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Sample records for psychosocial treatment studies

  1. Psychosocial Treatments in Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Serkut Bulut

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its severe morbidity and mortality, studies regarding the psychosocial treatments of anorexia nervosa are limited in number. This paper aims to present the general outlines of various psychosocial interventions developed for the treatment of anorexia nervosa and to provide an up-to-date review of the randomized-controlled studies on the effectiveness of these approaches. Reviewed studies were classified by age spectrum of samples under two main headings: adolescents and mixed samples of adults and adolescents. Specific issues about other variables were then discussed separately. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 329-345

  2. Quality of life and psychosocial outcomes after fixed orthodontic treatment: a 17-year observational cohort study.

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    Arrow, Peter; Brennan, David; Spencer, A John

    2011-12-01

    There is little evidence to suggest that orthodontic treatment can prevent or reduce the likelihood of dental caries or of periodontal disease or dental trauma and temporomandibular disorders, but there is a modest association between the presence of malocclusion/orthodontic treatment need and quality of life. However, little is known of the long-term outcomes of orthodontic treatment. This study reports on the longitudinal follow-up of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes of orthodontic treatment among a cohort of adults who were examined as adolescents in 1988/1989. Children who were examined in 1988/1989 were invited to a follow-up in 2005/2006. Respondents completed a questionnaire, which collected information on quality of life, receipt of orthodontic treatment and psychosocial factors, and were invited for a clinical examination. Oral health conditions including occlusal status using the Dental Aesthetic Index were recorded. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between the measured factors. There was no statistically significant association between occlusal status at adolescence and quality of life at adulthood. Those individuals who had orthodontic treatment but did not need orthodontic treatment had higher self-esteem (23.1, SD 5.2) and were more satisfied with life (18.5, SD 3.7) than other treatment groups (self-esteem range, 20.0-22.7; life satisfaction range, 16.4-18.1), anovaP life, P life. Orthodontic treatment was negatively associated with psychosocial factors (life satisfaction; fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT) β = -0.91, P = 0.02 and self-esteem; FOT β = -1.39, P life and psychosocial factors. Receipt of fixed orthodontic treatment does not appear to be associated with oral health-related quality of life but appears to be negatively associated with self-esteem and satisfaction with life. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Scientific Evidence in the Study and Treatment of Addictive Behaviours in Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life

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    Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the importance and relevance of substance dependence and other addictive behaviours has generated great interest among the scientific community. Since its creation in 1992, Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life has transmitted the needs and training demands of psychologists, paying special attention to those aspects related to prevention, health outcomes and psychosocial factors involved in the onset and maintenance of drug addiction, psychosocial intervention and the treatment of addictive behaviours. As an introduction to this report on the Scientific evidence in the study and treatment of addictive behaviours, all topics covered by this journal throughout the years will be addressed.

  4. Open-Trial Pilot Study of a Comprehensive Outpatient Psychosocial Treatment for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Lopata, Christopher; Lipinski, Alanna M.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Donnelly, James P.; McDonald, Christin A.; Volker, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility and initial outcomes of a comprehensive outpatient psychosocial treatment (MAXout) for children aged 7-12 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. The 18-week treatment, two 90-minute sessions per week, included instruction and therapeutic activities targeting social/social communication skills,…

  5. Psychosocial counselling in donor sperm treatment

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    Visser, M.

    2018-01-01

    For decades, donor sperm treatment is offered to men and women to build a family. In daily life, parents, children and donors have to deal with the consequences of this treatment. The studies of this thesis show that there are gaps in knowledge about specialist psychosocial counselling and guidance

  6. Motives for Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment and Effect of Treatment on Psychosocial Well-Being and Satisfaction: A Prospective Study of 118 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oland, J.; Jensen, J.; Elklit, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective, controlled study of consecutive surgical-orthodontic patients was performed to assess how treatment affects the patients' psychosocial well-being. We evaluated patients' treatment motivations and motive fulfillment in relation to their satisfaction with the treatment and a...

  7. Psoriasis: characteristics, psychosocial effects and treatment options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Sheila

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic non-infectious inflammatory skin disease with a variety of different presentations. The classic presentation is of well-defined red plaques with silver scale. The characteristic scale makes the disorder highly visible and intrusive on the patient\\'s lifestyle. The visible nature of the disease ensures that psoriasis has both physical and psychosocial effects. In normal skin, epidermal cell reproduction and proliferation takes 28 days. In psoriasis this process is considerably accelerated to approximately 4 days, resulting in the deposit of immature cells on the skin. While the exact cause of this process is unknown, certain environmental and genetic factors are known to be triggers. Disease management depends on disease severity, psychosocial effects and the patient\\'s lifestyle. To effectively treat this disease the nurse must be skilled in psoriasis management, and in patient education and motivation. This article reviews the characteristics, aetiology, psychosocial effects and treatment strategies of psoriasis.

  8. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte Kærgaard; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme...

  9. ADHD Psychosocial Treatments: Generalization Reconsidered

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    Abikoff, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral interventions have demonstrated clinical utility in improving the behavior of children with ADHD, especially in specialized therapeutic milieus (Pelham et al., 2000). Improvements in children's target behaviors often occur in the treatment settings where contingencies are in place and delivered consistently. However, generalization of…

  10. Psychosocial predictors of affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

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    Peñacoba, Cecilia; González, M José; Santos, Noelia; Romero, Martín

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we propose to study the role of psychosocial variables in affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, considering that affect is a key variable in treatment adherence. Seventy-four patients (average age 33,24 ± 10,56) with metal multibracket-fixed orthodontic treatment were included. Patients were assessed twice. The first stage, at the beginning of treatment, included assessment of dental impact (Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg's self-esteem scale), and self-efficacy (General Self-efficacy Scale). In the second stage, 6 months later, positive and negative affect towards treatment was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Dental social impact differentiates between patients with high and low negative affect, while self-efficacy differentiates between patients with high and low positive affect. Trait anxiety and self-esteem differentiate between both types of affect (positive and negative). Trait anxiety and self-esteem (when trait anxiety weight is controlled) are significant predictor variables of affective balance. These results have important practical implications, because it seems essential to adopt a bio-psychosocial model incorporating assessment methods focusing on day-to-day changes in mood and well-being.

  11. Psychosocial risks evaluation factors: study with higher education teachers

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    Sara Lopes Borges

    2018-02-01

    Method: The study consisted of the administration of two instruments, one for the characterization of the sample and the other for assessing psychosocial risk factors — the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire — consisting of 76 items (5-point Likert scale, distributed in five dimensions, which measure indicators of exposure to psychosocial risks and their effects. Results: The study included 59 teachers, mostly men (50.8%, aged between 41 - 50 years (45.8%, with master's degree (59%, assistant professors (47.5%; with a stable employment relationship (68%, years of service between 14-17 years (18.7% and teaching between 11 - 17 hours a week (64.4%. The analysis of the various subscales revealed a psychosocial risk, showing that teachers are in a situation of vulnerability. There were significant differences between the risks experienced in public higher education and those experienced in private higher education. Gender, age, academic background, and professional category influenced the type of psychosocial risk. Conclusions: The study confirms the importance of the evaluation of psychosocial risk factors in the exercise of the teaching profession in higher education. It is recognized that it is necessary to assess and manage psychosocial risks in order to promote healthy working conditions, ensure respect and fair treatment, and encourage the promotion of work / family life balance, in order to minimize psychosocial risks and situations of vulnerability in higher education teachers.

  12. Do single and partnered women with gynecologic cancer differ in types and intensities of illness- and treatment-related psychosocial concerns? A pilot study.

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    de Groot, Janet M; Mah, Kenneth; Fyles, Anthony; Winton, Susan; Greenwood, Sarah; DePetrillo, Denny; Devins, Gerald M

    2007-09-01

    We compared the psychosocial and psychosexual concerns of single and partnered women with gynecologic cancer, since relationship status and psychosocial context are known to affect sexuality, a life domain commonly affected by this cancer. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 49 women (68% response), with ovarian (n=31), endometrial (n=12), and cervical (n=6) cancer, responded to a 72-item self-report Cancer Concerns Questionnaire and additional psychosocial questionnaires. Single (n=13) and partnered women (n=36) similarly reported prognosis as their highest concern, but single women (26% of the sample) reported that communication with the treatment team, treatment side effects, and prognosis were of greater salience to them than did partnered women. The latter group had greater sexuality and partner relationship concerns. These preliminary findings suggest that relationship status, whether partnered or single, influences current psychosocial concerns among women with gynecologic cancer, despite similar levels of illness- and treatment-related intrusions on important life domains.

  13. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

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    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  14. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

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    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  15. Psychosocial interventions for fatigue during cancer treatment with palliative intent.

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    Poort, Hanneke; Peters, Marlies; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Gielissen, Marieke Fm; Goedendorp, Martine Margaretha; Jacobsen, Paul; Verhagen, Stans; Knoop, Hans

    2017-07-14

    Fatigue is a prevalent and burdensome symptom for patients with incurable cancer receiving cancer treatment with palliative intent and is associated with reduced quality of life. Psychosocial interventions seem promising for management of fatigue among cancer patients. To assess the effects of psychosocial interventions for fatigue in adult patients with incurable cancer receiving cancer treatment with palliative intent. We searched the following databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and seven clinical trial registries; we also searched the reference lists of articles. The date of our most recent search was 29 November 2016. We included randomised controlled trials that compared psychosocial interventions in adults aged 18 years or over undergoing cancer treatment with palliative intent for incurable cancer versus usual care or other controls. Psychosocial interventions were defined as various kinds of interventions provided to influence or change cognitions, emotions, behaviours, social interactions, or a combination of these. Psychosocial interventions of interest to this review had to involve at least two interactions between the patient and the care provider in which the care provider gave the patient personal feedback concerning changes sought by these interventions. We included trials that reported fatigue as an outcome of interest. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently considered trials for inclusion in the review, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data, including information on adverse events. We assessed the quality of evidence using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) and created a 'Summary of findings' table. We identified 14 studies (16 reports) that met inclusion criteria for this review and involved 3077 randomised participants in total. Most of these studies included a mixed sample of participants; we obtained data for the subset of

  16. Psychosocial Implications of DSD Treatment for Parents

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    Wisniewski, Amy B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the review Historically, studies of caregivers of children with DSD have been limited. Recent findings Recent data reveal that parents of young children with DSD report increased stress, anxiety, depression and decreased quality of life (QoL) in ways that are similar to parents of children with other types of chronic illnesses. Also similar to other chronic illnesses of childhood, parents of children with DSD exhibit overprotective parenting and perceive their child as being vulnerable. These emotions and behaviors exhibited by parents are concerning as they may limit an affected child’s emotional and social development over time. Perhaps more unique to the situation of DSD is the perceived, or real, child-focused stigma experienced by parents of children with DSD. Summary Interventions to improve parents’ psychosocial adaptation to their child’s medical condition, including coaching in how to discuss their child’s condition in a manner that makes them feel safe and supported, are needed to optimize outcomes for families. PMID:27584026

  17. Impact of Psychosocial Risk on Outcomes among Families Seeking Treatment for Obesity.

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    Phan, Thao-Ly T; Chen, Fang Fang; Pinto, Alison Taggi; Cox, Courtney; Robbins, Jennifer; Kazak, Anne E

    2018-04-02

    To test the hypothesis that children with elevated psychosocial risk would have increased attrition and worse weight outcomes in weight management treatment. This was a prospective cohort study of 100 new patients, aged 4-12 years, in a weight management clinic. Parents completed the Psychosocial Assessment Tool. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the odds of attrition from the clinic and a nonmeaningful change in body mass index (BMI) z-score (ie, psychosocial risk category, adjusting for child demographics and baseline weight category. The majority of patients were male (59%), black (36%) or white (43%), and had severe obesity (55%), and 59% of families were categorized as having moderate or high psychosocial risk. Over the 6-month period, 53% of families were lost to follow-up, and 67% did not have a clinically meaningful decrease in BMI z-score. Compared with children of families with low psychosocial risk, children of families with moderate or high psychosocial risk were 3.1 times (95% CI, 1.3-7.2 times) more likely to be lost to follow-up and 2.9 times (95% CI, 1.1-7.9 times) more likely to have a non-clinically meaningful change in BMI z-score. Children presenting with increased psychosocial risk have higher attrition and poorer weight outcomes, supporting the need for psychosocial screening as a standard component of pediatric weight management treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychosocial Distress in Bladder Cancer Stratified by Gender, Age, Treatment, and Tumour Stage.

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    Draeger, Désirée Louise; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Hakenberg, Oliver W

    2018-05-14

    Cancer patients have to cope with anxieties -concerning their prognosis, potential recurrence/progression, and treatment-associated sequelae. Stress-related psychosocial factors influence survival and disease-related mortality in cancer patients. Despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment, bladder cancer (BC) remains characterized by high rates of recurrence and progression. We screened -pre-therapeutically the stress level of BC patients stratified by gender, disease state, treatment, and other factors by -self-administered validated questionnaires to integrate them into psychosocial support as needed. A cross-sectional analysis of distress and need of psychosocial care was done in 301 patients undergoing treatment for BC by 2 questionnaires (Distress Thermometer [DT] and Hornheider Screening Instrument). Of the 301 patients, 230 patients underwent transurethral resection for a first -diagnosis, 63 for recurrent disease, 37 had progressive disease, and 25 had advanced metastatic disease and eventually died of BC. The mean stress level in all patients was 4.6. Twenty-eight percent of the patients expressed a need for psychosocial support. In patients with progressive disease, significantly higher stress scores were seen as well as a higher need of psychosocial care (5.4 and 41%). The median DT-level of 4.6 indicates moderate psychosocial stress in BC patients. From a stress level of 5, the recommendations of a psycho-oncological supervision are pronounced, so that our study showed that early systematic evaluation of psychosocial needs in BC patients is important. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Community Trial of a Comprehensive Psychosocial Treatment for HFASDs

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    Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; McDonald, Christin A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Smith, Rachael A.; Meichenbaum, David L.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Lipinski, Alanna M.

    2015-01-01

    This community effectiveness trial examined the feasibility and efficacy of a comprehensive psychosocial treatment for 28 children, aged 7 to 10 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). Treatment included instruction and therapeutic activities targeting social skills, face-emotion recognition skills, interest expansion, and…

  20. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Pediatric Elimination Disorders.

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    Shepard, Jaclyn A; Poler, Joseph E; Grabman, Jesse H

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric elimination disorders are common in childhood, yet psychosocial correlates are generally unclear. Given the physiological concomitants of both enuresis and encopresis, and the fact that many children with elimination disorders are initially brought to their primary care physician for treatment, medical evaluation and management are crucial and may serve as the first-line treatment approach. Scientific investigation on psychological and behavioral interventions has progressed over the past couple of decades, resulting in the identification of effective treatments for enuresis and encopresis. However, the body of literature has inherent challenges, particularly given the multicomponent nature of many of the treatment packages. This review identified 25 intervention studies-18 for nocturnal enuresis and 7 for encopresis-over the past 15 years and classified them according to the guidelines set forth by the Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. For nocturnal enuresis, the urine alarm and dry-bed training were identified as well-established treatments, Full Spectrum Home Therapy was probably efficacious, lifting was possibly efficacious, and hypnotherapy and retention control training were classified as treatments of questionable efficacy. For encopresis, only two probably efficacious treatments were identified: biofeedback and enhanced toilet training (ETT). Best practice recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided to address existing limitations, including heterogeneity and the multicomponent nature of many of the interventions for pediatric elimination disorders.

  1. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

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    Charlotte Sonne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method: The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP, Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ. Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results: Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions: The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly

  2. Canadian Treatment Guidelines on Psychosocial Treatment of Schizophrenia in Children and Youth.

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    Lecomte, Tania; Abidi, Sabina; Garcia-Ortega, Iliana; Mian, Irfan; Jackson, Kevin; Jackson, Kim; Norman, Ross

    2017-09-01

    A panel of experts, including researchers, clinicians and people with lived experience, was brought together to develop the new Canadian schizophrenia guidelines for the psychosocial treatment of children and youth with schizophrenia or psychotic disorders. The ADAPTE process, which relies on adapting existing high-quality guidelines, was used. Existing guidelines for children and youth (mostly from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE]), as well as CPA adult guidelines, were reviewed and discussed in terms of their adaptability to the Canadian context and their level of recommendation for children and youth. New treatments were also considered when recent meta-analyses suggested their usefulness. The children and youth psychosocial guidelines include many cross-sectional recommendations in terms of clinical and interpersonal skills needed to work with this clientele, setting and collaboration issues and needed adaptations for specific subpopulations. In terms of specific treatments, the treatments most strongly recommended are family intervention and cognitive behavior therapy. Also recommended, although with different degrees of support, are supported employment/supported education programs, patient education, cognitive remediation, and social skills training. Novel and upcoming psychosocial treatments are also briefly discussed. These novel Canadian guidelines for the psychosocial treatment of children and youth with schizophrenia or psychotic disorders report evidence-based treatments as well as important considerations for providers who work with this clientele. More studies with children and youth with schizophrenia and psychotic disorders are warranted. If followed, these guidelines should facilitate the recovery of children and youth with schizophrenia or psychotic disorders as well as the recovery of their families.

  3. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

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    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P.; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? This question arises from five lines of evidence: (a) mental illness is often characterized by memory impairment, (b) memory impairment is modifiable, (c) psychosocial treatments often involve the activation of emotion, (d) emotion can bias memory and (e) memory for psychosocial treatment sessions is poor. Insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory are leveraged to derive strategies for a transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support intervention. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the internet and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise and imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  4. [Fecal incontinence in community-dwelling elderly: findings from a study of prevalence, consultation of physicians, psychosocial aspects and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.E.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the prevalence of faecal incontinence, looking for medical attention, treatment and the impact of faecal incontinence on the quality of life in community-residing men and women of 60 years and over. DESIGN: Enquiry and interview. METHOD: A questionnaire about the

  5. Growing up with short stature : Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Growing up with short stature. Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment To enhance height in children with short stature, growth hormone (GH) can be used. In short children without a detectable pathology underlying their short stature, there is no medical rationale for growth hormone

  6. Psychosocial adjustment and adherence to dialysis treatment regimes.

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    Brownbridge, G; Fielding, D M

    1994-12-01

    Sixty children and adolescents in end-stage renal failure who were undergoing either haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis at one of five United Kingdom dialysis centres were assessed on psychosocial adjustment and adherence to their fluid intake, diet and medication regimes. Parental adjustment was also measured and data on sociodemographic and treatment history variables collected. A structured family interview and standardised questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression and behavioural disturbance were used. Multiple measures of treatment adherence were obtained, utilising children's and parents' self-reports, weight gain between dialysis, blood pressure, serum potassium level, blood urea level, dietitians' surveys and consultants' ratings. Correlational analyses showed that low treatment adherence was associated with poor adjustment to diagnosis and dialysis by children and parents (P adherence than younger children, P dialysis (P treatment of this group of children. Future research should develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions aimed at improving treatment adherence.

  7. Psychosocial impact of dysthymia: a study among married patients.

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    Subodh, B N; Avasthi, A; Chakrabarti, S

    2008-07-01

    Unlike major depression, the psychosocial impact of dysthymia has received far less research attention. This study attempted to assess the psychosocial consequences of dysthymia. The sample consisted of 30 married patients with DSM-IV dysthymic disorder and a matched control group of 30 married patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (RDD), diagnosed using structured interviews. Apart from ratings of severity of depression, assessments of psychosocial impact included quality of life (QOL), disability, perceived social support and marital adjustment. Psychosocial parameters were evaluated using vernacular versions of well-validated scales previously used in similar populations. Matched normal/medically ill controls were derived from Indian studies which had assessed the same parameters using the same instruments. Patients with dysthymia were significantly impaired on measures of QOL, disability, social support and marital adjustment compared to normal/medically ill controls. On the other hand, the two groups of dysthymia and RDD were comparable on these measures apart from significantly lower social support among patients with dysthymia. Duration of illness and severity of depression emerged as the most important correlates, particularly of impaired QOL and disability levels. Small hospital-based sample, normal/medically ill controls derived from other studies and cross-sectional assessments were the major limitations. Dysthymia had considerable adverse psychosocial impact in terms of QOL, functioning (disability), social support and marital adjustment. Severity and chronicity appeared to be important mediators of this negative psychosocial impact. Increased awareness, improved recognition and adequate treatment might help negate some of the untoward social consequences of this condition.

  8. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents Exposed to Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wendy K.; Ortiz, Claudio D.; Viswesvaran, Chockalingham; Burns, Barbara J.; Kolko, David J.; Putnam, Frank W.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews the current status (1993-2007) of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. Twenty-one treatment studies are evaluated using criteria from Nathan and Gorman (2002) along a continuum of methodological rigor ranging from Type 1 to Type 6. All studies were, at a minimum, robust…

  9. Oncology healthcare professionals' perspectives on the psychosocial support needs of cancer patients during oncology treatment.

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    Aldaz, Bruno E; Treharne, Gareth J; Knight, Robert G; Conner, Tamlin S; Perez, David

    2017-09-01

    This study explored oncology healthcare professionals' perspectives on the psychosocial support needs of diverse cancer patients during oncology treatment. Six themes were identified using thematic analysis. Healthcare professionals highlighted the importance of their sensitivity, respect and emotional tact during appointments in order to effectively identify and meet the needs of oncology patients. Participants also emphasised the importance of building rapport that recognises patients as people. Patients' acceptance of treatment-related distress and uncertainty was described as required for uptake of available psychosocial supportive services. We offer some practical implications that may help improve cancer patients' experiences during oncology treatment.

