed an ascending statistical association with the psychosocial reward (p=0.004 and a descending association with the effort-impairment scores (p=0.017. Being part of the Special Tactical Operations Group (GATE and the diastolic blood pressure explained 13.5% of the variation in cortisol levels on waking up. The sectors GATE, Special Patrol of the Elite Squad of the Military Police and Motorcyclists explained 21.9% of the variation in cortisol levels 30-minute after awakening. The variables GATE sector and Effort Dimension explained 27.7% of the variation in cortisol levels at night. Conclusion: it was evidenced that salivary cortisol variation was influenced by individual, labor and psychosocial variables.

  14. Relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Juliana Petri; Lautert, Liana; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Consiglio, Angélica Rosat; Pai, Daiane Dal

    2017-04-20

    to analyze the relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers. cross-sectional and analytical study with 134 military police officers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model scale has been used to assess psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol was collected in three samples. The following tests were used: Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn. Pearson and Spearman correlation methods were used, as well as multiple linear regression. Cortisol at night showed an ascending statistical association with the psychosocial reward (p=0.004) and a descending association with the effort-impairment scores (p=0.017). Being part of the Special Tactical Operations Group (GATE) and the diastolic blood pressure explained 13.5% of the variation in cortisol levels on waking up. The sectors GATE, Special Patrol of the Elite Squad of the Military Police and Motorcyclists explained 21.9% of the variation in cortisol levels 30-minute after awakening. The variables GATE sector and Effort Dimension explained 27.7% of the variation in cortisol levels at night. it was evidenced that salivary cortisol variation was influenced by individual, labor and psychosocial variables.

  15. A cohort study of psychosocial work stressors on work ability among Brazilian hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-07-01

    Hospital work is characterized by stressors that can influence work ability. The present study aims to assess the association between psychosocial work stressors and changes in work ability in a group of Brazilian hospital employees. From 1,022 workers included in a 3-year cohort started in 2009, 423 (41.4%) returned the applied questionnaires in 2012. Changes in work ability were considered as the dependent variable and the investigated psychosocial work stressors as independent variables. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential con-founders (demographic, occupational features, social support, overcommitment, and situations liable to cause pain/injury). High levels of exposure to psychosocial work stressors were significantly associated with decreased work ability: job strain (OR = 2.81), effort-reward imbalance (OR = 3.21). Strategies to reduce psychosocial work stressors should be considered to maintain hospital employees' work ability. Such strategies have implications for institutional and social policies and might be included in quality management programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Relationship between job stress contents, psychosocial factors and mental health status among university hospital nurses in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Suk; Cho, Young-Chae

    2007-09-01

    The present study was intended to assess the mental health of nurses working for university hospitals and to establish which factors determine their mental health. Self-administered questionnaires were given to 1,486 nurses employed in six participating hospitals located in Daejeon City and Chungnam Province between July 1st and August 31st, 2006. The questionnaire items included sociodemographic, job-related, and psychosocial factors, with job stress factors (JCQ) as independent variables and indices of mental health status (PWI, SDS and MFS) as dependent variables. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used for categorical variables, with hierarchical multiple regression used for determining the factors effecting mental health. The influence of psychosocial and job-related factors on mental health status was assessed by covariance structure analysis. The statistical significance was set at pnurses included sociodemographic characteristics such as age, number of hours of sleep, number of hours of leisure, and subjective health status; job-related characteristics such as status, job satisfaction, job suitability, stresses such as demands of the job, autonomy, and coworker support; and psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, locus of control and type A behavior patterns. Psychosocial factors had the greatest impact on mental health. Covariance structure analysis determined that psychosocial factors affected job stress levels and mental health status, and that the lower job stress levels were associated with better mental health. Based on the study results, improvement of mental health status among nurses requires the development and application of programs to manage job stress factors and/or psychosocial factors as well as sociodemographic and job-related characteristics.

  17. Hierarchical Bayesian models to assess between- and within-batch variability of pathogen contamination in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeau, Natalie; Cornu, Marie; Albert, Isabelle; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Parent, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Assessing within-batch and between-batch variability is of major interest for risk assessors and risk managers in the context of microbiological contamination of food. For example, the ratio between the within-batch variability and the between-batch variability has a large impact on the results of a sampling plan. Here, we designed hierarchical Bayesian models to represent such variability. Compatible priors were built mathematically to obtain sound model comparisons. A numeric criterion is proposed to assess the contamination structure comparing the ability of the models to replicate grouped data at the batch level using a posterior predictive loss approach. Models were applied to two case studies: contamination by Listeria monocytogenes of pork breast used to produce diced bacon and contamination by the same microorganism on cold smoked salmon at the end of the process. In the first case study, a contamination structure clearly exists and is located at the batch level, that is, between batches variability is relatively strong, whereas in the second a structure also exists but is less marked. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Psychosocial cancer care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family members to cancer is an increasing interest in education, ... all stages of the cancer journey and is passionate about enabling more professionals in South Africa to provide psychosocial cancer .... therapeutic support together with more.

  19. Domains of psychosocial disability and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eunyoe; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna

    2018-06-07

    This study examined relations between comprehensive domains of psychosocial disability and mental disorders to determine (1) whether differential patterns of associations exist between psychosocial disability dimensions and commonly diagnosed mental disorders and (2) whether these relations differ between self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial disability domains. Self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial functioning measures and an interviewer-rated diagnostic assessment tool were administered to 181 psychiatric outpatients. Internalizing disorders showed the strongest and most pervasive associations with psychosocial impairment across both self-reported and interviewer-rated measures, followed by thought disorder; externalizing showed the weakest associations. More specifically, logistic regression analyses indicated that lower well-being factor score significantly increased the odds of distress-disorder diagnoses, and poor basic functioning increased the odds of PTSD. Results clearly showed differences in the magnitude of associations between three dimensions of psychosocial-disability and commonly diagnosed disorders, and that these differences were similar regardless of rater type. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Simplified quantitative treatment of uncertainty and interindividual variability in health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1993-01-01

    A distinction between uncertainty (or the extent of lack of knowledge) and interindividual variability (or the extent of person-to-person heterogeneity) regarding the values of input variates must be maintained if a quantitative characterization of uncertainty in population risk or in individual risk is sought. Here, some practical methods are presented that should facilitate implementation of the analytic framework for uncertainty and variability proposed by Bogen and Spear. (1,2) Two types of methodology are discussed: one that facilitates the distinction between uncertainty and variability per se, and another that may be used to simplify quantitative analysis of distributed inputs representing either uncertainty or variability. A simple and a complex form for modeled increased risk are presented and then used to illustrate methods facilitating the distinction between uncertainty and variability in reference to characterization of both population and individual risk. Finally, a simple form of discrete probability calculus is proposed as an easily implemented, practical altemative to Monte-Carlo based procedures to quantitative integration of uncertainty and variability in risk assessment

  1. Grading and Assessments: Correlations of Variables Affecting Teaching and Course Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Joyce L.; Francl, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Faculty assessments are a hot topic in academia. Mostly considered an unproven statistic holding the professor hostage for a good grade, the benefits are still in discussion. At course end, we expect students to have the ability to analyze what we think they should have learned. In reality, most students do not have the maturity to realize…

  2. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of fruit, juice and vegetable consumption among 11-14-year-old Boy Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychosocial and demographic correlates of fruit, juice, and vegetable (FJV) consumption were investigated to guide how to increase FJV intake. Experimental design consisted of hierarchical multiple regression analysis of FJV consumption on demographics and psychosocial variables. Subjects were boys...

  3. Evaluation of Stochastic Rainfall Models in Capturing Climate Variability for Future Drought and Flood Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. F. M. K.; Lockart, N.; Willgoose, G. R.; Kuczera, G. A.; Kiem, A.; Nadeeka, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    One of the key objectives of stochastic rainfall modelling is to capture the full variability of climate system for future drought and flood risk assessment. However, it is not clear how well these models can capture the future climate variability when they are calibrated to Global/Regional Climate Model data (GCM/RCM) as these datasets are usually available for very short future period/s (e.g. 20 years). This study has assessed the ability of two stochastic daily rainfall models to capture climate variability by calibrating them to a dynamically downscaled RCM dataset in an east Australian catchment for 1990-2010, 2020-2040, and 2060-2080 epochs. The two stochastic models are: (1) a hierarchical Markov Chain (MC) model, which we developed in a previous study and (2) a semi-parametric MC model developed by Mehrotra and Sharma (2007). Our hierarchical model uses stochastic parameters of MC and Gamma distribution, while the semi-parametric model uses a modified MC process with memory of past periods and kernel density estimation. This study has generated multiple realizations of rainfall series by using parameters of each model calibrated to the RCM dataset for each epoch. The generated rainfall series are used to generate synthetic streamflow by using a SimHyd hydrology model. Assessing the synthetic rainfall and streamflow series, this study has found that both stochastic models can incorporate a range of variability in rainfall as well as streamflow generation for both current and future periods. However, the hierarchical model tends to overestimate the multiyear variability of wet spell lengths (therefore, is less likely to simulate long periods of drought and flood), while the semi-parametric model tends to overestimate the mean annual rainfall depths and streamflow volumes (hence, simulated droughts are likely to be less severe). Sensitivity of these limitations of both stochastic models in terms of future drought and flood risk assessment will be discussed.

  4. Effect of routine assessment of specific psychosocial problems on personalized communication, counselors' awareness, and distress levels in cancer genetic counseling practice: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijzenga, W.; Aaronson, N.K.; Hahn, D.E.E.; Sidharta, G.N.; van der Kolk, L.E.; Velthuizen, M.E.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bleiker, E.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of a cancer genetics-specific questionnaire in facilitating communication about, awareness of, and management of psychosocial problems, as well as in lowering distress levels. Methods: Individuals referred to genetic counseling for cancer at two family

  5. Sexual quality of life, body image distress, and psychosocial outcomes in colorectal cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Handorf, Elizabeth; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2018-04-20

    The objectives were to assess changes in sexual QOL and body image distress over time and to examine longitudinal associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes in a sample of colorectal cancer patients. Participants (N = 141) completed a mail-based survey assessing sexual QOL [sexual distress (ISS), treatment impact on sexual function (SFQ), sexual function (FSFI; IIEF)], body image distress (BIS), and psychosocial outcomes [relationship quality (DAS-4), depressive symptoms (CESD-SF), and health-related QOL (HRQOL; FACT-C)]; 88 patients completed 6-month follow-up surveys (62%). Gender and cancer subgroups (male vs. female; rectal vs. colon cancer) were compared and longitudinal models examined associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes over time and by subgroup. Impairments in sexual QOL and body image distress were common. Women and patients with rectal cancer reported worse body image distress compared to men (p = .005) and those with colon cancer (p = .03), respectively; compared to patients with colon cancer, those with rectal cancer reported worse treatment impact (p image distress decreased (p = .02), while sexual QOL was stable (e.g., 58% classified as dysfunctional at both time points, p = .13). For most sexual and body image predictors, worse impairment was associated with worse psychosocial outcomes over time. Several significant gender and cancer subgroup effects were found. Sexual QOL and body image are compromised after colorectal cancer and tend to remain impaired if unaddressed. Sexual concerns should be addressed early to limit broader-reaching psychosocial effects.

  6. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors for the development of non-specific chronic disabling low back pain in Japanese workers-findings from the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Mika; Isomura, Tatsuya; Inuzuka, Kyoko; Koga, Tadashi; Miyoshi, Kota; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and the development of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) in Japanese workers. A 1 yr prospective cohort of the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study was used. The participants were office workers, nurses, sales/marketing personnel, and manufacturing engineers. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed twice: at baseline and 1 yr after baseline. The outcome of interest was the development of chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for the participants who experienced disabling LBP during the month prior to baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for chronic disabling LBP. Of 5,310 participants responding at baseline (response rate: 86.5%), 3,811 completed the questionnaire at follow-up. Among 171 eligible participants who experienced disabling back pain during the month prior to baseline, 29 (17.0%) developed chronic disabling LBP during the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis implied reward to work (not feeling rewarded, OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.17-11.19), anxiety (anxious, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 0.97-8.57), and daily-life satisfaction (not satisfied, ORs: 4.14, 95%CI: 1.18-14.58) were significant. Psychosocial factors are key to the development of chronic disabling LBP in Japanese workers. Psychosocial interventions may reduce the impact of LBP in the workplace.

  7. Preoperative psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes at 1 and 5 years after total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Trela-Larsen, Lea; Whitehouse, Michael R; Blom, Ashley W

    2017-10-01

    Background and purpose - Psychosocial factors are important risk factors for poor outcomes in the first year after total knee replacement (TKR), however their impact on long-term outcomes is unclear. We aimed to identify preoperative psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes at 1 year and 5 years after TKR. Patients and methods - 266 patients were recruited prior to TKR surgery. Knee pain and function were assessed preoperatively and at 1 and 5 years postoperative using the WOMAC Pain score, WOMAC Function score and American Knee Society Score (AKSS) Knee score. Preoperative depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, pain self-efficacy and social support were assessed. Statistical analyses involved multiple linear regression and mixed effect linear regression. Results - Higher anxiety was a risk factor for worse pain at 1 year postoperative. No psychosocial factors were associated with any outcomes at 5 years postoperative. Analysis of change over time found that patients with higher pain self-efficacy had lower preoperative pain and experienced less improvement in pain up to 1 year postoperative. Higher pain self-efficacy was associated with less improvement in the AKSS up to 1 year postoperative but more improvement between 1 and 5 years postoperative. Interpretation - Preoperative anxiety was found to influence pain at 1 year after TKR. However, none of the psychosocial variables were risk factors for a poor outcome at 5 years post-operative, suggesting that the negative effects of anxiety on outcome do not persist in the longer-term.

  8. Variability of vascular CT measurement techniques used in the assessment abdominal aortic aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, Andrew; Niker, Amanda; Redmond, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this project is to assess the variability of six CT measurement techniques for sizing abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Method: 37 CT scans with known AAAs were loaded on to a departmental picture archiving and communication system (PACS). A team of three observers, with experience in aortic CT measurements and the PACS performed a series of 2D and 3D measurements on the abdominal aorta. Each observer was asked to measure 3 quantities; anterior-posterior AAA diameter, maximum oblique AAA diameter, maximum aneurysm area using both 2D and 3D techniques. In order to test intra-observer variability each observer was asked to repeat their measurements. All measurements were taken using electronic callipers, under standardised viewing conditions using previously calibrated equipment. 3D measurements were conducted using a computer generated central luminal line (CLL). All measurements for this group were taken perpendicular to the CLL. Results: A total of 972 independent measurements were recorded by three observers. Mean intra-observer variability was lower for 2D diameter measurements (AP 1.3 ± 1.6 mm; 2D Oblique 1.2 ± 1.3 mm) and 2D areas (0.7 ± 1.3 cm 2 ) when compared to inter-observer variability (AP 1.7 ± 1.9 mm; Oblique 1.6 ± 1.7 mm; area 1.1 ± 1.5 cm 2 ). When comparing 2D with 3D measurements, differences were comparable except for 3D AP diameter and area which had lower inter-observer variability than their 2D counterparts (AP 2D 1.7 ± 1.9 mm, 3D 1.3 ± 1.3 mm; area 2D 1.1 ± 1.5 cm 2 , 3D 0.7 ± 0.7 cm 2 ). 3D area measurement was the only technique which had equal variability for intra- and inter-observer measurements. Overall observer variability for the study was good with 94-100% of all paired measurements within 5.00 mm/cm 2 or less. Using Pitman's test it can be confirmed that area measurements in the 3D plane have the least variability (r = 0.031) and 3D oblique measurements have the highest variability (r = 0

  9. Importance of fruit variability in the assessment of apple quality by sensory evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavay, Cécile; Symoneaux, Ronan; Maître, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    cultivars, apples were sorted into homogenous acoustic firmness categories within each cultivar. The discrimination ability of the trained panel was observed not only between cultivars but also within each cultivar for crunchiness, firmness, juiciness and acidity. Following these results, a mixed......The assessment of produce quality is a major aspect of applied postharvest biology. Horticultural researchers working on organoleptic quality of fruit need objective methods for the evaluation of sensory properties. The development of sensory methodologies specifically for apples highlighted...... the problem of handling variation due to fruit variability and assessor differences. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight of within-batch variability in sensory evaluation of apples and to propose a methodology that accounts for this variability. Prior to sensory analysis, for three apple...

  10. Computer modeling of ceramic melters to assess impacts of process and design variables on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyler, L.L.; Elliott, M.L.; Lowery, P.S.; Lessor, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical and physical simulation of existing and advanced melter designs conducted to assess impacts of process and design variables on performance of ceramic melters are presented. Coupled equations of flow, thermal, and electric fields were numerically solved in time-dependent three dimensional finite volume form. Recent simulation results of a three electrode melter design with sloped walls indicate the presence of bi-modal stable flow patterns dominated by boundary conditions

  11. Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Sluiter, J. K.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were

  12. Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the fundamental components inherent in the process of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability. It is proposed that psychosocial outcomes correspond to specific or global indicators of quality of life and may be categorized according to their functional domains, content areas, technologies or methods of assessment, and…

  13. Psychosocial impairments among adults with epilepsy in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed for psychosocial impairments and associated psychopathology in patients with epilepsy, with the hope that findings will help initiate formal psychosocial care for patients attending the neurology clinic. Methods: Consecutive patients with epilepsy seen at the neurology clinic that met the inclusion criteria and ...

  14. Psychosocial risk factors in home and community settings and their associations with population health and health inequalities: A systematic meta-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petticrew Mark

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of psychosocial risk factors on population health and health inequalities has featured prominently in epidemiological research literature as well as public health policy strategies. We have conducted a meta-review (a review of reviews exploring how psychosocial factors may relate to population health in home and community settings. Methods Systematic review (QUORUM of literature reviews (published in any language or country on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised. Results Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations – and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health. Conclusion From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial

  15. Factores psicosociales asociados a la evaluación del docente1 Factores psicossociais associados á avaliagao do docente The Psycho-social Factors Associated with Teacher Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Páramo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta a continuación recoge los principales hallazgos de la revisión del estado del arte sobre los factores extraacadémicos que afectan la evaluación del profesor, y se propone una modalidad de entrevista para identificar de forma libre conceptos que usan los estudiantes para evaluar a sus profesores. Mediante el empleo de una entrevista en la clasificación libre de tarjetas que contienen los nombres de los profesores evaluados, el estudio muestra la participación de factores psicosociales o conceptualizaciones de las que se valen los estudiantes para evaluar a sus profesores. Se cuestiona al final la objetividad y validez de las evaluaciones que se hacen de los profesores, a partir de cuestionarios estructurados.Este artigo recolhe os principáis achados do estado da arte acerca dos factores extra-académicos que afeitam a avaliagao do professor, e propóe urna modalidade de entrevista para identificar livremente conceitos usados pelos estudantes para avahar os seus professores. Aplicando urna entrevista na classificacáo livre de tarjetas que contém os nomes dos professo-res avahados, o estudo mostra a participando de factores psicosociais ou conceptualizacóes que aproveitam os estudantes para avahar os seus professores. Ao final, questiona-se a objetividade e a validez das avaliacóes aos professores com questionários estruturadosThe following paper outlines the major findings of a state-of-the-art review of non-academic factors that influence teacher evaluations, and proposes an interview technique to identify freely the concepts students use to evalúate their teachers. Through interview on classification without cards that contain the ñames of the teachers being assessed, the study shows the psycho-social factors or conceptualizations students employ when evaluating their teachers. In the end, doubts are expressed about the objectivity and validity of teacher evaluations based on structured questionnaires.

  16. Psychosocial Issues in Geriatric Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo M

    2017-11-01

    Geriatric patients present multiple age-related challenges and needs that must be taken into account during the rehabilitation process to achieve expected goals. This article examines the importance of identifying and managing psychosocial issues commonly observed in older adults and presents strategies to optimize their rehabilitation process. Depression, anxiety, fear of falling, adjustment issues, neurocognitive disorders, and caregiver support are discussed as a selection of factors that are relevant for geriatric patients undergoing rehabilitation. An argument is made for the importance of comprehensive geriatric assessment in older adults to identify salient issues that may impact rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Psychosocial working conditions and mental health status of the German babyboomer generation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophoven, S; Tisch, A; Rauch, A; Burghardt, A

    2015-04-01

    The baby boomers are the first to be available to the German labour market up to the age of 67. A crucial premise for a long working life is good health. However, there is evidence that psychosocial working conditions are related to health. More and more employees report psychosocial stress at work. In addition, mental illness has become one of the main reasons for the entry into disability pension. Against this background this study considers the relationship between psychosocial work conditions and mental health exemplarily for two birth cohorts of the German baby boomers. For the analysis of the assumed relationships data of the lidA study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit - German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health" is used (N=6 057). Mental health is assessed by the mental health scale of the SF-12. In addition, the items and the scales quantitative job requirements, work pace and support from colleagues from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) are used. As further control variables cohort affiliation, level of education, occupational status and partnership are considered. Multivariate analyses of the relations between quantitative job requirements, work pace and the experienced support from colleagues show significant relationship to mental health. The increasing frequency of the requirement to work quickly and increasing quantitative job demands are negatively associated to mental health. However, support of colleagues shows a positive relationship to mental health. These results are similarly observed for women and men. For the regarded group of the German babyboomers, employees at the threshold to higher working age, it is clearly shown that psychosocial working conditions are related to mental health. Since this group still has to work up to 18 years given a statutory retirement age of 67, psychosocial working conditions should rather be in the focus of occupational safety. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Sickness absence due to mental disorders and psychosocial stressors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, João Silvestre; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefit due to sickness in Brazil. Occupational exposure to psychosocial stressors can affect the workers' mental health. The social security medical experts are responsible for characterizing if those sicknesses are work-related. To evaluate the factors associated with sick leave due to mental disorders, in particular, the perception of workers on psychosocial factors at work. This is an analytical study carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, with 131 applicants for sickness benefit due to mental disorders. Questionnaires were applied to assess the sociodemographic data, habits/lifestyle information, and perceived psychosocial factors at work. The most common diagnosis was depressive disorders (40.4%). The medical experts considered 23.7% of all applications as work-related. Most of the participants were female (68.7%), up to 40 years of age (73.3%), married/common-law marriage (51.1%), with educational level greater than or equal to 11 years (80.2%), nonsmokers (80.9%), not alcohol consumers (84%), and practice of physical activities (77.9%). Regarding psychosocial factors, most of the participants informed a high job strain (56.5%), low social support (52.7%), effort-reward imbalance (55.7%), and high overcommitment (87.0%). There was no statistical association between the work-related mental disorders sickness benefits and independent variables. The concession of social security sickness benefits is not associated with sociodemographic data, habits/lifestyle, or psychosocial factors at work. Occupational exposure to unfavorable psychosocial factors was reported by most workers on sick leave due to mental disorders. However, several cases were not recognized by the social security medical experts as work-related, which may have influenced the results of the associations.

