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Sample records for psychosocial treatment studies

  1. Scientific Evidence in the Study and Treatment of Addictive Behaviours in Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the importance and relevance of substance dependence and other addictive behaviours has generated great interest among the scientific community. Since its creation in 1992, Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life has transmitted the needs and training demands of psychologists, paying special attention to those aspects related to prevention, health outcomes and psychosocial factors involved in the onset and maintenance of drug addiction, psychosocial intervention and the treatment of addictive behaviours. As an introduction to this report on the Scientific evidence in the study and treatment of addictive behaviours, all topics covered by this journal throughout the years will be addressed.

  2. Serious Adverse Events in Randomized Psychosocial Treatment Studies: Safety or Arbitrary Edicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.; Roll, John M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.; Stitzer, Maxine; Peirce, Jessica M.; Blaine, Jack; Kirby, Kimberly C.; McCarty, Dennis; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Human subjects protection policies developed for pharmaceutical trials are now being widely applied to psychosocial intervention studies. This study examined occurrences of serious adverse events (SAEs) reported in multicenter psychosocial trials of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Substance-abusing participants (N =…

  3. Open-Trial Pilot Study of a Comprehensive Outpatient Psychosocial Treatment for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Lipinski, Alanna M.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Donnelly, James P.; McDonald, Christin A.; Volker, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility and initial outcomes of a comprehensive outpatient psychosocial treatment (MAXout) for children aged 7-12 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. The 18-week treatment, two 90-minute sessions per week, included instruction and therapeutic activities targeting social/social communication skills,…

  4. Maintenance Model of Integrated Psychosocial Treatment in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amy E.; Henry, David B.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The chronic and refractory course of pediatric bipolar disorder merits the study of adjunctive psychosocial interventions designed to facilitate long-term improvements. The objective of this study is to conduct a pilot study of a maintenance model of the child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy program (CFF-CBT), which…

  5. Psychosocial treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in adult refugees: a systematic review of prospective treatment outcome studies and a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palic, Sabina; Elklit, Ask

    2011-06-01

    Refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often present with complicated traumatic symptoms, prolonged and repeated exposure to traumatic events, acculturation, and social problems. A consensus about suitability of psychosocial treatments for refugees does not exist. Never the less there is a need to review the state of knowledge about effective treatments for traumatized refugees, to help guide the practitioners in their choice of treatment methods. A systematic review of treatment outcome studies was carried out. Twenty-five studies were reviewed. The majority were treatment studies of different forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The rest were reports of outcomes of alternative treatments and a small group of studies of multidisciplinary treatments. The amount of grey literature not covered by the review could not be estimated precisely. Included studies are methodologically diverse and consist of different refugee populations. This makes a broad interpretation of the treatment results only tentative. Very large effect sizes were obtained in some of the CBT studies, indicating a broad suitability of CBT in the treatment of core symptoms of PTSD in adult refugees. Empirical evidence also points to the possibility that the maladaptive traumatic reactions in refugees can take shape of more complex reactions than those strictly specified in the diagnostic category of PTSD. Effectiveness of CBT treatments has as yet not been tested on the whole range of symptoms in these complex cases. There are few studies of treatments alternative to CBT and they are less methodologically rigorous than the CBT studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Motives for Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment and Effect of Treatment on Psychosocial Well-Being and Satisfaction: A Prospective Study of 118 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oland, J.; Jensen, J.; Elklit, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective, controlled study of consecutive surgical-orthodontic patients was performed to assess how treatment affects the patients' psychosocial well-being. We evaluated patients' treatment motivations and motive fulfillment in relation to their satisfaction with the treatment...... and assessed the correlation between their satisfaction and their psychosocial well-being. Patients and Methods: A total of 118 adult patients (51 men and 67 women, mean age 25 years) who had undergone surgical-orthodontic treatment were examined before the preoperative orthodontic treatment and 12 months...... for orthodontic or surgical-orthodontic treatment served as the controls. Results: The patients stated oral function and appearance as their main treatment motives, and most reported that their motives had been fulfilled. Both their motives and the actual fulfillment of their motives influenced their treatment...

  7. Efficacy of Psychosocial Treatments for Geriatric Depression: A Quantitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest; McElreath, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    Conducted meta-analysis of 17 studies examining efficacy of psychosocial treatments for depression among older adults. Treatments were reliably more effective than no-treatment on self-rated and clinician-rated measures of depression. Effect sizes for studies involving participants with major depression disorder were reliably different from zero,…

  8. Malocclusion, psycho-social impacts and treatment need: A cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtaya Matilda

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background studies on the relationship between children's malocclusion and its psycho-social impacts are so far largely unexplored in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, reported dental problems and dissatisfaction with dental appearance among primary school children in Tanzania. The relationship of dissatisfaction with socio-demographic characteristics, clinically defined malocclusion and psychosocial impacts of dental anomalies was investigated. Orthodontic treatment need was estimated using an integrated socio-dental approach. Method One thousand six hundred and one children (mean age 13 yr attending primary schools in the districts of Kinondoni and Temeke completed face to face interviews and a full mouth clinical examination. The survey instrument was designed to measure a Kiswahili translated and culturally adapted Child Oral Impact on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP frequency score, reported dental problems, dissatisfaction with dental appearance/function and socio-demographic characteristics. Results The prevalence of malocclusion varied from 0.9% (deep bite to 22.5% (midline shift with a total of 63.8% having at least one type of anomaly. Moderate proportions of children admitted dental problems; ranging from 7% (space position to 20% (pain. The odds ratio of having problems with teeth position, spaces, pain and swallowing if having any malocclusion were, respectively 6.7, 3.9, 1.4 and 6.8. A total of 23.3% children were dissatisfied with dental appearance/function. Children dissatisfied with their dental appearance were less likely to be Temeke residents (OR = 0.5 and having parents of higher education (OR = 0.6 and more likely to reporting problem with teeth position (OR = 4.3 and having oral impacts (OR = 2.7. The socio-dental treatment need of 12% was five times lower than the normative need assessment of 63.8%. Conclusion Compared to the high prevalence of malocclusion, psycho

  9. The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and related psychosocial consequences of burn injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, Judith; Wyka, Katarzyna; Leahy, Nicole; Yurt, Roger; Difede, JoAnn

    2015-01-01

    Burn injuries are unique in their medical and psychological impact, yet there has been little exploration of psychiatric treatment for this population. This uncontrolled pilot study assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a treatment protocol designed to address posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, coping with scarring, and community integration among adult burn survivors. A 14-session, manualized treatment protocol was created using cognitive-behavioral interventions including imaginal exposure, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, modeling, and in vivo exposure. Responses were measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Index, Community Integration Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and Burn Specific Health Scale. Nine of 10 enrolled patients (60% women; mean = 42 years old) completed treatment. Burn size was 0.5% to 65%; mechanism of injury included flame (4), scald (5), and contact (1) burns. Mean acute hospitalization was 30.1 days (range = 13-87); mean time from injury to treatment was 3.2 months (range = 1-7). Baseline mean posttraumatic stress score was 68 on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (severe); scores decreased by 36% to a mean of 45.3 at posttreatment, with a large effect size. Baseline self-reported depression was 21 (moderate) on the Beck Depression Index, decreasing by 47% to a mean of 12 posttreatment (nonclinical). Change in community reintegration score was significant and large, and body image showed significant improvement. The protocol showed promise in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, self-image, and community reintegration following burn injury. These findings suggest that coping may improve with treatment and symptoms should not be dismissed as unavoidable consequences of burn injury.

  10. Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Treatment: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2015-09-01

    Psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment have been shown to be effective forms of treatment of a range of individual and complex comorbid disorders. The future role of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment depends on several factors, including full implementation of mental health parity, correction of underlying false assumptions that shape treatment, payment priorities and research, identification and teaching of common factors or elements shared by effective psychosocial therapies, and adequate teaching of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment.

  11. Psoriasis: characteristics, psychosocial effects and treatment options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Sheila

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic non-infectious inflammatory skin disease with a variety of different presentations. The classic presentation is of well-defined red plaques with silver scale. The characteristic scale makes the disorder highly visible and intrusive on the patient\\'s lifestyle. The visible nature of the disease ensures that psoriasis has both physical and psychosocial effects. In normal skin, epidermal cell reproduction and proliferation takes 28 days. In psoriasis this process is considerably accelerated to approximately 4 days, resulting in the deposit of immature cells on the skin. While the exact cause of this process is unknown, certain environmental and genetic factors are known to be triggers. Disease management depends on disease severity, psychosocial effects and the patient\\'s lifestyle. To effectively treat this disease the nurse must be skilled in psoriasis management, and in patient education and motivation. This article reviews the characteristics, aetiology, psychosocial effects and treatment strategies of psoriasis.

  12. Psychosocial and medical factors affecting treatment compliance in patients attending psychiatric hospital: a study from Kashmir

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    Sheikh Shoib

    2014-02-01

    Results: Out of 200 respondents studied in the study 41.5 % were males and 58.5% were females. Maximum number of patients (31.5% studied were in the age group below the 30 years. 3.5% of respondents were in the age group above 70 years. Out of total 200 respondents in the study 74 % of the respondents are in compliance with recommended medicine whereas non-compliance was found in the 26% of studied population. Complications (13.46% ascending out by usage of psychiatric medicine can be attributed as one of the major case of treatment non-compliance in psychiatric patients, among the psychiatric patients. Accessibility of psychiatric medicine and Financial constrain was also one of the reasons behind the medicine non-compliance (7.69%. Patients with no insight to psychiatric disease also include a good percentage of (5.76 % of medicine non- compliance. Conclusions: Non-compliance is a dominant factor which causes possibly causes readmission in psychiatric wards. Compliance in psychiatric patients in general could be enhanced and improved by adequate intervention via patient counselling and patient medicinal care and education. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 220-224

  13. Structural equation modeling: a study of the impact of the breast cancer psychosocial pathway (diagnosis, surgery and treatment

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    Ivone Patrão

    Full Text Available Objective: Women diagnosed with breast cancer are confronted with different stressors throughout the illness trajectory, e.g. awaiting diagnosis, having surgery, anticipating the possibility that the cancer has spread and coping with side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the psychosocial pathway of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 360 women diagnosed with breast cancer were evaluated, on 3 separate occasions, regarding: distress, emotional control, neuroticism, social support, coping, quality of life (QoL and demographic characteristics. We used structural equation modeling (SEM to examine the relationships among all the variables. Results: The emotional, cognitive response, and the QoL suffered significant changes concerning diagnosis (time 1, surgery (time 2 and treatments (time 3. Furthermore, results indicate that an adapted emotional response is associated to efficient coping strategy, and satisfaction with the perceived social support and good QoL. This is particularly the case when women are undergoing a psychological intervention. Conclusion: To help breast cancer patients adjust to their situation the clinical psychologist should encourage the patient to adopt more efficient coping strategies. By doing so, patients may indeed experience less psychological distress and a higher quality of life, thereby increasing their overall sense of well-being.

  14. Associations of Psychosocial Factors with the Stress of Infertility Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Myra G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial factors thought to be associated with perceived stress over the course of infertility treatment. The research was based on secondary analysis of data from the Study of Marriage, Family, and Life Quality with a sample of 128 people who completed an infertility-related stress instrument at all three measurement…

  15. Psychosocial Problems during Infertility Treatment

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    Nurcan Kirca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a complex situation crisis which is often psychologically-threatening and emotionally stressful for both partners as well as economically expensive and causes physical pain due to the operations performed for diagnosis and treatment purposes. Infertility has physical, psychological, social, emotional and financial impacts. Infertile couples are under a great social pressure, and need to conceal the problem as it is exceptionally private for them. Infertile individuals are destitute of support when they do not share their pregnancy problems with their families and relatives. Couples define their infertility experience as the most stressful experience of their lives.

  16. Psychosocial skills training on social functioning and quality of life in the treatment of schizophrenia: a controlled study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Veznedaroglu, Baybars; Eryavuz, Ayse; Kayahan, Bulent

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study assessed the impact of a psychosocial skills training program, consisting of psychoeducation, interpersonal group therapy and family education incorporated into social skills training, as an integrative approach on social functioning and quality of life of patients with schizophrenia, in comparison to standard care for an 8-month period. METHOD Thirty patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were included in the study. Patients were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Quality of Life Scale (QLS), Social Functioning Scale (SFS), and Global Assessment of Function (GAF) at baseline. Fifteen patients underwent an 8-month psychosocial skills training group program and another fifteen patients (waiting list) continued in standard care. Both groups were reassessed and analyzed at the end of the study. RESULTS Two groups were not statistically different in terms of total PANSS, QLS, SFS, GAF scores, and demographic characteristics at baseline. However, there was a significant improvement in the mean total QLS, SFS, GAF, and even in total PANSS scores (respectively from 64.46±19.58 to 89.67±24.10, Ppsychosocial skills training program for patients with schizophrenia. It can be concluded that this comprehensive psychosocial skills training program might be an important contribution to the functioning of the patients.

  17. Can Early Intervention Have an Impact on Future Life? A Study of Life Events, Social Interaction, and Child Behavior among Mothers at Psychosocial Risk and Their Children Eight Years after Interaction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six mothers at psychosocial risk who had undergone interaction treatment when their children were babies were studied with respect to experienced negative life events, social network, and behavior problems in children. One reference group comprising 45 nontreated mothers at psychosocial risk and one comprising 56 mothers without psychosocial…

  18. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment...... outcome. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. METHOD: The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme...

  19. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment...... outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme...

  20. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

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    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  1. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  2. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    outcome. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. METHOD: The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme......BACKGROUND: The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment...... situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...

  3. The patient reported outcomes following initial treatment and long term evaluation of survivorship registry: scope, rationale and design of an infrastructure for the study of physical and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivorship cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Horevoorts, N.; van Eenbergen, M.; Denollet, J.; Roukema, J.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Vingerhoets, A.; Coebergh, J.W.; de Vries, J.; Essink-Bot, M.L.; Mols, F.

    2011-01-01

    ‘Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial treatment and Long term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES)’ is a registry for the study of the physical and psychosocial impact of cancer and its treatment from a dynamic, growing population-based cohort of both short and long-term cancer survivors. PR

  4. Psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Current practices and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Ori; Caponigro, Janelle M.; Kring, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia can be a chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorder. Though advancements have been made in the psychosocial treatment of some symptoms of schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia often continue to experience some level of symptoms, particularly negative symptoms, throughout their lives. Because negative symptoms are associated with poor functioning and quality of life, the treatment of negative symptoms is a high priority for intervention development. However, current psychosocial treatments primarily focus on the reduction of positive symptoms with comparatively few studies investigating the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms. In this article, we review and evaluate the existing literature on three categories of psychosocial treatments – cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), social skills training (SST), and combined treatment interventions – and their impact on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Of the interventions reviewed, CBT and SST appear to have the most empirical support, with some evidence suggesting that CBT is associated with maintenance of negative symptom improvement beyond six months after treatment. It remains unclear if a combined treatment approach provides improvements above and beyond those associated with each individual treatment modality. Although psychosocial treatments show promise for the treatment of negative symptoms, there are many unanswered questions about how best to intervene. We conclude with a general discussion of these unanswered questions, future directions and methodological considerations, and suggestions for the further development of negative symptom interventions. PMID:23988452

  5. Psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms in schizophrenia: current practices and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Ori; Caponigro, Janelle M; Kring, Ann M

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia can be a chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorder. Though advancements have been made in the psychosocial treatment of some symptoms of schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia often continue to experience some level of symptoms, particularly negative symptoms, throughout their lives. Because negative symptoms are associated with poor functioning and quality of life, the treatment of negative symptoms is a high priority for intervention development. However, current psychosocial treatments primarily focus on the reduction of positive symptoms with comparatively few studies investigating the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms. In this article, we review and evaluate the existing literature on three categories of psychosocial treatments--cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), social skills training (SST), and combined treatment interventions--and their impact on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Of the interventions reviewed, CBT and SST appear to have the most empirical support, with some evidence suggesting that CBT is associated with maintenance of negative symptom improvement beyond six months after treatment. It remains unclear if a combined treatment approach provides improvements above and beyond those associated with each individual treatment modality. Although psychosocial treatments show promise for the treatment of negative symptoms, there are many unanswered questions about how best to intervene. We conclude with a general discussion of these unanswered questions, future directions and methodological considerations, and suggestions for the further development of negative symptom interventions.

  6. Growing up with short stature : Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Growing up with short stature. Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment To enhance height in children with short stature, growth hormone (GH) can be used. In short children without a detectable pathology underlying their short stature, there is no medical rationale for growth hormone treatment

  7. Community Trial of a Comprehensive Psychosocial Treatment for HFASDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; McDonald, Christin A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Smith, Rachael A.; Meichenbaum, David L.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Lipinski, Alanna M.

    2015-01-01

    This community effectiveness trial examined the feasibility and efficacy of a comprehensive psychosocial treatment for 28 children, aged 7 to 10 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). Treatment included instruction and therapeutic activities targeting social skills, face-emotion recognition skills, interest expansion, and…

  8. Same-sex reproduction: medical treatment options and psychosocial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfeld, Dorothy A; Seli, Emre

    2016-06-01

    This review provides an overview of the historical significance of assisted reproduction for gay men and women, discusses current reproductive options for same-sex couples, addresses psychosocial considerations unique to these couples, and reviews the current literature addressing medical and psychosocial aspects of same-sex reproduction. Growing numbers of men and women openly self-identify as gay and lesbian. Accompanying this openness is an increased public acceptance of same-sex relationships and same-sex marriage. The combination of gay/lesbian self-determination and mounting public acceptance of same-sex unions has led these individuals and couples to increasingly seek parenthood through assisted reproduction. Recent studies describe relationship satisfaction in gay couples after assisted reproduction and more positive functioning and less stress associated with parenthood when compared with heterosexual parents. Motivations for parenthood are the same for same-sex couples and heterosexual couples alike. However, achieving the goal of parenthood can be a much greater endeavor medically and psychologically for same-sex couples. Fertility treatment centers increasingly recognize issues unique to gay men and women and are increasingly welcoming.

  9. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Sonne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method: The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP, Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ. Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results: Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions: The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly

  10. psychosocial aspects of breast cancer treatment in accra, ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-07

    Jul 7, 2009 ... therapy. Main outcome measures: Perception of quality of treatment and psychosocial support; .... 4.5. Savings and. Investments. 3. 3.4. Children. 3. 3.4. Social clubs. 2 ... cancer patients go through emotions of denial, feeling.

  11. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Phobic and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents

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    Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews psychosocial treatments for phobic and anxiety disorders in youth. Using criteria from Nathan and Gorman (2002), 32 studies are evaluated along a continuum of methodological rigor. In addition, the treatments evaluated in each of the 32 studies are classified according to Chambless et al.'s (1996) and Chambless and Hollon's…

  12. [Fecal incontinence in community-dwelling elderly: findings from a study of prevalence, consultation of physicians, psychosocial aspects and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.E.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the prevalence of faecal incontinence, looking for medical attention, treatment and the impact of faecal incontinence on the quality of life in community-residing men and women of 60 years and over. DESIGN: Enquiry and interview. METHOD: A questionnaire about the inci

  13. [Fecal incontinence in community-dwelling elderly: findings from a study of prevalence, consultation of physicians, psychosocial aspects and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.E.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the prevalence of faecal incontinence, looking for medical attention, treatment and the impact of faecal incontinence on the quality of life in community-residing men and women of 60 years and over. DESIGN: Enquiry and interview. METHOD: A questionnaire about the

  14. KNOWLEDGE AND TREATMENT SKILLS IN THE FIELD OF PSYCHOSOCIAL COUNSELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Podgornik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic knowledge and treatment skills in the field of psychosocial counselling. It includes knowledge, skills, personal characteristics, and the ethics of a professional worker, the method of psychosocial approach with and individual and a group, as well as a collective social work. The basic definition of the knowledge and treatment skills in the article is presented by the concept of a working relationship in a social world and by the concepts of modern social work – power perspective, participation ethics, treatment skills, and treatment of the present time. The article also presents the key definitions of social work in the counselling and power processes. The establishing of social-working relationship includes the use of the language, the directing of the dialogue and other methods of postmodern social work.

  15. High prevalence of long-term cardiovascular, neurological and psychosocial morbidity after treatment for craniopharyngioma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, A.M.; Schmid, E.M.; Schutte, P.J.; Voormolen, J.H.; Biermasz, N.R.; Thiel, S.W. van; Corssmit, E.P.; Smit, J.W.A.; Roelfsema, F.; Romijn, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The treatment of craniopharyngiomas is associated with long-term morbidity. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the long-term functional outcome and mortality rates after treatment for craniopharyngiomas, we audited our data with special focus on cardiovascular, neurological and psychosocial

  16. Development of an Integrated Psychosocial Treatment to Address the Medical Burden Associated with Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia, Louisa G; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    We developed an integrated psychosocial treatment for bipolar disorder to decrease the disproportionate medical burden associated with this illness. Three treatment modules, Nutrition/weight loss, Exercise, and Wellness Treatment (NEW Tx) were administered in twelve 60-minute group sessions over 14 weeks. After the first group (N = 4) had completed the treatment, it was revised, and then a second group (N = 6) completed the revised treatment. Participants completed all of the study assessment...

  17. The Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial treatment and Long term Evaluation of Survivorship registry: scope, rationale and design of an infrastructure for the study of physical and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivorship cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Horevoorts, Nicole; van Eenbergen, Mies; Denollet, Johan; Roukema, Jan Anne; Aaronson, Neil K; Vingerhoets, Ad; Coebergh, Jan Willem; de Vries, Jolanda; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Mols, Floortje

    2011-09-01

    'Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial treatment and Long term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES)' is a registry for the study of the physical and psychosocial impact of cancer and its treatment from a dynamic, growing population-based cohort of both short and long-term cancer survivors. PROFILES contains a large web-based component and are linked directly to clinical data from the population-based Eindhoven cancer registry. This paper describes the rationale and design of PROFILES. The primary aims of studies that use the PROFILES registry are: (1) psychosocial risk and outcome assessment to identify patients at high risk for poor physical and mental health outcomes, (2) to analyse mediating mechanisms to better understand the biological and behavioural factors associated with cancer treatment outcomes, and (3) to evaluate physical and psychosocial care needs of cancer survivors. PROFILES is a tool that enables data collection management; from inviting patients to participation in studies, to collecting patient-reported outcomes data via web-based or mailed questionnaires and linking these data with clinical data. The availability of a control cohort of approximately 2000 persons from the general population who complete the same basic questionnaire annually will provide the opportunity to estimate the unique impact of cancer, beyond that of normal ageing and comorbidities. Raw data from the PROFILES registry will be available for non-commercial scientific research, subject to study question, privacy and confidentiality restrictions, and registration (www.profilesregistry.nl).

  18. The Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplantation: A Prospective Study of Medical and Psychosocial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, José R; Sher, Yelizaveta; Lolak, Sermsak; Swendsen, Heavenly; Skibola, Danica; Neri, Eric; David, Evonne E; Sullivan, Catherine; Standridge, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial factors may significantly affect post-transplant outcomes. The Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplantation (SIPAT) was developed as an assessment tool to enhance the pre-transplant psychosocial evaluation. We identified heart, lung, liver, or kidney transplant recipients assessed with the SIPAT pre-transplantation and transplanted between June 1, 2008, and July 31, 2011, at our institution. We analyzed prospectively accumulated psychosocial and medical outcomes at 1 year of follow-up. 217 patients were identified and included in the analysis. The primary outcomes of organ failure and mortality occurred in 12 and 21 patients, respectively, and were not significantly associated with the pre-transplant SIPAT scores. On the other hand, SIPAT scores were significantly correlated with the probability of poor medical and psychosocial outcomes (secondary outcomes). In fact, higher SIPAT scores predicted higher rates of rejection episodes (Spearman ρ = 0.15, 95% 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02-0.28, p = .023), medical hospitalizations (ρ = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.16-0.41, p relationship with nonadherence suggested a trend, but no statistical significance was observed (area under the curve = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.50-0.71, p = .058). Study outcomes suggest that SIPAT is a promising pre-transplantation assessment tool that helps identify candidate's areas of psychosocial vulnerability and whose scores are associated with both psychosocial and medical outcomes after transplantation.

  19. Psychosocial Factors That Shape Patient and Carer Experiences of Dementia Diagnosis and Treatment: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Frances; Goodman, Claire; Sworn, Katie; Rait, Greta; Brayne, Carol; Robinson, Louise; McNeilly, Elaine; Iliffe, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis and intervention for people with dementia is increasingly considered a priority, but practitioners are concerned with the effects of earlier diagnosis and interventions on patients and caregivers. This systematic review evaluates the qualitative evidence about how people accommodate and adapt to the diagnosis of dementia and its immediate consequences, to guide practice. Methods and Findings We systematically reviewed qualitative studies exploring experiences of community-dwelling individuals with dementia, and their carers, around diagnosis and the transition to becoming a person with dementia. We searched PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, CINAHL, and the British Nursing Index (all searched in May 2010 with no date restrictions; PubMed search updated in February 2012), checked reference lists, and undertook citation searches in PubMed and Google Scholar (ongoing to September 2011). We used thematic synthesis to identify key themes, commonalities, barriers to earlier diagnosis, and support identified as helpful. We identified 126 papers reporting 102 studies including a total of 3,095 participants. Three overarching themes emerged from our analysis: (1) pathways through diagnosis, including its impact on identity, roles, and relationships; (2) resolving conflicts to accommodate a diagnosis, including the acceptability of support, focusing on the present or the future, and the use or avoidance of knowledge; and (3) strategies and support to minimise the impact of dementia. Consistent barriers to diagnosis include stigma, normalisation of symptoms, and lack of knowledge. Studies report a lack of specialist support particularly post-diagnosis. Conclusions There is an extensive body of qualitative literature on the experiences of community-dwelling individuals with dementia on receiving and adapting to a diagnosis of dementia. We present a thematic analysis that could be useful to professionals working with people with dementia. We suggest that

  20. Patient-Oncologist Alliance, Psychosocial Well-Being, and Treatment Adherence Among Young Adults With Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Kelly M.; Fasciano, Karen; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Patients who develop a strong alliance with their health care providers have been shown to have higher levels of psychosocial well-being and rates of treatment adherence. Young adults with cancer have lower levels of psychosocial well-being and treatment adherence relative to patients with cancer in other age groups. This study sought to evaluate the relationships between the patient-oncologist alliance, psychosocial well-being, and treatment adherence in young adults with advanced cancer. Patients and Methods Ninety-five young adults (age 20 to 40 years) with advanced cancer were administered measures of alliance, psychosocial well-being, willingness to adhere to treatment, and treatment adherence. Relationships between alliance and psychosocial well-being were examined bivariately. Multiple linear regression models examined the relationship between alliance and adherence, controlling for confounding influences (eg, psychosocial well-being). Results Alliance was significantly (P ≤ .01) and positively associated with greater perceived social support and less severe illness-related grief. After controlling for significant confounding influences (ie, metastases, appraised support, and grief), alliance remained significantly (P ≤ .01) associated with greater willingness to adhere to treatment and greater adherence to oral medication. Conclusion By developing a strong alliance, oncologists may enhance psychosocial well-being and increase treatment adherence in young adult patients with advanced cancer. PMID:23530105

  1. Molecular Signatures of Psychosocial Stress and Cognition Are Modulated by Chronic Lithium Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, Magdalena M; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Wichert, Sven P; Falkai, Peter; Rossner, Moritz J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Social defeat in rodents has been shown to be associated with maladaptive cellular and behavioral consequences including cognitive impairments. Although gene expression changes upon psychosocial stress have been described, a comprehensive transcriptome profiling study at the global level in precisely defined hippocampal subregions which are associated with learning has been lacking. In this study, we exposed adult C57Bl/6N mice for 3 weeks to "resident-intruder" paradigm and combined laser capture microdissection with microarray analyses to identify transcriptomic signatures of chronic psychosocial stress in dentate gyrus and CA3 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus. At the individual transcript level, we detected subregion specific stress responses whereas gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) identified several common pathways upregulated upon chronic psychosocial stress related to proteasomal function and energy supply. Behavioral profiling revealed stress-associated impairments most prominent in fear memory formation which was prevented by chronic lithium treatment. Thus, we again microdissected the CA3 region and performed global transcriptome analysis to search for molecular signatures altered by lithium treatment in stressed animals. By combining GSEA with unsupervised clustering, we detected pathways that are regulated by stress and lithium in the CA3 region of the hippocampus including proteasomal components, oxidative phosphorylation, and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Our study thus provides insight into hidden molecular phenotypes of chronic psychosocial stress and lithium treatment and proves a beneficial role for lithium treatment as an agent attenuating negative effects of psychosocial stress on cognition.

  2. An Update on Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively common and serious disorders in adolescents. However, there are few controlled psychosocial intervention studies with this younger population. This review updates a previous Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology review published in 2008. The recommendations in this review were developed after searching the literature including PubMed/Medline and employing the relevant medical subject headings. In addition, the bibliographies of book chapters and treatment guideline articles were reviewed; last, colleagues were asked for suggested additional source materials. Psychosocial treatments examined include family therapy, individual therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive training, and dialectical behavior therapy. Using the most recent Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology methodological review criteria, family treatment-behavior (FT-B) is the only well-established treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Family treatment-systemic and insight oriented individual psychotherapy are probably efficacious treatments for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. There are no well-established treatments for adolescents with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or avoidant restrictive food intake disorder. Possibly efficacious psychosocial treatments for adolescent bulimia nervosa include FT-B and supportive individual therapy. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy is a possibly efficacious treatment for binge eating disorder. Experimental treatments for adolescent eating disorders include enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, cognitive training, and interpersonal psychotherapy. FT-B is the only well-established treatment for adolescent eating disorders. Additional research examining treatment for eating disorders in youth is warranted.

  3. Psychosocial Treatments for Major Depression and Dysthymia in Older Adults: A Review of the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Stens, Andrea N.

    2006-01-01

    Older adults represent a growing segment of the population with the highest suicide rate and an increasing need of counseling services for major depression and dysthymia. The present study examined the literature with the purpose of identifying research addressing psychosocial treatments of depression in later life. A summary of treatments…

  4. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eMatuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  5. A retrospective study concerning the psychosocial impact of voice disorders: Voice Handicap Index change in patients with benign voice disorders after treatment (measured with the Dutch version of the VHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwers, Frans; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2009-03-01

    The goal of this study was to gain better understanding of psychosocial effects of benign voice problems as measured with the Dutch version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The effect of voice problems on daily life differs from person to person. Over the last few decades there has been a growing understanding of the fact that the psychosocial effect of this medical problem needs to be acknowledged. The VHI is a known voice specific Quality-of-Life measuring instrument, which is often used for this purpose. In the University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands, patients with voice problems are analyzed at a Voice Clinic by a multidisciplinary team of voice specialists. In this study, we have analyzed patients with benign voice problems before and after treatment in the period of April 2004 to October 2006. The study group consisted of 68 patients (39 female). For comparison reason, we included a control group (n=68), matched for age and gender. The mean VHI score of the patient group before treatment was 48.9 (SD=20.9). After treatment, there was a significant improvement to 28.3 (SD=20.5) (PVHI scores of men and women. As could be expected, voice disorders of different etiology showed different VHI scores. Before and after treatment, the patient group showed a statistically significantly higher VHI score (PVHI score of 3.62, SD=3.82). Patients with different voice problems seem to have different results with the VHI. Treatment leads to statistically significant improvement in VHI scores. The VHI has proven to be a good instrument to evaluate the psychosocial consequences of voice problems.

  6. The Lesch alcoholism typology - psychiatric and psychosocial treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaff, Golda; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the past three decades, researchers have been attempting to replace the obsolete concept of homogeneity of alcohol dependence, by classifying these patients into specific heterogeneous subtypes. Based on 30 years of experience and research, the Lesch Typology has proved to be very useful in clinical daily routine. The aim of the Lesch Typology is to provide targeted subtype-specific treatments to patients, thereby increasing their probability of long-term abstinence and hence improving their prognosis. The Lesch Typology is based on data from a longitudinal prospective study (with follow ups even 19 years later) on alcohol dependent patients (n=436). By observing the long term development of these patients, four distinct courses could be identified. In the meantime, a computerized version of the Lesch Typology had been created and translated into many languages, and is currently being employed in numerous psychiatric institutions while assisting clinicians in quickly determining a patient's subtype (www.lat-online.at). Based on the patients' drinking patterns and origin of substance craving, hence according to the Lesch Typology, four subtypes of alcohol dependent patients can be distinguished: 1. the "allergy model" (craving caused by alcohol); 2. the "conflict resolution and anxiety model" (craving caused by stress); 3. the "depressive model" (craving caused by mood); and 4. the "conditioning model" (craving caused by compulsion). Pharmacological treatments are not always the most effective way of preventing relapses in alcohol dependent patients. Many times, a combination with psychosocial as well as psychotherapeutic approaches is necessary and essential for helping patients to stay sober. Depending on the patient's Lesch Type, certain therapeutic approaches are more appropriate and subsequently lead to better results and higher chances of lasting abstinence.

  7. Influence of psychosocial factors on treatment of elderly Chinese patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guolong Yu; Tianlun Yang; Cesar V. Borlongan; Christine E. Stahl; Xiumei Xie; Jin He; Biefei Li; Ke Xia

    2007-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of psychosocial factors on the treatment of elderly patients with hypertension. Methods Atotalof 260 elderly Chinese patients with hypertension were treated with benazepril alone or benazepril combined with amlodipine for 8 weeks. The target blood pressure (BP) (both <140 mmHg systolic, SBP, and <90 mmHg diastolic, DBP)was achieved in 180 patients, who were then assigned to the well-controlled BP group; the rest were placed in the modestly controlled BP group. The psychosocial factors present in both groups were assessed by the Hamilton depression scale, Hamilton anxiety scale, life event scale and social support evaluation list before and after anti-hypertensive treatment. Results There were no significant differences in gender, mean age, hist ory of hypertension, education and smoking habit, or in SBP and DBP between the groups before treatment.Significant differences were also not found in all psychosocial factors before and after treatment in the patients. However, significant differences were found between the groups with respect to post-treatment SBP and marital status. The patients with modestly controlled BP had significantly higher scores, as well as incidents, on the depressive, anxiety, and stressful life event scales than those with well-controlled BP. The patients with well-controlled BP had significantly higher scores in tangible support, subjective support,and social support compared to the patients with modestly controlled BP. Logistic regression analysis showed the independent contribution of psychosocial factors in reaching the goal of lowering BP at treatment endpoint in these hypertensive patients. Conclusions The results suggest that psychosocial factors stand as a main barrier to achieving the BP-lowering target in the management of elderly Chinese patients with hypertension.

  8. Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment During the Post-Radiation Treatment Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Mazanec, Susan; Daly, Barbara J.; Douglas, Sara; Musil, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of cognitive appraisal in predicting psychosocial adjustment during the post-radiation treatment transition. A predictive correlational design was used in a convenience sample of 80 patients with breast, lung, and prostate cancer who were receiving radiation therapy. Two weeks prior to completion of treatment, subjects completed instruments to measure symptom distress, uncertainty, cognitive appraisal, social support and self-efficacy for coping. ...

  9. Adherence predicts symptomatic and psychosocial remission in schizophrenia: Naturalistic study of patient integration in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miguel; Cañas, Fernando; Herrera, Berta; García Dorado, Marta

    Psychosocial functioning in patients with schizophrenia attended in daily practice is an understudied aspect. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between symptomatic and psychosocial remission and adherence to treatment in schizophrenia. This cross-sectional, non-interventional, and multicenter study assessed symptomatic and psychosocial remission and community integration of 1,787 outpatients with schizophrenia attended in Spanish mental health services. Adherence to antipsychotic medication in the previous year was categorized as≥80% vs.<80%. Symptomatic remission was achieved in 28.5% of patients, and psychosocial remission in 26.1%. A total of 60.5% of patients were classified as adherent to antipsychotic treatment and 41% as adherent to non-pharmacological treatment. During the index visit, treatment was changed in 28.4% of patients, in 31.1% of them because of low adherence (8.8% of the total population). Adherent patients showed higher percentages of symptomatic and psychosocial remission than non-adherent patients (30.5 vs. 25.4%, P<.05; and 32 vs. 17%, P<.001, respectively). Only 3.5% of the patients showed an adequate level of community integration, which was also higher among adherent patients (73.0 vs. 60.1%, P<.05). Adherence to antipsychotic medication was associated with symptomatic and psychosocial remission as well as with community integration. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel Bio-Psychosocial-Behavioral Treatment Model in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Choi, Joonho; Park, Seon-Cheol

    2017-03-30

    Despite the substantial burden of illness in schizophrenia, there has been a discrepancy between the beneficial effects of an increased use of antipsychotic medications and achieving limited recovery or remission. Because the focus of the most common antipsychotic medications is on dopamine, which is associated with positive symptoms, there is an unmet need for patients with negative symptoms. Since cognitive and negative symptoms rather than positive symptoms are more closely associated with psychosocial impairments in patients with schizophrenia, the non-dopaminergic systems including glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of the prefrontal cortex should be of concern as well. The balance of excitation and inhibition has been associated with epigenetic modifications and thus can be analyzed in terms of a neurodevelopmental and neural circuitry perspective. Hence, a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral model for the treatment of schizophrenia is needed to account for the non-dopaminergic systems involved in schizophrenia, rather than dopaminergic mechanisms. This model can be understood from the viewpoint of neurodevelopment and neural circuitry and should include the staging care, personalized care, preventive care, reducing the cognitive deficits, and reducing stigma. Thomas R. Insel proposed this as a goal for schizophrenia treatment to be achieved by 2030.

  11. Meta-analysis of rates of drop-out from psychosocial treatment among persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, K; Potvin, S; Lesage, A; Nicole, L

    2010-08-01

    Non-compliance with pharmacotherapy among persons suffering from schizophrenia disorders stands at an average rate of 42% and is the subject of numerous studies. However, no studies to date have addressed the specific question of non-compliance with psychosocial treatment. The present study therefore aimed to determine the rate of drop-out from psychosocial treatment and to assess the influence of factors on this rate. A meta-analysis was conducted based on 74 studies of randomized clinical trials on psychosocial treatment among persons suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorder. A drop-out rate of 13% was obtained. Age, gender, duration of illness, duration of treatment, treatment setting and study quality affected drop-out rates. The 13% rate of drop-out from psychosocial treatment is markedly lower than the drop-out rate from pharmacotherapy studies. This finding supports the feasibility of evidence-based psychosocial treatment - which has, moreover, clearly been shown to be clinically effective - as part of a complete care program for schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stuttering severity, psychosocial impact and lexical diversity as predictors of outcome for treatment of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Susanne; Donlan, Chris; Howell, Peter

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed factors that predicted therapy outcome for children and adolescents who stuttered after attendance at an intensive therapy course. The factors examined were stuttering severity, lexical diversity measured by Type Token Ratio, and psychosocial impact of stuttering on the child's life. Fifty-four children who stuttered (CWS) participated in the study. The hypotheses were: (1) CWS with high initial stuttering severity would be more likely to persist than those with low initial severity; (2) lexical diversity before treatment should be related to therapy outcome; (3) psychosocial factors would affect therapy outcome. The predictions were assessed by linear and logistic regression analyses. Initial stuttering severity was the only significant predictor for stuttering severity after therapy. However, psychosocial impact correlated with improvement in fluency, and lexical diversity correlated with therapy outcome. Only initial stuttering severity was a significant predictor of therapy outcome after an intensive therapy intervention. This is in agreement with the study of Howell and Davis (2011). Readers will get an overview of the literature on risk factors that are considered to predict therapy outcomes for CWS. They will be able to (a) identify what variable represent potential risk factors, (b) describe the psychosocial impact of stuttering, (c) explain how lexical diversity is measured, and (d) describe different assessment instruments used to decide on the outcome of therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Healthcare Professionals' Knowledge of Family Psychosocial Problems in Pediatric Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Maru; Rokeach, Alan; Yogalingam, Priyanga; Hancock, Kelly; Johnston, Donna L; Cataudella, Danielle; Cassidy, Marilyn; Punnett, Angela S; Shama, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Best practice guidelines for the treatment of cancer now advocate for a child- and family-centered model of care and a psychosocial model of risk prevention. However, healthcare professionals (HCPs) report a number of barriers preventing the implementation of psychosocial care, including an absence of tools to help identify psychosocial problems within the family. The aims of this study are to (1) explore the psychometric properties of the Psychosocial Care Checklist (PCCL) and (2) test if the PCCL can differentiate the degree to which HCPs are aware of psychosocial problems within the family (patient, siblings, parents) of a child with cancer. Thirty-seven HCPs caring for a child with cancer completed the PCCL at time 1 (2-4 weeks after diagnosis) and 29 HCPs completed the PCCL at time 2 (2-3 weeks after). The PCCL had strong test-retest reliability for all domains (α > .60) and strong internal consistency for the total PCCL (α = .91). Interrater reliability was moderate for the oncologist-nurse dyad with regard to sibling knowledge (r = 0.56) and total psychosocial knowledge (r = 0.65). Social workers were significantly more knowledgeable than both nurses and oncologists about total family problems (P = .01) and sibling problems (P = .03). Preliminary findings suggest that the PCCL has adequate test-retest reliability and validity and is useful in differentiating the degree to which HCPs are aware of psychosocial problems within the family, with social workers being the most knowledgeable. Using the PCCL may help HCPs to identify psychosocial problems within the family and appropriately allocate psychosocial resources.

  14. A Systematic Review on the Use of Psychosocial Interventions in Conjunction With Medications for the Treatment of Opioid Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugosh, Karen; Abraham, Amanda; Seymour, Brittany; McLoyd, Keli; Chalk, Mady; Festinger, David

    2016-01-01

    Opioid use and overdose rates have risen to epidemic levels in the United States during the past decade. Fortunately, there are effective medications (ie, methadone, buprenorphine, and oral and injectable naltrexone) available for the treatment of opioid addiction. Each of these medications is approved for use in conjunction with psychosocial treatment; however, there is a dearth of empirical research on the optimal psychosocial interventions to use with these medications. In this systematic review, we outline and discuss the findings of 3 prominent prior reviews and 27 recent publications of empirical studies on this topic. The most widely studied psychosocial interventions examined in conjunction with medications for opioid addiction were contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy, with the majority focusing on methadone treatment. The results generally support the efficacy of providing psychosocial interventions in combination with medications to treat opioid addictions, although the incremental utility varied across studies, outcomes, medications, and interventions. The review highlights significant gaps in the literature and provides areas for future research. Given the enormity of the current opioid problem in the United States, it is critical to gain a better understanding of the most effective ways to deliver psychosocial treatments in conjunction with these medications to improve the health and well-being of individuals suffering from opioid addiction.

  15. Prevalence of mental disorders, psychosocial distress and need for psychosocial support in cancer patients – study protocol of an epidemiological multi-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnert Anja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical studies investigating the prevalence of mental disorders and psychological distress in cancer patients have gained increasing importance during recent years, particularly with the objective to develop and implement psychosocial interventions within the cancer care system. Primary purpose of this epidemiological cross-sectional multi-center study is to detect the 4-week-, 12-month-, and lifetime prevalence rates of comorbid mental disorders and to further assess psychological distress and psychosocial support needs in cancer patients across all major tumor entities within the in- and outpatient oncological health care and rehabilitation settings in Germany. Methods/Design In this multicenter, epidemiological cross-sectional study, cancer patients across all major tumor entities will be enrolled from acute care hospitals, outpatient cancer care facilities, and rehabilitation centers in five major study centers in Germany: Freiburg, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig and Würzburg. A proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide incidence of all cancer diagnoses in Germany is used. Patients are consecutively recruited in all centers. On the basis of a depression screener (PHQ-9 50% of the participants that score below the cutoff point of 9 and all patients scoring above are assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Oncology (CIDI-O. In addition, all patients complete validated questionnaires measuring emotional distress, information and psychosocial support needs as well as quality of life. Discussion Epidemiological data on the prevalence of mental disorders and distress provide detailed and valid information for the estimation of the demands for the type and extent of psychosocial support interventions. The data will provide information about specific demographic, functional, cancer- and treatment-related risk factors for mental comorbidity and psychosocial distress, specific

  16. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

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    Kunisato Yoshihiko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance.

  17. Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics and desire for orthodontic treatment among Chinese undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Song Yi,1 Chuqin Zhang,2 Chulei Ni,1 Ying Qian,3 Jun Zhang4 1Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, 2Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaryngology Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children’s Hospital, 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 4Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in undergraduate students in the People’s Republic of China and to investigate the association between normal orthodontic treatment needs, psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics, and desire for orthodontic treatment.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two universities in a city of the People’s Republic of China with 374 young adults aged between 19 years and 24 years. The students answered a Chinese version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ and addressed their desire for orthodontic treatment. Objective malocclusion severity was assessed with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN. Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS software (Version 15.0.Results: There was no statistical sex difference in relation to the dental health component of IOTN (P=0.893 and PIDAQ scores (P=0.06, but it was found that the desire for orthodontic treatment was significantly stronger among females. The total and subscale PIDAQ scores and malocclusion severity differed significantly among the five grades of desire (P<0.01. Significant positive correlation was found among desire for orthodontic treatment, IOTN-dental health component grades, and total or subscale PIDAQ scores (P<0.01. High correlation was found between desire and PIDAQ score (r=0.93.Conclusion: The desire for orthodontic treatment is higher among female young

  18. Study of psychosocial problems among adolescent students in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Bhosale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Psychosocial health problems are highly prevalent and one of the hidden public health problems amongst the children and adolescents. Early diagnosis by primary care physicians and prompt referral to the specialist is very important for controlling it. Objectives: To screen all school going children for the risk of psychosocial problems, identify risk factors and refer at risk children to the psychiatrist for counseling. Material and Methods: A Cross sectional study in urban and rural field practice area of a teaching hospital in Pune. A screening tool-the youth report of pediatric symptom checklist (Y-PSC was used .Statistical analysis by Chi square test and Multivariate logistic regression was used as the test for significance. Results: Out of the total 2154 children, 328 (15.2% were found to be at risk of psychosocial problems. Statistically significant difference was observed as per type of management, medium of education, location of the school, age group, class of the student, total members in the family and socioeconomic status. No significant difference was observed as per gender or the type of the family. However after the application of multinomial logistic regression, significant statistical difference was observed only for the type of management running the schools with significantly more number of proportions of psychological disorders seen in students studying in government run schools. Conclusions: Our study clearly brings out the role of management in psychosocial impairment. The psychosocial impairment is about 15.2% with more impairment seen amongst government schools.

  19. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus other psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Hacker, David; Cormac, Irene; Meaden, Alan; Irving, Claire B

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is now a recommended treatment for people with schizophrenia. This approach helps to link the person’s distress and problem behaviours to underlying patterns of thinking. Objectives To review the effects of CBT for people with schizophrenia when compared with other psychological therapies. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2010) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We inspected all references of the selected articles for further relevant trials, and, where appropriate, contacted authors. Selection criteria All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT for people with schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis Studies were reliably selected and assessed for methodological quality. Two review authors, working independently, extracted data. We analysed dichotomous data on an intention-to-treat basis and continuous data with 65% completion rate are presented. Where possible, for dichotomous outcomes, we estimated a risk ratio (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) along with the number needed to treat/harm. Main results Thirty one papers described 20 trials. Trials were often small and of limited quality. When CBT was compared with other psychosocial therapies, no difference was found for outcomes relevant to adverse effect/events (2 RCTs, n = 202, RR death 0.57 CI 0.12 to 2.60). Relapse was not reduced over any time period (5 RCTs, n = 183, RR long-term 0.91 CI 0.63 to 1.32) nor was rehospitalisation (5 RCTs, n = 294, RR in longer term 0.86 CI 0.62 to 1.21). Various global mental state measures failed to show difference (4 RCTs, n = 244, RR no important change in mental state 0.84 CI 0.64 to 1.09). More specific measures of mental state failed to show differential effects on positive or negative symptoms of schizophrenia but there may be some longer term effect for affective symptoms (2 RCTs, n = 105

  20. Psychosocial interventions for pregnant women in outpatient illicit drug treatment programs compared to other interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terplan, Mishka; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Locke, Abigail; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Lui, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In total, we included 14 studies with 1298 participants: nine studies (704 participants) compared CM vs. control, and five studies (594 participants) compared MIB interventions vs. control. We did not find any studies that assessed other types of psychosocial interventions. For the most part, it was unclear if included studies adequately controlled for biases within their studies as such information was not often reported. We assessed risk of bias in the included studies relating to participant selection, allocation concealment, personnel and outcome assessor blinding, and attrition. The included trials rarely captured maternal and neonatal outcomes. For studies that did measure such outcomes, no difference was observed in pre-term birth rates (RR 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 1.51; three trials, 264 participants, moderate quality evidence), maternal toxicity at delivery (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.65; two trials, 217 participants, moderate quality evidence), or low birth weight (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.43; one trial, 160 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, the results did show that neonates remained in hospital for fewer days after delivery in CM intervention groups (RR -1.27, 95% CI -2.52 to -0.03; two trials, 103 participants, moderate quality evidence). There were no differences observed at the end of studies in retention or abstinence (as assessed by positive drug test at the end of treatment) in any psychosocial intervention group compared to control (Retention: RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.06, nine trials, 743 participants, low quality evidence; and Abstinence: RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.73, three trials, 367 participants, low quality evidence). These results held for both CM and MIB combined. Overall, the quality of the evidence was low to moderate. Authors’ conclusions The present evidence suggests that there is no difference in treatment outcomes to address drug use in pregnant women with use of psychosocial interventions, when

  1. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent bipolar spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristad, Mary A; MacPherson, Heather A

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) are serious conditions associated with morbidity and mortality. Although most treatment research has examined pharmacotherapy for pediatric BPSDs, growing literature suggests that psychosocial interventions are also important to provide families with an understanding of symptoms, course, and treatment of BPSDs; teach youth and parents methods for coping with symptoms (e.g., problem solving, communication, emotion regulation, cognitive-behavioral skills); and prevent relapse. Thirteen psychosocial intervention trials for pediatric BPSDs were identified via a comprehensive literature search and evaluated according to the Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures guidelines. All interventions were examined adjunctive to pharmacotherapy and/or treatment as usual (TAU). No well-established or questionably efficacious treatments were identified. Family psychoeducation plus skill building was probably efficacious (i.e., Multi-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy, Family-Focused Treatment); cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was possibly efficacious. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) were experimental. Limited research precluded subdivision of treatments by format and age. Only single- and multiple-family psychoeducation plus skill building and CBT were evaluated with children. Only single-family psychoeducation plus skill building and DBT, and individual (commonly with limited familial involvement) CBT and IPSRT were evaluated with adolescents. In conclusion, psychosocial interventions that involve families, psychoeducation, and skill building may offer added benefit to pharmacotherapy and/or other TAU. Limitations of current research include few outcome studies, small samples, and failure to use stringent control conditions or randomization. The review concludes with a discussion of mediators and moderators, recommendations for best practice

  2. Validation of new psychosocial factors questionnaires: a Colombian national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Gloria H; Vargas, Angélica M; Rondón, Martin A; Felknor, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    The study of workers' health problems possibly associated with stressful conditions requires valid and reliable tools for monitoring risk factors. The present study validates two questionnaires to assess psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses within a sample of Colombian workers. The validation process was based on a representative sample survey of 2,360 Colombian employees, aged 18-70 years. Worker response rate was 90%; 46% of the responders were women. Internal consistency was calculated, construct validity was tested with factor analysis and concurrent validity was tested with Spearman correlations. The questionnaires demonstrated adequate reliability (0.88-0.95). Factor analysis confirmed the dimensions proposed in the measurement model. Concurrent validity resulted in significant correlations with stress and health symptoms. "Work and Non-work Psychosocial Factors Questionnaires" were found to be valid and reliable for the assessment of workers' psychosocial factors, and they provide information for research and intervention. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Sau Fong Leung, Frederick KK Yeung, Wai Kit Wong School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major healthcare databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy, psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of

  4. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.