  10. Psychosocial factors that shape patient and carer experiences of dementia diagnosis and treatment: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Bunn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis and intervention for people with dementia is increasingly considered a priority, but practitioners are concerned with the effects of earlier diagnosis and interventions on patients and caregivers. This systematic review evaluates the qualitative evidence about how people accommodate and adapt to the diagnosis of dementia and its immediate consequences, to guide practice.We systematically reviewed qualitative studies exploring experiences of community-dwelling individuals with dementia, and their carers, around diagnosis and the transition to becoming a person with dementia. We searched PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, CINAHL, and the British Nursing Index (all searched in May 2010 with no date restrictions; PubMed search updated in February 2012, checked reference lists, and undertook citation searches in PubMed and Google Scholar (ongoing to September 2011. We used thematic synthesis to identify key themes, commonalities, barriers to earlier diagnosis, and support identified as helpful. We identified 126 papers reporting 102 studies including a total of 3,095 participants. Three overarching themes emerged from our analysis: (1 pathways through diagnosis, including its impact on identity, roles, and relationships; (2 resolving conflicts to accommodate a diagnosis, including the acceptability of support, focusing on the present or the future, and the use or avoidance of knowledge; and (3 strategies and support to minimise the impact of dementia. Consistent barriers to diagnosis include stigma, normalisation of symptoms, and lack of knowledge. Studies report a lack of specialist support particularly post-diagnosis.There is an extensive body of qualitative literature on the experiences of community-dwelling individuals with dementia on receiving and adapting to a diagnosis of dementia. We present a thematic analysis that could be useful to professionals working with people with dementia. We suggest that research emphasis should shift

  11. Psychosocial influencers and mediators of treatment adherence in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Soo; Park, Ji Suk; Seo, Wha Sook

    2013-09-01

    This article is a report of the development and testing of the hypothetical model that illustrates relationships between treatment adherence and its psychosocial influencing factors and to elucidate the direct and indirect (mediating) effects of factors on treatment adherence. Poor adherence has been consistently reported in haemodialysis patients. Much research has showed various influencing factors of adherence, but these studies have failed to identify consistent influencing factors. This study was performed using a non-experimental, cross-sectional design. The study subjects were 150 end-stage renal failure patients on haemodialysis at a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Data were collected over 10 months (June 2010-April 2011). The hypothetical model provided a good fit with data. Haemodialysis-related knowledge, perceived barrier to adherence, self-efficacy on adherence, and healthcare provider support had significant effects on adherence. Self-efficacy was found to mediate barrier-adherence and family support-adherence relationships. Self-efficacy in combination with barrier, family support, and healthcare provider support was found to mediate the depression-adherence relationship. Strategies aimed at the development of successful adherence interventions should focus on reducing perceived barriers and enhancing self-efficacy and knowledge. It can be suggested that efforts to improve the healthcare provider-patient relationship would enhance adherence. In depressive patients, strategies that promote self-efficacy and the support of family or healthcare providers could diminish the negative impact of depression on adherence. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Suicidal intention, psychosocial factors and referral to further treatment: A one-year cross-sectional study of self-poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drottning Per

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients treated for self-poisoning have an increased risk of death, both by natural and unnatural causes. The follow-up of these patients is therefore of great importance. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in psychosocial factors and referrals to follow-up among self-poisoning patients according to their evaluated intention. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter study of all 908 admissions to hospital because of self-poisoning in Oslo during one year was completed. Fifty-four percent were females, and the median age was 36 years. The patients were grouped according to evaluated intention: suicide attempts (moderate to high suicide intent, appeals (low suicide intent and substance-use related poisonings. Multinomial regression analyses compared patients based on their evaluated intention; suicide attempts were used as the reference. Results Of all self-poisoning incidents, 37% were suicide attempts, 26% were appeals and 38% were related to substance use. Fifty-five percent of the patients reported previous suicide attempts, 58% reported previous or current psychiatric treatment and 32% reported daily substance use. Overall, patients treated for self-poisoning showed a lack of social integration. Only 33% were employed, 34% were married or cohabiting and 53% were living alone. Those in the suicide attempt and appeal groups had more previous suicide attempts and reported more psychiatric treatment than those with poisoning related to substance use. One third of all patients with substance use-related poisoning reported previous suicide attempts, and one third of suicide attempt patients reported daily substance use. Gender distribution was the only statistically significant difference between the appeal patients and suicide attempt patients. Almost one in every five patients was discharged without any plans for follow-up: 36% of patients with substance use-related poisoning and 5% of suicide attempt patients

  13. Psychosocial impact of dental esthetics regulates motivation to seek orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feiou; Ren, Manman; Yao, Linjie; He, Yan; Guo, Jing; Ye, Qingsong

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of dental esthetics for adults seeking orthodontic treatment. The Chinese version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) was administered to 393 adults, aged 18 to 30 years. The participants were divided into 2 groups: an intervention group (received orthodontic treatment) and a control group (rejected orthodontic treatment). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The Wilcoxon signed rank test showed no statistically significant difference between the groups for the dental health component (DHC) of the IOTN (P = 0.134). Total and subscale PIDAQ scores of the intervention group were higher than those of the control group and differed significantly in each group among the 4 IOTN-DHC grades; self-confidence scores in the control group (F = 1.802; P >0.05) were the exception. Correlations between the PIDAQ scores and the IOTN-DHC grades were strong in each group. DHC grades, psychological impact, social impact, and aesthetic concern had significant impacts on patients accepting orthodontic treatment. The psychosocial impact of dental esthetics played an important role in the decision-making process of adults seeking orthodontic treatment. Importantly, participants with low self-awareness of the potential psychosocial impact rejected orthodontic treatment, despite the need for severe normative treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lack of motivation for treatment associated with greater care needs and psychosocial problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, J.; Wierdsma, A.I.; Kok, R.M.; Kroon, H.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Roosenschoon, B.J.; Mulder, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the care needs and severity of psychosocial problems in older patients with severe mental illness (SMI) between those who were and were not motivated for treatment. Methods: Cross-sectional study in which we enrolled 141 outpatients with SMI aged 55 and older. Needs were

  15. Psychosocial Treatments for Major Depression and Dysthymia in Older Adults: A Review of the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Stens, Andrea N.

    2006-01-01

    Older adults represent a growing segment of the population with the highest suicide rate and an increasing need of counseling services for major depression and dysthymia. The present study examined the literature with the purpose of identifying research addressing psychosocial treatments of depression in later life. A summary of treatments…

  16. Primary health care physicians' treatment of psychosocial problems: implications for social work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, R.; Rabinowitz, J.; Feldman, D.; Boerma, W.

    1996-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which primary care physicians serve as gatekeepers for the treatment of psychosocial problems and the extent to which they have contact with social workers. We also attempted to identify physician variables related to gatekeeping and amount of contact with social

  17. Psychosocial factors and theory in physical activity studies in minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; McNeill, Lorna H; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Diamond, Pamela M; Adamus-Leach, Heather J; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the effectiveness of interventions targeting psychosocial factors to increase physical activity (PA) among ethnic minority adults and explore theory use in PA interventions. Studies (N = 11) were identified through a systematic review and targeted African American/Hispanic adults, specific psychosocial factors, and PA. Data were extracted using a standard code sheet and the Theory Coding Scheme. Social support was the most common psychosocial factor reported, followed by motivational readiness, and self-efficacy, as being associated with increased PA. Only 7 studies explicitly reported using a theoretical framework. Future efforts should explore theory use in PA interventions and how integration of theoretical constructs, including psychosocial factors, increases PA.

  18. Stability of an empirical psychosocial taxonomy across type of diabetes and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwen, A; Breton, M-C; Urquhart Law, G; Descôteaux, J

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the study were (i) to examine whether an empirical psychosocial taxonomy, based on key diabetes-related variables, is independent of type of diabetes and treatment, and (ii) to further establish the external validation of the taxonomy. In a cross-sectional study, 82 patients with Type 1 and 86 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were assigned to one of three psychosocial patient profiles based on their Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (MDQ) scores. General psychological and diabetes-specific measures were obtained through self-report and HbA(1c) was measured. Equal proportions of Type 1 and Type 2 patients, and of patients using insulin and oral medication/diet only were classified within each of the three psychosocial profiles. External validation confirmed the validity and distinctiveness of the patients' profiles. The patient profiles were independent of demographic variables, body mass index, duration of diabetes, complexity of treatment, number of complications, social desirability, and major stress levels. The Psychosocial Taxonomy for Patients with Diabetes provides a new way to categorize individuals who may have more in common than just their type of diabetes and/or its treatment and can help target interventions to individual patients' needs.

  19. Psychosocial Functioning Among Inmates in Prison-Based Drug Treatment: Results from Project BRITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Dang, Jeff; Warda, Umma S; Prendergast, Michael L

    2013-03-01

    To assess the impact of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention on psychosocial functioning of inmates over the course of treatment and on post-treatment self-reported measures of treatment participation, progress, and satisfaction. Male ( n = 187) and female ( n = 143) inmates participating in 12-week prison-based Intensive Outpatient (IOP) drug treatment were randomly assigned to receive standard treatment (ST) or standard treatment plus positive behavioral reinforcement (BR) for engaging in targeted activities and behaviors. Participants were assessed for psychosocial functioning at baseline and at the conclusion of treatment (post-treatment). Self-reported measures of treatment participation, treatment progress, and treatment satisfaction were also captured at post-treatment. The intervention affected female and male subjects differently and not always in a way that favored BR subjects, as compared to the ST subjects, most notably on measures of depression and criminal thinking. Possible explanations for the results include differences in the male and female custody environments combined with the procedures that study participants had to follow to earn and/or receive positive reinforcement at the two study sites, as well as baseline differences between the genders and a possible floor effect among females on measures of criminality. Limitations of the study included the inability to make study participants blind to the study conditions and the possible over-branding of the study, which may have influenced the results.

  20. Psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment services: does the evidence provide a case for optimism or nihilism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ed; Mitcheson, Luke

    2017-08-01

    Clinical guidelines from around the world recommend the delivery of psychosocial interventions as part of routine care in opiate substitution treatment (OST) programmes. However, although individual studies demonstrate benefit for structured psychosocial interventions, meta-analytical reviews find no benefit for manual-based treatments beyond 'routine counselling'. We consider the question of whether OST medication alone is sufficient to produce the required outcomes, or whether greater efforts should be made to provide high-quality psychosocial treatment alongside medication. In so doing, we consider the nuances and limitations of the evidence and the organizational barriers to transferring it into routine practice. The evidence base for psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment (OST) services can be interpreted both positively and negatively. Steering a path between overly optimistic or nihilistic interpretations of the value of psychosocial treatment in OST programmes is the most pragmatic approach. Greater attention should be paid to elements common to all psychological treatments (such as therapeutic alliance), but also to the sequencing and packaging of psychosocial elements and their linkage to peer-led interventions. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Psychosocial Treatment Options for Major Depressive Disorder in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Brenna N; Areán, Patricia A

    2017-03-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) is a public health concern with deleterious effects on overall health, cognition, quality of life, and mortality. Although LLD is relatively common, it is not a normal part of aging and is often under-recognized in older adults. However, psychotherapy is an effective treatment for LLD that aligns with many patients' preferences and can improve health and functioning. This review synthesized the current literature on evidence-based psychotherapies for the treatment of depression in older adults. Findings suggest that active, skills-based psychotherapies (cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT] and problem-solving therapy [PST]) may be more effective for LLD than non-directive, supportive counseling. PST may be particularly relevant for offsetting skill deficit associated with LLD, such as in instances of cognitive impairment (especially executive dysfunction) and disability. Emerging treatments also consider contextual factors to improve treatment delivery, such as personalized care, access, and poverty. Tele-mental health represents one such exciting new way of improving access and uptake of treatment by older adults. Although these strategies hold promise, further investigation via randomized controlled trials and comparative effectiveness are necessary to advance our treatment of LLD. Priority should be given to recruiting and training the geriatric mental health workforce to deliver evidence-based psychosocial interventions for LLD.

  2. Adherence predicts symptomatic and psychosocial remission in schizophrenia: Naturalistic study of patient integration in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miguel; Cañas, Fernando; Herrera, Berta; García Dorado, Marta

    Psychosocial functioning in patients with schizophrenia attended in daily practice is an understudied aspect. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between symptomatic and psychosocial remission and adherence to treatment in schizophrenia. This cross-sectional, non-interventional, and multicenter study assessed symptomatic and psychosocial remission and community integration of 1,787 outpatients with schizophrenia attended in Spanish mental health services. Adherence to antipsychotic medication in the previous year was categorized as≥80% vs.<80%. Symptomatic remission was achieved in 28.5% of patients, and psychosocial remission in 26.1%. A total of 60.5% of patients were classified as adherent to antipsychotic treatment and 41% as adherent to non-pharmacological treatment. During the index visit, treatment was changed in 28.4% of patients, in 31.1% of them because of low adherence (8.8% of the total population). Adherent patients showed higher percentages of symptomatic and psychosocial remission than non-adherent patients (30.5 vs. 25.4%, P<.05; and 32 vs. 17%, P<.001, respectively). Only 3.5% of the patients showed an adequate level of community integration, which was also higher among adherent patients (73.0 vs. 60.1%, P<.05). Adherence to antipsychotic medication was associated with symptomatic and psychosocial remission as well as with community integration. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep dysfunction and psychosocial adaptation among women undergoing treatment for non-metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Sara; Wohlgemuth, William K; Antoni, Michael H; Lechner, Suzanne C; Holley, Heather A; Carver, Charles S

    2010-06-01

    The current study aimed to determine the frequency of sleep disturbances in women prior to adjuvant therapy for breast cancer (BCa), and whether greater sleep dysfunction uniquely predicts poorer functional outcomes. We assessed subjective sleep reports and associated them with multiple indicators of psychosocial adaptation in 240 women with Stage I-III BCa before they had begun adjuvant treatment. The average global score on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was 8.49 (SD=4.16); 54% scoring above the suggested adjusted cutoff for cancer populations of 8.0. Controlling for various medical, sociodemographic, and psychosocial covariates, multiple regression analyses revealed that higher global PSQI score was significantly associated with poorer functional well-being, greater fatigue intensity, greater disruptions in social interactions, and lower positive states of mind. Specifically, a poorer 'sleep efficiency' PSQI component was associated with poorer functional quality of life and the SIP-Social Interactions subscale, while a poorer 'sleep quality' (SQ) PSQI component was associated with all of the outcomes except for the SIP-Recreations and Pastimes subscale. Results indicate consistent associations between a clinical indicator of sleep dysfunction, particularly those subscales of the PSQI comprising the 'SQ' component, and multiple indicators of psychosocial adaptation among women treated for BCa, independent of anxiety and depression, and suggest the value of comprehensive psychosocial interventions that consider sleep problems. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. African American Patients' Psychosocial Support Needs and Barriers to Treatment: Patient Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Maureen P; Bilkins, Brianna; Diamond, Guy; Willis, Alliric I; Mitchell, Edith P; Davey, Adam; Young, Faith M

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed adult patient's psychosocial support needs and treatment barriers in an urban diverse cancer center. A needs assessment was conducted with a convenience sample of adult oncology patients (n = 113; 71.7 % African American). Most patients were parenting school-age children and worried about them (96 %); 86.7 % would attend a family support program. Among patients who were married or partnered (68 %), 63.7 % were concerned about communication, coping, and emotional support; 53.9 % would attend a couple support program. Patients identified similar treatment barriers: transportation, babysitting for younger children, convenience of time/place, and refreshments. Findings suggest that behavioral health care providers should be available to screen cancer patients and improve access to appropriate psychosocial oncology support programs.

  5. Community-Based Psychosocial Treatment Has an Impact on Social Processing and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Varga

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients have serious impairments in social cognition, which often persists after significant reduction in clinical symptoms. Community-based psychosocial treatments aim to recover social functioning for mentally ill individuals. Our aim was to examine prospective changes in social cognition and functional outcomes in two groups of schizophrenic patients involved in two forms of community-based psychosocial treatments namely case management (CM and community-based club (CC compared to a matched, treatment as usual (TAU group of patients. We hypothesized that CC and CM groups would exhibit better functional and social cognitive outcomes after a 6-month long psychosocial treatment period. Seventy-five patients participated either in CC, CM or TAU. Both CC and CM took part in community-based psychosocial treatment programs including trainings, such as communication and assertiveness trainings. In addition, CC provided group therapeutic treatments and a continuously available day care where patients had the possibility to participate in various social interactions. All participants were in remission, and on maintenance antipsychotic treatment. Participants were assessed on all study variables at two time points: baseline and after 6 months with a battery of questionnaires that examined affective face perception, affective prosody perception, pragmatic language comprehension and ToM. Our results showed that functional outcomes improved significantly in the CC as well as in the CM groups, in contrast to the TAU group. While analyzing summary scores of social cognition, it was found that only the CC group increased its performance in social cognition. In addition, a significant between-group difference in social cognitive function was found after 6 months between the three groups, with the CC group performing best. When investigating associations between changes in social cognition and changes in functional outcomes during a 6-month long

  6. Psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for the treatment of cannabis use disorder [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Sabioni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use has been continuously increasing, and cannabis use disorder (CUD has become a public health issue. Some psychosocial interventions have demonstrated the ability to reduce cannabis use; however, there are no pharmacotherapies approved for the treatment of CUD. Some drugs have shown limited positive effects on use and withdrawal symptoms, but no controlled studies have been able to show strong and persistent effects on clinically meaningful outcomes. The aim of this review is to synthesize the evidence from the available literature regarding the effectiveness of psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for CUD among adults (that is, 18 years old or older. An analysis of the evidence shows that the current best psychosocial intervention to reduce cannabis use is the combination of motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy, preferably accompanied by a contingency management approach. In regard to pharmacological interventions, there are mostly unclear findings. Some drugs, such as CB1 agonists, gabapentin, and N-acetylcysteine, have been shown to produce improvements in some symptoms of CUD in single studies, but these have not been replicated. Other classes of medications, including antidepressants and antipsychotics, have been unsuccessful in producing such effects. There is an imminent need for more clinical trials to develop more effective treatments for CUD.

  7. Effectiveness of Psychosocial Interventions in Complex Palliative Care Patients: A Quasi-Experimental, Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Ortega, Dolors; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Maté, Jorge; Beas, Elba; Ela, Sara; Lasmarias, Cristina; Limonero, Joaquín T

    2018-03-13

    To determine whether specific psychosocial interventions can ease discomfort in palliative care (PC) patients, particularly in those with high levels of pain or emotional distress. Changes in the psychological parameters of 8333 patients were assessed in a quasi-experimental, prospective, multicenter, single group pretest/post-test study. Psychosocial care was delivered by 29 psychosocial care teams (PSTs; 137 professionals). Pre- and post-intervention changes in these variables were assessed: mood, anxiety, and emotional distress. Patients were classified as complex, when presented with high levels of anxiety, mood, suffering (or perception of time as slow), and distress (or unease, or discomfort), or noncomplex. These groups were compared to assess changes in suffering-related parameters from baseline. Psychosocial interventions reduced patients' suffering. These interventions were more effective in complex patients. After successive psychosocial interventions, the level of suffering in complex patients decreased until close to parity with noncomplex patients, suggesting that patients with major complexity could benefit most from specific psychosocial treatment. These findings support the importance of assessing and treating patients' psychosocial needs.

  8. Psychosocial implications of disorders of sex development treatment for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B

    2017-01-01

    Historically, studies of caregivers of children with disorders of sex development (DSD) have been limited. Recent data reveal that parents of young children with DSD report increased stress, anxiety, depression, and decreased quality of life in ways that are similar to parents of children with other types of chronic illnesses. Also similar to other chronic illnesses of childhood, parents of children with DSD exhibit overprotective parenting and perceive their child as being vulnerable. These emotions and behaviors exhibited by parents are concerning as they may limit an affected child's emotional and social development over time. Perhaps, more unique to the situation of DSD is the perceived, or real, child-focused stigma experienced by parents of children with DSD. Interventions to improve parents' psychosocial adaptation to their child's medical condition, including coaching in how to discuss their child's condition in a manner that makes them feel safe and supported, are needed to optimize outcomes for families.

  9. Advances in the psychosocial treatment of addiction: the role of technology in the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A; Dallery, Jesse

    2012-06-01

    The clinical community has a growing array of psychosocial interventions with a strong evidence base available for the treatment of SUDs. Considerable opportunity exists for leveraging technology in the delivery of evidence-based interventions to promote widespread reach and impact of evidence-based care. Data from this line of research to date are promising, and underscore the potential public health impact of technology-based therapeutic tools. To fully realize the potential of technology-delivered interventions, several areas of inquiry remain important. First, scientifically sound strategies should be explored to ensure technology-based interventions are optimally designed to produce maximal behavior change. Second, efficient and effective methods should be identified to integrate technology-based interventions into systems of care in a manner that is most responsive to the needs of individual users. Third, payment, privacy, and regulatory systems should be refined and extended to go beyond electronic medical records and telehealth/distance care models, and support the deployment of technology-based systems to enhance the quality, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of care. Fourth, the mechanisms underlying behavior change derived from technology-based treatments should be explicated, including new mechanisms that may be tapped via novel, technology-based tools. Such work will be critical in isolating mechanisms that are useful in predicting treatment response, and in ensuring that key ingredients are present in technology-based interventions as they are made widely available.

  10. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisato Yoshihiko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance.

  11. A Systematic Review on the Use of Psychosocial Interventions in Conjunction With Medications for the Treatment of Opioid Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugosh, Karen; Abraham, Amanda; Seymour, Brittany; McLoyd, Keli; Chalk, Mady; Festinger, David

    2016-01-01

    Opioid use and overdose rates have risen to epidemic levels in the United States during the past decade. Fortunately, there are effective medications (ie, methadone, buprenorphine, and oral and injectable naltrexone) available for the treatment of opioid addiction. Each of these medications is approved for use in conjunction with psychosocial treatment; however, there is a dearth of empirical research on the optimal psychosocial interventions to use with these medications. In this systematic review, we outline and discuss the findings of 3 prominent prior reviews and 27 recent publications of empirical studies on this topic. The most widely studied psychosocial interventions examined in conjunction with medications for opioid addiction were contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy, with the majority focusing on methadone treatment. The results generally support the efficacy of providing psychosocial interventions in combination with medications to treat opioid addictions, although the incremental utility varied across studies, outcomes, medications, and interventions. The review highlights significant gaps in the literature and provides areas for future research. Given the enormity of the current opioid problem in the United States, it is critical to gain a better understanding of the most effective ways to deliver psychosocial treatments in conjunction with these medications to improve the health and well-being of individuals suffering from opioid addiction.

  12. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Munch-Hansen, T.; Wieclaw, J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription...... alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription...... of antidepressant medication. METHODS: Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002-2005. Individual self...

  13. Prospective evaluation of the psychosocial impact of the first 6 months of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Renata França; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Marques, Leandro Silva; de Paiva, Saul Martins; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Pazzini, Camila Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the psychosocial impact of the first 6 months of orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance among young adults and compare the results with those of a control group of patients awaiting treatment for malocclusion. A study was conducted with a sample of 120 patients on a waiting list for orthodontic treatment at a university. The participants were allocated to an experimental group submitted to treatment and a control group awaiting treatment. The groups were matched for sex and age. All participants were instructed to answer the Brazilian version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) at baseline and after 6 months. Statistical analysis involved the Wilcoxon test for the total PIDAQ score and the score of each subscale. All patients participated until the end of the study. Significant differences between baseline and the 6-month evaluation were found for the total PIDAQ score as well as the dental self-confidence and social impact subscales in both groups. No differences between baseline and the 6-month evaluation were found regarding the psychological impact or esthetic concern subscales in the control group. The patients in the experimental group reported greater esthetic impact 6 months after beginning treatment (P orthodontic treatment seem to improve psychosocial impact. The first 6 months of orthodontic treatment seem to improve the psychosocial impact of malocclusion. The patients analyzed in the present study reported a greater esthetic impact and less psychological impact after 6 months of using an orthodontic appliance.