  19. Epilepsy-related clinical factors and psychosocial functions in pediatric epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Soyong; Eun, So-Hee; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Eun, Baik-Lin; Nam, Sang Ook; Kim, Sun Jun; Chung, Hee Jung; Kwon, Soon Hak; Lee, Young-Mock; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Dong Wook; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Heung Dong

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the different influencing patterns of demographic and epilepsy-related variables on various aspects of psychosocial function in pediatric epilepsy. Five hundred ninety-eight patients with pediatric epilepsy between the ages of 4 and 18 years (boys=360, 60% and girls=238, 40%) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed the Social Maturity Scale (SMS), the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), and the Korean version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (K-QOLCE) to assess daily living function, behavior, and quality of life. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) was completed by clinicians to assess general adaptive function. Demographic variables, such as age and sex of child, and epilepsy-related clinical variables, including seizure type, seizure frequency, duration of epilepsy, and number of medications, were obtained from medical records. Demographic and epilepsy-related clinical variables had a strong influence (22-32%) on the cognition-related domain such as general adaptive function, school/total competence, and quality of life for cognitive function while a comparatively smaller effect (2-16%) on the more psychological domain including behavioral, emotional, and social variables. Younger age, shorter duration of illness, and smaller number of medications showed a strong positive impact on psychosocial function in pediatric epilepsy, particularly for adaptive function, competence, and quality-of-life aspects. Given the wide range of impact of demographic and clinical variables on various facets of psychosocial functions, more specific understanding of the various aspects of factors and their particular pattern of influence may enable more effective therapeutic approaches that address both the medical and psychological needs in pediatric epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and detection of psychosocial problems in cancer genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, W; Bleiker, E M A; Hahn, D E E; Van der Kolk, L E; Sidharta, G N; Aaronson, N K

    2015-12-01

    Only a minority of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling experience heightened levels of psychological distress, but many more experience a range of cancer genetic-specific psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such psychosocial problems, and to identify possible demographic and clinical variables associated significantly with them. Consenting individuals scheduled to undergo cancer genetic counseling completed the Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Distress Thermometer (DT) prior to or immediately following their counseling session. More than half of the 137 participants reported problems on three or more domains of the PAHC, most often in the domains 'living with cancer' (84%), 'family issues' (46%), 'hereditary predisposition' (45%), and 'child-related issues' (42%). Correlations between the PAHC, the HADS and the DT were low. Previous contact with a psychosocial worker, and having a personal history of cancer were associated significantly with HADS scores, but explained little variance (9%). No background variables were associated significantly with the DT. Previous contact with a psychosocial worker, and having children were significantly associated with several PAHC domains, again explaining only a small percentage of the variance (2-14%). The majority of counselees experience specific cancer genetic counseling-related psychosocial problems. Only a few background variables are associated significantly with distress or psychosocial problems. Thus we recommend using the PAHC or a similar problem-oriented questionnaire routinely in cancer genetic counseling to identify individuals with such problems.

  1. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sint Nicolaas, S M; Schepers, S A; van den Bergh, E M M; de Boer, Y; Streng, I; van Dijk-Lokkart, E M; Grootenhuis, M A; Verhaak, C M

    2017-12-01

    The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare professionals blind to outcome of PAT assessment, and (ii) the match between PAT risk score and team risk estimation. Eighty-three families of children with cancer from four pediatric oncology centers in the Netherlands participated (59% response rate). The PAT and team risk estimation was assessed at diagnosis (M = 40.2 days, SD = 14.1 days), and the content of provided psychosocial care in the 5-month period thereafter resulting in basic or specialized care. According to the PAT, 65% of families were defined as having low (universal), 30% medium (targeted), and 5% high (clinical) risk for developing psychosocial problems. Thirty percent of patients from universal group got basic psychosocial care, 63% got specialized care, and 7% did not get any care. Fourteen percent of the families at risk got basic care, 86% got specialized care. Team risk estimations and PAT risk scores matched with 58% of the families. This study showed that families at risk, based on standardized risk assessment with the PAT, received more specialized care than families without risk. However, still 14% of the families with high risks only received basic care, and 63% of the families with standard risk got specialized care. Standardized risk assessment can be used as part of comprehensive care delivery, complementing the team. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Avaliação da adaptação psicossocial na gravidez em gestantes brasileiras Assessment of psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy in brazilian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiny Lima e Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO OBJETIVO: avaliar a adaptação psicossocial na gravidez, por intermédio da tradução e adaptação de instrumento específico, para ser usado em gestantes brasileiras. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional de corte transversal. Foi realizada a tradução e adaptação transcultural do PSeQ (Prenatal Self-evaluation Questionnaire seguindo todas as etapas metodológicas exigidas. aplicou-se um questionário contendo perguntas abertas e fechadas de forma a caracterizar os dados sócio-demográficos e clínicos das gestantes (n=36. a análise estatística constou de média, desvio padrão (DP, freqüência absoluta e relativa. Para análise da consistência interna utilizou-se o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, por meio do SPSS versão 17.0. RESULTADOS: as voluntárias apresentaram baixo nível sócio-econômico, média de idade de 25,1 anos ( 5,5, idade gestacional média de 25,9 semanas ( 8,1. Destas, 58,3% não haviam planejado a atual gravidez. O pré-teste mostrou que 75% das gestantes consideraram o questionário de fácil entendimento. Quanto ao instrumento PSEQ, a identificação com o papel materno foi a sub-escala que apresentou maior média 24,8 ( 5,6, enquanto o relacionamento com a mãe apresentou a menor média 15,4 ( 7,7. a consistência interna variou entre 0,52-0,89. CONCLUSÃO:a avaliação psicossocial materna no pré-natal mostra-se importante no acompanhamento da progressão da gestação e permite a intervenção mediante ações de promoção e prevenção no bem-estar materno-infantil.PURPOSE:to evaluate psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy by translating and cross-culturally adapting a specific assessment instrument to be used with Brazilian women. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional observational study. the translation and cross-cultural adaptation and of the Prenatal Self-evaluation Questionnaire (PSeQ was performed following all the required methodological steps. another questionnaire was applied to characterize the

  3. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. Methods In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate...

  4. Psychosocial profile of pediatric brain tumor survivors with neurocognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marieke Anna; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yvonne Narda; van Vuurden, Dannis Gilbert; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Gidding, Corrie; Beek, Laura Rachel; Granzen, Bernd; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Grootenhuis, Martha Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    With more children surviving a brain tumor, neurocognitive consequences of the tumor and its treatment become apparent, which could affect psychosocial functioning. The present study therefore aimed to assess psychosocial functioning of pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) in detail. Psychosocial functioning of PBTS (8-18 years) with parent-reported neurocognitive complaints was compared to normative data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), self-esteem, psychosocial adjustment, and executive functioning (one-sample t tests) and to a sibling control group on fatigue (independent-samples t test). Self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires were included, where appropriate, providing complementary information. Eighty-two PBTS (mean age 13.4 years, SD 3.2, 49 % males) and 43 healthy siblings (mean age 14.3, SD 2.4, 40 % males) were included. As compared to the normative population, PBTS themselves reported decreased physical, psychological, and generic HRQOL (d = 0.39-0.62, p psychosocial adjustment seemed not to be affected. Parents of PBTS reported more psychosocial (d = 0.81, p psychosocial adjustment problems for female PBTS aged 8-11 years than for the female normative population (d = 0.69, p psychosocial problems, as reported by PBTS, parents, and teachers. Systematic screening of psychosocial functioning is necessary so that tailored support from professionals can be offered to PBTS with neurocognitive complaints.

  5. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Assessment of global-scale model performance for global and regional ozone distributions, variability, and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Young

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR is to provide the research community with an up-to-date scientific assessment of tropospheric ozone, from the surface to the tropopause. While a suite of observations provides significant information on the spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone, observational gaps make it necessary to use global atmospheric chemistry models to synthesize our understanding of the processes and variables that control tropospheric ozone abundance and its variability. Models facilitate the interpretation of the observations and allow us to make projections of future tropospheric ozone and trace gas distributions for different anthropogenic or natural perturbations. This paper assesses the skill of current-generation global atmospheric chemistry models in simulating the observed present-day tropospheric ozone distribution, variability, and trends. Drawing upon the results of recent international multi-model intercomparisons and using a range of model evaluation techniques, we demonstrate that global chemistry models are broadly skillful in capturing the spatio-temporal variations of tropospheric ozone over the seasonal cycle, for extreme pollution episodes, and changes over interannual to decadal periods. However, models are consistently biased high in the northern hemisphere and biased low in the southern hemisphere, throughout the depth of the troposphere, and are unable to replicate particular metrics that define the longer term trends in tropospheric ozone as derived from some background sites. When the models compare unfavorably against observations, we discuss the potential causes of model biases and propose directions for future developments, including improved evaluations that may be able to better diagnose the root cause of the model-observation disparity. Overall, model results should be approached critically, including determining whether the model performance is acceptable for

  6. Predicting suicidal ideation in primary care: An approach to identify easily assessable key variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Pascal; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Löwe, Bernd

    To obtain predictors of suicidal ideation, which can also be used for an indirect assessment of suicidal ideation (SI). To create a classifier for SI based on variables of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and sociodemographic variables, and to obtain an upper bound on the best possible performance of a predictor based on those variables. From a consecutive sample of 9025 primary care patients, 6805 eligible patients (60% female; mean age = 51.5 years) participated. Advanced methods of machine learning were used to derive the prediction equation. Various classifiers were applied and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed as a performance measure. Classifiers based on methods of machine learning outperformed ordinary regression methods and achieved AUCs around 0.87. The key variables in the prediction equation comprised four items - namely feelings of depression/hopelessness, low self-esteem, worrying, and severe sleep disturbances. The generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7) and the somatic symptom subscale (PHQ-15) did not enhance prediction substantially. In predicting suicidal ideation researchers should refrain from using ordinary regression tools. The relevant information is primarily captured by the depression subscale and should be incorporated in a nonlinear model. For clinical practice, a classification tree using only four items of the whole PHQ may be advocated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of hydric balance through climatic variables, in the Cazones River Basin, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santillán Gutiérrez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrologic regime and the water catchment capacity of a hydrographic basin depend on the temporal and spatial variation patterns of climatic variables and on the physiographic characteristics of the watershed. In certain regions, where the availability of water depends on the catchment capacity of the watershed, the utilization of effective methods such as the hydric balance has become more frequently used because it enables an estimate of the hydrologic regime, the catchment capacity, and the water flows. It also enables an estimate of the hydrologic processes and the period in which they occurred. In the present work, assessments of the Climatic Hydric Balance (CHB and of potential evapotranspiration were performed in the Cazones river basin. The calculations followed the Thornthwaite and Mather method based on climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation during the period from 1981 to 2010. As a result of these assessments, it was found that the excess layer of water and the annual runoff were 638.63 mm and 637.02 mm, respectively. Further, the work identified the months that comprise the humid and dry periods, the regime of the climatic variables, and surpluses and deficits of water in the basin during an annual cycle.

  8. Psychosocial Predictors of Change in Depressive Symptoms Following Gastric Banding Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Kymberlie; Clarke, David; O'Brien, Paul; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl; Hindle, Annemarie; Brennan, Leah

    2018-02-08

    The aim of this study is to identify psychosocial variables associated with the relationship between weight loss and change in depressive symptoms following gastric banding surgery. Ninety-nine adults completed self-report questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and other psychosocial variables (self-esteem, body image dissatisfaction, perceived physical health, and perceived weight-based stigmatisation) prior to gastric-band surgery and monthly for 6-month post-surgery. Weight, depressive symptoms, and other psychosocial variables improved significantly 1-month post-surgery and remained lower to 6 months. Weight loss from baseline to 1- and 6-months post-surgery significantly correlated with change in depressive symptoms. Body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem accounted for some of the variance in change in depressive symptoms from baseline to 1-month and baseline to 6-months post-surgery. Depressive symptoms improved significantly and rapidly after bariatric surgery, and body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem predicted change in depressive symptoms. Interventions targeting body image and self-esteem may improve depressive symptoms for those undergoing weight loss interventions.

  9. Psychosocial and demographic factors influencing pain scores of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Lauren; Richter, Dustin; Comerci, George; Ocksrider, Justin; Mercer, Deana; Mlady, Gary; Wascher, Daniel; Schenck, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Pain levels in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee are commonly assessed by using a numeric scoring system, but results may be influenced by factors other than the patient's actual physical discomfort or disease severity, including psychosocial and demographic variables. We examined the possible relation between knee-pain scores and several psychosocial, sociodemographic, disease, and treatment variables in 355 patients with knee OA. The pain-evaluation instrument was a 0- to 10-point rating scale. Data obtained retrospectively from the patients' medical records were demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), concomitant disorders, illicit and prescription drug use, alcohol use, smoking, knee OA treatment, and severity of knee OA indicated by Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic grade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine whether these variables correlated with reported pain scores. On univariate analysis, higher pain scores were significantly associated with Native American or Hispanic ethnicity; a higher BMI; current prescription for an opioid, antidepressant, or gabapentinoid medication; depression; diabetes mellitus; fibromyalgia; illicit drug use; lack of health insurance; smoking; previous knee injection; and recommendation by the clinician that the patient undergo knee surgery. Neither the patient's sex nor the KL grade showed a correlation. On multivariate analysis, depression, current opioid prescription, and Native American or Hispanic ethnicity retained a significant association with higher pain scores. Our results in a large, ethnically diverse group of patients with knee OA suggest that psychosocial and sociodemographic factors may be important determinants of pain levels reported by patients with knee OA.

  10. The wicked character of psychosocial risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo Jespersen, Anne; Hasle, Peter; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft

    2016-01-01

    regulation, and particularly the enforcement in the form of inspection and audits of certified occupational health and safety management systems, face challenges in assessing psychosocial risks and the strategies used by regulators to overcome these challenges. While regulation has become more effective...

  11. Assessing terpene content variability of whitebark pine in order to estimate representative sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In studies of population variability, particular attention has to be paid to the selection of a representative sample. The aim of this study was to assess the size of the new representative sample on the basis of the variability of chemical content of the initial sample on the example of a whitebark pine population. Statistical analysis included the content of 19 characteristics (terpene hydrocarbons and their derivates of the initial sample of 10 elements (trees. It was determined that the new sample should contain 20 trees so that the mean value calculated from it represents a basic set with a probability higher than 95 %. Determination of the lower limit of the representative sample size that guarantees a satisfactory reliability of generalization proved to be very important in order to achieve cost efficiency of the research. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-173011, br. TR-37002 i br. III-43007

  12. The Association between Quality Improvement Initiatives in Dementia Care and Supportive Psychosocial Work Environments in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Tei-Tominaga, Maki

    2018-05-08

    Background : Quality improvement initiatives can help nursing homes strengthen psychosocial work environments. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between supportive psychosocial work environment, and professional and organizational characteristics regarding quality improvement initiatives in dementia care. Methods : A paper questionnaire survey was administered to a convenience sample of 365 professional caregivers in 12 special nursing homes in Japan. Psychosocial work environment was assessed using the Social Capital and Ethical Climate at the Workplace Scale to calculate a score of social capital in the workplace, ethical leadership, and exclusive workplace climate. Variables for quality improvement initiatives included type of home (unit-type or traditional), presence of additional benefit for dementia care, and professionalism in dementia care among caregivers evaluated using the Japanese version of the Sense of Competence in Dementia Care Staff Scale. Results : Elevated professionalism and unit-type home were significantly associated with high social capital, strong ethical leadership, and low exclusive workplace climate. The presence of dementia care benefit was not associated with any subscale of psychosocial work environment. Conclusions : Quality improvement initiatives to foster supportive psychosocial work environment should enhance professionalism in dementia care with unit-based team building of professional caregivers in special nursing homes.

  13. The Association between Quality Improvement Initiatives in Dementia Care and Supportive Psychosocial Work Environments in Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miharu Nakanishi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality improvement initiatives can help nursing homes strengthen psychosocial work environments. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between supportive psychosocial work environment, and professional and organizational characteristics regarding quality improvement initiatives in dementia care. Methods: A paper questionnaire survey was administered to a convenience sample of 365 professional caregivers in 12 special nursing homes in Japan. Psychosocial work environment was assessed using the Social Capital and Ethical Climate at the Workplace Scale to calculate a score of social capital in the workplace, ethical leadership, and exclusive workplace climate. Variables for quality improvement initiatives included type of home (unit-type or traditional, presence of additional benefit for dementia care, and professionalism in dementia care among caregivers evaluated using the Japanese version of the Sense of Competence in Dementia Care Staff Scale. Results: Elevated professionalism and unit-type home were significantly associated with high social capital, strong ethical leadership, and low exclusive workplace climate. The presence of dementia care benefit was not associated with any subscale of psychosocial work environment. Conclusions: Quality improvement initiatives to foster supportive psychosocial work environment should enhance professionalism in dementia care with unit-based team building of professional caregivers in special nursing homes.

  14. Chronic health conditions and work ability in the ageing workforce: the impact of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, Wendy; van der Klink, Jac J L; de Boer, Michiel R; Groothoff, Johan W; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health on the association between the presence of a chronic health condition and (single-item) work ability among workers aged 45 years and older. In addition, we aimed to examine variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition separately. The data of this cross-sectional study were obtained from 5,247 workers aged 45 years and older in five different work sectors. Work ability was assessed with the first item of the Work Ability Index. The presence of a chronic health condition was assessed by self-report. Independent variables in the multivariable linear regression analysis were work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health status. The presence of a chronic health condition was negatively associated with work ability (B = -0.848). The strength of this association slightly attenuated after subsequently adding individual characteristics (B = -0.824), work conditions (B = -0.805) and more so after adding psychosocial factors (B = -0.704) and especially perceived health variables (B = -0.049) to the model. Variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition were similar. Perceived health and psychosocial factors, rather than work conditions, explained the association between the presence of a chronic health condition and work ability. Substantial differences in variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition were not found. Based on the lower mean scores for workers with a chronic health condition and work ability as well for predictors, these workers might have the most benefit by a policy focussing on enhancing these associated variables.

  15. Assessing intraindividual variability in sustained attention: reliability, relation to speed and accuracy, and practice effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAGEN C. FLEHMIG

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the psychometric properties of competing measures of sustained attention. 179 subjects were assessed twice within seven day's time with a test designed to measure sustained attention, or concentration, respectively. In addition to traditional performance indices [i.e., speed (MRT and accuracy (E%], we evaluated two intraindividual response time (RT variability measures: standard deviation (SDRT and coefficient of variation (CVRT. For the overall test, both indices were reliable. SDRT showed good to acceptable retest reliability for all subtests. For CVRT, retest reliability coefficients ranged from very good to not satisfactory. While the reversed-word recognition test proved highly reliable, the mental calculation test and the arrows test were not sufficiently reliable. CVRT was only slightly correlated but SDRT was highly correlated with MRT. In contrast to substantial practice gains for MRT, SDRT and E%, only CVRT proved to be stable. In conclusion, CVRT appears to be a potential index for assessing performance variability: it is reliable for the overall test, only moderately correlated with speed, and virtually not affected by practice. However, before applying CVRT in practical assessment settings, additional research is required to elucidate the impact of task-specific factors on the reliability of this performance measure.

  16. Molecular Classification Substitutes for the Prognostic Variables Stage, Age, and MYCN Status in Neuroblastoma Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rosswog

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current risk stratification systems for neuroblastoma patients consider clinical, histopathological, and genetic variables, and additional prognostic markers have been proposed in recent years. We here sought to select highly informative covariates in a multistep strategy based on consecutive Cox regression models, resulting in a risk score that integrates hazard ratios of prognostic variables. METHODS: A cohort of 695 neuroblastoma patients was divided into a discovery set (n = 75 for multigene predictor generation, a training set (n = 411 for risk score development, and a validation set (n = 209. Relevant prognostic variables were identified by stepwise multivariable L1-penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO Cox regression, followed by backward selection in multivariable Cox regression, and then integrated into a novel risk score. RESULTS: The variables stage, age, MYCN status, and two multigene predictors, NB-th24 and NB-th44, were selected as independent prognostic markers by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Following backward selection, only the multigene predictors were retained in the final model. Integration of these classifiers in a risk scoring system distinguished three patient subgroups that differed substantially in their outcome. The scoring system discriminated patients with diverging outcome in the validation cohort (5-year event-free survival, 84.9 ± 3.4 vs 63.6 ± 14.5 vs 31.0 ± 5.4; P < .001, and its prognostic value was validated by multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: We here propose a translational strategy for developing risk assessment systems based on hazard ratios of relevant prognostic variables. Our final neuroblastoma risk score comprised two multigene predictors only, supporting the notion that molecular properties of the tumor cells strongly impact clinical courses of neuroblastoma patients.