  5. Development of an integrated psychosocial treatment to address the medical burden associated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Louisa G; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Stange, Jonathan P; Peckham, Andrew D; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2011-05-01

    We developed an integrated psychosocial treatment for bipolar disorder to decrease the disproportionate medical burden associated with this illness. Three treatment modules, Nutrition/weight loss, Exercise, and Wellness Treatment (NEW Tx) were administered in twelve 60-minute group sessions over 14 weeks. After the first group (N=4) had completed the treatment, it was revised, and then a second group (N=6) completed the revised treatment. Participants completed all of the study assessments and attended 82% of the sessions. Both groups added over 100 minutes of weekly exercise to their baseline duration. Participants in the second group showed improvements in their quality of life, depressive symptoms, and weight. It appears that NEW Tx may be a feasible intervention with promising pilot data for reducing the medical burden in bipolar disorder, but future research is needed to further evaluate the efficacy of NEW Tx.

  6. Psychosocial assessment and monitoring in the new era of non-interferon-alpha hepatitis C virus treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; J; Rowan; Nizar; Bhulani

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus(HCV) is a global concern. With the 2014 Food and Drug Administration approvals of two direct-acting antiviral(DAA) regimens, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimen and the ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir regimen, we may now be in the era of all-pill regimens for HCV. Until this development, interferon-alpha along with Ribavirin has remained part of the standard of care for HCV patients. That regimen necessitates psychosocial assessment of factors affecting treatment eligibility, including interferon-alpharelated depressive symptoms, confounding psychiatric conditions, and social aspects such as homelessness affecting treatment eligibility. These factors have delayed as much as 70% of otherwise eligible candidates from interferon-based treatment, and have required treating physicians to monitor psychiatric as well as medical side effects throughout treatment. Allpill DAA regimens with the efficaciousness that would preclude reliance upon interferon-alpha or ribavirin have been anticipated for years. Efficacy studies for these recently approved DAA regimens provide evidence to assess the degree that psychosocial assessment and monitoring will be required. With shorter treatment timelines, greatly reduced side effect profiles, and easier regimens, psychosocial contraindications are greatly reduced. However, current or recent psychiatric comorbidity, and drug-drug interactions with psychiatric drugs, will require some level of clinical attention. Evidence from these efficacy studies tentatively demonstrate that the era of needing significant psychosocial assessment and monitoring may be at an end, as long as a manageable handful of clinical issues are managed.

  7. Insomnia and Psychosocial Crisis: Two Studies of Erikson's Developmental Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines the role of internal stressors in the development of sleep disturbances in two studies of 122 older adults and 66 college students. Results confirmed Erikson's (1959) developmental theory. Failure to resolve the psychosocial crises of old age and adolescence were related to insomnia. (WAS)

  8. Exploratory Study of Spirituality and Psychosocial Growth in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymann, Linda S.; Fialkowski, Geraldine M.; Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined spirituality, personality, and psychosocial growth among 216 students at a small university in Maryland. Results demonstrated that faith maturity predicted unique variance in purpose in life. There was a main effect observed for gender among faith scores, as well as an interaction effect between gender and year in school among…

  9. Psychosocial indicators of health-related quality of life in children with cancer 2 months after end of successful treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice-Stam, H.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Brons, P.P.T.; Caron, H.N.; Last, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify psychosocial correlates of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in pediatric cancer patients after completion of cancer treatment. Multiple regression analyses were performed to predict self-reported HRQoL of 52 patients aged 8 to 15 years, and parent-repor

  10. Psychosocial indicators of health-related quality of life in children with cancer 2 months after end of successful treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice-Stam, H.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Brons, P.P.T.; Caron, H.N.; Last, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify psychosocial correlates of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in pediatric cancer patients after completion of cancer treatment. Multiple regression analyses were performed to predict self-reported HRQoL of 52 patients aged 8 to 15 years, and parent-repor

  11. Heroin Addiction: Psychosocial Characteristics and Considerations for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, John K.

    This paper presents a review of relevant medical and psychological literature that addresses the psychological characteristics of heroin addiction and addicts: dependence (both physical and psychological); explanations of the phenomenon of addiction (both medical and behavioral); and other psychosocial views of causation including escapism,…

  12. The Role of Daytime Sleepiness in Psychosocial Outcomes after Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Yuet Ying Lau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of daytime sleepiness and sleep quality in psychosocial outcomes of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. Thirty-seven individuals with moderate to severe OSA and compliant with CPAP treatment for at least 3 months were compared to 27 age- and education-matched healthy controls. The OSA group and the control group were studied with overnight polysomnography (PSG and compared on measures of daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, mood (Beck Depression Inventory, Profile of Mood States, and functional outcomes (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire. After CPAP treatment, the OSA group improved on sleep quality and sleepiness. As a group, they did not differ from controls on sleep architecture after CPAP. The OSA group also showed significant improvements in functional outcomes and was comparable to controls on mood and functional outcomes. Persistent difficulties included lowered activity level and residual sleepiness in some individuals. Sleepiness was found to be a significant predictor of mood and affective states, while both sleepiness and sleep quality predicted functional outcomes. These results highlight the importance of assessment and intervention targeting psychosocial functioning and sleepiness in individuals with OSA after treatment.

  13. A Retrospective Study Concerning the Psychosocial Impact of Voice Disorders : Voice Handicap Index Change in Patients With Benign Voice Disorders After Treatment (Measured With the Dutch Version of the VHI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwers, Frans; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain better understanding of psychosocial effects of benign voice problems as measured with the Dutch version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The effect of voice problems on daily life differs from person to person. Over the last few decades there has been a growing

  14. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai Tong; Leung, Sau Fong; Yeung, Frederick Kk; Wong, Wai Kit

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major health care databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy), psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of functioning, and/or relapse rate. However, the comparative effects between these five approaches have not been well studied; thus, we are not able to clearly understand the superiority of any of these interventions. With the

  15. Treatment success in neck pain: The added predictive value of psychosocial variables in addition to clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneweg, Ruud; Haanstra, Tsjitske; Bolman, Catherine A W; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Tulder, Maurits W; Ostelo, Raymond W J G

    2017-01-01

    Identification of psychosocial variables may influence treatment outcome. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine whether psychosocial variables, in addition to clinical variables (pain, functioning, general health, previous neck pain, comorbidity), are predictive factors for treatment outcome (i.e. global perceived effect, functioning and pain) in patients with sub-acute and chronic non-specific neck pain undergoing physical therapy or manual therapy. Psychosocial factors included treatment outcome expectancy and treatment credibility, health locus of control, and fear avoidance beliefs. This study reports a secondary analysis of a primary care-based pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Potential predictors were measured at baseline and outcomes, in 181 patients, at 7 weeks and 26 weeks. Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that treatment outcome expectancy predicted outcome success, in addition to clinical and demographic variables. Expectancy explained additional variance, ranging from 6% (pain) to 17% (functioning) at 7 weeks, and 8% (pain) to 16% (functioning) at 26 weeks. Locus of control and fear avoidance beliefs did not add significantly to predicting outcome. Based on the results of this study we conclude that outcome expectancy, in patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic neck pain, has additional predictive value for treatment success above and beyond clinical and demographic variables. Psychological processes, health perceptions and how these factors relate to clinical variables may be important for treatment decision making regarding therapeutic options for individual patients. Copyright © 2016 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological and psychosocial effects of space travel: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Robert Edward Tien Ming

    This dissertation interviewed a single astronaut to explore psychosocial issues relevant to long-duration space travel and how these issues relate to the astronaut's training. It examined the psychological impact of isolation, crew interaction, and the experience of microgravity with the goal of increasing understanding of how to foster crew survivability and positive small group interactions in space (Santy, 1994). It also focused on how to develop possible treatments for crews when they transition back to Earth from the extreme environment of space missions. The astronaut's responses agreed with the literature and the predictions for long-duration space missions except the participant reported no temporary or permanent cognitive or memory deficits due to microgravity exposure. The dissertation identified five frequently endorsed themes including communication, environmental stressors, personal strengths, un-researched problems, and other. The agreement found between the literature and astronaut's responses offer a strong foundation of questions and data that needs to be further studied before conducting research in space or long-duration space missions.

  17. Psychosocial influences on low back pain, disability, and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan C; Fritz, Julie M

    2011-05-01

    Evidence suggests that psychosocial factors have an influence on the outcome of physical therapy treatment and that the extent of their influence differs considerably among patients. As a consequence, substantial research efforts are focused on developing new clinical tools designed to identify and highlight when psychosocial factors are present at a level relevant to decision making. The conceptual differences in the ways that psychosocial factors influence outcome are described, structured around 3 common research terms: (1) prognostic factors, (2) treatment effect modifiers or moderators, and (3) treatment mediators. Prognostic factors are those characteristics that help estimate a patient's likely outcome irrespective of the chosen management. Treatment effect modifiers or moderators are factors measured at baseline that influence the relationship between a specific intervention and outcome. Treatment mediators are factors that have an intermediary role in the link between treatment and outcome. How these different influences on outcome can be translated into useful and complementary tools that aim to reduce treatment variability in clinical practice is described. One approach is to use prognostic factors to develop screening tools that identify an individual's risk status, typically based on predictive psychosocial factors such as catastophizing and depression. Another approach is to identify specific treatment effect modifiers to derive treatment decision aids or prediction rules to help match a patient's characteristics to the interventions available. A third approach is to use treatment mediators (eg, self-efficacy) to develop monitoring tools to inform the clinician about which aspects of treatment to strengthen.

  18. The feasibility of implementing recovery, psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for psychosis: comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Bird, Victoria; Leamy, Mary; Bacon, Faye; Dunn, Rebecca; Pesola, Francesca; Janosik, Monika; Le Boutillier, Clair; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2015-05-23

    Clinical guidelines for the treatment of people experiencing psychosis have existed for over a decade, but implementation of recommended interventions is limited. Identifying influences on implementation may help to reduce this translational gap. The Structured Assessment of Feasibility (SAFE) measure is a standardised assessment of implementation blocks and enablers. The aim of this study was to characterise and compare the implementation blocks and enablers for recommended psychosis interventions. SAFE was used to evaluate and compare three groups of interventions recommended in the 2014 NICE psychosis guideline: pharmacological (43 trials testing 5 interventions), psychosocial (65 trials testing 5 interventions), and recovery (19 trials testing 5 interventions). The 127 trial reports rated with SAFE were supplemented by published intervention manuals, research protocols, trial registrations and design papers. Differences in the number of blocks and enablers across the three interventions were tested statistically, and feasibility profiles were generated. There was no difference between psychosocial and recovery interventions in the number of blocks or enablers to implementation. Pharmacological interventions (a) had fewer blocks than both psychosocial interventions (χ (2)(3) = 133.77, p recovery interventions (χ (2)(3) = 104.67, p recovery interventions (χ (2)(3) = 0.74, p = 0.863) but had fewer enablers than psychosocial interventions (χ (2)(3) = 28.92, p recovery and psychosocial interventions. Feasibility profiles show that pharmacological interventions are relatively easy to implement but can sometimes involve risks. Psychosocial and recovery interventions are relatively complex but tend to be more flexible and more often manualised. SAFE ratings can contribute to tackling the current implementation challenges in mental health services, by providing a reporting guideline structure for researchers to maximise the potential for

  19. Psychosocial needs of women and their partners after successful assisted reproduction treatment in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Crespo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that pregnancy and parenthood after a period of infertility are unproblematic and gratifying. However, a review of the literature highlights the complexity of the psychological and social consequences of pregnancy, childbirth and parenting after successful treatment with assisted reproductive technology. These experiences, including those following the creation of new forms of non-genetic and/or social parenthood, require investigation in order to understand how women and their partners integrate their journey from infertility to pregnancy and parenthood after successful assisted reproductive treatment. This paper presents results derived from qualitative interviews with 30 pregnant women and 21 couples after assisted reproductive treatment (repeated rounds of individual interviews with the study participants conducted from July 2010 to April 2014 as part of a larger ethnographic study exploring the psychosocial needs of women and partners following assisted reproductive treatment in Barcelona’s. The transcribed text was coded into categories of either predetermined or emergent topics. Prior studies have found that couples who achieve pregnancy after infertility may experience higher levels of anxiety in relation to pregnancy. This anxiety can be linked with a higher risk of complications during pregnancy after assisted reproductive treatment compared with spontaneous conception. However, the evidence concerning adjustment to pregnancy and parenthood is inconclusive. This study highlights the necessity for participants to give meaning to these treatments, given the variability that exists in perceptions of infertility and pregnancy after successful assisted reproductive treatment.

  20. The psychosocial aspects of sexual recovery after prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, D; Northouse, L; Foley, S; Gilbert, S; Wood, D P; Balon, R; Montie, J E

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer affects one in six American men. Erectile and sexual dysfunctions are long-term side effects of prostate cancer treatment. PubMed database was searched for papers on prostate cancer-related sexual recovery for men and couples. The search yielded articles on (1) the treatment of erectile dysfunction, (2) men's psychological and culturally diverse adaptation to the sexual side effects; (3) the impact of prostate cancer on couples' relationships; and (4) interventions to promote sexual function. Erectile dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment has been widely studied. Research on the sexual recovery of men and couples or understanding it in a cultural context is scarce. Greater focus on the impact of sexual sequelae of prostate cancer treatment on men as well as couples in diverse groups is needed. Clinical implications for treating sexual dysfunction and promoting sexual recovery for prostate cancer survivors and their partners are discussed. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  1. Evidence Base Update for Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents Exposed to Traumatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; McLaughlin, Katie A; Kerns, Suzanne E U; Harrison, Julie P; Lambert, Hilary K; Briggs, Ernestine C; Cox, Julia Revillion; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2016-10-19

    Child and adolescent trauma exposure is prevalent, with trauma exposure-related symptoms, including posttraumatic stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms often causing substantial impairment. This article updates the evidence base on psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent trauma exposure completed for this journal by Silverman et al. (2008). For this review, we focus on 37 studies conducted during the seven years since the last review. Treatments are grouped by overall treatment family (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy), treatment modality (e.g., individual vs. group), and treatment participants (e.g., child only vs. child and parent). All studies were evaluated for methodological rigor according to Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology evidence-based treatment evaluation criteria (Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, 2014), with cumulative designations for level of support for each treatment family. Individual CBT with parent involvement, individual CBT, and group CBT were deemed well-established; group CBT with parent involvement and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) were deemed probably efficacious; individual integrated therapy for complex trauma and group mind-body skills were deemed possibly efficacious; individual client-centered play therapy, individual mind-body skills, and individual psychoanalysis were deemed experimental; and group creative expressive + CBT was deemed questionable efficacy. Advances in the evidence base, with comparisons to the state of the science at the time of the Silverman et al. (2008) review, are discussed. Finally, we present dissemination and implementation challenges and areas for future research.

  2. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  3. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  4. Psychosocial aspects of resistance in complex treatment of depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlackova, Zuzana; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Grambal, Ales; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Kasalova, Petra; Cakirpaloglu, Snezana

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of major depressive disorder can be affected by a broad range of factors. In our study, we focused on the relationships of demographic, psychological, clinical and social factors to the course of treatment of depression. The study included 151 patients (finally 140 patients were evaluated) hospitalized for major depressive disorder. They were assessed for demographic characteristics, the rates of depression and anxiety, quality of life, the rates of dissociation and insomnia, and subjective and objective disease severity at different times during treatment. Patients were treated with standard doses of antidepressants or other psychiatric medication. They also completed a 6-week long daily cognitive-behavioural therapy. Data were statistically analyzed. There were significant decreases in the overall severity of the disorder, anxiety level and depression rate during treatment. Improvement measured by objective Clinical Global Impression (oCGI-I) at the end of treatment was not significantly correlated with any of the measured parameters (age of patient, onset of illness, duration of disease, doses of medication etc.). It only significantly positively correlated with the initial evaluation of the patient by oCGI. However, the improvement in subjective assessment (using sCGI-I) correlated with many parameters (increased age, later onset of the disease, greater disease severity at baseline in both overall and subjective evaluation of the severity, anxiety and depressive symptomatology). Furthermore, it was negatively correlated with most quality of life parameters, such as H (Home), F (Feelings), L (Leisure), Sr (Social relations) and G (General). The results suggest that individual variables, such as the degree of psychopathology, particularly depression and anxiety, most quality of life parameters, higher patient age and age of disorder onset may be associated with poorer subjective response to complex treatment of patients with major depressive disorder.

  5. Psychosocial trends in couples prior to commencement of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaveeti, Nirmala; Hamilton, Joan; Maher, Bonnie; Kirkham, Colin; Harrison, Robert F; Mocanu, Edgar V

    2011-12-01

    Facing infertility and undergoing fertility treatment can create emotional turmoil in couples' lives. It is essential for fertility therapy providers to assess the coping and communication strategies of couples before treatment in order to provide appropriate support. We performed a two time point (year 2003 & year 2009) cross-sectional study of patients attending our services to undergo in vitro fertilisation. All couples attending the Human Assisted Reproduction Ireland Unit, a tertiary referral academic centre at the Rotunda Hospital, were requested to complete a psychosocial questionnaire before commencing the treatment. The questions assessed couples' understanding of their own infertility, family background and support, relationship traits and stress levels prior to commencing fertility treatment. A total of 180 patients participated in the study. Our findings showed that within a 6-year time span, couples' attitudes have changed significantly. Compared to 6 years ago, couples now have a better understanding of infertility and are seeking treatment quicker. Interestingly, we showed higher stress levels nowadays with fewer couples following routine stress management. We also identified specific gender differences in that women have a more open attitude in discussing infertility and seeking more support from friends and family compared to men.

  6. Psychosocial Trauma, Defense Strategies and Treatment Considerations in Cancer Patients and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Barton A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the psychosocial impact of cancer on patients and families. Notes that group treatment is especially effective because of curative factors intrinsic to group experience, e.g., installation of hope, universality, and cohesiveness, that allow group members to lower their defensiveness and deal more adaptively with emotional and…

  7. PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF 2 YEARS OF HUMAN GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT IN TURNER SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLIJPER, FME; SINNEMA, G; AKKERHUIS, GW; BRUGMANBOEZEMAN, A; FEENSTRA, J; DENHARTOG, L; HEUVEL, F

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight girls with Turner syndrome were treated for 2 years with human growth hormone. Both parents and patients carried out assessments of the effects of treatment on various aspects of psychosocial functioning. The children used the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and the Social Anxiety Scale

  8. PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF 2 YEARS OF HUMAN GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT IN TURNER SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLIJPER, FME; SINNEMA, G; AKKERHUIS, GW; BRUGMANBOEZEMAN, A; FEENSTRA, J; DENHARTOG, L; HEUVEL, F

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight girls with Turner syndrome were treated for 2 years with human growth hormone. Both parents and patients carried out assessments of the effects of treatment on various aspects of psychosocial functioning. The children used the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and the Social Anxiety Scale

  9. Is training in psychosocial interventions worthwhile? Report of a psychosocial intervention trainee follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Charlie; Saul, Carol; Robinson, Jeannie; King, Jenny; Dudley, Mike

    2003-09-01

    A follow-up study of psychosocial intervention (PSI) trainees from the Sheffield and Maudsley training centres was undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1, 141 students, at two PSI training centres, were sent a simple postal questionnaire to elicit career trajectory following PSI training. A response rate of 82% was achieved. The sub-group, who had been trained and who still engaged in clinical practice were identified and followed-up in more detail (n=96). The effect of PSI training in a range of domains was investigated. The impact of training may not be to equip students with formal technical skills in CBT and family work. What is more likely is that trainees acquired proficiency in: working effectively using a case management model; conveying 'therapeutic optimism'; enabling users to meet their own goals and helping them to develop better coping strategies; using 'stress vulnerability' and formal outcome measures as means of structuring this approach. The secondary aim of the study was to identify and prioritise the barriers that impede the effective implementation of PSI skills in routine service settings. For the second phase of the survey the response rate was again 82%. This group's service managers were identified and surveyed for the same information and 59% responded. The aim was to gather information about implementation issues from both the clinical and service perspectives. The results of the survey indicate that PSI training has a positive impact on the development of services for people with serious mental health problems although there are serious organisational hurdles for managers, trainees and organisations to overcome if PSI skills are to be properly implemented. Key factors that impact upon faithful implementation are related to resource issues (caseload size), organisational factors (the existence of an implementation plan and training strategy), and the extent to which the trainee's team is supportive.

  10. A New Psychosocial Variable in Mental Health Studies: Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The term agency has been defined as a sense of responsibility for one’s life course, the belief that one is in control of one’s decisions and is responsible for their outcomes, and the confidence that one will be able to overcome obstacles that impede one’s progress along one’s chosen life course. Agency is an upper psychological structure which consists of self-esteem, purpose in life, self-efficacy (ego strength, and internal locus of control. Literature offers quite different explanations for agency concept. The reason of this situation may be the attribution of different meanings to the concept by psychologists and sociologists. When considering the agency literature in Turkey and other countries, it can be said that the number of studies on agency subject is lower than the number of studies on other psychosocial study subjects. Agency should be taken into consideration as a psychosocial variable in the studies to be made in Turkey.

  11. Psychosocial factors and treatment adherence in paediatric HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naar-King, S; Arfken, C; Frey, M; Harris, M; Secord, E; Ellis, D

    2006-08-01

    A social ecological model provides a promising framework for understanding the individual, family, and societal factors contributing to non-adherence to treatment of paediatric HIV. This study explored which factors relevant to this model are associated with caregivers' adherence and child health outcomes. A cross-sectional design was utilized to assess relationships among current individual, familial, extra-familial factors, caregiver adherence, and viral load. Data were collected from 43 caregivers, and viral load data were obtained from the medical records of their HIV+ children. Caregiver drug and alcohol use and HIV+ status were associated with non-adherence and elevated viral load. Negative outcome expectancy was associated with lower adherence but was not significant in the multivariate analyses. Family factors were not significant, but these measures had low reliability in this sample. Extra-familial factors such as dissatisfaction with medical specialty care and more stressful life events were not directly associated with adherence but were related to increased caregiver substance use. Results of this first study to explore multiple predictors of adherence and health outcomes in paediatric HIV require replication with larger samples, but findings suggest caregiver characteristics that place children at risk for disease progression due to poor adherence to treatment.

  12. Role of personality traits in cocaine craving throughout an outpatient psychosocial treatment program

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    Flávia Ismael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cocaine dependence is a major international public health concern. Its chronically relapsing nature is possibly related to craving intensity, which can be influenced by diverse biological and psychological aspects. This study aimed to evaluate the role of different personality traits in craving measured throughout a psychosocial treatment program. Method: The sample comprised 66 cocaine-dependent outpatients who were enrolled in an individual and manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy program. The influence of personality traits on craving intensity, frequency, and duration was analyzed using a generalized estimating equations model with an autoregressive correlation structure. Results: Craving varied during treatment. The personality traits of novelty seeking, reward dependence, and harm avoidance interacted with craving intensity, and the personality trait of persistence interacted with craving duration throughout the treatment period. Furthermore, there were significant interactions between drug use and craving intensity, and between different routes of administration and craving intensity. Participants who used cocaine/crack while in treatment and concurrent users of crack (i.e., freebase cocaine and powder cocaine also had a higher craving intensity. Conclusion: The extent of craving variation can depend on certain personality styles. This study shows that craving is influenced by personality traits, and this may presumably change clinical expression involved in disease.

  13. Study oOf Important Psychosocial Factors in Institutionalized Blinds

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    Uddhav T Kumbhar, Armaity Dehmubed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blindness probably is the most feared infirmity of mankind. The blind individuals were considered useless for the centuries till recent development in culture and civilization. Present study was conducted with the aim to study important psychosocial aspects of blinds undergoing formal vocational training in institutes. Objective: to identify candidates’ psychosocial profile using Self Reporting Questionnaire (S.R.Q.. Materials and Methods: it was a cross sectional study conducted in two vocational training institutes for blinds (one for males and other for females in Mumbai. The individuals were subjected to pre tested S.R.Q. and the individuals found positive with this tool and double the number of matched S.R.Q. negative controls from the institute were subjected to psychiatric examination done by qualified psychiatrist. Analysis: analysis was done using fisher’s exact test and chi square test results: 15 (7.18% blinds were found S.R.Q. positive indicating they either have or prone to have psychiatric morbidity. Conclusion: Psychological rehabilitation of the blinds should be considered before planning the vocational training of blinds.

  14. Effects of 6 Months ALL Treatment on Psychosocial Development and Emotional Status in Children Aged 1 to 3 Years

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    Arzu Kantarcıoğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: The aim of the current study was to evaluate possible effects of cancer treatment on psychosocial development and emotional state among children who was diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL before hospitalization and six months after treatment process.Materials and Methods: Twelve patients aged 1 to 3 years were screened before and six months after treatment. AGTE (Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory and BITSEA (Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment were used for evaluating psychosocial development and social emotional status respectively. Spending time with play, peer groups and physical activity were evaluated twice and investaged with respect to possible relationship with psychosocial development.Results: According the current study results; six months after the diagnosis of ALL, children’s social emotional problems were increased, competence was decreased, fine motor and social development-self care ability were regressed.Conclusions: In early develomental stage, even 6 months after the diagnosis, ALL is a risk factor for psychosocial development and emotional state. Social isolation due to neutropenia seems to have important side effect on the behaviour. In the future studies there is a great need of longidutional research as if that side effect will be permanent. In the mean time during the hospitalization and isolation process, children need environmental stimulations. Care givers should be informed and guided about the ways which support development. If needed, children should be directed to special education programs. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2012; 10: 13-6

  15. Psychosocial outcomes in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder during 2 years of maintenance treatment with venlafaxine extended release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Dunner, David L.; Kornstein, Susan G.; Thase, Michael E.; Zajecka, John M.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Friedman, Edward S.; Shelton, Richard C.; Keller, Martin B.; Kocsis, James H.; Gelenberg, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychosocial outcomes from the Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression with Venlafaxine ER for Two Years (PREVENT) study were evaluated. Methods Adult outpatients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and response or remission following 6-month continuation treatment with venlafaxine extended release (ER) were randomized to receive venlafaxine ER or placebo for 1 year. Patients without recurrence on venlafaxine ER during year 1 were randomized to venlafaxine ER or placebo for year 2. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire—Short Form (Q-LES-Q), Life EnjoymentScale—Short Version (LES-S), Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report (SAS-SR) total and individual factors, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) (vitality, social functioning, and role function-emotional items), and Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results At year 1 end, better overall psychosocial functioning was seen among patients randomly assigned to venlafaxine ER (n=129) vs placebo (n=129), with significant differences at end point on SF-36 role function-emotional, Q-LES-Q, and SAS-SR total, and work, house work, social/leisure, and extended-family factor scores (p≤0.05). At year 2 end, significant differences favored venlafaxine ER (n=43) vs placebo (n=40)on SF-36 vitality and rolefunction-emotional, Q-LES-Q, LES-S, LIFE, and SAS-SR total, social/leisure, and extended-family factor scores (p≤0.05). Limitations Patients with chronic MDD or treatment resistance were excluded and long-term specialist care was a financial incentive for treatment compliance. Discontinuation-related adverse events may have compromised the integrity of the treatment blind. Conclusions For patients with recurrent MDD, 2 years’ maintenance therapy with venlafaxine ER may improve psychosocial functioning vs placebo. PMID:20510459

  16. Who seeks bariatric surgery? Psychosocial functioning among adolescent candidates, other treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, C C; Devlin, M J; Fennoy, I; Zitsman, J L; Walsh, B T; Sysko, R

    2017-08-25

    Limited data are available on the characteristics of adolescents with obesity who seek bariatric surgery. Existing data suggest that adolescent surgery candidates have a higher body mass index (BMI) than comparison adolescents with obesity, but the limited findings regarding psychosocial functioning are mixed. This study aimed to compare BMI and psychosocial functioning among adolescent bariatric surgery candidates, outpatient medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity (receiving lifestyle modification), and adolescents in the normal-weight range. All adolescents completed self-report measures of impulsivity, delay discounting, depression, anxiety, stress, eating pathology, family functioning and quality of life, and had their height and weight measured. Adolescent surgical candidates had higher BMIs than both comparison groups. Surgical candidates did not differ from medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity on any measure of psychosocial functioning, but both groups of adolescents with obesity reported greater anxiety and eating pathology and poorer quality of life than normal-weight adolescents. Quality of life no longer differed across groups after controlling for BMI, suggesting that it is highly related to weight status. Adolescents with obesity may experience greater anxiety, eating pathology, and quality of life impairments than their peers in the normal-weight range regardless of whether they are seeking surgery or outpatient medical treatment. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on physi

  18. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on physi

  19. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Stanley J., Jr.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no "well-established" treatments were identified, "probably efficacious" or "possibly efficacious" treatments were found for ethnic minority…

  20. Skills Versus Pills: Psychosocial Treatments for ADHD in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Sasser, Tyler

    2016-10-01

    Although side effects and family concerns are common and long-term medication adherence is low, stimulant medications are a front-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychosocial treatments include classroom, family, and child-focused interventions that teach caregivers and teachers how to implement contingencies to shape behavior and provide children with skills to compensate for ADHD deficits. Such programs have a growing evidence-base and can be implemented alone or in conjunction with pharmacological treatments. The most efficacious psychosocial treatments for children with ADHD include Behavioral Parent Training, Behavioral Classroom Management, and Behavioral Peer Interventions, which all focus on contingency management by adults. Training interventions are increasingly used to teach organizational and interpersonal skills to children and adolescents. These treatments are found to improve functional outcomes associated with ADHD, including on-task behavior, compliance, academic performance, social relationships, and family functioning. Clinicians play an important role in educating families about psychosocial treatments for ADHD, increasing family motivation and engagement, and including these interventions in multimodal treatment plans for youth with ADHD across development. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(10):e367-e372.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Bidirectional Relations between Parenting Practices and Child Externalizing Behavior: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis in the Context of a Psychosocial Treatment and 3-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or…

  2. The psychosocial impacts caused by diagnosis and treatment of Coeliac Disease

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    Susy Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To comprehend the psychosocial effects that Coeliac Disease diagnosis entails. METHOD Qualitative study, achieved through semi-structured interviews, analyzed in accordance to the Association of ideas map Technique. A total 12 recently-diagnosed patients from the Centro de diagnóstico, tratamento e apoio ao paciente com doença celíaca (Coeliac Disease Prevention, Support and Treatment Diagnose Centre from the Hospital Universitário de Brasília (University Hospital of Brasilia were enrolled for the study, between the years of 2013 and 2014. RESULTS The interviewed patients presented negative impacts in three categories: psychoaffective, family and social relationships, indicating issues with social readaptation once the treatment had started, as well as difficulty coping with a gluten free diet. CONCLUSION Coeliac Disease holds substantial impact on psychological functions, family and social relationships to diagnosed patients, requiring a clinical biopsychological assistance for better adherence to treatment and patients quality of life.

  3. An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Mentoring program and Mentees’ psychosocial Development

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    Azman Ismail

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between mentoring program and mentees’ psychosocial development using self-report questionnaires collected from undergraduate students in teaching based higher learning institutions in Sarawak, Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model analysis showed two important findings: firstly, communication positively and significantly correlated with psychosocial. Secondly, support positively and significantly correlated with psychosocial. In sum, the result demonstrates that mentoring program does act as an important determinant of mentees’ psychosocial development in the organizational sample. In addition, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  4. Psychosocial Acute Treatment in Early-Episode Schizophrenia Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews evidence on the treatment of early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders that contradicts, in some cases, the American Psychiatric Association's generic recommendation of antipsychotic medication treatment for at least a year. Method: Evidence on lack of diagnostic validity, absence of demonstrated long-term…

  5. Psychosocial Interventions for the Acute Treatment of Late-life Major Depression: A Systematic Review of Evidence-based Treatments, Predictors of Treatment Outcomes and Moderators of Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Areán, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for the acute treatment of late-life depression and identify predictors of treatment outcomes and moderators of treatment effects. The results of the systematic review may help to advance the development of personalized psychosocial treatments for late-life major depression. Based on our criteria, Problem Solving Therapy (PST), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Treatment Initiation and Participation Program (TIP) have supportive evidence of efficacy, pending replication. Even though the data on the predictors of treatment outcomes and moderators of treatment effects are still preliminary, it appears that baseline anxiety and stress level, personality pathology, endogenous depression, and reduced self-rated health are associated with worse depression outcomes. More research is also recommended to examine the moderating effects of baseline depression severity; for instance, our review indicates that Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) may work better in participants with high baseline depression severity than in participants with low depression severity. Recommendations for future novel psychosocial interventions for the acute treatment of late-life major depression include application of these interventions in non-traditional settings, involvement of the caregivers in the treatment of cognitively and functionally impaired older adults with major depression, and expansion of research to include more racially and ethnically diverse populations as the samples of the examined studies is highly selective, i.e. overly healthy, cognitively intact, Caucasian, and highly educated. PMID:21536164

  6. Cardiac patients who completed a longitudinal psychosocial study had a different clinical and psychosocial baseline profile than patients who dropped out prematurely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; Serruys, Patrick W;

    2013-01-01

    Non-response is a serious threat to the external validity of longitudinal psychosocial studies. Little is known about potential systematic differences between patients with coronary artery disease who complete a psychosocial study and those who drop out prematurely due to non-response, or whether...

  7. The developmental psychopathology of perinatal depression: implications for psychosocial treatment development and delivery in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona

    2012-09-01

    Taking a developmental psychopathology perspective, our objective was to identify ways in which psychosocial treatment of depression during pregnancy may be enhanced. We first consider the state of evidence on psychosocial interventions for antenatal depression, next define key developmental psychopathology concepts that are relevant to antenatal depression, and finally discuss implications for clinical practice and research. We found a limited, but promising, evidence base for effective psychosocial interventions for depression during pregnancy. Examining antenatal depression from a developmental psychopathology perspective revealed suggestions for improving treatment. A developmental psychopathology perspective suggests that treatment of depression during pregnancy may be improved by attention to the continuum of depression, from subclinical to severe major depressive disorder; personalized care based on individual women's pattern of risk and resilience factors and correlated risks; consideration of the potential benefits of treating the couple's relationship, the mother's qualities of parenting, and infants' and children's mental health needs; and, including a detailed understanding of the developmental pathways to antenatal depression for each patient in treatment planning.

  8. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  9. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  10. How the psychosocial context of clinical trials differs from usual care: A qualitative study of acupuncture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative studies of participants' experiences in randomised clinical trials (RCTs suggest that the psychosocial context of treatment in RCTs may be quite different to the psychosocial context of treatment in usual practice. This is important, as the psychosocial context of treatment is known to influence patient outcomes in chronic illness. Few studies have directly compared the psychosocial context of treatment across RCTs and usual practice. In this study, we explored differences in psychosocial context between RCT and usual practice settings, using acupuncture as our model. Methods We undertook a secondary analysis of existing qualitative interviews with 54 patients. 27 were drawn from a study of western and traditional acupuncture in usual practice (for a range of painful conditions. 27 were drawn from a qualitative study nested in an RCT of western acupuncture for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. We used qualitative analysis software to facilitate an inductive thematic analysis in which we identified three main themes. Results In usual practice, starting acupuncture was more likely to be embedded in an active and ongoing search for pain relief, whereas in the RCT starting acupuncture was opportunistic. Usual practice patients reported few uncertainties and these had minimal consequences for them. In the RCT, patients experienced considerable uncertainties about their treatment and its effectiveness, and were particularly concerned about whether they were receiving real (or fake acupuncture. Patients stopped acupuncture only at the end of the fixed course of treatment in the RCT, which was similar to those receiving acupuncture in the public sector National Health Service (NHS. In comparison, private sector patients re-evaluated and re-negotiated treatments particularly when starting to use acupuncture. Conclusions Differences in psychosocial context between RCTs and usual practice could reduce the impact of

  11. [PSP Scale: German version of the Personal and Social Performance Scale: valid instrument for the assessment of psychosocial functioning in the treatment of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, D; Juckel, G

    2011-09-01

    In the treatment of schizophrenia, the domain of psychosocial functioning is an important aspect of therapeutic success that should be considered in addition to the reduction of psychopathology. Valid and standardised measures are necessary for diagnostics and the assessment of patients" personal, social and professional functioning. The German version of the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) Scale (with its four subdimensions: "socially useful activities, work and study included", "personal and social relationships", "self-care" and "disturbing and aggressive behaviour") was administered to patients with schizophrenia in previous studies. These data demonstrated this scale to be a reliable, valid and efficient tool for measuring psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Thus, it is argued that, for everyday clinical practice, the PSP Scale is useful for the assessment of psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia during short, medium and long-term treatment courses.

  12. Effects of Psychosocial Day Care Programme on Quality of Life in Patients Affected with Schizophrenia - a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juretić, Tanja Grahovac; Ružić, Klementina; Letica-Crepulja, Marina; Petrić, Daniela; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Frančišković, Tanja

    2016-06-01

    The basic aim of this prospective research was to establish the effect of psychosocial day care programme on the therapy outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. While 115 patients with schizophrenia were invited to participate, 100 of them completed the study and were subdivided into two groups. In addition to pharmacotherapy, the experimental group only (N=50) was integrated into a day-hospital-based psychosocial day care programme. The instruments were applied in three phases: the first measurement for experimental group subjects took place on the first day of psychosocial day-care programme, while for the control group subjects the same was performed on the last day of inpatient care. The second measurement for the experimental group was performed in the end of psychosocial day-care programme, while for the control group patients it occurred four months after inpatient treatment. The third measurement was carried out six months after the second one. The following instruments were applied: General Demographic Questionnaire at the first measurement, Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life-MANSA both at the first and third measurement, and Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale-PANSS at all three measurements. Experimental group patients showed a statistically significant increase in quality of life outcomes as well as statistically significant decrease in positive symptoms and general psychopathology at all three measurements and with regard to the control group. As to the negative symptoms, only the third measurement revealed a statistically significant difference. The results obtained indicate that the adjuvant treatment of psychosocial day care programme has a positive effect on treatment outcomes: on the increase of the patients' quality of life, and, to some extent, on the decrease of symptom intensity in positive symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum. However, the effect of psychosocial day-care programme on the negative symptoms was proved to be

  13. Psychosocial work conditions and registered sickness absence : a 3-year prospective cohort study among office employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Bultmann, U.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between a wide variety of psychosocial work conditions and sickness absence in a medium-sized company. Methods Prospective cohort study of 395 employees working in an insurance office. Self-reported psychosocial work conditions were measured by questionnaire in Ja

  14. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

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    Vanagas Giedrius

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197. Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's.

  15. Financial Stress, Shaming Experiences and Psychosocial Ill-Health: Studies into the Finances-Shame Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrin, Bengt; Aslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the Finances-Shame model and its explanatory power regarding the prevalence of psychosocial ill-health. The Finances-Shame model postulates that (i) the greater the financial stress and the more experiences of having been shamed, the greater the risk for psychosocial ill-health, (ii) the lesser the financial stress…

  16. Parenting as a Mechanism of Change in Psychosocial Treatment for Youth with ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2016-09-15

    We investigated whether parenting and child behavior improve following psychosocial treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I) and whether parenting improvements mediate child outcomes. We analyzed data from a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills, CLAS, n = 74) in comparison to Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74) and treatment as usual (TAU, n = 51) for youth with ADHD-I (average child age = 8.6 years, range 7-11 years, 58 % boys). Child and parent/family functioning were assessed prior to treatment, immediately following treatment, and at follow-up into the subsequent school year using parent and teacher reports of inattention, organization, social skills, academic competency (teachers only), parenting daily hassles, and positive and negative parenting behaviors (parents only). Both treatment groups improved on negative parenting and home impairment, but only CLAS families also improved on positive parenting as well as academic impairment. Improvements in positive and negative parenting mediated treatment effects on child impairment independent of improvements in child inattention, implicating parenting as an important mechanism of change in psychosocial treatment for ADHD-I. Further, whereas parent-focused training produces improvements in negative parenting and impairment at home for children with ADHD-I, a multicomponent approach (incorporating child skills training and teacher consultation) more consistently produces improvements at school and in positive parenting, which may contribute to improvements in social skills into the next school year.

  17. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per;

    2016-01-01

    Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. RESULTS: Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly...... and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. CONCLUSIONS: The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most of the rating scales, but correlations were modest in size, possibly due to the number of different factors influencing...... situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...

  18. Psychosocial profile of bullies, victims, and bully-victims: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eLeiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.

  19. Substance abuse treatment services for pregnant women: psychosocial and behavioral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A; Duffy, Megan; McCaul, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    Women who use tobacco, alcohol and drugs during pregnancy are at increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity. Universal screening using empirically validated approaches can improve identification of substance-using pregnant women and facilitate comprehensive assessment of treatment needs. There is strong evidence for effectiveness of psychosocial and behavioral substance abuse treatments across a range of intensities and levels of care. In addition to addressing substance use, services for co-occurring psychiatric disorders, trauma exposure, and prenatal care are important components of coordinated systems of care. More research on and greater access to evidence-based interventions is needed for this underserved population.

  20. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new

  1. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was

  2. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Bemt, B.J. van den; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Ende, C.H. van den; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was

  3. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was

  4. Erectile dysfunction, masculinity, and psychosocial outcomes: a review of the experiences of men after prostate cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; Wittert, Gary; Hyde, Melissa K.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) treatment side-effects such as erectile dysfunction (ED) can impact men’s quality of life (QoL), psychosocial and psycho-sexual adjustment. Masculinity (i.e., men’s identity or sense of themselves as being a man) may also be linked to how men respond to PC treatment and ED however the exact nature of this link is unclear. This review aims to provide a snapshot of the current state of evidence regarding ED, masculinity and psychosocial impacts after PC treatment. Three databases (Medline/PsycINFO, CINHAL, and EMBASE) were searched January 1st 1980 to January 31st 2016. Study inclusion criteria were: patients treated for PC; ED or sexual function measured; masculinity measured in quantitative studies or emerged as a theme in qualitative studies; included psychosocial or QoL outcome(s); published in English language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Fifty two articles (14 quantitative, 38 qualitative) met review criteria. Studies were predominantly cross-sectional, North American, samples of heterosexual men, with localised PC, and treated with radical prostatectomy. Results show that masculinity framed men’s responses to, and was harmed by their experience with, ED after PC treatment. In qualitative studies, men with ED consistently reported lost (no longer a man) or diminished (less of a man) masculinity, and this was linked to depression, embarrassment, decreased self-worth, and fear of being stigmatised. The correlation between ED and masculinity was similarly supported in quantitative studies. In two studies, masculinity was also a moderator of poorer QoL and mental health outcomes for PC patients with ED. In qualitative studies, masculinity underpinned how men interpreted and adjusted to their experience. Men used traditional (hegemonic) coping responses including emotional restraint, stoicism, acceptance, optimism, and humour or rationalised their experience relative to their age (ED inevitable), prolonged life (ED small price to pay

  5. Erectile dysfunction, masculinity, and psychosocial outcomes: a review of the experiences of men after prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Chung, Eric; Wittert, Gary; Hyde, Melissa K

    2017-02-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) treatment side-effects such as erectile dysfunction (ED) can impact men's quality of life (QoL), psychosocial and psycho-sexual adjustment. Masculinity (i.e., men's identity or sense of themselves as being a man) may also be linked to how men respond to PC treatment and ED however the exact nature of this link is unclear. This review aims to provide a snapshot of the current state of evidence regarding ED, masculinity and psychosocial impacts after PC treatment. Three databases (Medline/PsycINFO, CINHAL, and EMBASE) were searched January 1st 1980 to January 31st 2016. Study inclusion criteria were: patients treated for PC; ED or sexual function measured; masculinity measured in quantitative studies or emerged as a theme in qualitative studies; included psychosocial or QoL outcome(s); published in English language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Fifty two articles (14 quantitative, 38 qualitative) met review criteria. Studies were predominantly cross-sectional, North American, samples of heterosexual men, with localised PC, and treated with radical prostatectomy. Results show that masculinity framed men's responses to, and was harmed by their experience with, ED after PC treatment. In qualitative studies, men with ED consistently reported lost (no longer a man) or diminished (less of a man) masculinity, and this was linked to depression, embarrassment, decreased self-worth, and fear of being stigmatised. The correlation between ED and masculinity was similarly supported in quantitative studies. In two studies, masculinity was also a moderator of poorer QoL and mental health outcomes for PC patients with ED. In qualitative studies, masculinity underpinned how men interpreted and adjusted to their experience. Men used traditional (hegemonic) coping responses including emotional restraint, stoicism, acceptance, optimism, and humour or rationalised their experience relative to their age (ED inevitable), prolonged life (ED small price to pay

  6. [Psychosocial Interventions in Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahunca Velásquez, Luisa Fernanda; García Valencia, Jenny; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Palacio Acosta, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the psychosocial strategies designed to improve the outcomes in adults with schizophrenia in both, acute and stable phase of the disorder. This evidence is used to propose recommendation in the guidelines of integral attention for the diagnosis, treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of adults with schizophrenia. A guideline for clinical practice was developed using the methodological framework of the Ministerio de la Protección Social to collect evidence and grading recommendations. A search, evaluation and synthesis of evidence were carried out. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The psychoeducation and family intervention showed higher efficacy, compared with the usual treatment, to prevent relapses and hospital readmissions, to reduce family burden and to improve adherence to treatment. The social skill training was effective to improve symptoms, social functioning and quality of life. However, the quality of evidence was low. There was not enough evidence about the efficacy of occupational therapy, but considering patients preferences and its wide clinical utilization, the GDG suggested its inclusion. Psychoeducation, family intervention and social skill training are recommended to be offered for the treatment of schizophrenia. Furthermore, occupational therapy is suggested for inpatients and outpatients with the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Thiese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL were compared to 10 psychosocial measures. Relationships and predicted probabilities were assessed using ordered logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, and gender. Results and Discussion. Among 1834 study participants there were multiple statistically significant relationships. In general, as duration, repetition, and force increased, psychosocial factors worsened. However, general health and mental exhaustion improved with increasing job exposures. Depression was most strongly associated with increased repetition, while physical exhaustion was most strongly associated with increased force. SI and TLV for HAL were significantly related to multiple psychosocial factors. These relationships persisted after adjustment for strong confounders. Conclusion. This study quantified multiple associations between job physical exposures and occupational and nonoccupational psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to quantify the impacts on occupational health outcomes.

  8. Long-term effects of methadone maintenance treatment with different psychosocial intervention models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Wang

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term effects of different psychosocial intervention models in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT in Xi'an China. Patients from five MMT clinics were divided into three groups receiving MMT only, MMT with counseling psychology (CP or MMT with contingency management (CM. A five-year follow-up was carried out with daily records of medication, monthly random urine morphine tests, and tests for anti-HIV and anti-HCV every six months. Drug use behavior was recorded six months after initial recruitment using a survey. Adjusted RRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using an unconditional logistic regression model or a Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 2662 patients were recruited with 797 in MMT, 985 in MMT with CP, and 880 in MMT with CM. Following six months of treatment, the injection rates of MMT with CP and MMT with CM groups were significantly lower than that of MMT (5.1% and 6.9% vs. 16.3%, x²  =  47.093 and 29.908, respectively; P<0.05. HIV incidences for MMT, MMT with CP and MMT with CM at the five year follow-up were 20.09, 0.00 and 10.02 per ten thousand person-years, respectively. HCV incidences were 18.35, 4.42 and 6.61 per hundred person-years, respectively, demonstrating that CP and CM were protective factors for HCV incidence (RR  =  0.209 and 0.414, with range of 0.146-0.300 and 0.298-0.574, respectively. MMT supplemented with CP or CM can reduce heroin use and related risk behaviors, thereby reducing the incidence of HIV and HCV.