  14. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus other psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Hacker, David; Cormac, Irene; Meaden, Alan; Irving, Claire B

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is now a recommended treatment for people with schizophrenia. This approach helps to link the person’s distress and problem behaviours to underlying patterns of thinking. Objectives To review the effects of CBT for people with schizophrenia when compared with other psychological therapies. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2010) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We inspected all references of the selected articles for further relevant trials, and, where appropriate, contacted authors. Selection criteria All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT for people with schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis Studies were reliably selected and assessed for methodological quality. Two review authors, working independently, extracted data. We analysed dichotomous data on an intention-to-treat basis and continuous data with 65% completion rate are presented. Where possible, for dichotomous outcomes, we estimated a risk ratio (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) along with the number needed to treat/harm. Main results Thirty one papers described 20 trials. Trials were often small and of limited quality. When CBT was compared with other psychosocial therapies, no difference was found for outcomes relevant to adverse effect/events (2 RCTs, n = 202, RR death 0.57 CI 0.12 to 2.60). Relapse was not reduced over any time period (5 RCTs, n = 183, RR long-term 0.91 CI 0.63 to 1.32) nor was rehospitalisation (5 RCTs, n = 294, RR in longer term 0.86 CI 0.62 to 1.21). Various global mental state measures failed to show difference (4 RCTs, n = 244, RR no important change in mental state 0.84 CI 0.64 to 1.09). More specific measures of mental state failed to show differential effects on positive or negative symptoms of schizophrenia but there may be some longer term effect for affective symptoms (2 RCTs, n = 105

  15. Psychosocial and cultural reasons for delay in seeking help and nonadherence to treatment in Indonesian women with breast cancer: A qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskandarsyah, A.; Klerk, C.D.; Suardi, D.R.; Soemitro, M.P.; Sadarjoen, S.S.; Passchier, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore reasons for delay in seeking medical help and nonadherence to treatment in Indonesian women with breast cancer. Method: Semistructured interviews were conducted by purposive sampling, using a consecutive sample of 50 breast cancer patients who were

  16. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Bipolar Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristad, Mary A.; MacPherson, Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) are serious conditions associated with morbidity and mortality. Although most treatment research examined pharmacotherapy for pediatric BPSDs, growing literature suggests that psychosocial interventions are also important to: provide families with an understanding of symptoms, course, and treatment of BPSDs; teach youth and parents methods for coping with symptoms (e.g., problem-solving, communication, cognitive-behavioral skills); and prevent relapse. Method Thirteen psychosocial intervention trials for pediatric BPSDs were identified via a comprehensive literature search and evaluated according to the Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures guidelines. All interventions were examined adjunctive to pharmacotherapy and/or treatment as usual (TAU). Results No well-established or questionably efficacious treatments were identified. Family psychoeducation plus skill building was probably efficacious (i.e., Multi-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy, Family-Focused Treatment); cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was possibly efficacious. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) were experimental. Limited research precluded subdivision of treatments by format and age. Only single- and multiple-family psychoeducation plus skill building and CBT were evaluated with children. Only single-family psychoeducation plus skill building and DBT, and individual (commonly with limited familial involvement) CBT and IPSRT were evaluated with adolescents. Conclusions Psychosocial interventions that involve families, psychoeducation, and skill building may offer added benefit to pharmacotherapy and/or other TAU. Limitations of current research include few outcome studies, small samples, and failure to use stringent control conditions or randomization. The review concludes with a discussion of mediators and moderators, recommendations for best practice

  17. Identification of the hikikomori syndrome of social withdrawal: Psychosocial features and treatment preferences in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Alan R; Fetters, Michael D; Stufflebam, Kyle; Tateno, Masaru; Balhara, Yatan; Choi, Tae Young; Kanba, Shigenobu; Mathews, Carol A; Kato, Takahiro A

    2015-02-01

    Hikikomori, a form of social withdrawal first reported in Japan, may exist globally but cross-national studies of cases of hikikomori are lacking. To identify individuals with hikikomori in multiple countries and describe features of the condition. Participants were recruited from sites in India, Japan, Korea and the United States. Hikikomori was defined as a 6-month or longer period of spending almost all time at home and avoiding social situations and social relationships, associated with significant distress/impairment. Additional measures included the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale, Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and modified Cornell Treatment Preferences Index. A total of 36 participants with hikikomori were identified, with cases detected in all four countries. These individuals had high levels of loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale M = 55.4, SD = 10.5), limited social networks (LSNS-6 M = 9.7, SD = 5.5) and moderate functional impairment (SDS M = 16.5, SD = 7.9). Of them 28 (78%) desired treatment for their social withdrawal, with a significantly higher preference for psychotherapy over pharmacotherapy, in-person over telepsychiatry treatment and mental health specialists over primary care providers. Across countries, participants with hikikomori had similar generally treatment preferences and psychosocial features. Hikikomori exists cross-nationally and can be assessed with a standardized assessment tool. Individuals with hikikomori have substantial psychosocial impairment and disability, and some may desire treatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Sau Fong Leung, Frederick KK Yeung, Wai Kit Wong School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major healthcare databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy, psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of

  19. Gender representation of cancer patients in medical treatment and psychosocial survivorship research: changes over three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Rubin, Lisa R

    2012-10-01

    Prior studies raise concern about gender bias in cancer research, including insufficient inclusion of women or men, or studying women and men differently. The 1993 National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act aimed to eliminate gender bias in medicine. To examine changes in medical and psychological literature, this study reviews gender representation in biomedical treatment studies and psychosocial survivorship studies published in a single year. Research published in Cancer in 2007, and all empirical psychological studies about cancer published that year, provided a 15-year update to findings reported by Meyerowitz and Hart. The gender distribution and context of included articles were coded and compared with findings from 1983 and 1992. Across biomedical studies, 34.3% of subjects were women (vs 47% of new cancers and 48% of cancer deaths). Among men, 41.3% had sex-specific cancers (vs 12.5% [1983] and 12.3% [1992]). Among women, 46.1% had sex-specific cancers (vs 69.1% [1983] and 64.6% [1992]). Fewer women (36.8%) were represented in sex-nonspecific cancer studies (vs 41.4% [1983] and 42.5% [1992]); however, fewer studies had a significant (>20%) gender disparity. Across psychosocial studies, representation of men increased to 47.9% (vs 30.4% [1983] and 29.9% [1992]). The proportion of men in studies of feelings/relationships increased to 47% (vs 22.9% [1992]); the proportion of women in studies assessing physical/functional ability increased to 58.3% (vs 45.4%). Women remain under-represented in sex-nonspecific biomedical research, whereas men's representation in sex-specific research increased substantially. Psychosocial research trends suggest movement from research questions supporting traditional stereotypes that women feel and men act. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  20. Psychosocial Aspects of Adolescent Dysphonia: An Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Quinter C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to voice therapy with adolescents, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial and family influences as they relate to vocal behavior. The goals of therapy for the adolescent with dysphonia usually follow an orderly sequence, first dealing with individual behavior and later with family and peer group influences. (JDD)

  1. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.

  2. Insomnia and Psychosocial Crisis: Two Studies of Erikson's Developmental Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines the role of internal stressors in the development of sleep disturbances in two studies of 122 older adults and 66 college students. Results confirmed Erikson's (1959) developmental theory. Failure to resolve the psychosocial crises of old age and adolescence were related to insomnia. (WAS)

  3. Psychosocial needs of women and their partners after successful assisted reproduction treatment in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Crespo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that pregnancy and parenthood after a period of infertility are unproblematic and gratifying. However, a review of the literature highlights the complexity of the psychological and social consequences of pregnancy, childbirth and parenting after successful treatment with assisted reproductive technology. These experiences, including those following the creation of new forms of non-genetic and/or social parenthood, require investigation in order to understand how women and their partners integrate their journey from infertility to pregnancy and parenthood after successful assisted reproductive treatment. This paper presents results derived from qualitative interviews with 30 pregnant women and 21 couples after assisted reproductive treatment (repeated rounds of individual interviews with the study participants conducted from July 2010 to April 2014 as part of a larger ethnographic study exploring the psychosocial needs of women and partners following assisted reproductive treatment in Barcelona’s. The transcribed text was coded into categories of either predetermined or emergent topics. Prior studies have found that couples who achieve pregnancy after infertility may experience higher levels of anxiety in relation to pregnancy. This anxiety can be linked with a higher risk of complications during pregnancy after assisted reproductive treatment compared with spontaneous conception. However, the evidence concerning adjustment to pregnancy and parenthood is inconclusive. This study highlights the necessity for participants to give meaning to these treatments, given the variability that exists in perceptions of infertility and pregnancy after successful assisted reproductive treatment.

  4. Provision of integrated psychosocial services for cancer survivors post-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recklitis, Christopher J; Syrjala, Karen L

    2018-01-01

    Meeting the psychosocial needs of patients with cancer has been recognised as a priority within oncology care for several decades. Many approaches that address these needs have been developed and described; however, until recently much of this work had focused on patients during treatment and end-of-life care. With continued improvement in therapies, the population of cancer survivors who can expect to live for 5 or more years after cancer diagnosis has increased dramatically, as have associated concerns about how to meet their medical, psychosocial, and health behaviour needs after treatment. Guidelines and models for general survivorship care routinely address psychosocial needs, and similar guidelines for psychosocial care of patients with cancer are being extended to address the needs of survivors. In this Series paper, we summarise the existing recommendations for the provision of routine psychosocial care to survivors, as well as the challenges present in providing this care. We make specific recommendations for the integration of psychosocial services into survivorship care. PMID:28049576

  5. Prospective Evaluation of Psychosocial Impact after One Year of Orthodontic Treatment Using PIDAQ Adapted for Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kanika; Tripathi, Tulika; Rai, Priyank; Sharma, Nandini; Kanase, Anup

    2017-08-01

    The impact of dental appearance, malocclusion and treatment for the same on psychological and functional well-being has drawn increasing attention over the past decade. Various psychometric instruments alongside normative indices have been used to predict orthodontic concerns. Evaluating the patients' experience during the orthodontic treatment can help us understand the true benefits and advantages of orthodontic therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the change in the psychosocial impact of malocclusion using the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) adapted for the Indian population after one year of fixed orthodontic treatment. This interventional study was conducted on 93 patients requiring fixed orthodontic treatment. Brazilian, Chinese, Spanish, Nepali and Moroccan versions of the PIDAQ have been published but the questionnaire is not available in Hindi. In the present study, the original PIDAQ was translated into Hindi language to adapt it for the Indian population and was validated by back translation and pretest. All the subjects answered the Hindi version of the questionnaire at pretreatment (T1) and at one year of orthodontic treatment (T2). Additionally, the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) was applied to measure the severity and self-perception of malocclusion. The data were analysed using paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Significant reduction was found in the total PIDAQ score and each factor's score (porthodontic treatment. There was a positive association of the psychosocial impact of malocclusion with the IOTN-AC (IOTN-Aesthetic Component). Adolescent females were found to be most concerned with their dentofacial appearance. Results showed significant improvement in the psychosocial impact of malocclusion with a reduction in the self-perceived needs of patients with orthodontic treatment. The psychometric instrument used may be recommended as an Oral Health Related

  6. Biological and psychosocial effects of space travel: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Robert Edward Tien Ming

    This dissertation interviewed a single astronaut to explore psychosocial issues relevant to long-duration space travel and how these issues relate to the astronaut's training. It examined the psychological impact of isolation, crew interaction, and the experience of microgravity with the goal of increasing understanding of how to foster crew survivability and positive small group interactions in space (Santy, 1994). It also focused on how to develop possible treatments for crews when they transition back to Earth from the extreme environment of space missions. The astronaut's responses agreed with the literature and the predictions for long-duration space missions except the participant reported no temporary or permanent cognitive or memory deficits due to microgravity exposure. The dissertation identified five frequently endorsed themes including communication, environmental stressors, personal strengths, un-researched problems, and other. The agreement found between the literature and astronaut's responses offer a strong foundation of questions and data that needs to be further studied before conducting research in space or long-duration space missions.

  7. Effects of structured group psychosocial support sessions on psychosocial wellbeing of children and their caregivers: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeid, Jasem

    2018-02-21

    Children aged 7-12 years and their caregivers participated in a series of group psychosocial support sessions, using standard manuals specifically developed for facilitating such sessions such as Children Affected by Armed Conflict and Joint Sessions. The sessions used various activities, including drawing, storytelling, folk games, and other activities, to provide participants with opportunities to express their feelings, learn and practice new coping skills, and interact with others. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of structured psychosocial support sessions on the psychosocial wellbeing of children and their caregivers in the Gaza Strip. This descriptive study involved children and female caregivers selected from six locations using a stratified sampling technique. External numerators collected data before and after the group sessions. Two interview questionnaires with questions about psychological and social status were used, one for children and one for caregivers. The caregivers' questionnaire also assessed their psychosocial knowledge. Adult participants and caregivers of participating children provided verbal consent. Data were analysed with SPSS, and a p value less than 0·05 indicated significance. 155 children (77 [50%] boys and 78 [50%] girls) and 155 female caregivers were enrolled from a population of 1720 children (50% boys and 50% girls) and 1720 female caregivers. The sessions improved psychosocial wellbeing in participants, with the average psychosocial wellbeing score increasing from 58% to 87% in children and from 69% to 84% in caregivers. Caregivers' knowledge increased from 70% to 82%. Improvement was found in the various aspects of psychosocial wellbeing. No differences were found with respect to location, sex, and age. Structured group sessions improved psychosocial wellbeing in children and caregivers and improved caregivers' knowledge. Given the design of this study, it is difficult to fully attribute these results to the

  8. The motivation paradox: higher psychosocial problem levels in severely mentally ill patients are associated with less motivation for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Cornelis L; Jochems, E; Kortrijk, H E

    2014-04-01

    Lack of motivation for treatment makes a subgroup of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) difficult to engage in psychiatric treatment. Such difficult-to-engage patients may also be the most in need of treatment. We hypothesized that the level of psychosocial problems would be inversely related to motivation for treatment. Cross-sectional study in two independent samples. The first sample (n = 294) included SMI patients who participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assessed using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) and self-rated and clinician-rated motivation-for-treatment scales. The second sample (n = 1,170) included SMI patients who were treated in Assertive Outreach Teams and were routinely assessed with the HoNOS and a motivation-for-treatment scale. In both samples, patients also self-rated their quality of life. In both samples, patients with HoNOS scores of 16 and higher had lower motivation scores on all motivation scales than patients with lower HoNOS scores, and also a lower quality of life. A motivation paradox seems inherent to this association between higher psychosocial problems levels, less motivation for treatment, and lower quality of life. Such a paradox has clinical relevance, as it may provide an ethical basis for outreach services which aim to engage marginally motivated SMI patients with severe psychosocial problems into mental health care.

  9. Treatment seeking, vaginal discharge and psychosocial distress among women in urban Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Jadhav, Kalpita; Singh, Rajendra; Bavadekar, Amruta; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2010-09-01

    Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care. Treatment-seeking for safed pani is disproportionately high among poor women, representing a physical, emotional and financial burden for low-income families. Safed pani is only rarely indicative of a reproductive tract or sexually transmitted infection. The discrepancy between symptom reports and observed pathology has led some researchers to characterize safed pani as a culturally based expression of more generalized negative life situation. Data are drawn from two prevention intervention studies (2002-2006 and 2007-2012) conducted in economically marginal communities in Mumbai. Results show that husbands as problem generators and spousal abusers and women's greater perceived empowerment and reported tension are significantly associated with safed pani. These results provide the basis for identifying women at greater risk for psychosocial distress and providing supports at the locations at which they seek treatment.

  10. Evidence Base Update for Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents Exposed to Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Kerns, Suzanne E. U.; Harrison, Julie P.; Lambert, Hilary K.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Cox, Julia Revillion; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Child and adolescent trauma exposure is prevalent, with trauma exposure-related symptoms, including posttraumatic stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms often causing substantial impairment. This article updates the evidence base on psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent trauma exposure completed for this journal by Silverman et al. (2008). For this review, we focus on 37 studies conducted during the seven years since the last review. Treatments are grouped by overall treatment family (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy), treatment modality (e.g., individual vs. group), and treatment participants (e.g., child only vs. child and parent). All studies were evaluated for methodological rigor according to Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology evidence-based treatment evaluation criteria (Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, 2014), with cumulative designations for level of support for each treatment family. Individual CBT with parent involvement, individual CBT, and group CBT were deemed well-established; group CBT with parent involvement and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) were deemed probably efficacious; individual integrated therapy for complex trauma and group mind–body skills were deemed possibly efficacious; individual client-centered play therapy, individual mind–body skills, and individual psychoanalysis were deemed experimental; and group creative expressive + CBT was deemed questionable efficacy. Advances in the evidence base, with comparisons to the state of the science at the time of the Silverman et al. (2008) review, are discussed. Finally, we present dissemination and implementation challenges and areas for future research. PMID:27759442

  11. High prevalence of long-term cardiovascular, neurological and psychosocial morbidity after treatment for craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Alberto M.; Schmid, Eva M.; Schutte, Pieter J.; Voormolen, Joan H. C.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; van Thiel, Sjoerd W.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Smit, Jan W. A.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of craniopharyngiomas is associated with long-term morbidity. To assess the long-term functional outcome and mortality rates after treatment for craniopharyngiomas, we audited our data with special focus on cardiovascular, neurological and psychosocial morbidity. Between 1965 and 2002,

  12. Psychosocial Family Treatment for a 10-Year-Old with Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Fristad, Mary A.; Malkin, Catherine; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are rare in childhood and little is known about their psychosocial treatment. Relevant findings from the adult and child literature are reviewed. The case of 10-year-old "Michael" is presented, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational family treatment for mood disorders. Following…

  13. Effect of operative treatment on psychosocial problems of men with gynaecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasielska, Anna; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2011-11-01

    Gynaecomastia is defined as a hyperplasia of the breast tissue in men, bilateral or unilateral, usually not associated with the presence of malignant lesions.The aim of the study was to explore the psychosocial problems of men with gynecomastia and the effect of operative breast reduction on these problems.Material and methods. The survey was conducted in a group of 47 men who were treated surgically for gynaecomastia in the Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery. The mean age of the respondents was 25.6±3.5 years. For survey purposes, a questionnaire was developed with questions about the age of onset of gynaecomastia, coexisting disorders and medicines taken and also various aspects of the psychosocial life of the respondents. The questionnaire was completed by patients before surgery and at minimum 6 months after surgery.Results. The findings showed that in almost all patients gynaecomastia had caused emotional discomfort and limitation of everyday activity. In many patients, enlarged breasts caused difficulties in entering into social relationships. More than a half of the surveyed men admitted that their problems were ridiculed by others and they felt isolated. A comparison of the respondents' answers before and after the surgery showed statistically significant differences in all of the analysed questionnaire items.Conclusions. Gynaecomastia causes considerable emotional discomfort and limitation of everyday activity in young men, and that is why it constitutes a psychosocial problem. Surgical treatment of gynaecomastia significantly contributes to an increase in social activity and an improvement of social acceptance and emotional comfort, and thus significantly improves satisfaction from personal life in the men who underwent this intervention.

  14. Psychosocial aspects of resistance in complex treatment of depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlackova, Zuzana; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Grambal, Ales; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Kasalova, Petra; Cakirpaloglu, Snezana

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of major depressive disorder can be affected by a broad range of factors. In our study, we focused on the relationships of demographic, psychological, clinical and social factors to the course of treatment of depression. The study included 151 patients (finally 140 patients were evaluated) hospitalized for major depressive disorder. They were assessed for demographic characteristics, the rates of depression and anxiety, quality of life, the rates of dissociation and insomnia, and subjective and objective disease severity at different times during treatment. Patients were treated with standard doses of antidepressants or other psychiatric medication. They also completed a 6-week long daily cognitive-behavioural therapy. Data were statistically analyzed. There were significant decreases in the overall severity of the disorder, anxiety level and depression rate during treatment. Improvement measured by objective Clinical Global Impression (oCGI-I) at the end of treatment was not significantly correlated with any of the measured parameters (age of patient, onset of illness, duration of disease, doses of medication etc.). It only significantly positively correlated with the initial evaluation of the patient by oCGI. However, the improvement in subjective assessment (using sCGI-I) correlated with many parameters (increased age, later onset of the disease, greater disease severity at baseline in both overall and subjective evaluation of the severity, anxiety and depressive symptomatology). Furthermore, it was negatively correlated with most quality of life parameters, such as H (Home), F (Feelings), L (Leisure), Sr (Social relations) and G (General). The results suggest that individual variables, such as the degree of psychopathology, particularly depression and anxiety, most quality of life parameters, higher patient age and age of disorder onset may be associated with poorer subjective response to complex treatment of patients with major depressive disorder.

  15. Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on psychosocial and physiological adaptation in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H; Lechner, Suzanne; Diaz, Alain; Vargas, Sara; Holley, Heather; Phillips, Kristin; McGregor, Bonnie; Carver, Charles S; Blomberg, Bonnie

    2009-07-01

    A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Women with Stages 1-3 breast cancer recruited 4-8 weeks after surgery were randomized to either a 10-week group-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention or a 1-day psychoeducational control group and completed questionnaires and late afternoon blood samples at study entry and 6 and 12 months after assignment to experimental condition. Of 128 women initially providing psychosocial questionnaire and blood samples at study entry, 97 provided complete data for anxiety measures and cortisol analysis at all time points, and immune assays were run on a subset of 85 of these women. Those assigned to a 10-week group-based CBSM intervention evidenced better psychosocial adaptation (lower reported cancer-specific anxiety and interviewer-rated general anxiety symptoms) and physiological adaptation (lower cortisol, greater Th1 cytokine [interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma] production and IL-2:IL-4 ratio) after their adjuvant treatment compared to those in the control group. Effects on psychosocial adaptation indicators and cortisol appeared to hold across the entire 12-month observation period. Th1 cytokine regulation changes held only over the initial 6-month period. This intervention may have facilitated a "recovery or maintenance" of Th1 cytokine regulation during or after the adjuvant therapy period. Behavioral interventions that address dysregulated neuroendocrine function could play a clinically significant role in optimizing host immunologic resistance during a vulnerable period.

  16. Accumulating Data to Optimally Predict Obesity Treatment (ADOPT) Core Measures: Psychosocial Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Boutelle, Kerri; Czajkowski, Susan M; Epel, Elissa S; Green, Paige A; Hunter, Christine M; Rice, Elise L; Williams, David M; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Rothman, Alexander J

    2018-04-01

    Within the Accumulating Data to Optimally Predict obesity Treatment (ADOPT) Core Measures Project, the psychosocial domain addresses how psychosocial processes underlie the influence of obesity treatment strategies on weight loss and weight maintenance. The subgroup for the psychosocial domain identified an initial list of high-priority constructs and measures that ranged from relatively stable characteristics about the person (cognitive function, personality) to dynamic characteristics that may change over time (motivation, affect). This paper describes (a) how the psychosocial domain fits into the broader model of weight loss and weight maintenance as conceptualized by ADOPT; (b) the guiding principles used to select constructs and measures for recommendation; (c) the high-priority constructs recommended for inclusion; (d) domain-specific issues for advancing the science; and (e) recommendations for future research. The inclusion of similar measures across trials will help to better identify how psychosocial factors mediate and moderate the weight loss and weight maintenance process, facilitate research into dynamic interactions with factors in the other ADOPT domains, and ultimately improve the design and delivery of effective interventions. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  17. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients' past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social...... situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...

  18. The Co-Occurrence of Reading Disorder and ADHD: Epidemiology, Treatment, Psychosocial Impact, and Economic Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Chris C.; Gelhorn, Heather L.; Bell, Jill A.; Classi, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of reading disorder (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has received increasing attention. This review summarizes the epidemiology, treatment strategies, psychosocial impact, and economic burden associated with the co-occurrence of these conditions. Common genetic and neuropsychological deficits may partially…

  19. Social Networks, Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among American Indian Women in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…

  20. PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF 2 YEARS OF HUMAN GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT IN TURNER SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLIJPER, FME; SINNEMA, G; AKKERHUIS, GW; BRUGMANBOEZEMAN, A; FEENSTRA, J; DENHARTOG, L; HEUVEL, F

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight girls with Turner syndrome were treated for 2 years with human growth hormone. Both parents and patients carried out assessments of the effects of treatment on various aspects of psychosocial functioning. The children used the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and the Social Anxiety Scale

  1. Psychosocial Factors Predict Nonadherence to PD Treatment: A Hong Kong Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Timothy K F; Ng, Yu Leung; Lam, Man Fai; Lee, Kelvin K W

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to hand hygiene and aseptic regimen, dialysis environment guidelines, and catheter and exit-site care guidelines are risk factors of peritonitis. However, little is known about the psychosocial factors that account for the nonadherent behavior of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Applying the health belief model, this study seeks to enhance the understanding of psychosocial influences on patients' nonadherent behavior to the 3 regimen components. ♦ METHODS: Through referrals by 7 Hong Kong renal patient support groups, we surveyed patients undergoing PD treatment. ♦ RESULTS: A total of 244 Hong Kong PD patients completed the questionnaires. About 90% of the patients reported no deviation from catheter and exit-site care guidelines. However, the nonadherence rates of hand hygiene and aseptic regimen and of dialysis environment guidelines were 30.3% and 23%, respectively. Longer time on PD treatment and lower family monthly income were associated with nonadherence to dialysis environment guidelines. Employed patients tended toward nonadherence to catheter and exit-site care guidelines twice as much as unemployed patients. Of the 5 health beliefs, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and efficacy belief were significant predictors of nonadherence to the 3 regimen components. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study inform the design of intervention to change patients' behavior in regimen nonadherence for preventing peritonitis. To identify the target audience for adherence intervention based on the 3 regimen components, the results suggest dividing patients into subgroups according to their sociodemographic background. To foster behavioral change, health communicators should address patients' health beliefs when formulating intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  2. Role of personality traits in cocaine craving throughout an outpatient psychosocial treatment program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ismael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cocaine dependence is a major international public health concern. Its chronically relapsing nature is possibly related to craving intensity, which can be influenced by diverse biological and psychological aspects. This study aimed to evaluate the role of different personality traits in craving measured throughout a psychosocial treatment program. Method: The sample comprised 66 cocaine-dependent outpatients who were enrolled in an individual and manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy program. The influence of personality traits on craving intensity, frequency, and duration was analyzed using a generalized estimating equations model with an autoregressive correlation structure. Results: Craving varied during treatment. The personality traits of novelty seeking, reward dependence, and harm avoidance interacted with craving intensity, and the personality trait of persistence interacted with craving duration throughout the treatment period. Furthermore, there were significant interactions between drug use and craving intensity, and between different routes of administration and craving intensity. Participants who used cocaine/crack while in treatment and concurrent users of crack (i.e., freebase cocaine and powder cocaine also had a higher craving intensity. Conclusion: The extent of craving variation can depend on certain personality styles. This study shows that craving is influenced by personality traits, and this may presumably change clinical expression involved in disease.