  17. Molecular Classification Substitutes for the Prognostic Variables Stage, Age, and MYCN Status in Neuroblastoma Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, Carolina; Schmidt, Rene; Oberthuer, André; Juraeva, Dilafruz; Brors, Benedikt; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Simon, Thorsten; Berthold, Frank; Hero, Barbara; Faldum, Andreas; Fischer, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Current risk stratification systems for neuroblastoma patients consider clinical, histopathological, and genetic variables, and additional prognostic markers have been proposed in recent years. We here sought to select highly informative covariates in a multistep strategy based on consecutive Cox regression models, resulting in a risk score that integrates hazard ratios of prognostic variables. A cohort of 695 neuroblastoma patients was divided into a discovery set (n=75) for multigene predictor generation, a training set (n=411) for risk score development, and a validation set (n=209). Relevant prognostic variables were identified by stepwise multivariable L1-penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression, followed by backward selection in multivariable Cox regression, and then integrated into a novel risk score. The variables stage, age, MYCN status, and two multigene predictors, NB-th24 and NB-th44, were selected as independent prognostic markers by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Following backward selection, only the multigene predictors were retained in the final model. Integration of these classifiers in a risk scoring system distinguished three patient subgroups that differed substantially in their outcome. The scoring system discriminated patients with diverging outcome in the validation cohort (5-year event-free survival, 84.9±3.4 vs 63.6±14.5 vs 31.0±5.4; P<.001), and its prognostic value was validated by multivariable analysis. We here propose a translational strategy for developing risk assessment systems based on hazard ratios of relevant prognostic variables. Our final neuroblastoma risk score comprised two multigene predictors only, supporting the notion that molecular properties of the tumor cells strongly impact clinical courses of neuroblastoma patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing display variability in wild brown anoles Anolis sagrei using a mechanical lizard model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. PARTAN, Peter OTOVIC, Virginia L. PRICE, Scott E. BROWN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Signals used for species identity ought to be highly stereotyped so as to facilitate immediate recognition by conspecifics. It is surprising therefore to find variability in putative species signature displays. The brown anole Anolis sagrei has a high degree of variability in its signature bobbing display. In this study we collected descriptive data on variability in the temporal structure of wild brown anole bobbing patterns, finding that no two displays analyzed had the same temporal structure, and we also tested whether wild brown anoles prefer the signature display over an alternate display pattern by using mechanical robot playbacks in the field. As a response metric we assessed whether or not the lizards showed social responses (pushup, dewlap extension, or head-nod in response to the robotic presentations. We found that the lizards responded slightly more to the signature than to the alternate pattern, providing support for the idea that despite the variability seen in displays, the signature pattern is meaningful to them. We tested two other independent variables: speed of the display and elevation of the robot during its display, neither of which was significant. Dewlap extensions were given predominantly by adult males and were more likely to be given in the breeding season than the nonbreeding season. Pushups and head-nods were given equally by males and a combined class of females and juveniles, and were not seasonal. Head-nods increased after the robot turned off, suggesting that they may be used in a conversational turn-taking style during communication [Current Zoology 57 (2: 140–152, 2011].

  19. Psychosocial risks evaluation factors: study with higher education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lopes Borges

    2018-02-01

    Method: The study consisted of the administration of two instruments, one for the characterization of the sample and the other for assessing psychosocial risk factors — the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire — consisting of 76 items (5-point Likert scale, distributed in five dimensions, which measure indicators of exposure to psychosocial risks and their effects. Results: The study included 59 teachers, mostly men (50.8%, aged between 41 - 50 years (45.8%, with master's degree (59%, assistant professors (47.5%; with a stable employment relationship (68%, years of service between 14-17 years (18.7% and teaching between 11 - 17 hours a week (64.4%. The analysis of the various subscales revealed a psychosocial risk, showing that teachers are in a situation of vulnerability. There were significant differences between the risks experienced in public higher education and those experienced in private higher education. Gender, age, academic background, and professional category influenced the type of psychosocial risk. Conclusions: The study confirms the importance of the evaluation of psychosocial risk factors in the exercise of the teaching profession in higher education. It is recognized that it is necessary to assess and manage psychosocial risks in order to promote healthy working conditions, ensure respect and fair treatment, and encourage the promotion of work / family life balance, in order to minimize psychosocial risks and situations of vulnerability in higher education teachers.

  20. Assessing multiscale complexity of short heart rate variability series through a model-based linear approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Ranuzzi, Giovanni; De Maria, Beatrice; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    We propose a multiscale complexity (MSC) method assessing irregularity in assigned frequency bands and being appropriate for analyzing the short time series. It is grounded on the identification of the coefficients of an autoregressive model, on the computation of the mean position of the poles generating the components of the power spectral density in an assigned frequency band, and on the assessment of its distance from the unit circle in the complex plane. The MSC method was tested on simulations and applied to the short heart period (HP) variability series recorded during graded head-up tilt in 17 subjects (age from 21 to 54 years, median = 28 years, 7 females) and during paced breathing protocols in 19 subjects (age from 27 to 35 years, median = 31 years, 11 females) to assess the contribution of time scales typical of the cardiac autonomic control, namely in low frequency (LF, from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF, from 0.15 to 0.5 Hz) bands to the complexity of the cardiac regulation. The proposed MSC technique was compared to a traditional model-free multiscale method grounded on information theory, i.e., multiscale entropy (MSE). The approach suggests that the reduction of HP variability complexity observed during graded head-up tilt is due to a regularization of the HP fluctuations in LF band via a possible intervention of sympathetic control and the decrement of HP variability complexity observed during slow breathing is the result of the regularization of the HP variations in both LF and HF bands, thus implying the action of physiological mechanisms working at time scales even different from that of respiration. MSE did not distinguish experimental conditions at time scales larger than 1. Over a short time series MSC allows a more insightful association between cardiac control complexity and physiological mechanisms modulating cardiac rhythm compared to a more traditional tool such as MSE.

  1. Cross-Regional Assessment Of Coupling And Variability In Precipitation-Runoff Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Buttle, J. M.; Laudon, H.; McDonnell, J. J.; McGuire, K. J.; Seibert, J.; Shanley, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    The higher mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere are particularly sensitive to change due to the important role the zero-degree isotherm plays in the phase of precipitation and intermediate storage as snow. An international inter-catchment comparison program North-Watch seeks to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of northern catchments to change by examining their hydrological and biogeochemical variability and response. The catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the United States (Sleepers River, Hubbard Brook and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). For this study, 8 catchments with 10 continuous years of daily precipitation and runoff data were selected to assess the seasonal coupling of rainfall and runoff and the memory effect of runoff events on the hydrograph at different time scales. To assess the coupling and synchroneity of precipitation, continuous wavelet transforms and wavelet coherence were used. Wavelet spectra identified the relative importance of both annual versus seasonal flows while wavelet coherence was applied to identify over different time scales along the 10-year window how well precipitation and runoff were coupled. For example, while on a given day, precipitation may be closely coupled to runoff, a wet year may not necessarily be a high runoff year in catchments with large storage. Assessing different averaging periods in the variation of daily flows highlights the importance of seasonality in runoff response and the relative influence of rain versus snowmelt on flow magnitude and variability. Wet catchments with limited seasonal precipitation variability (Strontian, Girnock) have precipitation signals more closely coupled with runoff, whereas dryer catchments dominated by snow (Wolf Creek, Krycklan) have strongly coupling only during freshet. Most catchments with highly seasonal precipitation show strong intermittent coupling during their wet season. At

  2. [Prevention of psychosocial risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle, Édouard; Trichard-Salembier, Alexandra; Sobaszek, Annie

    2018-02-01

    The theme of psychosocial risks remains in the workplace. It is therefore essential that all members of a company are made aware of the terminology and specific prevention actions in this field. Distinguishing between the manifestations of these risks and their causes and consequences helps to improve prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of metabolic phenotypic variability in children’s urine using 1H NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitre, Léa; Lau, Chung-Ho E.; Vizcaino, Esther; Robinson, Oliver; Casas, Maribel; Siskos, Alexandros P.; Want, Elizabeth J.; Athersuch, Toby; Slama, Remy; Vrijheid, Martine; Keun, Hector C.; Coen, Muireann

    2017-04-01

    The application of metabolic phenotyping in clinical and epidemiological studies is limited by a poor understanding of inter-individual, intra-individual and temporal variability in metabolic phenotypes. Using 1H NMR spectroscopy we characterised short-term variability in urinary metabolites measured from 20 children aged 8-9 years old. Daily spot morning, night-time and pooled (50:50 morning and night-time) urine samples across six days (18 samples per child) were analysed, and 44 metabolites quantified. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and mixed effect models were applied to assess the reproducibility and biological variance of metabolic phenotypes. Excellent analytical reproducibility and precision was demonstrated for the 1H NMR spectroscopic platform (median CV 7.2%). Pooled samples captured the best inter-individual variability with an ICC of 0.40 (median). Trimethylamine, N-acetyl neuraminic acid, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate/3-aminoisobutyrate, tyrosine, valine and 3-hydroxyisovalerate exhibited the highest stability with over 50% of variance specific to the child. The pooled sample was shown to capture the most inter-individual variance in the metabolic phenotype, which is of importance for molecular epidemiology study design. A substantial proportion of the variation in the urinary metabolome of children is specific to the individual, underlining the potential of such data to inform clinical and exposome studies conducted early in life.

  4. Tools for Assessing the Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Wildfire Regimes in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hety Herawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an intrinsic element of many forest ecosystems; it shapes their ecological processes, determines species composition and influences landscape structure. However, wildfires may: have undesirable effects on biodiversity and vegetation coverage; produce carbon emissions to the atmosphere; release smoke affecting human health; and cause loss of lives and property. There have been increasing concerns about the potential impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires. Climate change can alter factors that influence the occurrence of fire ignitions, fuel availability and fuel flammability. This review paper aims to identify tools and methods used for gathering information about the impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires, forest fuels and the probability of fires. Tools to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires include: remote sensing, dynamic global vegetation and landscape models, integrated fire-vegetation models, fire danger rating systems, empirical models and fire behavior models. This review outlines each tool in terms of its characteristics, spatial and temporal resolution, limitations and applicability of the results. To enhance and improve tool performance, each must be continuously tested in all types of forest ecosystems.

  5. Variable Isotopic Compositions of Host Plant Populations Preclude Assessment of Aphid Overwintering Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Crossley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is a pest of soybean in the northern Midwest whose migratory patterns have been difficult to quantify. Improved knowledge of soybean aphid overwintering sites could facilitate the development of control efforts with exponential impacts on aphid densities on a regional scale. In this preliminary study, we explored the utility of variation in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to distinguish soybean aphid overwintering origins. We compared variation in bulk 13C and 15N content in buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L. and soybean aphids in Wisconsin, among known overwintering locations in the northern Midwest. Specifically, we looked for associations between buckthorn and environmental variables that could aid in identifying overwintering habitats. We detected significant evidence of correlation between the bulk 13C and 15N signals of soybean aphids and buckthorn, despite high variability in stable isotope composition within and among buckthorn plants. Further, the 15N signal in buckthorn varied predictably with soil composition. However, lack of sufficient differentiation of geographic areas along axes of isotopic and environmental variation appears to preclude the use of carbon and nitrogen isotopic signals as effective predictors of likely aphid overwintering sites. These preliminary data suggest the need for future work that can further account for variability in 13C and 15N within/among buckthorn plants, and that explores the utility of other stable isotopes in assessing likely aphid overwintering sites.

  6. Qualitative ultrasound elastography assessment of benign thyroid nodules: Patterns and intra-observer acquisition variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacout, Alexis; Chevenet, Carole; Thariat, Juliette; Figl, Andrea; Marcy, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    To report and evaluate qualitative elastography patterns by using gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound (US) in patients presenting with benign thyroid nodules and to evaluate the reproducibility of US elastography examinations. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and all patients provided informed consent. Over a 3-month time period, all consecutive adult patients were referred to our institution to undergo a thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) procedure. Patients presenting with benign cytology according to the Bethesda 2008 classification were prospectively enrolled in the study. Each thyroid nodule was assessed by using gray-scale, Doppler US, and elastography acquisitions by a single operator (A. L.). Multiple elastography acquisitions per thyroid nodule were performed and elastography scorings of the nodules were compared with each other. Nineteen patients (16 women and 3 men, mean age 58 years) with 22 thyroid nodules were included in the present study. Elastographic patterns 1, 2, and 3 were reported (23% nodules showed pattern 3). The elastography pattern showed a strong variability in 13 nodules (59%). The elastography acquisition result variability involved the “malignant” pattern 3 in 36% of cases. Almost one-third of benign thyroid nodules displayed pattern 3 on qualitative US elastography. The intra-observer variability of the benign thyroid elastography scoring is wide, thus limiting the thyroid nodule US examination accuracy. In FNAB-proven benign thyroid nodules, elastography pattern 3 is frequent and cannot be used as a strong indicator of thyroid malignancy

  7. Assessment of variable fluorescence fluorometry as an approach for rapidly detecting living photoautotrophs in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Matthew R.; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H.; Riley, Scott C.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2018-03-01

    Variable fluorescence fluorometry, an analytical approach that estimates the fluorescence yield of chlorophyll a (F0, a proximal measure of algal concentration) and photochemical yield (FV/FM, an indicator of the physiological status of algae) was evaluated as a means to rapidly assess photoautotrophs. Specifically, it was used to gauge the efficacy of ballast water treatment designed to reduce the transport and delivery of potentially invasive organisms. A phytoflagellate, Tetraselmis spp. (10-12 μm) and mixed communities of ambient protists were examined in both laboratory experiments and large-scale field trials simulating 5-d hold times in mock ballast tanks. In laboratory incubations, ambient organisms held in the dark exhibited declining F0 and FV/FM measurements relative to organisms held under lighted conditions. In field experiments, increases and decreases in F0 and FV/FM over the tank hold time corresponded to those of microscope counts of organisms in two of three trials. In the third trial, concentrations of organisms ≥ 10 and protists) increased while F0 and FV/FM decreased. Rapid and sensitive, variable fluorescence fluorometry is appropriate for detecting changes in organism concentrations and physiological status in samples dominated by microalgae. Changes in the heterotrophic community, which may become more prevalent in light-limited ballast tanks, would not be detected via variable fluorescence fluorometry, however.

  8. Acute myonecrosis on MRI: etiologies in an oncological cohort and assessment of interobserver variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Jane; Sharma, Richa; Kirzner, Anna; Greenspan, Daniel; Shapoval, Anton; Hwang, Sinchun; Lefkowitz, Robert; Panicek, David M.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the etiologies of myonecrosis in oncology patients and to assess interobserver variability in interpreting its MRI features. Pathology records in our tertiary cancer hospital were searched for proven myonecrosis, and MRIs of affected regions in those patients were identified. MRI reports that suggested myonecrosis were also identified. Each MRI was reviewed independently by 2 out of 6 readers to assess anatomical site, size, and signal intensities of muscle changes, and the presence of the previously reported stipple sign (enhancing foci within a region defined by rim enhancement). The stipple sign was assessed again, weeks after a training session. Cohen kappa and percentage agreement were calculated. Medical records were reviewed for contemporaneous causes of myonecrosis. MRI reports in 73 patients suggested the diagnosis of myonecrosis; pathological proof was available in another 2. Myonecrosis was frequently associated with radiotherapy (n = 34 patients, 45 %); less frequent causes included intraoperative immobilization, trauma, therapeutic embolization, ablation therapy, exercise, and diabetes. Myonecrosis usually involved the lower extremity, the pelvis, and the upper extremity; mean size was 13.0 cm. The stipple sign was observed in 55-100 % of patients at first assessment (κ = 0.09-0.42; 60-80 % agreement) and 55-100 % at second (κ = 0.0-0.58; 72-90 % agreement). Enhancement surrounded myonecrosis in 55-100 % patients (κ = 0.03-0.32; 58-70 % agreement). Myonecrosis in oncology patients usually occurred after radiotherapy, and less commonly after intraoperative immobilization, trauma, therapeutic embolization, ablation therapy, exercise, or diabetes. Although interobserver variability for MRI features of myonecrosis exists (even after focused training), a combination of findings facilitates diagnosis and conservative management. (orig.)

  9. Assessing the impact of climate variability on cropping patterns in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahome, A.; Ndungu, L. W.; Ndubi, A. O.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Flores Cordova, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Climate variability coupled with over-reliance on rain-fed agricultural production on already strained land that is facing degradation and declining soil fertility; highly impacts food security in Africa. In Kenya, dependence on the approximately 20% of land viable for agricultural production under climate stressors such as variations in amount and frequency of rainfall within the main growing season in March-April-May(MAM) and changing temperatures influence production. With time, cropping zones have changed with the changing climatic conditions. In response, the needs of decision makers to effectively assess the current cropped areas and the changes in cropping patterns, SERVIR East and Southern Africa developed updated crop maps and change maps. Specifically, the change maps depict the change in cropping patterns between 2000 and 2015 with a further assessment done on important food crops such as maize. Between 2001 and 2015 a total of 5394km2 of land was converted to cropland with 3370km2 being conversion to maize production. However, 318 sq km were converted from maize to other crops or conversion to other land use types. To assess the changes in climatic conditions, climate parameters such as precipitation trends, variation and averages over time were derived from CHIRPs (Climate Hazards Infra-red Precipitation with stations) which is a quasi-global blended precipitation dataset available at a resolution of approximately 5km. Water Requirements Satisfaction Index (WRSI) water balance model was used to assess long term trends in crop performance as a proxy for maize yields. From the results, areas experiencing declining and varying precipitation with a declining WRSI index during the long rains displayed agricultural expansion with new areas being converted to cropland. In response to climate variability, farmers have converted more land to cropland instead of adopting better farming methods such as adopting drought resistant cultivars and using better farm

  10. Improvement in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and self image among adolescent inpatient suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintikka, Ulla; Marttunen, Mauri; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Laukkanen, Eila; Viinamäki, Heimo; Lehtonen, Johannes

    2006-12-29

    Psychiatric treatment of suicidal youths is often difficult and non-compliance in treatment is a significant problem. This prospective study compared characteristics and changes in cognitive functioning, self image and psychosocial functioning among 13 to 18 year-old adolescent psychiatric inpatients with suicide attempts (n = 16) and with no suicidality (n = 39) The two-group pre-post test prospective study design included assessments by a psychiatrist, a psychologist and medical staff members as well as self-rated measures. DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned using the SCID and thereafter transformed to DSM-IV diagnoses. Staff members assessed psychosocial functioning using the Global Assessment Scale (GAS). Cognitive performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, while the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ) was used to assess the subjects' self-image. ANCOVA with repeated measures was used to test changes from entry to discharge among the suicide attempters and non suicidal patients. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess variables associated with an improvement of 10 points or more in the GAS score. Among suicide attempter patients, psychosocial functioning, cognitive performance and both the psychological self and body-image improved during treatment and their treatment compliance and outcome were as good as that of the non-suicidal patients. Suicidal ideation and hopelessness declined, and psychosocial functioning improved. Changes in verbal cognitive performance were more pronounced among the suicide attempters. Having an improved body-image associated with a higher probability of improvement in psychosocial functioning while higher GAS score at entry was associated with lower probability of functional improvement in both patient groups. These findings illustrate that a multimodal treatment program seems to improve psychosocial functioning and self-image among severely disordered suicidal adolescent inpatients. There were no

  11. Improvement in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and self image among adolescent inpatient suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laukkanen Eila

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric treatment of suicidal youths is often difficult and non-compliance in treatment is a significant problem. This prospective study compared characteristics and changes in cognitive functioning, self image and psychosocial functioning among 13 to 18 year-old adolescent psychiatric inpatients with suicide attempts (n = 16 and with no suicidality (n = 39 Methods The two-group pre-post test prospective study design included assessments by a psychiatrist, a psychologist and medical staff members as well as self-rated measures. DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned using the SCID and thereafter transformed to DSM-IV diagnoses. Staff members assessed psychosocial functioning using the Global Assessment Scale (GAS. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, while the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ was used to assess the subjects' self-image. ANCOVA with repeated measures was used to test changes from entry to discharge among the suicide attempters and non suicidal patients. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess variables associated with an improvement of 10 points or more in the GAS score. Results Among suicide attempter patients, psychosocial functioning, cognitive performance and both the psychological self and body-image improved during treatment and their treatment compliance and outcome were as good as that of the non-suicidal patients. Suicidal ideation and hopelessness declined, and psychosocial functioning improved. Changes in verbal cognitive performance were more pronounced among the suicide attempters. Having an improved body-image associated with a higher probability of improvement in psychosocial functioning while higher GAS score at entry was associated with lower probability of functional improvement in both patient groups. Conclusion These findings illustrate that a multimodal treatment program seems to improve psychosocial functioning and self-image among

  12. Assessing compositional variability through graphical analysis and Bayesian statistical approaches: case studies on transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, George G; Harrison, Jay M

    2012-01-01

    New transgenic (GM) crops are subjected to extensive safety assessments that include compositional comparisons with conventional counterparts as a cornerstone of the process. The influence of germplasm, location, environment, and agronomic treatments on compositional variability is, however, often obscured in these pair-wise comparisons. Furthermore, classical statistical significance testing can often provide an incomplete and over-simplified summary of highly responsive variables such as crop composition. In order to more clearly describe the influence of the numerous sources of compositional variation we present an introduction to two alternative but complementary approaches to data analysis and interpretation. These include i) exploratory data analysis (EDA) with its emphasis on visualization and graphics-based approaches and ii) Bayesian statistical methodology that provides easily interpretable and meaningful evaluations of data in terms of probability distributions. The EDA case-studies include analyses of herbicide-tolerant GM soybean and insect-protected GM maize and soybean. Bayesian approaches are presented in an analysis of herbicide-tolerant GM soybean. Advantages of these approaches over classical frequentist significance testing include the more direct interpretation of results in terms of probabilities pertaining to quantities of interest and no confusion over the application of corrections for multiple comparisons. It is concluded that a standardized framework for these methodologies could provide specific advantages through enhanced clarity of presentation and interpretation in comparative assessments of crop composition.