  9. A randomised trial of a psychosocial intervention for cancer patients integrated into routine care: the PROMPT study (promoting optimal outcomes in mood through tailored psychosocial therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolley Damien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence that up to 35% of patients with cancer experience significant distress, access to effective psychosocial care is limited by lack of systematic approaches to assessment, a paucity of psychosocial services, and patient reluctance to accept treatment either because of perceived stigma or difficulties with access to specialist psycho-oncology services due to isolation or disease burden. This paper presents an overview of a randomised study to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief tailored psychosocial Intervention delivered by health professionals in cancer care who undergo focused training and participate in clinical supervision. Methods/design Health professionals from the disciplines of nursing, occupational therapy, speech pathology, dietetics, physiotherapy or radiation therapy will participate in training to deliver the psychosocial Intervention focusing on core concepts of supportive-expressive, cognitive and dignity-conserving care. Health professional training will consist of completion of a self-directed manual and participation in a skills development session. Participating health professionals will be supported through structured clinical supervision whilst delivering the Intervention. In the stepped wedge design each of the 5 participating clinical sites will be allocated in random order from Control condition to Training then delivery of the Intervention. A total of 600 patients will be recruited across all sites. Based on level of distress or risk factors eligible patients will receive up to 4 sessions, each of up to 30 minutes in length, delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Participants will be assessed at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Patient outcome measures include anxiety and depression, quality of life, unmet psychological and supportive care needs. Health professional measures include psychological morbidity, stress and burnout. Process evaluation will be conducted to assess perceptions

  10. Towards recovery-oriented psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder: Quality of life outcomes, stage-sensitive treatments, and mindfulness mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Greg; Leitan, Nuwan D; Thomas, Neil; Michalak, Erin E; Johnson, Sheri L; Jones, Steven; Perich, Tania; Berk, Lesley; Berk, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Current adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder (BD) aim to impact illness course via information sharing/skill development. This focus on clinical outcomes contrasts with the emergent recovery paradigm, which prioritises adaptation to serious mental illness and movement towards personally meaningful goals. The aim of this review is to encourage innovation in the psychological management of BD by considering three recovery-oriented trends in the literature. First, the importance of quality of life as a target of recovery-oriented clinical work is considered. Second, the recent staging approach to BD is described, and we outline implications for psychosocial interventions tailored to stage. Finally, we review evidence suggesting that mindfulness-based psychosocial interventions have potential across early, middle and late stages of BD. It is concluded that the humanistic emphasis of the recovery paradigm provides a timely stimulus for development of a next generation of psychosocial treatments for people with BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High prevalence of long-term cardiovascular, neurological and psychosocial morbidity after treatment for craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alberto M; Schmid, Eva M; Schutte, Pieter J; Voormolen, Joan H C; Biermasz, Nienke R; van Thiel, Sjoerd W; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Smit, Jan W A; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Romijn, Johannes A

    2005-02-01

    The treatment of craniopharyngiomas is associated with long-term morbidity. To assess the long-term functional outcome and mortality rates after treatment for craniopharyngiomas, we audited our data with special focus on cardiovascular, neurological and psychosocial morbidity. Between 1965 and 2002, 54 consecutive patients underwent surgery for craniopharyngiomas at the Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC). Fifteen patients (25%) received additional postoperative radiation therapy. The median follow-up period was 10 years (range 1-37 years). Long-term cure rate was 82% and long-term recurrence rate 18%. Visual fields/visual acuity stabilized or improved in 74% of cases. The long-term prevalence rate of hypopituitarism was 89%. In addition, long-term cardiovascular, neurological and psychosocial morbidity rates were high: 22% (risk factors 57%), 49% and 47%, respectively. Female sex was an independent predictor of increased cardiovascular, neurological and psychosocial morbidity (odds ratio 3.78, P = 0.031). Ten patients (18%) died during an 828 person-year follow-up. The actuarial patient survival rates 5, 10 and 20 years after the initial operation were 95, 85 and 85%, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 2.88 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-4.99]. Craniopharyngioma is associated with excessive long-term multisystem morbidity and mortality, especially in female patients, despite a high cure rate. These observations indicate that dedicated long-term follow-up of these patients is required. The purpose of the follow-up should be: first, to look for recurrences and to ensure appropriate endocrine replacement, especially oestrogen replacement in premenopausal females; and second, to achieve intensive control of glucose, lipids, blood pressure and weight, as in any other patient with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

  12. Beyond treatmentPsychosocial and behavioural issues in cancer survivorship research and practice

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    Neil K. Aaronson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The population of cancer survivors has grown steadily over the past several decades. Surviving cancer, however, is not synonymous with a life free of problems related to the disease and its treatment. In this paper we provide a brief overview of selected physical and psychosocial health problems prevalent among cancer survivors, namely pain, fatigue, psychological distress and work participation. We also address issues surrounding self-management and e-Health interventions for cancer survivors, and programmes to encourage survivors to adopt healthier lifestyles. Finally, we discuss approaches to assessing health-related quality of life in cancer survivors, and the use of cancer registries in conducting psychosocial survivorship research. We highlight research and practice priorities in each of these areas. While the priorities vary per topic, common themes that emerged included: (1 Symptoms should not be viewed in isolation, but rather as part of a cluster of interrelated symptoms. This has implications for both understanding the aetiology of symptoms and for their treatment; (2 Psychosocial interventions need to be evidence-based, and where possible should be tailored to the needs of the individual cancer survivor. Relatively low cost interventions with self-management and e-Health elements may be appropriate for the majority of survivors, with resource intensive interventions being reserved for those most in need; (3 More effort should be devoted to disseminating and implementing interventions in practice, and to evaluating their cost-effectiveness; and (4 Greater attention should be paid to the needs of vulnerable and high-risk populations of survivors, including the socioeconomically disadvantaged and the elderly.

  13. Considerations on occupational therapy in a custody and psychiatric treatment hospital: The psychosocial field versus the forensic psychiatry field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Santos de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Custody and Psychiatric Treatment Hospital (CPTH is ambivalent and ambiguous in its essence, because it gathers not only the characteristics of a mental institution, but also those of a prison – epitomized by the security system. By analyzing this context, one can perceive the importance of implementing some knowhow able to attend the real needs of the individuals hospitalized in this type of institution. This interpretation of their needs must be done in association with a work in mental health based on the principles of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and Psychosocial Field Practice. The objective of this study is to reflect on the real possibilities of implementing mental health work based on the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, inserted in the Psychosocial Field, in institutions such as CPTHs. This reflection occurs from the conflicts arisen in the beginning of Occupational Therapy service in a CPTH located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, as well as through the analysis of the reality in which this Custody Hospital is inserted. When studying the Psychiatric Reform Law, ordinance 28.195/1988, which deliberates on the functions of Occupational Therapy in the CPTHs of the state of Sao Paulo, and the Penal Execution Law, the reality was analyzed from its dimensions, to conclude that the institutional forces ruled the work process of occupational therapists. Therefore, the structural, particular, singular dimensions that rule the CPTH were understood and, after that, the “nodes” that hinder the implementation of mental health work in the Psychosocial Field in this type of institution were revealed.

  14. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: A study amongst Malaysian workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd A. Idris; Dollard, Maureen F.; Winefield, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions.Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout) and moti...

  15. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Munch-Hansen, T.; Wieclaw, J.;

    2009-01-01

    -reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%). Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units...... with an average of 18 employees (range 3-120)]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. RESULTS......: The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living...

  16. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

    1998-09-01

    Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins.

  17. Exceptions and Exclusions: The Right to Informed Consent for Medical Treatment of People with Psychosocial Disabilities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Lisa; Mesherry, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    This article examines the relevant international law relating to informed consent to treatment for individuals with psychosocial disabilities and reflects on the protection offered in this respect by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and the Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine. The article argues that while the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is beginning to influence case law of the European Court of Human Rights, only 'weak' protection has been afforded to people with psychosocial disabilities by the ECHR and the Court in relation to informed consent for medical treatment.

  18. Variations in the diagnoses of psychosocial disorders: a general practice observation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1986-01-01

    The factors that influence the interpretation and treatment of psychosocial complaints by general practitioners are discussed. The assessment of complaints differs considerably from one GP to another, in the sense that one will attach significance to psychological and sociological factors in many

  19. Relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among Ghanaians in Amsterdam, the Netherlands--the GHAIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei, Bernard; Nicolaou, Mary; Boateng, Linda; Dijkshoorn, Henriette; van den Born, Bert-Jan; Agyemang, Charles

    2014-07-07

    Hypertension is highly prevalent among recent sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in western countries and some tend to associate their hypertension to psychosocial stress. However data on the relationship between hypertension and psychosocial stress among SSA migrants are rare. We assessed the relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among the largest SSA migrant population (Ghanaians) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were obtained from structured interviews along with medical examination among 212 participants from a cross-sectional study: the GHAIA study in 2010 in Amsterdam. Blood pressure was measured with a validated Oscillometric automated digital blood pressure device. Psychosocial stress was assessed by questionnaires on perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms and financial problems. Binary logistic regression was used to study associations between psychosocial stress and hypertension. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 54.7%. About two thirds of the study population experienced a moderate (31%) or high (36%) level of discrimination. 20.0% of the participants had mild depressive symptoms, whilst 9% had moderate depressive symptoms. The prevalence of financial stress was 34.8%. The psychosocial stresses we assessed were not significantly associated with hypertension: adjusted odds ratios comparing those with low levels and those with high levels were 0.99 (95% CI, 0.47-2.08) for perceived discrimination, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.26-2.49) for depressive symptoms and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.37-1.36) for financial stress, respectively. We did not find evidence for the association between psychosocial stress and hypertension among recent SSA migrants. More efforts are needed to unravel other potential factors that may underlie the high prevalence of hypertension among these populations.

  20. Sexual and Psychosocial Functioning in Women with MRKHS after Neovaginoplasty According to Wharton-Sheares-George: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithner, Katharina; Naderer, Andrea; Hartung, Dorothee; Abrahamowicz, Clara; Alexopoulos, Johanna; Walch, Katharina; Wenzl, René; Hilger, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) has a major impact on a woman's psychological and sexual well-being. In most of the studies that addressed treatment techniques, postoperative sexual function was reported to be satisfactory; however, comparatively few studies have additionally provided an accurate analysis of psychosocial functions in MRKHS patients following different kinds of neovaginal treatment. This study is to evaluate sexual and psychosocial functioning after creation of a neovagina according to Wharton-Sheares-George in women with MRKHS. We performed a case-control-study using multiple measures to assess sexual and psychosocial functioning. Ten MRKHS patients and 20 controls of a University hospital and tertiary center for pediatric and adolescent gynecology were assessed. The follow-up assessment comprised 6 standardized questionnaires (Female Sexuality Function Index, FSFI; Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ; Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI; World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment, WHOQoL-BREF; Parental Bonding Instrument, PBI; and a German questionnaire on body image). The main outcome measures were sexual function, psychological status, quality of life, body image, and parental bonding styles. Sexual function, psychological status (including depressive and somatic symptoms), quality of life, and own-body experience were at least as good in operated MRKHS patients as in controls. In some measures (FSFI, PHQ-15, psychological domain of the WHOQoL-BREF, and BSI Positive Symptom Total), patients scored significantly better than controls. The results of the PBI indicated a close and sustainable mother-daughter-relationship in MRKHS patients. We found no evidence for an impairment of sexual or psychosocial functioning in patients after neovaginoplasty according to Wharton-Sheares-George. MRKHS may not necessarily compromise sexual and psychological well-being, provided that the syndrome is properly managed by a multidisciplinary team

  1. Sexual and Psychosocial Functioning in Women with MRKHS after Neovaginoplasty According to Wharton-Sheares-George: A Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Leithner

    Full Text Available Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS has a major impact on a woman's psychological and sexual well-being. In most of the studies that addressed treatment techniques, postoperative sexual function was reported to be satisfactory; however, comparatively few studies have additionally provided an accurate analysis of psychosocial functions in MRKHS patients following different kinds of neovaginal treatment. This study is to evaluate sexual and psychosocial functioning after creation of a neovagina according to Wharton-Sheares-George in women with MRKHS.We performed a case-control-study using multiple measures to assess sexual and psychosocial functioning. Ten MRKHS patients and 20 controls of a University hospital and tertiary center for pediatric and adolescent gynecology were assessed. The follow-up assessment comprised 6 standardized questionnaires (Female Sexuality Function Index, FSFI; Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ; Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI; World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment, WHOQoL-BREF; Parental Bonding Instrument, PBI; and a German questionnaire on body image. The main outcome measures were sexual function, psychological status, quality of life, body image, and parental bonding styles.Sexual function, psychological status (including depressive and somatic symptoms, quality of life, and own-body experience were at least as good in operated MRKHS patients as in controls. In some measures (FSFI, PHQ-15, psychological domain of the WHOQoL-BREF, and BSI Positive Symptom Total, patients scored significantly better than controls. The results of the PBI indicated a close and sustainable mother-daughter-relationship in MRKHS patients.We found no evidence for an impairment of sexual or psychosocial functioning in patients after neovaginoplasty according to Wharton-Sheares-George. MRKHS may not necessarily compromise sexual and psychological well-being, provided that the syndrome is properly managed by a

  2. High levels of psychosocial readiness for ART in an African population at the onset of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Brent; Mbonye, Martin; Coutinho, Aartin; Amuron, Barbara; Nkabala, Robert; Jaffar, Shabbar; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2009-12-01

    Adherence at the earliest stages of treatment is likely to be influenced by prior illness trajectories and future expectations, best captured (and addressed) before treatment begins. We examined the influence of illness trajectories and treatment expectations on psychosocial readiness to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Jinja, Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2005 and April 2006 with 41 members of an AIDS support organisation on their first day of treatment. Transcribed texts were translated, coded and analysed thematically using NVIVO-7 software. Results indicated that acute fear of death and progressive withdrawal from social, economic and sexual roles narrowed focus on survival, while efficacy-enhancing experiences with septrin prophylaxis and trust in counsellors reinforced belief in HIV diagnosis and importance of adherence. Most enjoyed supportive home environments after disclosing their serostatus. Lack of money for food and transport was anticipated as the main barriers to future adherence, particularly among women. Integrating strong counselling support with ART provision helped channel the power of shared illness experience into positive motivation to adhere at the onset of treatment.

  3. Adesão ao tratamento da dor crônica: estudo de variáveis demográficas, terapêuticas e psicossociais Compliance with chronic pain treatment: study of demographic, therapeutic and psychosocial variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geana Paula Kurita

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar a prevalência da adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso em pacientes com dor crônica, e analisar as relações entre adesão e características do tratamento medicamentoso e fatores psicossociais (crenças frente à dor, locus de controle da saúde e depressão. Trinta indivíduos foram avaliados 5 vezes durante 6 meses. Adesão plena ocorreu entre 43,3% e 56,7% dos pacientes. A adesão parcial e a não adesão foram altas (40,0%-56,7%. Os índices de adesão não variaram ao longo de seis meses. Menor adesão relacionou-se à ocorrência de efeitos colaterais e às crenças de que o controle da saúde dependia de si próprio, de que dor é incapacitante, de que dor indica a presença de dano físico e de que comportamentos de solicitude de outrem quando há manifestação de dor são desejáveis. Conhecer os fatores envolvidos na adesão permite testar intervenções que a otimizem.The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of compliance with drug therapy in patients with chronic pain and analyze the relationships between compliance and characteristics of drug therapy and psychosocial factors (beliefs regarding pain, health locus of control and depression. Thirty patients were evaluated 5 times over a period of 6 months. Total compliance occurred in 43.3% to 56.7% of the patients. Partial compliance and non-compliance were high (40.0%-56.7%. The index of compliance did not vary over the six months. Low compliance related to occurrence of side effects and beliefs that the control of health depended on the patient, pain is a disability, that pain means the presence of physical injury and solicitous behavior of others is desirable when there is manifestation of pain. Knowing the factors involved in compliance enables us to test interventions that optimize it.

  4. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Bulimia Nervosa during Pregnancy: An Internal Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J.; Von Holle, Ann; Knoph, Cecilie; Hamer, Robert M.; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Magnus, Per; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper was to internally validate previously reported relations (1) between psychosocial factors and bulimia nervosa (BN) outcomes during pregnancy. Method This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Participants were women enrolled during pregnancy (N = 69,030). Internal validity was evaluated by way of bootstrapped parameter estimates using the overall sample and a split sample calibration approach. Results Bootstrap bias estimates were below the problematic threshold, and extend earlier findings(1) by providing support for the validity of the models at the population level of all pregnant women in Norway. Bootstrap risk ratios indicated that prevalence, incidence, and remission of BN during pregnancy were significantly associated with psychosocial factors. The split sample procedure showed that the models developed on the training sample did not predict risks in the validation sample. Discussion This study characterizes associations between psychosocial exposures and BN outcomes among pregnant women in Norway. Women with lifetime and current self-reported psychosocial adversities were at a much higher risk for BN during pregnancy. Psychosocial factors were associated with BN remission during pregnancy, inviting the prospect of enhancing therapeutic interventions. We consider the findings in the context of reproducibility in science. PMID:25346291

  5. Review of research grant allocation to psychosocial studies in diabetes research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, A; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate and discuss the allocation of diabetes research funds to studies with a psychosocial focus. METHODS: Annual reports and funded-research databases from approximately the last 5 years (if available) were reviewed from the following representative funding organizations, the American...... Diabetes Association, the Canadian Diabetes Association, Diabetes Australia, Diabetes UK, the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation and the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes, in order to estimate the overall proportion of studies allocated research funding that had a psychosocial focus. RESULTS...

  6. Psychosocial Work Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study among Swedish Flight Baggage Handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva L. Bergsten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among Swedish flight baggage handlers. Methods. A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports. Results. Low back (LBP and shoulder pain (SP were reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW by 30% (low back and 18% (shoulders, and intense pain (PINT occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67–7.99 and 2.68 (1.09–6.61 while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06–4.49 and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05–3.65 and 2.11 (1.08–4.12. Conclusion. Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation.

  7. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sicknes......: Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  8. Psychosocial distress during pregnancy and the risk of infantile colic: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Charlotte; Olsen, J.; Friis-Hasché, Erik;

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between psychosocial exposures during pregnancy and the risk of infantile colic. METHODS: The study included 378 infants and was conducted as a substudy of the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1997 to 1999, with prenatal data collected twice during pregnancy. A di....... Whether or not this relationship is causal requires further investigations.......AIM: To examine the association between psychosocial exposures during pregnancy and the risk of infantile colic. METHODS: The study included 378 infants and was conducted as a substudy of the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1997 to 1999, with prenatal data collected twice during pregnancy...

  9. Ecological Momentary Interventions: Incorporating Mobile Technology Into Psychosocial and Health Behavior Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Kristin E.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Psychosocial and health behavior treatments and therapies can be extended beyond traditional research or clinical settings by using mobile technology to deliver interventions to individuals as they go about their daily lives. These Ecological Momentary Interventions [EMI] are treatments that are provided to people during their everyday lives (i.e., in real time) and in natural settings (i.e., real world). The goal of the present review is to synthesize and critique mobile technology-based EMI aimed at improving health behaviors and psychological and physical symptoms. Methods Twenty-seven interventions using palmtop computers or mobile phones to deliver ambulatory treatment for smoking cessation, weight loss, anxiety, diabetes management, eating disorders, alcohol use, and healthy eating and physical activity were identified. Results There is evidence that EMI can be successfully delivered, are accepted by patients, and are efficacious for treating a variety of health behaviors and physical and psychological symptoms. Limitations of the existing literature were identified and recommendations and considerations for research design, sample characteristics, measurement, statistical analyses, and clinical implementation are discussed. Conclusions Mobile technology-based EMI can be effectively implemented as interventions for a variety of health behaviors and psychological and physical symptoms. Future research should integrate the assessment and intervention capabilities of mobile technology to create dynamically and individually tailored EMI that are ecologically sensitive. PMID:19646331

  10. Continuation of Health Behaviors: Psychosocial Factors Sustaining Drinking Water Chlorination in a Longitudinal Study from Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lilje

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavior that has changed following promotion campaigns is usually not maintained at its initial level. Psychosocial factors for initiating behavior are often not the same as for the continuation of health behaviors such as water treatment and are much less understood. Better knowledge of factors for behavioral continuation would help to improve programs, both in the design of strategies for sustainable behavior change and by defining stronger criteria for the evaluation of sustainability. This study compared the mindsets of caregivers who continuously performed household drinking water treatment over time with individuals that stopped doing so in a population sample from Chad. Several factors from health psychology based on the Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-Regulation (RANAS model were used to compare the two groups and examine their differing development. Normative factors such as others’ behavior, personal obligation, social support and discourse, perceived self-efficacy convictions, action control, and intention best discriminated between the two groups and developed significantly more positively over time for continuers of water treatment. These factors should be considered when designing future interventions intended to lead to sustainable behavior change.

  11. Predicting functional remission in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study of symptomatic remission, psychosocial remission, functioning, and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Valencia,1 Ana Fresán,2 Yoram Barak,3 Francisco Juárez,1 Raul Escamilla,4 Ricardo Saracco41Division of Epidemiological and Psychosocial Research, 2Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Psychiatry Department, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 4Schizophrenia Clinic, National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: New approaches to assess outcome in schizophrenia include multidimensional measures such as remission, cognition, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Clinical and psychosocial measures have been recently introduced to assess functional outcome.Objective: The study presented here was designed to examine the rates of symptomatic remission, psychosocial remission, global functioning, and clinical global impressions in a sample of schizophrenia outpatients in order to assess functional remission and to identify predictive factors for functional remission.Methods: A total of 168 consecutive Mexican outpatients receiving pharmacological treatment at the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Symptomatic remission was assessed according to the definition and criteria proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Psychosocial remission was assessed according to Barak criteria using the Psychosocial Remission in Schizophrenia scale. Functioning was measured with the Global Assessment of Functioning, and clinical outcome with the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI Scale.Results: Findings showed that 45.2% of patients fulfilled the symptomatic remission criteria, 32.1% achieved psychosocial remission, and 53% reported adequate functioning. However, the combination of these three outcome criteria – symptomatic, psychosocial remission, and functioning – indicated that 14.9% of the

  12. Psychosocial consequences for children of a parent with cancer : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, GA; van der Graaf, WTA; Visser, A; Dijkstra, JS; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2003-01-01

    When cancer is diagnosed in a parent, this may also have consequences for the children. The purpose of this pilot study was to gain more insight into the psychosocial consequences for children of a parent with cancer, from the perspective of both the children and their parents. For this study, 14 fa

  13. Psychosocial consequences for children of a parent with cancer : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, GA; van der Graaf, WTA; Visser, A; Dijkstra, JS; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2003-01-01

    When cancer is diagnosed in a parent, this may also have consequences for the children. The purpose of this pilot study was to gain more insight into the psychosocial consequences for children of a parent with cancer, from the perspective of both the children and their parents. For this study, 14 fa

  14. Specialized psychosocial treatment plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU for patients with cannabis use disorder and psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, C R; Fohlmann, A; Larsen, Anne-Mette

    2013-01-01

    of motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). TAU was targeted primarily at the psychotic disorder. The primary outcome was self-reported days with cannabis use in the preceding month. RESULTS: Pre-randomization cannabis use frequency was 14.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.7-17.1] days......BACKGROUND: Cannabis abuse in psychotic patients is associated with rehospitalizations, reduced adherence and increased symptom severity. Previous psychosocial interventions have been ineffective in cannabis use, possibly because of low sample sizes and short interventions. We investigated whether...... adding CapOpus to treatment as usual (TAU) reduces cannabis use in patients with cannabis use disorder and psychosis. Method A total of 103 patients with psychosis and cannabis use disorder were centrally randomized to 6 months of CapOpus plus TAU (n = 52) or TAU (n = 51). CapOpus consisted mainly...

  15. Study of the relationship of psychosocial disorders to bruxism in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bruxism has been defined as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional habit. Etiology of bruxism has remained controversial and some investigators believe that psychological factors may play a major role in promoting and perpetuating this habit. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders in adolescents., Participants were chosen among 114, 12-14 year old students (girls. They were divided into two groups, bruxers and nonbruxers, on the basis of both validated clinical criteria and interview with each patient. A few participants were excluded on the basis of presence of systemic disorders, TMJ disorders, other oral habits, primary teeth, defective restorations and premature contacts. Following matching of two groups in regard to parent′s age and education, mother′s marital status, child support status, mother′s employment status, and socio-economical status, 25 cases and 25 controls were enlisted. A self report validated questionnaire (YSR, 11-18 yr was then filled out by both groups for the evaluation of 12 psychosocial symptoms. Results: Remarkable differences in certain psychosocial aspects were found between the two groups. Prevalence of psychosocial disorders including Thought Disorders (P < 0.005, Conduct Disorders (P < 0.05, Antisocial Disorders (P < 0.06 as identified by YSR was significantly higher in bruxers. Significant differences between the two groups also emerged in total YSR scores (P < 0.005. The results of Odds Ratio revealed that a bruxer adolescent has 16 times greater probability for psychosocial disorders than a non-bruxer one. Fischer exact test and T-test were used and Odds Ratio and Confidence Interval was estimated. Conclusion: Support to the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders has been provided.

  16. A study on the psychosocial behavior of the disabled children in Loni, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal Rao Kodali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To find out the changes in psychosocial behavior of the disabled children. Materials and Methods: The study area comprises of villages under rural field practice area of Rural Medical College, Loni. 7300 children of the age group of 0-14 years from the total population of 20,533 were studied by community based cross- sectional study. House to house survey was conducted to identify disabled children using a pre-tested questionnaire by interview technique. Child behavior check list (CBCL which was developed by T.M. Atenbach was the tool used to assess the comprehensive, multi informant evaluation of child′s behavior. Results: The overall prevalence rate of disabilities in children was 2.25%. Psychosocial behavioral changes were observed more in children with multiple and miscellaneous disability which includes cerebral palsy and was followed by mental retardation, locomotor disability, visual impairment and least among the children with hearing and speech impairment. Psychosocial behavioral changes among the children with disabilities were statistically significant. Conclusion: The result of the study necessitates organizing counseling to disabled children and parents, community based rehabilitation program and integration of disabled into the main stream education to reduce the psychosocial behavioral changes.

  17. Family Structure, Psychosocial Factors, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the NHLBI CARDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    24) found that for men, having preschool aged children negatively impacted health while having a preschool aged child had protective functions for...2   Psychosocial Factors in the Development of CAD and...177 billion in 2011 (1). Therefore, the study of the contributing factors involved in the development of CAD may ultimately lead to development of

  18. Assessment of psychosocial factors and distress in women having adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: the relationship among emotional distress and patient and treatment-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozturk; Soylu, Cem; Babacan, Taner; Sarici, Furkan; Kertmen, Neyran; Allen, Deborah; Sever, Ali Riza; Altundag, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to comprehensively describe the psychosocial and medical characteristics of women who initiated tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer and to compare levels of emotional distress according to their medical (tumor demographics, treatment type, treatment duration) and psychosocial (self-esteem, perceived social support, sociodemographic) characteristics. A total of 104 women currently receiving tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors was recruited from outpatient clinics and they were asked to complete self-report questionnaires including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale during their routine follow-up. Psychosocial and medical characteristics of the patients were first described and subsequently the score of emotional distress was compared with these. The patients' mean age was 52.49 ± 10.30 and they were being treated for an average of 24.3 months. Out of the patients' characteristics, educational and marital status, level of perceived social support and self-esteem were all significantly related with emotional distress. As for medical variables, the score of distress was relatively higher among patients in the first 2 years of their treatment than the patients who were in the second to fifth years of treatment, but this was not statistically significant. Given the results of this study, it appeared that patient variables, rather than the medical or treatment characteristics, were related with emotional distress in women undergoing endocrine treatment. For that reason it is critical that medical staff are aware of patient factors that relate to distress during a long period of adjuvant endocrine therapy.

  19. The general practitioner as the first contacted health professional by patients with psychosocial problems: a European study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Background: there are considerable differences between and within countries in the involvement of general practitioners (GPs) in psychosocial care. This study aimed to describe the self-perceived role of GPs in 30 European countries as the first contacted professional for patients with psychosocial

  20. In-School Psychosocial Support Services for Safeguarding Children's Rights: Results and Implications of a Botswana Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntinda, Kayi; Maree, Jacobus Gideon; Mpofu, Elias; Seeco, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In-school psychosocial support services are intended to create safe learning environments for children, enabling the children to attain age-appropriate developmental tasks. This study investigated protections to children's right to safe learning environments through the provision of in-school psychosocial support services. Participants were 230…

  1. In-School Psychosocial Support Services for Safeguarding Children's Rights: Results and Implications of a Botswana Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntinda, Kayi; Maree, Jacobus Gideon; Mpofu, Elias; Seeco, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In-school psychosocial support services are intended to create safe learning environments for children, enabling the children to attain age-appropriate developmental tasks. This study investigated protections to children's right to safe learning environments through the provision of in-school psychosocial support services. Participants were 230…

  2. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general popula

  3. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general

  4. Association between Optimism, Psychosocial Well Being and Oral Health: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkadam, G; Asokan, Sharath; Baby John, J; Geetha Priya, P R

    The aim of the study was to assess the association of optimism and psychosocial well being of school going children on their oral health status. The study included 12- to 15-year-old school going children (N = 2014) from Tamilnadu, India. Optimism was measured using the revised version of the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). A questionnaire was sent to the parents regarding their child's psychosocial behavior which included shyness, feeling inferiority, unhappiness and friendliness. Clinical examination for each child was done to assess the DMFT score and OHI-S score. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square test, Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallis test with the aid of SPSS software (version 17). Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). The p value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Boys with high optimism had significantly lesser DMFT score than the boys with low optimism (p=0.001). Girls with high optimism had significantly higher DMFT score (p=0.001). In psychosocial outcomes, inferiority (p=0.002) and friendliness (p=0.001) showed significant association with DMFT score. Among the boys, children who felt less inferior (p=0.001), less unhappy (p=0.029) and more friendly (p=0.001) had lesser DMFT score. Among the psychosocial outcomes assessed, inferiority and friendliness had significant association with oral health of the children and hence, can be used as a proxy measures oral health.

  5. Psychosocial Functioning in Depressive Patients: A Comparative Study between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar affective disorder (BAD are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression. Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT. Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P=0.031 with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression.

  6. Physiotherapists' assessment of patients' psychosocial status: are we standing on thin ice? A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Mukul; Jones, Mark; Edwards, Ian; Kumar, Saravana

    2015-04-01

    Pain is a complex problem and one that confronts many physiotherapists' working in private practice on a daily basis. While physiotherapists' understanding of pain has matured a great deal in recent times, especially the role of psychosocial (PS) factors, it is unclear if and how, physiotherapists assess their patients' psychosocial status in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to explore private practice physiotherapists' assessment of patients' psychosocial status. A qualitative descriptive research design was used in this study. Participants were recruited through purposeful sampling and potential informants were invited to participate through letters or phone calls and data was collected via semi-structured interviews. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted at the participants' workplaces. Data collection and analysis were conducted simultaneously and common concepts and themes were recognised, coded and grouped together into themes. Analysis of the data resulted in identification of various themes related to physiotherapists' assessment of patients' PS status. These themes relate to; physiotherapists capacity to conduct PS assessment, the barriers they face while conducting PS assessment and the suggestions they have provided to overcome these barriers. In general the physiotherapists' in this study demonstrated and acknowledged a poor understanding of the role of PS factors in their patients' clinical presentation. They were also unclear about the assessment of psychosocial factors. The barriers to assessment of psychosocial factors ranged from individual shortcomings to limitations in professional networks and time constraints. The most consistent barrier highlighted was participants' lack of formal education in PS theory and assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A cohort study of psychosocial work stressors on work ability among Brazilian hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-07-01

    Hospital work is characterized by stressors that can influence work ability. The present study aims to assess the association between psychosocial work stressors and changes in work ability in a group of Brazilian hospital employees. From 1,022 workers included in a 3-year cohort started in 2009, 423 (41.4%) returned the applied questionnaires in 2012. Changes in work ability were considered as the dependent variable and the investigated psychosocial work stressors as independent variables. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential con-founders (demographic, occupational features, social support, overcommitment, and situations liable to cause pain/injury). High levels of exposure to psychosocial work stressors were significantly associated with decreased work ability: job strain (OR = 2.81), effort-reward imbalance (OR = 3.21). Strategies to reduce psychosocial work stressors should be considered to maintain hospital employees' work ability. Such strategies have implications for institutional and social policies and might be included in quality management programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Self-assessment of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthognathic surgery is a well-accepted treatment for patients with skeletal discrepancies. The primary motivation of many patients who seek orthognathic surgery is esthetics and not for correction of functional disability. The treatment is incomplete if the surgeon attempts to correct the physical deformity alone without adequate understanding and regard for the emotional framework. The purpose of this study is aimed at patient′s self-perceptions of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery. Fifty patients were included in the study, of which 21 were used as control. Twenty-two questions were asked to evaluate the problem in all four areas as mentioned earlier. Each question takes a score from one to five. In group I, the internal consistency of each scale indicates moderate to high internal reliability, ranging from α = 0.71 for general health to α = 0.88 for psychosocial problem. In group II, except for functional problems, the internal consistency of each scale has moderate to high reliability. The psychological wellbeing of an orthognathic surgery patient is enhanced by careful preoperative counseling regarding the expected surgical treatment objectives, the operative course, and the expected postoperative sequelae. Patients who undergo orthognathic surgery readily accept the changes in their postoperative appearance and are satisfied with achieved results.

  9. Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Janssens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at investigating cross-sectional relationships between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism in a sample of Belgian middle-aged workers. Material and Methods: Data were collected from 1372 male and 1611 female workers in the Belstress III study. Psychosocial characteristics assessed by the use of self-administered questionnaires were: job demands, job control, social support, efforts, rewards, bullying, home-to-work conflict and work-to-home conflict. Presenteeism was measured using a single item question, and it was defined as going to work despite illness at least 2 times in the preceding year. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and presenteeism, while adjusting for several socio-demographic, health-related variables and neuroticism. An additional analysis in a subgroup of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism was conducted. Results: The prevalence of presenteeism was 50.6%. Overall results, adjusted for major confounders, revealed that high job demands, high efforts, low support and low rewards were associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, a significant association could be observed for both bullying and work-to-home conflict in relation to presenteeism. The subgroup analysis on a selection of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism generally confirmed these results. Conclusions: Both job content related factors as well as work contextual psychosocial factors were significantly related to presenteeism. These results suggest that presenteeism is not purely driven by the health status of a worker, but that psychosocial work characteristics also play a role.

  10. Psychosocial work characteristics as predictors for burnout: findings from 3-year follow up of the PUMA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on burnout. METHODS: A total of 1772 participants in different human service sector organizations were eligible for the cross-sectional analyses (baseline) and 952 for the prospective analyses....... We measured 14 psychosocial work characteristics and three types of burnout. Linear regression models were used for analyzing associations between psychosocial work characteristics at baseline and burnout at baseline and at 3 years of follow up. RESULTS: Low possibilities for development, high...... meaning of work, low predictability, high quality of leadership, low role clarity, and high role conflicts predicted burnout at 3 years of follow up after the psychosocial work characteristics were adjusted for each other, potential confounders, and burnout level at baseline. CONCLUSION: Psychosocial work...

  11. The contribution of case study design to supporting research on Clubhouse psychosocial rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeburn, Toby; Schmied, Virginia; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Psychosocial Clubhouses provide recovery-focused psychosocial rehabilitation to people with serious mental illness at over 300 sites in more than 30 countries worldwide. To deliver the services involved, Clubhouses employ a complex mix of theory, programs and relationships, with this complexity presenting a number of challenges to those undertaking Clubhouse research. This paper provides an overview of the usefulness of case study designs for Clubhouse researchers; and suggests ways in which the evaluation of Clubhouse models can be facilitated. The paper begins by providing a brief explanation of the Clubhouse model of psychosocial rehabilitation, and the need for ongoing evaluation of the services delivered. This explanation is followed by an introduction to case study design, with consideration given to the way in which case studies have been used in past Clubhouse research. It is posited that case study design provides a methodological framework that supports the analysis of either quantitative, qualitative or a mixture of both types of data to investigate complex phenomena in their everyday contexts, and thereby support the development of theory. As such, case study approaches to research are well suited to the Clubhouse environment. The paper concludes with recommendations for future Clubhouse researchers who choose to employ a case study design. While the quality of case study research that explores Clubhouses has been variable in the past, if applied in a diligent manner, case study design has a valuable contribution to make in future Clubhouse research.

  12. Psychosocial factors in trauma patients : studies on trauma recurrence and trauma recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ponzer, Sari

    1999-01-01

    The present studies aimed to highlight the influence of psychosocial and psychiatric factors on trauma recurrence and trauma recovery. A subgroup of trauma patients, 820 victims of firearm injuries, were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group in a retrospective register study. The results showed that firearm victims were characterised by high mortality, morbidity and antisocial traits independent of the intention of the gunshot. Hospitalisation due to injuries as ...

  13. Psychosocial Determinants of Attrition in a Longitudinal Study of Tobacco Use in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Post

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To gain knowledge on psychosocial characteristics that predict the propensity of participation in longitudinal studies, attrition was analysed in a cohort of 3020 adolescents participating in the baseline survey of a longitudinal study with repeated followup focusing on adolescents’ tobacco use. During the followup surveys, the proportion of responders was constantly at or above 90%. There were 941 adolescents (31.2% who failed to participate in at least one of the six followup surveys. Boys had a fifty percent increased risk of nonparticipation compared with girls. Adolescents in families with experience of divorce, unemployment, and change of residence had a higher risk of nonparticipation. An increasing number of stressful life events during the previous year, uptake of tobacco use, number of friends, perceived performance at school, truancy, and alcohol use during the last term also independently associated with nonparticipation. Diverse psychosocial characteristics are independently associated with nonparticipation of youths in longitudinal studies.

  14. Project EASE: a study to test a psychosocial model of epilepsy medication managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiIorio, Collen; Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Letz, Richard; Henry, Thomas R; Schomer, Donal L; Yeager, Kate

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a psychosocial model of medication self-management among people with epilepsy. This model was based primarily on social cognitive theory and included personal (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, stigma, and depressive symptoms), social (social support), and provider (patient satisfaction and desire for control) variables. Participants for the study were enrolled at research sites in Atlanta, Georgia, and Boston, Massachusetts and completed computer-based assessments that included measures of the study variables listed above. The mean age of the 317 participants was 43.3 years; about 50% were female, and 81%white. Self-efficacy and patient satisfaction explained the most variance in medication management. Social support was related to self-efficacy; stigma to self-efficacy and depressive symptoms; and self-efficacy to outcome expectations and depressive symptoms. Findings reinforce that medication-taking behavior is affected by a complex set of interactions among psychosocial variables.

  15. Should psychosocial intervention be added to pharmacological treatment for opiate abuse/dependence? An overview of systematic reviews of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Amato

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Opioid abuse and dependence are major health and social issues in most societies. Different interventions are available, but the majority of heroin patients relapse and these relapses are a substantial problem to their rehabilitation. Psychosocial interventions for drug addicts have been suggested as possible instruments to overcome the difficulty of maintaining a drug-free state. The aim of this paper is to provide a summary of the available evidence of effectiveness.

    Methods: We summarised the results from two systematic reviews on psychosocial interventions combined with Methadone Maintenance Treatment and Methadone or Buprenorphine Detoxification Treatment.

    Results: For detoxification treatments, the results show that benefits can be gained from adding any psychosocial treatment to any substitution detoxification treatment in terms of completion of treatment: relative risk (RR 1.68 (95% CI 1.11-2.55, and compliance (proportion of clinical absences: RR 0.48 (95% CI 0.38-0.59; for the use of heroin during treatment, the differences were not statistically significant. For maintenance treatments, there is an additional benefit to be gained in adding any psychosocial treatment to methadone maintenance treatment in relation to the use of heroin during treatment: RR 0.69(95% CI 0.53-0.91; no statistically significant additional benefit was shown in terms of treatment retention and results at follow-up.

    Conclusions: Psychosocial treatments offered in addition to pharmacological detoxification treatments are effective in terms of completion of treatment and compliance, while adding any psychosocial support to methadone maintenance significantly improves the non-use of heroin during treatment but does not improve the other outcomes considered.

  16. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    ,670 participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark) were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, and sleep medication and were followed in nationwide registries until 2007, with less than 0.2% loss to follow-up. Almost one...... interval: 1.20, 3.10) and women (hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 3.65). Contrary to expectation, major life events, social network, and sleeping medication did not play an individual role for heart failure hospitalization. Because of the high prevalence of vital exhaustion......Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8...

  17. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  18. Psychosocial health coaching for chronically ill in a telehealth context: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenneke Van Genugten

    2015-10-01

    The results show that the structured, partly automated approach can be used in a telehealth context by means of health coaches. MAY appeared to be a suitable tool for providing input for psychosocial care. HCs attitudes towards the structured approach were positive, which is crucial to the success of the implementation of MAY. Based on these results, we recommend to continue this approach as it may strengthen the wellbeing of patients (to be evaluated in future work. However, improvements are necessary. The tool should get a better fit in the current working procedures, and support the translation from recommendations to action. Further automation may facilitate this. In conclusion, this study shows that it is possible for HCs to implement structured psychosocial care in a telehealth program but that combining digitalized and human efforts in one structure is a challenge. The appreciation of the health coaches is an important first step in this process.

  19. Psychosocial health risk factors and resources of medical students and physicians: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirsching Michael

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological data indicate elevated psychosocial health risks for physicians, e. g., burnout, depression, marital disturbances, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial health resources and risk factors in profession-related behaviour and experience patterns of medical students and physicians that may serve as a basis for appropriate health promoting interventions. Methods The questionnaire -Related Behaviour and Experience "Work administered in cross-sectional surveys to students in the first (n = 475 and in the fifth year of studies (n = 355 in required courses at three German universities and to physicians in early professional life in the vicinity of these universities (n = 381. Results Scores reflecting a healthy behaviour pattern were less likely in physicians (16.7% compared to 5th year (26.0% and 1st year students (35.1% while scores representing unambitious and resigned patterns were more common among physicians (43.4% vs. 24.4% vs. 41.0% and 27.3% vs. 17.2% vs. 23.3 respectively. Female and male responders differed in the domains professional commitment, resistance to stress and emotional well-being. Female physicians on average scored higher in the dimensions resignation tendencies, satisfaction with life and experience of social support, and lower in career ambition. Conclusion The results show distinct psychosocial stress patterns among medical students and physicians. Health promotion and prevention of psychosocial symptoms and impairments should be integrated as a required part of the medical curriculum and be considered an important issue during the further training of physicians.

  20. [Psychosocial and socioeconomic factors related to insomnia and menopause: Pró-Saúde Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Lopes, Claudia S; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the association between insomnia and menopausal status and the influence of socioeconomic and psychosocial variables on this association in a cross-sectional analysis of 2,190 university employees (the Pró-Saúde Study). A self-administered questionnaire was used, covering menopausal status, complaints of insomnia, common mental disorders, stressful life events, social support, and socioeconomic variables. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression with a polytomous outcome. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic confounders, women who had entered menopause more than 60 months previously were more likely to report complaints with sleep (OR 1.53-1.86) as compared to women in menopause for less than 60 months. After adjusting for psychosocial variables, in the first group the ORs decreased to 1.53 (95%CI: 0.92-2.52) for difficulty initiating sleep, 1.81 (95%CI: 1.09-2.98) for difficulty maintaining sleep, and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.08-2.73) for general complaints of insomnia. Psychosocial factors can mediate the manifestation of insomnia among menopausal women.

  1. Psychosocial impact of hidradenitis suppurativa: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esmann, Solveig; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2011-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa influences patients' lives in many ways. It is therefore necessary to focus on the effects of the disease on daily life in order better to define patient-related outcomes in hidradenitis suppurativa studies...

  2. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Pryce

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS. Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the

  3. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Christopher R; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2017-02-01

    Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS). Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the predictive validity

  4. Analysis of psychosocial factors influencing the distribution and projection of Spanish scientific activity: report of the initial qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    GESCIT

    2007-01-01

    In this first phase of a longer study, we identify a number of psycho-social factors which are affecting science in Spain: attitudes, stereotypes, prejudices, values, beliefs, and attribution processes. We also examine how these factors might help or hinder Spanish science's greater impact in the international scientific community. This study falls within the framework of the Social Psychology of Science, the main principle of which is to explain scientific work by appeal to psycho-social...

  5. Psychosocial risk factors for hospital readmission in COPD patients on early discharge services: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Christopher J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD occurs in up to 30% of patients, leading to excess morbidity and poor survival. Physiological risk factors predict readmission, but the impact of modifiable psychosocial risk factors remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate whether psychosocial risk factors independently predict readmission for AECOPD in patients referred to early discharge services (EDS. Methods This prospective cohort study included 79 patients with AECOPD cared for by nurse led EDS in the UK, and followed up for 12 months. Data on lung function, medical comorbidities, previous hospital admissions, medications, and sociodemographics were collected at baseline; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and social support were measured at baseline, 3 and 12-months. Exploratory multivariate models were fitted to identify psychosocial factors associated with readmission adjusted for known confounders. Results 26 patients were readmitted within 90 days and 60 patients were readmitted at least once during follow-up. Depression at baseline predicted readmission adjusted for sociodemographics and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (odds ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.60, p = 0.013. Perceived social support was not significantly associated with risk of readmission. Home ownership was associated with the total number of readmissions (B = 0.46, 95% CI -0.86 to -0.06, p = 0.024. Compared with those not readmitted, readmitted patients had worse SGRQ and HADS scores at 12 months. Conclusion Depressive symptoms and socioeconomic status, but not perceived social support, predict risk of readmission and readmission frequency for AECOPD in patients cared for by nurse-led EDS. Future work on reducing demand for unscheduled hospital admissions could include the design and evaluation of interventions aimed at optimising the psychosocial care of AECOPD patients managed at

  6. Psychosocial stressors and depression at a Swedish primary health care centre. A gender perspective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ranja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial stress may account for the higher prevalence of depression in women and in individuals with a low educational background. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between depression and socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and lifestyle circumstances from a gender perspective in a relatively affluent primary care setting. Methods Patients, aged 18- 75 years, visiting a drop-in clinic at a primary care health centre were screened with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. The physicians used also targeted screening with BDI. A questionnaire on socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and use of alcohol and tobacco was distributed. Among patients, who scored BDI ≥10, DSM-IV-criteria were used to diagnose depression. Of the 404 participants, 48 men and 76 women were diagnosed with depression. The reference group consisted of patients with BDI score Results The same three psychosocial stressors: feeling very stressed, perceived poor physical health and being dissatisfied with one's family situation were associated with depression equally in men and women. The negative predictive values of the main effect models in men and women were 90.7% and 76.5%, respectively. Being dissatisfied with one's work situation had high ORs in both men and women. Unemployment and smoking were associated with depression in men only. Conclusions Three questions, frequently asked by physicians, which involve patient's family and working situation as well as perceived stress and physical health, could be used as depression indicators in early detection of depression in men and women in primary health care.

  7. Psychosocial adjustment of children with migraine and tension-type headache - a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Marco A; Arruda, Renato; Guidetti, Vincenzo; Bigal, Marcelo E

    2015-02-01

    To describe patterns of psychosocial adjustment and psychological attributes in preadolescent children as a function of headache status in univariate and adjusted analyses. Target sample of children (n = 8599) was representative of Brazil by demographics. Parents were interviewed using validated headache questionnaires and the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire," which measures behavior in 5 domains. One-year prevalence estimates of headaches were derived by demographics. Relative risk of abnormal Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores were separately modeled in children with episodic migraine and episodic tension-type headache using logistic regression. Sample consisted of 5671 children (65.9% of the target sample), from 5 to 12 years old (49.3% girls). Prevalence estimates in children were 20.6% for "no headache," 9% for episodic migraine, and 12.8% for episodic tension-type headache. Abnormal scores in psychosocial adjustment were significantly more likely in children with episodic migraine, relative to children without headaches and children with episodic tension-type headache, and was significantly influenced by frequency of headache attacks, nausea, school performance, prenatal exposure to tobacco, as well as by phonophobia and photophobia. Children with migraine are at an increased risk of having impairment in psychosocial adjustment, and the factors associated with this impairment have been mapped. Future studies should address the directionality of the association and putative mechanisms to explain it. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  8. Psychosocial correlates of police-registered youth crime. A Finnish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Parkkola, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This study is focused on psychosocial correlates of youth crime in a sample of 2330 Finnish boys born in 1981. Two kinds of data were combined: questionnaires completed by the boys at call-up in 1999 and crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001. One-fifth of the boys were registered to offending during the 4-year period in late adolescence; 14% were registered for one or two offences, 4% for three to five offences, and 3% for more than five offences. Crime accumulated heavily in those with more than five offences, as they accounted for 68% of all crime. Independent correlates of crime were living in a small community, parents' low educational level and divorce, having a regular relationship, self-reported delinquency, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness, whereas anxious-depressiveness was reversely associated with crime. Most psychosocial problems covaried linearly with offending frequency, being particularly manifested by multiple recidivists. However, recidivists had very rarely used mental health services. The results indicate that offending and various psychosocial problems accumulate in a small minority of boys not reached by mental health services.

  9. [The effectiveness of psychosocial treatment approaches for alcohol dependence--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlender, M; Köhler, J; Soyka, M

    2006-01-01

    Treatment approaches which are used in the context of inpatient alcoholism treatment are frequently neither theoretically justified nor empirically examined. In view of the enormous method variety the necessity exists for the development of treatment guidelines in order to offer indicators of promising treatment achievement for practitioners and pension funds. In a first step, it must be examined which treatments are effective, which are ineffective and which are possibly even counter-productive. This article aims to give a comprehensive review of randomized-controlled studies/meta-analysis on the efficacy of different treatment approaches. This article reporting the literature review is part of a larger programme to develop clinical practice guidelines for rehabilitation which is supported in form, content and finance by the German Pension Institute for Salaried Employees (Bundesversicherungsanstalt für Angestellte, BfA). Summing up, treatment is effective compared to no treatment. Cognitive behavioural therapy included in a multimodal treatment program is effective. There are a number of treatment protocols for which controlled research has consistently found positive results like social skills training, community reinforcement approaches, behaviour contracting, motivation-enhancing treatment, and family/marital therapy. There is also a number of commonly used treatment approaches that brought neither a positive result or were counter productive like relapse prevention, non-behavioural marital therapy, and insight psychotherapy, confrontational counseling, education, relaxation training, and milieu therapy. Support for matching to a specific treatment is weak, but interventions against alcohol problems should be differentiated according to the severity of the alcohol problem. Since treatment evaluation is mainly accomplished in the US and supplying structures with respect to the US and Germany are substantially different, a generalized transmission of US

  10. Processes of Metastudy: A Study of Psychosocial Adaptation to Childhood Chronic Health Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nichola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastudy introduces a systematically aggregated interpretive portrayal of a body of literature, based on saturation and the synthesis of findings. In this metastudy, the authors examined qualitative studies addressing psychosocial adaptation to childhood chronic health conditions, published over a 30-year period (1970–2000. They describe metastudy processes, including study identification, strategies for study search and retrieval, adjudication of difference in study design and rigor, and analysis of findings. They also illustrate metastudy components through examples drawn from this project and discuss implications for practice and recommendations.