  3. Psychosocial factors and adherence to drug treatment in patients on chronic haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Vieco, María P; Pérez-García, Rafael; Albalate, Marta; de Sequera, Patricia; Ortega, Mayra; Puerta, Marta; Corchete, Elena; Alcázar, Roberto

    2014-11-17

    The daily pill burden in hemodialysis patients is one of the highest reported to date in any chronic disease. The adherence to prescribed treatment has implications on the quality of life, the survival of patients, and the economic cost of their treatment, this being a priority public health issue. To evaluate the adherence to pharmacological treatment examining, among the possible causes of non-adherence, psychosocial factors such as depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment and social support. Transversal-observational study of thirty five patients that suffer from chronic renal disease and who are on manteinance hemodialysis, evaluated by self-reported measures. Non-adherent patients have significant higher depression index than adherent patients. Anxiety, cognitive impairment and social support do not show a significant relation with the degree of adherence or compliance with farmacological treatment. These results suggest that psychological intervention in chronic haemodialysis patients with a severe depression index could increase the degree of fulfillment and general well-being of renal patients.

  4. Psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms among HIV-positive persons receiving care and treatment in Kenya, Namibia, and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Kidder, Daniel; Pals, Sherri; Parent, Julie; Mbatia, Redempta; Chesang, Kipruto; Mbilinyi, Deogratius; Koech, Emily; Nkingwa, Mathias; Katuta, Frieda; Ng'ang'a, Anne; Bachanas, Pamela

    2014-06-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is considerably greater than that among members of the general population. It is particularly important to treat depressive symptoms among PLHIV because they have been associated with poorer HIV care-related outcomes. This study describes overall psychosocial functioning and factors associated with depressive symptoms among PLHIV attending HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya, Namibia, and Tanzania. Eighteen HIV care and treatment clinics (six per country) enrolled approximately 200 HIV-positive patients (for a total of 3,538 participants) and collected data on patients' physical and mental well-being, medical/health status, and psychosocial functioning. Although the majority of participants did not report clinically significant depressive symptoms (72 %), 28 % reported mild to severe depressive symptoms, with 12 % reporting severe depressive symptoms. Regression models indicated that greater levels of depressive symptoms were associated with: (1) being female, (2) younger age, (3) not being completely adherent to HIV medications, (4) likely dependence on alcohol, (5) disclosure to three or more people (versus one person), (6) experiences of recent violence, (7) less social support, and (8) poorer physical functioning. Participants from Kenya and Namibia reported greater depressive symptoms than those from Tanzania. Approximately 28 % of PLHIV reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. The scale-up of care and treatment services in sub-Saharan Africa provides an opportunity to address psychosocial and mental health needs for PLHIV as part of comprehensive care.

  5. Who seeks bariatric surgery? Psychosocial functioning among adolescent candidates, other treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, C C; Devlin, M J; Fennoy, I; Zitsman, J L; Walsh, B T; Sysko, R

    2017-12-01

    Limited data are available on the characteristics of adolescents with obesity who seek bariatric surgery. Existing data suggest that adolescent surgery candidates have a higher body mass index (BMI) than comparison adolescents with obesity, but the limited findings regarding psychosocial functioning are mixed. This study aimed to compare BMI and psychosocial functioning among adolescent bariatric surgery candidates, outpatient medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity (receiving lifestyle modification), and adolescents in the normal-weight range. All adolescents completed self-report measures of impulsivity, delay discounting, depression, anxiety, stress, eating pathology, family functioning and quality of life, and had their height and weight measured. Adolescent surgical candidates had higher BMIs than both comparison groups. Surgical candidates did not differ from medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity on any measure of psychosocial functioning, but both groups of adolescents with obesity reported greater anxiety and eating pathology and poorer quality of life than normal-weight adolescents. Quality of life no longer differed across groups after controlling for BMI, suggesting that it is highly related to weight status. Adolescents with obesity may experience greater anxiety, eating pathology, and quality of life impairments than their peers in the normal-weight range regardless of whether they are seeking surgery or outpatient medical treatment. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  6. Psychosocial risk factors and treatment of new onset and recurrent depression during the post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Pirjo; Hintikka, Jukka

    2017-07-01

    When developing maternity care services, it is important to know how psychosocial factors affect the course of post-partum depression (PPD), and how depressed mothers are treated. The aim of this study is to assess how adverse childhood experiences, poor present support and violence, and low socioeconomic status (SES) associate with PPD, specifically in new onset and recurrent post-partum depression. The second aim is to assess the treatment received for PPD. This is a cross-sectional study. The study group comprises 104 mothers with a current episode of PPD, and a control group of 104 mothers without an episode. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders was used for data collection. Psychosocial risk factors, treatment issues, and the course of depression were assessed with a structured self-report questionnaire. In age-adjusted multivariate analyses, adverse childhood experiences, a low level of present support in close relationships, and a poor SES were associated significantly with PPD. Childhood adversity was associated with both new onset and recurrent depression. Nevertheless, a low level of support and a poor SES were also associated with recurrent depression. A quarter of mothers with a major depressive episode in the post-partum period attended psychiatric services. In mothers with new onset depression, the proportion was only 5%. There is an urgent need to develop the diagnostics of depression in maternity care services. An awareness of psychosocial risk factors might help in this. More depressed mothers should be referred to psychiatric services.

  7. Bidirectional Relations between Parenting Practices and Child Externalizing Behavior: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis in the Context of a Psychosocial Treatment and 3-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or…

  8. A New Psychosocial Variable in Mental Health Studies: Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The term agency has been defined as a sense of responsibility for one’s life course, the belief that one is in control of one’s decisions and is responsible for their outcomes, and the confidence that one will be able to overcome obstacles that impede one’s progress along one’s chosen life course. Agency is an upper psychological structure which consists of self-esteem, purpose in life, self-efficacy (ego strength, and internal locus of control. Literature offers quite different explanations for agency concept. The reason of this situation may be the attribution of different meanings to the concept by psychologists and sociologists. When considering the agency literature in Turkey and other countries, it can be said that the number of studies on agency subject is lower than the number of studies on other psychosocial study subjects. Agency should be taken into consideration as a psychosocial variable in the studies to be made in Turkey.

  9. The psychosocial treatment of parental alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnall, Douglas

    2011-07-01

    Parental alienation occurs in divorces when one parent indoctrinates the child to dislike, fear, and avoid contact with the other parent. Mental health professionals who treat children and adolescents are likely to encounter victims of parental alienation in clinical practice, and it is important to identify and treat these youngsters earlier, when the condition is mild, rather than later, when the parental alienation is almost intractable. This article presents an overview of the treatment of parental alienation, which is called reunification therapy. All the parties involved in the case have a role in the prevention and treatment of parental alienation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychosocial challenges and strategies for coping with HIV among adolescents in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutumba, Massy; Bauermeister, José A; Musiime, Victor; Byaruhanga, Judith; Francis, Kiweewa; Snow, Rachel C; Tsai, Alexander C

    2015-02-01

    Although more than 90% of youth perinatally infected with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the psychosocial factors that impact their wellbeing, or how these youth cope with these challenges. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial challenges and coping strategies among perinatal HIV-infected adolescents in Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 38 HIV-infected adolescents aged 12-19 years at a large HIV treatment center in Kampala. Data were analyzed thematically to identify themes and domains related to stressors and specific coping strategies. Psychosocial challenges included stigma/discrimination, relationship challenges such as HIV status disclosure, and medication difficulties. Coping strategies included medication adherence, concealment or limited disclosure of HIV status, treatment optimism, social support, rationalizing, social comparison, spirituality/religiosity, avoidance, and distraction. Age and gender differences also emerged: younger participants generally lacked specific coping strategies; compared to females, male adolescents reported greater use of avoidance/distraction techniques. Findings underscore the need to address stigma within homes and schools, and to equip adolescents with the comprehensive knowledge and skills to address their varied challenges.

  11. Video gaming and children's psychosocial wellbeing: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Stone, L.L.; Burk, W.J.; Granic, I.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of video games on children?s psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27?11.43 years old; male?=?98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b) competitively; likewise, parents reported their children?s psychosocial health. Gaming at time one was associated with increases in emotion problems. Violent gaming was not associated with psychosocial ...

  12. Psychosocial impact of adolescent gynecomastia: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzi, Laura C; Cerrato, Felecia E; Erickson, Cameron R; Erikson, Cameron R; Webb, Michelle L; Rosen, Heather; Walsh, Erika M; DiVasta, Amy D; Greene, Arin K; Labow, Brian I

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical and psychosocial impact of gynecomastia and its severity on adolescents seeking treatment as compared with healthy adolescent males. The following surveys were administered to adolescents with gynecomastia and healthy male controls, aged 12 to 21 years: Short Form-36 Version 2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Demographic variables were compared between the two groups, and controls were administered a short chest symptoms survey. Linear regression models, unadjusted and adjusted for body mass index category, were fit to determine the effect of case status and graded severity of gynecomastia on survey score. Forty-seven patients with gynecomastia and 92 male control subjects participated in this study. There was no difference in mean age between the groups, although patients with gynecomastia had a significantly higher body mass index. Gynecomastia subjects had three lower Short Form-36 domain and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale scores independent of body mass index category as compared with controls, although there was no difference in Eating Attitudes Test-26 scores between the groups. Graded gynecomastia severity had no effect on survey scores, all independent of body mass index category. Gynecomastia has a significant negative impact on primarily the psychosocial well-being of affected adolescent patients, specifically in regard to social functioning, mental health, and self-esteem. Psychosocial impact was not affected by graded severity of disease. Health care providers and patients should be aware of the psychosocial impairments associated with gynecomastia and consider early treatment for adolescents suffering from this condition, regardless of severity.

  13. Memory problems in dementia: adaptation and coping strategies and psychosocial treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröes, Rose-Marie; van der Roest, Henriëtte G; van Mierlo, Lisa; Meiland, Franka J M

    2011-12-01

    Memory problems are generally quite prominent in dementia and they have a significant impact on everyday functioning. Medication developed for Alzheimer's disease, for example, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, can slow down the increase of cognitive impairment for a while. In addition to pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment methods are also used, some of which have a positive effect on cognition, for example, cognitive rehabilitation, cognitive stimulation therapy and movement therapy. However, more research is needed. This article first describes the consequences of memory problems on the everyday life of people with dementia and summarizes research findings on how people with dementia experience and cope with their illness. We then discuss the most frequently applied psychosocial treatments for cognitive problems in dementia.

  14. [Psychosocial Treatment of Addictive Disorders--An Overview of Psychotherapeutic Options and their Efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M; Dürsteler, K M; Petitjean, S A; Wiesbeck, G A; Euler, S; Sollberger, D; Lang, U E; Vogel, M

    2015-04-01

    Addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions marked by compulsive and often uncontrolled use of psychotropic substances or stimuli. In this review, we present and discuss the current specific psychosocial interventions for addictive disorders and their effectiveness. In particular cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, relapse prevention, the community reinforcement approach, and contingency management were found to be effective. For these psychotherapeutic treatments, mostly moderate effect sizes have been found. Their effectiveness seems to be highest in cannabis dependence. Empirical evidence for dependence on "hard" drugs is largest for contingency management, while for alcohol dependence motivational interviewing and the community reinforcement approach show the largest effect sizes. Presumably, combinations of different approaches as well as online interventions will bring further progress in the psychosocial treatment of addictive disorders in the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...... Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly...

  16. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on

  17. Parenting as a Mechanism of Change in Psychosocial Treatment for Youth with ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated whether parenting and child behavior improve following psychosocial treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I) and whether parenting improvements mediate child outcomes. We analyzed data from a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills, CLAS, n = 74) in comparison to Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74) and treatment as usual (TAU, n = 51) for youth with ADHD-I (average child age = 8.6 years, range 7-11 years, 58 % boys). Child and parent/family functioning were assessed prior to treatment, immediately following treatment, and at follow-up into the subsequent school year using parent and teacher reports of inattention, organization, social skills, academic competency (teachers only), parenting daily hassles, and positive and negative parenting behaviors (parents only). Both treatment groups improved on negative parenting and home impairment, but only CLAS families also improved on positive parenting as well as academic impairment. Improvements in positive and negative parenting mediated treatment effects on child impairment independent of improvements in child inattention, implicating parenting as an important mechanism of change in psychosocial treatment for ADHD-I. Further, whereas parent-focused training produces improvements in negative parenting and impairment at home for children with ADHD-I, a multicomponent approach (incorporating child skills training and teacher consultation) more consistently produces improvements at school and in positive parenting, which may contribute to improvements in social skills into the next school year.

  18. An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Mentoring program and Mentees’ psychosocial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between mentoring program and mentees’ psychosocial development using self-report questionnaires collected from undergraduate students in teaching based higher learning institutions in Sarawak, Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model analysis showed two important findings: firstly, communication positively and significantly correlated with psychosocial. Secondly, support positively and significantly correlated with psychosocial. In sum, the result demonstrates that mentoring program does act as an important determinant of mentees’ psychosocial development in the organizational sample. In addition, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  19. The Flower Workshop in psychosocial rehabilitation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Pereira, Maria Alice Ornellas

    2009-01-01

    We report a pilot study with the Flower Workshop, a new modality of psychosocial rehabilitation group activity. Cognitive performance in schizophrenia and other mental conditions can be impaired depending on the tasks to be executed and their respective social context. The vulnerability of these individuals can be reduced by means of cognitive and socio-affective facilitation. We conducted a pilot study to introduce the Flower Workshop in a public Mental Health Service in the city of Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo-Brasil) with 12 participants during 18 months (2002-2003). With cognitive and socio-affective facilitation, participants were able to construct vases and make flower arrangements successfully.

  20. [People with venous ulcers: a study of the psychosocial aspects of the Roy Adaptation Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Isabelle Katherinne Fernandes; da Nóbrega, Walkíria Gomes; Costa, Isabel Karolyne Fernandes; Torres, Gilson de Vasconcelos; Lira, Ana Luiza Brandão de Carvalho; Tourinho, Francis Solange Vieira; Enders, Bertha Cruz

    2011-09-01

    A transversal descriptive quantitative study, conducted with 50 people with Venous Ulcer (VU) at an University Hospital, that aimed to ascertain the level of psychosocial adaptation of the Roy Model of people with VU. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee. The data were collected with a structured form. After organizing the data, composed of changes in the lives of people with VU, we classified it according to Roy's psychosocial aspects. We found that in the self-concept mode, 36% felt dissatisfied with physical appearance, and 18% had negative feelings; in the role-function mode: change in the working role (52.0%), housework (34.0%), marital (6.0%), leisure, pain, social, educational and transportation restrictions (82.0%); interdependence mode: support in treatment (82.0%), discrimination (58.0%). The identification of the psychosocial aspects directs nursing actions to consider the whole of the person receiving care in its relations with the environment, thus promoting a better level of adaptation.

  1. How the psychosocial context of clinical trials differs from usual care: A qualitative study of acupuncture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative studies of participants' experiences in randomised clinical trials (RCTs suggest that the psychosocial context of treatment in RCTs may be quite different to the psychosocial context of treatment in usual practice. This is important, as the psychosocial context of treatment is known to influence patient outcomes in chronic illness. Few studies have directly compared the psychosocial context of treatment across RCTs and usual practice. In this study, we explored differences in psychosocial context between RCT and usual practice settings, using acupuncture as our model. Methods We undertook a secondary analysis of existing qualitative interviews with 54 patients. 27 were drawn from a study of western and traditional acupuncture in usual practice (for a range of painful conditions. 27 were drawn from a qualitative study nested in an RCT of western acupuncture for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. We used qualitative analysis software to facilitate an inductive thematic analysis in which we identified three main themes. Results In usual practice, starting acupuncture was more likely to be embedded in an active and ongoing search for pain relief, whereas in the RCT starting acupuncture was opportunistic. Usual practice patients reported few uncertainties and these had minimal consequences for them. In the RCT, patients experienced considerable uncertainties about their treatment and its effectiveness, and were particularly concerned about whether they were receiving real (or fake acupuncture. Patients stopped acupuncture only at the end of the fixed course of treatment in the RCT, which was similar to those receiving acupuncture in the public sector National Health Service (NHS. In comparison, private sector patients re-evaluated and re-negotiated treatments particularly when starting to use acupuncture. Conclusions Differences in psychosocial context between RCTs and usual practice could reduce the impact of

  2. The feasibility of implementing recovery, psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for psychosis: comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Bird, Victoria; Leamy, Mary; Bacon, Faye; Dunn, Rebecca; Pesola, Francesca; Janosik, Monika; Le Boutillier, Clair; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2015-05-23

    Clinical guidelines for the treatment of people experiencing psychosis have existed for over a decade, but implementation of recommended interventions is limited. Identifying influences on implementation may help to reduce this translational gap. The Structured Assessment of Feasibility (SAFE) measure is a standardised assessment of implementation blocks and enablers. The aim of this study was to characterise and compare the implementation blocks and enablers for recommended psychosis interventions. SAFE was used to evaluate and compare three groups of interventions recommended in the 2014 NICE psychosis guideline: pharmacological (43 trials testing 5 interventions), psychosocial (65 trials testing 5 interventions), and recovery (19 trials testing 5 interventions). The 127 trial reports rated with SAFE were supplemented by published intervention manuals, research protocols, trial registrations and design papers. Differences in the number of blocks and enablers across the three interventions were tested statistically, and feasibility profiles were generated. There was no difference between psychosocial and recovery interventions in the number of blocks or enablers to implementation. Pharmacological interventions (a) had fewer blocks than both psychosocial interventions (χ (2)(3) = 133.77, p Feasibility profiles show that pharmacological interventions are relatively easy to implement but can sometimes involve risks. Psychosocial and recovery interventions are relatively complex but tend to be more flexible and more often manualised. SAFE ratings can contribute to tackling the current implementation challenges in mental health services, by providing a reporting guideline structure for researchers to maximise the potential for implementation and by informing prioritisation decisions by clinical guideline developers and service managers.

  3. Review of research grant allocation to psychosocial studies in diabetes research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, A; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate and discuss the allocation of diabetes research funds to studies with a psychosocial focus. METHODS: Annual reports and funded-research databases from approximately the last 5 years (if available) were reviewed from the following representative funding organizations, the American...... Diabetes Association, the Canadian Diabetes Association, Diabetes Australia, Diabetes UK, the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation and the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes, in order to estimate the overall proportion of studies allocated research funding that had a psychosocial focus. RESULTS......: An estimated mean of 8% of funded studies from our sample were found to have a psychosocial focus. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of funded studies with a psychosocial focus was small, with an estimated mean ratio of 17:1 observed between funded biomedical and psychosocial studies in diabetes research. While...

  4. The experience of cancer survivors in community-based psycho-social support activities in Shanghai, China: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Tian-Rui; Shen, Qian; Yang, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Cong; Chen, Si-Jia; Li, Jiang; Luo, Zheng-Nian; Yuan, Zheng-Ping; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Cancer survivors are often embroiled in various physical and psycho-social issues as a consequence of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Psycho-social support activities in the phase of rehabilitation were provided to enhance their quality of life. This study seeks to explore and understand their experience of engagement in Shanghai Cancer Rehabilitation Club (SCRC). Sixty-eight participants attended eight semi-structured focus group interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis framework was adopted for data analysis. The participants reported benefits such as psychological support, informational provision and tangible support in the activities. Public services were reported to have restored their dignity and enabled them to rediscover their own meaning of life. Participants also pointed out challenges on functioning and opportunity for development of SCRC. The psycho-social support activities of SCRC had influenced cancer survivor's life. Public health resources and supportive policies should be in place to support local self-help cancer rehabilitation groups.

  5. Psychological well-being, dental esthetics, and psychosocial impacts in adolescent orthodontic patients: A prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao; Wang, Yun-Ji; Deng, Feng; Liu, Pang-Li; Wu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    We examined the role of adolescent orthodontic patients' psychological well-being attributes (self-esteem, general body image, and positive and negative affects) and the clinical indicators of dental esthetics (orthodontists' ratings on the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need-Aesthetic Component [IOTN-AC]), and their changes from pretreatment to posttreatment as predictors of the psychosocial impact of dental esthetics. In this prospective longitudinal study, 1090 adolescent orthodontic patients seeking treatment at the Stomatological Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in China (mean age, 14.25 years; SD, 2.03 years) were assessed before treatment, and 68.99% (n = 752) were assessed after treatment. All subjects completed a questionnaire measuring psychological well-being attributes and 3 components of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics (perceptive, cognitive-affective, and social-functional). Clinical indicators of dental esthetics were measured by 3 orthodontists using the IOTN-AC. Substantial enhancement from pretreatment to posttreatment was found in all 3 Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Aesthetics components, confirming the positive effects of orthodontic treatment on oral health-related quality of life. Psychosocial impact of dental esthetics at baseline and improvement from pretreatment to posttreatment were found to be predicted by the patients' psychological well-being attributes (self-esteem, general body image, and negative affect) and the clinical indicators (orthodontists' rating on the IOTN-AC) at baseline, as well as their pretreatment to posttreatment change. Psychological well-being attributes had comparable or greater contribution to the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics at baseline as well as greater improvement after treatment than the clinical indicators. These biopsychological models explained 29% to 43% of the variances in psychosocial impacts of dental esthetics outcome at baseline and about 33% of the variance in

  6. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanagas Giedrius

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197. Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's.

  7. Psychosocial work conditions and registered sickness absence : a 3-year prospective cohort study among office employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Bultmann, U.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between a wide variety of psychosocial work conditions and sickness absence in a medium-sized company. Methods Prospective cohort study of 395 employees working in an insurance office. Self-reported psychosocial work conditions were measured by questionnaire in

  8. Psychosocial profile of bullies, victims, and bully-victims: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eLeiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.

  9. Prospective Study of Psychosocial Distress Among Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Jennelle, Richard; Grady, Victoria; Tovar, Adrienne; Bowen, Kris; Simonin, Patty; Tracy, Janice; McCrudden, Dale; Stella, Jonathan R.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of psychosocial distress among patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer and to examine the association between depression and anxiety and demographic and medical variables. Methods and Materials: A total of 40 patients (25 men and 15 women) with nonmetastatic head and neck cancer were enrolled in this prospective study and underwent RT administered with definitive (24 patients) or postoperative (16 patients) intent. Twenty patients (50%) received concurrent chemotherapy. All patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II instrument before RT, on the last day of RT, and at the first follow-up visit. The effect of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors on psychosocial distress was analyzed. Results: The prevalence of mild to severe pre-RT depression was 58% and 45% using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D and Beck Depression Inventory-II scale, respectively. The prevalence of severe pre-RT anxiety was 7%. The depression levels, as determined by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II instrument increased significantly during RT and remained elevated at the first follow-up visit (p < 0.001 for both). The variables that were significantly associated with post-RT depression included a greater pre-RT depression level, employment status (working at enrollment), younger age (<55 years), single marital status, and living alone (p < 0.05, for all). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that an alarming number of patients undergoing RT for head and neck cancer have symptoms suggestive of psychosocial distress even before beginning treatment. This proportion increases significantly during RT. Studies investigating the role of antidepressants and/or psychiatric counseling might be warranted in the future

  10. [Psychosocial Interventions in Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahunca Velásquez, Luisa Fernanda; García Valencia, Jenny; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Palacio Acosta, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the psychosocial strategies designed to improve the outcomes in adults with schizophrenia in both, acute and stable phase of the disorder. This evidence is used to propose recommendation in the guidelines of integral attention for the diagnosis, treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of adults with schizophrenia. A guideline for clinical practice was developed using the methodological framework of the Ministerio de la Protección Social to collect evidence and grading recommendations. A search, evaluation and synthesis of evidence were carried out. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The psychoeducation and family intervention showed higher efficacy, compared with the usual treatment, to prevent relapses and hospital readmissions, to reduce family burden and to improve adherence to treatment. The social skill training was effective to improve symptoms, social functioning and quality of life. However, the quality of evidence was low. There was not enough evidence about the efficacy of occupational therapy, but considering patients preferences and its wide clinical utilization, the GDG suggested its inclusion. Psychoeducation, family intervention and social skill training are recommended to be offered for the treatment of schizophrenia. Furthermore, occupational therapy is suggested for inpatients and outpatients with the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Psychosocial Factors and Patients' Perception of Tuberculosis Treatment Non-Adherence in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, Habteyes Hailu; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Tol, Azar; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Kebede, Abebaw; Kassa, Desta

    2017-09-01

    Although there are several studies reported on factors affecting tuberculosis (TB) treatment non-adherence, there is information gap on psychosocial and patients' perceptions aspects. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of psychosocial factors and patients' perceptions on TB treatment non-adherence in Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa from May to December, 2014. Thirty one health facilities were randomly selected and 698 TB patients, who had been on treatment, were enrolled consecutively using patient registration number. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics, knowledge, psychological distress, alcohol use, tobacco smoking and six HBM domains. Treatment adherence level was the main outcome variable, and it measured using visual analog scale. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 was used for data analysis. Non-adherence level within last one month prior to the study was 19.5%. After controlling for all potential confounding variables, Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) status (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.79, 95% Confidence interval (CI) (1.09 -2.95)), alcohol use (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI (1.33-3.37)), economic status (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI (0.33-0.82)), perceived barriers (AOR = 1.21, 95% CI (1.10-1.47)) and psychological distress (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI (1.47-2.29)) were independently associated with TB treatment non-adherence. ART status, economic status, alcohol use, perceived barrier and psychological distress are the major areas that need to be targeted with health promotion intervention to enhance TB treatment adherence.