  13. Variable delay-to-signal: a fast paradigm for assessment of aspects of impulsivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo eLeite-Almeida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Testing impulsive behavior in rodents is challenging and labor-intensive. We developed a new behavioral paradigm – the Variable Delay-to-Signal (VDS test – that provides rapid and simultaneous assessment of response and decision impulsivity in rodents. Presentation of a light at variable delays signals the permission for action (nose poke contingent with a reward. Two blocks of 25 trials at 3s delay flank a block of 70 trials in which light is presented with randomly selected 6s or 12s delays. Exposure to such large delays boosts the rate of premature responses when the delay drops to 3s in the final block, an effect that is blunted by an acute methamphetamine challenge and that correlates with the delay-discounting paradigm (choice impulsivity. Finally, as expected, treatment with the NMDA antagonist MK-801 caused a generalized response increase in all VDS blocks. The pharmacological validation, particularly with methamphetamine which has a well established dual effect on response and decision impulsivity, and the correlations between the impulsive behavior in the delay-discounting and VDS paradigms, suggests that the later is able to provide, in a single session, a multi-dimensional assessment of impulsive behavior.

  14. Development and application of downscaled hydroclimatic predictor variables for use in climate vulnerability and assessment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James; Boynton, Ryan; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan; N'goc Le, Thuy

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the production of 270-meter grid-scale maps for 14 climate and derivative hydrologic variables for a region that encompasses the State of California and all the streams that flow into it. The paper describes the Basin Characterization Model (BCM), a map-based, mechanistic model used to process the hydrological variables. Three historic and three future time periods of 30 years (1911–1940, 1941–1970, 1971–2000, 2010–2039, 2040–2069, and 2070–2099) were developed that summarize 180 years of monthly historic and future climate values. These comprise a standardized set of fine-scale climate data that were shared with 14 research groups, including the U.S. National Park Service and several University of California groups as part of this project. We present three analyses done with the outputs from the Basin Characterization Model: trends in hydrologic variables over baseline, the most recent 30-year period; a calibration and validation effort that uses measured discharge values from 139 streamgages and compares those to Basin Characterization Model-derived projections of discharge for the same basins; and an assessment of the trends of specific hydrological variables that links historical trend to projected future change under four future climate projections. Overall, increases in potential evapotranspiration dominate other influences in future hydrologic cycles. Increased potential evapotranspiration drives decreasing runoff even under forecasts with increased precipitation, and drives increased climatic water deficit, which may lead to conversion of dominant vegetation types across large parts of the study region as well as have implications for rain-fed agriculture. The potential evapotranspiration is driven by air temperatures, and the Basin Characterization Model permits it to be integrated with a water balance model that can be derived for landscapes and summarized by watershed. These results show the utility of using a process

  15. Psychosocial risks in university education teachers: Diagnosis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matilde García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the psychosocial risks of university teachers and identify enhancement areas for a healthy organization in a sample of 621 teachers from the University of A Coruña, Spain. To achieve this aim, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (CoPsoQ adapted to the Spanish population (ISTAS21 Method was applied. The results showed an unfavorable situation for psychosocial health in five dimensions: high psychological demands, low esteem, high double presence, low social support, and high job insecurity. In contrast, a favorable situation for health is the dimension active work and development opportunities. It was also found that there is not a single profile of university teacher in psychosocial risk. To conclude, a diagnosis of psychosocial risks of university teachers is made and, in that scenario, some risk prevention strategies at university level are proposed.

  16. Clients' psychosocial communication and midwives' verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda; Gitsels-van der Wal, Janneke T; Pereboom, Monique T R; Spelten, Evelien R; Hutton, Eileen K; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on facilitation of clients' psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives' psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling duration. During 184 videotaped prenatal counseling consultations with 20 Dutch midwives, verbal psychosocial and affective behavior was measured by the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). We rated the duration of client-directed gaze. We performed multilevel analyses to assess the relation between clients' psychosocial communication and midwives' psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling duration. Clients' psychosocial communication was higher if midwives' asked more psychosocial questions and showed more affective behavior (β=0.90; CI: 0.45-1.35; pcommunication was not related to midwives" client-directed gaze. Additionally, psychosocial communication by clients was directly, positively related to the counseling duration (β=0.59; CI: 0.20-099; p=0.004). In contrast with our expectations, midwives' client-directed gaze was not related with psychosocial communication of clients. In addition to asking psychosocial questions, our study shows that midwives' affective behavior and counseling duration is likely to encourage client's psychosocial communication, known to be especially important for facilitating decision-making. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. [COMETE: a tool to develop psychosocial competences in patient education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugeron, Benoit; Sonnier, Pierre; Marchais, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a detailed description of the development and use of the COMETE tool. The COMETE tool is designed to help medical teams identify, develop or evaluate psychosocial skills in patient education and counselling. This tool, designed in the form of a briefcase, proposes methodological activities and cards that assess psychosocial skills during a shared educational assessment, group meetings or during an individual evaluation. This tool is part of a support approach for medical teams caring for patients with chronic diseases.

  18. The application of simple metrics in the assessment of glycaemic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, L; Colette, C; Owens, D R

    2018-03-06

    The assessment of glycaemic variability (GV) remains a subject of debate with many indices proposed to represent either short- (acute glucose fluctuations) or long-term GV (variations of HbA 1c ). For the assessment of short-term within-day GV, the coefficient of variation for glucose (%CV) defined as the standard deviation adjusted on the 24-h mean glucose concentration is easy to perform and with a threshold of 36%, recently adopted by the international consensus on use of continuous glucose monitoring, separating stable from labile glycaemic states. More complex metrics such as the Low Blood Glucose Index (LBGI) or High Blood Glucose Index (HBGI) allow the risk of hypo or hyperglycaemic episodes, respectively to be assessed although in clinical practice its application is limited due to the need for more complex computation. This also applies to other indices of short-term intraday GV including the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), Shlichtkrull's M-value and CONGA. GV is important clinically as exaggerated glucose fluctuations are associated with an enhanced risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes due primarily to hypoglycaemia. In contrast, there is at present no compelling evidence that elevated short-term GV is an independent risk factor of microvascular complications of diabetes. Concerning long-term GV there are numerous studies supporting its association with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular events. However, this association raises the question as to whether the impact of long-term variability is not simply the consequence of repeated exposure to short-term GV or ambient chronic hyperglycaemia. The renewed emphasis on glucose monitoring with the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring technologies can benefit from the introduction and application of simple metrics for describing GV along with supporting recommendations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Rainfall Downscaling Conditional on Upper-air Variables: Assessing Rainfall Statistics in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Kaleris, Vassilios

    2014-05-01

    Due to its intermittent and highly variable character, and the modeling parameterizations used, precipitation is one of the least well reproduced hydrologic variables by both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs). This is especially the case at a regional level (where hydrologic risks are assessed) and at small temporal scales (e.g. daily) used to run hydrologic models. In an effort to remedy those shortcomings and assess the effect of climate change on rainfall statistics at hydrologically relevant scales, Langousis and Kaleris (2013) developed a statistical framework for simulation of daily rainfall intensities conditional on upper air variables. The developed downscaling scheme was tested using atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim archive (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/era/do/get/index), and daily rainfall measurements from western Greece, and was proved capable of reproducing several statistical properties of actual rainfall records, at both annual and seasonal levels. This was done solely by conditioning rainfall simulation on a vector of atmospheric predictors, properly selected to reflect the relative influence of upper-air variables on ground-level rainfall statistics. In this study, we apply the developed framework for conditional rainfall simulation using atmospheric data from different GCM/RCM combinations. This is done using atmospheric data from the ENSEMBLES project (http://ensembleseu.metoffice.com), and daily rainfall measurements for an intermediate-sized catchment in Italy; i.e. the Flumendosa catchment. Since GCM/RCM products are suited to reproduce the local climatology in a statistical sense (i.e. in terms of relative frequencies), rather than ensuring a one-to-one temporal correspondence between observed and simulated fields (i.e. as is the case for ERA-interim reanalysis data), we proceed in three steps: a) we use statistical tools to establish a linkage between ERA-Interim upper-air atmospheric forecasts and

  20. Multi-Model Assessment of Trends and Variability in Terrestrial Carbon Uptake in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. S.; Bala, G.; Ravindranath, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    Indian terrestrial ecosystem exhibits large temporal and spatial variability in carbon sources and sinks due to its monsoon based climate system, diverse land use and land cover distribution and cultural practices. In this study, a multi-model based assessment is made to study the trends and variability in the land carbon uptake for India over the 20th century. Data from nine models which are a part of a recent land surface model intercomparison project called TRENDY is used for the study. These models are driven with common forcing data over the period of 1901-2010. Model output variables assessed include: gross primary production (GPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), autotrophic respiration (Ra) and net primary production (NPP). The net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for the Indian region was calculated as a difference of NPP and Rh and it was found that NEP for the region indicates an estimated increase in uptake over the century by -0.6 TgC/year per year. NPP for India also shows an increasing trend of 2.03% per decade from 1901-2010. Seasonal variation in the multimodel mean NPP is maximum during the southwest monsoon period (JJA) followed by the post monsoon period (SON) and is attributed to the maximum in rainfall for the region during the months of JJA. To attribute the changes seen in the land carbon variables, influence of climatic drivers such as precipitation, temperature and remote influences of large scale phenomenon such as ENSO on the land carbon of the region are also estimated in the study. It is found that although changes in precipitation shows a good correlation to the changes seen in NEP, remote drivers like ENSO do not have much effect on them. The Net Ecosystem Exchange is calculated with the inclusion of the land use change flux and fire flux from the models. NEE suggests that the region behaves as a small sink for carbon with an net uptake of 5 GtC over the past hundred years.

  1. MRI-based measurements of respiratory motion variability and assessment of imaging strategies for radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackall, J M; Ahmad, S; Miquel, M E; McClelland, J R; Landau, D B; Hawkes, D J

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory organ motion has a significant impact on the planning and delivery of radiotherapy (RT) treatment for lung cancer. Currently widespread techniques, such as 4D-computed tomography (4DCT), cannot be used to measure variability of this motion from one cycle to the next. In this paper, we describe the use of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to investigate the intra- and inter-cycle reproducibility of respiratory motion and also to estimate the level of errors that may be introduced into treatment delivery by using various breath-hold imaging strategies during lung RT planning. A reference model of respiratory motion is formed to enable comparison of different breathing cycles at any arbitrary position in the respiratory cycle. This is constructed by using free-breathing images from the inhale phase of a single breathing cycle, then co-registering the images, and thereby tracking landmarks. This reference model is then compared to alternative models constructed from images acquired during the exhale phase of the same cycle and the inhale phase of a subsequent cycle, to assess intra- and inter-cycle variability ('hysteresis' and 'reproducibility') of organ motion. The reference model is also compared to a series of models formed from breath-hold data at exhale and inhale. Evaluation of these models is carried out on data from ten healthy volunteers and five lung cancer patients. Free-breathing models show good levels of intra- and inter-cycle reproducibility across the tidal breathing range. Mean intra-cycle errors in the position of organ surface landmarks of 1.5(1.4)-3.5(3.3) mm for volunteers and 2.8(1.8)-5.2(5.2) mm for patients. Equivalent measures of inter-cycle variability across this range are 1.7(1.0)-3.9(3.3) mm for volunteers and 2.8(1.8)-3.3(2.2) mm for patients. As expected, models based on breath-hold sequences do not represent normal tidal motion as well as those based on free-breathing data, with mean errors of 4

  2. Psychosocial work factors and shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; White, Mary C; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas

    2010-07-01

    Hotel room cleaners have physically demanding jobs that place them at high risk for shoulder pain. Psychosocial work factors may also play a role in shoulder pain, but their independent role has not been studied in this group. Seventy-four percent (941 of 1,276) of hotel room cleaners from five Las Vegas hotels completed a 29-page survey assessing health status, working conditions, and psychosocial work factors. For this study, 493 of the 941 (52%) with complete data for 21 variables were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Fifty-six percent reported shoulder pain in the prior four weeks. Room cleaners with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were three times as likely to report shoulder pain (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.95-4.59, P = 0.000) even after adjustment for physical workload and other factors. After adjustment for physical workload, job strain and iso-strain were not significantly associated with shoulder pain. ERI is independently associated with shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners even after adjustment for physical workload and other risk factors. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Sedentary Behaviors in Spanish Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aznar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate children’s psychosocial and environmental factors associated with sedentary behavior (SB. Method. The study involved a total of 420 children (mean 9.2 years; 52.9% girls from the community of Madrid, Spain. SB and physical activity (PA were objectively measured using accelerometers. TV viewing and potential correlates were assessed by questionnaire. Mixed-model regression analysis, adjusted for clustering within school locations, evaluated the relation of each independent variable with SBs. Results. Girls showed higher levels of SB than boys, whereas boys reported more TV viewing (p<.001 in all cases. Regression analysis showed that MVPA levels were negatively related to objective SB measurement in both boys and girls (p<.001. Parent and friend support to PA were negatively associated with SB on weekdays in boys and girls, respectively (p<.05. In the boys’ group, parental professional level was a positive predictor of SB on weekend days (p=.011. Boys with more positive neighborhood perceptions spent less time watching TV (p<.001, whereas mother’s leisure-time PA level was a negative correlate of TV viewing in girls’ group (p<.01. Conclusion. Different psychosocial and environmental correlates of SB were identified. Present findings are promising targets for interventions to improve children’s health.

  4. Psychosocial Profile of Women with Premenstrual Syndrome and Healthy Controls: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstäuber, Maria; Schmelzer, Katarina; Ditzen, Beate; Andersson, Gerhard; Hiller, Wolfgang; Weise, Cornelia

    2016-12-01

    According to modern bio-psychosocial theories of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), the aim of this study is to investigate systematically associations between selected psychosocial factors and premenstrual symptoms in different menstrual cycle phases. Several psychosocial variables were assessed, in a sample of German women with PMS (N = 90) and without premenstrual complaints (N = 48) during the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Presence of PMS was indicated by analysis of contemporary daily ratings of premenstrual symptom severity and impairment for one menstrual cycle. Regarding perceived chronic stress (ƞ 2  = 0.34), self-efficacy (ƞ 2  = 0.12), and two dimensions of self-silencing (0.06 ≤ ƞ 2  ≤ 0.11) analyses revealed only a significant effect of group. Regarding body dissatisfaction and somatosensory amplification, a significant effect of group (0.07 ≤ ƞ 2  ≤ 0.16) and additionally a group by menstrual cycle phase interaction (ƞ 2  = 0.06) was identified. Regarding relationship quality, a significant effect of menstrual cycle phase (ƞ 2  = 0.08) and a group by menstrual cycle phase interaction (ƞ 2  = 0.06) was demonstrated. In respect to sexual contentment, acceptance of premenstrual symptoms, and the remaining two dimensions of self-silencing statistical analyses revealed no effects at all. Linear multiple regression analysis revealed that 20 % of the variance in PMS symptom severity was explained by the psychosocial variables investigated. Body dissatisfaction (ß = 0.26, p = 0.018) and the divided self-dimension of self-silencing (ß = 0.35, p = 0.016) were significant correlates of PMS severity. Results of this study are consistent with previous research and additionally show patterns of associations between specific psychosocial factors and PMS in dependence of menstrual cycle phase that have not been researched before. The role of the psychosocial variables we

  5. Relative importance and interrelations between psychosocial factors and individualized quality of life of hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, David; Gidron, Yori; Jean, Tzipora; Granovsky, Ricardo; Schnieder, Alla

    2003-09-01

    Since quality of life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients is low and frequently difficult to improve by medical therapy, it is important to identify psychosocial correlates and life-domains important for HD patients' QOL. Our hypothesis was that psychosocial factors reflecting appraisal, external and internal resources/impediments correlate with QOL and compensate for adverse effects of disease-related variables on QOL. Forty-eight chronic HD-patients identified and rank-ordered life-domains important for QOL and rated their level of satisfaction with those domains. This was performed using a slightly modified version of the Self-Evaluated Individualized QOL (SEiQOL) Scale. Psychosocial factors included perceived-control (PC), social-support and hostility. Demographic and disease-related factors included age, gender, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hematocrit, albumin and C-reactive protein. QOL was significantly correlated with PC (r = 0.65) and social-support (r = 0.38), and inversely correlated with hostility (r = -0.31), diabetes and hypoalbuminemia (all at least p < 0.05). PC mediated effects of certain variables (e.g., albumin, gender, hostility) and moderated effects of little social-support and hypoalbuminemia on QOL. Patients' most important QOL domains were health, with which satisfaction was lowest, followed by family, with which satisfaction was highest. Pending replication with larger samples, assessment and enhancement of PC may improve HD patients' QOL.

  6. Psychosocial risk factors in medical personnel of a health service in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Y. Castillo Á

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the variables associated with psychosocial risk factors among the doctors of a stateowned social welfare enterprise providing health services in Cartagena. Methodology: a cross-sectional study on a population of 197 doctors from the enterprise’s outpatient and emergency services. The istas21 questionnaire, a Spanish adaptation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (copsoq, was used to assess psychosocial factors. Statistical analysis was performed using the program SPSS® version 17, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was applied to estimate the associations between variables. Results: 170 doctors participated in this study; 88.8% of which had favorable exposure to risk factors in the following dimensions: social support and quality of leadership and Double presence. 69.4% showed adverse exposure in the insecurity dimension. In the dimensions Insecurity and Double Presence, general practitioners were in worse conditions than specialists (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05. Additionally, doctors from the outpatient service showed more deterioration in the social support and quality of leadership dimensions than those from the emergency service (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05. As for the psychological demands dimension, doctors from higher socioeconomic strata showed higher unfavorable scores than those from lower strata (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05.

  7. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  8. Psychosocial covariates of physical activity in recently diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Nair

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Regular physical activity can be effective not only in preventing diabetes and managing its complications but also be effective in minimizing the risk of developing other chronic diseases among diabetics. The overall aim of study was to determine probable causes of change in physical activity so as to generate evidences for future interventions and to identify psychosocial covariates of self reported physical activity in recently diagnosed Type 2 diabetes cases. Methods Participants n=478 (239 intervention arm and 239 control arm of an observational cohort were randomized into the ADDITION Plus trial and were recruited from 36 practices in East Anglia region. Participants were people recently diagnosed with diabetes (screen detected and clinically diagnosed within the preceding 3 years were individually randomized and were between the age group of 40-69 years, (mean age 59.2 years. The self reported data regarding physical activity was measured at baseline and one year were used. Demographic and psychosocial (treatment control, consequences, anxiety covariates were assessed at the baseline. Linear univariate and multivariable linear regression analysis was used to quantify the associations between demographic and psychosocial correlates. Results: With regard to the psychosocial correlates(except for participants’ perceptions about the consequences of diabetes, no significant associations with physical activity were found. Treatment control and anxiety failed to predict physical activity. Conclusion The result suggests to further investigate the change in physical activity by including other variables related to demography, other psycho-social and environment influences. Based on the available literature, it is suggested that other factors were found consistently associated with physical activity such as self efficacy, attitude, sensation seeking, family-friend social support, goal orientation, motivation could be studied.

  9. Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Janssens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at investigating cross-sectional relationships between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism in a sample of Belgian middle-aged workers. Material and Methods: Data were collected from 1372 male and 1611 female workers in the Belstress III study. Psychosocial characteristics assessed by the use of self-administered questionnaires were: job demands, job control, social support, efforts, rewards, bullying, home-to-work conflict and work-to-home conflict. Presenteeism was measured using a single item question, and it was defined as going to work despite illness at least 2 times in the preceding year. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and presenteeism, while adjusting for several socio-demographic, health-related variables and neuroticism. An additional analysis in a subgroup of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism was conducted. Results: The prevalence of presenteeism was 50.6%. Overall results, adjusted for major confounders, revealed that high job demands, high efforts, low support and low rewards were associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, a significant association could be observed for both bullying and work-to-home conflict in relation to presenteeism. The subgroup analysis on a selection of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism generally confirmed these results. Conclusions: Both job content related factors as well as work contextual psychosocial factors were significantly related to presenteeism. These results suggest that presenteeism is not purely driven by the health status of a worker, but that psychosocial work characteristics also play a role.

  10. Psychosocial covariates of physical activity in recently diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Nair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Regular physical activity can be effective not only in preventing diabetes and managing its complications but also be effective in minimizing the risk of developing other chronic diseases among diabetics. The overall aim of study was to determine probable causes of change in physical activity so as to generate evidences for future interventions and to identify psychosocial covariates of self reported physical activity in recently diagnosed Type 2 diabetes cases. Methods Participantsn=478(239interventionarmand239controlarmof an observational cohort were randomized into the ADDITION Plus trial and were recruited from 36 practices in East Anglia region. Participants were people recently diagnosed with diabetes (screen detected and clinically diagnosed within the preceding 3 years were individually randomized and were between the age group of 40-69 years, (mean age 59.2 years. The self reported data regarding physical activity was measured at baseline and one year were used. Demographic and psychosocial (treatment control, consequences, anxiety covariates were assessed at the baseline. Linear univariate and multivariable linear regression analysis was used to quantify the associations between demographic and psychosocial correlates. Results: With regard to the psychosocial correlates(except for participants’ perceptions about the consequences of diabetes, no significant associations with physical activity were found. Treatment control and anxiety failed to predict physical activity. Conclusion The result suggests to further investigate the change in physical activity by including other variables related to demography, other psycho-social and environment influences. Based on the available literature, it is suggested that other factors were found consistently associated with physical activity such as self efficacy, attitude, sensation seeking, family-friend social support, goal orientation, motivation could be studied.