  11. [Internet- and mobile-based approaches : Psycho-social diagnostics and treatment in medical rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Harald; Lin, Jiaxi; Ebert, David Daniel

    2017-02-21

    Technology-based approaches for psychosocial diagnostics and interventions provide an attractive opportunity to optimize medical rehabilitation. Based on an Internet- and mobile-based assessment of existing functional health impairments, appropriate planning, implementation of corresponding courses of action as well as outcome assessment can take place. This can be implemented in the form of Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMI).The present article provides an overview of the basic knowledge of IMI and their evidence base both in general and in particular for their use in medical rehabilitation. Important aspects of internet and mobile-based psycho-social diagnostics are discussed subsequently. Finally, an outlook for the use of Internet- and mobile-based diagnostics and interventions in medical rehabilitation is given.

  12. A prospective study of mastectomy patients with and without delayed breast reconstruction: long-term psychosocial functioning in the breast cancer survivorship period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kelly A; Zhong, Toni; Narod, Steven A; Quan, May-Lynn; Holloway, Claire; Hofer, Stefan; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Semple, John

    2015-03-01

    For women who have mastectomy, breast reconstruction is an option which may improve psychosocial functioning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in psychosocial functioning over a long follow-up period after mastectomy, specifically examining the differences between those with mastectomy alone and those who underwent postmastectomy delayed breast reconstruction (DBR). This was a prospective longitudinal survey study of women with mastectomy in which a repeated measures design was used to compare psychosocial function scores over 3 timepoints: 1) pre-mastectomy; 2) one year post-mastectomy; and 3) long-term post-mastectomy (mean 6.3 years). In addition, psychosocial functioning was compared between the mastectomy alone group and the group who elected for DBR. 67 women who completed questionnaires at all three time points were included. The long-term follow-up time post-mastectomy was 75.2 months (6.3 years). Twenty-eight women (41.8%) underwent DBR in the study period. For the entire cohort, between one-year and long-term post-mastectomy, there were significant improvements in scores for body concerns (P = 0.03), cancer-related distress (P = 0.01), and total distress (P = 0.04). At long-term follow-up, women with DBR had significantly higher levels of total distress (P = 0.01), obsessiveness (P = 0.03), and cancer-related distress (P = 0.02) compared to those with mastectomy alone. There were no differences in quality of life between the two groups at any time point. Psychosocial functioning improves over time in patients treated with mastectomy in the long-term breast cancer survivorship period, which may be related to the effect of time post-treatment, rather than an effect of choice for or against DBR. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A systematic review of studies on psychosocial late effects of childhood cancer: structures of society and methodological pitfalls may challenge the conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Rechnitzer, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    High survival rates after childhood cancer raise attention to possible psychosocial late effects. We focus on predictors of psychosocial outcomes based on diagnosis, treatment, demography, somatic disease, and methodological problems. Overall, survivors evaluate their health-related quality of li....... Significant methodological problems hamper current knowledge. Systematic registration of psychosocial and somatic problems at diagnosis and prospectively through protocols is needed. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  14. Development of mental disorders one year after exposure to psychosocial stressors; a cohort study in primary care patients with a physical complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Lilli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders, common in primary care, are often associated with physical complaints. While exposure to psychosocial stressors and development or presence of principal mental disorders (i.e. depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders defined as multisomatoforme disorders is commonly correlated, temporal association remains unproven. The study explores the onset of such disorders after exposure to psychosocial stressors in a cohort of primary care patients with at least one physical symptom. Method The cohort study SODA (SOmatization, Depression and Anxiety was conducted by 21 private-practice GPs and three fellow physicians in a Swiss academic primary care centre. GPs included patients via randomized daily identifiers. Depression, anxiety or somatoform disorders were identified by the full Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, a validated procedure to identify mental disorders based on DSM-IV criteria. The PHQ was also used to investigate exposure to psychosocial stressors (before the index consultation and during follow up and the onset of principal mental disorders after one year of follow up. Results From November 2004 to July 2005, 1020 patients were screened for inclusion. 627 were eligible and 482 completed the PHQ one year later and were included in the analysis (77%. At one year, prevalence of principal mental disorders was 30/153 (19.6% CI95% 13.6; 26.8 for those initially exposed to a major psychosocial stressor and 26/329 (7.9% CI95% 5.2; 11.4 for those not. Stronger association exists between psychosocial stressors and depression (RR = 2.4 or anxiety (RR = 3.5 than multisomatoforme disorders (RR = 1.8. Patients who are “bothered a lot” (subjective distress by a stressor are therefore 2.5 times (CI95% 1.5; 4.0 more likely to experience a mental disorder at one year. A history of psychiatric comorbidities or psychological treatment was not a confounding factor for developing a principal mental

  15. The short-run causal effect of tumor detection and treatment on psychosocial well-being, work, and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabus, Sofie J; Groot, Wim; Maassen van den Brink, Henriëtte

    2016-05-01

    This paper estimates the short-run causal effect of tumor detection and treatment on psychosocial well-being, work and income. Tumor detection can be considered as a random event, so that we can compare individuals' average outcomes in the year of diagnosis with the year before. We argue for using panel data estimation techniques that enable us to control for observed and unobserved information intrinsic to the individual and time constants. We use data of a national representative panel in the Netherlands that includes health survey information and data on work, education, and income between 2007 and 2012. Our findings show differences in the psychosocial dysfunction of men and women in response to tumor detection and treatment. Women, not men, are decreasingly likely to participate in the labor force as a result of malignant tumor detection, while no significant effects are found on her personal or household income. We also demonstrate that fixed effects panel data models are superior to matching techniques.

  16. Physicians' psychosocial barriers to different modes of withdrawal of life support in critical care: A qualitative study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Kaoruko; Kai, Ichiro

    2010-02-01

    Despite a number of guidelines issued in Anglo-American countries over the past few decades for forgoing treatment stating that there is no ethically relevant difference between withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments (LST), it is recognized that many healthcare professionals in Japan as well as some of their western counterparts do not agree with this statement. This research was conducted to investigate the barriers that prevent physicians from withdrawing specific LST in critical care settings, focusing mainly on the modes of withdrawal of LST, in what the authors believe was the first study of its kind anywhere in the world. In 2006-2007, in-depth, face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 35 physicians working at emergency and critical care facilities across Japan. We elicited their experiences, attitudes, and perceptions regarding withdrawal of mechanical ventilation and other LST. The process of data analysis followed the grounded theory approach. We found that the psychosocial resistance of physicians to withdrawal of artificial devices varied according to the modes of withdrawal, showing a strong resistance to withdrawal of mechanical ventilation that requires physicians to halt the treatment when continuation of its mechanical operation is possible. However, there was little resistance to the withdrawal of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support and artificial liver support when their continuation was mechanically or physiologically impossible. The physicians shared a desire for a "soft landing" of the patient, that is, a slow and gradual death without drastic and immediate changes, which serves the psychosocial needs of the people surrounding the patient. For that purpose, vasopressors were often withheld and withdrawn. The findings suggest what the Japanese physicians avoid is not what they call a life-shortening act but an act that would not lead to a soft landing, or a slow death that looks 'natural' in the eyes of those

  17. Assessment of psychosocial factors and distress in women having adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: the relationship among emotional distress and patient and treatment-related factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ates, Ozturk; Soylu, Cem; Babacan, Taner; Sarici, Furkan; Kertmen, Neyran; Allen, Deborah; Sever, Ali Riza; Altundag, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to comprehensively describe the psychosocial and medical characteristics of women who initiated tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer and to compare levels...

  18. Demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates of using the website component of a worksite physical activity and healthy nutrition promotion program: a longitudinal study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robroek, Suzan J W; Brouwer, Wendy; Lindeboom, Dennis; Oenema, Anke; Burdorf, Alex

    2010-01-01

    ...) to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with website use. The study was an observational study among participants from 5 workplaces in a cluster randomized controlled trial...

  19. Improving Treatment Adherence in Bipolar Disorder: A Review of Current Psychosocial Treatment Efficacy and Recommendations for Future Treatment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment adherence is a frequent problem in bipolar disorder, with research showing that more than 60% of bipolar patients are at least partially nonadherent to medications. Treatment nonadherence is consistently predictive of a number of negative outcomes in bipolar samples, and the discontinuation of mood stabilizers places these patients at…

  20. Perceived Partner Reactions to Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer: Impact on Psychosocial and Psychosexual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Sarah R.; Carver, Charles S.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Harris, Suzanne D.; Antoni, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined breast cancer patients' perceptions of their partners' reactions to their diagnosis and treatment as influences on 3 aspects of patients' well-being: psychosexual adjustment, emotional distress, and marital satisfaction. Study 1, cross-sectional, indicated that partner initiation of sex, frequency of sex, a positive 1st sexual…

  1. Psychosocial responses during different phases of sport-injury rehabilitation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Fetty, Tera

    2015-01-01

    Athletic trainers have traditionally conceptualized rehabilitation programs in terms of 3 distinct physiologic phases; however, these phases appear to neglect athletes' psychosocial responses to their injuries. To document injured athletes' psychosocial responses during the different phases of injury rehabilitation. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II university in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. A total of 8 previously injured athletes (4 men and 4 women) participated in the study. We collected participant data by using semistructured interviews, transcribed verbatim and analyzed by directed content analysis. Established themes were triangulated to determine trustworthiness. Initially, athletes' cognitive appraisals were predominantly negative in nature, leading to negative emotions. These appraisals changed after diagnosis and when moving to the reaction-to-rehabilitation phase and the reaction-to-sport phase. During the reaction-to-rehabilitation phase, athletes reported mixed cognitive appraisals and identified frustration as the main emotional response. When returning to sport, athletes reflected on the lessons learned, yet they expressed some doubts related to their ability to return to play. These cognitive appraisals served as a precursor to the resulting emotional responses of nervousness and reinjury anxiety, as well as excitement. Throughout the various phases of rehabilitation, athletes reported seeking out social support: initially from significant others and then from their athletic trainers during the reaction-to-rehabilitation phase. The results appear to support the use of the integrated model of psychological response to sport injury and the rehabilitation process and the 3 phases of rehabilitation as a framework for understanding how physical and psychosocial factors may interact during sport-injury rehabilitation. Understanding this interaction may help athletic trainers provide better care to

  2. Interactions between lean management and the psychosocial work environment in a hospital setting - a multi-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhassan, Waqar; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Thor, Johan; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-10-22

    As health care struggles to meet increasing demands with limited resources, Lean has become a popular management approach. It has mainly been studied in relation to health care performance. The empirical evidence as to how Lean affects the psychosocial work environment has been contradictory. This study aims to study the interaction between Lean and the psychosocial work environment using a comprehensive model that takes Lean implementation information, as well as Lean theory and the particular context into consideration. The psychosocial work environment was measured twice with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) employee survey during Lean implementations on May-June 2010 (T1) (n = 129) and November-December 2011 (T2) (n = 131) at three units (an Emergency Department (ED), Ward-I and Ward-II). Information based on qualitative data analysis of the Lean implementations and context from a previous paper was used to predict expected change patterns in the psychosocial work environment from T1 to T2 and subsequently compared with COPSOQ-data through linear regression analysis. Between T1 and T2, qualitative information showed a well-organized and steady Lean implementation on Ward-I with active employee participation, a partial Lean implementation on Ward-II with employees not seeing a clear need for such an intervention, and deterioration in already implemented Lean activities at ED, due to the declining interest of top management. Quantitative data analysis showed a significant relation between the expected and actual results regarding changes in the psychosocial work environment. Ward-I showed major improvements especially related to job control and social support, ED showed a major decline with some exceptions while Ward-II also showed improvements similar to Ward-I. The results suggest that Lean may have a positive impact on the psychosocial work environment given that it is properly implemented. Also, the psychosocial work environment may even

  3. Psycho-social Needs Impact on Hookah Smoking Initiation among Women: A Qualitative Study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Shahbazi Sighaldeh, Shirin; Ebadi, Abbas; Kelishadi, Roya; Majdzadeh, Seyed Reza

    2015-01-01

    In Iranian women, the use of hookah is the most common method of tobacco smoking. This study aimed to find the role of psycho-social needs and gaps as a possible risk factor for hookah smoking initiation in women. This qualitative study was conducted during 2012-2013 in Tehran, Iran. Thirty-six women participated in the study. They were current or former users of hookah. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews and was analyzed through content analysis. Four main categories were identified from the data. This study focused on the category: Psycho-social needs and gaps. This category has five sub-categories which explain why women begin to smoke hookah including curiosity; desire for non-feminine, forbidden, and negative activities; need for amusement and recreation; for others: To show off; attract attention; satisfy and join others and protection. From this study, a variety of factors which contribute to the initiation of hookah smoking among women have been identified. Keeping young girls and women away from seemingly happy gatherings of hookah smokers; Providing appropriate recreational facilities for young women and training families on how to help their children in the event of a crisis-like intention to take up smoking behavior, can be some effective ways for reducing hookah smoking initiation among women.

  4. Exploring the nature of resilience in paramedic practice: A psycho-social study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clompus, S R; Albarran, J W

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has identified that paramedics experience high levels of stress and sickness rates which have escalated in recent years due to changes to workforce restructuring. While a number of studies have investigated resilience among healthcare professionals, there is little research exploring how paramedics address work challenges and how they become resilient. Using psycho-social methodology, seven paramedics participated in Free Association Narrative interviewing; all were based at one regional centre. In line with the study design, data analysis adopted a psycho-social approach that generated four themes and 10 sub-themes which, characterised participants' experiences. Coping and resilience was impacted upon via formal methods of support including management, debriefing and referral to outside agencies. Alongside this, more informal methods aided resilience. Informal methods included peer support, support from family and friends and the use of humour. Uniquely, this study uncovered how detachment is used to manage emotions. The study has implications for the services need to support the emotional needs of paramedics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

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    Somasundaram Daya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development

  6. Psychosocial functioning and intelligence both partly explain socioeconomic inequalities in premature death. A population-based male cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Falkstedt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The possible contributions of psychosocial functioning and intelligence differences to socioeconomic status (SES-related inequalities in premature death were investigated. None of the previous studies focusing on inequalities in mortality has included measures of both psychosocial functioning and intelligence. METHODS: The study was based on a cohort of 49 321 men born 1949-1951 from the general community in Sweden. Data on psychosocial functioning and intelligence from military conscription at ∼18 years of age were linked with register data on education, occupational class, and income at 35-39 years of age. Psychosocial functioning was rated by psychologists as a summary measure of differences in level of activity, power of initiative, independence, and emotional stability. Intelligence was measured through a multidimensional test. Causes of death between 40 and 57 years of age were followed in registers. RESULTS: The estimated inequalities in all-cause mortality by education and occupational class were attenuated with 32% (95% confidence interval: 20-45% and 41% (29-52% after adjustments for individual psychological differences; both psychosocial functioning and intelligence contributed to account for the inequalities. The inequalities in cardiovascular and injury mortality were attenuated by as much as 51% (24-76% and 52% (35-68% after the same adjustments, and the inequalities in alcohol-related mortality were attenuated by up to 33% (8-59%. Less of the inequalities were accounted for when those were measured by level of income, with which intelligence had a weaker correlation. The small SES-related inequalities in cancer mortality were not attenuated by adjustment for intelligence. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in psychosocial functioning and intelligence might both contribute to the explanation of observed SES-related inequalities in premature death, but the magnitude of their contributions likely varies with measure of

  7. PREVALENCE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS OF ALCOHOL USE DISORDER– A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE OF ASSAM, INDIA

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    Pallab Kumar Bhattacharjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Alcohol dependence, also known as alcoholism or alcohol use disorder, is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in many diseases and various psychosocial problems. There are many complications in managing as well as critical treatment in the study area. The number of alcohol use disorder is increasing in Northeast India day by day. This study was conducted with an aim to study the prevalence and psychosocial factors of alcohol use disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present study was a hospital-based, cross-sectional study from 1st December, 2015 to 30th November, 2016. A mixed research method of both qualitative and quantitative approaches, nonprobability purposive sampling and three different types of standard scales were applied among cases of age 20 and above. RESULTS 100 alcohol use disorder patients were assessed. Most of the patients were of 20-39 years age group. Majority (96% of total respondents were male. 48 percent of alcoholic dependence cases were from HSLC and HS standard, 98 percent of alcoholic dependence cases were from Hindu religion. Interestingly, 34 percent respondents were severely alcohol dependent, 48 percent of them suffered from high perceived stress, 66 percent of their families were problematic but the findings of hypotheses i.e., x2= 0.489 and x2= 0.097 depict there is no association between the levels of alcohol dependency and family functioning. It cannot be said ‘higher the level of stress higher the severity of alcohol dependency’. CONCLUSION There are many health and social problems which are related to alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorder leads to mental illnesses such as problems of stress, depression, aggression, anxiety, alienation, revenge, shock, indifference, frustration and sleeplessness.

  8. Specialized psychosocial treatment plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU for patients with cannabis use disorder and psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthoj, C. R.; Fohlmann, A.; Larsen, A. M.;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis abuse in psychotic patients is associated with rehospitalizations, reduced adherence and increased symptom severity. Previous psychosocial interventions have been ineffective in cannabis use, possibly because of low sample sizes and short interventions. We investigated whethe....... This is similar to the findings of previous trials in this population. Implementation of CapOpus-type interventions is thus not warranted at present but subgroup analyses call for further trials....

  9. Study protocol for a comparative effectiveness trial of two models of perinatal integrated psychosocial assessment: the PIPA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Nicole; Black, Emma; Chambers, Georgina M; Schmied, Virginia; Matthey, Stephen; Farrell, Josephine; Kingston, Dawn; Bisits, Andrew; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2017-07-20

    Studies examining psychosocial and depression assessment programs in maternity settings have not adequately considered the context in which psychosocial assessment occurs or how broader components of integrated care, including clinician decision-making aids, may optimise program delivery and its cost-effectiveness. There is also limited evidence relating to the diagnostic accuracy of symptom-based screening measures used in this context. The Perinatal Integrated Psychosocial Assessment (PIPA) Project was developed to address these knowledge gaps. The primary aims of the PIPA Project are to examine the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of two alternative models of integrated psychosocial care during pregnancy: 'care as usual' (the SAFE START model) and an alternative model (the PIPA model). The acceptability and perceived benefit of each model of care from the perspective of both pregnant women and their healthcare providers will also be assessed. Our secondary aim is to examine the psychometric properties of a number of symptom-based screening tools for depression and anxiety when used in pregnancy. This is a comparative-effectiveness study comparing 'care as usual' to an alternative model sequentially over two 12-month periods. Data will be collected from women at Time 1 (initial antenatal psychosocial assessment), Time 2 (2-weeks after Time 1) and from clinicians at Time 3 for each condition. Primary aims will be evaluated using a between-groups design, and the secondary aim using a within group design. The PIPA Project will provide evidence relating to the clinical- and cost- effectiveness of psychosocial assessment integrated with electronic clinician decision making prompts, and referral options that are tailored to the woman's psychosocial risk, in the maternity care setting. It will also address research recommendations from the Australian (2011) and NICE (2015) Clinical Practice Guidelines. ACTRN12617000932369.

  10. Does dissatisfaction with psychosocial work climate predict depressive, anxiety and substance abuse disorders? A prospective study of Danish public service employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H K; Wieclaw, Joanna; Munch-Hansen, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    were divided into three levels, according to the 25-75 percentiles. Data on hospitalisations and outpatient treatments for depressive, anxiety and substance abuse disorders was obtained from the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register. Hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were computed...... for first onset of studied disorders, starting from the baseline survey at 1.1.2002 through 30.4.2008. Risk estimates were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: A low satisfaction with psychosocial working conditions was associated with an increased risk of any mental health disorder (HRadj 1.......71, 95 % CI 1.04-2.82). The lower the satisfaction level, the higher was the risk of mental health disorders. Moreover, substance abuse disorders were more frequent among men dissatisfied with work climate, HRadj of 3.53, 95 % CI 1.55-8.03. CONCLUSION: Working in a dissatisfying psychosocial environment...

  11. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Case Control Study

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    Manizheh Sayyah-Melli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a disorder in women of reproductive age. Psychosocial factors can play a role in PCOS. Methods: To determine the psychosocial factors associated with PCOS in a case control study, 742 PCOS cases were compared to 798 women without PCOS for psychiatric disorders and social conditions. The data were collected using a validated questionnaire of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire (DSM-IV was used to diagnose major psychopathological disorders and other depressive and anxiety syndromes. The suspected psychopathology was evaluated by a clinical psychiatrist. Results: There was a significant difference between cases and controls in education level (71.8% vs. 80.4%; (P<0.001, and employment status (60% vs. 53%; P=0.01 (respectively. Chronic anxiety (35.7% vs. 26.8%; P<0.001, depression (18.9% vs. 7.9 %; P<0.001, anxiety disorders (7.7% vs. 3.3%; P<0.001, and personality disorders (2.9% vs. 1.7%; P=0.01, were higher in the PCOS patients compared controls, respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that chronic anxiety and depression were the most pscycologic pattern in PCO patients. Lower educational level and unemployment were higher in the cases than controls.

  12. Psychosocial factors at work, personality traits and depressive symptoms: Longitudinal results from the GAZEL Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    PATERNITI, S; NIEDHAMMER, I; LANG, T; CONSOLI, S. M

    2002-01-01

    .... This association could be explained by personality traits. To examine the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and changes in depressive symptoms, taking into account personality traits...

  13. The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability study: methods of data collection and characteristics of study sample.

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    David Coggon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability study was established to explore the hypothesis that common musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs and associated disability are importantly influenced by culturally determined health beliefs and expectations. This paper describes the methods of data collection and various characteristics of the study sample. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A standardised questionnaire covering musculoskeletal symptoms, disability and potential risk factors, was used to collect information from 47 samples of nurses, office workers, and other (mostly manual workers in 18 countries from six continents. In addition, local investigators provided data on economic aspects of employment for each occupational group. Participation exceeded 80% in 33 of the 47 occupational groups, and after pre-specified exclusions, analysis was based on 12,426 subjects (92 to 1018 per occupational group. As expected, there was high usage of computer keyboards by office workers, while nurses had the highest prevalence of heavy manual lifting in all but one country. There was substantial heterogeneity between occupational groups in economic and psychosocial aspects of work; three- to five-fold variation in awareness of someone outside work with musculoskeletal pain; and more than ten-fold variation in the prevalence of adverse health beliefs about back and arm pain, and in awareness of terms such as "repetitive strain injury" (RSI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large differences in psychosocial risk factors (including knowledge and beliefs about MSDs between occupational groups should allow the study hypothesis to be addressed effectively.

  14. The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) Study: Methods of Data Collection and Characteristics of Study Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Serra, Consol; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H.; Sarquis, Leila M.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.; Harris, E. Clare; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derett, Sarah; McBride, David; Gray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) study was established to explore the hypothesis that common musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and associated disability are importantly influenced by culturally determined health beliefs and expectations. This paper describes the methods of data collection and various characteristics of the study sample. Methods/Principal Findings A standardised questionnaire covering musculoskeletal symptoms, disability and potential risk factors, was used to collect information from 47 samples of nurses, office workers, and other (mostly manual) workers in 18 countries from six continents. In addition, local investigators provided data on economic aspects of employment for each occupational group. Participation exceeded 80% in 33 of the 47 occupational groups, and after pre-specified exclusions, analysis was based on 12,426 subjects (92 to 1018 per occupational group). As expected, there was high usage of computer keyboards by office workers, while nurses had the highest prevalence of heavy manual lifting in all but one country. There was substantial heterogeneity between occupational groups in economic and psychosocial aspects of work; three- to five-fold variation in awareness of someone outside work with musculoskeletal pain; and more than ten-fold variation in the prevalence of adverse health beliefs about back and arm pain, and in awareness of terms such as “repetitive strain injury” (RSI). Conclusions/Significance The large differences in psychosocial risk factors (including knowledge and beliefs about MSDs) between occupational groups should allow the study hypothesis to be addressed effectively. PMID:22792189

  15. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Aydemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Methods: Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502; household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501; participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414; hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567, superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667, and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450; and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597. There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  16. Psychosocial factors associated with broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy: findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoph Berg, Cecilie; Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Torgersen, Leila; Hamer, Robert; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy, including factors associated with continuation, incidence and remission. A total of 41 157 women completed questionnaires at approximately gestation week 18, including items on eating disorders and psychosocial characteristics as a part of Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Incident bulimia nervosa during the first trimester was significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression and low self-esteem and life satisfaction, whereas remission was significantly associated with higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. Continuation was not significantly related to any of the psychosocial variables tested. Onset of bulimia nervosa during pregnancy is associated with mood and anxiety symptoms. Remission of bulimic symptoms and new onset of bulimia nervosa are associated with opposite profiles of self-esteem, and life satisfaction measures.

  17. Towards a psychosocial psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Frosh, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    From its beginning, psychoanalysis has always been a 'personal' affair. This paper presents an autobiographical account of engagement with psychoanalysis as an academic discipline, exploring particularly how it has become central to my concerns in psychosocial studies.

  18. Negative Emotions and Suicidal Ideation during Psychosocial Treatments in Older Adults with Major Depression and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Gross, James J; Banerjee, Samprit; Duberstein, Paul R; Putrino, David; Alexopoulos, George S

    2017-06-01

    To examine the relationship of negative emotions with suicidal ideation during 12 weeks of Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) versus Supportive Therapy of Cognitively Impaired Older Adults (ST-CI), hypothesizing that improved negative emotions are associated with reduced suicidal ideation, PATH improves negative emotions more than ST-CI, and improved negative emotions, rather than other depression symptoms, predict reduction in suicidal ideation. In a randomized controlled trial of two home-delivered psychosocial interventions, 74 older participants (65-95 years old) with major depressive disorder and cognitive impairment were recruited in collaboration with community agencies. The sample reported less intense feelings than suicidal intention. Interventions and assessments were conducted in participants' homes. PATH focuses on improving emotion regulation, whereas ST-CI focuses on nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as understanding and empathy. Improved negative emotions were measured as improvement in Montgomery Asberg's Depression Rating Scales' (MADRS) observer ratings of sadness, anxiety, guilt, hopelessness, and anhedonia. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the MADRS Suicide Item. MADRS Negative Emotions scores were significantly associated with suicidal ideation during the course of treatment (F[1,165] = 12.73, p = 0.0005). PATH participants had significantly greater improvement in MADRS emotions than ST-CI participants (treatment group by time: F[1,63.2] = 7.02, p = 0.0102). Finally, improved negative emotions, between lagged and follow-up interview, significantly predicted reduction in suicidal ideation at follow-up interview (F[1, 96] = 9.95, p = 0.0022). Findings thatimprovement in negative emotions mediates reduction in suicidal ideation may guide the development of psychosocial interventions for reduction of suicidal ideation (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00368940). Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

  19. Are risk estimates biased in follow-up studies of psychosocial factors with low base-line participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2011-01-01

    Low participation in population-based follow-up studies addressing psychosocial risk factors may cause biased estimation of health risk but the issue has seldom been examined. We compared risk estimates for selected health outcomes among respondents and the entire source population.......Low participation in population-based follow-up studies addressing psychosocial risk factors may cause biased estimation of health risk but the issue has seldom been examined. We compared risk estimates for selected health outcomes among respondents and the entire source population....

  20. High ratings of satisfaction with fertility treatment are common: findings from the Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) Research Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J

    2003-01-01

    /delivery and the report of marital benefits resulting from the infertility experience. Lower social class was a significant predictor for satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Both men and women in fertility treatment had high ratings on medical and patient-centred care. It seemed that satisfaction with the psychosocial services...

  1. Psychosocial Development from College through Midlife: A 34-Year Sequential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Sneed, Joel R.; Sayer, Aline

    2009-01-01

    Two cohorts of alumni, leading-edge and trailing-edge baby boomers, first tested in their college years, were followed to ages 43 (N = 136) and 54 (N = 182) on a measure of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to model the trajectory of growth for each psychosocial issue across middle adulthood. As…

  2. Psychosocial functioning of children, adolescents, and adults following hypospadias surgery: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureau, M A; Slijper, F M; Slob, A K; Verhulst, F C

    1997-06-01

    Used standardized questionnaires to compare psychosocial functioning of 116 children and adolescents (9 to 18 years) and 73 adults (18 to 38 years) operated on for hypospadias, a congenital penile anomaly, with that of 88 and 50 age-matched comparison males, respectively, treated for an inguinal hernia. The relationships of coping with penile appearance, subject age, severity of hypospadias, number of operations, age at final surgery, and type of surgical procedure with psychosocial functioning were also investigated. Hypospadias patients did not exhibit a poorer psychosocial functioning and no significant relationships of various medical characteristics with psychosocial functioning could be discerned. Genital/body perception of hypospadias patients ages 9 to 18 years correlated positively with psychosocial functioning, albeit with low values. These findings are important for psychologists and specialists in the counseling process of hypospadias patients and their parents.

  3. The Psychosocial Impact of Lymphedema-related Distress among Breast Cancer Survivors in the WHEL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sally A.; Natarajan, Loki; Pierce, John P.; Madanat, Hala; Madlensky, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lymphedema is a distressing and chronic condition affecting up to 30% of breast cancer survivors. Using a cross-sectional study design, we examined the impact of self-reported lymphedema-related distress on psychosocial functioning among breast cancer survivors in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study. The WHEL Study has a dataset that includes self-report data on lymphedema status, symptoms and distress. Methods Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression models were used to examine how specific participant characteristics, including lymphedema-related distress, were associated with physical health and mental health as measured by the SF-36 and depressive symptoms assessed by the CES-Dsf. Results Of the 2,431 participants included in the current study population, 692 (28.5%) self-reported ever having lymphedema. A total of 335 (48.9%) women reported moderate to extreme distress as a result of their lymphedema and were classified as having lymphedema-related distress. The logistic regression models showed that women with lymphedema-related distress had 50% higher odds of reporting poor physical health (p=0.01) and 73% higher odds of having poor mental health (plymphedema. In contrast, even though lymphedema-related distress was significantly associated (p=0.03) with elevated depressive symptoms in the bivariate analyses, it was not significant in the logistic regression models. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors with lymphedema-related distress had worse physical and mental health outcomes than women with lymphedema who were not distressed and women with no lymphedema. Our findings provide further evidence of the relationship between lymphedema and psychosocial outcomes in breast cancer survivors. PMID:24615880

  4. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-05-15

    Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers.

  5. The Portuguese long version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) - a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Susel; Azevedo, Luís F; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; Nübling, Matthias; da Costa, José Torres

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are now widely recognised as one of the biggest challenges for occupational safety and health (OSH) and a major public health concern. The aim of this paper is to investigate the Portuguese long version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II), in order to analyse the psychometric properties of the instrument and to validate it. The Portuguese COPSOQ II was issued to a total of 745 Portuguese employees from both private and public organisations across several economic sectors at a baseline and then 2 weeks later. Methodological quality appraisal was based on COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) recommendations. An analysis of the psychometric properties of the long version of COPSOQ II (internal consistency, intraclass correlation coefficient, floor and ceiling effects, response rate, missing values, mean and standard deviation, exploratory factor analysis) was performed to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument. The COPSOQ II had a response rate of 60.6% (test) and a follow-up response rate of 59.5% (retest). In general, a Cronbach's alpha of the COPSOQ scales (test and retest) was above the conventional threshold of 0.70. The test-retest reliability estimated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a higher reliability for most of the scales, above the conventional 0.7, except for eight scales. The proportion of the missing values was less than 1.3%, except for two scales. The average scores and standard deviations showed similar results to the original Danish study, except for eight scales. All of the scales had low floor and ceiling effects, with one exception. Overall, the exploratory factor analysis presented good results in 27 scales assuming a reflective measurement model. The hypothesized factor structure under a reflective model was not supported in 14 scales and for some but not all of these scales the explanation may be a formative

  6. Social gradient in the metabolic syndrome not explained by psychosocial and behavioural factors: evidence from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina; Osler, Merete

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stressors may mediate the effect of social status on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper explores this hypothesis in a random sample of the general population. DESIGN: A total of 3462 women and 2576 men aged 20-97 years from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. METHODS......: An MS index was defined from the seven components: waist-hip ratio, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. Social status was measured by educational level. Psychosocial factors included fatigue...

  7. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  8. Empirically Based Psychosocial Therapies for Schizophrenia: The Disconnection between Science and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Shean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirically validated psychosocial therapies for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were described in the report of the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT, 2009. The PORT team identified eight psychosocial treatments: assertive community treatment, supported employment, cognitive behavioral therapy, family-based services, token economy, skills training, psychosocial interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders, and psychosocial interventions for weight management. PORT listings of empirically validated psychosocial therapies provide a useful template for the design of effective recovery-oriented mental health care systems. Unfortunately, surveys indicate that PORT listings have not been implemented in clinical settings. Obstacles to the implementation of PORT psychosocial therapy listings and suggestions for changes needed to foster implementation are discussed. Limitations of PORT therapy listings that are based on therapy outcome efficacy studies are discussed, and cross-cultural and course and outcome studies of correlates of recovery are summarized.

  9. Victimisation and psychosocial difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns: a school-based study of adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, P

    2014-11-01

    This study examined victimisation, substance misuse, relationships, sexual activity, mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour among adolescents with sexual orientation concerns in comparison to those without such concerns. 1112 Irish students (mean age 14 yrs) in 17 mixed-gender secondary schools completed a self-report questionnaire with standardised scales and measures of psychosocial difficulties. 58 students (5%) reported having concerns regarding their sexual orientation. Compared with their peers, they had higher levels of mental health difficulties and a markedly-increased prevalence of attempted suicide (29% vs. 2%), physical assault (40% vs. 8%), sexual assault (16%vs. 1%) and substance misuse. Almost all those (90%) with sexual orientation concerns reported having had sex compared to just 4% of their peers. These results highlight the significant difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns in adolescents in Ireland. Early and targeted interventions are essential to address their needs.

  10. Psychosocial job strain and risk of congenital malformations in offspring--a Danish National cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A D; Hannerz, H; Thulstrup, A M

    2014-01-01

    (aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85-1.15). Supplementary analyses including restriction to first-borns and a stratified analysis with respect to manual and nonmanual work did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: Association between exposure to high job strain during pregnancy and elevated risk of circulatory......OBJECTIVE: To investigate if maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain at work (high demands and low control) measured by questionnaire early in pregnancy (median week 15) is associated with malformations in the offspring. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth...... strain with adjustment for maternal age, body mass index, parity, smoking, alcohol use, manual versus nonmanual work, maternal serious disease and gestational age at interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Circulatory malformation, musculoskeletal malformation or any malformation. RESULTS: Logistic regression...

  11. Using personal and fictional documents to assess psychosocial development: a case study of Vera Brittain's generativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B E; Stewart, A J

    1990-09-01

    Adult diaries and novels written by the British feminist and pacifist Vera Brittain (1893-1970) were content analyzed for Eriksonian themes of identity, intimacy, and generativity. Brittain's concerns with identity and intimacy decreased over time, while her generative concerns increased, suggesting that she expressed the issue of generativity vs. stagnation in her mid-life diaries and fiction. The large number of identity themes relative to both intimacy and generativity provokes speculations about Brittain's personality, the characteristics of writers, the influence of gender, the impact of society, and the possibility that the crisis of identity vs. role confusion involves the last major structural change in personality development. This archival case study is consistent with Erikson's notion of a sequence of concerns with psychosocial issues, although directions for theoretical revision and elaboration are discussed.

  12. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the importance of physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). METHODS: Case-referent study of 267 new cases of tennis elbow and 388 referents from the background population enrolled from general practices in Ringkjoebing County, Denmark. RESULTS......: Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related...... to tennis elbow (OR 3.7, CI 1.7 to 8.3). Among men, work with precision demanding movements was related to tennis elbow (OR 5.2, CI 1.5 to 17.9). Among both males and females, the results for work with hand held vibrating tools were inconsistent, partly because of few exposed subjects. A physical strain...

  13. An opportunistic validation of studies on the psychosocial benefits of blogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R; Moore, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    The authors conducted two studies on the characteristics of bloggers and the psychosocial effects of blogging, both published in CyberPsychology and Behavior. The publication of the first article attracted considerable multinational media attention with over 70 incidents of press coverage in the first 3 weeks after publication. As a consequence, commentary on the research emerged on 167 blogs in the same time period. Many of the comments surrounded the validity of the research findings, and thus an opportunity arose to re-evaluate the research outcomes based on the unsolicited responses posted by bloggers. This report outlines the methodology used to evaluate responses to the initial research, and discusses potential future applications of this approach.

  14. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: A study amongst Malaysian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd A. Idris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions.Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout and motivational pathways (i.e. work engagement.Motivation for the study: So far, integration of PSC in the JD-R model is only tested in a Western context (i.e. Australia. We tested the emerging construct of PSC in Malaysia, an Eastern developing country in the Asian region.Research design, approach and method: A random population based sample was derived using household maps provided by Department of Statistics, Malaysia; 291 employees (response rate 50.52% from the State of Selangor, Malaysia participated. Cross-sectional data were analysed using structural equation modelling.Main findings: We found that PSC was negatively related to job demands and positively related to job resources. Job demands, in turn, predicted burnout (i.e. exhaustion and cynicism, whereas job resources predicted engagement. Both burnout and engagement were associated with performance. Bootstrapping showed significant indirect effects of PSC on burnout via job demands, PSC on performance via burnout and PSC on performance via the resources-engagement pathway.Practical/managerial implications: Our findings are consistent with previous research that suggests that PSC should be a target to improve working conditions and in turn reduce burnout and improve engagement and productivity.Contribution/value-add: These findings suggest that JD-R theory may be expanded to include PSC as an antecedent and that the expanded JD-R model is largely valid in an Eastern, developing economy setting.

  15. Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study......Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study...

  16. Psychosocial correlates of substance use in adolescence: a cross-national study in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkevi, Anna; Richardson, Clive; Florescu, Silvia; Kuzman, Marina; Stergar, Eva

    2007-01-05

    To examine the psychosocial correlates of substance use among adolescents in six European countries. Cross-sectional school population survey (ESPAD) based on standardized methodological procedures. High schools in six European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Slovenia and UK. Representative samples of a total sample of 16,445 high school students whose 16th birthday fell in the year of data collection. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported substance use was measured by core items on tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and any illegal drug use. Psychosocial correlates included scales of self-esteem, depression, anomie and antisocial behavior, and items pertaining to family, school and peers. Logistic regression analyses for each potential correlate adjusted for country, taking into account the clustered sample, showed statistically significant associations with each substance use variable separately, in almost every case. Particularly strong associations were found between smoking and going out most evenings and having many friends who smoke, while cannabis and illegal drugs were strongly correlated with having friends or older siblings who used these substances. The self-esteem scale score was not correlated with substance use. Anomie and antisocial behavior were more strongly associated than depression with substance use. In the case of depression, anomie and most of the other items examined, associations were stronger for girls than for boys. The present cross-national study identified correlates of legal and illegal substance use which extend outside specific countries, providing grounds to believe that they can be generalized. They provide evidence for the need to address both the use of the gateway drugs and deviant behavior in conjunction with environmental risk factors when designing and implementing preventive interventions in schools.

  17. Psychosocial factors of coronary heart disease and quality of life among Roma coronary patients : a study matched by socioeconomic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Ondusova, Daniela; Studencan, Martin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life (HRQL) differ between Roma and non-Roma coronary patients and to what degree socioeconomic status (SES) explains these differences. We included 138 patients out of 437 interviewed: 46 Roma, all with l

  18. Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

  19. Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

  20. Orthodontic evolution: an update for the general dental practitioner. Part 2: psychosocial aspects of orthodontic treatment, stability of treatment, and the TMJ-orthodontic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Niall J P

    2008-01-01

    As a result of recent innovations and improvements, orthodontic treatment has become easier and more efficient to carry out, allowing greater numbers of patients to receive treatment. The main result of orthodontic treatment is improved dental alignment and aesthetics. Treatment has no effect on caries or periodontal disease, and the dental health gain is modest, apart from a very small percentage of destructive malocclusions. Psychological improvements using different psychological parameters show differing results and it is not clear that any psychological gains are long lasting. Social gain (greater willingness to smile, feeling good about oneself, satisfaction with dental appearance, etc.), and reported improved quality of life (QoL measures), are now becoming more important as consumer-related outcomes and may, ultimately, contribute to psychosocial and psychological status. Stability of orthodontic treatment results cannot be guaranteed and all patients need to be informed of this, and of the need for long-term retention. Malocclusion has little or no relationship to temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction and orthodontic treatment neither causes nor cures such problems. Extractions as part of orthodontic treatment do not cause TMD, nor do they cause collapse of the vertical dimension. The major improvements in dental health in the last 40 years have been accompanied by a great increase in demand for treatment. In any public health service that is free at the point of use, demand for treatment invariably exceeds the ability of resources to supply this. Indices of treatment need are widely used to determine treatment need and eligibility for treatment in public health systems. Demand for orthodontic treatment among adolescents can be as high as 60% in the general population, while the professionally-assessed need for treatment is approximately half this figure. Age, sex, socio-economic status, perceived unattractiveness of dental appearance, and availability of

  1. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. AIMS: To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We...... assessed around 18 years of age regarding psychosocial functioning and lifetime psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Compared with controls, individuals with Tourette syndrome had substantially lower CGAS scores (P = 10(-8)) and higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression...... and high comorbidity rates in late adolescence....

  2. Spasmodic Torticollis—A Multicentre Study on Behavioural Aspects III: Psychosocial Changes and Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nickel

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial changes in spasmodic torticollis (ST affect predominantly social life, professional life and psychological well-being. Concerning social life, 84.6% of the patients felt that they attracted considerable public attention due to their neurological illness and 65% had reduced participation in social events. A substantial number of patients had retired from professional activities; others felt severely impaired in their working capacity. The psychosocial sequelae in ST, however, seemed to depend less on the neurological signs per se than on the physical symptoms and on coping. Depressive coping in particular emerged as a predictor of psychosocial distress.

  3. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. AIMS: To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We...... hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. METHOD: A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were......, learning disorder and conduct disorder (Ptic severity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning...

  4. Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purgato, M.; Gross, A.L.; Jordans, M.J.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.; Barbui, C.; Tol, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this eviden

  5. The Need for Psychosocial Interventions to Facilitate the Transition to Extended-Release Naltrexone (XR-NTX) Treatment for Opioid Dependence: A Concise Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Susan E.; Rounsaville, Dan; Hoskinson, Randall; Park, Tae Woo; Ames, Evan G.; Neirinckx, Victor D.; Friedmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given the increase of opioid dependence and opioid-related morbidity and mortality, improving treatment options for individuals with opioid dependence warrants increased attention. This article provides a concise review of work in this area. Remission from opioid dependence can be very difficult to sustain, particularly in the absence of opioid replacement or opioid antagonist therapy. For those who wish to transition from opioid use or opioid replacement therapy to opioid antagonist therapy, a significant challenge can be the period of withdrawal symptoms that must be endured prior to the initiation of opioid antagonist therapy. Studies that have incorporated psychosocial interventions into detoxification protocols have found that they can result in improved treatment outcomes. Interventions based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy have shown promise in the treatment of clinical disorders that present with symptoms similar to those of opioid withdrawal and have been found to positively impact outcomes among those tapering from methadone. However, the use of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based intervention has yet to be studied among opioid-dependent patients transitioning to XR-NTX, and its value to those transitioning to XR-NTX is currently unknown. PMID:27512336

  6. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  7. Teacher Behaviours Related with Pupil Psychosocial Development in Physical Education: A Descriptive-Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Observation of 20 English physical education teachers giving lessons showed that they frequently used behaviors associated with positive psychosocial development (positive reinforcement, encouragement, technical instruction) and infrequently used those associated with negative development (nonreinforcement, punishment, ignoring mistakes, keeping…

  8. The relationship between psychosocial problems including depression and behavioural trends among middle-aged menopausal women in a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, N; Ohi, K

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the association of psychosocial problems, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, and trends of smoking and use of cosmetics in our previous study. In this follow-up study, we researched psychiatric disorders and psychosocial problems in menopausal women. We designed a cohort study with 577 Japanese women aged 30-64 years. Subjects were selected randomly from among women who visited the department of gender-specific medicine at Tokyo Women's Medical University East Medical Center between June 2010 and September 2011. We analysed trends such as smoking, using cosmetics, and menopausal symptoms and their association with the first lifetime episode of severe depression and anxiety using structured clinical interviews for the DSM-IV (structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, outpatient version [SCID]), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Significant associations were observed between hot flushes, smoking and the frequency of using cosmetics. Furthermore, the trends in cosmetic use and smoking affected not only psychosocial problems, but also physical problems. Younger women suffered from psychosocial problems more than twice the rate of post-menopausal women. Those who reported their first severe depression episode were also affected by severe anxiety disorders and physical problems. By self-checking the frequency of using cosmetics is up to date knowledge of psychosocial mood problems and improving women's quality of life. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. A Qualitative Study of Migrant-related Stressors, Psychosocial Outcomes and HIV Risk Behavior among Truck Drivers in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J.; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at 1) determining Potentially Traumatic Events (PTEs), labor migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviors among truck drivers in Zambia and 2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted fifteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population. PMID:27681145

  10. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult.

  11. [Psychosocial treatment of psychological post trauma in post-conflict countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscia, T; Milleliri, J

    2011-04-01

    Violence and armed conflict situations besetting numerous developing countries inflict a heavy toll on populations, especially in terms of posttraumatic mental disorders. In addition to upsetting the well-being and psychic balance of people, violent political instability prevents development of the country as a whole not only economically but also individually and socially. After being confronted with this reality for years, humanitarian workers have implemented actions aimed at treating and helping traumatized people to recover their mental health as a first step to achieving effective and durable development. However, despite the availability of effective low-cost treatment for post-traumatic mental disorders, officials in developing countries as well as in international organizations continue to ignore or neglect this crucial issue. This article is based on a study carried out by "Crisis prevention and post-conflict unit" of the Agence Française de Développement. The purpose is to underline the need and describe available methods for management of post-traumatic stress disorders in populations of post-conflict countries, as prerequisite for sustainable reconstruction and development.

  12. Cognitive and psychosocial development of HIV pediatric patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoridou Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychosocial development of pediatric HIV patients has not been extensively evaluated. The study objectives were to evaluate whether emotional and social functions are differentially associated with HIV-related complications. Methods A matched case-control study design was conducted. The case group (n = 20 consisted of vertically infected children with HIV (aged 3-18 years receiving HAART in Greece. Each case was matched with two randomly selected healthy controls from a school-based population. CNS imaging and clinical findings were used to identify patients with HIV-related neuroimaging abnormalities. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale III and Griffiths Mental Abilities Scales were applied to assess cognitive abilities. The age specific Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to evaluate emotional adjustment and social skills. The Fisher's exact test, student's t-test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare categorical, continuous, and ordinal scores, respectively, of the above scales between groups. Results HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities did not differ from patients with neuroimaging abnormalities with respect to either age at HAART initiation (p = 0.306 or months of HAART treatment (p = 0.964. While HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities had similar cognitive development with their healthy peers, patients with neuroimaging abnormalities had lower mean General (p = 0.027 and Practical (p = 0.042 Intelligence Quotient scores. HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities had an increased likelihood of both Abnormal Emotional Symptoms (p = 0.047 and Hyperactivity scores (p = 0.0009. In contrast, HIV patients with neuroimaging abnormalities had an increased likelihood of presenting with Abnormal Peer Problems (p = 0.033. Conclusions HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities are more likely to experience maladjustment with respect to their emotional and activity spheres

  13. Psychosocial biomarker research: integrating social, emotional and economic factors into population studies of aging and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    There are complex reciprocal relationships between health and social, emotional and economic factors in aging populations. Social and affective neurosciences are rapidly developing an understanding of the mechanisms underlying these phenomena using sophisticated behavioural, neuroimaging and psychophysiological methods. These techniques are often complex and expensive, so are generally used in relatively small selected samples rather than in large-scale cohort studies. However, an understanding of the significance of these processes in health and well-being depends on integrating findings from social and affective neuroscience into population-level studies. The aim of this article is to describe how a population perspective on the determinants of health and well-being in old age articulates with the agenda of social, affective and economic neuroscience, particularly through the application of psychosocial biomarker research. Social and affective neuroscience and epidemiological approaches provide complementary research strategies for understanding the mechanisms linking social, emotional and economic factors with health risk. This will be illustrated primarily from findings from two studies conducted at University College London, the Whitehall II Study and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

  14. Relationship of psychological symptoms, antipsychotics and social data with psychosocial function in schizophrenia patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlelawati, A Talib; Kartini, Abdullah; Norsidah, Kuzaifah; Ramli, Musa; Wan Azizi, Wan Sulaiman; Tariq, Abdul Razak

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial function and the role of relevant sociodemographic data and antipsychotic use in the prediction of psychosocial function among multiracial schizophrenia outpatients in Malaysia. A total of 223 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Psychological symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale whilst the psychosocial function was assessed using the Personal and Social Performance scale. Sociodemographic and treatment variables were gathered through interview or review of the medical records. All dimensions of psychosocial functions were inversely correlated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale sub-domains. Only the disorganization sub-domain significantly predicts all dimensions of psychosocial function. For social data, body mass index and employment status were significant predictors of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. Typical antipsychotics significantly predict social function negatively as compared to sulpiride (β = -0.152, P = 0.028). We found that the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial functions were relatively consistent with the findings from the Caucasian population. Additionally, disorganization was the only significant predictor of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. This further emphasized the importance of cognition in psychosocial function. The roles of sulpiride, body mass index and employment status as predictors of psychosocial function were also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Exposure to psychosocial risks at work in prisons: does contact with inmates matter? A pilot study among prison workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Ali; Ronda, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Álvares, Nahum; Mateo, Inmaculada

    2011-04-01

    Research has lately increased its focus on work conditions as predictors of stress among prison workers but only few studies have focused on how the exposure of workers to psychosocial risks vary according to their occupational groups and their contact with inmates. Work psychosocial risks (demands, control and social support) were assessed using the Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire among 164 Spanish prison workers (43 per cent of those surveyed). Regression analysis was used to explore how psychosocial hazards and their combinations (outcome variables) vary according to occupational groups. Results suggest that psychosocial risks were highest among guards that have more contact with inmates. Implications of the findings for policy making and practice application are discussed.