  12. Motivation, treatment engagement and psychosocial outcomes in outpatients with severe mental illness: a test of Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochems, Eline C; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; van Dam, Arno; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2017-09-01

    Currently, it is unclear whether Self-Determination Theory (SDT) applies to the mental health care of patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Therefore, the current study tested the process model of SDT in a sample of outpatients with SMI. Participants were 294 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder or a personality disorder and their clinicians (n = 57). Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesized relationships between autonomy support, perceived competence, types of motivation, treatment engagement, psychosocial functioning and quality of life at two time points and across the two diagnostic groups. The expected relations among the SDT variables were found, but additional direct paths between perceived competence and clinical outcomes were needed to obtain good model fit. The obtained process model was found to be stable across time and different diagnostic patient groups, and was able to explain 18% to 36% of variance in treatment engagement, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. It is concluded that SDT can be a useful basis for interventions in the mental health care for outpatients with SMI. Additional experimental research is needed to confirm the causality of the relations between the SDT constructs and their ability to influence treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Erectile dysfunction, masculinity, and psychosocial outcomes: a review of the experiences of men after prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Chung, Eric; Wittert, Gary; Hyde, Melissa K

    2017-02-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) treatment side-effects such as erectile dysfunction (ED) can impact men's quality of life (QoL), psychosocial and psycho-sexual adjustment. Masculinity (i.e., men's identity or sense of themselves as being a man) may also be linked to how men respond to PC treatment and ED however the exact nature of this link is unclear. This review aims to provide a snapshot of the current state of evidence regarding ED, masculinity and psychosocial impacts after PC treatment. Three databases (Medline/PsycINFO, CINHAL, and EMBASE) were searched January 1st 1980 to January 31st 2016. Study inclusion criteria were: patients treated for PC; ED or sexual function measured; masculinity measured in quantitative studies or emerged as a theme in qualitative studies; included psychosocial or QoL outcome(s); published in English language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Fifty two articles (14 quantitative, 38 qualitative) met review criteria. Studies were predominantly cross-sectional, North American, samples of heterosexual men, with localised PC, and treated with radical prostatectomy. Results show that masculinity framed men's responses to, and was harmed by their experience with, ED after PC treatment. In qualitative studies, men with ED consistently reported lost (no longer a man) or diminished (less of a man) masculinity, and this was linked to depression, embarrassment, decreased self-worth, and fear of being stigmatised. The correlation between ED and masculinity was similarly supported in quantitative studies. In two studies, masculinity was also a moderator of poorer QoL and mental health outcomes for PC patients with ED. In qualitative studies, masculinity underpinned how men interpreted and adjusted to their experience. Men used traditional (hegemonic) coping responses including emotional restraint, stoicism, acceptance, optimism, and humour or rationalised their experience relative to their age (ED inevitable), prolonged life (ED small price to pay

  14. Iatrogenic effects of psychosocial interventions: treatment, life context, and personal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H

    2012-01-01

    Between 7% and 15% of individuals who participate in psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders may be worse off after treatment than before. Intervention-related predictors of iatrogenic effects include lack of bonding; lack of goal direction and monitoring; confrontation, criticism, and high emotional arousal; models and norms for substance use; and stigma and inaccurate expectations. Life context and personal predictors include lack of support, criticism, and more severe substance use and psychological problems. Ongoing monitoring and safety standards are needed to identify and counteract adverse consequences of intervention programs.

  15. How Interdisciplinary Teamwork Contributes to Psychosocial Cancer Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daem, Michiel; Verbrugghe, Mathieu; Schrauwen, Wim; Leroux, Silvian; Van Hecke, Ann; Grypdonck, Maria

    2018-03-30

    The organization of psychosocial care is rather complex, and its provision diverse. Access is affected by the acceptance and attitude of patients and professional caregivers toward psychosocial care. The aims of this study were to examine when patients with cancer experience quality psychosocial care and to identify circumstances in collaboration that contribute to patient-perceived positive psychosocial care. This study used a qualitative design in which semistructured interviews were conducted with patients, hospital workers, and primary health professionals. Psychosocial care is often requested but also refused by patients with cancer. Based on this discrepancy, a distinction is made between psychosocial support and psychosocial interventions. Psychosocial support aims to reduce the chaos in patients' lives caused by cancer and is not shunned by patients. Psychosocial interventions comprise the formal care offered in response to psychosocial problems. Numerous patients are reluctant to use psychosocial interventions, which are often provided by psychologists. Psychosocial care aims to assist patients in bearing the difficulties of cancer and its treatment. Patients prefer informal support, given often in conjunction with physical care. This study confirms the important role of nurses in promoting psychosocial care. Patients perceive much support from nurses, although nurses are not considered to be professional psychosocial caregivers. Being perceived as approachable and trustworthy offers nurses a significant opportunity to bring more intense psychosocial interventions within reach of cancer patients.

  16. [Acamprosate and psychosocial intervention. An integrative treatment approach for prevention of alcohol dependent patients in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, W J; Riebenfeld, D

    2002-04-24

    105 patients with severe alcohol dependence, who were treated in 13 centers in Switzerland, took part in this open study. The abstinence rate achieved under treatment with Acamprosat, which was used within the framework of established psychotherapeutic intervention programmes in which the doctors could choose between five different procedures, was determined over a period of 24 weeks. In addition, a sociodemographic profile was drawn up, a physical examination was carried out and data were collected on the safety aspect of Acamprosat. It was also of interest to ascertain whether, and if so how, the patients' quality of life changed under the treatment, and in what form they received psychosocial support. As supportive therapy almost two-thirds of the patients (63%) received individual psychotherapy, in 28% the doctor decided on cognitive behavioural therapy, in 4% a short intervention was carried out, in 4% group therapy and in 2% family therapy. In 85.7% of the patients the doctor continued with the initial form of psychotherapy, while in the remaining patients it was changed once. Due to the very uneven distribution a comparison of the outcome in regard to the concomitant therapy was rather problematical. Psychiatric problems (21%), polyneuritis (12%) and liver damage (10.6%)--all known complications of chronic alcohol abuse--were the most frequent concomitant diagnoses. Of the 91 patients who had remained abstinent for the first two weeks after the start of the study, 12.9% had a recurrence at the end of the study, 56% did not have a recurrence (they were abstinent, but did have a binge or a lapse) and 31.8% did not return for the control visits. When a recurrence did occur, however, significantly less alcohol was consumed than before the treatment. As a result of the combined intervention all the parameters relating to the quality of life that were documented in connection with the SF 36 showed improvement. With this study carried out in Switzerland, which is

  17. Depression and Suicidal Ideation During Two Psychosocial Treatments in Older Adults with Major Depression and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Rosenberg, Paul B; McGovern, Amanda; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Zaydens, Hana; Alexopoulos, George S

    2015-01-01

    Depression is prevalent in dementia and contributes to poor outcomes for patients and their families. Antidepressants have limited efficacy in older adults with major depression and dementia, and psychosocial interventions are under-investigated. To examine the course, predictors and moderators of depression and suicidal ideation during 12 weeks of home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) versus Supportive Therapy for Cognitively Impaired Older Adults (ST-CI) in 39 older adults with major depression and dementia. Thirty-nine older adults with major depression, mild or moderate dementia, and disability participated in a randomized controlled trial that compared the efficacy of PATH versus ST-CI. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia Total Score and Suicide Item. PATH participants had significantly greater reduction in depression than ST-CI participants over 12 weeks of treatment. PATH participants with high social support had the greatest reduction in depression. Both treatments had comparable reduction in suicidal ideation. PATH is more effective in reducing depression in older adults with major depression and dementia compared to ST-CI. These results are clinically significant as antidepressants have limited efficacy in this population. Home-delivered psychosocial treatments may reduce suicidal ideation in this population.

  18. Beyond treatmentPsychosocial and behavioural issues in cancer survivorship research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil K. Aaronson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The population of cancer survivors has grown steadily over the past several decades. Surviving cancer, however, is not synonymous with a life free of problems related to the disease and its treatment. In this paper we provide a brief overview of selected physical and psychosocial health problems prevalent among cancer survivors, namely pain, fatigue, psychological distress and work participation. We also address issues surrounding self-management and e-Health interventions for cancer survivors, and programmes to encourage survivors to adopt healthier lifestyles. Finally, we discuss approaches to assessing health-related quality of life in cancer survivors, and the use of cancer registries in conducting psychosocial survivorship research. We highlight research and practice priorities in each of these areas. While the priorities vary per topic, common themes that emerged included: (1 Symptoms should not be viewed in isolation, but rather as part of a cluster of interrelated symptoms. This has implications for both understanding the aetiology of symptoms and for their treatment; (2 Psychosocial interventions need to be evidence-based, and where possible should be tailored to the needs of the individual cancer survivor. Relatively low cost interventions with self-management and e-Health elements may be appropriate for the majority of survivors, with resource intensive interventions being reserved for those most in need; (3 More effort should be devoted to disseminating and implementing interventions in practice, and to evaluating their cost-effectiveness; and (4 Greater attention should be paid to the needs of vulnerable and high-risk populations of survivors, including the socioeconomically disadvantaged and the elderly.

  19. Eating psychopathology and psychosocial impairment in patients treated at a Singapore eating disorders treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kah Wee; Kuek, Angeline; Lee, Huei Yen

    2018-01-01

    There is limited data on the psychopathology of eating disorders in Singapore. This study: (a) described levels of eating psychopathology and psychosocial impairment among individuals diagnosed with eating disorders at our hospital; and (b) compared the related psychopathology of these patients. Between 1 August 2010 and 31 July 2012, 257 individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Clinical Impairment Assessment questionnaire (CIA). A majority of participants were women and of Chinese ethnicity. Diagnoses included anorexia nervosa (AN; 41.6%), bulimia nervosa (BN; 29.6%) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; 28.8%). Mean age at presentation was 20.52 ± 7.14 years and mean body mass index was 17.84 ± 4.18 kg/m 2 . Individuals with AN were significantly younger at presentation and had shorter duration of untreated illness compared to those with BN and EDNOS. There were no significant differences in the CIA scores of the diagnostic groups. Participants with BN scored higher in all subscales of the EDE-Q than those with AN and EDNOS. Our sample scored lower in most subscales of EDE-Q when compared to treatment centres in Sweden, Australia and the United States. Our clinical sample reported lower scores of psychopathology compared to overseas centres. This could be attributed to the higher percentages of BN and EDNOS diagnosed in overseas populations. Individuals with AN showed higher levels of psychopathology in our study compared to patients from the United States. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  20. [Family and psychosocial variables in the choice of university studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pinto Arrillaga, A; Yllá Segura, L; Ortiz Jáuregi, A; Zupiria Gorostidi, X

    2003-01-01

    Family order of the children and family size as well as other psychosocial variables on University of the Basque Country (UBC) students are compared in order to relate these data with the choice of type of university studies. As a sample, we studied 6,013 students from the UBC in different careers and courses. Mean age was 20.26 years. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Scale and Yllá Alexithymia Scale. All them were validated for our country. The presence of women was greater in all the career studies except for engineering where the proportion of men was greater. The data verify the relationship between being the youngest or intermediate child of a family of three or more children and studying Journalism and Fine Arts and that the first born of families of two or more children are more represented in Engineering. It is interesting that there are fewer only children in Medicine where children of families of three or more, both first-born as well as intermediate, go. These variables, as well as extraversion, neuroticism and alexithymia, were different in the different career studies. It was also observed that the female university students scored higher in the neuroticism scale and that the levels of Alexithymia were higher among the men. Further, relations were found between child birth order and family size and personality, in the sense that the Medical and Odontology careers presented lower scores in Alexithymia while the more technical careers such as Engineering are those that present a higher alexithymia. Medicine and Odontology, followed by Mathematics and Journalism, obtained the highest scores in neuroticism. Engineering students obtain the lowest neuroticism. The most extroverted students are those from Journalism, Chemistry, Economics and Odontology. The choice of university studies is associated to gender, birth order, family size and personality patterns. Personality variables are related to

  1. The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study's framework for assessing lifelong psychosocial factors in solid-organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geest, Sabina; Burkhalter, Hanna; Berben, Lut; Bogert, Laura Jane; Denhaerynck, Kris; Glass, Tracy R; Goetzmann, Lutz; Kirsch, Monika; Kiss, Alexander; Koller, Michael T; Piot-Ziegler, Chantal; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2013-09-01

    Understanding outcomes after transplant requires a biopsychosocial model that includes biomedical and psychosocial factors. The latter, to date, are assessed only in a limited way as part of transplant registries or cohort studies. The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS) is a nationwide open cohort study (starting May 2008) to systematically and prospectively assess psychosocial factors. This article describes the framework underpinning STCS's psychosocial assessment. The STCS framework was adapted from the multidimensional conceptual perspective of Dew et al to describe transplant psychosocial domains and specific outcomes by adding a time perspective, a system perspective, and interaction among domains. We propose a multidimensional, multilevel biopsychosocial framework representing mutually influencing domains from before to after transplant, and exemplify each domain by factors included in STCS and their measurement. The transplant patient, centrally positioned, is described by clinical and sociodemographic characteristics (eg, socioeconomic status, educational, professional, and relationship status). The following psychosocial domains further describe the patient: (1) physical/functional (eg, perceived health status, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness), (2) psychological (eg, depression, stress), (3) behavioral (eg, medication adherence, smoking, drug use, physical activity, sun protection), (4) social (eg, work capacity/return to work), and (5) global quality of life. Factors associated with health care system level (eg, trust in transplant team) are also included in the model. The STCS's psychosocial framework provides a basis for studying the interplay of biomedical, sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioral, and health care system factors in view of transplant outcomes and therefore has the potential to guide biopsychosocial transplant research.

  2. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity: the impact of multidisciplinary obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Johansen, Mia Østergaard; Grønbæk, Helle Nergaard; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight was calculated using a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) at each visit. At entry, the mean BMI SDS was 2.81 (range: 1.35-6.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.44-3.18). After a median of 14 months of treatment, the median reduction in BMI SDS was 0.29 (95% CI: 0.26-0.31, p bullying and body image satisfaction (p < 0.0001). Larger reductions in BMI SDS were associated with greater improvements in the domains of quality of life (p = 0.001), mood (p = 0.04) and body image satisfaction (p < 0.0001), independent of BMI SDS at entry. However, improvements in psychosocial well-being were also observed in those increasing their BMI SDS (n = 315). In a large group of children and youths, psychosocial well-being improved during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme, irrespective of the degree of obesity at treatment entry. Greater reductions in BMI SDS were associated with greater improvements in psychosocial well-being, but even in the group increasing their BMI SDS improvements were observed.

  3. Considerations on occupational therapy in a custody and psychiatric treatment hospital: The psychosocial field versus the forensic psychiatry field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Santos de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Custody and Psychiatric Treatment Hospital (CPTH is ambivalent and ambiguous in its essence, because it gathers not only the characteristics of a mental institution, but also those of a prison – epitomized by the security system. By analyzing this context, one can perceive the importance of implementing some knowhow able to attend the real needs of the individuals hospitalized in this type of institution. This interpretation of their needs must be done in association with a work in mental health based on the principles of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and Psychosocial Field Practice. The objective of this study is to reflect on the real possibilities of implementing mental health work based on the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, inserted in the Psychosocial Field, in institutions such as CPTHs. This reflection occurs from the conflicts arisen in the beginning of Occupational Therapy service in a CPTH located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, as well as through the analysis of the reality in which this Custody Hospital is inserted. When studying the Psychiatric Reform Law, ordinance 28.195/1988, which deliberates on the functions of Occupational Therapy in the CPTHs of the state of Sao Paulo, and the Penal Execution Law, the reality was analyzed from its dimensions, to conclude that the institutional forces ruled the work process of occupational therapists. Therefore, the structural, particular, singular dimensions that rule the CPTH were understood and, after that, the “nodes” that hinder the implementation of mental health work in the Psychosocial Field in this type of institution were revealed.

  4. A study of psychosocial challenges of public secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The Public health Nurses and School health nurses should work with school administrators to enhance mental health of school children with a view to ensuring conducive learning environment that will promote academic performances. Keywords: Psychosocial, Challenges, Mental health, Public schools, Ore ...

  5. Video gaming and children's psychosocial wellbeing: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Stone, L.L.; Burk, W.J.; Granic, I.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of video games on children's psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27-11.43 years old; male = 98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b)

  6. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Thiese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL were compared to 10 psychosocial measures. Relationships and predicted probabilities were assessed using ordered logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, and gender. Results and Discussion. Among 1834 study participants there were multiple statistically significant relationships. In general, as duration, repetition, and force increased, psychosocial factors worsened. However, general health and mental exhaustion improved with increasing job exposures. Depression was most strongly associated with increased repetition, while physical exhaustion was most strongly associated with increased force. SI and TLV for HAL were significantly related to multiple psychosocial factors. These relationships persisted after adjustment for strong confounders. Conclusion. This study quantified multiple associations between job physical exposures and occupational and nonoccupational psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to quantify the impacts on occupational health outcomes.

  7. Input of Psychosocial Information During Multidisciplinary Team Meetings at Medical Oncology Departments: Protocol for an Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlait, Melissa; Van Belle, Simon; Leys, Mark

    2018-02-26

    Multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) have become standard practice in oncology and gained the status of the key decision-making forum for cancer patient management. The current literature provides evidence that MDTMs are achieving their intended objectives but there are also indications to question the positive impact of MDTMs in oncology settings. For cancer management to be patient-centered, it is crucial that medical information as well as psychosocial aspects-such as the patients' living situation, possible family problems, patients' mental state, and patients' perceptions and values or preferences towards treatment or care-are considered and discussed during MDTMs. Previous studies demonstrate that failure to account for patients' psychosocial information has a negative impact on the implementation of the treatment recommendations formulated during MDTMs. Few empirical studies have demonstrated the predominant role of physicians during MDTMs, leading to the phenomenon that medical information is shared almost exclusively at the expense of psychosocial information. However, more in-depth insight on the underlying reasons why MDTMs fail to take into account psychosocial information of cancer patients is needed. This paper presents a research protocol for a cross-sectional observational study that will focus on exploring the barriers to considering psychosocial information during MDTMs at medical oncology departments. This protocol encompasses a cross-sectional comparative case study of MDTMs at medical oncology departments in Flanders, Belgium. MDTMs from various oncology subspecialties at inpatient medical oncology departments in multiple hospitals (academic as well as general hospitals) are compared. The observations focus on the "multidisciplinary oncology consultation" (MOC), a formally regulated and financed type of MDTM in Belgian oncology since 2003. Data are collected through nonparticipant observations of MOC-meetings. Observational data are

  8. Psychosocial predictors of emotional eating and their weight-loss treatment-induced changes in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Mareno, Nicole; McEwen, Kristin

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing whether psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and weight loss also predict emotional eating, and how differing weight-loss treatment methods affect those variables. Women with obesity (M = 47.8 ± 7.9 years; BMI = 35.4 ± 3.3 kg/m(2)) were randomized into groups of either phone-supported self-help (Self-Help; n = 50) or in-person contact (Personal Contact; n = 53) intended to increase exercise, improve eating behaviors, and reduce weight over 6 months. A multiple regression analysis indicated that at baseline mood, self-regulating eating, body satisfaction, and eating-related self-efficacy significantly predicted emotional eating (R (2) = 0.35), with mood and self-efficacy as independent predictors. Improvements over 6 months on each psychosocial measure were significantly greater in the Personal Contact group. Changes in mood, self-regulation, body satisfaction, and self-efficacy significantly predicted emotional eating change (R (2) = 0.38), with all variables except self-regulation change being an independent predictor. Decreased emotional eating was significantly associated with weight loss. Findings suggest that weight-loss interventions should target specific psychosocial factors to improve emotional eating. The administration of cognitive-behavioral methods through personal contact might be more beneficial for those improvements than self-help formats.