  11. Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Heidi; Clays, Els; de Clercq, Bart; de Bacquer, Dirk; Casini, Annalisa; Kittel, France; Braeckman, Lutgart

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating cross-sectional relationships between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism in a sample of Belgian middle-aged workers. Data were collected from 1372 male and 1611 female workers in the Belstress III study. Psychosocial characteristics assessed by the use of self-administered questionnaires were: job demands, job control, social support, efforts, rewards, bullying, home-to-work conflict and work-to-home conflict. Presenteeism was measured using a single item question, and it was defined as going to work despite illness at least 2 times in the preceding year. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and presenteeism, while adjusting for several socio-demographic, health-related variables and neuroticism. An additional analysis in a subgroup of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism was conducted. The prevalence of presenteeism was 50.6%. Overall results, adjusted for major confounders, revealed that high job demands, high efforts, low support and low rewards were associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, a significant association could be observed for both bullying and work-to-home conflict in relation to presenteeism. The subgroup analysis on a selection of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism generally confirmed these results. Both job content related factors as well as work contextual psychosocial factors were significantly related to presenteeism. These results suggest that presenteeism is not purely driven by the health status of a worker, but that psychosocial work characteristics also play a role. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Assessing the Impact of Climatic Variability and Change on Maize Production in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, J.; Jain, A. K.; Niyogi, D. S.; Alagarswamy, G.; Biehl, L.; Delamater, P.; Doering, O.; Elias, A.; Elmore, R.; Gramig, B.; Hart, C.; Kellner, O.; Liu, X.; Mohankumar, E.; Prokopy, L. S.; Song, C.; Todey, D.; Widhalm, M.

    2013-12-01

    Weather and climate remain among the most important uncontrollable factors in agricultural production systems. In this study, three process-based crop simulation models were used to identify the impacts of climate on the production of maize in the Midwestern U.S.A. during the past century. The 12-state region is a key global production area, responsible for more than 80% of U.S. domestic and 25% of total global production. The study is a part of the Useful to Useable (U2U) Project, a USDA NIFA-sponsored project seeking to improve the resilience and profitability of farming operations in the region amid climate variability and change. Three process-based crop simulation models were used in the study: CERES-Maize (DSSAT, Hoogenboom et al., 2012), the Hybrid-Maize model (Yang et al., 2004), and the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM, Song et al., 2013). Model validation was carried out with individual plot and county observations. The models were run with 4 to 50 km spatial resolution gridded weather data for representative soils and cultivars, 1981-2012, to examine spatial and temporal yield variability within the region. We also examined the influence of different crop models and spatial scales on regional scale yield estimation, as well as a yield gap analysis between observed and attainable yields. An additional study was carried out with the CERES-Maize model at 18 individual site locations 1901-2012 to examine longer term historical trends. For all simulations, all input variables were held constant in order to isolate the impacts of climate. In general, the model estimates were in good agreement with observed yields, especially in central sections of the region. Regionally, low precipitation and soil moisture stress were chief limitations to simulated crop yields. The study suggests that at least part of the observed yield increases in the region during recent decades have occurred as the result of wetter, less stressful growing season weather conditions.

  13. Optimization method to determine mass transfer variables in a PWR crud deposition risk assessment tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Chuong; Hussey, Dennis; Wells, Daniel M.; Epperson, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Optimization numerical method was implemented to determine several mass transfer coefficients in a crud-induced power shift risk assessment code. The approach was to utilize a multilevel strategy that targets different model parameters that first changes the major order variables, mass transfer inputs, then calibrates the minor order variables, crud source terms, according to available plant data. In this manner, the mass transfer inputs are effectively simplified as 'dependent' on the crud source terms. Two optimization studies were performed using DAKOTA, a design and analysis toolkit, with the difference between the runs, being the number of model runs using BOA, allowed for adjusting the crud source terms, therefore, reducing the uncertainty with calibration. The result of the first case showed that the current best estimated values for the mass transfer coefficients, which were derived from first principle analysis, can be considered an optimized set. When the run limit of BOA was increased for the second case, an improvement in the prediction was obtained with the results deviating slightly from the best estimated values. (author)

  14. Effect of Material Variability and Mechanical Eccentricity on the Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio Puppio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the influence of material variability on the seismic vulnerability assessment of reinforced concrete buildings. Existing r.c. buildings are affected by a strong dispersion of material strengths of both the base materials. This influences the seismic response in linear and nonlinear static analysis. For this reason, it is useful to define a geometrical parameter called “material eccentricity”. As a reference model, an analysis of a two storey building is presented with a symmetrical plan but asymmetrical material distribution. Furthermore, an analysis of two real buildings with a similar issue is performed. Experimental data generate random material distributions to carry out a probabilistic analysis. By rotating the vector that defines the position of the center of strength it is possible to describe a strength domain that is characterized by equipotential lines in terms of the Risk Index. Material eccentricity is related to the Ultimate Shear of non-linear static analyses. This relevant uncertainty, referred to as the variation of the center of strength, is not considered in the current European and Italian Standards. The “material eccentricity” therefore reveals itself to be a relevant parameter to considering how material variability affects such a variation.

  15. Variable trajectory model for regional assessments of air pollution from sulfur compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.C.; McNaughton, D.J.; Wendell, L.L.; Drake, R.L.

    1979-02-01

    This report describes a sulfur oxides atmospheric pollution model that calculates trajectories using single-layer historical wind data as well as chemical transformation and deposition following discrete contaminant air masses. Vertical diffusion under constraints is calculated, but all horizontal dispersion is a funcion of trajectory variation. The ground-level air concentrations and deposition are calculated in a rectangular area comprising the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Calculations for a 29-day assessment period in April 1974 are presented along with a limited verification. Results for the studies were calculated using a source inventory comprising 61% of the anthropogenic SO/sub 2/ emissions. Using current model parameterization levels, predicted concentration values are most sensitive to variations in dry deposition of SO/sub 2/, wet deposition of sulfate, and transformation of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate. Replacing the variable mixed-layer depth and variable stability features of the model with constant definitions of each results in increased ground-level concentration predicions for SO/sub 2/ and particularly for sulfate.

  16. Comparative assessment of genetic variability in cryptolepis buchananii, tylophora hirsuta and wattakaka volubilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Azir, N.; Abbasi, B.H.; Naqvi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Asclepiadaceae is an economically important family with great medicinal value. However, very little work has been carried out on the genetic variability of Asclepiadaceae members especially on some medicinally important species like Tylophora hirsuta, Wattakaka volubilis and Cryptolepis buchananii. Keeping in view the importance of these species, a study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of these 3 species of Asclepiadaceae and the plant material was collected from Quaid-i-Azam university campus, Islamabad. To assess the genetic variability and polymorphism among these species, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used. Sixty RAPD primers from OPA, OPC, OPF and OPG series were used; only 8 primers of OPC series gave amplification. Maximum polymorphism at interspecific and intraspecific levels was shown by OPC9 and minimum polymorphism was observed in OPC5. The data was analyzed using NTSYS software pc version 2.02. Low genetic diversification was observed at intraspecific and interspecific level. Moreover, during cluster analysis Tylophora hirsuta and Wattakaka volubilis were found to be present in the same cluster showing a close relationship whereas Cryptolepis buchananii appeared in a separate cluster. (author)

  17. Evolution of the genetic variability of eight French dairy cattle breeds assessed by pedigree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin-Burge, C; Leroy, G; Brochard, M; Moureaux, S; Verrier, E

    2012-06-01

    A pedigree analysis was performed on eight French dairy cattle breeds to assess their change in genetic variability since a first analysis completed in 1996. The Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde breeds are selected internationally with over hundreds of thousands cows registered in the performance recording system. Three breeds are internationally selected but with limited numbers of cows in France (Brown Swiss, French Simmental and French Red Pied). The last two remaining breeds (Abondance and Tarentaise) are raised at regional level. The effective numbers of ancestors of cows born between 2004 and 2007 varied between 15 (Abondance and Tarentaise) and 51 (French Red Pied). The effective population sizes (classical approach) varied between 53 (Abondance) and 197 (French Red Pied). This article also compares the genetic variability of the ex situ (collections of the French National Cryobank) and in situ populations. The results were commented in regard to the recent history of gene flows in the different breeds as well as the existence of more or less stringent bottlenecks. Our results showed that whatever the size of the breeds, their genetic diversity impoverished quite rapidly since 1996 and they all could be considered as quite poor from a genetic diversity point of view. It shows the need for setting up cryobanks as gene reservoirs as well as sustainable breeding programmes that include loss of genetic diversity as an integrated control parameter. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Assessment of acute pesticide toxicity with selected biochemical variables in suicide attempting subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, A.M.; Seehar, G.M.; Bhanger, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    Pesticide induced changes were assessed in thirty two subjects of attempted suicide cases. Among all, the farmers and their families were recorded as most frequently suicide attempting. The values obtained from seven biochemical variables of 29 years old (average age) hospitalized subjects were compared to the same number and age matched normal volunteers. The results revealed major differences in the mean values of the selected parameters. The mean difference calculate; alkaline phosphatase (178.7 mu/l), Bilirubin (7.5 mg/dl), GPT (59.2 mu/l) and glucose (38.6 mg/dl) were higher than the controls, which indicate the hepatotoxicity induced by the pesticides in suicide attempting individuals. Increase in serum creatinine and urea indicated renal malfunction that could be linked with pesticide induced nephrotoxicity among them. (author)

  19. Non-uniform multivariate embedding to assess the information transfer in cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variability series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Luca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Porta, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    The complexity of the short-term cardiovascular control prompts for the introduction of multivariate (MV) nonlinear time series analysis methods to assess directional interactions reflecting the underlying regulatory mechanisms. This study introduces a new approach for the detection of nonlinear Granger causality in MV time series, based on embedding the series by a sequential, non-uniform procedure, and on estimating the information flow from one series to another by means of the corrected conditional entropy. The approach is validated on short realizations of linear stochastic and nonlinear deterministic processes, and then evaluated on heart period, systolic arterial pressure and respiration variability series measured from healthy humans in the resting supine position and in the upright position after head-up tilt. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Methods for assessment of climate variability and climate changes in different time-space scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, V.; Lobanova, H.

    2004-01-01

    Main problem of hydrology and design support for water projects connects with modern climate change and its impact on hydrological characteristics as observed as well as designed. There are three main stages of this problem: - how to extract a climate variability and climate change from complex hydrological records; - how to assess the contribution of climate change and its significance for the point and area; - how to use the detected climate change for computation of design hydrological characteristics. Design hydrological characteristic is the main generalized information, which is used for water management and design support. First step of a research is a choice of hydrological characteristic, which can be as a traditional one (annual runoff for assessment of water resources, maxima, minima runoff, etc) as well as a new one, which characterizes an intra-annual function or intra-annual runoff distribution. For this aim a linear model has been developed which has two coefficients connected with an amplitude and level (initial conditions) of seasonal function and one parameter, which characterizes an intensity of synoptic and macro-synoptic fluctuations inside a year. Effective statistical methods have been developed for a separation of climate variability and climate change and extraction of homogeneous components of three time scales from observed long-term time series: intra annual, decadal and centural. The first two are connected with climate variability and the last (centural) with climate change. Efficiency of new methods of decomposition and smoothing has been estimated by stochastic modeling and well as on the synthetic examples. For an assessment of contribution and statistical significance of modern climate change components statistical criteria and methods have been used. Next step has been connected with a generalization of the results of detected climate changes over the area and spatial modeling. For determination of homogeneous region with the same

  1. Assessing data quality and the variability of source data verification auditing methods in clinical research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Lauren; Probst, Yasmine; Martin, Allison

    2018-05-18

    Data audits within clinical settings are extensively used as a major strategy to identify errors, monitor study operations and ensure high-quality data. However, clinical trial guidelines are non-specific in regards to recommended frequency, timing and nature of data audits. The absence of a well-defined data quality definition and method to measure error undermines the reliability of data quality assessment. This review aimed to assess the variability of source data verification (SDV) auditing methods to monitor data quality in a clinical research setting. The scientific databases MEDLINE, Scopus and Science Direct were searched for English language publications, with no date limits applied. Studies were considered if they included data from a clinical trial or clinical research setting and measured and/or reported data quality using a SDV auditing method. In total 15 publications were included. The nature and extent of SDV audit methods in the articles varied widely, depending upon the complexity of the source document, type of study, variables measured (primary or secondary), data audit proportion (3-100%) and collection frequency (6-24 months). Methods for coding, classifying and calculating error were also inconsistent. Transcription errors and inexperienced personnel were the main source of reported error. Repeated SDV audits using the same dataset demonstrated ∼40% improvement in data accuracy and completeness over time. No description was given in regards to what determines poor data quality in clinical trials. A wide range of SDV auditing methods are reported in the published literature though no uniform SDV auditing method could be determined for "best practice" in clinical trials. Published audit methodology articles are warranted for the development of a standardised SDV auditing method to monitor data quality in clinical research settings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Psychosocial aspects in cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogosova, Nana; Saner, Hugo; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2015-01-01

    A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health-related quality....... Stress, anxiety and depression affect the cardiovascular system through immune, neuroendocrine and behavioural pathways. In turn, CHD and its associated treatments may lead to distress in patients, including anxiety and depression. In clinical practice, PSRFs can be assessed with single-item screening...... of life (HRQoL) and prognosis in patients with established CHD. PSRFs may also act as barriers to lifestyle changes and treatment adherence and may moderate the effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Furthermore, there appears to be a bidirectional interaction between PSRFs and the cardiovascular system...

  3. Psychosocial aspects in cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogosova, N. V.; Saner, H.; Pedersen, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health- related quality....... Stress, anxiety and depression affect the cardiovascular system through immune, neuroendocrine and behavioural pathways. In turn, CHD and its associated treatments may lead to distress in patients, including anxiety and depression. In clinical practice, PSRFs can be assessed with single-item screening...... of life (HRQoL) and prognosis in patients with establishedCHD. PSRFs may also act as barriers to lifestyle changes and treatment adherence and may moderate the effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Furthermore, there appears to be a bidirectional interaction between PSRFs and the cardiovascular system...

  4. Influence of cognition, premorbid adjustment and psychotic symptoms on psycho-social functioning in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Norma; Rubio-Abadal, Elena; Usall, Judith; Barajas, Ana; Butjosa, Anna; Dolz, Montserrat; Baños, Iris; Sánchez, Bernardo; Rodríguez, Maria José; Peláez, Trinidad; Sammut, Stephanie; Carlson, Janina; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between psycho-social functioning and symptoms, cognitive function, and premorbid adjustment, in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Clinical data were obtained from 90 patients, who were assessed with the Disability Assessment Scale (DAS-sv), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS-S) and with a battery of cognitive tests including Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA- B), Continous Performance Test (CPT), some subscales of the Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Verbal Learning Test España-Complutense (TAVEC). The results of the study suggest that psycho-social functioning in first-episode psychosis is significantly related to: positive, negative, excitative, affective and disorganized symptoms, social premorbid adjustment, cognitive flexibility, working memory, short term and long term memory. Of these, those which best explained psycho-social functioning are the positive and excitative symptoms, premorbid adjustment, flexibility and memory. These findings highlight the importance early intervention on cognitive and clinical variables to help provide a better psycho-social functioning in people with a first-episode of psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, S.; Eikenberg, S.; Löhnert, U.; Dick, G.; Klocke, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Crewell, S.

    2015-03-01

    The spatio-temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV) on small scales of less than 10 km and hours is assessed with data from the 2 months of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). The statistical intercomparison of the unique set of observations during HOPE (microwave radiometer (MWR), Global Positioning System (GPS), sun photometer, radiosondes, Raman lidar, infrared and near-infrared Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellites Aqua and Terra) measuring close together reveals a good agreement in terms of random differences (standard deviation ≤1 kg m-2) and correlation coefficient (≥ 0.98). The exception is MODIS, which appears to suffer from insufficient cloud filtering. For a case study during HOPE featuring a typical boundary layer development, the IWV variability in time and space on scales of less than 10 km and less than 1 h is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the measurements are complemented by simulations with the novel ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic modelling framework (ICON), which for this study has a horizontal resolution of 156 m. These runs show that differences in space of 3-4 km or time of 10-15 min induce IWV variabilities on the order of 0.4 kg m-2. This model finding is confirmed by observed time series from two MWRs approximately 3 km apart with a comparable temporal resolution of a few seconds. Standard deviations of IWV derived from MWR measurements reveal a high variability (> 1 kg m-2) even at very short time scales of a few minutes. These cannot be captured by the temporally lower-resolved instruments and by operational numerical weather prediction models such as COSMO-DE (an application of the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling covering Germany) of Deutscher Wetterdienst, which is included in the comparison. However, for time scales larger than 1 h, a sampling resolution of 15 min is

  6. Psychosocial approach to endocrine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonino, Nicoletta; Tomba, Elena; Fava, Giovanni A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the psychosocial aspects of endocrine disease, such as the role of life stress in the pathogenesis of some conditions, their association with affective disorders, and the presence of residual symptoms after adequate treatment. In clinical endocrinology, exploration of psychosocial antecedents may elucidate the temporal relationships between life events and symptom onset, as it has been shown to be relevant for pituitary (Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia) or thyroid (Graves' disease) conditions, as well as the role of allostatic load, linked to chronic stress, in uncovering a person's vulnerability. After endocrine abnormalities are established, they are frequently associated with a wide range of psychological symptoms: at times, such symptoms reach the level of psychiatric illness (mainly mood and anxiety disorders); at other times, however, they can only be identified by the subclinical forms of assessment provided by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR). Indeed, in a population study, the majority of patients suffered from at least one of the three DCPR syndromes considered: irritable mood, demoralization, persistent somatization. In particular, irritable mood was found to occur in 46% of 146 patients successfully treated for endocrine conditions, a rate similar to that found in cardiology and higher than in oncology and gastroenterology. Long-standing endocrine disorders may imply a degree of irreversibility of the pathological process and induce highly individualized affective responses. In patients who showed persistence or even worsening of psychological distress upon proper endocrine treatment, the value of appropriate psychiatric interventions was underscored. As it happened in other fields of clinical medicine, a conceptual shift from a merely biomedical care to a psychosomatic consideration of the person and his/her quality of life appears to be necessary for improving

  7. Burnout in the working population: relations to psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Karin M; Linton, Steven J; Fedeli, Cecilia; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated levels of burnout in the general population irrespective of occupation and relations between burnout and psychosocial work factors. A cross-sectional survey featuring sleep problems, psychological distress, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey), and psychosocial factors at work, was mailed to a random sample of 3,000 participants, aged 20-60. Response rate was 61%. A high level (18%), a low level (19%), and an intermediate group (63%) for burnout were constructed. The high level group was associated with those who were > 50 years old, women, those experiencing psychological distress, and those with a poor psychosocial work climate. The analyses on variables significant in previous analyses showed that the high level group was strongly related to high demands, low control, lack of social support, and disagreeing about values at the workplace even when accounting for age, gender, and psychological distress. We conclude that psychosocial work factors are important in association to burnout regardless of occupation.

  8. Psychosocial health and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Chenchang; Yao, Xing; Yang, Yinmei; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue

    2018-01-01

    Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, infection status, psychosocial variables and suicide ideation reports of participants were collected. Logistic regressions were used to identify potential factors associated with suicidal ideation and to verify the syndemic effect of psychosocial factors. Additionally, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed. In total, four hundred sixty-five PLWHA participated, 31.6% (n = 147) of whom had suicidal ideation. The results from univariate analysis showed that older age, low education level, being married, having children, and psychosocial variables (high perceived stigma, depression, low self-esteem, social support and resilience) were significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that depression (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.62-4.51), perceived stigma (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.17-3.32), and low social support (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.08-3.20) and self-esteem (OR = 4.11, 95%CI = 2.06-8.16) were statistically significant. PLWHA with at least two psychosocial health problems were nearly 5 times more likely (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 3.11-7.17) to have had suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation is frequent among PLWHA in China and is consistent with prevalence estimates from abroad. Psychosocial health problems were the determining factors associated with suicidal ideation, and a syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions was confirmed in predicting suicidal ideation. Therefore, early screening

  9. Psychosocial health and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China.An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, infection status, psychosocial variables and suicide ideation reports of participants were collected. Logistic regressions were used to identify potential factors associated with suicidal ideation and to verify the syndemic effect of psychosocial factors. Additionally, odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were computed.In total, four hundred sixty-five PLWHA participated, 31.6% (n = 147 of whom had suicidal ideation. The results from univariate analysis showed that older age, low education level, being married, having children, and psychosocial variables (high perceived stigma, depression, low self-esteem, social support and resilience were significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that depression (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.62-4.51, perceived stigma (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.17-3.32, and low social support (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.08-3.20 and self-esteem (OR = 4.11, 95%CI = 2.06-8.16 were statistically significant. PLWHA with at least two psychosocial health problems were nearly 5 times more likely (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 3.11-7.17 to have had suicidal ideation.Suicidal ideation is frequent among PLWHA in China and is consistent with prevalence estimates from abroad. Psychosocial health problems were the determining factors associated with suicidal ideation, and a syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions was confirmed in predicting suicidal ideation. Therefore, early

  10. Psychosocial health and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xing; Yang, Yinmei; Yan, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Background Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, infection status, psychosocial variables and suicide ideation reports of participants were collected. Logistic regressions were used to identify potential factors associated with suicidal ideation and to verify the syndemic effect of psychosocial factors. Additionally, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed. Results In total, four hundred sixty-five PLWHA participated, 31.6% (n = 147) of whom had suicidal ideation. The results from univariate analysis showed that older age, low education level, being married, having children, and psychosocial variables (high perceived stigma, depression, low self-esteem, social support and resilience) were significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that depression (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.62–4.51), perceived stigma (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.17–3.32), and low social support (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.08–3.20) and self-esteem (OR = 4.11, 95%CI = 2.06–8.16) were statistically significant. PLWHA with at least two psychosocial health problems were nearly 5 times more likely (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 3.11–7.17) to have had suicidal ideation. Conclusions Suicidal ideation is frequent among PLWHA in China and is consistent with prevalence estimates from abroad. Psychosocial health problems were the determining factors associated with suicidal ideation, and a syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions was confirmed in

  11. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Walking, Cycling, Public Transport and Passive Transport to Various Destinations in Flemish Older Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Verhoeven

    Full Text Available Active transport is a convenient way to incorporate physical activity in adolescents' daily life. The present study aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with walking, cycling, public transport (train, tram, bus, metro and passive transport (car, motorcycle, moped over short distances (maximum eight kilometres among older adolescents (17-18 years, to school and to other destinations.562 older adolescents completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables, environmental variables and transport to school/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed.More social modelling and a higher residential density were positively associated with walking to school and walking to other destinations, respectively. Regarding cycling, higher self-efficacy and a higher social norm were positively associated with cycling to school and to other destinations. Regarding public transport, a higher social norm, more social modelling of siblings and/or friends, more social support and a higher land use mix access were positively related to public transport to school and to other destinations, whereas a greater distance to school only related positively to public transport to school. Regarding passive transport, more social support and more perceived benefits were positively associated with passive transport to school and to other destinations. Perceiving less walking and cycling facilities at school was positively related to passive transport to school only, and more social modelling was positively related to passive transport to other destinations.Overall, psychosocial variables seemed to be more important than environmental variables across the four transport modes. Social norm, social modelling and social support were the most consistent psychosocial factors which indicates that it is important to target both older adolescents and their social

  12. Social Entrepreneurship from a Psychosocial look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bargsted A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of social entrepreneurship, defined as any business initiative, with or nonprofit, whose primary objective is to generate social value. This is a recent and attractive field of research which progressively makes information gathering, although little of it is empirical. The aim of this review is to identify, relevant research questions from social psychology about social entrepreneurship. From the study of various investigations, possible psychosocial variables are identified, which are required for this type of entrepreneurship,such as individual characteristics, social reasons and a specific work identity. In addition, some looks on society, on the goals of organizations and on psychosocial aspects of organizational behavior are incorporated.