  16. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Rugulies, R

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation...... and Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long......-term sickness absence for more than 18 months based on data from a national absence register. Results: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by psychosocial factors and by burnout at work unit level. Conclusion: To reduce sickness absence, organizations within human services should improve the psychosocial...

  17. Psychosocial Studies of Migration and Community: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas D. Perkins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the special issue on psychosocial studies of migration and community, we briefly reflect on the global increase in, and issues related to, both international and domestic migration, particularly from rural areas of less developed countries, which has fueled rapid urbanization and intercultural tensions in both post-industrial and developing countries. Topics covered in the issue are summarized, including an Italian study of the emotional impact of discrimination against immigrant adolescents; acculturation, integration and adaptation of Muslim immigrant youth in New Zealand; perceptions of human trafficking in Moldova; Chinese migrant workers´ social networks, life satisfaction and political participation; physician brain drain from sub-Saharan Africa; and a critical analysis of the oppressive and liberating impact of organizations on immigrants, multiculturalism, and social justice. The issue concludes with commentary articles by four leading international scholars of migration and community. The breadth of topics helps to address wide-ranging gaps in the literature, but more psychological and social research must connect ecologically across multiple levels and to cultural, political, economic, and environmental studies of migration and community.

  18. Effects of Horticultural Therapy on Psychosocial Health in Older Nursing Home Residents: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Min; Ji, Jeng-Yi

    2015-09-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of horticultural therapy on psychosocial health in older nursing home residents. A combined quantitative and qualitative design was adopted. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 10 older residents from a nursing home in Taichung, Taiwan. Participants joined a 10-week indoor horticultural program once a week, with each session lasting for about 1.5 hours. A single-group design with multiple measurements was adopted for the quantitative component of this study. Interviews held 1-2 days before the intervention (T0) were used to collect baseline data. The two outcome variables of this study, depression and loneliness, were reassessed during the 5th (T1) and 10th (T2) weeks of the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the mean differences among T0, T1, and T2 measures. After the 10-week program, qualitative data were collected by asking participants to share their program participation experiences. The results of generalized estimating equation showed significant improvements in depression and loneliness. Four categories emerged from the qualitative data content analysis: social connection, anticipation and hope, sense of achievement, and companionship. Given the beneficial effects of the horticulture therapy, the inclusion of horticultural activities in nursing home activity programs is recommended.

  19. The psychosocial indicators related to neuroticism in both sexes: A study of incoming university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hung Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroticism may have great impact on mental and physical health in both sexes. The aims of this study were to explore whether relationships between neuroticism scores and psychosocial indicators as well as metabolic syndrome in a population of incoming university students existed in the different sexes. In total, 4266 incoming students were included in this study. The test battery comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including the neuroticism subscale of the Maudsley Personality Inventory, the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, the measurement of support functions, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multivariate logistic regression showed that higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores, higher Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision scores, and higher 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire scores were significantly correlated with neuroticism in both sexes, but lower perceived routine support: measurement of support functions scores were associated only with the male participants. No significant differences were found in terms of body mass index or other metabolic profiles. Individuals with poorer mental health and a poorer personal lifestyle had higher neuroticism scores, and sex effects may influence the scale of perceived social support in the neuroticism group. However, the lack of an association between neuroticism score and metabolic syndrome may be due to the recruitment of younger participants in this study.

  20. The psychosocial indicators related to neuroticism in both sexes: A study of incoming university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Hung; Cheng, Shu-Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Lee, I-Hui; Lee, Chih-Ting; Chen, Kao-Chin; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yang, Yen-Kuang; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Neuroticism may have great impact on mental and physical health in both sexes. The aims of this study were to explore whether relationships between neuroticism scores and psychosocial indicators as well as metabolic syndrome in a population of incoming university students existed in the different sexes. In total, 4266 incoming students were included in this study. The test battery comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including the neuroticism subscale of the Maudsley Personality Inventory, the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, the measurement of support functions, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multivariate logistic regression showed that higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores, higher Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision scores, and higher 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire scores were significantly correlated with neuroticism in both sexes, but lower perceived routine support: measurement of support functions scores were associated only with the male participants. No significant differences were found in terms of body mass index or other metabolic profiles. Individuals with poorer mental health and a poorer personal lifestyle had higher neuroticism scores, and sex effects may influence the scale of perceived social support in the neuroticism group. However, the lack of an association between neuroticism score and metabolic syndrome may be due to the recruitment of younger participants in this study.

  1. The relationship between psychosocial job stress and burnout in emergency departments: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Ríos-Rísquez, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship and predictive power of various psychosocial job stressors for the 3 dimensions of burnout in emergency departments. This study was structured as a cross-sectional design, with a questionnaire as the tool. The data were gathered using an anonymous questionnaire in 3 hospitals in Spain. The sample consisted of 191 emergency departments. Burnout was evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the job stressors by the Nursing Stress Scale. The Burnout Model in this study consisted of 3 dimensions: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy. The model that predicted the emotional exhaustion dimension was formed by 2 variables: Excessive workload and lack of emotional support. These 2 variables explained 19.4% of variance in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism had 4 predictors that explained 25.8% of variance: Interpersonal conflicts, lack of social support, excessive workload, and type of contract. Finally, variability in reduced professional efficacy was predicted by 3 variables: Interpersonal conflicts, lack of social support, and the type of shift worked, which explained 10.4% of variance. From the point of view of nurse leaders, organizational interventions, and the management of human resources, this analysis of the principal causes of burnout is particularly useful to select, prioritize, and implement preventive measures that will improve the quality of care offered to patients and the well-being of personnel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The psychosocial work environment among physicians employed at Danish oncology departments in 2009. A nationwide cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2013-01-01

    Working as a physician at an oncology department has some distinctive characteristics that may lead to a stressful work environment. The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide description of the work conditions of all oncologists in Denmark. By comparing the results of the present st...... study with those of a similar study carried out in 2006, the aim was furthermore to elucidate changes in the psychosocial work environment over time....

  3. Understanding Depressive Symptoms and Psychosocial Stressors on Twitter: A Corpus-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hilary; Cheney, Tyler; Stoddard, Greg; Coppersmith, Glen; Bryan, Craig; Conway, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Background With a lifetime prevalence of 16.2%, major depressive disorder is the fifth biggest contributor to the disease burden in the United States. Objective The aim of this study, building on previous work qualitatively analyzing depression-related Twitter data, was to describe the development of a comprehensive annotation scheme (ie, coding scheme) for manually annotating Twitter data with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Edition 5 (DSM 5) major depressive symptoms (eg, depressed mood, weight change, psychomotor agitation, or retardation) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Edition IV (DSM-IV) psychosocial stressors (eg, educational problems, problems with primary support group, housing problems). Methods Using this annotation scheme, we developed an annotated corpus, Depressive Symptom and Psychosocial Stressors Acquired Depression, the SAD corpus, consisting of 9300 tweets randomly sampled from the Twitter application programming interface (API) using depression-related keywords (eg, depressed, gloomy, grief). An analysis of our annotated corpus yielded several key results. Results First, 72.09% (6829/9473) of tweets containing relevant keywords were nonindicative of depressive symptoms (eg, “we’re in for a new economic depression”). Second, the most prevalent symptoms in our dataset were depressed mood and fatigue or loss of energy. Third, less than 2% of tweets contained more than one depression related category (eg, diminished ability to think or concentrate, depressed mood). Finally, we found very high positive correlations between some depression-related symptoms in our annotated dataset (eg, fatigue or loss of energy and educational problems; educational problems and diminished ability to think). Conclusions We successfully developed an annotation scheme and an annotated corpus, the SAD corpus, consisting of 9300 tweets randomly-selected from the Twitter application programming interface using

  4. Psychosocial Outcomes in StrokE: the POISE observational stroke study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stephen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year, approximately 12,000 Australians of working age survive a stroke. As a group, younger stroke survivors have less physical impairment and lower mortality after stroke compared with older survivors; however, the psychosocial and economic consequences are potentially substantial. Most of these younger stroke survivors have responsibility for generating an income or providing family care and indicate that their primary objective is to return to work. However, effective vocational rehabilitation strategies to increase the proportion of younger stroke survivors able to return to work, and information on the key target areas for those strategies, are currently lacking. Methods/Design This multi-centre, three year cohort study will recruit a representative sample of younger ( Discussion The study is designed to identify targets for rehabilitation-, social- and medical-intervention strategies that promote and maintain healthy ageing in people with cardiovascular and mental health conditions, two of the seven Australian national health priority areas. This will rectify the paucity of information internationally around optimal clinical practice and social policy in this area.

  5. A Study of Psychosocial Risk Status and Knowledge of Reproductive Health in Adolescents in Raipur City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity. The World Health Organization defines an adolescent as a person between ages 10 and 19 years. A dramatic shift in thinking from concrete to abstract gives adolescents a whole new set of mental tools, to analyze situations logically in terms of cause and effect, appreciate hypothetical situations, evaluate alternatives, introspection, decision making and cognitive abilities. Adolescents experience intense physical, psychological changes as they make transition from childhood to adulthood. This period of transition is the most vulnerable time. Adolescents are at risk of developing behavioral problems like school failure and drop outs, substance abuse, delinquency and violence, sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies, domestic violence, stress and depression and risk-taking behaviour. It is the responsibility of the society to utilize this period constructively through education, counseling, mass media, awareness programmes and address the reproductive health needs of adolescents. The present study analyzes the psychosocial risk status and knowledge of reproductive health in adolescents in Raipur city. The study recommends implementation of provisions by government to provide continuous education and economic security for adolescents. Programmes like age-appropriate reproductive health curriculum should be introduced in schools and colleges with counseling facilities at school and primary health care levels.

  6. Quality of life psychosocial characteristics in Greek patients with leg ulcers: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Armyra, Kalliopi; Christodoulou, Christos; Sgontzou, Themis; Karypidis, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, George; Liordou, Fotini; Zakopoulou, Nikoletta; Zouridaki, Eftychia

    2016-10-01

    Chronic leg ulcers are a public health problem that can have a significant impact on the patient's physical, socioeconomic and psychological status. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness in patients suffering from leg ulcers. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the study. The quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness of the patient were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES) and the UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3), respectively. The mean DLQI score was 13·38 ± 2·59, suggesting a serious effect on the quality of life of patients. Those with leg ulcers had statistically significant higher scores according to the HADS-total scale (P = 0·031) and HADS-anxiety subscale (P = 0·015) compared with healthy volunteers. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the UCLA-scale (P = 0·029). Female patients presented with a higher score of anxiety (P = 0·027) and social isolation (P = 0·048), and worse quality of life (P = 0·018) than male patients. A severe quality of life impairment was documented, reflecting a significant psychosocial impact on patients with leg ulcers. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Explanation of Loneliness in the Elderly and Comparison With Psychosocial Development Theory: A Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Shamsaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Loneliness is universal, still very subjective feeling, natural to all human beings and a subjective experience of isolation. Many people may be ashamed of talking about it or admitting they feel lonely, because they are afraid of being stigmatized. The purpose of this study was to explore elderly experiences of loneliness and comparison with the Erikson’s theory. Materials and Methods: this study was a qualitative research with content analysis approach. The research population was twelve elderly, aged 68-85 years who lived in Hamadan city. Sampling began purposefully and continued until data saturation. To collect data, interview was used. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed immediately. Data was analyzed using content analysis method. Results: In total, 187 primary codes, 7 subcategories and 3 main categories were obtained in which, the 3 main categories were feelings of alienation, separation of favorite activities, and fatigue and sadness. Core category or shared meaning was regret with heavy. Conclusion: Loneliness is common in elderly and associated with adverse health consequences both from a mental and physical health points of view. Therefore, appropriate intervention strategies to reduce isolation using the Erikson’s psychosocial theory can improve elderly quality of life to achieve Ego integrity throughout the life.

  8. Parents' views on growth hormone treatment for their children: psychosocial issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dongen N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nadine van Dongen,1 Ad A Kaptein21Patient Intelligence Panel Health Ltd, London, United Kingdom; 2Section Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The NetherlandsBackground: We evaluated the opinions of parents in The Netherlands concerning treatment of their children with growth hormone, and examined beliefs and perceptions about treatment and quality of health care communication and support.Methods: An Internet survey was completed by 69 parents who had children prescribed growth hormone and were part of the Patient Intelligence Panel. Acceptance of the diagnosis and treatment was investigated with reference to four topics, ie, search and quality of information, involvement in decision-making process, operational aspects, and emotional problems and support.Results: Among the parents surveyed, 48% reported a lack of freedom to choose the type of growth hormone device that best suited their needs, 92% believed that their children (and they themselves would benefit if the children self-administered growth hormone, and 65% believed training to support self-administration would be helpful. According to 79%, the availability of support from another parent with experience of treating their own child with growth hormone, alongside their doctor, would be valuable. Thirty-seven percent of the parents indicated that their children felt anxious about administration of growth hormone, and 83% of parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome their anxiety. An increase in reluctance to receive treatment with growth hormone was observed by 40% of parents after the children reached puberty, and 57% of these parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome this reluctance.Conclusion: Understanding how growth hormone treatments and their implications are perceived by parents is a first step towards addressing quality of growth hormone treatment, which may be instrumental in improving adherence. The data show a need for

  9. A Qualitative Study of Young Adult Experiences in the Bariatric Healthcare System: Psychosocial Challenges and Developmental Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Yufe, Shira; Kastanias, Patti; Weiland, Mary; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    Bariatric surgery is an evidence-based treatment for severe obesity; however, the unique developmental and psychosocial needs of young adults often complicate care and, as yet, are not well understood. We sought to identify themes in young adult patients undergoing bariatric surgery regarding: 1) the psychosocial experiences of obese young adults (18 to 24) seeking bariatric surgery; 2) the experiences during the preoperative bariatric surgery process and 3) the postoperative experiences of young adult patients. In-depth, semistructured individual interviews were conducted with 13 young adult bariatric patients who were seeking or had undergone bariatric surgery within the past 5 years. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative methodology. We found the following themes in our analyses: 1) the impact of relationships (with families and healthcare providers) on the bariatric healthcare experience; 2) preoperative experiences by young adults prior to undergoing surgery and 3) postoperative reflections and challenges experienced by young adult patients. Results revealed that patients' experiences appear to encompass impact on familial relationships, needs sought to be fulfilled by healthcare providers, and various preoperative and postoperative psychosocial concerns. By understanding the experiences of young adults, healthcare providers might be able to provide better care for these patients. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Trafficking and Psychosocial Well-being: A Mixed-Methods Study of Returned Survivors of Trafficking in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, PhuongThao Dinh

    2014-01-01

    This study employs qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the psychosocial issues among women survivors of trafficking who have returned to Vietnam. The quantitative study examines the relationship between trafficking abuse and psychological symptoms among a pilot sample of trafficked women who accessed a post-trafficking project at the Vietnam-China border. The results are consistent with the existing literature suggesting that greater trafficking-related abuse is associated with...

  11. Psychosocial Interventions in Reducing Cannabis Use in Early Phase Psychosis: A Canadian Survey of Treatments Offered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cristina; Tibbo, Philip G; Ursuliak, Zenovia

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis use in people with early phase psychosis (EPP) can have a significant impact on long-term outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to describe current cannabis use treatment practices in English-speaking early intervention services (EISs) in Canada and determine if their services are informed by available evidence. Thirty-five Canadian English-speaking EISs for psychosis were approached to complete a survey through email, facsimile, or online in order to collect information regarding their current cannabis use treatment practices. Data were acquired from 27 of the 35 (78%) programs approached. Only 12% of EISs offered formal services that targeted cannabis use, whereas the majority (63%) of EISs offered informal services for all substance use, not specifically cannabis. In programs with informal services, individual patient psychoeducation (86%) was slightly more common than individual motivational interviewing (MI) (76%) followed by group patient psychoeducation (52%) and information handouts (52%). Thirty-seven percent of EISs offered formal services for substance use, and compared to programs with informal services, more MI, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and family services were offered, with individual treatment modalities more common than groups. No EISs used contingency management, even though it has some preliminary evidence in chronic populations. Evidence-based service implementation barriers included appropriate training and administrative support. While most English-speaking Canadian EIS programs offer individual MI and psychoeducation, which is in line with the available literature, there is room for improvement in cannabis treatment services based on current evidence for both people with EPP and their families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Relationships among stressful life events and physiological markers, treatment adherence, and psychosocial functioning among youth with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walders-Abramson, Natalie; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Anderson, Barbara; El Ghormli, Laure; Geffner, Mitchell; Kaplan, Joan; Koontz, Michaela B; Saletsky, Ron; Payan, Marisa; Yasuda, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relationships between stressful life events and physiological measures, adherence to prescribed oral medication regimens, depressive symptoms, and impaired quality of life (QoL) in adolescents with recent-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). Data were collected from 497 ethnically diverse participants (66% female) in the final year of the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth multicenter clinical trial. Exposure to 32 possible events over the previous year and rating of subsequent distress were collected by self-report and summarized as a major stressors score. This score was analyzed for relationship to glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c and treatment failure), body mass index, diagnosis of hypertension or triglyceride dyslipidemia, adherence to a prescribed oral medication regimen, presence of depressive symptoms, and impaired QoL. The total number of major stressful life events in the adolescents with T2D was calculated, with 33% reporting none, 67% reporting ≥ 1, 47% reporting ≥ 2, 33% reporting ≥ 3, and 20% reporting ≥ 4. There were no associations between the major stressors score and physiological measures or diagnosis of comorbidities. The odds of medication nonadherence increased significantly from those reporting ≥ 1 major stressor (OR, 1.58; P = .0265) to those reporting ≥ 4 major stressors (OR, 2.70; P = .0009). Significant odds of elevated depressive symptoms and impaired QoL were also found with increased reporting of major stressors. Exposure to major stressful life events is associated with lower adherence to prescribed oral medication regimens and impaired psychosocial functioning in adolescents with T2D. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Moderating effect of gender on the prospective relation of physical activity with psychosocial outcomes and asthma control in adolescents: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, O.C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adolescents with asthma experience more psychosocial and physiological problems compared to their healthy peers. Physical activity (PA) might decrease these problems. This study was the first observational longitudinal study to examine whether habitual PA could predict changes in psychoso

  14. Effect of alcohol consumption and psychosocial stressors on preterm and small-for-gestational-age births in HIV-infected women in South Africa: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sania, Ayesha; Brittain, Kirsty; Phillips, Tamsin K; Zerbe, Allison; Ronan, Agnes; Myer, Landon; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Psychosocial stressors such as depression and stress, intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use have been linked to preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births in general populations. The prevalence of psychosocial stressors and alcohol abuse is high in many HIV-infected (HIV+) populations. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial stressors and alcohol abuse on birth outcomes in HIV-infected women. Methods Antenatal depression and non-specific psychological distress, periconception IPV and alcohol consumption were measured during the second trimester among HIV+ women initiating antiretroviral treatment with efavirenz + emtricitibine + tenofovir in Cape Town, South Africa. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate the risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs of the effects of psychosocial stressors and periconception alcohol consumption on birth outcomes: SGA (birth weight child health programmes to improve the long-term health of HIV-exposed children. Trial registration number NCT01933477; Pre-results. PMID:28320796

  15. Application in Mexico of psychosocial rehabilitation with schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Marcelo; Rascon, Maria Luisa; Juarez, Francisco; Escamilla, Raul; Saracco, Ricardo; Liberman, Robert Paul

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether evidence-based, psychosocial treatments developed in the United States and England are applicable to Mexican outpatients with schizophrenia, the present study was carried out to evaluate the relative effectiveness of family psycho-education and psychosocial skills training added to customary treatment vs. customary treatment alone. Clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia participated in a 12-month randomized, controlled trial at the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City. An experimental group (N = 47) received the combination of psychosocial skills training, family psycho-education and customary pharmacotherapy while the comparison group (N = 36) received customary treatment alone. Patients were assessed at baseline and one year after commencement of treatment. Significant differences favoring the group that received psychosocial rehabilitation were found in ratings of adherence to medication, attendance at appointments, symptoms, social functioning, relapse, and re-hospitalization. While some adaptations were made in the psychosocial treatments to resolve cultural differences, the results provide cross-national validation of evidence-based treatments for persons with schizophrenia.

  16. Analysis of psychosocial factors influencing the distribution and projection of Spanish scientific activity: report of the initial qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GESCIT (Grup d'Estudis Socials de la Ciència i la Tecnologia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this first phase of a longer study, we identify a number of psycho-social factors which are affecting science in Spain: attitudes, stereotypes, prejudices, values, beliefs, and attribution processes. We also examine how these factors might help or hinder Spanish science's greater impact in the international scientific community. This study falls within the framework of the Social Psychology of Science, the main principle of which is to explain scientific work by appeal to psycho-social variables and processes. We use qualitative methods to analyse a wide sample of material gleaned from the Spanish scientific community, and report on those elements that construct and perpetuate the perceptions, images and representations of current Spanish science research.

  17. A descriptive qualitative study of student learning in a psychosocial nursing class infused with art, literature, music, and film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alice; Curtis, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Nursing educators have long valued and supported the integration of liberal arts in professional nursing programs. This descriptive qualitative study explores the meanings students derive from the integration of liberal arts content into a psychosocial nursing class. Questionnaires, class observation, and focus group interviews revealed five themes: an interesting hook, a deeper level of understanding, developing self-understanding, developing empathy and increasing cultural awareness. Researchers suggest that integrating liberal arts into nursing education enhances student learning.

  18. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    between psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. Using a combination of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire and data from the firms’ balanced scorecard system we show a positive......Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports the first findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship...... significant correlation between performance and psychosocial work environment. A sample of 12 departments was selected for in-depth qualitative study based on their relative change in performance and psychosocial work environment between 2005 and 2007. Through the qualitative study we are able to identity...

  19. Enhanced Fidelity to a Psychosocial Treatment for Bipolar Disorder: Results from a Randomized Controlled Implementation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxmonsky, Jeanette; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Goodrich, David E.; Nord, Kristina M.; Laird, Christina; Lai, Zongshan; Clogston, Julia; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Miller, Christopher J.; Bauer, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Background We determined whether application of a novel implementation intervention (Enhanced Replicating Effective Programs-REP) versus its standard, dissemination-focused version (REP) improved fidelity to bipolar disorder treatment (Life Goals Collaborative Care- LGCC). Methods Five community practices from Michigan and Colorado were randomized to receive LGCC using Enhanced or standard REP. One provider at each practice implemented LGCC which included patient self-management support (4 group sessions focused on symptoms and behavior goals), guideline dissemination to providers, and ongoing phone care management focused on maintaining behavior goals and provider engagement. Standard REP included intervention packaging (i.e., translation of LGCC core components into user-friendly language), training, and as-needed technical assistance. Enhanced REP added customization of LGCC and ongoing, proactive technical assistance through an internal and external facilitator that focused on enhancing provider buy-in and uptake. Multiple and logistic regression analyses determined the impact on patient-level LGCC fidelity between Enhanced versus standard REP. Results Participants (N=384; mean age = 42 years, 67% women, 29% nonwhite) averaged 3.0 out of 4 LGCC group sessions and had 4.0 care management contacts. Enhanced REP implementation was associated with 2.6 (p<.001) greater total number of sessions/contacts than standard REP, which was driven by 2.5 (p<.01) more care management contacts, after adjusting for patient factors. Women and those with a history of homelessness received fewer sessions. Conclusions Enhanced REP implementation was associated with improved LGCC fidelity, primarily for care management contacts. Additional customization of interventions such as LGCC may be needed to ensure adequate treatment fidelity for key vulnerable populations. PMID:24129806

  20. Psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems: a longitudinal study of the general working population in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Håkon A; Sterud, Tom

    2017-04-20

    A growing number of longitudinal studies report associations between adverse psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. However, the evidence regarding the direction of these associations and the effects of changes in exposure across time is limited. This study examined the plausibility of normal, reverse, and reciprocal associations between ten psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. In addition, we analyzed if reduced exposure across time had the anticipated result of reducing the risk of sleep problems. Randomly drawn from the general working-age population, the cohort comprised respondents with an active employee relationship in 2009 and 2013 (N = 5760). Exposures and outcome were measured on two occasions separated by 4 years. We computed several sex-stratified logistic regression models with adjustments for various plausible confounders. We found support for the commonly hypothesized unidirectional forward associations between psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems among women only. Among men, psychosocial stressors at work and sleep problems were reciprocally and reversely related. Nevertheless, reduced exposure levels across time pertaining to effort-reward imbalance (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.19-0.69) and lack of social support (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.32-0.93) among men, and work-family imbalance (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.15-0.46) among women were associated with a robust significant lower risk of sleep problems compared to those in the stable high exposure groups. The study results suggest that preventive measures targeting effort-reward imbalance and lack of social support among men, and work-family imbalance among women, might contribute to reduce the risk of troubled sleep among employees.

  1. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  2. Effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on physical and psychosocial dimensions of cancer-related fatigue: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vulpen, Jonna K; Peeters, Petra H M; Velthuis, Miranda J; van der Wall, Elsken; May, Anne M

    2016-03-01

    Cancer-related fatigue has a multidimensional nature and complaints typically increase during adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Physical exercise might prevent or reduce cancer-related fatigue. So far, no meta-analysis has investigated the effects of physical exercise on different dimensions of fatigue. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on physical and psychosocial dimensions of fatigue. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library in June 2015. Randomised controlled trials reporting the effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on different dimensions of fatigue were included. Pooled effects of 6 exercise programmes (including 784 patients) showed significant beneficial exercise effects on general fatigue (ES: -0.22, 95% CI -0.38; -0.05) and physical fatigue (ES: -0.35, 95% CI -0.49; -0.21). Effects on fatigue subscales 'reduced activity' (ES: -0.22, 95% CI -0.38; -0.05) and 'reduced motivation' (ES: -0.18, 95% CI -0.35; -0.01) were also in favour of physical exercise. No effects were found on cognitive and affective fatigue. Including only the supervised exercise programmes (n=4 studies), slightly larger pooled effect estimates were found on general fatigue (ES: -0.25, 95% CI -0.47; -0.04) and physical fatigue (-0.39, 95% CI -0.56; -0.23). In conclusion, physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment has beneficial effects on general fatigue, physical fatigue, 'reduced activity' and 'reduced motivation', but did not show effects on cognitive and affective fatigue. Largest effect sizes are found for physical fatigue, suggesting that this is the fatigue dimension most sensitive to physical exercise.

  3. A Study of the Psychosocial Profile of the Health Promoting Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Barbara L; Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers developed a profile of health promoting adults by surveying 830 health promoting individuals. Results highlighted psychosocial variables most strongly associated with health promoting behavior: total self-concept, physical self, moral-ethical self, self-satisfaction, behavior, and chance health locus of control. Demographic variables…

  4. Human Resource Strategic Management in NPOs: An Explorative Study on Managers' Psychosocial Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevene, Paula; Cortini, Michela

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This explorative research aims at examining the social representation of psychosocial training in NPOs managers. Design/methodology/approach: An adopted multiple research approach was adopted to analyse a corpus of qualitative data. A detailed semi-structured interview was administered to 122 senior managers of as many Italian NPOs.…

  5. Human Resource Strategic Management in NPOs: An Explorative Study on Managers' Psychosocial Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevene, Paula; Cortini, Michela

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This explorative research aims at examining the social representation of psychosocial training in NPOs managers. Design/methodology/approach: An adopted multiple research approach was adopted to analyse a corpus of qualitative data. A detailed semi-structured interview was administered to 122 senior managers of as many Italian NPOs.…

  6. Children and Mothers in War: An Outcome Study of a Psychosocial Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybdahl, Ragnhild

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated effects on children in Bosnia and Herzegovina of a 5-month psychosocial intervention program of weekly group meetings for mothers. Found that although all participants were exposed to severe trauma, their distress varied considerably. The intervention program had a positive effect on mothers' mental health, children's weight gain, and…

  7. Disillusionment Trilogy: a Study of the Effects of Work-Related and Psychosocial Stress Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José FERNÁNDEZ GALINDO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, disorders derived from work-related and psychosocial stress are increasingly important. Here the influence of professional activities on personal and family life and on the psyche is analysed by means of three films filmed in different periods: the North American The Arrangement (1969, the Spanish The Green Pastures (1979 and the Canadian The Age of Ignorance (2007.

  8. Semantic Behavior Therapy and Psychosocial Variables in the Treatment of Chronic Pain in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Coralie; And Others

    This study explored the efficacy of semantic behavior therapy in the management of chronic osteoarthritis pain in elderly patients as well as the relationships among pain, physical health, personality, and social characteristics in this population. The sample consisted of 8 elderly persons who had osteoarthritis of the knee, and 11 healthy elderly…

  9. Early detection of pneumology inpatients at risk of extended hospital stay and need for psychosocial treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo, Elena; De Jonge, Peter; Huyse, Frits J.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Rabanaque, Maria-Jose; Lobo, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Background: In a context of increasing concern for complex care needs in medical patients, this study is intended to document the utility in pneumology patients of INTERMED, a reliable and valid instrument to assess case complexity at the time of hospital admission. Methods: Three hundred and fiftee

  10. Psycho-social impact of orthogathic sugery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rocío; Martínez-Lara, Ildefonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Orthognathic surgery is a branch of maxillofacial surgery. It carries out the treatment of the facial skeleton asymmetries and deformities. The patients who ask for this surgery are often young people who usually refer symptoms related to dental malocclusion, difficulty eating and temporo-mandibular pain. These physical symptoms are often accompanied by psychological symptoms triggered by their physical appearance such as low self-esteem, self-confidence and negativism about their social and emotional future. Material and Methods Patients with skeletal malformation of facial bones, consisting in Class II, III, open bite and asymmetries, underwent to orthognathic surgery in our center agreed to participate voluntarily in this study. They answered a questionnaire regarding several psychosocial variables. Results Orthognathic surgery helps to improve patient’s psychosocial well-being. Conclusions Patients with dentofacial deformitiesexperience physical and psychological, oftentimes underestimated by society. A combination of orthodontic treatment and reconstructive surgery is often a necessity to restore function and psychosocial well-being. Key words:Orthogathic surgery, psychosocial consequences, mood, emotions, sense of power, motivation, satisfaction, social changes, satisfaction. PMID:27957267

  11. Predictors of antidepressant treatment outcome in melancholia: psychosocial, clinical and biological indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, J; Gasto, C; Catalan, R; Bulbena, A; Menchon, J M

    1991-03-01

    Predictive variables of response to imipramine and to phenelzine at 6 weeks and 6 months were studied in 116 patients suffering from major depression with melancholia (DSM-III). Several sociodemographic, clinical, and biological variables were studied. For imipramine-treated patients, high social support predicted a better response at 6 weeks, while development of hypomania during follow-up was associated with a better response at 6 weeks; absence of life events during the 6-month follow-up and initial non-suppression of dexamethasone predicted a better outcome at 6 months. For phenelzine-treated patients, development of hypomania during follow-up was associated with a better outcome at 6 months and absence of life events prior to the onset of the episode was associated with a worse outcome at 6 months.

  12. A 2-year follow-up study of people with severe mental illness involved in psychosocial rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Petra; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2014-08-01

    BACKGROUNDS. A focus on psychiatric rehabilitation in order to support recovery among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) has been given great attention in research and mental health policy, but less impact on clinical practice. Despite the potential impact of psychiatric rehabilitation on health and wellbeing, there is a lack of research regarding the model called the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach from Boston University (BPR). The aim was to investigate the outcome of the BPR intervention regarding changes in life situation, use of healthcare services, quality of life, health, psychosocial functioning and empowerment. The study has a prospective longitudinal design and the setting was seven mental health services who worked with the BPR in the county of Halland in Sweden. In total, 71 clients completed the assessment at baseline and of these 49 completed the 2-year follow-up assessments. The most significant finding was an improved psychosocial functioning at the follow-up assessment. Furthermore, 65% of the clients reported that they had mainly or almost completely achieved their self-formulated rehabilitation goals at the 2-year follow-up. There were significant differences with regard to health, empowerment, quality of life and psychosocial functioning for those who reported that they had mainly/completely had achieved their self-formulated rehabilitation goals compared to those who reported that they only had to a small extent or not at all reached their goals. Our results indicate that the BPR approach has impact on clients' health, empowerment, quality of life and in particular concerning psychosocial functioning.

  13. Childhood Symptoms of ADHD Overrule Comorbidity in Relation to Psychosocial Outcome at Age 15: A Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Norén Selinus

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs may influence the transition from childhood to adolescence. Our aim was to study long-term psychosocial outcomes of NDPs, focusing on ADHD.Data was collected through a telephone interview with parents of twins at ages 9 or 12 years. NDP screen-positive children were clinically assessed at age 15; N = 450. Psychosocial outcome concerning peers, school, internalizing problems, antisocial behavior, alcohol misuse, drug misuse, and impaired daily functioning was examined.Even after controlling for other NDP comorbidity, screen-positivity for ADHD doubled or tripled the odds of later psychosocial problems. When controlling for parental education level, the significant effect of ADHD remained only for antisocial behavior and impaired daily functioning.Signs of NDPs as well as other psychiatric diagnoses at ages 9 or 12 years are associated with a more problematic adolescence. However, despite the presence of comorbidity, early ADHD symptoms stand out as the most important risk factor for later antisocial development and impaired daily functioning.

  14. Psychosocial Functioning of Children with and without Dyslexia: A Follow-up Study from Ages Four to Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhiala, P; Torppa, M; Eklund, K; Aro, T; Poikkeus, A-M; Heikkilä, R; Ahonen, T

    2015-08-01

    This longitudinal study compares developmental changes in psychosocial functioning during the transition into school of children with and without dyslexia. In addition, it examines the effects of gender and family risk for dyslexia in terms of the associations between dyslexia and psychosocial functioning. Children's psychosocial functioning (social skills, inattention and externalizing and internalizing problems) was evaluated by their parents at ages 4, 6 and 9, and diagnosis for dyslexia was made at age 8 (in grade 2). The findings indicated that children with dyslexia were already rated as having poorer social skills and being more inattentive than were typical readers before their entry into school. Significant interactions of gender and diagnosis of dyslexia emerged for social skills and inattention. The social skills of boys with dyslexia improved after school entry as compared to the level of girls without dyslexia, whereas the social skills of girls with dyslexia did not improve. Boys with dyslexia were rated as showing a high level of inattention both prior to and after school entry, whereas, for girls with dyslexia, inattention ratings increased after school entry, eventually matching the boys' levels.

  15. Psychosocial Aspects of Dental Anxiety and Clinical Pain Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    This Danish Doctoral Dissertation in the science of Odontology contains 7 chapters: 1) Introduction to a social perspective on dental treatment, anxiety and pain throughout time, 2) research models and methods to study dental anxiety and clinical pain phenomena, 3) the fear of dental treatment...... .. what it is and what it is not and how many have it, 4) clinical pain treatment, psychosocial aspects in relation to anxiety, 4) patients and dentists' roles, pain perception and anxiety, 6) psychosocial aspects of managing anxiety and pain phenomena, and 7) Conclusions and proposals for the future...... of dental education and necessary changes in dental practice....

  16. Psychosocial Aspects of Dental Anxiety and Clinical Pain Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    This Danish Doctoral Dissertation in the science of Odontology contains 7 chapters: 1) Introduction to a social perspective on dental treatment, anxiety and pain throughout time, 2) research models and methods to study dental anxiety and clinical pain phenomena, 3) the fear of dental treatment...... .. what it is and what it is not and how many have it, 4) clinical pain treatment, psychosocial aspects in relation to anxiety, 4) patients and dentists' roles, pain perception and anxiety, 6) psychosocial aspects of managing anxiety and pain phenomena, and 7) Conclusions and proposals for the future...

  17. [Demand of diagnosis and treatment for work-related psycho-social discomfort: trend of phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, S; Castellini, G; Cassitto, M G; Leocata, G; Costa, G

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at updating the knowledge on case records of workers examined at the "Center for Occupational Stress and Harassment" of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" in Milan. A sample of patients examined between 2009 and 2011 (n = 198) was compared with a sample examined in 2003 (n = 226). Compared to the past case records, the latter sample included a significantly higher number of graduates (chi2 = 6.6; p < 0.05) and managers (chi2 = 21.5; p < 0.01), employees from the private sector (chi2 = 11.3; p < 0.01), trade (chi2 =22.6; p < 0.01) and micro/small enterprises (chi2 = 41.9; p < 0.001). Company changes and organizational conflicts were the main antecedents for workplace bullying.

  18. Relation between psychosocial variables and the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional and prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai Keisuke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional and prospective study used a variety of psychological inventories to evaluate the relationship between psychosocial factors and the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants were 304 patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated as outpatients at diabetes clinics. All participants were assessed for HbA1c and completed the following self-report psychological inventories: 1 Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ, 2 Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey (PAID, 3 Well-being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12, 4 Self-Esteem Scale (SES, 5 Social Support Scale, and 6 Self-Efficacy Scale. HbA1c was again measured one year later. The relationships between the psychosocial variables obtained by analysis of the psychological inventories and baseline or one-year follow-up HbA1c were determined. Results Baseline HbA1cwas significantly correlated with age, diet treatment regimen, number of microvascular complication of diabetes, and the total scores of DTSQ, W-BQ12, PAID, SES and the Self-Efficacy Scale. Hierarchical stepwise multiple regression revealed that significant predictors of baseline HbA1c were total DTSQ and PAID scores, along with age, diet treatment regimen, and number of microvascular complication of diabetes after adjustment for demographic, clinical and other psychosocial variables. Two hundred and ninety patients (95.4% of 304 were followed and assessed one year after baseline. Hierarchical stepwise multiple regression analysis showed the significant predictors of follow-up HbA1c to be total DTSQ and PAID scores, along with age and diet treatment regimen. However, the correlation between baseline and follow-up HbA1c was so high that the only other variable to retain significance was diet treatment regimen once baseline HbA1c was included in the regression of follow-up HbA1c. Conclusion The DTSQ and the PAID predicted both current and future HbA1c to a similar and

  19. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Long Yang

    Full Text Available Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and the associated psychosocial factors among bladder/kidney cancer patients.A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients with bladder/kidney cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 489 early-stage cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinical variables, depression, anxiety, PTSD, perceived social support and positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and resilience anonymously during October 2013 and August 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and psychological disorders, while controlling for possible covariates.The prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD was 77.5%, 69.3% and 25.2%, respectively, while 24.9% of patients had psychological co-morbidity. Psychosocial resources together explained more than one-third of the variance on psychological disorders. Under standardized estimate (β sequence, patient's perception of social support from family was significantly associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD (p < 0.01. Optimism and resilience showed integrated and independent effects on psychological disorders, and hope represented the significant association with PTSD only (p < 0.01.The high prevalence of psychological disorders in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage bladder/kidney cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings

  20. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, PScale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  1. A cohort study on psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology in adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Isabela Ribeiro; Castro, Marta; Sarmento, Sofia Lourenço; Moura, Cláudia; Viana, Victor; Areias, José Carlos; Areias, Maria Emília Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Our purpose was to study psychosocial adjustment and psychiatric morbidity of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Design All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion. Clinical data was obtained through the patient's clinical records. Setting A teaching and tertiary care facility in Porto, Portugal. Participants We evaluated 110 CHD patients (62 male) aged from 12 to 26 years (mean=18.00±3.617), 58 cyanotic. All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion in a tertiary hospital. Demographic information and clinical history were collected. Primary and secondary outcome measures Questionnaires regarded topics such as social support, family educational style, self-image and physical limitations, a standardised psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Lifetime version (SADS-L), and a self-report questionnaire on psychosocial adjustment, youth self-report or adult self-report. One of the relatives completed an observational version of the same questionnaire (child behaviour checklist (CBCL) or ABCL (adult behaviour checklist)). Results We found a 21.8% lifetime prevalence of psychopathology, 31.3%, in females, 14.5% in males, showing a somewhat increased proneness in CHD patients. Females also showed worse psychosocial adjustment, with more somatic complaints (u=260 000; p=0.011), anxiety/depression (u=984 000; p=0.002), aggressive behaviour (u=920 500; p=0.001), attention problems (u=1123 500; p=0.027), thought problems (u=1069 500; p=0.010), internalisation (u=869 000; p=0.0) and externalisation (u=1163 000; p=0.05). Patients with severe CHD (u=939 000; p=0.03) and surgical repair (u=719 000; p=0.037) showed worse psychosocial adjustment. Those with poor social support showed more withdrawal (u=557 500; p=0.0) and social problems (u=748 500; p=0.023), and patients with unsatisfactory school performance revealed more anxiety/depression (u=916

  2. Specialized psychosocial treatment plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU for patients with cannabis use disorder and psychosis: the CapOpus randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Fohlmann, A; Larsen, A.-M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis abuse in psychotic patients is associated with rehospitalizations, reduced adherence and increased symptom severity. Previous psychosocial interventions have been ineffective in cannabis use, possibly because of low sample sizes and short interventions. We investigated whethe...

  3. Risk factors and psychosocial characteristics of potential problematic and problematic internet use among adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsitsika Artemis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problematic internet use (PIU is associated with a plethora of psychosocial adversities. The study objectives were to assess the determinants and psychosocial implications associated with potential PIU and PIU among adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design was applied among a random sample (n = 866 of Greek adolescents (mean age: 14.7 years. Self-completed questionnaires, including internet use characteristics, Young Internet Addiction Test, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, were utilized to examine the study objectives. Results Among the study population, the prevalence rates of potential PIU and PIU were 19.4% and 1.5%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that male gender (Odds Ratio, OR: 2.01; 95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI: 1.35-3.00, as well as utilizing the internet for retrieving sexual information (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.53-4.12, interactive game playing (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.21-2.82, and socialization, including chat-room use (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.36-2.86 and email (OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05-2.24, were independently associated with potential PIU and PIU. Adolescents with potential PIU had an increased likelihood of concomitantly presenting with hyperactivity (OR: 4.39; 95% CI: 2.03-9.52 and conduct (OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.46-4.50 problems. Moreover, adolescent PIU was significantly associated with hyperactivity (OR: 9.96; 95% CI: 1.76-56.20 and conduct (OR: 8.39; 95% CI: 2.04-34.56 problems, as well as comprehensive psychosocial maladjustment (OR: 8.08; 95% CI: 1.44-45.34. Conclusions The determinants of potential PIU and PIU include accessing the internet for the purposes of retrieving sexual information, game playing, and socialization. Furthermore, both potential PIU and PIU are adversely associated with notable behavioral and social maladjustment among adolescents.

  4. Does Chinese culture influence psychosocial factors for heroin use among young adolescents in China? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. Results A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. Conclusions This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of

  5. National recommendations: Psychosocial management of diabetes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Sridhar, G. R.; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Baruah, Manash P.; John, Mathew; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Madhu, K.; Verma, Komal; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Shukla, Rishi; Prasanna Kumar, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Although several evidence-based guidelines for managing diabetes are available, few, if any, focus on the psychosocial aspects of this challenging condition. It is increasingly evident that psychosocial treatment is integral to a holistic approach of managing diabetes; it forms the key to realizing appropriate biomedical outcomes. Dearth of attention is as much due to lack of awareness as due to lack of guidelines. This lacuna results in diversity among the standards of clinical practice, which, in India, is also due to the size and complexity of psychosocial care itself. This article aims to highlight evidence- and experience-based Indian guidelines for the psychosocial management of diabetes. A systemic literature was conducted for peer-reviewed studies and publications covering psychosocial aspects in diabetes. Recommendations are classified into three domains: General, psychological and social, and graded by the weight they should have in clinical practice and by the degree of support from the literature. Ninety-four recommendations of varying strength are made to help professionals identify the psychosocial interventions needed to support patients and their families and explore their role in devising support strategies. They also aid in developing core skills needed for effective diabetes management. These recommendations provide practical guidelines to fulfill unmet needs in diabetes management, and help achieve a qualitative improvement in the way physicians manage patients. The guidelines, while maintaining an India-specific character, have global relevance, which is bound to grow as the diabetes pandemic throws up new challenges. PMID:23869293

  6. National recommendations: Psychosocial management of diabetes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Sridhar, G R; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Baruah, Manash P; John, Mathew; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Madhu, K; Verma, Komal; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Shukla, Rishi; Prasanna Kumar, K M

    2013-05-01

    Although several evidence-based guidelines for managing diabetes are available, few, if any, focus on the psychosocial aspects of this challenging condition. It is increasingly evident that psychosocial treatment is integral to a holistic approach of managing diabetes; it forms the key to realizing appropriate biomedical outcomes. Dearth of attention is as much due to lack of awareness as due to lack of guidelines. This lacuna results in diversity among the standards of clinical practice, which, in India, is also due to the size and complexity of psychosocial care itself. This article aims to highlight evidence- and experience-based Indian guidelines for the psychosocial management of diabetes. A systemic literature was conducted for peer-reviewed studies and publications covering psychosocial aspects in diabetes. Recommendations are classified into three domains: General, psychological and social, and graded by the weight they should have in clinical practice and by the degree of support from the literature. Ninety-four recommendations of varying strength are made to help professionals identify the psychosocial interventions needed to support patients and their families and explore their role in devising support strategies. They also aid in developing core skills needed for effective diabetes management. These recommendations provide practical guidelines to fulfill unmet needs in diabetes management, and help achieve a qualitative improvement in the way physicians manage patients. The guidelines, while maintaining an India-specific character, have global relevance, which is bound to grow as the diabetes pandemic throws up new challenges.

  7. Psychosocial adjustment and marital intimacy among partners of patients with breast cancer: a comparison study with partners of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the psychosocial adjustment of 70 partners of patients with breast cancer by comparing their emotional adjustment and quality of life (QoL) with 70 partners of women without cancer. The role of marital intimacy in their adjustment and the moderating effect of group type were analyzed. The partners of patients with breast cancer presented higher levels of anxious and depressive symptomatology; poor social, psychological, general and physical QoL; and higher levels of intimacy. The moderation analysis showed that higher levels of intimacy predicted lower levels of depression and anxiety and greater QoL only among the partners of cancer patients.

  8. Recovery entails bridging the multiple realms of best practice: towards a more integrated approach to evidence-based clinical treatment and psychosocial disability support for mental health recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, A; O'Halloran, P

    2014-09-01

    While mental health recovery is a very personal process, the approach also offers possibilities as a meta-framework for improving quality of services to support people with severe and enduring mental illness. This paper explores how a recovery paradigm offers opportunities to better understand how efforts within the personal, clinical, and psychosocial disability domains of well-being relate and need bridging and integration with an evidence-based framework of practice to optimise outcomes. Recovery from a severe and persisting mental illness such as schizophrenia is optimised by a holistic approach integrating the domains of clinical treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation with the personal efforts of individuals. For service providers, a monolithic or single paradigm approach with an exclusive or predominant biological, psychological, social, or cultural focus is unable to offer effective guidance on the treatment and rehabilitation support needed to enable community participation and ameliorate the impact which problems associated with mental illness have on individuals, their families, and their wider communities. Moreover, recovery-oriented services need to be effective, embracing evidence-based policy, practice and service delivery by providing treatment and support which actually work to improve outcomes for consumers and families.

  9. Disclosure of Financial Conflicts of Interests in Interventions to Improve Child Psychosocial Health: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Manuel; Humphreys, David K; Wilson, Philip; Gardner, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Academic journals increasingly request a full disclosure of financial conflict of interest (CoI). The Committee for Publication Ethics provides editors with guidance about the course of action in the case of suspected non-disclosure. No prior study has examined the extent to which journal articles on psychosocial interventions disclose CoI, and how journal editors process requests to examine suspected undisclosed CoI. Four internationally disseminated psychosocial interventions were examined. 136 articles related to an intervention, co-authored by intervention developers and published in health sciences journals were retrieved as requiring a CoI statement. Two editors refused consent to be included in the study. COI disclosures and editor responses were coded for 134 articles. Overall, 92/134 (71%) of all articles were found to have absent, incomplete or partly misleading CoI disclosures. Disclosure rates for the four programs varied significantly between 11% and 73%. Journal editors were contacted about 92 published articles with no CoI disclosure or a disclosure that was considered problematic. In 65/92 (71%) of all cases the editors published an 'erratum' or 'corrigendum'. In 16 of these cases the journal had mishandled a submitted disclosure. The most frequent reason for non-publication of an erratum was that the journal had no disclosure policy at the time of the publication (16 cases). Consumers of research on psychosocial interventions published in peer-reviewed journals cannot currently assume that CoI disclosures are adequate and complete. More efforts are needed to achieve transparency.