  9. Evaluation of adherence to treatment by patients seen in a psychosocial care center in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Teles Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of mental disorders, nonadherence to medication, the main cause of psychiatric morbidity, is observed in about 50% of the cases and is responsible for numerous losses. This study evaluated adherence to drug treatment by patients seen in a Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS in northeastern Brazil. Adherence to treatment was evaluated using the Haynes-Sackett and Morisky-Green-Levine tests. All patients registered in the CAPS were included in the study (n= 101. Only 11.88% of the patients adhered to drug treatment. The main reasons not to use medication were: oblivion (68.83%, feeling unwell after taking the medication (54.22%, not having money to buy the medication (43.83%, not finding the medication in the public health service (39.94% and fear of harm that might be caused by the drug (28.90%. Furthermore, 85.1% of the patients did not know their diseases, 88.1% did not know their treatment, 86.4% did not feel good when they took their medication, and 88.1% took their medication incorrectly. The results revealed that the lack of information about diseases and drugs used, the nuisance posed by drug therapy and the low access to medications reduce adherence to treatment and, consequently, treatment effectiveness.No tratamento de desordens mentais, a não-adesão ao tratamento ocorre em cerca de 50% dos casos e é responsável por inúmeros prejuízos, além de ser a principal causa de morbidade psiquiátrica. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso de pacientes atendidos em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS no Nordeste do Brasil. A avaliação da adesão ao tratamento foi feita através dos testes de Haynes-Sackett e Morisky-Green-Levine. Todos os pacientes cadastrados no CAPS foram incluídos no estudo (n = 101. Observou-se que apenas 11,88% dos pacientes aderiram ao tratamento medicamentoso. As principais razões para o não uso dos medicamentos foram: esquecimento (68,83%, sentir-se mal ap

  10. A randomised trial of a psychosocial intervention for cancer patients integrated into routine care: the PROMPT study (promoting optimal outcomes in mood through tailored psychosocial therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolley Damien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence that up to 35% of patients with cancer experience significant distress, access to effective psychosocial care is limited by lack of systematic approaches to assessment, a paucity of psychosocial services, and patient reluctance to accept treatment either because of perceived stigma or difficulties with access to specialist psycho-oncology services due to isolation or disease burden. This paper presents an overview of a randomised study to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief tailored psychosocial Intervention delivered by health professionals in cancer care who undergo focused training and participate in clinical supervision. Methods/design Health professionals from the disciplines of nursing, occupational therapy, speech pathology, dietetics, physiotherapy or radiation therapy will participate in training to deliver the psychosocial Intervention focusing on core concepts of supportive-expressive, cognitive and dignity-conserving care. Health professional training will consist of completion of a self-directed manual and participation in a skills development session. Participating health professionals will be supported through structured clinical supervision whilst delivering the Intervention. In the stepped wedge design each of the 5 participating clinical sites will be allocated in random order from Control condition to Training then delivery of the Intervention. A total of 600 patients will be recruited across all sites. Based on level of distress or risk factors eligible patients will receive up to 4 sessions, each of up to 30 minutes in length, delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Participants will be assessed at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Patient outcome measures include anxiety and depression, quality of life, unmet psychological and supportive care needs. Health professional measures include psychological morbidity, stress and burnout. Process evaluation will be conducted to assess perceptions

  11. Sports participation and psychosocial health : a longitudinal observational study in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeijes, Janet; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that sports participation is positively associated with psychosocial health in children, but details about this association over time are lacking. This study aimed to explore longitudinal associations between several characteristics of sports participation and three

  12. Antiretroviral treatment adherence as a mediating factor between psychosocial variables and HIV viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attonito, Jennifer; Dévieux, Jessy G; Lerner, Brenda D G; Hospital, Michelle M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors may directly impact HIV health measures such as viral load (VL) whether or not patients are taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) consistently. Structural equation modeling plus Baron and Kenny's (1986) four-step approach were used to test a mediated model predicting VL among 246 HIV-infected adults who were on ART. Exogenous variables were social support, barriers to adherence, and stress. Moderators were alcohol use, marijuana use, and neurocognitive impairment. A small positive association between marijuana use and ART adherence approached significance. Only barriers to adherence predicted a decrease in adherence rates and an increase in VL. No other factors were significantly associated with either VL or adherence, and no interaction effects between exogenous variables and moderators were identified. The association between barriers to adherence and VL was partially mediated by ART adherence. Findings provide modest support for a direct link between psychosocial variables and a virologic response to ART. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychosocial deprivation in women with gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with poor fetomaternal prognoses: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Emmanuel; Bihan, Hélène; Reach, Gérard; Vittaz, Laurence; Carbillon, Lionel; Valensi, Paul

    2015-03-06

    To evaluate the prognoses associated with psychosocial deprivation in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Observational study considering the 1498 multiethnic women with GDM who gave birth between January 2009 and February 2012. Four largest maternity units in the northeastern suburban area of Paris. The 994 women who completed the Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers (EPICES) questionnaire. Main complications of GDM (large infant for gestational age (LGA), shoulder dystocia, caesarean section, pre-eclampsia). Psychosocial deprivation (EPICES score ≥30.17) affected 577 women (56%) and was positively associated with overweight/obesity, parity and non-European origin, and negatively associated with family history of diabetes, fruit and vegetable consumption and working status. The psychosocially deprived women were diagnosed with GDM earlier, received insulin treatment during pregnancy more often and were more likely to have LGA infants (15.1% vs 10.6%, OR=1.5 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.2), p<0.05) and shoulder dystocia (3.1% vs 1.2%, OR=2.7 (0.97 to 7.2), p<0.05). In addition to psychosocial deprivation, LGA was associated with greater parity, obesity, history of GDM, ethnicity, excessive gestational weight gain and insulin therapy. A multivariate analysis using these covariates revealed that the EPICES score was independently associated with LGA infants (per 10 units, OR=1.12 (1.03 to 1.20), p<0.01). In our area, psychosocial deprivation is common in women with GDM and is associated with earlier GDM diagnoses and greater insulin treatment, an increased likelihood of shoulder dystocia and, independently of obesity, gestational weight gain and other confounders with LGA infants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Video Gaming and Children's Psychosocial Wellbeing: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E; Stone, Lisanne L; Burk, William J; Granic, Isabela

    2017-04-01

    The effects of video games on children's psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27-11.43 years old; male = 98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b) competitively; likewise, parents reported their children's psychosocial health. Gaming at time one was associated with increases in emotion problems. Violent gaming was not associated with psychosocial changes. Cooperative gaming was not associated with changes in prosocial behavior. Finally, competitive gaming was associated with decreases in prosocial behavior, but only among children who played video games with high frequency. Thus, gaming frequency was related to increases in internalizing but not externalizing, attention, or peer problems, violent gaming was not associated with increases in externalizing problems, and for children playing approximately 8 h or more per week, frequent competitive gaming may be a risk factor for decreasing prosocial behavior. We argue that replication is needed and that future research should better distinguish between different forms of gaming for more nuanced and generalizable insight.

  15. Emotion regulation and Residual Depression Predict Psychosocial Functioning in Bipolar Disorder: Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Rodrigo; Cruise, Kate; Harms, Craig; Allan, Alfred; Bassett, Darryl; Hood, Sean; Murray, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the predictive value of various clinical, neuropsychological, functional, and emotion regulation processes for recovery in Bipolar Disorder. Clinical and demographic information was collected for 27 euthymic or residually depressed BD participants. Seventy one percent of the sample reported some degree of impairment in psychosocial functioning. Both residual depression and problems with emotion regulation were identified as significant predictors of poor psychosocial funct...

  16. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: a study amongst Malaysian workers

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Mohd A.; Dollard, Maureen F.; Winefield, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions. Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout) and ...

  17. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of child health in Africa: the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, DJ; Koen, N; Donald, KA; Adnams, CM; Koopowitz, S; Lund, C; Marais, A; Myers, B; Roos, A; Sorsdahl, K; Stern, M; Tomlinson, M; van der Westhuizen, C; Vythilingum, B; Myer, L; Barnett, W; Brittain, K; Zar, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life psychobiological and psychosocial factors play a key role in influencing child health outcomes. Longitudinal studies may help elucidate the relevant risk and resilience profiles, and the underlying mechanisms that impact on child health, but there is a paucity of birth cohort data from low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We describe the rationale for and present baseline findings from the psychosocial component of the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Methods We review the psychosocial measures used in the DCHS, a multidisciplinary birth cohort study in a peri-urban area in South Africa, and provide initial data on psychological distress, depression, substance use, and exposure to traumatic stressors and intimate partner violence (IPV). These and other measures will be assessed longitudinally in mothers in order to investigate associations with child neurodevelopmental and health outcomes. Results Baseline psychosocial data is presented for mothers (n = 634) and fathers (n = 75) who have completed antenatal assessments to date. The sample of pregnant mothers is characterized by multiple psychosocial risk factors, including a high prevalence of psychological distress and depression, high levels of substance use, and high exposure to traumatic stressors and IPV. Discussion These data are consistent with prior South African studies which have documented a high prevalence of a multitude of risk factors during pregnancy. Further longitudinal assessment of mothers and children may clarify the underlying psychobiological and psychosocial mechanisms which impact on child health, and so inform clinical and public health interventions appropriate to the South African and other LMIC contexts. PMID:25797842

  18. High levels of psychosocial readiness for ART in an African population at the onset of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Brent; Mbonye, Martin; Coutinho, Aartin; Amuron, Barbara; Nkabala, Robert; Jaffar, Shabbar; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2009-12-01

    Adherence at the earliest stages of treatment is likely to be influenced by prior illness trajectories and future expectations, best captured (and addressed) before treatment begins. We examined the influence of illness trajectories and treatment expectations on psychosocial readiness to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Jinja, Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2005 and April 2006 with 41 members of an AIDS support organisation on their first day of treatment. Transcribed texts were translated, coded and analysed thematically using NVIVO-7 software. Results indicated that acute fear of death and progressive withdrawal from social, economic and sexual roles narrowed focus on survival, while efficacy-enhancing experiences with septrin prophylaxis and trust in counsellors reinforced belief in HIV diagnosis and importance of adherence. Most enjoyed supportive home environments after disclosing their serostatus. Lack of money for food and transport was anticipated as the main barriers to future adherence, particularly among women. Integrating strong counselling support with ART provision helped channel the power of shared illness experience into positive motivation to adhere at the onset of treatment.

  19. Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Lospinoso, Josh; Cancio, Jill

    2017-08-09

    Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Limb salvage spares an extremity at risk for amputation after a major traumatic injury. Psychosocial recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been discussed in the literature. However, to date, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage have not been examined. To determine which factors may influence psychosocial adaptation to UE limb salvage. Participants (n = 30; 28 males) were adults (mean, 30.13; range, 18-61) who sustained an UE limb salvage from a traumatic event. Adaptation was measured using a modified version of the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory. A linear mixed-effects regression found that worse psychosocial adaptation was associated with having less than a college degree, being less than 6 months post-injury, being older than 23 years, and having more pain. Dominant hand injuries were found to influence poor adaptation on the denial Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory subscale only. The results of this study indicate that there is potential for nonadaptive reactions and psychological distress with certain variables in UE limb salvage. Therapists may use these results to anticipate which clients may be at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes. This study indicates the need for early consideration to factors that affect psychological prognosis for the UE limb salvage population. However, future research is indicated to better understand the unique psychosocial challenges and needs of these individuals. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood psychosocial adversity and female reproductive timing: a cohort study of the ALSPAC mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Anderson, Emma L; Howe, Laura D; Joinson, Carol J; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Fraser, Abigail

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of childhood psychosocial adversity and age at menarche mostly evaluated single or a few measures of adversity, and therefore could not quantify total psychosocial adversity. Limited knowledge is currently available regarding childhood psychosocial adversity in relation to age at menopause and reproductive lifespan. We examined the associations of total and specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity with age at menarche (n=8984), age at menopause (n=945), and length of reproductive lifespan (n=841), in mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used confirmatory factor analysis to characterise lack of care, maladaptive family functioning, non-sexual abuse, overprotective parenting, parental mental illness and sexual abuse. These specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity were combined into a total psychosocial adversity score using a second-order factor analysis. We used structural equation models to simultaneously conduct the factor analysis and estimate the association with the continuous outcomes of interest. Total childhood psychosocial adversity was not associated with age at menarche, age at menopause or length of reproductive lifespan. When we examined the separate psychosocial adversity constructs, sexual abuse was inversely associated with age at menarche, with a mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.23 to -0.12) years per SD higher factor score, and with age at menopause, with a mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.18) per SD higher factor score. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with lower age at menarche and menopause, but the latter needs to be confirmed in larger samples. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Breast cancer: a study of the psychosocial issues faced by women undergoing radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnie, C. [Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychosocial issues faced by post lumpectomy women with early stage breast cancer undergoing radical radiation to the affected breast. Twenty-five women in their second to fifth week of treatment were given the survey to determine these issues. Responses were then grouped by age category and results compiled. Regardless of age, a majority of women felt that they and their spouses had become closer since their diagnosis and described their spouses as being supportive. Scheduling appointment times around childcare was important for some women. Almost half of the women experienced a change in employment status as a result of their diagnosis. Appointment times and work schedules were important for some women still working. In all age groups, women experienced fatigue at least sometimes. (author)

  2. Breast cancer: a study of the psychosocial issues faced by women undergoing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnie, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychosocial issues faced by post lumpectomy women with early stage breast cancer undergoing radical radiation to the affected breast. Twenty-five women in their second to fifth week of treatment were given the survey to determine these issues. Responses were then grouped by age category and results compiled. Regardless of age, a majority of women felt that they and their spouses had become closer since their diagnosis and described their spouses as being supportive. Scheduling appointment times around childcare was important for some women. Almost half of the women experienced a change in employment status as a result of their diagnosis. Appointment times and work schedules were important for some women still working. In all age groups, women experienced fatigue at least sometimes. (author)

  3. The ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT): from 'what' to 'how' of psychosocial screening - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Timmerman, Lotte; Ismail, Sohal Y; Duerinckx, Nathalie; Lopes, Alice; Maple, Hannah; Mega, Inês; Papachristou, Christina; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2018-01-01

    Thorough psychosocial screening of donor candidates is required in order to minimize potential negative consequences and to strive for optimal safety within living donation programmes. We aimed to develop an evidence-based tool to standardize the psychosocial screening process. Key concepts of psychosocial screening were used to structure our tool: motivation and decision-making, personal resources, psychopathology, social resources, ethical and legal factors and information and risk processing. We (i) discussed how each item per concept could be measured, (ii) reviewed and rated available validated tools, (iii) where necessary developed new items, (iv) assessed content validity and (v) pilot-tested the new items. The resulting ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT) consists of a selection of validated questionnaires (28 items in total), a semi-structured interview (43 questions) and a Red Flag Checklist. We outline optimal procedures and conditions for implementing this tool. The EPAT and user manual are available from the authors. Use of this tool will standardize the psychosocial screening procedure ensuring that no psychosocial issues are overlooked and ensure that comparable selection criteria are used and facilitate generation of comparable psychosocial data on living donor candidates. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  4. Coping With Diverse Sex Development: Treatment Experiences and Psychosocial Support During Childhood and Adolescence and Adult Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Katinka; Brunner, Franziska; Gedrose, Benjamin; Handford, Christina; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, retrospective, and correlational study was to examine the relationships between childhood treatment experiences, parental care, and social support, and outcome in adults with different diverse sex development (DSD). The data of 69 participants from an exploratory questionnaire were collected in a retrospective German study. The majority received medical treatment in relation to their DSD during childhood and adolescence. Seventy percent reported having had a best friend and 29% a confidant during childhood. Sixty-one percent showed clinically relevant psychological distress, and 45% reported suicidal thoughts at least at one point in their lives. Quality of parental care and having had a best friend correlated positively with adult outcome, whereas treatment experiences correlated with aspects of impaired adjustment. Social support and DSD-related treatment experiences appear to have an impact on adult well-being. Appropriate psychosocial care including peer-to-peer support should be made available to children with DSD and their families. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. [The model program of psycho-social treatment and staff training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Emi

    2012-01-01

    The model program of psycho-social treatment and staff training were reported in this issue. The mission of model program is supporting recovery of persons with mental illness and their family as well as empowering their hope and sense of values. The personal support specialists belonging to multi-disciplinary team have responsibility to support life-long process of recovery across hospitalization, out-patients clinic, day treatment, and outreach service. The shared value of multi-disciplinary team (the community life supporting team) is recovery so that the team renders self directive life, various alternatives of their lives, and peer group with models of recovery to persons with mental illness. There should be several technologies which are used in the team such as engagement, psycho-education, cognitive-behavior therapy, care-management, cooperating with other resources. The responsibility, assessment and evaluation techniques, guarantee of opportunities for training, and auditing system of the team and process of treatment are important factors to educate team staff. Raising effective multi-disciplinary team requires existence of a mentor or good model near the team.

  6. Specialized psychosocial treatment plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU for patients with cannabis use disorder and psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, C R; Fohlmann, A; Larsen, Anne-Mette

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis abuse in psychotic patients is associated with rehospitalizations, reduced adherence and increased symptom severity. Previous psychosocial interventions have been ineffective in cannabis use, possibly because of low sample sizes and short interventions. We investigated whether...... adding CapOpus to treatment as usual (TAU) reduces cannabis use in patients with cannabis use disorder and psychosis. Method A total of 103 patients with psychosis and cannabis use disorder were centrally randomized to 6 months of CapOpus plus TAU (n = 52) or TAU (n = 51). CapOpus consisted mainly...... of motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). TAU was targeted primarily at the psychotic disorder. The primary outcome was self-reported days with cannabis use in the preceding month. RESULTS: Pre-randomization cannabis use frequency was 14.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.7-17.1] days...

  7. The Voice of Experience: Diet and Weight Change in Women with Breast Cancer Associate with Psychosocial and Treatment-Related Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; Mccargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated relationships between psychosocial and treatment-related factors, diet, and weight change in women treated with chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Comprehensive qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 women who were within 12 months of completing chemotherapy treatment. Changes in food intake and eating patterns were universal over the course of chemotherapy, with broad variability in treatment effects and associated dietary responses linked to weight change. Increased appetite, food cravings, and intake of energy-dense comfort foods were more common among women who gained weight during treatment (n = 11). Changes in taste, nausea, and emotional distress were central in promoting these dietary responses. Women who lost weight during treatment (n = 6) tended to report more severe and persistent side effects of treatment leading to poor appetite and lower food intake, and they were more likely to live alone. While the etiology of weight change in this population is complex, this study suggests that changes in food intake related to treatment and psychosocial challenges may play an important role for some women. These findings may help to identify women who are most at risk of weight change during treatment and may inform the development of tailored dietary interventions.

  8. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems (MHP are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Methods Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Results Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05 and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73 respectively. In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. Conclusions These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  9. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline S; Ndjaboué, Ruth; Levesque, Manon; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Xavier; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Dionne, Clermont E; Mâsse, Benoît; Pearce, Neil; Brisson, Chantal

    2017-01-18

    Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD) in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05) and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73) respectively). In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  10. A systematic review of studies on psychosocial late effects of childhood cancer: structures of society and methodological pitfalls may challenge the conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Rechnitzer, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    High survival rates after childhood cancer raise attention to possible psychosocial late effects. We focus on predictors of psychosocial outcomes based on diagnosis, treatment, demography, somatic disease, and methodological problems. Overall, survivors evaluate their health-related quality of life...

  11. Psychosocial interventions for disruptive behavioural problems in children living in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Matthew D; Hosein, Megan; Purgato, Marianna; Adi, Ahmad; Morton, Isabella; Kohrt, Brandon A; Tol, Wietse A

    2015-05-20

    Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) are among the most common forms of child psychopathology and have serious long-term academic, social, and mental health consequences worldwide. Psychosocial treatments are the first line of evidence-based treatments for DBDs, yet their effectiveness often varies according to patient sociodemographic characteristics, practice setting, and implementation procedures. While a large majority of the world's children live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), most studies have evaluated psychosocial treatments for DBDs in high-income Anglo countries. The primary objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of psychosocial treatments for DBDs in children and adolescents (under age 18) diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, or other disruptive behavioural problems living in LMIC. The secondary objectives are to: (1) describe the range and types of psychosocial treatments used to address DBDs in LMIC and (2) identify key dissemination and implementation factors (adaptation processes, training/supervision processes, and financial costs). All controlled trials comparing psychosocial treatments versus waiting list, no treatment, or treatment as usual in children living in LMIC will be included. Studies will be identified using the methods outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines without restrictions on language, publication type, status, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be disruptive behavioural problems (eg, oppositionality, defiance, aggression or deceit). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (eg, prosocial behaviour), function impairment, institutionalisation (or hospitalisation), academic outcomes and caregiver outcomes. This study uses data from published studies; therefore ethical review is not required. Findings will be presented in a published manuscript. PROSPERO CRD42014015334

  12. Epidemiologic studies of psychosocial factors associated with quality of life among patients with chronic diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Masayo

    2012-01-01

    A link between affective disturbances and physical disorders has been suggested since the Greco-Roman era. However, evidence supporting an association between mind and body is limited and mostly comes from North America and Europe. Additional local epidemiologic studies are needed so that more evidence can be collected on effective treatments and health management. Epidemiologic studies of Japanese with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and those on chronic hemodialysis examined the association between psychosocial factors and patient quality of life (QOL). Strong associations among depression, social support, and patient QOL were confirmed, which supports the findings of studies performed in Western countries. In addition, disparities between the perspectives of patients with RA and their doctors were observed. Alexithymia, a personality construct that reflects a deficit in the cognitive processing of emotion, had a stronger independent association with increased risk of 5-year mortality than did depression among patients with chronic hemodialysis. Physiological, biological, and psychosocial factors are associated and independently and interactively determine our health. Epidemiology is a powerful tool for identifying effective points of intervention, after considering all possible confounders. Future studies must clarify how health can be improved by using a psychosocial approach.

  13. A longitudinal study about the body image and psychosocial adjustment of breast cancer patients during the course of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2010-09-01

    The research of body image among breast cancer patients is characterized by some limitations, such as the lack of longitudinal studies or the absence of a multidimensional perspective of body image. This study intends to overcome these limitations, by examining the evolution of body image dimensions (investment, emotions and evaluations) from the period of surgery (T1) to 6-months after the treatment's ending (T2). It also aims to explore the predictors of body image at T2 and, simultaneously, the predictive role of initial body image to psychosocial adjustment at T2. A total of 56 breast cancer patients participated in both assessments and completed a battery of instruments that included measures of body image dimensions (appearance investment, self-consciousness of appearance, shame and appearance satisfaction) and psychosocial adjustment (quality of life and emotional distress). Within the dimensions of body image, only shame increased over time. In general, initial levels of investment predicted subsequent body image dimensions and having a mastectomy done was associated with higher shame and lower appearance satisfaction at T2. Initial body image did not predict later adjustment, with the exception of depression, where appearance investment played a relevant role. Our findings contributed to the advance of knowledge in this area, providing relevant data about the evolution of body image dimensions, its predictors and its predictive role on psychosocial adjustment among breast cancer patients. This study also suggested some clinical implications that can assist health professionals to implement strategies focused on body image throughout the disease.

  14. Cognitive rehabilitation therapy after acquired brain injury in Argentina: psychosocial outcomes in connection with the time elapsed before treatment initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saux, Gastón; Demey, Ignacio; Rojas, Galeno; Feldberg, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) on psychosocial outcomes in Argentinean patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), in connection with the time elapsed between injury and treatment initiation. Self-reported data from patients in a naturalistic setting was collected before and after CRT. An outpatient sample of 75 Spanish-speaking patients with cognitive disturbances secondary to ABI (49 male/26 female, age: 50.2 ± 20.1 years; education 14.3 ± 3.2 years) completed a set of scales on their daily living activities, memory self-perception, quality-of-life and mood. Single and multi-group analyses were conducted, considering pre- and post- responses and the time elapsed between injury and treatment initiation. The influence of socio-demographic moderators was controlled during comparisons. Results suggest an improvement in several psychosocial indicators after treatment. Additionally, correlations and group comparisons showed greater improvement in subjective memory and quality-of-life self-reports in patients who began treatment earlier than those who began treatment after a longer time period. Overall, results suggest that CRT is associated with positive results in different areas of the psychosocial domain and that post-injury time can mediate this effect.

  15. Continuation of Health Behaviors: Psychosocial Factors Sustaining Drinking Water Chlorination in a Longitudinal Study from Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lilje

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavior that has changed following promotion campaigns is usually not maintained at its initial level. Psychosocial factors for initiating behavior are often not the same as for the continuation of health behaviors such as water treatment and are much less understood. Better knowledge of factors for behavioral continuation would help to improve programs, both in the design of strategies for sustainable behavior change and by defining stronger criteria for the evaluation of sustainability. This study compared the mindsets of caregivers who continuously performed household drinking water treatment over time with individuals that stopped doing so in a population sample from Chad. Several factors from health psychology based on the Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-Regulation (RANAS model were used to compare the two groups and examine their differing development. Normative factors such as others’ behavior, personal obligation, social support and discourse, perceived self-efficacy convictions, action control, and intention best discriminated between the two groups and developed significantly more positively over time for continuers of water treatment. These factors should be considered when designing future interventions intended to lead to sustainable behavior change.

  16. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and self-reported psychological health: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial conditions at work, unemployment and self-reported psychological health. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire for the 2000 public health survey in Scania was administered to both working and unemployed people aged 18-64 years. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial factors at work/unemployment and self-reported psychological health (General Health Questionnaire 12). Psychosocial conditions at work were classified according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive and job strain. The multivariate analyses included age, country of origin, education, economic stress and social participation. A total of 5180 people returned their questionnaire, giving a participation rate of 59%. Fifteen per cent of men and 20% of women reported poor psychological health. Those with high demands and high control (active category), those with high demands and low control (job strain category) and the unemployed had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health compared to those with low demands and high control (relaxed category). Those with low demands and low control (passive category) did not differ significantly from the relaxed category. The associations remained in the multivariate analyses. The study found that certain psychosocial work factors are associated with higher levels of self-reported psychological ill-health and illustrates the great importance of psychosocial conditions in determining psychological health at the population level. As found elsewhere, being unemployed was an even stronger predictor of psychological ill-health.

  17. Study of the relationship of psychosocial disorders to bruxism in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayoun, E; Sima, F; Naser, V; Anahita, D

    2008-01-01

    Bruxism has been defined as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional habit. Etiology of bruxism has remained controversial and some investigators believe that psychological factors may play a major role in promoting and perpetuating this habit. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders in adolescents., Participants were chosen among 114, 12-14 year old students (girls). They were divided into two groups, bruxers and nonbruxers, on the basis of both validated clinical criteria and interview with each patient. A few participants were excluded on the basis of presence of systemic disorders, TMJ disorders, other oral habits, primary teeth, defective restorations and premature contacts. Following matching of two groups in regard to parent's age and education, mother's marital status, child support status, mother's employment status, and socio-economical status, 25 cases and 25 controls were enlisted. A self report validated questionnaire (YSR, 11-18 yr) was then filled out by both groups for the evaluation of 12 psychosocial symptoms. Remarkable differences in certain psychosocial aspects were found between the two groups. Prevalence of psychosocial disorders including Thought Disorders (P bruxism and psychosocial disorders has been provided.