  13. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  14. Variable fuzzy assessment of water use efficiency and benefits in irrigation district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hui Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to scientifically and reasonably evaluate water use efficiency and benefits in irrigation districts, a variable fuzzy assessment model was established. The model can reasonably determine the relative membership degree and relative membership function of the sample indices in each index's standard interval, and obtain the evaluation level of the sample through the change of model parameters. According to the actual situation of the Beitun Irrigation District, which is located in Fuhai County, in Altay City, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, five indices were selected as evaluation factors, including the canal water utilization coefficient, field water utilization coefficient, crop water productivity, effective irrigation rate in farmland, and water-saving irrigation area ratio. The water use efficiency and benefits in the Beitun Irrigation District in different years were evaluated with the model. The results showed that the comprehensive evaluation indices from 2006 to 2008 were all at the third level (medium efficiency, while the index in 2009 increased slightly, falling between the second level (relatively high efficiency and third level, indicating an improvement in the water use efficiency and benefits in the Beitun Irrigation District, which in turn showed that the model was reliable and easy to use. This model can be used to assess the water use efficiency and benefits in similar irrigation districts.

  15. Interobserver variability in the assessment of aneurysm occlusion with the WEB aneurysm embolization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, David; Arthur, Adam; Byrne, James; Pierot, Laurent; Molyneux, Andy; Duckwiler, Gary; McCarthy, Thomas; Strother, Charles

    2015-08-01

    The WEB (WEB aneurysm embolization system, Sequent Medical, Aliso Viejo, California, USA) is a self-expanding, nitinol, mesh device designed to achieve aneurysm occlusion after endosaccular deployment. The WEB Occlusion Scale (WOS) is a standardized angiographic assessment scale for reporting aneurysm occlusion achieved with intrasaccular mesh implants. This study was performed to assess the interobserver variability of the WOS. Seven experienced neurovascular specialists were trained to apply the WOS. These physicians independently reviewed angiographic image sets from 30 patients treated with the WEB under blinded conditions. No additional clinical information was provided. Raters graded each image according to the WOS (complete occlusion, residual neck or residual aneurysm). Final statistics were calculated using the dichotomous outcomes of complete occlusion or incomplete occlusion. The interobserver agreement was measured by the generalized κ statistic. In this series of 30 test case aneurysms, observers rated 12-17 as completely occluded, 3-9 as nearly completely occluded, and 9-11 as demonstrating residual aneurysm filling. Agreement was perfect across all seven observers for the presence or absence of complete occlusion in 22 of 30 cases. Overall, interobserver agreement was substantial (κ statistic 0.779 with a 95% CI of 0.700 to 0.857). The WOS allows a consistent means of reporting angiographic occlusion for aneurysms treated with the WEB device. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Childhood circumstances, psychosocial factors and the social impact of adult oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne E; Spencer, A John

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether childhood familial conditions are associated with the social impact of adult oral health and to investigate the role of psychosocial attributes as potential mechanisms by which risk might be conveyed from childhood to adulthood. Using a cross-sectional design, self-report data were obtained from a representative sample of adults in Australia with a telephonic interview and a self-completed questionnaire. The dependent variable was the sum of impacts on the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Childhood familial conditions included socioeconomic position assessed by paternal occupation group, family structure and quality of rearing. Current adult sense of control, perceived stress and satisfaction with life were assessed with standard scales and social support was evaluated with four items. Data were obtained for 3678 dentate adults aged 18-91 years. In bivariate analysis controlling for sex, age and household income in adulthood, parenting style was significantly associated with OHIP-14 scores (anova, P parental rearing style was significantly associated with social impact after adjusting for sex, age and household income in adulthood, but was no longer significant in the presence of the psychosocial factors. The importance of parental rearing to adult oral health may be mediated through the quality and nature of psychosocial attributes.

  17. Assessing Regional Scale Variability in Extreme Value Statistics Under Altered Climate Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsell, Nathaniel [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Mechem, David [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Ma, Chunsheng [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Recent studies have suggested that low-frequency modes of climate variability can significantly influence regional climate. The climatology associated with extreme events has been shown to be particularly sensitive. This has profound implications for droughts, heat waves, and food production. We propose to examine regional climate simulations conducted over the continental United States by applying a recently developed technique which combines wavelet multi–resolution analysis with information theory metrics. This research is motivated by two fundamental questions concerning the spatial and temporal structure of extreme events. These questions are 1) what temporal scales of the extreme value distributions are most sensitive to alteration by low-frequency climate forcings and 2) what is the nature of the spatial structure of variation in these timescales? The primary objective is to assess to what extent information theory metrics can be useful in characterizing the nature of extreme weather phenomena. Specifically, we hypothesize that (1) changes in the nature of extreme events will impact the temporal probability density functions and that information theory metrics will be sensitive these changes and (2) via a wavelet multi–resolution analysis, we will be able to characterize the relative contribution of different timescales on the stochastic nature of extreme events. In order to address these hypotheses, we propose a unique combination of an established regional climate modeling approach and advanced statistical techniques to assess the effects of low-frequency modes on climate extremes over North America. The behavior of climate extremes in RCM simulations for the 20th century will be compared with statistics calculated from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). This effort will serve to establish the baseline behavior of climate extremes, the

  18. Connecting Lines of Research on Task Model Variables, Automatic Item Generation, and Learning Progressions in Game-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Edith Aurora

    2014-01-01

    In "How Task Features Impact Evidence from Assessments Embedded in Simulations and Games," Almond, Kim, Velasquez, and Shute have prepared a thought-provoking piece contrasting the roles of task model variables in a traditional assessment of mathematics word problems to their roles in "Newton's Playground," a game designed…

  19. Environmental life cycle assessment of grain maize production: An analysis of factors causing variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Lieselot; Van Linden, Veerle; De Meester, Steven; Vandecasteele, Bart; Muylle, Hilde; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Nemecek, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-05-15

    To meet the growing demand, high yielding, but environmentally sustainable agricultural plant production systems are desired. Today, life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess the environmental impact of these agricultural systems. However, the impact results are very diverse due to management decisions or local natural conditions. The impact of grain maize is often generalized and an average is taken. Therefore, we studied variation in production systems. Four types of drivers for variability are distinguished: policy, farm management, year-to-year weather variation and innovation. For each driver, scenarios are elaborated using ReCiPe and CEENE (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment) to assess the environmental footprint. Policy limits fertilisation levels in a soil-specific way. The resource consumption is lower for non-sandy soils than for sandy soils, but entails however more eutrophication. Farm management seems to have less influence on the environmental impact when considering the CEENE only. But farm management choices such as fertiliser type have a large effect on emission-related problems (e.g. eutrophication and acidification). In contrast, year-to-year weather variation results in large differences in the environmental footprint. The difference in impact results between favourable and poor environmental conditions amounts to 19% and 17% in terms of resources and emissions respectively, and irrigation clearly is an unfavourable environmental process. The best environmental performance is obtained by innovation as plant breeding results in a steadily increasing yield over 25 years. Finally, a comparison is made between grain maize production in Flanders and a generically applied dataset, based on Swiss practices. These very different results endorse the importance of using local data to conduct LCA of plant production systems. The results of this study show decision makers and farmers how they can improve the

  20. The impact of long working hours on psychosocial stress response among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjin; Suh, Chunhui; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jae Oh

    2017-02-07

    This study examined the association between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In total, 1,122 white-collar workers from a company in Korea completed self-administered questionnaires following a lecture about the study aim, procedures, and confidentiality. Psychosocial stress responses were evaluated using the Psychosocial Well-being Index - Short Form (PWI-SF), and psychosocial working conditions were evaluated with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale - Short Form (KOSS-SF). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for demographic variables and psychosocial working conditions to examine associations between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In comparison with the reference group, which worked 40-44 hours per week, the crude odds ratio (OR) of the respondents who worked 60 or more hours was 4.56 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.55-8.15) in terms of psychosocial stress responses. After adjusting for demographic variables, the adjusted OR of those working ≥60 hours was 5.61 (95% CI, 3.01-10.47). After adjusting for both demographic variables and psychosocial working conditions, the adjusted OR of those working ≥60 hours was 3.25 (95% CI, 1.56-6.79). This study found that long working hours are significantly related to psychosocial stress responses among white-collar workers in one Korean company.

  1. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    The article is based on a research project drawing upon survey data (N=628) and qualitative interviews (N=60) of youth and their parents belonging to the five largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark i.e. Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Pakistan, Lebanon and Somalia, along with the experiences of psy.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  2. [Increased sympathetic activity assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability in patients with CRPS I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, J; Troeger, C

    2010-02-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) is a painful neuropathic disorder with an antecedent disproportionate trauma leading to spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, impaired motor function, swelling, changes in sweating and vascular abnormalities without nerve injury. Whether this syndrome is the result of central or peripheral autonomic dysfunction is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in patients with CRPS I by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. This is a pilot study on 6 patients (mean age 50 years; 4 female, 2 male) diagnosed as suffering from CRPS I and 6 age-matched healthy controls. In the pain-free interval and after taking rest for 5 min, 512 subsequent heart beats were obtained with an ECG standard lead II in the supine and then sitting position. Using an autoregressive model, power spectral densities were calculated for the following frequency bands: CRPS I compared to the healthy controls in the supine position (LF/HF=4.01 vs. LF/HF=1.27; p=0.041). The application of stress by changing to the sitting position even increased that difference (6.72 vs. 1.93). Our results support the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of the early stage CRPS I might be related to an increased sympathetic activity. By assessing the autonomic influence on the heart rate variability in CRPS I patients we could also conclude that this disturbance occurs rather at a central level. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  3. Automated size-specific CT dose monitoring program: Assessing variability in CT dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christianson, Olav; Li Xiang; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The potential health risks associated with low levels of ionizing radiation have created a movement in the radiology community to optimize computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols to use the lowest radiation dose possible without compromising the diagnostic usefulness of the images. Despite efforts to use appropriate and consistent radiation doses, studies suggest that a great deal of variability in radiation dose exists both within and between institutions for CT imaging. In this context, the authors have developed an automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT and used this program to assess variability in size-adjusted effective dose from CT imaging. Methods: The authors radiation dose monitoring program operates on an independent health insurance portability and accountability act compliant dosimetry server. Digital imaging and communication in medicine routing software is used to isolate dose report screen captures and scout images for all incoming CT studies. Effective dose conversion factors (k-factors) are determined based on the protocol and optical character recognition is used to extract the CT dose index and dose-length product. The patient's thickness is obtained by applying an adaptive thresholding algorithm to the scout images and is used to calculate the size-adjusted effective dose (ED adj ). The radiation dose monitoring program was used to collect data on 6351 CT studies from three scanner models (GE Lightspeed Pro 16, GE Lightspeed VCT, and GE Definition CT750 HD) and two institutions over a one-month period and to analyze the variability in ED adj between scanner models and across institutions. Results: No significant difference was found between computer measurements of patient thickness and observer measurements (p= 0.17), and the average difference between the two methods was less than 4%. Applying the size correction resulted in ED adj that differed by up to 44% from effective dose estimates that were not

  4. Automated size-specific CT dose monitoring program: Assessing variability in CT dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, Olav; Li Xiang; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan [Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The potential health risks associated with low levels of ionizing radiation have created a movement in the radiology community to optimize computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols to use the lowest radiation dose possible without compromising the diagnostic usefulness of the images. Despite efforts to use appropriate and consistent radiation doses, studies suggest that a great deal of variability in radiation dose exists both within and between institutions for CT imaging. In this context, the authors have developed an automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT and used this program to assess variability in size-adjusted effective dose from CT imaging. Methods: The authors radiation dose monitoring program operates on an independent health insurance portability and accountability act compliant dosimetry server. Digital imaging and communication in medicine routing software is used to isolate dose report screen captures and scout images for all incoming CT studies. Effective dose conversion factors (k-factors) are determined based on the protocol and optical character recognition is used to extract the CT dose index and dose-length product. The patient's thickness is obtained by applying an adaptive thresholding algorithm to the scout images and is used to calculate the size-adjusted effective dose (ED{sub adj}). The radiation dose monitoring program was used to collect data on 6351 CT studies from three scanner models (GE Lightspeed Pro 16, GE Lightspeed VCT, and GE Definition CT750 HD) and two institutions over a one-month period and to analyze the variability in ED{sub adj} between scanner models and across institutions. Results: No significant difference was found between computer measurements of patient thickness and observer measurements (p= 0.17), and the average difference between the two methods was less than 4%. Applying the size correction resulted in ED{sub adj} that differed by up to 44% from effective dose

  5. Delivery of care consistent with the psychosocial standards in pediatric cancer: Current practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialla, Michele A; Canter, Kimberly S; Chen, Fang Fang; Kolb, E Anders; Sandler, Eric; Wiener, Lori; Kazak, Anne E

    2018-03-01

    With published evidence-based Standards for Psychosocial Care for Children with Cancer and their Families, it is important to know the current status of their implementation. This paper presents data on delivery of psychosocial care related to the Standards in the United States. Pediatric oncologists, psychosocial leaders, and administrators in pediatric oncology from 144 programs completed an online survey. Participants reported on the extent to which psychosocial care consistent with the Standards was implemented and was comprehensive and state of the art. They also reported on specific practices and services for each Standard and the extent to which psychosocial care was integrated into broader medical care. Participants indicated that psychosocial care consistent with the Standards was usually or always provided at their center for most of the Standards. However, only half of the oncologists (55.6%) and psychosocial leaders (45.6%) agreed or strongly agreed that their psychosocial care was comprehensive and state of the art. Types of psychosocial care provided included evidence-based and less established approaches but were most often provided when problems were identified, rather than proactively. The perception of state of the art care was associated with practices indicative of integrated psychosocial care and the extent to which the Standards are currently implemented. Many oncologists and psychosocial leaders perceive that the delivery of psychosocial care at their center is consistent with the Standards. However, care is quite variable, with evidence for the value of more integrated models of psychosocial services. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental health among middle-aged adults and the role of behavioral and psychosocial factors: evidence from the Spanish National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Diego Alberto; Davidsen, Michael

    2017-02-16

    The goal of this analysis was to describe socioeconomic inequalities in dental health among Spanish middle-aged adults, and the role of behavioral and psychosocial factors in explaining these inequalities. This cross-sectional study used survey data from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey and focused on adults ages 30 - 64. The outcome was dental health status based on the presence of self-reported dental problems. We used education, income, and occupational class as indicators of socioeconomic position and applied logistic regression analysis to estimate associations. We included behavioral and psychosocial variables in the models and compared non-adjusted to adjusted estimates to assess their potential role in explaining socioeconomic gradients. Results showed clear socioeconomic gradients in dental health among middle-aged adults. The percentage of people who reported more dental problems increased among those with lower levels of education, income, and occupation. These gradients were statistically significant (p socioeconomic position. Substantial unexplained associations remained significant after adjusting the model by behavioral and psychosocial variables. This study shows significant socioeconomic gradients in dental health among middle-aged adults in Spain. Behavioral and psychosocial variables were insufficient to explain the inequalities described, suggesting the intervention of other factors. Further research should incorporate additional explanations to better understand and comprehensively address socioeconomic inequalities in dental health.

  7. Psychosocial consequences of skin cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Markham Risica; Natalie H. Matthews; Laura Dionne; Jennifer Mello; Laura K. Ferris; Melissa Saul; Alan C. Geller; Francis Solano; John M. Kirkwood; Martin A. Weinstock

    2018-01-01

    Screening for melanoma may save lives, but may also cause patient distress. One key reason that preventative visual skin examinations for skin cancer are not currently recommended is the inadequate available evidence to assess potential harm to psychosocial wellbeing. We investigated potential psychological harms and benefits of skin examinations by conducting telephone surveys in 2015 of 187 screened participants; all were ≥35 years old. Participants had their skin examined by practitioners ...

  8. Psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontigny, Francine; Girard, Marie-Eve; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane; Devault, Annie

    2013-08-15

    While maternal postpartum depression is a well-known phenomenon, paternal postnatal depression has been less studied. It is known that paternal postnatal depression impacts on children's and families' development, affects marital satisfaction and affects the economic health of industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to identify the psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression. A descriptive-correlational study was conducted with a sample of fathers of infants (average age: 11 months) who were breastfed exclusively or predominantly for at least 6 months, comparing psychosocial factors in fathers with (n: 17, 8.2%) and without a positive score for depression on the EPDS scale (n: 188). Psychosocial factors were assessed through questionnaires. Depression in fathers of breastfed infants is associated with the experience of perinatal loss in a previous pregnancy, parenting distress, infant temperament (difficult child), dysfunctional interactions with the child, decreased marital adjustment and perceived low parenting efficacy. Multivariate analysis suggests an independent effect of psychosocial factors such as parenting distress, quality of the marital relationship and perceived parenting efficacy on paternal depression. The sample focused on fathers of breastfed infant, since breastfeeding has become the feeding norm, and this should be taken into account when considering the generalization of findings. These findings emphasize the need to consider a set of psychosocial factors when examining fathers' mental health in the first year of a child's birth. Health professionals can enhance parenting efficacy and alleviate parenting distress by supporting fathers' unique experiences and addressing their needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael W; Bowie, Christopher R; Naiberg, Melanie R; Newton, Dwight F; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2017-01-01

    Adults with bipolar disorder demonstrate significantly poorer psychosocial functioning and neurocognition compared to controls. In adult bipolar disorder neurocognition predicts a substantial portion of variance in functioning. Adolescents with bipolar disorder have reducedpsychosocial functioning, but less is known about neurocognitive impairments, and no studies have examined the relationship between neurocognition and functioning in an adolescent sample. 38 adolescents with bipolar disorder and 49 healthy controls under 20 years of age completed assessments of psychosocial functioning, neurocognitive ability, and psychiatric symptoms. Adolescents with bipolar disorder had significantly poorer psychosocial functioning in domains of daily activities, social functioning, and satisfaction with functioning, psadolescent sample with bipolar disorder experiences significantly poorer neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning compared to controls; however, psychosocial functioning appears to be more strongly related to mood symptoms than to neurocognition. Future work is needed to delineate the time course of neurocognitive functioning and its relation to psychosocial functioning across the course of illness. Adolescence may provide an ideal time for cognitive enhancement and intensive psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2009-01-01

    To summarize literature data about the role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism. A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Database was performed to identify all peer-reviewed papers in the English literature dealing with the bruxism-psychosocial factors relationship. All studies assessing the psychosocial traits of bruxers (by using questionnaires, interviews, and instrumental and laboratory exams) and reviews discussing the contribution of those factors to the etiology of bruxism were included in this review. A total of 45 relevant papers (including eight reviews) were retrieved with a search strategy combining the term "bruxism" with the words stress, anxiety, depression, psychosocial and psychological factors. The majority of data about the association between psychosocial disorders and bruxism came from studies adopting a clinical and/or self-report diagnosis of bruxism. These studies showed some association of bruxism with anxiety, stress sensitivity, depression and other personological characteristics, apparently in contrast with sleep laboratory investigations. A plausible hypothesis is that clinical studies are more suitable to detect awake bruxism (clenching type), while polysomnographic studies focused only on sleep bruxism (grinding type). Wake clenching seems to be associated with psychosocial factors and a number of psychopathological symptoms, while there is no evidence to relate sleep bruxism with psychosocial disorders. Future research should be directed toward the achievement of a better distinction between the two forms of bruxism in order to facilitate the design of experimental studies on this topic.

  11. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the

  12. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the

  13. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giglio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001–2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate burned area. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global annual area burned for the years 1997–2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 13 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  14. Family Violence and Aggression and Their Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Jamaican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E.; Moore, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among selected family interaction variables and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. The authors hypothesized that adolescent psychosocial outcomes would be negatively associated with physical violence, verbal aggression would be more potent than physical…

  15. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on

  16. Assessing soil hydrological variability at the cm- to dm-scale using air permeameter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, K.; Vandersmissen, N.; Rogiers, B.; Mallants, D.