  10. Access to mental health and psychosocial services in Cambodia by survivors of trafficking and exploitation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberdein, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the extreme forms of violence and acute and longer-term mental health consequences associated with trafficking and exploitation. However, there has been little research on post-trafficking mental health and psychosocial support services for survivors. This study explored the availability and accessibility of mental health and psychosocial support services in Cambodia for women, men and children trafficked and exploited for sex or labour purposes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of representatives from seven service organizations providing mental health and psychosocial support services for people who have been trafficked. This qualitative method was selected to gain insights into the service approaches and challenges faced by the small number of post-trafficking service providers in Cambodia. A conceptual framework outlining access dimensions associated with service provision guided the structure of the study. Findings indicate that among the available post-trafficking services, there are few trained mental health specialists, an over-representation of shelter services in urban versus rural areas and limited services for males, people with disabilities, individuals exploited for labour (versus sexual exploitation) and those with more serious mental illnesses. Providers believe that discrimination and stigma related to both mental health and human trafficking hinder trafficked people's willingness to access services, but suggest that awareness-raising may reduce these prejudices. Care in this sector is precarious due to over-reliance on financial support by donors versus government. Recent increases in newly qualified professionals and providers suggest potential improvements in the quality and availability of psychological support for trafficking survivors. Psychological support for the growing number of identified trafficking survivors in Cambodia will depend on improved geographical

  11. General practitioners' psychosocial resources, distress, and sickness absence: a study comparing the UK and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Presseau, Justin; Eccles, Martin P

    2014-06-01

    Many countries, including the UK and Finland, face difficulties in recruiting GPs and one reason for these difficulties may be due to negative psychosocial work environments. To compare psychosocial resources (job control and participative safety), distress and sickness absences between GPs from the UK and those from Finland. We also examined differences in how psychosocial resources are associated with distress and sickness absence and how distress is associated with sickness absence for both countries. Two independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in general practice in the UK and Finland. Analyses of covariance were used for continuous outcome variables and logistic regression for dichotomized variable (sickness absence) adjusted for gender, qualification year and response format. UK GPs reported more opportunities to control their work and had higher levels of participative safety but were more distressed than Finnish GPs. Finnish GPs were 2.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.8-3.1) times more likely to report sickness absence spells than UK GPs. Among Finnish GPs, job control opportunities and high participative safety were associated with lower levels of distress, but not among UK GPs. Among UK GPs, higher distress was associated with 2.1 (95% confidence interval = 1.3-3.6) times higher likelihood of sickness absence spells, but among Finnish GPs there were no such association. In Finland, primary health care organizations should try to improve participative safety and increase control opportunities of physicians to decrease GP distress, whereas in the UK, other work or private life factors may be more important. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of Psychosocial Work Factors on Lifestyle Changes: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, K. O.; Thomsen, J. F.; Mikkelsen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    controlling for potential confounders. There were no other significant findings in the expected direction except for some of the confounders. CONCLUSIONS:: We found only limited and inconsistent support for the hypothesis that a poor psychosocial work environment is associated with an adverse lifestyle...... were assessed with questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict changes in lifestyle factors. RESULTS:: Low reward predicted smoking, low-decision latitude predicted being inactive, and high demands predicted high-alcohol consumption but only for men at follow-up even after...

  13. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care.

  14. Organizational change, psychosocial work environment, and non-disability early retirement: a prospective study among senior public employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinegaard, Nina; Jensen, Johan Høy; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2017-02-06

    Objective This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58-64 years (N=3254) from the Capital Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011. Weekly data on non-disability early retirement transfer were obtained from the DREAM register database, which holds weekly information about all public benefit payments in Denmark. Hazard ratios (HR) for early retirement following employees' 60 (th)birthday were estimated with Cox regression adjusted for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results Exposure to change of management [HR 1.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13-1.66], mergers (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48), and relocation of work unit (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.54) increased rate of non-disability early retirement, while demerging of work unit did not (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.79-1.33). Work units with lower levels of social capital (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.41), organizational justice, (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.32), and quality of management (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.25) increased rate of early retirement. Conclusion Organizational change and poor psychosocial work environment contribute to non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees, measured at work-unit level.

  15. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  16. Psychosocial aspects of strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Binocular vision is characterized by a harmonious relation between sensory and motor systems of both eyes. This relation enables directing visual axes toward the observed object simultaneously, fusing images from two eyes, and the sense of threedimensionality. Motility and binocular vision disorders occur in manifest and latent strabismus. The irregular position of eyes in strabismus is perceived by most people as an esthetic defect. Also, psychosocial consequences and the importance of treating strabismus are very superficially explained in this context. Bearing in mind the results of recent researches, which indicate that individuals of all ages with strabismus face different difficulties in psychosocial functioning, we believe that this issue in our surroundings should be dealt with. Strabismus leads to forming prejudices which usually have a negative impact on socialization and employment opportunities. Timely treatment of strabismus has a positive influence on the functionality of binocular vision, building self-esteem and self-satisfaction, being accepted by typically developing population, the quality and quantity of social interaction. The aim of this paper is to present the relation between strabismus and psychosocial reactions with regard to the available literature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179025: Kreiranje Protokola za procenu edukativnih potencijala dece sa smetnjama u razvoju kao kriterijuma za izradu individualnih obrazovnih programa i br. 179017: Socijalna participacija osoba sa intelektualnom ometenošću

  17. Sanitation-related psychosocial stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Hulland, Kristyna R S; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Freeman, Matthew C; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-08-01

    While sanitation interventions have focused primarily on child health, women's unique health risks from inadequate sanitation are gaining recognition as a priority issue. This study examines the range of sanitation-related psychosocial stressors during routine sanitation practices in Odisha, India. Between August 2013 and March 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 56 women in four life stages: adolescent, newly married, pregnant and established adult women in three settings: urban slums, rural villages and indigenous villages. Using a grounded theory approach, the study team transcribed, translated, coded and discussed interviews using detailed analytic memos to identify and characterize stressors at each life stage and study site. We found that sanitation practices encompassed more than defecation and urination and included carrying water, washing, bathing, menstrual management, and changing clothes. During the course of these activities, women encountered three broad types of stressors-environmental, social, and sexual-the intensity of which were modified by the woman's life stage, living environment, and access to sanitation facilities. Environmental barriers, social factors and fears of sexual violence all contributed to sanitation-related psychosocial stress. Though women responded with small changes to sanitation practices, they were unable to significantly modify their circumstances, notably by achieving adequate privacy for sanitation-related behaviors. A better understanding of the range of causes of stress and adaptive behaviors is needed to inform context-specific, gender-sensitive sanitation interventions.

  18. Influence of psychosocial risk factors on the trajectory of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatori Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies involving child/adolescent mental health problems are scarce in developing countries, particularly in regions characterized by adverse living conditions. We examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the trajectory of child/adolescent mental health problems (CAMHP over time. Methods A population-based sample of 6- to 13-year-olds with CAMHP was followed-up from 2002–2003 (Time 1/T1 to 2007–2008 (Time 2/T2, with 86 out of 124 eligible children/adolescents at T1 being reassessed at T2 (sample loss: 30.6%. Outcome: CAMHP at T2 according to the Child Behavior Checklist/CBCL’s total problem scale. Psychosocial factors: T1 variables (child/adolescent’s age, family socioeconomic status; trajectory of variables from T1 to T2 (child/adolescent exposure to severe physical punishment, mother exposure to severe physical marital violence, maternal anxiety/depression; and T2 variables (maternal education, child/adolescent’s social support and pro-social activities. Results Multivariate analysis identified two risk factors for child/adolescent MHP at T2: aggravation of child/adolescent physical punishment and aggravation of maternal anxiety/depression. Conclusions The current study shows the importance of considering child/adolescent physical punishment and maternal anxiety/depression in intervention models and mental health care policies.

  19. Are Hospital Workers Healthy?: A Study of Cardiometabolic, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Obesity Among Hospital Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela V; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Karhade, Mandar; Baun, William B; Perkison, William B; Pompeii, Lisa A; Brown, Henry S; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the cardiometabolic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with weight status among hospital employees. A total of n = 924 employees across the six hospitals in Texas participated in this cross-sectional study, 2012 to 2013. Association between weight status and waist circumference, blood pressure, biomarkers, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial factors was assessed. About 78.1% of employees were overweight/obese. Obese participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥30.0 kg/m) had higher consumption of potatoes, fats, sugary beverages, and spent more time watching television, playing computer games, and sitting than those having normal weight. Being obese was positively associated with blood pressure, blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein, and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein. Finally, 78.8% of workers were dissatisfied with their worksite wellness with dissatisfaction being higher among obese employees. Being overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m) was positively associated with blood pressure, but not other variables. Understanding the risk profile of hospital workers is critical to developing effective interventions.

  20. Psychosocial Intervention Is Associated with Altered Emotion Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L Pincham

    Full Text Available Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32 or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32 passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images. Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change.

  1. Portable treatment systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  2. Psychosocial Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Watkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay advocates for a paradigm shift in psychology toward the activity and ethics of accompaniment. Accompaniment requires a reorientation of the subjectivity, interpersonal practices, and critical understanding of the accompanier so that (she can stand alongside others who desire listening, witnessing, advocacy, space to develop critical inquiry and research, and joint imagination and action to address desired and needed changes. The idea of “accompaniment” emerged in liberation theology in Latin America, and migrated into liberatory forms of psychology as “psychosocial accompaniment.” This essay explores accompaniment and its ethics from a phenomenological perspective, highlighting differences from mainstream stances in psychology. Attention is also given to the effects of accompaniment on the accompanier. Efforts to decolonize psychology require careful attention to the psychic decolonization of its practitioners and to the cultivation of decolonizing interpersonal practices that provide a relational and ethical foundation for joint research, restorative healing, and transformative action. Such practices endeavor through dialogue to build mutual respect and understanding, promote effective solidarity, and contribute to the empowerment of those marginalized. The decolonization of psychology should enable practitioners to be more effective in working for increased social, economic, and environmental justice; peace building and reconciliation; and local and global ecological sustainability.

  3. Treatment Outcome in Patients Receiving Assertive Community Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortrijk, H. E.; Mulder, C. L.; Roosenschoon, B. J.; Wiersma, D.

    2010-01-01

    In an observational study of severely mentally ill patients treated in assertive community treatment (ACT) teams, we investigated how treatment outcome was associated with demographic factors, clinical factors, and motivation for treatment. To determine psychosocial outcome, patients were routinely

  4. Work-Related Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health Problems Associated with Musculoskeletal Pain in Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimann, Tiina; Pääsuke, Mati; Merisalu, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Background. Musculoskeletal pain is the most common cause of incapacity among nurses. This study aimed to report the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among hospital nurses and to explore the associations of work-related psychosocial factors and mental health problems with musculoskeletal pain. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital during April and May 2011. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations between dependent and independent variables. Results. Analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the hospital's nursing population). The overall prevalence of MSP was 70% in the past year and 64% in the past month. Lower back (57%) and neck (56%) were the body areas most commonly painful in the past year. Higher quantitative and emotional demands, work pace, low justice and respect in the workplace, influence on work organisation, and role conflicts were significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain among nurses (p pain. Conclusions. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems, especially somatic stress symptoms, have an important impact on the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain among university hospital nurses.

  5. Work-Related Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health Problems Associated with Musculoskeletal Pain in Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Freimann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Musculoskeletal pain is the most common cause of incapacity among nurses. This study aimed to report the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among hospital nurses and to explore the associations of work-related psychosocial factors and mental health problems with musculoskeletal pain. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital during April and May 2011. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations between dependent and independent variables. Results. Analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the hospital’s nursing population. The overall prevalence of MSP was 70% in the past year and 64% in the past month. Lower back (57% and neck (56% were the body areas most commonly painful in the past year. Higher quantitative and emotional demands, work pace, low justice and respect in the workplace, influence on work organisation, and role conflicts were significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain among nurses (p<0.05. All mental health problems and most strongly somatic stress symptoms were associated with musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems, especially somatic stress symptoms, have an important impact on the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain among university hospital nurses.

  6. A prospective study of psychosocial work characteristics and long sick leave of Japanese male employees in multiple workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Honda, Ryumon; Yamada, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Morikawa, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial work characteristics associated with long sick leave in a large population of male Japanese employees in multiple workplaces. We examined various psychosocial work characteristics (job overload, job control, supervisor support, coworker support, support by family and friends, role ambiguity, role conflict, intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict) of employees in six factories at the base line. We then conducted a follow-up survey on the recorded long sick leaves of ≥ 30 continuous days taken by the employees due to any medical condition. We found 574 cases of long sick leave out of 15,531 subjects during an average 5.07-yr follow-up. The results showed that high supervisor support was significantly associated with a decrease in the hazard ratio (HR) of long sick leave after adjustment for several confounding factors (95%CI; 0.69-0.97). High role ambiguity also tended to increase HR, but without reaching significance (95%CI; 0.99-1.41). The results suggest that supervisor support in the workplace may be important to reduce long sick leave in Japanese male employees.

  7. The Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH) study: diversity, psychosocial determinants and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Seeromanie; Read, Ursula M; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Cassidy, Aidan; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Teyhan, Alison; Whitrow, Melissa; Enayat, Zinat E

    2015-08-01

    The Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health longitudinal study draws on life-course models to understand ethnic differences in health. A key hypothesis relates to the role of psychosocial factors in nurturing the health and well-being of ethnic minorities growing up in the UK. We report the effects of culturally patterned exposures in childhood. In 2002/2003, 6643 11-13 year olds in London, ~80 % ethnic minorities, participated in the baseline survey. In 2005/2006, 4782 were followed-up. In 2012-2014, 665 took part in a pilot follow-up aged 21-23 years, including 42 qualitative interviews. Measures of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors and health were collected. Ethnic minority adolescents reported better mental health than White British, despite more adversity (e.g. economic disadvantage, racism). It is unclear what explains this resilience but findings support a role for cultural factors. Racism was an adverse influence on mental health, while family care and connectedness, religious involvement and ethnic diversity of friendships were protective. While mental health resilience was a feature throughout adolescence, a less positive picture emerged for cardio-respiratory health. Both, mental health and cultural factors played a role. These patterns largely endured in early 20s with family support reducing stressful transitions to adulthood. Education levels, however, signal potential for socio-economic parity across ethnic groups.

  8. Pharmacological Augmentation of Psychosocial and Remediation Training Efforts in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Harvey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological approaches to cognitive enhancement have received considerable attention but have not had considerable success in improving their cognitive and functional targets. Other intervention strategies, such as cognitive remediation therapy (CRT, have been shown to enhance cognitive performance but have not been found to improve functional outcomes without additional psychosocial interventions. Recently, several studies have attempted to enhance the effects of CRT by adding pharmacological interventions to the CRT treatments. In addition, as CRT has been shown to synergistically improve the effects of psychosocial interventions, the combination of pharmacological therapies aimed at cognition and psychosocial interventions may itself provide a promising strategy for improving functional outcomes. This review and commentary examines the current state of interventions combining CRT and psychosocial treatments with pharmacological augmentation. Our focus is on the specific level of effect of the pharmacological intervention, which could be enhancing motivation, training efficiency, or the consolidation of therapeutic gains. Different pharmacological strategies (e.g., stimulants, plasticity-inducing agents, or attentional or alertness enhancers may have the potential to lead to different types of gains when combined with CRT or psychosocial interventions. The relative potential of these different mechanisms for immediate and durable effects is considered.

  9. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. METHODS: This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age.......0001), independent of BMI SDS at entry. However, improvements in psychosocial well-being were also observed in those increasing their BMI SDS (n = 315). CONCLUSIONS: In a large group of children and youths, psychosocial well-being improved during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme......, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight...

  10. Psychosocial and clinical predictors of retention in outpatient alcoholism treatment Preditores psicossociais e clínicos de retenção ao tratamento para alcoolismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maria Corrêa Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One of the factors associated with low rates of compliance in the treatment for alcoholism seems to be the intensity of craving for alcohol. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between alcohol craving and biopsychosocial addiction model-related variables and to verify whether these variables could predict treatment retention. METHODS: The sample consisted of 257 male alcoholics who were enrolled in two different pharmacological trials conducted at the Universidade de São Paulo in Brazil. Based on four factors measured at baseline - biological (age, race, and family alcoholism, psychiatric (depression symptoms, social (financial and marital status, and addiction (craving intensity, severity of alcohol dependence, smoking status, drinking history, preferential beverage, daily intake of alcohol before treatment - direct logistic regression was performed to analyze these factors' influence on treatment retention after controlling for medication groups and AA attendance. RESULTS: Increasing age, participation in Alcoholics Anonymous groups, and beer preference among drinkers were independently associated with higher treatment retention. Conversely, higher scores for depression increased dropout rates. CONCLUSION: Health services should identify the treatment practices and therapists that improve retention. Information about patients' characteristics linked to dropouts should be studied to render treatment programs more responsive and attractive, combining pharmacological agents with more intensive and diversified psychosocial interventions.OBJETIVO: Um dos fatores associados com baixas taxas de adesão ao tratamento para alcoolismo parece ser a intensidade da fissura pelo álcool. Este estudo objetiva avaliar a associação entre a fissura pelo álcool e variáveis relacionadas ao modelo biopsicossocial de dependência, bem como verificar se estas variáveis prevêem retenção ao tratamento. MÉTODO: A amostra foi composta por

  11. The interactive role of income (material position) and income rank (psychosocial position) in psychological distress: a 9-year longitudinal study of 30,000 UK parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Elisabeth A; Chandola, Tarani; Purdam, Kingsley; Wood, Alex M

    2016-10-01

    Parents face an increased risk of psychological distress compared with adults without children, and families with children also have lower average household incomes. Past research suggests that absolute income (material position) and income status (psychosocial position) influence psychological distress, but their combined effects on changes in psychological distress have not been examined. Whether absolute income interacts with income status to influence psychological distress are also key questions. We used fixed-effects panel models to examine longitudinal associations between psychological distress (measured on the Kessler scale) and absolute income, distance from the regional mean income, and regional income rank (a proxy for status) using data from 29,107 parents included in the UK Millennium Cohort Study (2003-2012). Psychological distress was determined by an interaction between absolute income and income rank: higher absolute income was associated with lower psychological distress across the income spectrum, while the benefits of higher income rank were evident only in the highest income parents. Parents' psychological distress was, therefore, determined by a combination of income-related material and psychosocial factors. Both material and psychosocial factors contribute to well-being. Higher absolute incomes were associated with lower psychological distress across the income spectrum, demonstrating the importance of material factors. Conversely, income status was associated with psychological distress only at higher absolute incomes, suggesting that psychosocial factors are more relevant to distress in more advantaged, higher income parents. Clinical interventions could, therefore, consider both the material and psychosocial impacts of income on psychological distress.

  12. Are eating and psychosocial characteristics in early teenage years useful predictors of eating characteristics in early adulthood? A 7-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calam, R; Waller, G

    1998-12-01

    This longitudinal research aimed to determine the utility of psychosocial and eating characteristics in early teenage years in predicting eating attitudes and behaviors in early adulthood. Self-esteem, perfectionism, family function, and eating attitudes were measured at 12 years and eating attitudes and behavior were assessed at 19 years. Sixty-three women (71.6%) remained in the study over the 7 years. Bulimic attitudes in early teenage years were related to subsequent bulimic features, while restrictive attitudes were more closely related to later purging behaviors. Self-esteem and perfectionism were only weakly linked with subsequent eating. However, different perceived family characteristics at the first stage were associated with specific aspects of eating in early adulthood. There is consistency of eating characteristics across time, but psychosocial characteristics have a more limited predictive power. Future longitudinal studies should begin earlier in childhood if psychosocial factors are to be useful predictors of eating psychopathology in adulthood.

  13. Empirically Based Psychosocial Therapies for Schizophrenia: The Disconnection between Science and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn D. Shean

    2013-01-01

    Empirically validated psychosocial therapies for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were described in the report of the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT, 2009). The PORT team identified eight psychosocial treatments: assertive community treatment, supported employment, cognitive behavioral therapy, family-based services, token economy, skills training, psychosocial interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders, and psychosocial interventions for weight manageme...

  14. STUDY ON PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSORS AND PSYCHIATRY MORBIDITY IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: A QUANTITATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ilyas Rahamathulla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Numerous biological, environmental, behavioural, and sociocultural variables interact in its aetiology and pathogenesis of Coronary Heart Disease. It can be seen as a disorder of lifestyle and many of its aetiologic agents are potentially modifiable particularly life stressors. AIM We aimed 1. To compare the occurrence of stressful life events among myocardial infarction patients with non-myocardial infarction patients with diabetes mellitus as control group who are with same age and sex. 2. To assess the level of psychiatric morbidity in the post myocardial infarction period. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in the intermediate care unit, Department of Cardiology, of tertiary care hospital. Thirty consecutive patients admitted who satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Thirty randomly selected patients were taken as controls. Both the patients and controls were administered the following tools: Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES, Socio-Economic Status scale (SES, Hospital anxiety and depression scale and ICD 10 criteria for depressive episode. RESULTS The clinical variable, blood pressure, and blood glucose level showed statistically significant level in myocardial infarction group. Alcohol drinking and smoking did not have any statistical significance. Presumptive stressful life events in the past 12 months are statistically significant. CONCLUSION Patients who developed myocardial infarction have more stressful life events in the preceding 12 months. Both depression and anxiety were significantly more in myocardial infarction than the controls. Further research requires samples representing all socioeconomic status to have a clear picture of the association of the biological and socioeconomic risk factors in coronary heart disease.

  15. Tic Frequency Decreases during Short-term Psychosocial Stress - An Experimental Study on Children with Tic Disorders.

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    Buse, Judith; Enghardt, Stephanie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that psychosocial stress influences situational fluctuations of tic frequency. However, evidence from experimental studies is lacking. The current study investigated the effects of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) on tic frequency in 31 children and adolescents with tic disorders. A relaxation and a concentration situation served as control conditions. Patients were asked either to suppress their tics or to "tic freely." Physiological measures of stress were measured throughout the experiment. The TSST-C elicited a clear stress response with elevated levels of saliva cortisol, increased heart rate, and a larger number of skin conductance responses. During relaxation and concentration, the instruction to suppress tics reduced the number of tics, whereas during stress, the number of tics was low, regardless of the given instruction. Our study suggests that the stress might result in a situational decrease of tic frequency.

  16. The Newcastle 85+ study: biological, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with healthy ageing: study protocol

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    Martin-Ruiz Carmen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK, like other developed countries, is experiencing a marked change in the age structure of its population characterised by increasing life expectancy and continuing growth in the older fraction of the population. There is remarkably little up-to-date information about the health of the oldest old (over 85 years, demographically the fastest growing section of the population. There is a need, from both a policy and scientific perspective, to describe in detail the health status of this population and the factors that influence individual health trajectories. For a very large proportion of medical conditions, age is the single largest risk factor. Gaining new knowledge about why aged cells and tissues are more vulnerable to pathology is likely to catalyse radical new insights and opportunities to intervene. The aims of the Newcastle 85+ Study are to expose the spectrum of health within an inception cohort of 800 85 year-olds; to examine health trajectories and outcomes as the cohort ages and their associations with underlying biological, medical and social factors; and to advance understanding of the biological nature of ageing. Methods A cohort of 800 85 year olds from Newcastle and North Tyneside will be recruited at baseline and followed until the last participant has died. Eligible individuals will be all those who turn 85 during the year 2006 (i.e. born in 1921 and who are registered with a Newcastle or North Tyneside general practice. Participants will be visited in their current residence (own home or institution by a research nurse at baseline, 18 months and 36 months. The assessment protocol entails a detailed multi-dimensional health assessment together with review of general practice medical records. Participants will be flagged with the NHS Central Register to provide details of the date and cause of death. Discussion The Newcastle 85+ Study will address key questions about health and health-maintenance in the

  17. Psychosocial factors and their predictive value in chiropractic patients with low back pain: a prospective inception cohort study

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    Breen Alan C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being able to estimate the likelihood of poor recovery from episodes of back pain is important for care. Studies of psychosocial factors in inception cohorts in general practice and occupational populations have begun to make inroads to these problems. However, no studies have yet investigated this in chiropractic patients. Methods A prospective inception cohort study of patients presenting to a UK chiropractic practice for new episodes of non-specific low back pain (LBP was conducted. Baseline questionnaires asked about age, gender, occupation, work status, duration of current episode, chronicity, aggravating features and bothersomeness using Deyo's 'Core Set'. Psychological factors (fear-avoidance beliefs, inevitability, anxiety/distress and coping, and co-morbidity were also assessed at baseline. Satisfaction with care, number of attendances and pain impact were determined at 6 weeks. Predictors of poor outcome were sought by the calculation of relative risk ratios. Results Most patients presented within 4 weeks of onset. Of 158 eligible and willing patients, 130 completed both baseline and 6-week follow-up questionnaires. Greatest improvements at 6 weeks were in interference with normal work (ES 1.12 and LBP bothersomeness (ES 1.37. Although most patients began with moderate-high back pain bothersomeness scores, few had high psychometric ones. Co-morbidity was a risk for high-moderate interference with normal work at 6 weeks (RR 2.37; 95% C.I. 1.15–4.74. An episode duration of >4 weeks was associated with moderate to high bothersomeness at 6 weeks (RR 2.07; 95% C.I. 1.19 – 3.38 and negative outlook (inevitability with moderate to high interference with normal work (RR 2.56; 95% C.I. 1.08 – 5.08. Conclusion Patients attending a private UK chiropractic clinic for new episodes of non-specific LBP exhibited few psychosocial predictors of poor outcome, unlike other patient populations that have been studied. Despite

  18. Acceptability and utility of an electronic psychosocial assessment (myAssessment) to increase self-disclosure in youth mental healthcare: a quasi-experimental study.

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    Bradford, Sally; Rickwood, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Technology is increasingly being used in youth mental healthcare to support service delivery and improve health outcomes. The current study trialed a new electronic psychosocial application (myAssessment) that aims to provide a holistic assessment of relevant risk and protective factors in youth mental healthcare. The study aimed to determine whether myAssessment was acceptable to all users, and whether it affected: reporting of certain behaviors and ratings of self-disclosure; youth ratings of control, fears of judgmental reactions or time-efficiency; clinician ratings of time-efficiency or their ability to formulate a treatment plan; and the therapeutic alliance. The application was tested at a youth mental health service using a quasi-experimental two phase Treatment-as-Usual/Intervention design. Three hundred thirty nine youth and 13 clinicians participated across both phases. Reporting of behaviors, self-disclosure, youth control, judgmental reactions, time efficiency, ability to formulate treatment plans, and the therapeutic alliance were compared between groups. myAssessment was found to be widely accepted by both young people and clinicians. Use of myAssessment resulted in reporting of behaviors that were 2.78 through 10.38 times higher for a variety of substances (use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, sedatives, hallucinogens, and opioids), in identifying non-heterosexual sexual orientation, having had sex, an STI check, sex without a condom, having felt pressured to have sex in the past, having self-harmed, and in having put themselves in an unsafe situation. Participants who used the application also reported being less likely to lie on past experiences of being bullied, substance use, and self-harm. Use of the application resulted in improved youth ratings of time efficiency in session. The application was found to have no impact on youth control, judgmental reactions, formulation of treatment plans, or the therapeutic alliance. Electronic psychosocial

  19. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

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    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  20. The influence of mental skills on motivation and psychosocial characteristics.

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    McGraw, Leigh; Pickering, Michael A; Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this observational, cross-sectional study was to assess psychosocial characteristics and intrinsic motivation in a convenience sample of Army soldiers with different mental skills profiles. Participants were recruited immediately before or immediately following regular training activities. Anonymous surveys were completed and collected in the training area. Instruments used in this study included the Ottawa Mental Skills Assessment Tool-3 Revised for Soldiers; Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; University of California, Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale; Beck Hopelessness Scale; Intrinsic Motivation Inventory; and an anger measure. Soldiers with strong mental skill profiles were more intrinsically motivated and psychosocially healthier than their peers with weaker mental skill profiles. It is recommended that a proactive approach to psychological health promotion practices in soldiers be sought rather than reactive treatment plans to psychological sequelae. Future research must examine the role of psychosocial fitness and adaptability to enhance mental skills fitness.

  1. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees, a 3-year follow-up study.

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    Havermans, Bo M; Boot, Cécile R L; Hoekstra, Trynke; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-09-18

    Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees' mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in mental health in older employees at 3-year follow-up. The current study used data from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM), in workers aged 45-65 years (n = 5249). Two-year (2010-2012) exposure was assessed for psychological demands, autonomy, support, mental load, and distributive justice. Linear regression analyses were performed to compare improved exposure to unfavourable psychosocial work factors with stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure and mental health at follow-up (2013), corrected for confounders. Analyses were stratified for age groups (45-54 and 55-65 years) and gender. In certain subgroups, stable unfavourable exposure to psychological demands, autonomy, support, and distributive justice was associated with a significantly lower mental health score than improved exposure. Stable favourable exposure to support was associated with a higher mental health score than improved support, whereas stable favourable exposure to autonomy was associated with a lower mental health score compared to improved exposure. There is a longitudinal association between changes in exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health. Improvement in unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors was associated with improved mental health. This is important information for organisations that consider deploying measures to improve the psychosocial work environment of older workers.

  2. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

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    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  3. A livelihood intervention to improve economic and psychosocial well-being in rural Uganda: Longitudinal pilot study

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    Bernard Kakuhikire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV and poverty are inextricably intertwined in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic and livelihood intervention strategies have been suggested to help mitigate the adverse economic effects of HIV, but few intervention studies have focused specifically on HIV-positive persons. We conducted three pilot studies to assess a livelihood intervention consisting of an initial orientation and loan package of chickens and associated implements to create poultry microenterprises. We enrolled 15 HIV-positive and 22 HIV-negative participants and followed them for up to 18 months. Over the course of follow-up, participants achieved high chicken survival and loan repayment rates. Median monthly income increased, and severe food insecurity declined, although these changes were not statistically significant (P-values ranged from 0.11 to 0.68. In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of three HIV-positive participants identified a constellation of economic and psychosocial benefits, including improved social integration and reduced stigma.

  4. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

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    Mulasso A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mulasso,1 Mattia Roppolo,1,2 Fabrizia Giannotta,3 Emanuela Rabaglietti1 1Department of Psychology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy; 2Department of Developmental Psychology, Rijksuniversiteit of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Department of Psychology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden Abstract: Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1 evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2 investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs. Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and

  5. The Role of Therapist Training in the Implementation of Psychosocial Treatments: A Review and Critique with Recommendations

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    Herschell, Amy D.; Kolko, David J.; Baumann, Barbara L.; Davis, Abigail C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based treatments (EBT) are underutilized in community settings, where consumers are often seen for treatment. Underutilization of EBTs may be related to a lack of empirically informed and supported training strategies. The goals of this review are to understand the state of the literature for training therapists in psychotherapy skills and to offer recommendations to improve research in this area. Results of this review of 55 studies evaluating six training methods indicate that multi-component trainings have been studied most often and have most consistently demonstrated positive training outcomes relative to other training methods. Studies evaluating utility of reading, self-directed trainings, and workshops have documented that these methods do not routinely produce positive outcomes. Workshop follow-ups help to sustain outcomes. Little is known about the impact of train-the-trainer methods. Methodological flaws and factors that may influence training outcome and future directions are also reviewed. PMID:20304542

  6. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

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    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  7. Psychological stress and strain on employees in dialysis facilities: a cross-sectional study with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire.

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    Kersten, Maren; Kozak, Agnessa; Wendeler, Dana; Paderow, Lara; Nübling, Matthias; Nienhaus, Albert

    2014-02-05

    Work in dialysis facilities involves long term contact with chronically ill patients. International comparisons make it clear that dialysis work is being concentrated, staff is being reduced and more patients are being treated. It is more than 20 years since the last German publication on job strains and job satisfaction experienced by dialysis staff was published. The present study examines the stress and strain currently experienced by the staff of German dialysis facilities. The staff of 20 dialysis facilities were surveyed with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). The questionnaire was extended by adding dialysis-specific questions. The data from the dialysis facilities were assessed by comparison with other professions in medical care - nurses and geriatric nurses - using data recorded in the German COPSOQ database. A total of 367 employees took part in the study, corresponding to a response rate of 55%. For almost all psychosocial aspects, the dialysis staff regarded the stress and strain as being more critical than did the geriatric nurses. There were some positive differences in comparison to hospital nursing, including less conflict between work and private life. However, there were also negative differences, such as fewer possibilities of influencing the work. The results of the study show that dialysis work exhibits both positive and negative aspects in comparison with other healthcare professions. The results in the different facilities were highly variable, indicating that the deficits found in the individual scales are not inevitable consequences of working in dialysis in general, but are influenced and might be favourably altered by the individual facilities.

  8. Relationship of psychosocial risk factors, certain personality traits and myocardial infarction in Indians: A case-control study

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    Rajni Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI. Materials and Methods: A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001. However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2, Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE over lifetime (P = 0.058 and subjective well-being (P = 0.987 were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001, dominant (P = 0.03, egoistic (P < 0.001 and introvert (P < 0.001 personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.

  9. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case–control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001). However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2), Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE) over lifetime (P = 0.058) and subjective well-being (P = 0.987) were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001), dominant (P = 0.03), egoistic (P < 0.001) and introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670

  10. Burnout and Hypocortisolism - A Matter of Severity? A Study on ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

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    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-01-01

    Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women) and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women), underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after, and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol, or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition, patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. However, there was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol. This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  11. Burnout and hypocortisolism – a matter of severity? A study on ACTH and cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

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    Anna-Karin eLennartsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Methods: Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women, underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. Results: In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. There was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol however. Conclusion: This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  12. The correlation between ostomy knowledge and self-care ability with psychosocial adjustment in Chinese patients with a permanent colostomy: a descriptive study .

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    Cheng, Fang; Meng, Ai-feng; Yang, Li-Fang; Zhang, Yi-nan

    2013-07-01

    A colostomy can have a negative impact on patient quality of life. Research suggests that psychosocial adaptation is positively associated with quality of life, but few reports address this adaptation and its related factors in patients with a permanent colostomy. A 4-month, descriptive study was conducted to assess the impact of ostomy knowledge and ability to self-care on the psychosocial adjustment of 54 Chinese outpatients (47 men, 14 participants 40 to 50 years old, 40 participants 50 to 70 years old) with a permanent colostomy to investigate the correlation between stoma knowledge, self-care ability, and psychosocial adjustment. Assessment instruments included a sociodemographic data questionnaire and a Chinese translation of the Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 that comprises 20 items in three domains (positive emotions, negative emotions, and social life). Participants rated statements on a scale from 0 (totally disagree) to 4 (totally agree); a score of 40 indicates a low level of psychosocial adjustment. Participants also completed the Stoma-related Knowledge Scale, comprising 14 5-point Likert scale questions where low scores indicate low knowledge, and they answered one question regarding self-care ability. Data were analyzed using statistical software for social science. The average stoma-related knowledge score suggested moderate levels of knowledge (45.112 ± 13.358). Twenty (20) participants managed all stoma care aspects independently, 30 required some assistance, and four (4) required care by someone else. The three domains of psychosocial adjustment scores (positive emotions, negative emotions, and social life) were 17.60 ± 4.093,12.92 ± 3.440, and 19.15 ± 6.316, respectively. Knowledge and the three domains of psychosocial adjustment were positively correlated with positive emotion (r = .610, P = 0.001), negative emotion (r = .696, P = 0.000), and social life adjustment (r = .617, P = 0.001). A significant difference in psychosocial adjustment

  13. Combining psychosocial data to improve prediction of cardiovascular disease risk factors and events:: The NHLBI-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study

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    Whittaker, Kerry S.; Krantz, David S.; Rutledge, Thomas; Johnson, B. Delia; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J.; Bittner, Vera; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Eteiba, Wafia; Cornell, Carol E.; Pepine, Carl J.; Vido, Diane A.; Handberg, Eileen; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2012-01-01

    Background There is overlap among psychosocial variables associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and utility of combining psychosocial variables as risk markers for understanding CVD is largely unknown. Methods Women (n=493) in the NHLBI Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study were evaluated. The predictive value for CVD events was determined for multivariate combination of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Social Network Index (SNI), and Cook-Medley hostility (Ho) scales. Principal components analysis of psychosocial scales revealed composite psychosocial risk markers, and their relationships to CVD events and risk factors were assessed. Results In a multivariate model, the block of SNI, Hostile Affect, STAI and BDI predicted CVD events (χ2[6]=27.8, p<0.001). Scale-wise factor analysis revealed two factors: Negative Affectivity (NA) and Hostility(explained variance 45.6% and 17.1%, respectively). SNI didn't load on either factor. NA was associated with BMI (β [SE] = 0.18[0.09], p=0.04), Hostility with metabolic syndrome (Exp(β)= 0.60[0.28], p=0.04), both factors with blood pressure (BP). NA with SBP β=2.53[1.04], p=0.02, DBP β=1.66[0.60], p=0.02; Hostility with SBP β=2.72[1.13], p=0.02, DBP β =1.83[0.65], p=0.005). Neither factor predicted CVD events. In multivariable analyses, original scales were associated with CVD events (lower SNI HR=0.74, CI=0.57–0.96), low Hostile Affect (HR=0.80, CI=0.56–1.03), and higher BDI(HR=1.33, CI=1.08–1.74). Conclusion In women with suspected ischemia, there is shared variance among psychosocial variables. Multivariate combination of psychosocial risk markers predicts CVD events; derived psychosocial factors were associated with CVD risk factors but not events. Measuring common and unique variance among psychosocial variables may be useful for understanding and predicting CVD. PMID:22434916

  14. Psychosocial factors associated with smoking and drinking among Japanese early adolescent boys and girls: Cross-sectional study

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    Simons-Morton Bruce G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and drinking alcohol among early adolescents are serious public health concerns, but few studies have been conducted in Japan to assess their prevalence and etiology. A regional survey was conducted in eight schools in two Japanese school districts to identify psychosocial factors associated with smoking and drinking behaviors for boys and girls. Methods Junior high school students from seventh to ninth grades (N = 2,923 completed a self-reported questionnaire between December 2002 and March 2003. Relationships between psychosocial variables (i.e., self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure, parental involvement, school adjustment, and deviant peer influence and smoking and drinking were investigated using logistic regression analyses and path analyses. Results Smoking in the last six months was significantly more prevalent in boys (7.9% than girls (5.1%. The prevalence of drinking in the last six months was similar in boys (23.7% and girls (21.8%. Self-efficacy to resist peer pressure was negatively associated with both smoking and drinking among both boys and girls and provided both direct and indirect effects through deviant peer influence. Parental involvement showed indirect effects through school adjustment and/or deviant peer influence to both smoking among both boys and girls and drinking among girls, although parental involvement showed direct effects on smoking only for boys. School adjustment was negatively associated with smoking among both boys and girls and drinking among girls. Conclusion These findings suggest that self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure, parental involvement, school adjustment and deviant peer influence are potentially important factors that could be addressed by programs to prevent smoking and/or drinking among early adolescent boys and girls in Japan.

  15. Interactions of socioeconomic position with psychosocial and environmental correlates of children's physical activity: an observational study of South Australian families

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    Lewis Nicole R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for psychosocial and environmental correlates on children's physical activity is scattered and somewhat unconvincing. Further, the moderating influences of socioeconomic position (SEP on these influences are largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of SEP, operationalised by mother education, and predictors of children's physical activity based on the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Methods In 2005, a sample of South Australians (10–15 y was surveyed on psychosocial and environmental correlates of physical activity using the Children's Physical Activity Correlates Questionnaire (n = 3300 and a parent survey (n = 1720. The following constructs were derived: 'is it worth it?' (perceived outcomes; 'am I able?' (perceived competency; 'reinforcing' (parental support; and 'enabling' (parent-perceived barriers. Self-reported physical activity was represented by a global score derived from the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Associations among physical activity and hypothesised correlates were tested among children with mothers of high (university educated and low (left school at or before 15 y SEP. Results Among high SEP children, 'is it worth it?' emerged as a significant predictor of physical activity for boys and girls. Among low SEP children, 'is it worth it?' predicted boys' physical activity, while among girls, 'reinforcing' was the only significant predictor, explaining ~35% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Conclusion While perceived outcomes emerged as a consistent predictor of physical activity in this sample, parental support was a powerful limiting factor among low SEP girls. Interventions among this high risk group should focus on supporting parents to provide both emotional and instrumental support for their daughters to engage in physical activity.

  16. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Clinical Correlates and Impact on Psychosocial Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Heather A; Weinstein, Sally M; West, Amy E

    2017-07-20

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in childhood is not well documented, especially among youth with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). The current study evaluated prevalence and correlates of NSSI, and its impact on intervention response, in a randomized trial of Child- and Family-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CFF-CBT) versus Treatment As Usual (TAU), adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. This study included 72 children ages 7-13 (58% male) with PBD. NSSI and correlates were assessed at baseline; mood and psychiatric severity were measured longitudinally. NSSI was common: 31% endorsed NSSI behaviors; 10% reported thoughts of NSSI, in the absence of behaviors. Children engaging in NSSI reported higher depression, psychosis, suicidality, and hopelessness; lower self-esteem; and reduced family help-seeking in univariate analyses. In a multivariate logistic regression, high child depression and psychosis, and low family help-seeking, remained significantly associated with baseline NSSI. In mixed-effects regression models, presence of NSSI at baseline did not influence the response of depressive symptoms to treatment. Children who endorsed NSSI experienced steeper response trajectories for psychiatric severity, regardless of treatment group. Youth who denied NSSI showed poorer response to TAU for manic symptoms; mania trajectories in CFF-CBT were similar across youth. Thus, NSSI in PBD is common and associated with impairment. As children might engage in NSSI for different reasons, the function of NSSI should be considered in treatment. Since children without NSSI fared worse in TAU, it may be important to ensure that youth with PBD receive structured, intensive interventions. CFF-CBT was efficacious regardless of NSSI, and thus shows promise for high-risk children with PBD.

  17. Clients' psychosocial communication and midwives' verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Pereboom, M.T.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Dulmen, A.M. van

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study focuses on facilitation of clients' psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives' psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling du

  18. Clients’ psychosocial communication and midwives’ verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study focuses on facilitation of clients’ psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives’ psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling du

  19. Clients’ psychosocial communication and midwives’ verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study focuses on facilitation of clients’ psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives’ psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling du

  20. Impact of Burnout and Psychosocial Work Characteristics on Future Long-Term Sickness Absence. Prospective Results of the Danish PUMA Study Among Human Service Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bultmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Ingelise; Villadsen, Ebbe; Diderichsen, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and

  1. Feasibility of a Psychosocial Rehabilitation Intervention to Enhance the Involvement of Relatives in Cancer Rehabilitation: Pilot Study for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledderer, Loni; la Cour, Karen; Mogensen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer often affects the quality of life and well-being of patients as well as their relatives. Previous studies have suggested that relatives should be involved in psychosocial rehabilitation to address the needs for an interpersonal relationship with others in the disease trajectory...

  2. Investigation of the relationship between psychosocial stress and temporomandibular disorder in adults by measuring salivary cortisol concentration: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Ebtisam; Alshaarani, Fandi; Hamed, Hussein Abou; Nassar, Jihad Abou

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose of the Study: Psychological factors, particularly psychosocial stress, have been implicated as risk indicators for temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The aim of this study was to assess any differences in salivary cortisol concentration, scores of perceived stress scale (PSS), and scores of depression and distress between TMD patients and matched controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study comprised two groups; the patient group consisted of 60 patients attending the Department of Fixed Prosthodontics at the Faculty of Dentistry who met the inclusion criteria (42 females and 18 males aged 19–44), whereas the control group was selected to match the patient group in number, age and sex. Two questionnaires were used for stress assessment: The PSS 10 and the psychosocial measure of Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMD axis II. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by a competitive immunoenzymatic colorimetric method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA test, and independent t-test were used. Results: This study showed statistically significant differences between the patient group and the control group at the three measures of psychosocial stress (P < 0.05). Increased occurrence of this disorder in women has been observed. Conclusion: Psychosocial stress plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of TMD. Women are at increased risk of TMD when compared to men. Sub-types TMD patients approximately have the same level of stress. Muscle disorders were the most common. PMID:26929502

  3. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS IN COMMUNITY ORAL HEALTH PROBLEMS: A STUDY ON DENTAL TREATMENT DISCONTINUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aryadi Joelimar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The low value of F/DMF-T ration on Performed Treatment Index in Indoneisa gives an indication of great problems in dental treatment utilization. Dental treatment utilization is affected by several obstacles, the greatest among which is psychosocial obstacles. In this study the psychosocial obstacles were detected through Intrinsic Obstacles, Obstacles in Transportation, and Obstacles in Dental Clinic related to their effects on their discontinuation of dental treatments at Balkesmas Kiara, Kecamatan Senen, Jakarta Pusat. The discontinuation of dental treatments was mostly affected by Intrinsic Obstacles, through its components as Types of Cases, Dental Anxiety Scale, and Intrinsic Motivation. Generally Obstacles in Transportation had no effects, excpet its components of Travel Time and Tiredness. Obstacles in Dental Clinic had a significant effect on the discontinuation of dental treatments through the unpleasant manner of the druggist, the hot waiting room, and the high expense on drugs.

  4. Effect of socioeconomic status on psychosocial problems in 5- to 6-year-old preterm- and term-born children: the ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Sanne A A; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Vrijkotte, Tanja G

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at analysing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychosocial problems in preterm- and term-born children. Scores of mothers and teachers on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) regarding 217 preterm-born children (preterm children (6.1 ± 4.7) than for term children (5.2 ± 4.1). After covariate adjustment, this difference was 0.5 (95 % CI 0.0-1.0). For preterm children 16.1 % of the mothers reported psychosocial problems compared with 10.1 % for term children. Lower maternal education and lower income adequacy were significantly related to higher SDQ scores of mothers and teachers. Differences in mothers' SDQ score between preterm and term children were larger in the high-education (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.2-1.5) and high-income group (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.3-1.6). No significant differences were found between preterm and term children in the SDQ scores reported by teachers. Low level of maternal education and inadequate income showed a much stronger association with psychosocial problems than preterm birth. No combined effect of low SES and preterm birth was found. This study corroborates the evidence for the strength of the disadvantageous effects of low SES on early psychosocial development.

  5. Assessment of psychosocial functioning and its risk factors in children with pectus excavatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xuejun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial functioning is poor in patients with pectus excavatum (PE. However, a comprehensive understanding of this issue does not exist. The aim of this study was to assess the severity of psychosocial problems as associated with PE, as well as to identify its risk factors. Methods A comparative study was performed at the Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences/Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital in Chengdu, China. Patients age 6 to 16 who admitted to the outpatient department for the evaluation or treatment for PE were included in the study. In addition to parental reports of child psychosocial problems on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, parents also filled in other structured questionnaires, including socio-demographic variables, patients' medical and psychological characteristics. The severity of malformation was assessed by CT scan. For comparison, an age- and gender- matched control group was recruited from the general population. The socio-demographic and scores on CBCL were compared between patients and control subjects. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to examine risk factors for psychosocial problems in patients. Results No statistically significant differences were found with respect to social-demographic variables between children with PE and control subjects. Compared with control subjects, children with PE displayed higher prevalence of psychosocial problems in the different scales of the CBCL questionnaire such as 'withdraw', 'anxious-depressed', 'social problems' and 'total problems'. Both univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that age, severity of malformation, and being teased about PE were significantly associated with patients' psychosocial problems. Conclusions The information derived from this study supports the opinion that children with PE have more psychosocial problems than children from the general population. Multiple medical and psychosocial factors were

  6. Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pravina

    2002-05-01

    Social attitudes towards epilepsy cause more distress to the patient and his/her near and dear ones, than the disease itself. The major psychosocial issues related to epilepsy are: Quality of medical management, overprotection, education, employment, marriage and pregnancy. Inadequate treatment is the major reason involved in psychosocial issues. Constant overprotection and pampering leads to behavioural pattern which makes epileptic patient dependent for ever. Education is hampered in epileptic persons. Teachers and students should have proper information regarding seizures. If seizures are well controlled, job opportunities increase. Employers and employees need to be educated about epilepsy. Self-employment is the best in epileptic patients. Regarding marriage, each patient is to be judged on individual merits and type of epilepsy. Society needs to be educated about the facts and consequences of epilepsy. Risk of anti-epileptic drug's usage is very insignificant compared to risk of seizures in pregnancy. So girls are advised to seek medical advice before pregnancy and during follow-up. With more and more support from the society, persons with epilepsy will have the courage and confidence to speak about themselves and their illness. It is only then that we will realise that persons with epilepsy are 'normal' or 'near-normal' and this will break the vicious cycle of stigma.

  7. Community-based epidemiological study of psychosocial effects of acne in Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yasuo; Shirahige, Yoshie; Nakai, Kozo; Katsuura, Junko; Moriue, Tetsuya; Yoneda, Kozo

    2010-07-01

    In this community-based cross-sectional study, 1443 Japanese adolescents aged 13-19 years participated from two schools in Kagawa Prefecture. Students completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess the prevalence of acne, knowledge about acne, self-management of acne and emotional well-being. A five-item version of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI) subscale of the Short Form 36 was used to assess psychological health and depression status. Among respondents, 859 (59.5%) said they had acne (51.6% of the boys and 64.8% of the girls). A majority (56.8%) of those who said they had acne also reported a family history of acne. Of the 555 female respondents with acne, 39.1% reported experiencing acne flares in temporal proximity to menstruation. Less than half (38.8%) of respondents with acne had sought or were seeking treatment. The three most common factors believed to trigger or exacerbate acne were stress, lack of sleep and sweat. The mean MHI score of 847 students with acne was significantly lower than 475 students without acne. The mean MHI score of female students with acne was significantly lower than male students with acne. Students with acne were also significantly more depressed than those without acne and female students were significantly more depressed than male students. Acne is a common problem for Japanese teenagers and causes personal and social difficulties. Our results suggest the necessity of educational programs in school or public to ensure that adolescents are aware of acne and to encourage young people to improve their mental health through better acne treatment.

  8. Burnout and Hypocortisolism - A Matter of Severity? A Study on ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-01-01

    Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol...