  18. The development of a gender identity psychosocial clinic: treatment issues, logistical considerations, interdisciplinary cooperation, and future initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Scott F; Spack, Norman P

    2011-10-01

    Few interdisciplinary treatment programs that tend to the needs of youth with gender nonconforming behaviors, expressions, and identities exist in academic medical centers with formal residency training programs. Despite this, the literature provides evidence that these youth have higher rates of poor psychosocial adjustment and suicide attempts. This article explores the logistical considerations involved in developing a specialized interdisciplinary service to these gender minority youth in accordance with the existing treatment guidelines.Demographic data will be presented and treatment issues will be explored. The impact that a specialized interdisciplinary treatment program has on clinical expansion, research development, education and training, and community outreach initiatives is discussed.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training intervention for children with cancer: Results from the quality of life in motion study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, K.I.; van Dijk-Lokkart, EM; van Dongen, J.M.; van Litsenburg, R.R.L.; Takken, T.; Huisman, J.; Merks, J.H.; Bosmans, J.E.; Hakkenbrak, NA; Bierings, M.B.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, MM; Veening, M.A.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E.; Kaspers, G.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention for children with cancer compared with usual care. Sixty-eight children, aged 8-18 years old, during or within the first year post-cancer treatment were randomised to the

  20. Sexual quality of life, body image distress, and psychosocial outcomes in colorectal cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Handorf, Elizabeth; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2018-04-20

    The objectives were to assess changes in sexual QOL and body image distress over time and to examine longitudinal associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes in a sample of colorectal cancer patients. Participants (N = 141) completed a mail-based survey assessing sexual QOL [sexual distress (ISS), treatment impact on sexual function (SFQ), sexual function (FSFI; IIEF)], body image distress (BIS), and psychosocial outcomes [relationship quality (DAS-4), depressive symptoms (CESD-SF), and health-related QOL (HRQOL; FACT-C)]; 88 patients completed 6-month follow-up surveys (62%). Gender and cancer subgroups (male vs. female; rectal vs. colon cancer) were compared and longitudinal models examined associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes over time and by subgroup. Impairments in sexual QOL and body image distress were common. Women and patients with rectal cancer reported worse body image distress compared to men (p = .005) and those with colon cancer (p = .03), respectively; compared to patients with colon cancer, those with rectal cancer reported worse treatment impact (p image distress decreased (p = .02), while sexual QOL was stable (e.g., 58% classified as dysfunctional at both time points, p = .13). For most sexual and body image predictors, worse impairment was associated with worse psychosocial outcomes over time. Several significant gender and cancer subgroup effects were found. Sexual QOL and body image are compromised after colorectal cancer and tend to remain impaired if unaddressed. Sexual concerns should be addressed early to limit broader-reaching psychosocial effects.

  1. Psychosocial factors at work and obesity among young finnish adults: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anne; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Nevanperä, Nina; Remes, Jouko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laitinen, Jaana

    2015-05-01

    To examine the associations between occupational psychosocial factors and obesity among 31-year-olds, adjusting for adolescent body mass index, physical strenuousness of work, and adverse health behaviors (ie, stress-related eating/drinking, leisure-time physical inactivity, smoking, and high alcohol consumption). The study population comprised 2083 men and 1770 women from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of 30.0 kg/m or more. Psychosocial exposures were defined in terms of demands, control, and social support at work. Among men, high job demands and low worksite social support were independently associated with obesity. Among women, stress-related eating/drinking and physical inactivity seemed to promote obesity. Body mass index at age 14 was an important predictor of obesity for both sexes. In workplace obesity prevention programs, it might be beneficial to improve the psychosocial work environment and promote healthy behaviors simultaneously.

  2. Promoting psychosocial well-being following stroke: study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkevold, Marit; Kildal Bragstad, Line; Bronken, Berit A; Kvigne, Kari; Martinsen, Randi; Gabrielsen Hjelle, Ellen; Kitzmüller, Gabriele; Mangset, Margrete; Angel, Sanne; Aadal, Lena; Eriksen, Siren; Wyller, Torgeir B; Sveen, Unni

    2018-04-03

    Stroke is a major public health threat globally. Psychosocial well-being may be affected following stroke. Depressive symptoms, anxiety, general psychological distress and social isolation are prevalent. Approximately one third report depressive symptoms and 20% report anxiety during the first months or years after the stroke. Psychosocial difficulties may impact significantly on long-term functioning and quality of life, reduce the effects of rehabilitation services and lead to higher mortality rates. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of a previously developed and feasibility tested dialogue-based psychosocial intervention aimed at promoting psychosocial well-being and coping following stroke among stroke survivors with and without aphasia. The study will be conducted as a multicenter, randomized, single blind controlled trial with one intervention and one control arm. It will include a total of 330 stroke survivors randomly allocated into either an intervention group (dialogue-based intervention to promote psychosocial well-being) or a control group (usual care). Participants in the intervention group will receive eight individual sessions of supported dialogues in their homes during the first six months following an acute stroke. The primary outcome measure will be psychosocial well-being measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Secondary outcome measures will be quality of life (SAQoL), sense of coherence (SOC), and depression (Yale). Process evaluation will be conducted in a longitudinal mixed methods study by individual qualitative interviews with 15-20 participants in the intervention and control groups, focus group interviews with the intervention personnel and data collectors, and a comprehensive analysis of implementation fidelity. The intervention described in this study protocol is based on thorough development and feasibility work, guided by the UK medical research council framework for developing and testing complex

  3. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  4. Psychosocial work conditions, social capital, and daily smoking: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, M

    2004-09-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial conditions at work, social capital/social participation, and daily smoking. The 2000 public health survey in Scania is a cross sectional postal questionnaire study with a 59% participation rate. A total of 5180 persons aged 18-64 years that belonged to the work force and the unemployed were included in this study. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between psychosocial factors at work/unemployment, social participation, and daily smoking. Psychosocial conditions at work were defined according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive, and jobstrain categories. The multivariate analyses included age, country of origin, education and economic stress. 17.2% proportion of all men and 21.9% of all women were daily smokers. The jobstrain (high demands/low control) and unemployed categories had significantly higher odds ratios of daily smoking among both men and women compared to the relaxed (low demands/high control) reference category. The passive (low demands/low control), jobstrain, and unemployed categories were also significantly associated with low social participation. Low social participation was significantly and positively associated with daily smoking within each of the psychosocial work conditions and unemployed categories. The positive association between low social capital/low social participation and daily smoking is well known. However, both social participation and daily smoking are associated with psychosocial work conditions and unemployment. Psychosocial work conditions and unemployment may affect daily smoking both directly and through a pathway including social participation.

  5. Postnatal Psychosocial Assessment and Clinical Decision-Making, a Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Deborah; Fowler, Cathrine

    2018-05-18

    The aim of this study is to describe experienced child and family health nurses' clinical decision-making during a postnatal psychosocial assessment. Maternal emotional wellbeing in the postnatal year optimises parenting and promotes infant development. Psychosocial assessment potentially enables early intervention and reduces the risk of a mental disorder occurring during this time of change. Assessment accuracy, and the interventions used are determined by the standard of nursing decision-making. A qualitative methodology was employed to explore decision-making behaviour when conducting a postnatal psychosocial assessment. This study was conducted in an Australian early parenting organisation. Twelve experienced child and family health nurses were interviewed. A detailed description of a postnatal psychosocial assessment process was obtained using a critical incident technique. Template analysis was used to determine the information domains the nurses accessed, and content analysis was used to determine the nurses' thinking strategies, to make clinical decisions from this assessment. The nurses described 24 domains of information and used 17 thinking strategies, in a variety of combinations. The four information domains most commonly used were parenting, assessment tools, women-determined issues and sleep. The seven thinking strategies most commonly used were searching for information, forming relationships between the information, recognising a pattern, drawing a conclusion, setting priorities, providing explanations for the information and judging the value of the information. The variety and complexity of the clinical decision-making involved in postnatal psychosocial assessment confirms that the nurses use information appropriately and within their scope of nursing practice. The standard of clinical decision-making determines the results of the assessment and the optimal access to care. Knowledge of the information domains and the decision-making strategies

  6. Study of the relationship of psychosocial disorders to bruxism in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bruxism has been defined as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional habit. Etiology of bruxism has remained controversial and some investigators believe that psychological factors may play a major role in promoting and perpetuating this habit. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders in adolescents., Participants were chosen among 114, 12-14 year old students (girls. They were divided into two groups, bruxers and nonbruxers, on the basis of both validated clinical criteria and interview with each patient. A few participants were excluded on the basis of presence of systemic disorders, TMJ disorders, other oral habits, primary teeth, defective restorations and premature contacts. Following matching of two groups in regard to parent′s age and education, mother′s marital status, child support status, mother′s employment status, and socio-economical status, 25 cases and 25 controls were enlisted. A self report validated questionnaire (YSR, 11-18 yr was then filled out by both groups for the evaluation of 12 psychosocial symptoms. Results: Remarkable differences in certain psychosocial aspects were found between the two groups. Prevalence of psychosocial disorders including Thought Disorders (P < 0.005, Conduct Disorders (P < 0.05, Antisocial Disorders (P < 0.06 as identified by YSR was significantly higher in bruxers. Significant differences between the two groups also emerged in total YSR scores (P < 0.005. The results of Odds Ratio revealed that a bruxer adolescent has 16 times greater probability for psychosocial disorders than a non-bruxer one. Fischer exact test and T-test were used and Odds Ratio and Confidence Interval was estimated. Conclusion: Support to the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders has been provided.

  7. Psychosocial interventions in the treatment of youth diagnosed or at high-risk for pediatric bipolar disorder: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Cárol; Farriols, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has emerged as a research field in which psychosocial treatments have provided a plethora of empirical findings over the last decade. We addressed this issue through a systematic review aimed of establishing their effectiveness and feasibility as adjunctive therapies for youth with PBD or at high-risk for PBD. A comprehensive search of databases was performed between 1990 and September 2014. Overall, 33 studies were specifically related to the issue and 20 of them were original articles. Evidence suggests that both "multi-family psychoeducational psychotherapy' and "family-focused therapy" are possible effective treatments for PBD. Likewise, "child and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy" may be characterized as a treatment in its experimental phase. The remaining therapies fail to obtain enough empirical support due to inconsistent findings among clinical trials or data solely based on case reports. Studies of psychosocial treatments provide concluding results concerning their feasibility and acceptability. Larger sample sizes and more randomized controlled trials are mandatory for diminishing methodological shortcomings encountered in the treatments displayed. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychosocial and Cultural Factors Influencing Expectations of Menarche: A Study on Chinese Premenarcheal Teenage Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Tang, Catherine So-kum; Lee, Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    This study explored how psychosocial and cultural factors influenced expectations of menarche among 476 Chinese premenarcheal teenage girls. Results showed that participants' expectations of menarche were largely negative and heavily influenced by cultural beliefs about menstruation. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that…

  9. Early Findings of Preventive Child Healthcare Professionals Predict Psychosocial Problems in Preadolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, M.; de Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives

  10. Early Findings of Preventive Child Healthcare Professionals Predict Psychosocial Problems in Preadolescence: The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, M.; De Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives

  11. Achieving recovery in patients with schizophrenia through psychosocial interventions: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Mariachiara; Bosia, Marta; Baraldi, Maria A; Bechi, Margherita; Spangaro, Marco; Cocchi, Federica; Bianchi, Laura; Guglielmino, Carmelo; Mastromatteo, Antonella R; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Recovery, or functional remission, represents the ultimate treatment goal in schizophrenia. Despite its importance, a standardized definition of remission is still lacking, thus reported rates significantly vary across studies. Moreover, the effects of rehabilitative interventions on recovery have not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to evaluate recovery in a sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia engaged in rehabilitation programs and to explore contributing factors, with a focus on sociocognitive rehabilitative interventions. Data from 104 patients with schizophrenia treated either with a standard rehabilitation program, including cognitive remediation (n = 46), or the latter plus a specific sociocognitive intervention (n = 58), and assessed for psychopathology, cognition, social cognition, and Quality of Life Scale, were retrospectively analyzed for this study. Recovery, evaluated with the Quality of Life Scale, was achieved by 56.76% of patients in our sample. While no effects were observed for clinical, cognitive, or sociocognitive variables, participation in the sociocognitive rehabilitative interventions was positively associated with recovery. Our results indicate that high rates of recovery can be achieved in patients treated with psychosocial interventions and suggest that rehabilitative programs targeting social cognition may further facilitate the process of recovery. If confirmed, these results may have relevant implications for daily clinical practice and service provision, allowing clinicians to develop and optimize specific rehabilitation programs in order to promote recovery. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma Intensions: The intension of this project is to link new knowledge with the nurses experience based knowledge within the psychosocial care to patients, who have been diagnosed with Malignant Melanoma (MM), thereby improving the care...... to elaborate the care to these patients. Method: In 2007 the nurses from our ward gained experience from the psychosocial care to these patients. These experiences are a starting point to the study of literature the group has made. A group of five nurses have from this literature study, substantiated...... the psychosocial perspective. Results: After the literature review, the psychosocial aspects have been divided into five main areas: 1. Diagnosis, hospitalisation, and treatment 2. The body with cancer 3. Psychological 4. Social 5. Existential/spiritual Primary results show that patients with MM in general respond...

  13. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and health locus of control: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq Mohammad Ali; Lindström, Martin

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and lack of belief in the possibility of influencing one's own health. The 2000 public health survey in Scania is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 59% participation rate. In total, 5180 persons aged 18-64 years who belonged to the workforce and the unemployed were included in this study. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between psychosocial factors at work and unemployment, and lack of belief in the possibility of influencing one's own health (external locus of control). Psychosocial conditions at work were defined according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive, and job strain categories. The multivariate analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress, and social participation. In total, 26.6% of all men and 26.9% of all women lack an internal locus of control. The passive, job strain and unemployed categories have significantly higher odds ratios of lack of internal locus of control, as compared to the relaxed reference category. No such significant differences are observed for the active category. These patterns remain in the multivariate models, with the exception of the passive and unemployed categories among men, in which the significant differences disappear. Psychosocial work conditions and unemployment may affect health locus of control. The control dimension in the Karasek-Theorell model seems to be of greatest importance.

  14. Psychosocial outcomes in adult men born with hypospadias: A register-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skarin Nordenvall

    Full Text Available In this nationwide matched cohort study, we have investigated whether being born with hypospadias affect subsequent psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. We analyzed prospectively collected data from national Swedish registers. Data on the diagnoses were collected from the National Patient Register and the Medical Birth Register. Data on psychosocial outcomes such as educational and income level, marital status and disability pension were collected from Statistics Sweden. The effects of covariates, such as age, county of birth, presence of other malformations and psychiatric illness, were taken into account. The associations between hypospadias and psychosocial outcomes were calculated using conditional logistic regression and expressed as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. We included 4378 men diagnosed with hypospadias, born between 1969 and 1993 in Sweden. Patients with hypospadias were matched with unaffected men by year of birth and birth county. We did not detect any differences in educational or income level. The probability of entering marriage (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90-1.14 did not differ, regardless of phenotype. We did, however, detect a 40% increased probability of receiving a disability pension, (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.20-1.61. In conclusion, men born with hypospadias in Sweden do not differ from unaffected men with respect to the majority of psychosocial outcomes studied. They are, however, at increased risk of receiving a disability pension, which motivates further investigations.

  15. Association between Optimism, Psychosocial Well Being and Oral Health: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkadam, G; Asokan, Sharath; Baby John, J; Geetha Priya, P R

    The aim of the study was to assess the association of optimism and psychosocial well being of school going children on their oral health status. The study included 12- to 15-year-old school going children (N = 2014) from Tamilnadu, India. Optimism was measured using the revised version of the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). A questionnaire was sent to the parents regarding their child's psychosocial behavior which included shyness, feeling inferiority, unhappiness and friendliness. Clinical examination for each child was done to assess the DMFT score and OHI-S score. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square test, Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallis test with the aid of SPSS software (version 17). Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). The p value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Boys with high optimism had significantly lesser DMFT score than the boys with low optimism (p=0.001). Girls with high optimism had significantly higher DMFT score (p=0.001). In psychosocial outcomes, inferiority (p=0.002) and friendliness (p=0.001) showed significant association with DMFT score. Among the boys, children who felt less inferior (p=0.001), less unhappy (p=0.029) and more friendly (p=0.001) had lesser DMFT score. Among the psychosocial outcomes assessed, inferiority and friendliness had significant association with oral health of the children and hence, can be used as a proxy measures oral health.

  16. Psychosocial and environmental distress resulting from a volcanic eruption: Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsini, Sri; Usher, Kim; Buettner, Petra; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Methods, Res

    2015-01-01

    To examine the psychosocial and environmental distress resulting from the 2010 eruption of the Merapi volcano and explore the experience of living in an environment damaged by a volcanic eruption. Natural disasters cause psychosocial responses in survivors. While volcanic eruptions are an example of a natural disaster, little is currently known about the psychosocial impact on survivors. Volcanic eruptions also cause degradation of the environment, which is linked to environmental distress. However, little is currently known of this phenomenon. An explanatory mixed method study. The research will be divided into three phases. The first phase will involve instrument modification, translation and testing. The second phase will involve a survey to a larger sample using the modified and tested questionnaire. The third phase will involve the collection of interviews from a sub set of the same participants as the second phase. Quantitative data will be analyzed to determine the extent of psychosocial and environmental distress experienced by the participants. Qualitative data will be analyzed to explain the variation among the participants. The results of the study will be used to develop strategies to support survivors in the future and to help ameliorate distress.

  17. In-School Psychosocial Support Services for Safeguarding Children's Rights: Results and Implications of a Botswana Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntinda, Kayi; Maree, Jacobus Gideon; Mpofu, Elias; Seeco, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In-school psychosocial support services are intended to create safe learning environments for children, enabling the children to attain age-appropriate developmental tasks. This study investigated protections to children's right to safe learning environments through the provision of in-school psychosocial support services. Participants were 230…

  18. The general practitioner as the first contacted health professional by patients with psychosocial problems: a European study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Background: there are considerable differences between and within countries in the involvement of general practitioners (GPs) in psychosocial care. This study aimed to describe the self-perceived role of GPs in 30 European countries as the first contacted professional for patients with psychosocial

  19. Self-assessment of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthognathic surgery is a well-accepted treatment for patients with skeletal discrepancies. The primary motivation of many patients who seek orthognathic surgery is esthetics and not for correction of functional disability. The treatment is incomplete if the surgeon attempts to correct the physical deformity alone without adequate understanding and regard for the emotional framework. The purpose of this study is aimed at patient′s self-perceptions of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery. Fifty patients were included in the study, of which 21 were used as control. Twenty-two questions were asked to evaluate the problem in all four areas as mentioned earlier. Each question takes a score from one to five. In group I, the internal consistency of each scale indicates moderate to high internal reliability, ranging from α = 0.71 for general health to α = 0.88 for psychosocial problem. In group II, except for functional problems, the internal consistency of each scale has moderate to high reliability. The psychological wellbeing of an orthognathic surgery patient is enhanced by careful preoperative counseling regarding the expected surgical treatment objectives, the operative course, and the expected postoperative sequelae. Patients who undergo orthognathic surgery readily accept the changes in their postoperative appearance and are satisfied with achieved results.

  20. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general

  1. [Motivations and obstacles to occupational disease claims in lung cancer patients: an exploratory psychosocial study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britel, Manon; Pérol, Olivia; Blois Da Conceiçao, Stéphanie; Ficty, Manon; Brunet, Houria; Avrillon, Virginie; Charbotel, Barbara; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-10-02

    The proportion of lung cancers with an occupational origin has been estimated to be between 10 and 20%. They are largely under-reported, as 60% are not compensated as occupational disease. Although most patients are not familiar with the process of compensation, other factors could explain this under-reporting. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that could impact patients with occupational lung cancer to claim for compensation. We conducted a case study involving semi-structured interviews with eight lung cancer patients enrolled in a cohort designed to systematically screen occupational exposures and propose claims for compensation to work-related cancer patients. Seven interviewed patients were familiar with occupational cancers, but most of them did not believe that past exposure could be related to their current disease. Patients associated compensation claims with a long and complex procedure for an abstract purpose. Several patients expressed a certain attachment to their employers. Interviewed patients often considered compensation claims to be a grievance procedure against the employers whom they did not consider to be responsible for their disease. Lung cancer is itself an obstacle to compensation considering the aggressive treatments and related adverse events, the poor medium-term prognosis and the predominant role of smoking in the etiology of the disease. Patients mentioned the financial compensation and the role of healthcare professionals as key elements to motivate them to claim for compensation.

  2. Psychosocial work factors in new or recurrent injuries among hospital workers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; You, Doohee; Gillen, Marion; Blanc, Paul D

    2015-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests an important role for psychosocial work factors in injury, but little is known about the interaction between psychosocial factors and previous injury experience on subsequent injury risk. We examined the relationships between psychosocial work factors and new or recurrent injury among hospital workers. We studied 492 hospital workers including 116 cases with baseline injury and 376 injury-free referents at baseline over follow-up. Job strain, total support, effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment, and musculoskeletal injury at baseline were examined in logistic regression models as predictors of new or recurrent injury experienced during a 2-year follow-up period. The overall cumulative incidence of injury over follow-up was 35.6 % (51.7 % for re-injury among baseline injury cases; 30.6 % for new injury among referents). Significantly increased risks with baseline job strain (OR 1.26; 95 % CI 1.02-1.55) and effort-reward imbalance (OR 1.42; 95 % CI 1.12-1.81) were observed for injury only among the referents. Overcommitment was associated with increased risk of injury only among the cases (OR 1.58; 95 % CI 1.05-2.39). The effects of psychosocial work factors on new or recurrent injury risk appear to differ by previous injury experience, suggesting the need for differing preventive strategies in hospital workers.

  3. A cohort study of psychosocial work stressors on work ability among Brazilian hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-07-01

    Hospital work is characterized by stressors that can influence work ability. The present study aims to assess the association between psychosocial work stressors and changes in work ability in a group of Brazilian hospital employees. From 1,022 workers included in a 3-year cohort started in 2009, 423 (41.4%) returned the applied questionnaires in 2012. Changes in work ability were considered as the dependent variable and the investigated psychosocial work stressors as independent variables. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential con-founders (demographic, occupational features, social support, overcommitment, and situations liable to cause pain/injury). High levels of exposure to psychosocial work stressors were significantly associated with decreased work ability: job strain (OR = 2.81), effort-reward imbalance (OR = 3.21). Strategies to reduce psychosocial work stressors should be considered to maintain hospital employees' work ability. Such strategies have implications for institutional and social policies and might be included in quality management programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Motor and psychosocial impact of robot-assisted gait training in a real-world rehabilitation setting: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira Fundarò

    Full Text Available In the last decade robotic devices have been applied in rehabilitation to overcome walking disability in neurologic diseases with promising results. Robot assisted gait training (RAGT using the Lokomat seems not only to improve gait parameters but also the perception of well-being. Data on the psychosocial patient-robot impact are limited, in particular in the real-world of RAGT, in the rehabilitation setting. During rehabilitation training, the Lokomat can be considered an "assistive device for movement". This allowed the use of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale- PIADS to describe patient interaction with the Lokomat. The primary aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of the Lokomat in an in-patient rehabilitation setting using the PIADS; secondary aims were to assess whether the psychosocial impact of RAGT is different between pathological sub-groups and if the Lokomat influenced functional variables (Functional Independence Measure scale-FIM and parameters provided by the Lokomat itself. Thirty-nine consecutive patients (69% males, 54.0±18.0 years eligible for Lokomat training, with etiologically heterogeneous walking disabilities (Parkinson's Disease, n = 10; Spinal Cord Injury, n = 21; Ictus Event, n = 8 were enrolled. Patients were assessed with the FIM before and after rehabilitation with Lokomat, and the PIADS was administered after the rehabilitative period with Lokomat. Overall the PIADS score was positive (35.8±21.6, as well as the three sub-scales, pertaining to "ability", "adaptability" and "self-esteem" (17.2±10.4, 8.9±5.5 and 10.1±6.6 respectively with no between-group differences. All patients significantly improved in gait measure and motor FIM scale (difference after-before treatment values: 11.7±9.8 and 11.2±10.3 respectively, increased treadmill speed (0.4 ± 0.2m/s, reduced body weight support (-14.0±9.5% and guidance force (-13.1 ± 10.7%. This pilot study indicates that

  5. Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Janssens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at investigating cross-sectional relationships between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism in a sample of Belgian middle-aged workers. Material and Methods: Data were collected from 1372 male and 1611 female workers in the Belstress III study. Psychosocial characteristics assessed by the use of self-administered questionnaires were: job demands, job control, social support, efforts, rewards, bullying, home-to-work conflict and work-to-home conflict. Presenteeism was measured using a single item question, and it was defined as going to work despite illness at least 2 times in the preceding year. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and presenteeism, while adjusting for several socio-demographic, health-related variables and neuroticism. An additional analysis in a subgroup of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism was conducted. Results: The prevalence of presenteeism was 50.6%. Overall results, adjusted for major confounders, revealed that high job demands, high efforts, low support and low rewards were associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, a significant association could be observed for both bullying and work-to-home conflict in relation to presenteeism. The subgroup analysis on a selection of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism generally confirmed these results. Conclusions: Both job content related factors as well as work contextual psychosocial factors were significantly related to presenteeism. These results suggest that presenteeism is not purely driven by the health status of a worker, but that psychosocial work characteristics also play a role.