    2012-04-01

    Soils and surficial sediments are crucial elements in the hydrological cycle since they are the medium through which infiltrating precipitation percolates to the aquifer. At the same time, soil horizons and shallow stratigraphy may act as hydraulic barriers that can promote runoff or interflow and hamper deep infiltration. For most catchments little is known about the small-scale horizontal and vertical variability of soil hydrological properties. Such information is however required to calculate detailed soil water flow paths and estimate small scale spatial variability in recharge and run-off. We present the results from field air permeameter measurements to assess the small-scale variability of saturated hydraulic conductivity in heterogeneous 2-D soil profiles. To this end, several outcrops in the unsaturated zone (sandy soils with podzolisation) of an interfluve in the Kleine Nete river catchment (Campine area, Northern Belgium) were investigated using a hand-held permeameter. Measurements were done each 10 cm on ~ 2 x 1 m or ~ 2 x 0.5 m grids. The initial results of the measurements (air permeability Kair; millidarcy) are recalculated to saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks; m/s) using specific transfer functions (Loll et al., 1999; Iversen et al., 2003). Validation of the results is done with independent lab-based constant head Ks measurements. The results show that field based Ks values generally range between 10-3 m/s and 10-7 m/s within one profile, but extremely high values (up to 10-1 m/s) have been measured as well. The lowest values are found in the organic- and silt-rich Bh horizon of podzol soils observed within the profiles (~ 10-6-10-7m/s), while the highest values are observed in overlying dune sands less than 40 cm deep (up to 10-3 m/s with outliers to 10-1 m/s). Comparison of field and laboratory based Ks data reveals there is fair agreement between both methods, apart from several outliers. Scatter plots indicate that almost all points

  17. Assessment of Light Environment Variability in Broadleaved Forest Canopies Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Van der Zande

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Light availability inside a forest canopy is of key importance to many ecosystem processes, such as photosynthesis and transpiration. Assessment of light availability and within-canopy light variability enables a more detailed understanding of these biophysical processes. The changing light-vegetation interaction in a homogeneous oak (Quercus robur L. stand was studied at different moments during the growth season using terrestrial laser scanning datasets and ray tracing technology. Three field campaigns were organized at regular time intervals (24 April 2008; 07 May 2008; 23 May 2008 to monitor the increase of foliage material. The laser scanning data was used to generate 3D representations of the forest stands, enabling structure feature extraction and light interception modeling, using the Voxel-Based Light Interception Model (VLIM. The VLIM is capable of estimating the relative light intensity or Percentage of Above Canopy Light (PACL at any arbitrary point in the modeled crown space. This resulted in a detailed description of the dynamic light environments inside the canopy. Mean vertical light extinction profiles were calculated for the three time frames, showing significant differences in light attenuation by the canopy between April 24 on the one hand, and May 7 and May 23 on the other hand. The proposed methodology created the opportunity to link these within-canopy light distributions to the increasing amount of photosynthetically active leaf material and its distribution in the considered 3D space.

  18. Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Assessing the Severity of Sleep Disordered Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yao Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an independent cardiovascular risk factor to which autonomic nervous dysfunction has been reported to be an important contributor. Ninety subjects recruited from the sleep center of a single medical center were divided into four groups: normal snoring subjects without OSA (apnea hypopnea index, AHI < 5, n = 11, mild OSA (5 ≤ AHI < 15, n = 10, moderate OSA (15 ≤ AHI < 30, n = 24, and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30, n = 45. Demographic (i.e., age, gender, anthropometric (i.e., body mass index, neck circumference, and polysomnographic (PSG data were recorded and compared among the different groups. For each subject, R-R intervals (RRI from 10 segments of 10-minute electrocardiogram recordings during non-rapid eye movement sleep at stage N2 were acquired and analyzed for heart rate variability (HRV and sample entropy using multiscale entropy index (MEI that was divided into small scale (MEISS, scale 1–5 and large scale (MEILS, scale 6–10. Our results not only demonstrated that MEISS could successfully distinguish normal snoring subjects and those with mild OSA from those with moderate and severe disease, but also revealed good correlation between MEISS and AHI with Spearman correlation analysis (r = −0.684, p < 0.001. Therefore, using the two parameters of EEG and ECG, MEISS may serve as a simple preliminary screening tool for assessing the severity of OSA before proceeding to PSG analysis.

  19. Measurement Variability of Vertical Scanning Interferometry Tool Used for Orbiter Window Defect Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo, II

    2009-01-01

    The ability to sufficiently measure orbiter window defects to allow for window recertification has been an ongoing challenge for the orbiter vehicle program. The recent Columbia accident has forced even tighter constraints on the criteria that must be met in order to recertify windows for flight. As a result, new techniques are being investigated to improve the reliability, accuracy and resolution of the defect detection process. The methodology devised in this work, which is based on the utilization of a vertical scanning interferometric (VSI) tool, shows great promise for meeting the ever increasing requirements for defect detection. This methodology has the potential of a 10-100 fold greater resolution of the true defect depth than can be obtained from the currently employed micrometer based methodology. An added benefit is that it also produces a digital elevation map of the defect, thereby providing information about the defect morphology which can be utilized to ascertain the type of debris that induced the damage. However, in order to successfully implement such a tool, a greater understanding of the resolution capability and measurement repeatability must be obtained. This work focused on assessing the variability of the VSI-based measurement methodology and revealed that the VSI measurement tool was more repeatable and more precise than the current micrometer based approach, even in situations where operator variation could affect the measurement. The analysis also showed that the VSI technique was relatively insensitive to the hardware and software settings employed, making the technique extremely robust and desirable

  20. Model for the Assessment of Seawater Environmental Quality Based on Multiobjective Variable Fuzzy Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Ke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of marine economy industry, the activities for exploring and exploiting the marine resources are increasing, and there are more and more marine construction projects, which contribute to the growing trend of eutrophication and frequent occurrence of red tide. Thus, seawater quality has become the topic which the people generally cared about. The seawater quality evaluation could be considered as an analysis process which combined the evaluation indexes with certainty and evaluation factors with uncertainty and its changes. This paper built a model for the assessment of seawater environmental quality based on the multiobjective variable fuzzy set theory (VFEM. The Qingdao marine dumping site in China is taken as an evaluation example. Through the quantitative research of water-quality data from 2004 to 2008, the model is more reliable than other traditional methods, in which uncertainty and ambiguity of the seawater quality evaluation are considered, and trade the stable results as the final results of seawater quality evaluation, which effectively solved the impact of the fuzzy boundary of evaluation standard and monitoring error, is more suitable for evaluation of a multi-index, multilevel, and nonlinear marine environment system and has been proved to be an effective tool for seawater quality evaluation.

  1. Valsalva and gravitational variability of the internal jugular vein and common femoral vein: Ultrasound assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddy, P. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)]. E-mail: pbeddy@eircom.net; Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Ramesh, N. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Buckley, O. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); O' Brien, J. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Colville, J. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: Central venous cannulation via the common femoral vein is an important starting point for many interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for cannulation of the femoral vein and to compare these with the relative changes in the internal jugular vein. Methods: High-resolution 2D ultrasound was utilised to determine variability of the calibre of the femoral and internal jugular veins in 10 healthy subjects. Venous diameter was assessed during the Valsalva manoeuvre and in different degrees of the Trendelenburg position. Results: The Valsalva manoeuvre significantly increased the size of the femoral and internal jugular veins. There was a relatively greater increase in femoral vein diameter when compared with the internal jugular vein of 40 and 29%, respectively. Changes in body inclination (Trendelenburg position) did not significantly alter the luminal diameter of the femoral vein. However, it significantly increased internal jugular vein diameter. Conclusions: Femoral vein cannulation is augmented by the Valsalva manoeuvre but not significantly altered by the gravitational position of the subject.

  2. Assessing Mucoadhesion in Polymer Gels: The Effect of Method Type and Instrument Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Bassi da Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of mucoadhesion has been widely studied using a wide variety of methods, which are influenced by instrumental variables and experiment design, making the comparison between the results of different studies difficult. The aim of this work was to standardize the conditions of the detachment test and the rheological methods of mucoadhesion assessment for semisolids, and introduce a texture profile analysis (TPA method. A factorial design was developed to suggest standard conditions for performing the detachment force method. To evaluate the method, binary polymeric systems were prepared containing poloxamer 407 and Carbopol 971P®, Carbopol 974P®, or Noveon® Polycarbophil. The mucoadhesion of systems was evaluated, and the reproducibility of these measurements investigated. This detachment force method was demonstrated to be reproduceable, and gave different adhesion when mucin disk or ex vivo oral mucosa was used. The factorial design demonstrated that all evaluated parameters had an effect on measurements of mucoadhesive force, but the same was not observed for the work of adhesion. It was suggested that the work of adhesion is a more appropriate metric for evaluating mucoadhesion. Oscillatory rheology was more capable of investigating adhesive interactions than flow rheology. TPA method was demonstrated to be reproducible and can evaluate the adhesiveness interaction parameter. This investigation demonstrates the need for standardized methods to evaluate mucoadhesion and makes suggestions for a standard study design.

  3. Assessment of variability in cerebral vasculature for neuro-anatomical surgery planning in rodent brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, J. R.; Van Kuyck, K.; Himmelreich, U.; Nuttin, B.; Maes, F.; Suetens, P.

    2011-03-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies show that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of targeted brain regions by neurosurgical techniques ameliorate psychiatric disorder such as anorexia nervosa. Neurosurgical interventions in preclinical rodent brain are mostly accomplished manually with a 2D atlas. Considering both the large number of animals subjected to stereotactic surgical experiments and the associated imaging cost, feasibility of sophisticated pre-operative imaging based surgical path planning and/or robotic guidance is limited. Here, we spatially normalize vasculature information and assess the intra-strain variability in cerebral vasculature for a neurosurgery planning. By co-registering and subsequently building a probabilistic vasculature template in a standard space, we evaluate the risk of a user defined electrode trajectory damaging a blood vessel on its path. The use of such a method may not only be confined to DBS therapy in small animals, but also could be readily applicable to a wide range of stereotactic small animal surgeries like targeted injection of contrast agents and cell labeling applications.

  4. A Range-Based Vehicle Life Cycle Assessment Incorporating Variability in the Environmental Assessment of Different Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Messagie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How to compare the environmental performance of different vehicle technologies? Vehicles with lower tailpipe emissions are perceived as cleaner. However, does it make sense to look only to tailpipe emissions? Limiting the comparison only to these emissions denies the fact that there are emissions involved during the production of a fuel and this approach gives too much advantage to zero-tailpipe vehicles like battery electric vehicles (BEV and fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV. Would it be enough to combine fuel production and tailpipe emissions? Especially when comparing the environmental performance of alternative vehicle technologies, the emissions during production of the specific components and their appropriate end-of-life treatment processes should also be taken into account. Therefore, the complete life cycle of the vehicle should be included in order to avoid problem shifting from one life stage to another. In this article, a full life cycle assessment (LCA of petrol, diesel, fuel cell electric (FCEV, compressed natural gas (CNG, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, hybrid electric, battery electric (BEV, bio-diesel and bio-ethanol vehicles has been performed. The aim of the manuscript is to investigate the impact of the different vehicle technologies on the environment and to develop a range-based modeling system that enables a more robust interpretation of the LCA results for a group of vehicles. Results are shown for climate change, respiratory effects, acidification and mineral extraction damage of the different vehicle technologies. A broad range of results is obtained due to the variability within the car market. It is concluded that it is essential to take into account the influence of all the vehicle parameters on the LCA results.

  5. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  6. Mental distress among shift workers in Norwegian offshore petroleum industry--relative influence of individual and psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljoså, Cathrine Haugene; Tyssen, Reidar; Lau, Bjørn

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between individual and psychosocial work factors and mental distress among offshore shift workers in the Norwegian petroleum industry. All 2406 employees of a large Norwegian oil and gas company, who worked offshore during a two-week period in August 2006, were invited to participate in the web-based survey. Completed questionnaires were received from 1336 employees (56% response rate). The outcome variable was mental distress, assessed with a shortened version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-5). The following individual factors were adjusted for: age, gender, marital status, and shift work locus of control. Psychosocial work factors included: night work, demands, control and support, and shift work-home interference. The level of mental distress was higher among men than women. In the adjusted regression model, the following were associated with mental distress: (i) high scores on quantitative demands, (ii) low level of support, and (iii) high level of shift work-home interference. Psychosocial work factors explained 76% of the total explained variance (adjusted R (²)=0.21) in the final adjusted model. Psychosocial work factors, such as quantitative demands, support, and shift work-home interference were independently associated with mental distress. Shift schedules were only univariately associated with mental distress.

  7. Psychosocial factors partially mediate the relationship between mechanical hyperalgesia and self-reported pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kayleigh J; O'Neill, Terence W; Lunt, Mark; Jones, Anthony K P; McBeth, John

    2018-01-26

    Amplification of sensory signalling within the nervous system along with psychosocial factors contributes to the variation and severity of knee pain. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a non-invasive test battery that assesses sensory perception of thermal, pressure, mechanical and vibration stimuli used in the assessment of pain. Psychosocial factors also have an important role in explaining the occurrence of pain. The aim was to determine whether QST measures were associated with self-reported pain, and whether those associations were mediated by psychosocial factors. Participants with knee pain identified from a population-based cohort completed a tender point count and a reduced QST battery of thermal, mechanical and pressure pain thresholds, temporal summation, mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS), dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) and vibration detection threshold performed following the protocol by the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. QST assessments were performed at the most painful knee and opposite forearm (if pain-free). Participants were asked to score for their global and knee pain intensities within the past month (range 0-10), and complete questionnaire items investigating anxiety, depression, illness perceptions, pain catastrophising, and physical functioning. QST measures (independent variable) significantly correlated (Spearman's rho) with self-reported pain intensity (dependent variable) were included in structural equation models with psychosocial factors (latent mediators). Seventy-two participants were recruited with 61 participants (36 women; median age 64 years) with complete data included in subsequent analyses. Tender point count was significantly correlated with global pain intensity. DMA at the knee and MPS at the most painful knee and opposite pain-free forearm were significantly correlated with both global pain and knee pain intensities. Psychosocial factors including pain catastrophising sub-scales (rumination and

  8. Intrinsic motivation, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia: testing mediator and moderator effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Eri; Xie, Bin; Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationships among neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning for persons with schizophrenia. Hypotheses concerning both mediator and moderator mechanisms were tested. 120 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited as they entered outpatient psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Measures of psychosocial functioning and intrinsic motivation were administered at baseline. Measures of neurocognition were administered at baseline by testers blind to scores on other study variables. Data were analyzed using latent construct modeling to test for mediator and moderator effects. There were strong bivariate relationships between neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning. The results demonstrated that intrinsic motivation strongly mediated the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. This mediation was evidenced by: (i) the direct path from neurocognition to functional outcome no longer being statistically significant after the introduction of motivation into the model, (ii) the statistical significance of the indirect path from neurocognition through motivation to functional outcome. There was no support for the two moderation hypotheses: the level of neurocognition did not influence the relationship between intrinsic motivation and psychosocial functioning, nor did the level of intrinsic motivation influence the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Neurocognition influences psychosocial functioning through its relationship with intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is a critical mechanism for explaining the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Implications for the theoretical understanding and psychosocial treatment of intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia are discussed.

  9. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  10. Contouring Variability of the Penile Bulb on CT Images: Quantitative Assessment Using a Generalized Concordance Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carillo, Viviana [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Perna, Lucia; Calandra, Mauro [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Gianolini, Stefano [Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn (Switzerland); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello Enrico [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Cliniche Gavazzeni Humanitas, Bergamo (Italy); Villa, Sergio [Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Within a multicenter study (DUE-01) focused on the search of predictors of erectile dysfunction and urinary toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, a dummy run exercise on penile bulb (PB) contouring on computed tomography (CT) images was carried out. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess interobserver contouring variability by the application of the generalized DICE index. Methods and Materials: Fifteen physicians from different Institutes drew the PB on CT images of 10 patients. The spread of DICE values was used to objectively select those observers who significantly disagreed with the others. The analyses were performed with a dedicated module in the VODCA software package. Results: DICE values were found to significantly change among observers and patients. The mean DICE value was 0.67, ranging between 0.43 and 0.80. The statistics of DICE coefficients identified 4 of 15 observers who systematically showed a value below the average (p value range, 0.013 - 0.059): Mean DICE values were 0.62 for the 4 'bad' observers compared to 0.69 of the 11 'good' observers. For all bad observers, the main cause of the disagreement was identified. Average DICE values were significantly worse from the average in 2 of 10 patients (0.60 vs. 0.70, p < 0.05) because of the limited visibility of the PB. Excluding the bad observers and the 'bad' patients,' the mean DICE value increased from 0.67 to 0.70; interobserver variability, expressed in terms of standard deviation of DICE spread, was also reduced. Conclusions: The obtained values of DICE around 0.7 shows an acceptable agreement, considered the small dimension of the PB. Additional strategies to improve this agreement are under consideration and include an additional tutorial of the so-called bad observers with a recontouring procedure, or the recontouring by a single observer of the PB for all patients included in the DUE-01 study.

  11. Contouring Variability of the Penile Bulb on CT Images: Quantitative Assessment Using a Generalized Concordance Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carillo, Viviana; Cozzarini, Cesare; Perna, Lucia; Calandra, Mauro; Gianolini, Stefano; Rancati, Tiziana; Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Vavassori, Vittorio; Villa, Sergio; Valdagni, Riccardo; Fiorino, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Within a multicenter study (DUE-01) focused on the search of predictors of erectile dysfunction and urinary toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, a dummy run exercise on penile bulb (PB) contouring on computed tomography (CT) images was carried out. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess interobserver contouring variability by the application of the generalized DICE index. Methods and Materials: Fifteen physicians from different Institutes drew the PB on CT images of 10 patients. The spread of DICE values was used to objectively select those observers who significantly disagreed with the others. The analyses were performed with a dedicated module in the VODCA software package. Results: DICE values were found to significantly change among observers and patients. The mean DICE value was 0.67, ranging between 0.43 and 0.80. The statistics of DICE coefficients identified 4 of 15 observers who systematically showed a value below the average (p value range, 0.013 — 0.059): Mean DICE values were 0.62 for the 4 “bad” observers compared to 0.69 of the 11 “good” observers. For all bad observers, the main cause of the disagreement was identified. Average DICE values were significantly worse from the average in 2 of 10 patients (0.60 vs. 0.70, p < 0.05) because of the limited visibility of the PB. Excluding the bad observers and the “bad” patients,” the mean DICE value increased from 0.67 to 0.70; interobserver variability, expressed in terms of standard deviation of DICE spread, was also reduced. Conclusions: The obtained values of DICE around 0.7 shows an acceptable agreement, considered the small dimension of the PB. Additional strategies to improve this agreement are under consideration and include an additional tutorial of the so-called bad observers with a recontouring procedure, or the recontouring by a single observer of the PB for all patients included in the DUE-01 study.

  12. Changes in the psychosocial work characteristics and insulin resistance among Japanese male workers: a three-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Ayako; Inoue, Akiomi; Mafune, Kosuke; Nakagawa, Toru; Hayashi, Takeshi; Hiro, Hisanori

    2016-11-29

    This study investigated the impact of changes in psychosocial work characteristics on insulin resistance (IR) among Japanese male workers. Subjects were 1,815 male workers who received a comprehensive health examination and requested measurement of their serum insulin level in Fiscal Years (FY) 2008 and 2011. Psychosocial work characteristics, including job demands, job control, and workplace social support (from supervisors and coworkers), were assessed in each of the job demands-control and demand-control-support models. Psychosocial work characteristics were assessed by the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Changes in the psychosocial work characteristics were measured by creating a four-category variable for each of the psychosocial work characteristics: (1) stable low group, (2) increased group, (3) decreased group, and (4) stable high group. We defined IR as a value of 2.5 or more on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), or having a diagnosis of diabetes. A series of multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. The group experiencing a decrease in supervisor support had a significantly higher risk of having IR compared to the stable high group with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.44; 95% CI: 1.48-4.02. After adjusting for covariates, this significant association was unchanged; the OR was 2.19; 95% CI: 1.23-3.91. On the other hand, there was no significant association of changes in the psychosocial work characteristics, expect for decrease in supervisor support, with IR. A decrease in supervisor support was found to be an independent risk factor for worsening IR.

  13. Psychosocial and Psychological Vulnerability in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: A "Proof of Principle" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Melanie; VanderLaan, Doug P; Wood, Hayley; Wasserman, Lori; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2017-10-03

    For adolescents with gender dysphoria, it has become common to be offered hormonal treatment to either delay or suppress pubertal development and/or to masculinize or feminize the body. At the same time, it has been our clinical impression that the psychological vulnerability of at least some of these youth has been overlooked. Fifty consecutive referrals of adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of gender identity disorder (GID) constituted the sample. Information obtained at intake was coded for the presence or absence of 15 psychosocial and psychological vulnerability factors. The mean number of psychosocial/psychological vulnerability factors coded as present was 5.56 (range, 0-13). Over half of the sample had six or more of the vulnerability factors. The number of factors coded as present was significantly correlated with behavioral and emotional problems on the Youth Self-Report Form and the Child Behavior Checklist, but not with demographic variables or IQ. The findings supported the clinical impression that a large percentage of adolescents referred for gender dysphoria have a substantial co-occurring history of psychosocial and psychological vulnerability, thus supporting a "proof of principle" for the importance of a comprehensive psychologic/psychiatric assessment that goes beyond an evaluation of gender dysphoria per se.

  14. The relationship between oral health status and biological and psychosocial function in the bedridden elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, N; Tada, A

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to determine what item of biological and psychosocial function is related to oral health status in the bedridden elderly. The subjects were 94 elderly individuals (30 males, 64 females) who had been admitted to a nursing home in Chiba city, Japan. We assessed the number of remaining teeth and the number of functional teeth as oral health status variables. Biological and psychosocial function levels were determined using the functional independence measure method developed by the State University of New York at Buffalo. More than 70% of subjects had less than ten remaining teeth. Almost all subjects needed prosthesis treatment. More than 50% of subjects had 27 or less functional teeth. Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression models showed that 'expression' was concerned with the number of remaining teeth and 'bladder management', 'locomotion', 'transfers' were related to the number of functional teeth. These data suggest close relation between oral health status and biological and psychosocial function levels in the bedridden elderly.