  9. Impairment in psychosocial functioning associated with dysthymic disorder in the NESARC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, David J; Agosti, Vito; Bosi, Monica; Black, Sarah R

    2010-12-01

    -associated psychosocial impairment in the community setting comprises a significant public health burden. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. LaMontagne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men. In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. Methods A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18–55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456. Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay, and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. Results The majority of participants aged 18–55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %, with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week and night shift work (23.4 %. Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose–response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations

  11. Factors Related to Psychosocial Quality of Life for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Tessier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Current health services interventions focus on the treatment of the musculoskeletal impairments of cerebral palsy (CP. The goal of this study was to explore whether the severity of physical symptoms correlates with psychosocial quality of life (QOL among pediatric patients with CP. Methods. A sample of 53 caregivers of children with CP was surveyed and health status information was extracted from patient medical records. Descriptive analysis explored the association between the main outcome variable, psychosocial QOL (CP QOL-child, and patient demographics, comorbidity (e.g., visual, hearing and feeding impairments, language delays, and epilepsy, CP severity (GMFCS, and the receipt of family centered care (MPOC-20. Results. Child psychosocial QOL decreased with increasing comorbidity but was not associated with CP symptom severity or any measured demographic factors. Reporting high levels of family centered care (FCC was associated with higher psychosocial QOL in univariate analysis but was not significant when controlling for comorbidities. Conclusion. There is no clear connection between symptom severity and psychosocial QOL in children with CP. Comorbidity however is strongly associated with psychosocial QOL. Focusing on reducing CP comorbidities could have a positive impact on psychosocial QOL.

  12. The psychosocial impact of acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen CM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Nguyen,1 Kourosh Beroukhim,2 Melissa J Danesh,3 Aline Babikian,4 John Koo,3 Argentina Leon3 1University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, 2David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, 3Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, 4Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Vallejo, CA, USA Introduction: Chronic skin conditions have been well reported to affect a patient's quality of life on multiple dimensions, including the psychosocial domain. Psychosocial is defined as the interrelation of social factors with an individual's thoughts and behavior. The assessment of the psychosocial impact of skin disease on a patient can help direct the dermatologists' treatment goals. To evaluate the psychosocial impact of skin disease, we conducted a review of the literature on three skin conditions with onsets at various stages of life: acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted in March 2015 using the terms “psychosocial” AND “acne”, “psychosocial” AND “vitiligo”, and “psychosocial” AND “psoriasis”. The results were limited to articles published in English in the past 5 years studying patients of all ages. Results and their references were evaluated for relevance according to their discussion of psychosocial qualities in their patients and the validity of psychosocial assessments. The search for acne yielded 51 results, and eleven were found to be relevant; vitiligo yielded 30 results with ten found to be relevant; and psoriasis yielded 70 results with seven found to be relevant. Results: According to the articles evaluated, 19.2% of adolescent patients with acne were affected in their personal and social lives. Social phobia was present in 45% of patients with acne compared to 18% of control subjects. Race and sex played a role in self-consciousness and social perceptions of the disease. Vitiligo

  13. Psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with outcomes for patients undergoing rehabilitation for chronic whiplash associated disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltov, Petko; Côte, Julie; Truchon, Manon; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2008-01-01

    Identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors (measured prior to treatment) that were associated with post-treatment self-perceived pain and disability and two secondary outcomes: psychological distress, and return to work in patients undergoing multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Interviews were conducted with 28 patients with chronic WAD at entry to and completion of an intensive rehabilitation program, and a telephone interview was carried out three months later. Participants completed pain and disability, and psychological distress questionnaires, at baseline and at both follow-ups. They also completed psychosocial questionnaires and provided socio-demographic information. The effect of each of the independent variables on the outcomes was first evaluated by simple regressions, and then subsequently by multiple regression analysis. Higher baseline pain and disability predicted higher pain and disability at both follow-ups (p factor that affected pain and disability post-rehabilitation. Psychosocial factors played a role in the prognosis of psychological distress and return to work.

  14. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports the first findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship...... between psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. Using a combination of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire and data from the firms’ balanced scorecard system we show a positive...... and describe the mechanism underlying the observed relationship. It is observed that a specific leadership style is responsible for creating a good working environment which leads to good performance. The leadership style can be described as process oriented, supportive and consistent but also demanding....

  15. Addressing the unique psychosocial barriers to breast cancer treatment experienced by African-American women through integrative navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatman, Michelle C; Green, Rodney D

    2011-12-01

    African-American women face a disproportionally high breast cancer mortality rate and a significantly low five-year survival rate after breast cancer treatment. This study investigated, through a series of focus groups, how 32 African-American women (N = 32) breast cancer patients and survivors managed their cancer-related health needs. Participants also reported important barriers to care including problematic interactions with medical professionals, challenges in intimate relations, difficulties in handling the stigma and myths about breast cancer, and the psychological challenges that they faced. A patient navigation model was implemented at an eastern urban hospital that emphasized integrative therapies such as meditation, nutritional instruction, and yoga. Follow-up telephone interviews with 37 additional African-American participants (N = 37) indicated the rating of effectiveness to be at 3.8 to 3.9 out of 4 for the integrative patient navigation program. Over half of the survivors reported using some complementary techniques after treatment was completed, thus suggesting a long-term improvement in their quality of life as a result of the integrative techniques.

  16. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakness and/or low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical exercise can improve these two elements of physical fitness, but the positive effects of physical exercise might be further increased when a child's wellbeing is simultaneously enhanced by psychosocial training. Feeling better may increase the willingness and motivation to engage in sports activities. Therefore, this multi-centre study evaluates the short and long-term changes in physical fitness of a child with a childhood malignancy, using a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program, implemented during or shortly after treatment. Also examined is whether positive effects on physical fitness reduce inactivity-related adverse health problems, improve quality of life, and are cost-effective. Methods This multi-centre randomized controlled trial compares a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, with care as usual (controls. Children with cancer (aged 8-18 years treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and who are no longer than 1 year post-treatment, are eligible for participation. A total of 100 children are being recruited from the paediatric oncology/haematology departments of three Dutch university medical centres. Patients are stratified according to pubertal stage (girls: age ≤10 or >10 years; boys: ≤11 or >11 years, type of malignancy (haematological or solid tumour, and moment of inclusion into the study (during or after treatment, and are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion Childhood cancer patients undergoing long-term cancer therapy may benefit from a combined physical exercise and

  17. Psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy: A matched case-control study in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldehaweria, Negassie Berhe; Abreha, Elsa Hagos; Weldu, Meresa Gebremedhin; Misgina, Kebede Haile

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition hastens progression to Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS) related illnesses; undermines adherence and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings. However, nutritional status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can be affected by various psychosocial factors which have not been well explored in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. A matched case-control study design was conducted to assess psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among PLHIV on ART. Data were collected by an interviewer-administered technique using structured pre-tested questionnaire, record review using a checklist and anthropometric measurements. Cases were selected by simple random sampling and controls purposively to match the selected cases. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute relevant associations by STATA version 12. The psychosocial factors independently associated with malnutrition were ever consuming alcohol after starting ART [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.8-12.3], ever smoking cigarette after starting ART [AOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 2.3-25.5], depression [AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.1], not adhering to ART [AOR = 6.8,95% CI: 2.0-23.0] and being in the second lowest wealth quintile [AOR = 4.3,95% CI: 1.1-17.7]. Ever consuming alcohol and ever smoking cigarette after starting ART, depression, not adhering to ART and being in the second lowest wealth quintile were significantly associated with malnutrition. Therefore; policies, strategies, and programs targeting people living with HIV should consider psychosocial factors that can impact nutritional status of people living with HIV enrolled on ART.

  18. Family caregivers’ assessment of symptoms in persons with dementia using the GBS-scale: differences in rating after psychosocial intervention – an 18-month follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Dahlrup

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Beth Dahlrup, Eva Nordell, Signe Andrén, Sölve ElmståhlDepartment of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, SwedenAbstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if psychosocial intervention for family caregivers made any differences in describing symptoms of dementia in the persons they cared for. The study population comprised family caregivers of persons aged 70 years and older receiving social services and diagnosed with dementia disorders. A group of 129 family caregivers underwent psychosocial intervention including education, information, and provision of a support group, while 133 family caregivers did not and these formed the control group. Family caregivers were followed-up every 6 months for a total of 18 months. They rated intellectual, emotional, and activity of daily living (ADL functions in persons with dementia using the Gottfries-Bråne-Steen scale (GBS-scale. Family caregivers who underwent psychosocial intervention rated the intellectual and emotional symptoms of dementia significantly higher 6 months later compared to controls and the effect was sustained during the 18-month follow-up irrespective of relationship and education. Most notably, decrease in function of recent memory, ability to increase tempo, long-windedness, distractibility, and blunting were better identified. Our findings suggest that the family caregivers who underwent psychosocial intervention achieved better understanding of different symptoms and the behaviors of dementia. These findings may explain earlier findings of positive effects after psychosocial intervention on family caregivers’ sense of burden, satisfaction, and ability to delay nursing home placement.Keywords: intervention, dementia, family caregivers, education, GBS-scale

  19. Psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy: A matched case-control study in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldu, Meresa Gebremedhin; Misgina, Kebede Haile

    2017-01-01

    Background Malnutrition hastens progression to Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS) related illnesses; undermines adherence and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings. However, nutritional status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can be affected by various psychosocial factors which have not been well explored in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A matched case-control study design was conducted to assess psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among PLHIV on ART. Data were collected by an interviewer-administered technique using structured pre-tested questionnaire, record review using a checklist and anthropometric measurements. Cases were selected by simple random sampling and controls purposively to match the selected cases. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute relevant associations by STATA version 12. Results The psychosocial factors independently associated with malnutrition were ever consuming alcohol after starting ART [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.8–12.3], ever smoking cigarette after starting ART [AOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 2.3–25.5], depression [AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.1], not adhering to ART [AOR = 6.8,95% CI: 2.0–23.0] and being in the second lowest wealth quintile [AOR = 4.3,95% CI: 1.1–17.7]. Conclusion Ever consuming alcohol and ever smoking cigarette after starting ART, depression, not adhering to ART and being in the second lowest wealth quintile were significantly associated with malnutrition. Therefore; policies, strategies, and programs targeting people living with HIV should consider psychosocial factors that can impact nutritional status of people living with HIV enrolled on ART. PMID:28301592

  20. A qualitative study examining psychosocial distress and coping mechanisms among orphan and vulnerable children living in institutional care in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saraswat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India is home to the largest population of orphaned children in the South Asia, who are at increased risk of poor psychosocial well-being. In the Indian context, literature on the psychosocial well-being of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC is scarce. Our research was aimed at fulfilling this gap by understanding self-reported psychosocial distress among OVC and subsequent coping strategies adopted during their stay at orphanages. Methods: The present study was conducted in three randomly selected orphanages of Delhi, India, during August-December 2016. Fifteen children (M = 9, F = 6 aged 10-17, were selected for in-depth interviews through a non-probability purposive sampling. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the characteristics of the study participants. Data analysis required the examination and comparison of interview transcripts for content analysis and themes identification. Results and Discussion: Our findings revealed psychological turmoil and poor social cognition among OVC. Even though children were happy to enjoy their basic necessities of life, the majority of them faced parental bereavement yearning for love, and desiring advocacy and guidance in life. OVC showed low self-concept and lack of purpose in life. Isolation from outside world resulted in feelings of mistrust among OVC. They also felt stigmatized, socially excluded and remained distressed. Coping strategies adopted by OVC included praying to God, forgetting parents, shifting focus, avoiding crowded places, and treating inmates as their family. They also reported indulgence in self-discrimination, substance abuse, and delinquency to avoid psychosocial distress. Conclusions: Ongoing programs aimed exclusively at fulfilling materialistic needs of OVC could lose focus on their psychosocial issues. New robust interventions are required not only for sufficing the quality services, but also for identifying psychological issues, enhancing social skills

  1. Melatonin treatment and light therapy for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children : Effects on sleep, cognition, health, and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin treatment is known to be an effective treatment for chronic sleep onset problems in children, as it can advance the sleep-wake rhythm and improve sleep. However, it is currently not known how long melatonin treatment should be continued, while especially in young children, short term treat

  2. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8,670 par...

  3. Habitus and the Psychosocial: Bourdieu with Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of habitus to provide a window on the psychosocial. The paper works with a notion of psychosocial study as inquiry into the mutual constitution of the individual and the social relations within which they are enmeshed. At the same time it attempts to deepen and enrich notions of habitus. Although the strong focus…

  4. Psychosocial causes and consequences of pathological gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological use of computer and video games has been associated with indicators of psychosocial well-being, such as loneliness, low self-esteem, low social competence, and low life satisfaction. However, few studies have decisively demonstrated whether these indicators of psychosocial well-being

  5. Psychosocial functioning of patients after endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Lauren D; Staples, Nancy L; Sears, Samuel F; Klodell, Charles T

    2011-06-01

    Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is considered the treatment modality of choice for patients with disabling hyperhidrosis. However, the psychosocial impact of the intervention has not been systematically studied in American samples before and after sympathectomy. It is expected that the reduction of symptoms is associated with improved psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine psychosocial functioning in patients with hyperhidrosis undergoing thoracic sympathectomy. Patients with hyperhidrosis undergoing evaluation for sympathectomy were recruited from Shands Hospital at the University of Florida. Fifty-one patients completed individual psychological assessment batteries prior to undergoing sympathectomy and at 1-month follow-up, measuring the constructs of health-related quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that 1 month after sympathectomy, patients reported significant improvements across the domains of physical quality of life (p=0.01), mental quality of life (p=0.005), trait anxiety (pSympathectomy resulted in increases in health-related quality of life, and decreases in anxiety and depression within 1 month post procedure. Results suggest that sympathectomy exists as an effective treatment choice for both medical and psychosocial outcomes in patients with hyperhidrosis. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender and psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyle in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Chor, Dora; Aquino, Estela M L

    2017-08-28

    It has been estimated that over 50% of the premature deaths occurring in Western countries can be attributed to causes rooted in lifestyle. In turn, leading a healthy lifestyle has also been associated with a wide range of psychosocial factors. Today, it is known that these differ among men and women. The present article aimed to identify, from a gender-based perspective, the psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyles in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort, the largest study concerning adult health conducted in Latin America to date. This cross-sectional study was conducted using ELSA-Brasil baseline data, collected between 2008 and 2010. Six Brazilian public higher education and research institutions. The ELSA-Brasil cohort consists of approximately 15 000 employees (8218 women and 6887 men), both currently working and retired. The lifestyle indicator was constructed by summing the scores attributed to four different behaviours. The women of the ELSA-Brasil cohort have healthier lifestyles than men. In women, strong associations were found between a healthy lifestyle and age 60 years or older, Asian race and university level of education or higher. In men, being 60 years or older, of Asian or Caucasian race, having a high-school equivalent level of education or higher, being retired, having a housekeeper, having a good or very good self-perception of health and being satisfied with body image were the psychosocial factors associated with leading a healthy lifestyle. The factors that influenced healthy lifestyles were found to differ among men and women, a fact that must be addressed when developing programmes designed to promote health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Psychosocial aspects of athletic injuries as perceived by athletic trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Granquist, Megan D; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the Psychosocial Strategies and Referral content area, athletic trainers (ATs) generally lack confidence in their ability to use this information. The current study's primary purpose was to determine (a) perceived psychological responses and coping behaviors athletes may present to ATs, (b) psychosocial strategies ATs currently use with their athletes, (c) psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about, and (d) ATs' current practices in referring athletes to counseling or sport psychology services. Mixed-methods study. Online survey containing both quantitative and qualitative items. A total of 215 ATs (86 male, 129 female), representing a response rate of 22.50%. The Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire. Stress/anxiety (4.24 ± 0.82), anger (3.70 ± 0.96), and treatment adherence problems (3.62 ± 0.94) were rated as the primary psychological responses athletes may present upon injury. Adherence and having a positive attitude were identified as key determinants in defining athletes' successful coping with their injuries. The top 3 selected psychosocial strategies were keeping the athlete involved with the team (4.57 ± 0.73), using short-term goals (4.45 ± 0.67), and creating variety in rehabilitation exercises (4.32 ± 0.75). The top 3 rated psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about were understanding motivation (4.29 ± 0.89), using effective communication (4.24 ± 0.91), and setting realistic goals (4.22 ± 0.97). Of the sample, only 59 (27.44%) ATs reported referring an athlete for counseling services, and 37 (84.09%) of those who had access to a sport psychologist (n = 44) reported referring for sport psychology services. These results not only highlight ATs' current use of psychosocial strategies but also their desires to increase their current knowledge and understanding of these strategies while caring for injured athletes.

  8. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, psychosocial co-morbidity and health care seeking in general practice: population based case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Linda E; Hurenkamp, Gerard JB; ter Riet, Gerben; Schellevis, François G; Grundmeijer, Hans G; van Weert, Henk C

    2009-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is still poorly understood. Psychological symptoms were found to be more common in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, but it is debated whether they are primarily linked to GI symptoms or rather represent motivations for health-care seeking. Purpose of our study was to compare co-morbidity, in particular psychological and social problems, between patients with and without upper GI symptoms. In addition, we investigated whether the prevalence of psychological and social problems is part of a broader pattern of illness related health care use. Methods Population based case control study based on the second Dutch National Survey of general practice (conducted in 2001). Cases (adults visiting their primary care physician (PCP) with upper GI symptoms) and controls (individuals not having any of these complaints), matched for gender, age, PCP-practice and ethnicity were compared. Main outcome measures were contact frequency, prevalence of somatic as well as psychosocial diagnoses, prescription rate of (psycho)pharmacological agents, and referral rates. Data were analyzed using odds ratios, the Chi square test as well as multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 13,389 patients with upper GI symptoms and 13,389 control patients were analyzed. Patients with upper GI symptoms visited their PCP twice as frequently as controls (8.6 vs 4.4 times/year). Patients with upper GI symptoms presented not only more psychological and social problems, but also more other health problems to their PCP (odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.37 to 3.45). Patients with upper GI symptoms more frequently used drugs of any ATC-class (ORs ranging from 1.39 to 2.90), including psychotropic agents. The observed differences were less pronounced when we adjusted for non-attending control patients. In multivariate regression analysis, contact frequency and not psychological or social co

  9. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, psychosocial co-morbidity and health care seeking in general practice: population based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology of upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms is still poorly understood. Psychological symptoms were found to be more common in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, but it is debated whether they are primarily linked to GI symptoms or rather represent motivations for health-care seeking. Purpose of our study was to compare co-morbidity, in particular psychological and social problems, between patients with and without upper GI symptoms. In addition, we investigated whether the prevalence of psychological and social problems is part of a broader pattern of illness related health care use. Methods Population based case control study based on the second Dutch National Survey of general practice (conducted in 2001. Cases (adults visiting their primary care physician (PCP with upper GI symptoms and controls (individuals not having any of these complaints, matched for gender, age, PCP-practice and ethnicity were compared. Main outcome measures were contact frequency, prevalence of somatic as well as psychosocial diagnoses, prescription rate of (psychopharmacological agents, and referral rates. Data were analyzed using odds ratios, the Chi square test as well as multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 13,389 patients with upper GI symptoms and 13,389 control patients were analyzed. Patients with upper GI symptoms visited their PCP twice as frequently as controls (8.6 vs 4.4 times/year. Patients with upper GI symptoms presented not only more psychological and social problems, but also more other health problems to their PCP (odds ratios (ORs ranging from 1.37 to 3.45. Patients with upper GI symptoms more frequently used drugs of any ATC-class (ORs ranging from 1.39 to 2.90, including psychotropic agents. The observed differences were less pronounced when we adjusted for non-attending control patients. In multivariate regression analysis, contact frequency and not psychological or

  10. Less reduction of psychosocial problems among adolescents with unmet communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Margot; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Almansa, Josue; Metselaar, Janneke; Knorth, Erik J; De Winter, Andrea F

    2017-04-01

    Patient-professional communication has been suggested to be a major determinant of treatment outcomes in psychosocial care for children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown and no longitudinal studies have been performed. Our aim was, therefore, to assess over the course of 1 year, the impact of patient-centered communication on psychosocial problems of adolescents in psychosocial care, including the routes mediating this impact. We obtained data on 315 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, enrolled in child and adolescent social or mental health care. We assessed patient-centered communication by comparing the needs and experiences of adolescents with regard to three aspects of communication: affective quality, information provision, and shared decision-making. Changes in psychosocial problems comprised those reported by adolescents and their parents between baseline and 1 year thereafter. Potential mediators were treatment adherence, improvement of understanding, and improvement in self-confidence. We found a relationship between unmet needs for affective quality, information provision, and shared decision-making and less reduction of psychosocial problems. The association between the unmet need to share in decision-making and less reduction of psychosocial problems were partially mediated by less improvement in self-confidence (30 %). We found no mediators regarding affective quality and information provision. Our findings confirm that patient-centered communication is a major determinant of treatment outcomes in psychosocial care for adolescents. Professionals should be aware that tailoring their communication to individual patients' needs is vital to the effectiveness of psychosocial care.

  11. Childhood cancer in the cinema: how the celluloid mirror reflects psychosocial care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavisic, Jovana; Chilton, Julie; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa L; Martin, Andrés

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the childhood cancer experience in commercially produced, readily available films that include a character with childhood cancer, with a particular focus on psychosocial care. We reviewed 29 films, using quantitative and qualitative content analysis, to identify the medical and psychosocial characteristics of the cinematic childhood cancer experience. We rated psychosocial support on a 5-point scale (0 to 4) based on the availability and efficacy of support characters in the categories of nonprofessional internal (eg, parent), nonprofessional external (eg, friend), professional medical (eg, oncologist), and professional psychosocial (eg, social worker) supports. Film depicts an unrealistic, bleak picture of childhood cancer, with a 66% mortality rate among the 35 characters evaluated. Psychosocial supports portrayed in film are generally limited to resources already available to families before the cancer diagnosis: mean ratings across films were 2.4 for both nonprofessional, 1.6 for professional medical, and 0.3 for professional psychosocial supports (Kruskal-Wallis χ3=43.1051, P<0.0001). Seven main themes emerged: disruption, social impact, psychological impact, physical toll, struggle/war/fight, coping, and barren landscape. Film generally depicts images of an isolated family courageously battling cancer alone with limited support from a treatment team solely dedicated to medical care. Commercially available films minimize the importance of the psychosocial dimension of care, which can perpetuate stigma around psychosocial needs and interventions. These films can be used to encourage discussion about how to optimize psychosocial care in pediatric oncology so that such care is not abandoned in actual practice as it is, for entertainment purposes, on the screen.

  12. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  13. PTSD symptom severity relates to cognitive and psycho-social dysfunctioning – a study with Congolese refugees in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainamani, Herbert E.; Elbert, Thomas; Olema, David K.; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), civilians have been heavily exposed to traumatic stressors. Traumatizing experiences cumulatively heighten the risk for trauma-related disorders, and with it affect cognitive and psycho-social functioning. Objectives: We aimed at investigating the association between trauma-related disorders and cognitive and psycho-social functioning and hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity would negatively correlate with executive functioning, working memory and psycho-social functioning in everyday life. Method: In total, 323 Congolese refugees (mean age: 31.3 years) who arrived in the Ugandan Nakivale refugee settlement after January 2012 were assessed regarding their exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptom severity (posttraumatic symptom scale interview), executive functioning (Tower of London), working memory performance (Corsi block tapping task) and psycho-social dysfunctioning (Luo functioning scale). Results: Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant negative association between PTSD symptom severity and working memory (β = –0.32, p  0.05). Conclusion: Trauma survivors not only suffer from the core PTSD symptoms but also from impaired cognitive functioning. PTSD symptom severity seems furthermore to be related to impaired psycho-social functioning. Our findings suggest that trauma-related mental health problems may heighten the risk for poverty and lack of prospect and further aggravate the consequences of war and conflict.

  14. Psychosocial Development and First Substance Use in Third and Fourth Grade Students: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall M. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Third and fourth grade students (=509 completed measures of psychosocial development, substance use, and intentions to use in January, and again in May, 1998. A revised Erikson Psychosocial Inventory Scale (EPSI was employed to assess psychosocial development while estimates of substance use and intentions were obtained from anonymous self-reports. The sample was split on the basis of change in substance use and intentions from January to May. Using this grouping scheme as an independent variable, scores on the EPSI subscales (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, and identity were compared over time. Interestingly, no differences in psychosocial development were evident for the initial substance use comparisons, but differences were evident five months later. Respondents who initiated substance use and/or increased intentions during the five-month interval exhibited small gains (averaging less than 2.0% on measures of trust, autonomy, and initiative and modest declines in industry and identity (−1.2%. Respondents who neither initiated substance use nor increased intentions during the five-month interval experienced significant gains (averaging 6.0% on all five of the EPSI subscales. These findings suggest that early substance use may impede psychosocial development, thus justifying prevention efforts in the earlier grades as well as efforts to delay onset.

  15. Relationships Between Emotional Stability, Psychosocial Mentoring Support and Career Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Ridhi Arora; Santosh Rangnekar

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the mediating role of psychosocial mentoring support on emotional stability personality disposition and career resilience relationship. In addition, this research also focuses on estimating the interrelationship between emotional stability, psychosocial mentoring support and career resilience. The results show substantive direct relations between emotional stability and psychosocial mentoring as well as between emotional stability and career resilience. Psy...

  16. Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Psychosocial Aspects of Family and School Life: A Cross-Sectional Study from Guangdong Province in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Wang; Xiaolan Zhou; Ciyong Lu; Jie Wu; Xueqing Deng; Lingyao Hong; Xue Gao; Yuan He

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School bullying is an emerging problem in China. The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of bullying behaviors among Chinese adolescents and to examine the association of bullying and being bullied with family factors, school factors and indicators of psychosocial adjustment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 8,342 middle school students were surveyed in four cities in the Guangdong Province. Self-reports on bullying involvement and information r...

  17. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  18. A Qualitative Study on the Content Validity of the Social Capital Scales in the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Berthelsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II includes scales for measuring 'workplace social capital'. The overall aim of this article is to evaluate the content validity of the following scales: horizontal trust, vertical trust and justice based on data from cognitive interviews using a think-aloud procedure. Informants were selected to achieve variation in gender, age, region of residence, and occupation. A predetermined coding scheme was used to identify: 1 Perspective (reflection on behalf of oneself only or abstraction to a broader perspective, 2 Use of response options, 3 Contexts challenging the process of answering, and 4 Overall reflections included in the retrieval and judgement processes leading to an answer for each item. The results showed that 1 the intended shift from individual to a broader perspective worked for eight out of eleven items. 2 The response option balancing in the middle covered different meanings. Retrieval of information needed to answer constituted a problem in four out of eleven items. 3 Three contextually challenging situations were identified. 4 For most items the reflections corresponded well with the intention of the scales, though the items asking about withheld information caused more problems in answering and lower content validity compared to the other items of the scales. In general, the findings supported the content validity of the COPSOQ II measurement of workplace social capital as a group construct. The study opens for new insight into how concepts and questions are understood and answered among people coming from different occupations and organizational settings.

  19. Psychosocial safety climate, emotional demands, burnout, and depression: a longitudinal multilevel study in the Malaysian private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohd Awang; Dollard, Maureen F; Yulita

    2014-07-01

    This multilevel longitudinal study investigates a newly identified climate construct, psychosocial safety climate (PSC), as a precursor to job characteristics (e.g., emotional demands), and psychological outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion and depression). We argued that PSC, as an organizational climate construct, has cross-level effects on individually perceived job design and psychological outcomes. We hypothesized a mediation process between PSC and emotional exhaustion particularly through emotional demands. In sequence, we predicted that emotional exhaustion would predict depression. At Time 1, data were collected from employees in 36 Malaysian private sector organizations (80% responses rate), n = 253 (56%), and at Time 2 from 27 organizations (60%) and n = 117 (46%). Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), we found that there were cross-level effects of PSC Time 1 on emotional demands Time 2 and emotional exhaustion Time 2, but not on depression Time 2, across a 3-month time lag. We found evidence for a lagged mediated effect; emotional demands mediated the relationship between PSC and emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion did not predict depression. Finally, our results suggest that PSC is an important organizational climate construct, and acts to reduce employee psychological problems in the workplace, via working conditions.

  20. The acute salivary ghrelin response to a psychosocial stress is enhanced in symptomatic patients with bulimia nervosa: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Serino, Ismene; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Maj, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Stress is a precipitating factor for both binge eating and bulimia nervosa (BN); however, the biological mechanisms through which it may trigger binge eating are poorly understood. There is evidence that the adrenal hormone cortisol and the gastric peptide ghrelin might be involved in stress-induced food ingestion. We hypothesized that symptomatic patients with BN might disclose deranged responses of ghrelin and/or cortisol to stressors and that this could be related to their binge-eating behaviour. Here we investigated salivary cortisol and ghrelin responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 10 women with acute BN and 10 age-matched healthy females. Eating-related psychopathology and behaviours were assessed by self-report measures. No significant differences emerged between bulimic patients and healthy controls in the pre-stress salivary levels of both cortisol and ghrelin. The BN patients displayed normal cortisol but enhanced ghrelin responses to TSST. No significant correlations emerged between stress-induced salivary hormone changes and self-report measures of binge eating. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing deranged salivary ghrelin reactivity to a psychosocial stressor in symptomatic patients with BN. The extent to which this could contribute to the binge-eating behaviour of BN subjects awaits clarification. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Antenatal psychosocial risk status and Australian women's use of primary care and specialist mental health services in the year after birth: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Virginia; Langdon, Rachel; Matthey, Stephen; Kemp, Lynn; Austin, Marie-Paule; Johnson, Maree

    2016-10-25

    Poor mental health in the perinatal period can impact negatively on women, their infants and families. Australian State and Territory governments are investing in routine psychosocial assessment and depression screening with referral to services and support, however, little is known about how well these services are used. The aim of this paper is to report on the health services used by women for their physical and mental health needs from pregnancy to 12 months after birth and to compare service use for women who have been identified in pregnancy as having moderate-high psychosocial risk with those with low psychosocial risk. One hundred and six women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study with five points of data collection (2-4 weeks after prenatal booking, 36 weeks gestation, 6 weeks postpartum, 6 months postpartum and 12 months postpartum) was undertaken. Data were collected via face-to-face and telephone interviews, relating to psychosocial risk factors, mental health and service use. The prenatal psychosocial risk status of women (data available for 83 of 106 women) was determined using the Antenatal Risk Questionnaire (ANRQ) and was used to compare socio-demographic characteristics and service use of women with 'low' and 'moderate to high' risk of perinatal mental health problems. The findings indicate high use of postnatal universal health services (child and family health nurses, general practitioners) by both groups of women, with limited use of specialist mental health services by women identified with moderate to high risk of mental health problems. While almost all respondents indicated that they would seek help for mental health concerns most had a preference to seek help from partners and family before accessing health professionals. These preliminary data support local and international studies that highlight the poor uptake of specialist services for mental health problems in postnatal women, where this may be required. Further

  2. Impact of increasing productivity on work content and psychosocial work characteristics in Chaku-Chaku assembly lines - a follow-up study in a German automotive manufacturing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez-Díaz, José-Alonso; Kotzab, Daniel; Sytch, Alina; Frieling, Ekkehart

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims at evaluating the reorganization of work processes on the basis of studies of three assembly lines in a well known component manufacture of the German automotive industry. It is of particular interest to evaluate the impact of the introduction of Chaku-Chaku assembly lines on the production goals, distribution of activities during one typical work day and psychosocial characteristics of the work environment. Findings indicate that the Chaku-Chaku assembly lines could represent a successful production strategy in order to enhance the output levels of work systems. However, the data show that interviewed assembly workers have spent more time on value added activities than before. The intensive perception of the time spent on main work activities (direct value added activities) and a simultaneous decrease of available discretionary time between work tasks seem to be related to the low level of the reported psychosocial work characteristics.

  3. Coping strategies as a mediator of internet-delivered psychosocial treatment: Secondary analysis from a NIDA CTN multisite effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Annie; Campbell, Aimee N C; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Walker, Robrina; McClure, Erin A; Ghitza, Udi E; Bailey, Genie; Stitzer, Maxine; Nunes, Edward V

    2017-02-01

    Coping strategies are a predictor of abstinence among patients with substance use disorders. However, little is known regarding the role of coping strategies in the effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Using data from a 12week randomized control trial assessing the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Education System (TES), an internet-delivered version of the CRA combined with contingency management, we tested the role of coping strategies as a mediator of treatment effectiveness. 507 participants entering 10 outpatient addiction treatment programs received either treatment-as-usual (TAU), a counselor-delivered treatment (Arm 1), or reduced TAU plus TES wherein 2h of TAU per week were replaced by TES (Arm 2). Abstinence from drugs and alcohol was evaluated using urine toxicology and self-report. Coping strategies were measured using the Coping Strategies Scale-Brief Version. Mediation analyses were done following Baron and Kenny's and path analysis approaches. The average baseline coping strategies scores were not significantly different between the two treatment arms. Overall, TES intervention was significantly associated with higher coping strategies scores when accounting for baseline scores (F1,1342=8.3, p=0.004). Additionally, higher coping strategies scores at week 12 were associated with an increased likelihood of abstinence during the last 4weeks of the treatment, while accounting for treatment assignment and baseline abstinence. The effect of TES intervention on abstinence was no longer significant after controlling for coping strategies scores at week 12. Our results support the importance of coping skills as a partial mediator of the effectiveness of an internet-version of the CRA combined with contingency management. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Recovery entails bridging the multiple realms of best practice: Towards a more integrated approach to evidence-based clinical treatment and psychosocial disability support for mental health recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosen, Alan; O'Halloran, Paul

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper explores how a recovery paradigm offers opportunities to better understand how efforts within the personal, clinical, and psychosocial disability domains of well-being relate and need...

  5. Psychosocial predictors of eating habits among adults in their mid-30s: The Oslo Youth Study follow-up 1991–1999

    OpenAIRE

    Tell Grethe S; Lien Nanna; Kvaavik Elisabeth; Klepp Knut-Inge

    2005-01-01

    Background The predictive value of the psychosocial constructs of Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) on subsequent dietary habits has not been previously investigated in a multivariate approach that includes demographic factors and past dietary behaviour among adults. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent TPB constructs, including intention, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and perceived social norms, measured at age 25 predicted ...

  6. Musculoskeletal pain in Arctic indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents, prevalence and associations with psychosocial factors: A population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhoff, Christian; Kvernmo, Siv

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is common in otherwise healthy adolescents. In recent years widespread musculoskeletal pain, in contrast to single site pain, and associating factors has been emphasized. Musculoskeletal pain has not been examined in Arctic indigenous adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of widespread musculoskeletal pain and its association with psychosocial factors, with emphasis on gender- and ethnic differences (Sami vs. non-Sami), and the influence of pain rela...

  7. An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model of Acquired Brain Injury Patient Impairments and Caregiver Psychosocial Functioning: A Dyadic-Report, Multi-National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, Paul. B; Norup, Anne; Caracue, Alfonso; Bateman, Andrew; Tjørnlund, Morten; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Wiley. ${\\bf Objective: }$ The purpose of this study was to use actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM) to examine the simultaneous effects of both acquired brain injury (ABI) patient and caregiver ratings of patient impairments on both patient and caregiver ratings of caregiver psychosocial dysfunction. ${\\bf Method: }$ A sample of 968 individuals with ABI and their caregi...

  8. Material, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality: evidence from the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; van Lenthe, Frank; Bambra, Clare; Krokstad, Steinar; Mackenbach, Johan

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have assessed the relative importance of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality, but research into the contribution of biomedical factors has been limited. Our study examines the relative contribution of (i) material, (ii) psychosocial, (iii) behavioural and (iv) biomedical factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic (educational and income) inequalities in mortality. Cohort study--baseline data from the Norwegian total county population-based HUNT 2 study linked to mortality data (1995/97 to 2003). In this analysis, 18 247 men and 18 278 women aged 24-80 without severe chronic disease at baseline were eligible. No socio-economic inequalities in mortality among women were found. In men, educational- and income-related inequalities in mortality were found with a relative risk for the lowest educational group of 1.67 (1.29-2.15) and the lowest income quartile of 2.03 (1.57-2.70). Together, the four explanatory factors reduced the relative risk of mortality of the lowest educational group to 1.18 (0.90-1.55) and the relative risk of mortality in the lowest income quartile was attenuated to 1.17 (0.83-1.63). Known biomedical factors contributed least to both educational and income inequalities in mortality. Material factors were the most important in explaining income inequalities in mortality amongst men, whereas psychosocial and behavioural factors were the most important in explaining educational inequalities. This suggests that improving the material, psychosocial and behavioural circumstances of men might bring more substantial reductions in relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality.

  9. The psychosocial impact of acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Beroukhim, Kourosh; Danesh, Melissa J; Babikian, Aline; Koo, John; Leon, Argentina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic skin conditions have been well reported to affect a patient’s quality of life on multiple dimensions, including the psychosocial domain. Psychosocial is defined as the interrelation of social factors with an individual’s thoughts and behavior. The assessment of the psychosocial impact of skin disease on a patient can help direct the dermatologists’ treatment goals. To evaluate the psychosocial impact of skin disease, we conducted a review of the literature on three skin conditions with onsets at various stages of life: acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Methods A PubMed search was conducted in March 2015 using the terms “psychosocial” AND “acne”, “psychosocial” AND “vitiligo”, and “psychosocial” AND “psoriasis”. The results were limited to articles published in English in the past 5 years studying patients of all ages. Results and their references were evaluated for relevance according to their discussion of psychosocial qualities in their patients and the validity of psychosocial assessments. The search for acne yielded 51 results, and eleven were found to be relevant; vitiligo yielded 30 results with ten found to be relevant; and psoriasis yielded 70 results with seven found to be relevant. Results According to the articles evaluated, 19.2% of adolescent patients with acne were affected in their personal and social lives. Social phobia was present in 45% of patients with acne compared to 18% of control subjects. Race and sex played a role in self-consciousness and social perceptions of the disease. Vitiligo negatively affected marriage potential and caused relationship problems in >50% of patients. Psoriasis negatively affected multiple domains of life, including work, relationships, and social activities. Anxiety and depression affected not only psoriasis patients but also their cohabitants; up to 88% of cohabitants had an impaired quality of life. Conclusion Though all three skin conditions resulted in an increase

  10. The psychosocial impacts of fly-in fly-out and drive-in drive-out mining on mining employees: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkington, Amanda May; Larkins, Sarah; Gupta, Tarun Sen

    2011-06-01

    To explore how fly-in fly-out (FIFO) and drive-in drive-out (DIDO) mining affects the psychosocial well-being of miners resident in a rural north Queensland town as well as the sources of support miners identify and use in managing these effects. A descriptive qualitative study, using semistructured interviews. Charters Towers, a rural town in north Queensland, and a remote north-western Queensland mine. Eleven people, resident in or near Charters Towers, currently or formerly employed in FIFO or DIDO mining. Self-reported effects on psychosocial well-being and sources of support. Participants reported positive and negative psychosocial impacts across domains including family life, relationships, social life, work satisfaction, mood, sleep and financial situation. Concerns about the impact on participants' partners were described. Awareness of onsite support, such as Employee Assistance Programs, varied. Other supports included administration staff and nurses or medics. Trusted friends or colleagues at the mine site were considered a preferred means of support. Some, but not most, had experienced coworkers discussing problems with them. A reluctance to seek support was described, with a number of barriers identified. Those having problems might not recognise their own stress and thus not seek support. This study identifies numerous psychosocial impacts on FIFO/DIDO miners and their partners, and provides insights into preferences regarding support. Employee Assistance Programs cannot be relied upon as the sole means of support. Further studies exploring the impact upon and supports for FIFO/DIDO workers and their partners will assist in better understanding these issues. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  11. Psychosocial and treatment correlates of opiate free success in a clinical review of a naltrexone implant program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece AS

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is on-going controversy in relation to the efficacy of naltrexone used for the treatment of heroin addiction, and the important covariates of that success. We were also interested to review our experience with two depot forms of implantable naltrexone. Methods A retrospective review of patients' charts was undertaken, patients were recalled by telephone and by letter, and urine drug screen samples were collected. Opiate free success (OFS was the parameter of interest. Three groups were defined. The first two were treated in the previous 12 months and comprised "implant" and "tablet" patients. A third group was "historical" comprising those treated orally in the preceding 12 months. Results There were 102, 113 and 161 patients in each group respectively. Groups were matched for age, sex, and dose of heroin used, but not financial status or social support. The overall follow-up rate was 82%. The Kaplan Meier 12 month OFS were 82%, 58% and 52% respectively. 12 post-treatment variables were independently associated with treatment retention. In a Cox proportional hazard multivariate model social support, the number of detoxification episodes, post-treatment employment, the use of multiple implant episodes and spiritual belief were significantly related to OFS. Conclusion Consistent with the voluminous international literature clinically useful retention rates can be achieved with naltrexone, which may be improved by implants and particularly serial implants, repeat detoxification, meticulous clinical follow-up, and social support. As depot formulations of naltrexone become increasingly available such results can guide their clinical deployment, improve treatment outcomes, and enlarge the policy options for an exciting non-addictive pharmacotherapy for opiate addiction.

  12. Good self-rated health is related to psychosocial resources and a strong cortisol response to acute stress: the LiVicordia study of middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristenson, Margareta; Olsson, Anders G; Kucinskiene, Zita

    2005-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a strong predictor for disease and death. The relations among SRH, psychosocial factors, and cortisol dynamics were tested using pooled data from the LiVicordia study of 50-year-old men in Lithuania (n = 94) and Sweden (n = 89), controlling for effect of residence. SRH was assessed by "How would you assess your own health?" A standardized laboratory stress test included measures of cortisol in serum and saliva. Good SRH related to high scale scores of decision latitude, social support at work, coping, self-esteem, and sense of coherence; to low scores of overcommitment (all p stress (r = .27, p = .001). Findings that good SRH related to favorable psychosocial characteristics and to a dynamic cortisol stress response indicate a possible explanation for observed lower risk for disease and death in this state.

  13. Evaluation of psycho-social training for speech therapists in oncology. Impact on general communication skills and empathy. A qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Peter; Wollbrück, Dorit; Danker, Helge; Singer, Susanne

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a psychosocial training programme for speech therapists on their performance skills in patient-therapist communication in general and empathy in particular. Twenty-three speech therapists were interviewed in a pseudo-randomised controlled trial. Communication skills were tested using questionnaires with open questions. Respondents were asked to find adequate replies to clinical vignettes. The vignettes briefly described a patient's physical state and contained a statement from the patient expressing some distress. Answers were coded with qualitative content analysis. Communication skills improved considerably in terms of frequency of conducive communication (especially empathy) and width of conducive communicative repertoire. Negative communication preferences were reduced. Psychosocial training for speech therapists can improve communication skills manifestly and is therefore recommended for further use.

  14. A qualitative study exploring the psychosocial value of weekend camping experiences for children and adolescents with complex heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, P P; Sutton, L J; Staley, M D; Hannon, D W

    2014-07-01

    Children living with complex heart defects (CHD) are likely to have ongoing social, emotional, physical, and health concerns, and are in need of additional psychosocial support. Summer camps can provide therapeutic benefits. Little research exists regarding the value of shorter camping experiences from the perspectives of children with CHD. The aim of our study was to explore what children and adolescents with CHD considered meaningful when attending a therapeutic camping weekend in the company of peers with similar medical diagnoses. Engaging a phenomenological approach we used participant generated photography and reflective semi-structured interviews to explore participants' lived experience and value derived from their weekend camping experiences. The study was completed with thirteen participants ranging in age from 9 to 16 years. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Van Manen's guidelines. Three themes reflecting the camp experiences were generated from the data. Meaningful experiences spanned three outcomes which had some overlapping influences: (i) Developing relationships and feeling accepted by peers and counsellors at camp; (ii) Enjoying and learning during the weekend; and (iii) Experiencing the natural and human-built therapeutic environmental features of camp. The camping programme features, inputs, and processes as identified by the participants in contributing to these outcomes are described. This qualitative study showed that children living with complex CHD valued the opportunity for participating in weekend camping experiences in the company of peers with similar heart defects. Findings contribute to a better understanding of what programme features and processes were considered meaningful. Given the scarcity of resources to devote to such social support activities, the findings may help professionals to plan effective interventions to maximize benefits during a shorter camping experience. © 2013 John Wiley

  15. Medical and psychosocial implications of adolescent extreme obesity – acceptance and effects of structured care, short: Youth with Extreme Obesity Study (YES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity have increased in German children and adolescents in the last three decades. Adolescents with extreme obesity represent a distinct risk group. On the basis of data obtained by the German Child and Youth Survey (KiGGS) and the German district military offices we estimate that the group of extremely obese adolescents (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) currently encompasses approximately 200.000 adolescents aged 14 to 21 yrs. Conventional approaches focusing on weight reduction have largely proven futile for them. In addition, only a small percentage of adolescents with extreme obesity seek actively treatment for obesity while contributing disproportionately strong to health care costs. Because of somatic and psychiatric co-morbidities and social problems adolescents with extreme obesity require special attention within the medical care system. We have initiated the project “Medical and psychosocial implications of adolescents with extreme obesity - acceptance and effects of structured care, short: ‘Youths with Extreme Obesity Study (YES)’”, which aims at improving the medical care and social support structures for youths with extreme obesity in Germany. Methods/Design We focus on identification of these subjects (baseline examination) and their acceptance of diagnostic and subsequent treatment procedures. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) we will investigate the effectiveness of a low key group intervention not focusing on weight loss but aimed at the provision of obesity related information, alleviation of social isolation, school and vocational integration and improvement of self-esteem in comparison to a control group treated in a conventional way with focus on weight loss. Interested individuals who fulfill current recommended criteria for weight loss surgery will be provided with a structured preparation and follow-up programs. All subjects will be monitored within a long-term observational study to

  16. Patients' readiness to receive psychosocial care during nurse-led routine diabetes consultations in primary care : A mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke; van Bokhoven, Marloes A.; de Jong, Sabine; Metsemakers, Job F. M.; Verhaak, Peter P. M.; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Eijk, Jacques Th. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus face several emotional and social consequences of their chronic illness in their everyday life. Symptoms of distress and depression are prevalent. For providing psychosocial self-management support, nurses in primary care were trained to identify pa

  17. Patients' readiness to receive psychosocial care during nurse-led routine diabetes consultations in primary care: A mixed methods study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk-de Vries, A. van; Bokhoven, M.A. van; Jong, S. de; Metsemakers, J.F.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Weijden, T. van der; Eijk, J.T.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus face several emotional and social consequences of their chronic illness in their everyday life. Symptoms of distress and depression are prevalent. For providing psychosocial self-management support, nurses in primary care were trained to identify pa

  18. Area deprivation and child psychosocial problems - A national cross-sectional study among school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Background We examined the association of area deprivation with the occurrence of psychosocial problems among children aged 4-16 in a representative national sample of children based on standardised measures of parent-reported problems and diagnoses made by doctors and nurses working in child health

  19. Environmental and Psycho-social Factors Related to Prostate Cancer Risk in the Chinese Population:a Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei Ling; GUO Jian Ming; XU Dan Feng; THOMPSON Timothy C; CAO Guang Wen; ZHANG Hong Wei; LIN Ji; HOU Jian Guo; XU Lei; CUI Xin Gang; XU Xing Xing; YU Yong Wei; HAN Xue; WANG Guo Min

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the risk environmental and psycho-social factors associated to prostate cancer (PCa) in Chinese population. Methods 250 PCa patients and 500 controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Information was collected and logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95%confidence intervals (95% CI) for relationship between lifestyle, eating habits and psycho-social factors with PCa risk. Results Green vegetables and green tea were associated with a decreased risk of PCa (OR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.28-0.53; OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.87, respectively). Family history of PCa (OR=7.16, 95% CI:2.01-25.49), history of prostate diseases (OR=2.28, 95%CI:1.53-3.41), alcohol consumption (OR=1.97, 95%CI:1.33-2.90), red meat consumption (OR=1.74, 95%CI:1.20-2.52), barbecued (OR=2.29, 95%CI:1.11-4.73) or fried (OR=2.35, 95%CI:1.24-4.43) foods were related with increased PCa risk. Negative psycho-social factors including occupational setbacks (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.00-2.59), marital separation (OR=1.94, 95%CI:1.29-2.91), self-contained suffering (OR=2.37, 95%CI:1.58-3.55), and high sensitivity to the personal comments (OR=1.73, 95%CI:1.18-2.54) were related to PCa. Conclusion Regular consumption of green vegetables and green tea may suggest protective effects on PCa. Alcohol consumption, red meat consumption and barbecued or fried foods were associated with PCa. Negative psycho-social factors may also play a role in the incidence of PCa in Chinese population.

  20. Adolescent bullying involvement and psychosocial aspects of family and school life: a cross-sectional study from Guangdong Province in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School bullying is an emerging problem in China. The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of bullying behaviors among Chinese adolescents and to examine the association of bullying and being bullied with family factors, school factors and indicators of psychosocial adjustment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 8,342 middle school students were surveyed in four cities in the Guangdong Province. Self-reports on bullying involvement and information regarding family factors, school factors and psychosocial adjustment were collected. Descriptive statistics and multi-level logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the prevalence of school bullying and explore potentially influential factors. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 20.83% (1,738 reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 18.99% were victims of bullying, 8.60% were bullies and 6.74% both bullied themselves and bullied others. Factors that were determined to be correlated with bullying behaviors included grade, parental caring, consideration of suicide, running away from home, time spent online per day and being in a physical fight. CONCLUSION: Bullying was determined to be prevalent among Chinese adolescents. Given the concurrent psychosocial adjustment, family and school factors associated with bullying, as well as the potential long-term negative outcomes for these youth, this issue merits serious attention, both for future research and preventive intervention.

  1. Population based study of noncardiac chest pain in southern Chinese:Prevalence, psychosocial factors and health care utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai Man Wong; Chi Kuen Chan; Annie O.O. Chan; Shiu Kum Lam; Benjamin Chun-Yu Wong; Kwok Fai Lam; Cecilia Cheng; Wai Mo Hui; Harry Hua-Xiang Xia; Kam Chuen Lai; Wayne H.C. Hu; Jia Qing Huang; Cindy L.K. Lam

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Population-based assessment of noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, psychosocial factors and health seeking behaviour of NCCP in southern Chinese.METHODS: A total of 2 209 ethnic Hong Kong Chinese households were recruited to participate in a telephone survey to study the epidemiology of NCCP using the Rose angina questionnaire, a validated gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) questionnaire and the hospital anxietydepression scale. NCCP was defined as non-exertional chest pain according to the Rose angina questionnaire and had not been diagnosed as ischaemic heart diseases by a physician.RESULTS: Chest pain over the past year was present in 454 subjects (20.6%, 95% CI 19-22), while NCCP was present in 307 subjects (13.9%, 95% CI 13-15). GERD was present in 51% of subjects with NCCP and 34% had consulted a physician for chest pain. Subjects with NCCP had a significantly higher anxiety (P<0.001) and depression score (P=0.007), and required more days off (P=0.021) than subjects with no chest pain. By multiple logistic regression analysis, female gender (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2), presence of GERD (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.6-4.8), and social life being affected by NCCP (OR 6.9, 95% CI 3.3-15.9) were independent factors associated with health seeking behaviour in southern Chinese with NCCP.CONCLUSION: NCCP is a common problem in southern Chinese and associated with anxiety and depression. Female gender, GERD and social life affected by chest pain were associated with health care utilization in subjects with NCCP.

  2. Role of psychosocial care on ICU trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Chivukula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Patients treated in intensive care units (ICU though receive the best medical attention are found to suffer from trauma typically attributed to the ICU environment. Biopsychosocial approach in ICUs is found to minimize ICU trauma. Aims: This study investigates the role of psychosocial care on patients in ICU after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. Settings and Design: The study included 250 post-operative CABG patients from five corporate hospitals. The combination of between subject and correlation design was used. Materials and Methods: The ICU psychosocial care scale (ICUPCS and ICU trauma scale (ICUTS were used to measure the psychosocial care and trauma. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and simple and multiple regression were applied. Results: Hospitals significantly differed in psychosocial care provided in ICUs. Higher the psychosocial care in ICU, lower was the ICU trauma experienced and vice versa. Psychosocial care was a significant major predictor of ICU trauma. Conclusions: The study suggests emphasis on psychosocial aspects in ICU care for optimizing prognosis.

  3. Longitudinal Impact of Frequent Geographic Relocation from Adolescence to Adulthood on Psychosocial Stress and Vital Exhaustion at Ages 32 and 42 Years: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K. C.; Twisk, J W R; H. C. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Background We assessed mobility in different life stages over a 29-year period from adolescence through adulthood and its correlation with psychosocial stress and vital exhaustion at ages 32 and 42 years. Methods Data were derived from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, an observational longitudinal study of 420 boys and girls from age 13 to 42 years. Measurements included cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR), psychosocial stress (measured by a Dutch scale of ...

  4. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  5. Cognitive, functional, and psychosocial outcome after severe traumatic brain injury: A cross-sectional study at a tertiary care trauma center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI constitutes a significant public health problem. Objectives: To assess cognitive, functional, and psychosocial outcome in patients with severe TBI (STBI. Materials and Methods: A total of 77 survivors of STBI treated at our center were prospectively assessed in the outpatient department 1 year after the injury. These patients were assessed for cognitive, functional, and psychosocial outcome using cognitive outcome tests, dysfunctional analysis questionnaire, and personality trait inventory, respectively. Cognitive and functional outcome was graded as average and above average recovery (good recovery or below average recovery (poor recovery. Psychosocial outcome was assessed as average recovery (good recovery or mild impairment and severe impairment (poor to very poor recovery. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests. Results: The ability to learn new things was most affected aspect of cognitive function and only 1% of patients had good recovery in this domain. However, 44% had good outcome for simple memory. A total of 61% showed good recovery in several aspects of functional status. At the end of 1 year, 62.5% patients still remained unemployed. 45.4% patients had good recovery, while 37% had severe impairment for various personality traits and 40% of patients had impaired emotional stability, while 57% patients showed impaired recovery in depressive tendency. Conclusion: In this study 61% patients with STBI had good recovery in functional outcome and 45.4% in psychosocial outcome at 1 year follow-up. However, improvement in cognitive outcome was not so optimistic with the ability to learn new things being most affected.

  6. Bio-psychosocial determinants of cardiovascular disease in a rural population on Crete, Greece: formulating a hypothesis and designing the SPILI-III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea Sue

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1988, the SPILI project was established in order to evaluate the cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profile of the inhabitants of Spili, in rural Crete, Greece. The first reports from this project revealed that against the unfavourable risk factors' profile observed, only a few men with a previous myocardial infarction were encountered. A follow-up study (SPILI II was performed twelve years after the initial examination, and the unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile was re-confirmed. Presentation of the Hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis formulated on the basis of previous research to investigate if dynamic psycho-social determinants, including social coherence of the local community, religiosity and spirituality, are protective against the development of coronary heart disease in a well-defined population. Testing the Hypothesis A follow-up examination of this Cretan cohort is currently being performed to assess the link between psychosocial factors and CVD. Psychosocial factors including sense of control, religiosity and spirituality are assessed in together with conventional CVD risk factors. Smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as dietary habits and activity levels are recorded. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, as well as ultrasound measurement of carotid intima media thickness, a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis, will also be measured. Implications of the hypothesis tested The issue of the cardio-protective effect of psycho-social factors would be revisited based on the results of this Cretan cohort; nevertheless, further research is needed across different sub-populations in order to establish a definite relationship. A comprehensive approach based on the aspects of bio-social life may result in more accurate CVD risk management.

  7. Returning to Paid Employment after Stroke: The Psychosocial Outcomes In StrokE (POISE) Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maree L. Hackett; Nick Glozier; Stephen Jan; Richard Lindley

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine which early modifiable factors are associated with younger stroke survivors' ability to return to paid work in a cohort study with 12-months of follow-up conducted in 20 stroke units in the Stroke Services NSW clinical network. PARTICIPANTS: Were aged >17 and

  8. The relationship between early sexual debut and psychosocial outcomes: a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udell, W.; Sandfort, T.; Reitz, E.; Bos, H.; Dekovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and

  9. Do child's psychosocial functioning, and parent and family characteristics predict early alcohol use? The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Given the negative consequences of early alcohol use for health and social functioning, it is essential to detect children at risk of early drinking. The aim of this study is to determine predictors of early alcohol use that can easily be detected in Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). ME

  10. The psychosocial impact of child domestic work: a study from India and the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesketh, T.M.; Gamlin, J.; Ong, M.; Camacho, A.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of domestic employment on the well-being of child domestic workers (CDWs) in India and the Philippines. A questionnaire was administered to 700 CDWs and 700 school-attending controls in the two countries. In India, 36% of CDWs started work before age 1

  11. Sludge treatment studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Dillow, T.A.; Bush, S.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na{sub 7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO{sub 3} sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth.

  12. "Blue flags", development of a short clinical questionnaire on work-related psychosocial risk factors - a validation study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post Sennehed, Charlotte; Gard, Gunvor; Holmberg, Sara; Stigmar, Kjerstin; Forsbrand, Malin; Grahn, Birgitta

    2017-07-24

    Working conditions substantially influence health, work ability and sick leave. Useful instruments to help clinicians pay attention to working conditions are lacking in primary care (PC). The aim of this study was to test the validity of a short "Blue flags" questionnaire, which focuses on work-related psychosocial risk factors and any potential need for contacts and/or actions at the workplace. From the original"The General Nordic Questionnaire" (QPSNordic) the research group identified five content areas with a total of 51 items which were considered to be most relevant focusing on work-related psychosocial risk factors. Fourteen items were selected from the identified QPSNordic content areas and organised in a short questionnaire "Blue flags". These 14 items were validated towards the 51 QPSNordic items. Content validity was reviewed by a professional panel and a patient panel. Structural and concurrent validity were also tested within a randomised clinical trial. The two panels (n = 111) considered the 14 psychosocial items to be relevant. A four-factor model was extracted with an explained variance of 25.2%, 14.9%, 10.9% and 8.3% respectively. All 14 items showed satisfactory loadings on all factors. Concerning concurrent validity the overall correlation was very strong rs = 0.87 (p development of the "Blue flags" questionnaire. In summary, the overall validity is considered acceptable. Testing in clinical contexts and in other patient populations is recommended to ensure predictive validity and usefulness.

  13. Confidentiality as a barrier to support seeking among physicians: the influence of psychosocial work factors in four European hospitals (the HOUPE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvseth, Lise Tevik; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw; Fridner, Ann; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin; Jónsdóttir, Lilja Sigrun; Einarsdóttir, Torgerdur; Marini, Massimo; Minucci, Daria; Pavan, Luigi; Götestam, K Gunnar; Linaker, Olav Morten

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about protecting patient's privacy can interfere with proper stress adaptation which is associated with physician's health. It is important to investigate relevant organizational confounders to this phenomenon to enable interventions that can ameliorate the subjective burden of patient confidentiality. This study investigates factors in the psychosocial work environment that can explain patient confidentiality's prominence in social support seeking among physicians, and if these factors covary differently with support seeking according to country. University hospital physicians in four European cities (N=2095) in Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Italy participated in a cross-sectional survey. Questionnaire comprised items on psychosocial work environment, basic socio-demographics, presence of formal and informal meetings at work, and measurement of confidentiality as a barrier for support. High role conflict, availability of formal or informal meetings, lack of control over decisions, and lack of control over work pace were predictors of confidentiality as a barrier to support. There were differences between countries in how these factors covaried with confidentiality as a barrier to support. High role conflict was the strongest predictor of confidentiality as a barrier to support across all samples. Psychosocial work factors predicted confidentiality as a barrier to support seeking among physicians. It is important to create routines and an organizational framework that ensures both the patient's right to privacy and physician's ability to cope with emotional demanding situations from work.

  14. Interaction of sleep quality and psychosocial stress on obesity in African Americans: the Cardiovascular Health Epidemiology Study (CHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yuan-Xiang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with whites, sleep disturbance and sleep deprivation appear more prevalent in African Americans (AA. Long-term sleep deprivation may increase the risk of obesity through multiple metabolic and endocrine alterations. Previous studies have reported contradictory results on the association between habitual sleep duration and obesity. Accordingly, we aimed to assess whether sleep quality and duration are inversely associated with body mass index (BMI and obesity and test whether these associations are modified by psychosocial stress, known to influence sleep quality. Methods A sample of 1,515 AA residents of metropolitan Atlanta, aged 30-65 years, was recruited by a random-digit-dialing method in 2007-08. The outcome obesity was defined by BMI (kg/m2 continuously and categorically (BMI ≥ 30 versus BMI Results The mean (standard deviation age was 47.5 (17.0 years, and 1,096 (72% were women. GSQ score categorized into tertiles was associated with BMI. Among women, after multivariable adjustment that included age, gender, physical activity, smoking status, education, total family income, financial stress and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and myocardial infarction, obesity was associated with sleep quality as assessed by GSQ continuous score, [odds ratio, OR (95% C.I.: 1.08 (1.03 - 1.12], and with a worse sleep disturbance subcomponent score [OR (95% C.I.: 1.48 (1.16 - 1.89]. Among all participants, stress modified the association between obesity and sleep quality; there was an increased likelihood of obesity in the medium stress category, OR (95% C.I.: 1.09 (1.02 - 1.17. Conclusion Sleep quality was associated with obesity in women. The association of sleep quality with obesity was modified by perceived stress. Our results indicate the need for simultaneous assessment of sleep and stress.

  15. Navigating the cultural transition alone: psychosocial adjustment of Korean early study abroad students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Okazaki, Sumie

    2014-04-01

    Precollege study abroad in English-speaking countries is an increasingly popular educational strategy among Asian families. We used grounded theory method to construct a model of cultural adjustment process for unaccompanied minors based the retrospective narratives of 10 (8 male) South Korean adolescents who came to the United States, unaccompanied by parents, to attend middle schools or high schools. We found that unaccompanied minors' cultural adjustment progressed from their predeparture ambivalence to initial sense of vulnerability to an eventual sense of reengagement. Unaccompanied minor students' pervasive sense of vulnerability upon arrival was heightened not only by their lack of English fluency but also their reluctance to seek the support of parents in Korea and of local Korean peers. This study has implications for educators and counselors in secondary schools who work with international students who are unaccompanied minors.

  16. PSYCHOSOCIAL RISKS AND WORK-RELATED ACCIDENTS: RESEARCH STUDIES AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Osca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Work-related accidents are a problem of extreme importance due to their serious consequences. Available data on the level of personal injuries and on the economic cost of work accidents justify their study. However, the amount of variables involved, the difficulty of accessing the data and “experimental mortality”, among other reasons, may explain why this field is not a highly attractive one for researchers. Nevertheless, over the last few years, there has been a significant increase in research studies related to this area not only in our country but also in neighbouring countries. The economic crisis has aggravated this problem as employment has become more precarious. This article summarizes the principal results of two research projects carried out by the Social and Organizational Psychology Department of UNED on work-related accidents. The sample of the first study is made up of professional soldiers and the second comprises workers from two especially dangerous sectors, construction and agriculture. Following previous classifications that distinguish between personal, job and organizational variables, we review the main models and data obtained. Several practical recommendations to improve the research in this field as well as the prevention of work-related accidents can be found at the end of this article.

  17. A Pilot Study about Recurrence of Cancer: Impact ofPsychosocial Factors on Patients' Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yenkamala Mina Ananda

    2014-01-01

    The need to prevent cancer leads the authors to propose three innovative courses of cancer as categories of disease. Theobjectives of the research are to study the impact of different factors on adaptation to the recurrence of cancer and to assess the qualityof life, the anxiety as a state and the depression as a state and the evolution of the disease on a period of three months. During thislongitudinal and prospective study, the author met 32 subjects after announcing the recurrence of their cancer, and saw again 21 of them,three months later. In two times of the study, the author made fill out several questionnaires concerning various variables. The mainresults allow showing that the majority of the subjects did not present new recurrence of cancer and that the use of the Fighting spiritstrategy is representative of them. The author's linear regressions and the author's comparisons of averages allowed the authors severalrelations about to different categories of disease. Supporting therapies and management programs for stress would be beneficial for thepatients who have recurrence of their cancer.

  18. Paternal psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes: A case-control study

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    Hershler Ruth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of social and family environments in the development of mental health problems among children and youth has been widely investigated. However, the degree to which parental working conditions may impact on developmental psychopathology has not been thoroughly studied. Methods We conducted a case-control study of several mental health outcomes of 19,833 children of sawmill workers and their association with parental work stress, parental socio-demographic characteristics, and paternal mental health. Results Multivariate analysis conducted with four distinct age groups (children, adolescents, young adults, and adults revealed that anxiety based and depressive disorders were associated with paternal work stress in all age groups and that work stress was more strongly associated with alcohol and drug related disorders in adulthood than it was in adolescence and young adulthood. Conclusion This study provides support to the tenet that being exposed to paternal work stress during childhood can have long lasting effects on the mental health of individuals.

  19. Psychosocial characteristics of oromucosal diseases in psychiatric patients: Observational study from Indian dental college

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    K V Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric diseases like anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders can affect the mental and physical statuses of an individual. Aim: The study was to investigate the different oromucosal diseases (OMD in psychiatric patients and to evaluate the correlation between these OMD to severity of anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during a six-month period. Patients reporting to psychiatry department with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as diagnosed by an experienced psychiatrist, were subjected to complete oral examination by a skilled oral diagnostician to check for OMD like oral lichen planus (OLP, aphthous stomatitis (AS and burning mouth syndrome (BMS. During the above mentioned time interval, 1320 patients with any of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases were included in this study. Of these, 278 had anxiety, 398 had depression, 295 had schizophrenia and 349 had bipolar disorder. Equal number of individuals reported to the Oral Medicine and Radiology department for routine oral screening with no mucosal diseases were included as control group. Results: In this study, statistically significant increase in the OMD of the psychiatric patients was recorded when compared with the control group. The OMD were significantly higher in patients with anxiety (20.86% followed by patients with depression (9.04%, schizophrenia (7.7%, bipolar disorder (7.4% and control group (5.17%, respectively. Most prevalent OMD in patients with anxiety was AS (12% followed by OLP (5.7%, and BMS (2.87% respectively. Patients with moderate to severe anxiety and depression showed significantly higher prevalence of these OMD compared to the ones with mild anxiety and depression. The AS and OLP were significantly more in the younger age group (18-49 year and BMS was higher in 50-77 year age group in both the study and control groups. Conclusion: A positive association was

  20. Do factors in the psychosocial work environment mediate the effect of socioeconomic position on the risk of myocardial infarction? Study from the Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Burr, H; Kristensen, T S;

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment.......To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment....

  1. Group psychosocial program for enhancing psychological well-being of people with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Petrus; Chan, Winky

    2007-01-01

    Emotional ups and downs are common among people with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) as they live with fears about treatment, pain from the illness and unexpected "flare-ups." The side effects of medications have a severe impact on their self-esteem and lead to psychological distress. This paper reports a study on the impact of a psychosocial group program on the self-esteem and psychosocial functioning of people with SLE. A total of 56 people with SLE were recruited to participate in a 6-week, 2.5-hour weekly session psychosocial group. The group served to equip members with knowledge and skills to cope with SLE and stress arising from the illness, to enhance their self-confidence and develop a positive attitude toward the illness, and to enhance their social support network. The members were assessed before the commencement and during the last session of the groups with Rosenberg's Self-esteem Inventory and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30). Results showed that members obtained better scores in self-esteem (p self-esteem and psychosocial functioning of people with SLE after the psychosocial group program. The implications for psychosocial programs for people with SLE are discussed.

  2. The Course and Impact of Poststroke Insomnia in Stroke Survivors Aged 18 to 65 Years: Results from the Psychosocial Outcomes In StrokE (POISE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Glozier

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insomnia symptoms are common in the population and have negative psychosocial and functional sequelae. There are no prospective studies of the course of such symptoms and their impact, if any, in stroke survivors. This prospective cohort study investigated insomnia after stroke in working-age adults and evaluated its impact on psychological and functional outcomes over the subsequent year. Methods: We prospectively recruited 441 young (<65 years consecutive stroke survivors from 20 public hospitals in the New South Wales Stroke Service network. Participants were assessed by self-report and interview at 28 days, 6 months, and 12 months after stroke. Insomnia was defined using a common epidemiological measure of sleep disturbance and daytime consequences. Depression, anxiety, disability, and return to work were assessed through standardized measures. Results: The point prevalence of insomnia at each time point in the year after stroke was stable at 30–37% and more common in females. Fifty-eight (16% of all participants reported “chronic” insomnia, with symptoms at both baseline and 6 months later. At 12 months, this group was more likely to be depressed (OR 6.75, 95% CI 2.78–16.4, anxious (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.54–7.09, disabled (OR 3.60, 95% CI 2.07–6.25, and not have returned to work, compared to those without insomnia over the same period. Conclusions: Chronic insomnia has a negative effect on disability and return to work 1 year after stroke even after adjusting for demographic, psychiatric, and disability factors. Identifying and appropriately targeting insomnia through known effective treatments may improve functional outcomes after stroke.

  3. Making peace: a psychosocial study of a group of nonviolent nuclear resisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradise, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This study of prosocial human behavior addressed the behavior, motivations, and adult development of a group of women and men who are acting on behalf of others at personal risk. Weekly, for 8 years, members of Rowan: a nonviolent witness for peace have gathered in silent vigil at Draper Laboratory whose basic research is integrally related to production of first-strike nuclear missiles. Occasionally they are arrested at Draper for nonviolent direct actions of civil disobedience, tried in court, and sentenced to jail terms. The primary research instrument was a biographical interview focusing on the meaning resisters' make of their actions. All 20 current Rowan members were interviewed. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed to provide detailed transcripts from which respondents' intended meanings could be discovered. The central finding of this study is that Rowan's nonviolent resistance has a profound formative and integrative effect on members' lives. This discovery leads to the claim that adult human identity is not only deepened and integrated, but continually formed in relation to others by participating in a community that enables the shared construction, discovery, and enactment of meaning through conscientious social action.

  4. Medical specialisations: a psychosocial study / Especialidades médicas: estudo psicossocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza de Mattos Fiore

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an exploratory study of the psychological and social factors related to the choice and practice of the various medical specialities, based on the sociological formulation of Bourdieu and the considerations of Dejours concerning man's encounter with his work. The study was based on the analysis of an open interview and social survey questionnaire applied on 40 active medical doctors of both sexes, different ages, and several specialities, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The results of a thorough analysis of the interviews reveals that: a the psychological conflicts inherent in the formation of a medical identity and the practice of medicine are influenced by acquired socio-economic elements that lead to differing practical solutions and results depending on social class descent; b the experiences of each individual, according to his/her socio-economic status, determine the organisation and complexity of his/her subjective space and, therefore, of his/her perceptions and practical behaviour; c the hierarchy of values in Medicine can be considered as a collective defence against anxieties resulting from medical tasks and the constant dealing with situations of powerlessness.

  5. Quality of life and psychosocial aspects in Greek patients with psoriasis: a cross-sectional study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Christodoulou, Christos; Stefanaki, Christina; Livaditis, Miltiadis; Tsatovidou, Revekka; Kouskoukis, Constantinos; Petridis, Athanasios; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a common, long-term skin disease associated with high levels of psychological distress and a considerable adverse impact on life. The effects of psoriasis, beyond skin affliction, are seldom recognized and often undertreated. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness in patients with psoriasis. METHODS Eighty-four patients with psoriasis were enrolled in the study. The quality of life, depression and anxiety, loneliness and self-esteem of the patient were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the UCLA loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3) and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, respectively. RESULTS The Dermatology Quality of Life Index score among psoriasis patients was 12.61 ± 4.88. They had statistically significantly higher scores according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale -anxiety subscale (p=0.032)-compared with healthy volunteers. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the UCLA-scale (p=0.033) and RSES-scale (p<0.0001). Female patients presented with lower self-esteem than male patients. CONCLUSION Psoriasis is a distressing, recurrent disorder that significantly impairs quality of life. Therefore, the recognition and future management of psoriasis may require the involvement of multi-disciplinary teams to manage the physical, psychological and social aspects of the condition, as is the case for systemic, long-term conditions. PMID:26734865

  6. Restless legs syndrome: a qualitative analysis of psychosocial suffering and interdisciplinary attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Maria José V; Coin-Carvalho, João E; Carvalho, Luciane B C; Varela, Maite V; Potasz, Clarisse; Prado, Lucila B F; do Prado, Gilmar F

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate psychosocial factors related to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with restless legs syndrome. Fifteen patients were interviewed at the Neuro-Sono Outpatient Clinic, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. The results were submitted to a qualitative analysis. We identified four content categories: illness description, illness history, illness experience, and relationships. Lack of control over the body and lack of recognition by professionals produce stigma and lead patients to suffering. The research underscores the relevance of psychosocial factors to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with restless legs syndrome and the importance of having interdisciplinary teams when attending patients with restless legs syndrome.

  7. Psychosocial work environment and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: the Danish Nurse Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesøe, Karen; Hundrup, Yrsa Andersen; Thomsen, Jane Frølund

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of work pressure and job influence on the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in women. METHODS: The effect of work pressure and job influence on the 15-year incidence of IHD in women participating in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was prospectively...... biological and behavioural risk factors for IHD were collected at baseline. RESULTS: During follow-up, 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. In the fully adjusted model, nurses who reported work pressure to be much too high had a 1.4-fold increased risk of incident IHD (95% CI 1.04 to 1.81) compared...... with nurses who reported work pressure to be suitable. A tendency towards a dose-response effect was found. Age-stratified analysis showed that this effect was significant only among the younger nurses (

  8. A study on smoking and associated psychosocial factors among adolescent students in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Nilay Bagchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use among school children and adolescents is an increasing problem world-wide, particularly in the developing countries. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in six co-educational high schools in Kolkata, West Bengal among 526 students of 15-19 years to determine the prevalence of smoking and to find out any difference among the smokers and non-smokers regarding factors related to family relations, peer group and personal characteristics. The overall rate of smoking was found to be 29.6%, mean age of initiation of smoking was earlier in males. Among smokers 75% students started smoking by 15 years. Smoking of father and peer group, family conflict and pornography addiction were found to have significant association with smoking of students. Early school health based interventions addressing these factors might help in effectively tackling this problem.

  9. Returning to paid employment after stroke: the Psychosocial Outcomes In StrokE (POISE cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree L Hackett

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine which early modifiable factors are associated with younger stroke survivors' ability to return to paid work in a cohort study with 12-months of follow-up conducted in 20 stroke units in the Stroke Services NSW clinical network. PARTICIPANTS: Were aged >17 and <65 years, recent (within 28 days stroke, able to speak English sufficiently to respond to study questions, and able to provide written informed consent. Participants with language or cognitive impairment were eligible to participate if their proxy provided consent and completed assessments on the participants' behalf. The main outcome measure was return to paid work during the 12 months following stroke. RESULTS: Of 441 consented participants (average age 52 years, 68% male, 83% with ischemic stroke, 218 were in paid full-time and 53 in paid part-time work immediately before their stroke, of whom 202 (75% returned to paid part- or full-time work within 12 months. Being male, female without a prior activity restricting illness, younger, independent in activities of daily living (ADL at 28 days after stroke, and having private health insurance was associated with return to paid work, following adjustment for other illnesses and a history of depression before stroke (C statistic 0·81. Work stress and post stroke depression showed no such independent association. CONCLUSIONS: Given that independence in ADL is the strongest predictor of return to paid work within 12 months of stroke, these data reinforce the importance of reducing stroke-related disability and increasing independence for younger stroke survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTRN 12608000459325.

  10. The mental health and psychosocial effects of organized violence: a qualitative study in northern Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Paul; Surkan, Pamela J; Gray, Amber E; Desmousseaux, Marine

    2012-07-01

    Historically, organized violence has been a chronic pervasive problem in Haiti. We set out to elicit Haitians' views on its effects to guide the development of interventions. In March 2006 we studied a population in the slum area of Cap-Haitien, Haiti's second largest city, and the nearby towns of Milot and Limbe. A convenience sample of adults was asked to free list all current problems affecting victims of organized violence. Two major categories emerged: psychological problems and financial problems. The psychological problems of "feeling startled and loss of self control," "sadness/grief," "continuing to suffer from reliving/reexperiencing past events," "problems in the head/mental problems," "deep suffering in the heart," and "thinking too much" emerged as themes from key-informant interviews. These may correspond to constructs of depression, dysthymia, and anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatric nosology. The development of effective interventions can therefore consider those known to be effective for these problems in other settings. However in selecting interventions, considerations must also include local acceptability, perceived causes of problems, and their social effects.

  11. Psychosocial effects on siblings of children with autism and mental retardation: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bågenholm, A; Gillberg, C

    1991-08-01

    The probands of this study were 60 children and young adults between 5 and 20 years of age, 20 of whom had siblings with autism, 20 of whom had siblings with mental retardation, and 20 of whom had siblings who were free of handicap. The three proband groups were matched for gender, birth order and socioeconomic status. The children were questioned about their sibling relationships and about particular problems they faced concerning their handicapped brothers or sisters and about problems concerning themselves. Parents were interviewed about the healthy child's behaviour and social adjustment. Mothers completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory concerning themselves. Siblings of handicapped children and especially siblings of children with autism were more concerned about the future. They also felt lonely more often and many of them had peer problems. They often regarded their handicapped siblings as a burden. They tended to have only one sibling. Siblings often did not know why their handicapped brother or sister was different from other children. There were more behaviour disturbances in the siblings of handicapped children and mothers with a child with autism reported more 'stressful events'. There were no differences as regards the personality of the mothers and the self-concept of the children between the three groups.

  12. [Study of the healthcare background and psychosocial environment of the Maghrebian immigrant population in Catalonia [Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Rosa Maria; Suñol, Rosa; Vallejo, Paula; Lahoz, Sonia; Atxotegui, Joseba; El Manouari, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information on the healthcare background and social environment of the Maghrebian immigrant population in Catalonia in order to guide the management and provision of social services and the work of the organizations supporting this collective. To gather data, we used a questionnaire exploring healthcare and social variables, including stressors and social support. Data collection was performed by pollsters in Arabic. We performed 403 interviews. Most interviewees had a health card providing access to public healthcare and knew where to access healthcare. The most frequently used services were primary care and emergency departments. In primary care, almost all of the interviewees were provided explanations, but 30% were unable to understand them properly. Health professionals seemed to have inadequate awareness of cultural and religious differences. Work, housing, distance from the family, and legal status were stressful factors for more than half of this population. Social support was low. Three quarters of the interviewees felt lonely. More than half of this population had completely or partially fulfilled their expectations of migration, while 11% felt they were in a worse situation. The main areas for improvement are the provision of information on conditions of healthcare access, promotion of social interaction, the use of associations for immigrants especially during the first phases of the migration process and facilitating religious activities. Health professionals should be provided with training in intercultural issues.

  13. Especialidades médicas: estudo psicossocial Medical specialisations: a psychosocial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza de Mattos Fiore

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudo exploratório sobre fatores psicológicos e sociais envolvidos na escolha e prática das diversas especialidades médicas, com base na formulação sociológica de Bourdieu e nas considerações de Dejours a respeito do encontro do homem com seu trabalho. O estudo é baseado na análise de conteúdo de entrevistas livres, seguidas de questionário de levantamento social aplicados em 40 médicos atuantes, de ambos os sexos, de diferentes faixas etárias e várias especialidades na cidade de São Paulo. O exame, em profundidade, das entrevistas revela que: a os conflitos psicológicos inerentes à formação da identidade médica e a sua prática são influenciados por aspectos sócio-econômicos interiorizados e decorrentes do estrato social de origem do médico; b as experiências vividas e influenciadas pelo estrato sócio-econômico de origem de cada indivíduo determinaram a organização e a complexidade do espaço subjetivo e, portanto, de suas percepções e de seu comportamento prático; e, c a hierarquia de valores na Medicina pode ser considerada como defesa coletiva contra ansiedades resultantes da tarefa médica e do constante lidar com situações de impotência.This paper presents an exploratory study of the psychological and social factors related to the choice and practice of the various medical specialities, based on the sociological formulation of Bourdieu and the considerations of Dejours concerning man's encounter with his work. The study was based on the analysis of an open interview and social survey questionnaire applied on 40 active medical doctors of both sexes, different ages, and several specialities, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The results of a thorough analysis of the interviews reveals that: a the psychological conflicts inherent in the formation of a medical identity and the practice of medicine are influenced by acquired socio-economic elements that lead to differing practical solutions and results

  14. Study of psychosocial parameters related to the survival rate of renal transplantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, J G; Clermont, M J; Robitaille, P; Plante, A; Jéquier, J C; Godbout, C; Guertin, M C; Beaulieu, M A; Sarrazin, F

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of intelligence, schooling, psychomotor, emotional, and social status on renal graft survival in children. Sixty-two cadaver renal transplant recipients were evaluated retrospectively and the influence of sex, age, weight, and the use of cyclosporin A (CyA) on the success rate of the graft from 1 to 5 years later was analyzed. Psychological and social scores were devised and included as factors predictive of survival of the graft. Univariate analysis showed that the following variables predicted renal graft survival: the use of CyA (P = 0.0002), pre-transplant dialysis (P = 0.04), weight at the time of transplantation (P = 0.072), and psychological scores (P = 0.064). Association analysis demonstrated that pre-transplantation dialysis was only a chance association and therefore the parameter was discarded. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive parameters were the use of CyA, sex, weight in kilograms, and the psychological score. An equation was then derived from variables that predict the probability that a specific patient's graft will survive more than t months. This equation is the estimated survival distribution function and is as follow: S (t) = Exp {-Exp[-(0.8882x1 - 1.827x2 + 0.037x3 - 0.1746x4) + ln t - 4.7862]} where S (t) = the survival at t months post transplantation, x1 = sex (male 1, female 2), x2 = CyA (yes 1, no 2), x3 = weight in kilograms, and x4 = psychological score. The major impact of psychological factors on renal graft survival was surprising.

  15. Experiences and psychosocial adjustment of Darfuri female students affected by war: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Alia; Van den Borne, H W; Crutzen, Rik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the personal accounts of Darfuri students studying at Ahfad University for Women in Omdurman, Sudan. Their war-related exposure, current ongoing life challenges, emotional distress, and coping strategies were explored using a semistructured interview protocol with a sample of 20 students. Through interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), the Darfuri students' stories illustrated that they were exposed to an array of traumatic war events, including personal experiences of parental separation, injury and death of family members, and shortages of essential life-sustaining supplies in internally displaced camps. Also, they were confronted with myriad current life hassles and urban-cultural challenges, including being physically distant from their families, and losing the shelter of parents, the encouragement of extended family members, and their rich and familiar social support networks. Urban-cultural challenges and lack of environmental mastery applied to most Darfuri participants as they relocated to Omdurman city, which included negotiating an unfamiliar transport system, learning the routes and directions to important city landmarks, and insufficient funds for basic hygienic essentials. Emotional distress reactions were coded by forming two distinct lists: directly mentioned by the participant; and observations of emotional manifestation during the interview. Patterns emerged that may be similar to symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders; for example, the DSM-IV criteria for symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and major depression. Strong religious practices and beliefs (such as praying and reading the Quran), ability to form interpersonal relationships, availability of social support networks, and a positive future outlook seemed to augment their ability to cope with their subsequent emotional distress owing to war-related exposures, current ongoing life hassles and urban-cultural challenges.

  16. Internet-based support programs to alleviate psychosocial and physical symptoms in cancer patients: a literature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Grietje; Admiraal, Jolien M; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Schröder, Carolien P; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; Reyners, Anna K L

    2015-07-01

    In this review the effect of internet-based support programs on psychosocial and physical symptoms resulting from cancer diagnosis and treatment is analyzed. Selection of studies was based on the following criteria: (non-)randomized controlled trials, performed in adult cancer patients, comparing quantitative psychosocial and/or physical outcomes of an internet-based support program with (a) comparison group(s). Literature search yielded 2032 studies of which 16 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Three different internet-based support programs were identified: social support groups, online therapy for psychosocial/physical symptoms, and online systems integrating information, support, and coaching services. Outcomes improved by these programs in nine studies. Especially fatigue, social support, and distress improved, regardless of the program type. All online systems showed positive effects, mainly for social support and quality of life. This analysis indicates that internet-based support programs are effective in improving psychosocial and physical symptoms in cancer patients.

  17. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  18. Infertility and assisted reproduction in Denmark. Epidemiology and psychosocial consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lone

    2006-11-01

    Clinically a couple is considered to be infertile after at least one year without contraception and without pregnancy. There was scant knowledge about the prevalences of infertility, involuntary childlessness and the seeking of fertility treatment and only few longitudinal studies about the psychosocial consequences of infertility and its treatment. This thesis is about the epidemiological aspects of infertility; the conceptualization and measurement of important psychosocial aspects of infertility; and a medical sociological analysis of the associations between these psychosocial variables among Danish women and men in fertility treatment. The thesis is based on nine papers. The three main purposes were: (i) to review critically, population based studies of infertility and medical care seeking in industrialised countries. Further, to examine these prevalences and subsequent motherhood among women in former assisted reproduction in a Danish population. (ii) To develop measures of psychosocial consequences of infertility: fertility problem stress, marital benefit, communication, coping strategies, attitudes to and evaluation of fertility treatment. (iii) To examine these phenomena and to analyse their interrelations among Danish women and men in fertility treatment. The thesis is based on four empirical studies: (i) The Women and Health Survey, a cross-sectional population-based study among 15-44 year old women (n=907, 25-44 year old) in Copenhagen County, 1989. (ii) The Psychosocial Infertility Interview Study, a qualitative interview study among 16 couples (n=2 participants) infertility treatment at The Fertility Clinic, Herlev University Hospital,1992. (iii) The Infertility Cohort, a longitudinal cohort study consecutively including all couples (n=250 participants) beginning anew fertility treatment period at one of four public (Braedstrup, Herlev, Odense, Rigshospitalet) and one private fertility clinic (Trianglen),2000-2002. (iv) The Communication and Stress

  19. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  20. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  1. Psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris: evaluating the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J K L

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews current evidence presented by recent studies on the impact of acne on psychosocial health. Study methodologies, including case-control and cross-sectional surveys, have demonstrated psychological abnormalities including depression, suicidal ideation, anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms, including pain and discomfort, embarrassment and social inhibition. Effective treatment of acne was accompanied by improvement in self-esteem, affect, obsessive-compulsiveness, shame, embarrassment, body image, social assertiveness and self-confidence. Acne is associated with a greater psychological burden than a variety of other disparate chronic disorders. Future studies with a longitudinal cohort design may provide further validation of the causal inference between acne and psychosocial disability provided by the current literature.

  2. Psychosocial aspects of Hansen's disease (leprosy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurvinder Pal

    2012-09-01

    In general, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among people with Hansen's disease has greatly increased to date. However, inadequate psychiatric care of people with Hansen's disease is an area of increasing concern. Many studies have been conducted in India and abroad to find out the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in patients suffering from Hansen's disease. Although efforts have been made by the government and international organizations to solve the medical problems among this group of patients, this disease still carries a number of psychosocial issues. The social stigma connected to these patients makes this disease completely different from others. Even nowadays people affected by Hansen's disease have to leave their village and are socially isolated. Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder found in these patients. Early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders among Hansen's disease patients is a powerful psychotherapeutic measure. Integrated healthcare strategy will be beneficial to these patients. A comprehensive MEDLINE search and review of relevant literature was carried out and the data extracted and studied with particular reference to psychosocial issues in Hansen's disease. The focus of this research work is related to psychiatric and social aspects vis-à-vis stigma in these patients with Hansen's disease.

  3. Psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the availability of better treatment regimen, life span of thalassemic patients is increasing. Chronic nature of thalassemia and its intensive and demanding treatment result in significant psychologic burden on the patients and their families. A lot has been studied about beta-thalassemia major but little attention has been paid to the psychological aspect of this disease. Hence, the study was planned to analyse the psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from January 2007 to March 2008 in thalassemic day-care centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Fifty four thalassemic children and controls above 9 years of age were enrolled. Psychosocial assessment done with assessment of Finer Psychopathology using ICMR Symptom checklist (ICMR task force, 1983. The prevalence of various problems was calculated and compared with controls. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for testing differences in variables. Results: Patients were divided into three groups - Group A (10-15 years, 30 patients; Group B (15-20 years, 18 patients, and Group C (20-25 years, 6 patients. In group A, behavior problems were common (12 patients -40% (P< 0.001, significant. In group B, mood disorders were common (8 patients, 44% (P< 0.001, significant. In group C, psychotic symptoms were common (3 patients, 50% (P< 0.05, significant. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that psychosocial problems are more in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial aspects need to be addressed in the overall treatment of children with thalassemia.

  4. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, A; de Baat, C; Horstman, M

    2012-09-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with halitosis at least once a week, men significantly more frequently than women. Although less strongly than body odour, halitosis was reported as being one of the most severe 'let-downs' in social interactions. The greater the social distance between subjects, the less likely is the chance that a person's attention will be drawn to halitosis experienced. When it comes to an unknown person, the chance was no more than 7%, suggesting that it is problematic to draw a person's attention to the presence of halitosis. Considering the potential social consequences of halitosis is it important that dentists and dental hygienists draw patients' attention to the presence of halitosis, when this is the case, thereby encouraging them to seek adequate treatment.

  5. Study protocol: translating and implementing psychosocial interventions in aged home care the lifestyle engagement activity program (LEAP) for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lee-Fay; Baker, Jess R; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Camp, Cameron; Haertsch, Maggie; Skropeta, Margaret

    2013-11-16

    Tailored psychosocial activity-based interventions have been shown to improve mood, behaviour and quality of life for nursing home residents. Occupational therapist delivered activity programs have shown benefits when delivered in home care settings for people with dementia. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LEAP (Lifestyle Engagement Activity Program) for Life, a training and practice change program on the engagement of home care clients by care workers. Secondary aims are to evaluate the impact of the program on changes in client mood and behaviour. The 12 month LEAP program has three components: 1) engaging site management and care staff in the program; 2) employing a LEAP champion one day a week to support program activities; 3) delivering an evidence-based training program to care staff. Specifically, case managers will be trained and supported to set meaningful social or recreational goals with clients and incorporate these into care plans. Care workers will be trained in and encouraged to practise good communication, promote client independence and choice, and tailor meaningful activities using Montessori principles, reminiscence, music, physical activity and play. LEAP Champions will be given information about theories of organisational change and trained in interpersonal skills required for their role. LEAP will be evaluated in five home care sites including two that service ethnic minority groups. A quasi experimental design will be used with evaluation data collected four times: 6-months prior to program commencement; at the start of the program; and then after 6 and 12 months. Mixed effect models will enable comparison of change in outcomes for the periods before and during the program. The primary outcome measure is client engagement. Secondary outcomes for clients are satisfaction with care, dysphoria/depression, loneliness, apathy and agitation; and work satisfaction for care workers. A process evaluation will also be

  6. Psychosocial Complications of Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi-Moonaghi, Hossein; Mojalli, Mohammad; Khosravan, Shahla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death around the world. The coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common diseases in this category, which can be the trigger to various psychosocial complications. We believe that inadequate attention has been paid to this issue. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to explore the psychosocial complications of CAD from the Iranian patients’ perspective. Patients and Methods: A qualitative design based on the ...

  7. [Psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, L; Müller-Kalthoff, T

    2002-10-01

    This article analyses drug-related deaths in the German Federal States of Bavaria (Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg counties) during 1999 and Baden-Wurttemberg (Stuttgart and Mannheim counties) during 1999 and in the first half of 2000. The persons who had been in contact with drug care services were studied for psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths. Epidemiological data from different sources (police, relatives, counselling centres, detoxification clinics, therapy and substitution treatment) were collated to estimate factors of psychosocial stress preceding drug deaths. The results in both Laender indicate high prevalence rates of a history of at least one non-fatal overdose (approx. 50%) or a suicide attempt (approx. 35%). More than 40% of the deceased had been suffering from at least one additional mental disorder, in most cases from depression. At least one critical life event (in most cases, a relapse) or a period of abstinence (i.e., due to imprisonment, therapy or detoxification) during the past three months before death was reported for more than half of the addicts. The results were discussed in the light of data on opiate users and the general population. Improved specialist training of therapeutic and medical workers as well as of any other co-operating professionals is considered a necessary prerequisite for an early detection of risk factors.

  8. The Role of the Psychosocial Dimension in the Improvement of Quality of Care: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makivić, Irena; Kersnik, Janko; Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our systematic review was to analyse the published literature on the psychosocial dimension of care in family medicine and its relationship with quality of care. We wanted to find out whether there is any evidence on the psychosocial approach in (family) medicine. The recommended bio-psycho-social approach, besides the biomedical model of illness, takes into account several co-influencing psychological, sociological and existential factors. An online search of nine different databases used Boolean operators and the following selection criteria: the paper contained information on the holistic approach, quality indicators, family medicine, patient-centred care and/or the bio-psycho-social model of treatment. We retrieved 743 papers, of which 36 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Including the psychosocial dimension in patient management has been found to be useful in the prevention and treatment of physical and psychiatric illness, resulting in improved social functioning and patient satisfaction, reduced health care disparities, and reduced annual medical care charges. The themes of patient-centred, behavioural or psychosocial medicine were quite well presented in several papers. We could not find any conclusive evidence of the impact of a holistic bio-psycho-social-approach. Weak and variable definitions of psychosocial dimensions, a low number of well-designed intervention studies, and low numbers of included patients limited our conclusions.

  9. The experience of palliative patients and their families of a family meeting utilised as an instrument for spiritual and psychosocial care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olver Ian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explores the experience of palliative patients and their family members of a family meeting model, utilised as an instrument for the provision of spiritual and psychosocial care. In doing so the study embraces a broad understanding of spirituality which may or may not include formal religious practice and a concept of psychosocial care that includes: social and emotional well-being, communication, self esteem, mental health and adaptation to illness. The meeting of spiritual and psychosocial needs is considered to be an important aspect of palliative care. Methods This qualitative study, philosophically underpinned by hermeneutic phenomenology, investigates the participatory experience of palliative care patients and their significant family members of such a family meeting. People registered with two large metropolitan palliative care services, who met selection criteria, were referred by medical staff. Twelve of the 66 referred took part in family meetings which also included significant others invited by the patient. A total of 36 family members participated. The number of participants of individual family meetings ranged from two to eleven. After the family meeting every participant was invited to take part in an individual in-depth interview about their experience of the meeting. Forty seven interviews were conducted. These were audio recorded and transcribed. Results Data analysis, utilising Ricoeur's theory of interpretation, revealed seven main themes: personal experience of the meeting, personal outcomes, observation of others' experience, observation of experience and outcomes for the family unit, meeting facilitation, how it could have been different and general applicability of the family meeting. Throughout these themes were numerous references to aspects of the web of relationships which describe the concept of spirituality as it is defined for the purpose of this study. Conclusions The findings

  10. The Influence of Exercise Training on Quality of Life and Psychosocial Functioning in Children with Congenital Heart Disease:A Review of Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolijn Dulfer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, associated with lowered quality of life. This review presents intervention studies on the influence of an exercise program on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in children with severe congenital heart disease. Participation in an exercise program among young people with complex congenital heart disease seemed to have positive effects on quality of life and passive leisure time spent. However, more effects of the exercise programs may have been expected. For future research it is important to critically evaluate the content of the exercise programs.

  11. The short-term health and psychosocial impacts of domestic energy efficiency investments in low-income areas: a controlled before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Jiang, Shiyu; Nascimento, Christina; Rodgers, Sarah E; Johnson, Rhodri; Lyons, Ronan A; Poortinga, Wouter

    2017-01-31

    Research suggests that living in fuel poverty and cold homes contributes to poor physical and mental health, and that interventions targeted at those living in poor quality housing may lead to health improvements. However, little is known about the socio-economic intermediaries and processes that contribute to better health. This study examined the relationship between energy efficiency investments to homes in low-income areas and mental and physical health of residents, as well as a number of psychosocial outcomes likely to be part of the complex relationship between energy efficiency measures and health outcomes. A quasi-experimental field study with a controlled pretest-posttest design was conducted (intervention n = 364; control n = 418) to investigate the short-term health and psychosocial impacts of a domestic energy efficiency programme that took place across Wales between 2013 and 2015. Survey data were collected in the winters before and after installation of energy efficiency measures, including external wall insulation. The study used a multilevel modelling repeated measures approach to analyse the data. The energy efficiency programme was not associated with improvements in physical and mental health (using the SF-12v2 physical and mental health composite scales) or reductions in self-reported respiratory and asthma symptoms. However, the programme was associated with improved subjective wellbeing (B = 0.38, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.65), as well as improvements in a number of psychosocial outcomes, including increased thermal satisfaction (OR = 3.83, 95% CI 2.40 to 5.90), reduced reports of putting up with feeling cold to save heating costs (OR = 0.49, CI = 0.25 to 0.94), fewer financial difficulties (B = -0.15, 95% CI -0.25 to -0.05), and reduced social isolation (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.77). The study showed that investing in energy efficiency in low-income communities does not lead to self-reported health improvements in the

  12. Effects of a Psychosocial Intervention on the Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, M. Jesus; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Jara, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an intensive psychosocial intervention on the executive functioning (EF) in children with ADHD. The treatment was carried out in a coordinated manner over a period of 10 weeks with 27 children with ADHD aged 7 to 10, their parents, and their teachers. A battery of neuropsychological tasks was…

  13. Effectiveness of a psychosocial counselling intervention for first-time IVF couples : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, C; Hunfeld, JAM; Duivenvoorden, HJ; den Outer, MA; Fauser, BCJM; Passchier, J; Macklon, NS

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate a psychosocial counselling intervention for first-time IVF couples. In this article the results on women's distress are presented. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-five couples admitted to an IVF treatment programme at the Erasmus MC were asked to pa

  14. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based…

  15. The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neirita Hazarika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI questionnaire. Results: Females (56%, 15–20 year olds (61%, facial lesions (60%, and Grade II acne (70% were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10 interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05 found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment.

  16. The Psychosocial Impact of Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Neirita; Archana, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Females (56%), 15–20 year olds (61%), facial lesions (60%), and Grade II acne (70%) were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10) interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27688440

  17. Randomized Trial Comparing the Electronic Composite Psychosocial Screener YouthCHAT With a Clinician-Interview Assessment for Young People: A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabrew, Hiran; Corter, Arden; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Goldfinch, Mary

    2017-07-31

    Psychosocial problems such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse are common and burdensome in young people, particularly those with long-term physical conditions such as asthma and diabetes. In New Zealand, "screening" for such problems is undertaken routinely only with Year 9 students in low-decile schools and opportunistically in pediatric settings using a nonvalidated and time-consuming clinician-administered Home, Education/employment, Eating, Activity, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression, Safety (HEEADSSS) interview. The Youth version, Case-finding and Help Assessment Tool (YouthCHAT) is a relatively new, locally developed, eTablet-based composite screener for identifying similar psychosocial issues to HEEADSSS. Based on individually validated screening instruments, it is self-administered within minutes. Preliminary testing has revealed its acceptability to young people, but further research is required to expand its modules to cover all HEEADSSS domains, to evaluate its acceptability for young people with and without long-term physical conditions, and to compare its effectiveness against HEEADSSS. Our aim is to (1) ascertain acceptability and utility of YouthCHAT for children with long-term physical illness and high school students, (2) validate three additional YouthCHAT domains against comparable HEEADSSS domains, and (3) compare the performance of YouthCHAT and HEEADSSS in the high school setting. During the first phase of the study, three additional YouthCHAT domains were codesigned with high school students. During the second phase of the study, the updated version of YouthCHAT will be administered to 30 young people with long-term physical conditions, and to 150 high school students either before or after HEEADSSS in the form of a randomized trial with counter-balanced design. Primary outcomes include comparability between HEEADSSS and YouthCHAT in detecting psychosocial issues, and time to administer; acceptability of YouthCHAT as an acceptable

  18. A post hoc analysis of negative