  15. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  16. Psychosocial distress and periodontitis in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Valeria; Marró, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease associated with predominantly gram negative biofilms and characterized by the progressive destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Some studies conducted among adults have found a significant association between periodontitis and dimensions...... of psychosocial distress and it is unclear whether this association can be found among younger subjects in which destruction of periodontal tissues as a result of periodontitis are less severe. Purpose: The main aim of this study was to assess whether adolescents with periodontitis presented with higher scores...... for non-psychotic psychosocial disorders than control subjects without periodontitis. Materials and Methods: We used a case control study (n=160) nested in a well-defined adolescent population (n=9,163) and the 28-item Spanish version of the General Health Questionnaire. The inclusion criterion for being...

  17. Inter-rater reliability of direct observations of the physical and psychosocial working conditions in eldercare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstad, Kristina; Rugulies, Reiner; Skotte, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate the reliability of the "Danish observational study of eldercare work and musculoskeletal disorders" (DOSES) observation instrument to assess physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in eldercare work. During 1...... is appropriate for assessing physical and psychosocial risk factors for MSD among eldercare workers....

  18. Assessing the spatial variability of mountain precipitation in California's Sierra Nevada using the Airborne Snow Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, T.; Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.; Dozier, J.

    2016-12-01

    In California's Sierra Nevada, 10 or fewer winter storms are responsible for most of the annual precipitation, which falls mostly as snow. Presently, surface stations are used to measure the dynamics of mountain precipitation. However, even in places like the Sierra Nevada—one of the most gauged regions in the world—the paucity of surface stations can lead to large errors in precipitation thereby biasing both total water year and short-term streamflow forecasts. Remotely sensed snow depth and water equivalent, at a time scale that resolves storms, might provide a novel solution to the problems of: (1) quantifying the spatial variability of mountain precipitation; and (2) assessing gridded precipitation products that are mostly based on surface station interpolation. NASA's Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and LiDAR system, has measured snow in the Tuolumne River Basin in California's Sierra Nevada for the past four years, 2013-2016; and, measurements will continue. Principally, ASO monitors the progression of melt for water supply forecasting, nonetheless, a number of flights bracketed storms allowing for estimates of snow accumulation. In this study we examine a few of the ASO recorded storms to determine both the basin and subbasin orographic effect as well as the spatial patterns in total precipitation. We then compare these results to a number of gridded climate products and weather models including: Daymet, the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Finally, to put each ASO recorded storm into context, we use a climatology produced from snow pillows and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) for 2014-2016 to examine key accumulation events, and classify storms based on their integrated water vapor flux.

  19. Assessment of volumetric-modulated arc therapy for constant and variable dose rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluz De Ornelas-Couto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of dose rate on volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans to determine optimal dose rates for prostate and head and neck (HN cases. Materials and Methods: Ten prostate and ten HN cases were retrospectively studied. For each case, seven plans were generated: one variable dose rate (VDR and six constant dose rate (CDR (100–600 monitor units [MUs]/min plans. Prescription doses were: 80 Gy to planning target volume (PTV for the prostate cases, and 70, 60, and 54 Gy to PTV1, PTV2, and PTV3, respectively, for HN cases. Plans were normalized to 95% of the PTV and PTV1, respectively, with the prescription dose. Plans were assessed using Dose-Volume-Histogram metrics, homogeneity index, conformity index, MUs, and delivery time. Results: For the prostate cases, significant differences were found for rectum D35 between VDR and all CDR plans, except CDR500. Furthermore, VDR was significantly different than CDR100 and 200 for bladder D50. Delivery time for all CDR plans and MUs for CDR400–600 were significantly higher when compared to VDR. HN cases showed significant differences between VDR and CDR100, 500 and 600 for D2 to the cord and brainstem. Significant differences were found for delivery time and MUs for all CDR plans, except CDR100 for number of MUs. Conclusion: The most significant differences were observed in delivery time and number of MUs. All-in-all, the best CDR for prostate cases was found to be 300 MUs/min and 200 or 300 MUs/min for HN cases. However, VDR plans are still the choice in terms of MU efficiency and plan quality.

  20. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Sahoko [Mie University, Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies (Japan); Li, Weihua [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Omura, Seiichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Fujitani, Yuji [National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Hiraku, Yusuke [Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine (Japan); Hisanaga, Naomi [Aichi Gakusen University, Faculty of Human Science and Design (Japan); Wakai, Kenji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine (Japan); Ding, Xuncheng [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Kobayashi, Takahiro, E-mail: takakoba@airies.or.jp [Association for International Research Initiatives for Environmental Studies (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@rs.tus.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO{sub 2} particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N–N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/−) or percentage of RR 50+/− that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58–30.8 mg/m{sup 3} during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m{sup 3}). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO{sub 2} particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  1. Assessing Variability and Errors in Historical Runoff Forecasting with Physical Models and Alternative Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, C. A.; Clow, D. W.; Sexstone, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    spatially-distributed physics-based snow model was used to assess possible effects of land cover change on snowpack properties. Trends in forecasted error are variable while baseline model results show a consistent under-prediction in the recent decade, highlighting possible compounding effects of climate and land cover changes.

  2. Determinants and implications of cancer patients' psychosocial needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstmann, N; Neumann, M; Ommen, O; Galushko, M; Wirtz, M; Voltz, R; Hallek, M; Pfaff, H

    2009-11-01

    Cancer patients often experience distress. However, the majority of newly diagnosed patients gradually adapt to the crisis. When symptoms of distress and anxiety persist over months, patients require psychosocial support. The aim of the present study was to determine the proportion of cancer patients who indicate the need for psychosocial support and to identify sociodemographic, psychological and illness-related factors predicting the need for psychosocial support in a German sample. The cross-sectional retrospective study was administered to 710 cancer patients who had been inpatients at the University Hospital of Cologne. The response rate was 49.5%. Patients suffering from bronchial, oesophageal, colorectal, breast, prostate and skin cancer participated in the study. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the German version of the Major Depression Inventory. The level of anxiety was assessed with the state subscale of the German version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. To measure the functional aspects of health-related quality of life, the scales "physical functioning", "role functioning", "emotional functioning", "cognitive functioning" and "role functioning" of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were used. Of the cancer patients, 18.9% indicate an unmet need for psychosocial support and 9.5% are actually using psychosocial services. In a multiple logistic regression, significant indicators of the need for psychosocial support are gender [p = 0.014; standardised effect coefficient (sc) = 1.615] and emotional functioning (p Emotional functioning is a central predictor of the requirement for psychosocial support. Women are emotionally more affected than men and need more psychosocial support. The prognostic validity of the severity of depression and anxiety is limited.

  3. Assessment of ventilatory thresholds from heart rate variability in five incremental treadmill tests in cross country skiers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendia Iztueta, Ibai

    2014-01-01

    Incremental treadmill tests are widely used in the field of exercise physiology for the assessment of Ventilatory Thresholds for clinical and sport oriented issues. The assessment of Ventilatory Thresholds (VTs) from Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a relatively new approach with increasing popularity because it is a non-invasive and economical method. Nevertheless, this has not been used in Cross Country (XC) Skiing, an endurance sport where the knowledge of VTs holds special importance. The ...

  4. A Virtual Clinical Trial of FDG-PET Imaging of Breast Cancer: Effect of Variability on Response Assessment1

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Robert L; Elston, Brian F; Doot, Robert K; Lewellen, Thomas K; Mankoff, David A; Kinahan, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in using positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake values (SUVs) to assess tumor response to therapy. However, many error sources compromise the ability to detect SUV changes. We explore relationships between these errors and overall SUV variability. METHODS: We used simulations in a virtual clinical trial framework to study impacts of error sources from scanning and analysis effects on assessment of SUV changes. We varied tumor diameter, s...

  5. The trauma of ongoing conflict and displacement in Chechnya: quantitative assessment of living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status among war displaced in Chechnya and Ingushetia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Kaz; van der Kam, Saskia; Ford, Nathan; Hargreaves, Sally; van Oosten, Richard; Cunningham, Debbie; Boots, Gerry; Andrault, Elodie; Kleber, Rolf

    2007-03-13

    Conflict in Chechnya has resulted in over a decade of violence, human rights abuses, criminality and poverty, and a steady flow of displaced seeking refuge throughout the region. At the beginning of 2004 MSF undertook quantitative surveys among the displaced populations in Chechnya and neighbouring Ingushetia. Surveys were carried out in Ingushetia (January 2004) and Chechnya (February 2004) through systematic sampling. Various conflict-related factors contributing to ill health were researched to obtain information on displacement history, living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status. The average length of displacement was five years. Conditions in both locations were poor, and people in both locations indicated food shortages (Chechnya (C): 13.3%, Ingushetia (I): 11.3%), and there was a high degree of dependency on outside help (C: 95.4%, I: 94.3%). Most people (C: 94%, I: 98%) were confronted with violence in the past. Many respondents had witnessed the killing of people (C: 22.7%, I: 24.1%) and nearly half of people interviewed witnessed arrests (C: 53.1%, I: 48.4%) and maltreatment (C: 56.2%, I: 44.5%). Approximately one third of those interviewed had directly experienced war-related violence. A substantial number of people interviewed - one third in Ingushetia (37.5%) and two-thirds in Chechnya (66.8%) - rarely felt safe. The violence was ongoing, with respondents reporting violence in the month before the survey (C: 12.5%, I: 4.6%). Results of the general health questionnaire (GHQ 28) showed that nearly all internally displaced persons interviewed were suffering from health complaints such as somatic complaints, anxiety/insomnia, depressive feelings or social dysfunction (C: 201, 78.5%, CI: 73.0% - 83.4%; I: 230, 81.3%, CI: 76.2% - 85.6%). Poor health status was reflected in other survey questions, but health services were difficult to access for around half the population (C: 54.3%, I: 46.6%). The study demonstrates that the health needs of

  6. The trauma of ongoing conflict and displacement in Chechnya: quantitative assessment of living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status among war displaced in Chechnya and Ingushetia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boots Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflict in Chechnya has resulted in over a decade of violence, human rights abuses, criminality and poverty, and a steady flow of displaced seeking refuge throughout the region. At the beginning of 2004 MSF undertook quantitative surveys among the displaced populations in Chechnya and neighbouring Ingushetia. Methods Surveys were carried out in Ingushetia (January 2004 and Chechnya (February 2004 through systematic sampling. Various conflict-related factors contributing to ill health were researched to obtain information on displacement history, living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status. Results The average length of displacement was five years. Conditions in both locations were poor, and people in both locations indicated food shortages (Chechnya (C: 13.3%, Ingushetia (I: 11.3%, and there was a high degree of dependency on outside help (C: 95.4%, I: 94.3%. Most people (C: 94%, I: 98% were confronted with violence in the past. Many respondents had witnessed the killing of people (C: 22.7%, I: 24.1% and nearly half of people interviewed witnessed arrests (C: 53.1%, I: 48.4% and maltreatment (C: 56.2%, I: 44.5%. Approximately one third of those interviewed had directly experienced war-related violence. A substantial number of people interviewed – one third in Ingushetia (37.5% and two-thirds in Chechnya (66.8% – rarely felt safe. The violence was ongoing, with respondents reporting violence in the month before the survey (C: 12.5%, I: 4.6%. Results of the general health questionnaire (GHQ 28 showed that nearly all internally displaced persons interviewed were suffering from health complaints such as somatic complaints, anxiety/insomnia, depressive feelings or social dysfunction (C: 201, 78.5%, CI: 73.0% – 83.4%; I: 230, 81.3%, CI: 76.2% – 85.6%. Poor health status was reflected in other survey questions, but health services were difficult to access for around half the population (C: 54.3%, I: 46

  7. Assessing the Biophysical Impact and Financial Viability of Soil Management Technologies Under Variable Climate in Cabo Verde Drylands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baptista, Isaurinda; Irvine, Brian; Fleskens, Luuk; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen

    2016-01-01

    Field trials have demonstrated the potential of soil conservation technologies but have also shown significant spatial-temporal yield variability. This study considers the Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment - Desertification Mitigation Cost-Effectiveness modelling approach to capture a

  8. Assessing millennial-scale variability during the Holocene: A perspective from the western tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khider, D.; Jackson, C. S.; Stott, L. D.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the relationship between tropical Pacific and Southern Ocean variability during the Holocene using the stable oxygen isotope and magnesium/calcium records of cooccurring planktonic and benthic foraminifera from a marine sediment core collected in the western equatorial Pacific. The planktonic record exhibits millennial-scale sea surface temperature (SST) oscillations over the Holocene of 0.5°C while the benthic δ18Oc document 0.10‰ millennial-scale changes of Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW), a water mass which outcrops in the Southern Ocean. Solar forcing as an explanation for millennial-scale SST variability requires (1) a large climate sensitivity and (2) a long 400 year delayed response, suggesting that if solar forcing is the cause of the variability, it would need to be considerably amplified by processes within the climate system at least at the core location. We also explore the possibility that SST variability arose from volcanic forcing using a simple red noise model. Our best estimates of volcanic forcing falls short of reproducing the amplitude of observed SST variations although it produces power at low-frequency similar to that observed in the MD81 record. Although we cannot totally discount the volcanic and solar forcing hypotheses, we are left to consider that the most plausible source for Holocene millennial-scale variability lies within the climate system itself. In particular, UCDW variability coincided with deep North Atlantic changes, indicating a role for the deep ocean in Holocene millennial-scale variability.

  9. THE RELATION BETWEEN PSYCHOSOCIAL WORK FACTORS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL SYMPTOMS AMONG COMPUTER WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Viktorija Prodanovska-Stojcevska; Jovica Jovanovic; Tanja Jovanovska; Domnika Rajchanovska; Izabela Filov; Biljana Bogdanova

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Several epidemiological studies have shown that intensive computer work and other factors of work organization, involving physical and psychosocial exposure to computer work, are associated with increased risk of neck and upper extremity disorders.OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study is to present psychosocial work factors and their relationship to musculoskeletal symptoms among computer workers.MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for assessing p...

  10. Psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics on periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Deborah; Katz, Ralph V; Bush, Anneke C; Farley, Victoria K; McGerr, Trevor J; Min, Hoon; Carbonella, Anthony M; Kayne, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether the self-perceived image of a young adult's anterior dental esthetics is linked with periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices. Two hundred subjects were assessed via a clinical examination, including intraoral photographs. The subjects were questioned about their demographics and oral hygiene practices and given the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) to measure their self-perceived variables related to dental esthetics. A high PIDAQ score indicates a negative image of one's own dental esthetics, while a low PIDAQ score indicates a positive outlook. A self-perceived negative psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics was detected in subjects with higher levels of dental caries and visible gingival inflammation in the anterior region of the mouth.

  11. [A comparison of maternal psychosocial adaptation among pregnant women with different gravidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Ting; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine women's psychosocial adaptation during different trimesters of pregnancy and to compare maternal psychosocial adaptation between primigravida and multigravida. A cross-sectional and comparative research design was conducted. A convenience sample consisting of 717 pregnant women who made a prenatal clinical visit in southern Taiwan were recruited for this study. The sample included 369 primigravida and 348 multigravida. A Demographic Inventory and the Chinese version of the Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire (PSEQ) were used to collect data. Results found that (1) the subscale "relationship with husband" for multigravida showed statistically significant differences between the three trimesters, with scores for the third trimester higher than those for the first. Also, multigravida had poorer adaptation on "relationship with husband" in the third trimester than in the first; (2) Analysis of covariance was used to adjust for age, marital status and planned pregnancy, as the distribution of such variables was significantly different between primigravida and multigravida. Results showed significant differences between the two sample groups in terms of PSEQ total scores and scores for "concern for well-being of self and baby," "preparation for labor," and "fear of helplessness, and loss of control in labor." This indicates that primigravida had poorer maternal psychosocial adaptation than multigravida and worried more about "concern for well-being of self and baby," "preparation for labor," and "fear of helplessness, and loss of control in labor." The findings of this study provide evidence-based data to help nursing professionals provide more suitable nursing care to pregnant women. Nurses should assess pregnant women's psychosocial adaptation during their prenatal visiting and then assist them to better understand the process of childbirth and enhance their level of control during labor. In addition, nurses should appraise

  12. Psychosocial and Health Behavior Outcomes of Young Adults with Asthma or Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Bauer, Katherine W; Eisenberg, Marla E; Denny, Kara; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-04-30

    Previous research has shown a relationship between childhood/adolescent chronic conditions and negative health behaviors, psychological outcomes, and social outcomes. Less is known about whether these negative outcomes are experienced by young adults with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young adults' BMI, health behaviors, and psychological and social outcomes differ depending on whether they have diabetes, asthma, or neither of these chronic conditions. Data were drawn from the third wave of Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Young Adults, a population-based study of 2287 young adults (mean age = 25.3; range 19.8 - 31.2). General linear models were used to test differences in BMI, health behaviors (e.g., fast food intake) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms) by young adults' chronic disease status. Young adults with diabetes had higher BMIs, engaged in less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control behaviors and binge eating, had lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction, and experienced more depressive symptoms and appearance-based teasing compared to young adults with asthma or no chronic conditions, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and, when relevant, for BMI. There were no significant differences between young adults with asthma and young adults with no chronic condition on all of the psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. Young adults with diabetes reported higher prevalence of negative health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Providers may find it useful to assess for negative health behaviors and psychosocial variables with young adults with diabetes in order to improve treatment and quality of life for these individuals.

  13. Application of GIS to assess rainfall variability impacts on crop yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Geospatial analysis. GIS Interpolation and other geospatial Analysis techniques were carried out to ... means of Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to plan crops ... rainwater variability on water availability for crop maize ...

  14. Application of GIS to assess rainfall variability impacts on crop yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sahara Africa. Hence, this study aim at examines and map spatio-temporal impacts of rainfall variability on water availability for maize yield using Geographic Information System (GIS). Major regions where maize is highly produced in Nigeria were ...

  15. Risk Assessment of Diabetes Mellitus by Chaotic Globals to Heart Rate Variability via Six Power Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garner David M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The priniciple objective here is to analyze cardiovascular dynamics in diabetic subjects by actions related to heart rate variability (HRV. The correlation of chaotic globals is vital to evaluate the probability of dynamical diseases.

  16. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  17. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dalvand, Sahar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Karimlou, Masoud; Asgari, Fereshteh; Rafei, Ali; Seifi, Behjat; Niksima, Seyed Hassan; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index) alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome) and obesity (binary outcome) among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variabl...

  18. Integrated assessment of space, time, and management-related variability of soil hydraulic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, H.M. van; Ogden, C.B.; Hill, R.L.; Schindelbeck, R.R.; Tsegaye, T.

    1999-12-01

    Computer-based models that simulate soil hydrologic processes and their impacts on crop growth and contaminant transport depend on accurate characterization of soil hydraulic properties. Soil hydraulic properties have numerous sources of variability related to spatial, temporal, and management-related processes. Soil type is considered to be the dominant source of variability, and parameterization is typically based on soil survey databases. This study evaluated the relative significance of other sources of variability: spatial and temporal at multiple scales, and management-related factors. Identical field experiments were conducted for 3 yr. at two sites in New York on clay loam and silt loam soils, and at two sites in Maryland on silt loam and sandy loam soils, all involving replicated plots with plow-till and no-till treatments. Infiltrability was determined from 2054 measurements using parameters, and Campbell's a and b parameters were determined based on water-retention data from 875 soil cores. Variance component analysis showed that differences among the sites were the most important source of variability for a (coefficient of variation, CV = 44%) and b (CV = 23%). Tillage practices were the most important source of variability for infiltrability (CV = 10%). For all properties, temporal variability was more significant than field-scale spatial variability. Temporal and tillage effects were more significant for the medium- and fine-textured soils, and correlated to initial soil water conditions. The parameterization of soil hydraulic properties solely based on soil type may not be appropriate for agricultural lands since soil-management factors are more significant. Sampling procedures should give adequate recognition to soil-management and temporal processes at significant sources of variability to avoid biased results.

  19. Uncertainty in wave energy resource assessment. Part 2: Variability and predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, Edward B.L.; Bahaj, AbuBakr S.; Challenor, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    The uncertainty in estimates of the energy yield from a wave energy converter (WEC) is considered. The study is presented in two articles. The first article considered the accuracy of the historic data and the second article, presented here, considers the uncertainty which arises from variability in the wave climate. Mean wave conditions exhibit high levels of interannual variability. Moreover, many previous studies have demonstrated longer-term decadal changes in wave climate. The effect of interannual and climatic changes in wave climate on the predictability of long-term mean WEC power is examined for an area off the north coast of Scotland. In this location anomalies in mean WEC power are strongly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. This link enables the results of many previous studies on the variability of the NAO and its sensitivity to climate change to be applied to WEC power levels. It is shown that the variability in 5, 10 and 20 year mean power levels is greater than if annual power anomalies were uncorrelated noise. It is also shown that the change in wave climate from anthropogenic climate change over the life time of a wave farm is likely to be small in comparison to the natural level of variability. Finally, it is shown that despite the uncertainty related to variability in the wave climate, improvements in the accuracy of historic data will improve the accuracy of predictions of future WEC yield. (author)

  20. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees, a 3-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hoekstra, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees’ mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in

  1. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees : A 3-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hoekstra, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Van Der Beek, A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees' mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in

  2. [Psychosocial problems and needs among cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Zachariae, Bobby

    2007-04-30

    Cancer can have a serious impact on patient well-being and quality of life. The international literature reports a higher prevalence of psychosocial problems among cancer patients; primarily problems associated with difficulties in the family, duties in the household, work and leisure, sexuality and finances. The prevalence of these problems among Danish cancer patients is still unknown. A questionnaire assessing psychosocial problems and needs was mailed out to all patients who had been at the Department of Oncology, Aarhus Hospital in week 35, 2004. A total of 71%, i.e. 515 patients (34% men and 66% women) in active treatment and control returned the questionnaire. High levels of emotional distress were reported by 39% of the patients. High levels of distress were primarily related to problems with worries about their spouses, household duties, financial problems and experiences of insufficient collaboration between health care and social services. Between 19% and 25% of the patients required further help to handle emotional problems, l