  6. Self perceived psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics among young adults: a cross sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhar, Kuracha; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth; Reddy, Sahithi; Srilatha, Adepu

    2017-11-23

    Background Oral health is not merely the absence of oral disease and dysfunction, but also influences the subject's social life and dento-facial self confidence. Objective To assess and correlate self perceived psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics among young adults based on gender. Subjects A convenience sample of Young adults of degree college in the age group of 18-23 years of Hyderabad city, India. Method Self perceived psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics was assessed using the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (PIDAQ). The dental aesthetic index (DAI) was used to evaluate dental aesthetics among participants which includes 10 parameters of dento-facial anomalies related to both clinical and aesthetic aspects of the anterior teeth. Results The majority of the study population were 18 years of age (96; 31.4%) with a mean age of 19.2 ± 1.1 years. When the mean total score and individual domain scores of PIDAQ was compared based on gender, females showed higher statistical mean (p ≤ 0.05) for all except the psychology impact domain (p = 0.12). Based on DAI grading and gender, among both males [70 (32.9%)] and females [31 (33.3%)] the majority of them had a DAI score of ≤25 (grade1; normal/minor dental malocclusion). A significant negative correlation was observed between DAI, with PIDAQ and its domains (p ≤ 0.05) except for the dental self confidence (p = 0.72). Conclusion This study had examined the relationship between self-perceived psychosocial impact and dental aesthetics. So, early preventive or interceptive procedures should be carried out to prevent further psychosocial impacts on human life.

  7. Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Heidi; Clays, Els; de Clercq, Bart; de Bacquer, Dirk; Casini, Annalisa; Kittel, France; Braeckman, Lutgart

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating cross-sectional relationships between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism in a sample of Belgian middle-aged workers. Data were collected from 1372 male and 1611 female workers in the Belstress III study. Psychosocial characteristics assessed by the use of self-administered questionnaires were: job demands, job control, social support, efforts, rewards, bullying, home-to-work conflict and work-to-home conflict. Presenteeism was measured using a single item question, and it was defined as going to work despite illness at least 2 times in the preceding year. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and presenteeism, while adjusting for several socio-demographic, health-related variables and neuroticism. An additional analysis in a subgroup of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism was conducted. The prevalence of presenteeism was 50.6%. Overall results, adjusted for major confounders, revealed that high job demands, high efforts, low support and low rewards were associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, a significant association could be observed for both bullying and work-to-home conflict in relation to presenteeism. The subgroup analysis on a selection of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism generally confirmed these results. Both job content related factors as well as work contextual psychosocial factors were significantly related to presenteeism. These results suggest that presenteeism is not purely driven by the health status of a worker, but that psychosocial work characteristics also play a role. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Psychosocial adaptation and cellular immunity in breast cancer patients in the weeks after surgery: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Bonnie B; Alvarez, Juan P; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria G; Lechner, Suzanne C; Carver, Charles S; Holley, Heather; Antoni, Michael H

    2009-11-01

    The period just after surgery for breast cancer requires psychosocial adaptation and is associated with elevated distress. Distress states have been associated with decreased cellular immune functioning in this population, which could have negative effects on physical recovery. However, little is known about relations between psychological status [negative and positive mood states and overall quality of life (QOL)] and cellular signaling cytokines that could account for these associations in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. The present study examined associations between psychological adaptation indicators (mood, QOL) and T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine production from stimulated peripheral mononuclear cells in women who had recently undergone surgery for early-stage breast cancer but had not yet begun adjuvant therapy. These associations were evaluated while controlling for relevant disease/treatment, sociodemographic, and health behavior covariates. Lower anxiety related to greater production of the Th1 cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2), while greater positive mood (affection) related to greater production of the Th1 cytokines IL-12 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Better QOL related to greater production of the Th1 cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Individual differences in psychosocial adaptation in women with breast cancer during the period after surgery relate to biological parameters that may be relevant for health and well-being as they move through treatment.

  9. Simulation of changes on the psychosocial risk in the nursing personnel after implementing the policy of good practices on the risk treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar Murcia, María Paula; Cruz González, Joan Paola; Rodríguez Bello, Luz Angélica

    2018-02-01

    Evaluate the change over time of psychosocial risk management for the nursing personnel of an intermediate complexity clinic of Bogota (Colombia). Descriptive and correlational research performed under the approach of risk management (identification, analysis, assessment and treatment). The psychosocial risk of the nursing personnel was studied through 10-year system dynamics models (with and without the implementation of the policy of good practices on the risk treatment) in two scenarios: when the nursing personnel works shifts of 6 hours (morning or afternoon) and when they work over 12 hours (double shift or night shift). When implementing a policy of good practices on the risk treatment, the double shift scenario shows an improvement among 25% to 88% in the variables of: health, labor motivation, burnout, service level and productivity; as well as in the variables of the organization associated to number of patients, nursing personnel and profit. Likewise, the single shift scenario with good practices improves in all the above-mentioned variables and generates stability on the variables of absenteeism and resignations. The best scenario is the single shift scenario with the application of good practices of risk treatment in comparison with the double shift scenario with good practices, which allows concluding that the good practices have a positive effect on the variables of nursing personnel and on those associated to the organization. Copyright© by the Universidad de Antioquia.

  10. Psychosocial work characteristics as predictors for burnout: findings from 3-year follow up of the PUMA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on burnout. METHODS: A total of 1772 participants in different human service sector organizations were eligible for the cross-sectional analyses (baseline) and 952 for the prospective analyses....... We measured 14 psychosocial work characteristics and three types of burnout. Linear regression models were used for analyzing associations between psychosocial work characteristics at baseline and burnout at baseline and at 3 years of follow up. RESULTS: Low possibilities for development, high...... meaning of work, low predictability, high quality of leadership, low role clarity, and high role conflicts predicted burnout at 3 years of follow up after the psychosocial work characteristics were adjusted for each other, potential confounders, and burnout level at baseline. CONCLUSION: Psychosocial work...

  11. Psychosocial and Psychological Vulnerability in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: A "Proof of Principle" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Melanie; VanderLaan, Doug P; Wood, Hayley; Wasserman, Lori; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2017-10-03

    For adolescents with gender dysphoria, it has become common to be offered hormonal treatment to either delay or suppress pubertal development and/or to masculinize or feminize the body. At the same time, it has been our clinical impression that the psychological vulnerability of at least some of these youth has been overlooked. Fifty consecutive referrals of adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of gender identity disorder (GID) constituted the sample. Information obtained at intake was coded for the presence or absence of 15 psychosocial and psychological vulnerability factors. The mean number of psychosocial/psychological vulnerability factors coded as present was 5.56 (range, 0-13). Over half of the sample had six or more of the vulnerability factors. The number of factors coded as present was significantly correlated with behavioral and emotional problems on the Youth Self-Report Form and the Child Behavior Checklist, but not with demographic variables or IQ. The findings supported the clinical impression that a large percentage of adolescents referred for gender dysphoria have a substantial co-occurring history of psychosocial and psychological vulnerability, thus supporting a "proof of principle" for the importance of a comprehensive psychologic/psychiatric assessment that goes beyond an evaluation of gender dysphoria per se.

  12. The contribution of case study design to supporting research on Clubhouse psychosocial rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeburn, Toby; Schmied, Virginia; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Psychosocial Clubhouses provide recovery-focused psychosocial rehabilitation to people with serious mental illness at over 300 sites in more than 30 countries worldwide. To deliver the services involved, Clubhouses employ a complex mix of theory, programs and relationships, with this complexity presenting a number of challenges to those undertaking Clubhouse research. This paper provides an overview of the usefulness of case study designs for Clubhouse researchers; and suggests ways in which the evaluation of Clubhouse models can be facilitated. The paper begins by providing a brief explanation of the Clubhouse model of psychosocial rehabilitation, and the need for ongoing evaluation of the services delivered. This explanation is followed by an introduction to case study design, with consideration given to the way in which case studies have been used in past Clubhouse research. It is posited that case study design provides a methodological framework that supports the analysis of either quantitative, qualitative or a mixture of both types of data to investigate complex phenomena in their everyday contexts, and thereby support the development of theory. As such, case study approaches to research are well suited to the Clubhouse environment. The paper concludes with recommendations for future Clubhouse researchers who choose to employ a case study design. While the quality of case study research that explores Clubhouses has been variable in the past, if applied in a diligent manner, case study design has a valuable contribution to make in future Clubhouse research.

  13. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees, a 3-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hoekstra, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees’ mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in

  14. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees : A 3-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hoekstra, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Van Der Beek, A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees' mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in

  15. The Treatment of Juvenile Fibromyalgia with an Intensive Physical and Psychosocial Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David D; Brake, Lori; Tress, Jenna L; Sherker, Jennifer; Fash, Katherine; Ferry, Kelly; Weiss, Pamela F

    2015-09-01

    To assess the short-term and 1-year outcomes of children with fibromyalgia treated with intensive physical and occupational therapy (PT/OT) and psychotherapy. Children with fibromyalgia seen at a tertiary care hospital were treated with 5-6 hours of intensive PT/OT daily and at least 4 hours of psychosocial services weekly. All medications used for fibromyalgia were discontinued. Children underwent standardized testing, including a visual analog scale for pain; the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Performance, Second Edition; the Bruce treadmill protocol; the Functional Disability Inventory; the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire, adolescent version; and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Teen Report, at 3 time points: at program entry, at the end of the intensive program, and 1 year after the end of the program. Sixty-four children (median age, 16 years; 95% Caucasian; 94% female; median duration of symptoms, 21 months) were studied. The mean pain score decreased significantly from program entry to the end of the program (from 66 of 100 to 25 of 100; P = .001). At the 1-year follow-up, 33% reported no pain. All measures of function on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Performance, Second Edition improved significantly and remained at that level or continued to improve over the subsequent year. The mean Bruce treadmill protocol time first increased from 588 seconds to 801 seconds (P fibromyalgia can be successfully treated without medications with a very intensive PT/OT and psychotherapy program. They have significantly improved pain and function by subject report and objective measures of function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychosocial Studies of Migration and Community: Introduction to the Special Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas D. Perkins; Neal A. Palmer; Manuel García-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Introducing the special issue on psychosocial studies of migration and community, we briefly reflect on the global increase in, and issues related to, both international and domestic migration, particularly from rural areas of less developed countries, which has fueled rapid urbanization and intercultural tensions in both post-industrial and developing countries. Topics covered in the issue are summarized, including an Italian study of the emotional impact of discrimination against immigrant ...

  17. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health...

  18. Cardiac patients who completed a longitudinal psychosocial study had a different clinical and psychosocial baseline profile than patients who dropped out prematurely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; Serruys, Patrick W

    2013-01-01

    drop-outs may have a different cardiovascular risk. We studied a cohort of 1132 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). At baseline, all patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Type D Scale (DS14). At 12 months follow-up, 70.8% (n...... cardiovascular medications, including calcium antagonists and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, as compared with completers. Drop-outs more often had depression, anxiety, and negative affectivity, as compared with completers (all p-values......Non-response is a serious threat to the external validity of longitudinal psychosocial studies. Little is known about potential systematic differences between patients with coronary artery disease who complete a psychosocial study and those who drop out prematurely due to non-response, or whether...

  19. Project EASE: a study to test a psychosocial model of epilepsy medication managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiIorio, Collen; Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Letz, Richard; Henry, Thomas R; Schomer, Donal L; Yeager, Kate

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a psychosocial model of medication self-management among people with epilepsy. This model was based primarily on social cognitive theory and included personal (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, stigma, and depressive symptoms), social (social support), and provider (patient satisfaction and desire for control) variables. Participants for the study were enrolled at research sites in Atlanta, Georgia, and Boston, Massachusetts and completed computer-based assessments that included measures of the study variables listed above. The mean age of the 317 participants was 43.3 years; about 50% were female, and 81%white. Self-efficacy and patient satisfaction explained the most variance in medication management. Social support was related to self-efficacy; stigma to self-efficacy and depressive symptoms; and self-efficacy to outcome expectations and depressive symptoms. Findings reinforce that medication-taking behavior is affected by a complex set of interactions among psychosocial variables.

  20. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants...... in the associations between social network, economic hardship and weight gain or obesity. The number of psychosocial risk factors, as an indicator for clustering, was not associated with weight gain or obesity. In conclusion, major life events and vital exhaustion seem to play a role for weight gain and risk...

  1. Psychosocial therapy for Parkinson's-related dementia: study protocol for the INVEST randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Sheree A; McDonald, Kathryn R; Vatter, Sabina; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Poliakoff, Ellen; Smith, Sarah; Silverdale, Monty A; Fu, Bo; Leroi, Iracema

    2017-06-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI-PD) or dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterised by motor and 'non-motor' symptoms which impact on quality of life. Treatment options are generally limited to pharmacological approaches. We developed a psychosocial intervention to improve cognition, quality of life and companion burden for people with MCI-PD, PDD or DLB. Here, we describe the protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled trial to assess feasibility, acceptability and tolerability of the intervention and to evaluate treatment implementation. The interaction among the intervention and selected outcome measures and the efficacy of this intervention in improving cognition for people with MCI-PD, PDD or DLB will also be explored. Dyads will be randomised into two treatment arms to receive either 'treatment as usual' (TAU) or cognitive stimulation therapy specifically adapted for Parkinson's-related dementias (CST-PD), involving 30 min sessions delivered at home by the study companion three times per week over 10 weeks. A mixed-methods approach will be used to collect data on the operational aspects of the trial and treatment implementation. This will involve diary keeping, telephone follow-ups, dyad checklists and researcher ratings. Analysis will include descriptive statistics summarising recruitment, acceptability and tolerance of the intervention, and treatment implementation. To pilot an outcome measure of efficacy, we will undertake an inferential analysis to test our hypothesis that compared with TAU, CST-PD improves cognition. Qualitative approaches using thematic analysis will also be applied. Our findings will inform a larger definitive trial. Ethical opinion was granted (REC reference: 15/YH/0531). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences. We will prepare reports for dissemination by organisations involved with PD and dementia. ISRCTN (ISRCTN11455062). © Article author

  2. Psychosocial Factors in the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Cardiometabolic Risk: the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Jessica L; Penedo, Frank; Roesch, Scott C; Isasi, Carmen R; Carnethon, Mercedes; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Schneiderman, Neil; Gonzalez, Patricia; Chirinos, Diana A; Camacho, Alvaro; Teng, Yanping; Gallo, Linda C

    2017-08-01

    U.S. Hispanics/Latinos display a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), a group of co-occurring cardiometabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure) associated with higher cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher risk for MetSyn in Hispanics/Latinos, and psychosocial factors may play a role in this relationship. This cross-sectional study examined psychosocial factors in the association of SES and MetSyn components in 4,996 Hispanic/Latino adults from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. MetSyn components were measured at the baseline examination. Participants completed interviews to determine psychosocial risks (e.g., depression) and resources (e.g., social support) within 9 months of baseline (psychosocial indicators, and three factors for MetSyn [blood pressure, lipids, metabolic factors]. SEMs showed that lower SES was related to MetSyn factors indirectly through higher psychosocial risk/lower resources (Y-Bχ 2 (df = 420) = 4412.90, p psychosocial risk/resource variables (Mackinnon's 95% asymmetric CI = -0.13 to -0.02). SES is related to metabolic variables indirectly through psychosocial factors in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos of diverse ancestries.

  3. Psychosocial morbidity associated with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder in psychiatric out-patients: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Ellison, William; Morgan, Theresa A; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2015-10-01

    The morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is, in part, responsible for repeated calls for improved detection and recognition. No such commentary exists for the improved detection of borderline personality disorder. Clinical experience suggests that it is as disabling as bipolar disorder, but no study has directly compared the two disorders. To compare the levels of psychosocial morbidity in patients with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Patients were assessed with semi-structured interviews. We compared 307 patients with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder but without bipolar disorder and 236 patients with bipolar disorder but without borderline personality disorder. The patients with borderline personality disorder less frequently were college graduates, were diagnosed with more comorbid disorders, more frequently had a history of substance use disorder, reported more suicidal ideation at the time of the evaluation, more frequently had attempted suicide, reported poorer social functioning and were rated lower on the Global Assessment of Functioning. There was no difference between the two patient groups in history of admission to psychiatric hospital or time missed from work during the past 5 years. The level of psychosocial morbidity associated with borderline personality disorder was as great as (or greater than) that experienced by patients with bipolar disorder. From a public health perspective, efforts to improve the detection and treatment of borderline personality disorder might be as important as efforts to improve the recognition and treatment of bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  4. Psychosocial Profile of Women with Premenstrual Syndrome and Healthy Controls: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstäuber, Maria; Schmelzer, Katarina; Ditzen, Beate; Andersson, Gerhard; Hiller, Wolfgang; Weise, Cornelia

    2016-12-01

    According to modern bio-psychosocial theories of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), the aim of this study is to investigate systematically associations between selected psychosocial factors and premenstrual symptoms in different menstrual cycle phases. Several psychosocial variables were assessed, in a sample of German women with PMS (N = 90) and without premenstrual complaints (N = 48) during the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Presence of PMS was indicated by analysis of contemporary daily ratings of premenstrual symptom severity and impairment for one menstrual cycle. Regarding perceived chronic stress (ƞ 2  = 0.34), self-efficacy (ƞ 2  = 0.12), and two dimensions of self-silencing (0.06 ≤ ƞ 2  ≤ 0.11) analyses revealed only a significant effect of group. Regarding body dissatisfaction and somatosensory amplification, a significant effect of group (0.07 ≤ ƞ 2  ≤ 0.16) and additionally a group by menstrual cycle phase interaction (ƞ 2  = 0.06) was identified. Regarding relationship quality, a significant effect of menstrual cycle phase (ƞ 2  = 0.08) and a group by menstrual cycle phase interaction (ƞ 2  = 0.06) was demonstrated. In respect to sexual contentment, acceptance of premenstrual symptoms, and the remaining two dimensions of self-silencing statistical analyses revealed no effects at all. Linear multiple regression analysis revealed that 20 % of the variance in PMS symptom severity was explained by the psychosocial variables investigated. Body dissatisfaction (ß = 0.26, p = 0.018) and the divided self-dimension of self-silencing (ß = 0.35, p = 0.016) were significant correlates of PMS severity. Results of this study are consistent with previous research and additionally show patterns of associations between specific psychosocial factors and PMS in dependence of menstrual cycle phase that have not been researched before. The role of the psychosocial variables we

  5. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    ,670 participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark) were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, and sleep medication and were followed in nationwide registries until 2007, with less than 0.2% loss to follow-up. Almost one......Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8...... interval: 1.20, 3.10) and women (hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 3.65). Contrary to expectation, major life events, social network, and sleeping medication did not play an individual role for heart failure hospitalization. Because of the high prevalence of vital exhaustion...

  6. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  7. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents--a matched case-control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmet, Ann; Deforche, Benedicte; Hublet, Anne; Tanghe, Ann; Stremersch, Evi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2014-03-05

    Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents' risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age=15.32±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age=15.30±1.73). Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs.

  8. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change: a prospective study among Danish health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang; Aust, Birgit; Borg, Vilhelm; Bjorner, Jakob B

    2013-01-17

    Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses examined change in BMI (more than +/- 2 kg/m(2)) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands, type of work position and seniority). Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models.

  9. Improving Treatment Adherence in Bipolar Disorder: A Review of Current Psychosocial Treatment Efficacy and Recommendations for Future Treatment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment adherence is a frequent problem in bipolar disorder, with research showing that more than 60% of bipolar patients are at least partially nonadherent to medications. Treatment nonadherence is consistently predictive of a number of negative outcomes in bipolar samples, and the discontinuation of mood stabilizers places these patients at…

  10. Study of the relationship of psychosocial disorders to bruxism in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Katayoun E; Sima F; Naser V; Anahita D

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bruxism has been defined as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional habit. Etiology of bruxism has remained controversial and some investigators believe that psychological factors may play a major role in promoting and perpetuating this habit. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders in adolescents., Participants were chosen among 114, 12-14 year old students (girls). They were divided into t...

  11. Psychosocial work factors, major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders: results from the French national SIP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Marie; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2013-04-25

    Anxiety and depression are prevalent mental disorders in working populations. The risk factors of these disorders are not completely well known. Developing knowledge on occupational risk factors for mental disorders appears crucial. This study investigates the association between various classical and emergent psychosocial work factors and major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders in the French working population. The study was based on a national random sample of 3765 men and 3944 women of the French working population (SIP 2006 survey). Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) were measured using a standardised diagnostic interview (MINI). Occupational factors included psychosocial work factors as well as biomechanical, physical, and chemical exposures. Adjustment variables included age, occupation, marital status, social support, and life events. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis. Low decision latitude, overcommitment, and emotional demands were found to be risk factors for both MDD-GAD among both genders. Other risk factors were observed: high psychological demands, low reward, ethical conflict, and job insecurity, but differences were found according to gender and outcome. Significant interaction terms were observed suggesting that low decision latitude, high psychological demands, and job insecurity had stronger effects on mental disorders for men than for women. Given the cross-sectional study design, no causal conclusion could be drawn. This study showed significant associations between classical and emergent psychosocial work factors and MDD-GAD. Preventive actions targeting various psychosocial work factors, including emergent factors, may help to reduce mental disorders at the workplace. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Munizeh; Fida, Mubassar

    2008-09-01

    To assess the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics using the 'Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire' (PIDAQ) and self-rated Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Cross-sectional study. Dental Section, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from August to September 2006. Adults with no prior orthodontic treatment were asked to complete a modified version of the 'Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire' (PIDAQ). A total of four variables including 'Dental Self-confidence', 'Social impact', 'Psychological impact' and 'Perceived orthodontic treatment need' were assessed by a series of statements, whereas dental aesthetics were assessed by the respondents using the IOTN Aesthetic Component (self-rated IOTN-AC). Kruskal-Walli's test was applied to determine significance. The respondents were 120 adults (70 females and 50 males; mean age 25.8 years), all four of the above-mentioned variables measuring psychosocial impact showed positive and significant correlations with the perceived severity of malocclusion as depicted by the Aesthetic Component (AC) of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), with p-value of less than 0.01 for all variables. The results indicate the strong psychosocial impact of altered dental aesthetics on the emotional state of an individual. The association between self-rated IOTN-AC grading with psychosocial well-being stands established, indicating that the perceived aesthetics of malocclusion may be as significant a factor in determining treatment need as the degree of malocclusion.

  13. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment, and leisure-time physical activity: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sadiq Mohammad; Lindström, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial work conditions and unemployment, and low leisure-time physical activity. The 2000 public health survey in Scania is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 59% participation rate. A total of 5,180 persons aged 18-64 years who belonged to the workforce and the unemployed were included in this study. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between psychosocial factors at work and unemployment, and low leisure-time physical activity. Psychosocial conditions at work were defined according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive, and job strain categories. The multivariate analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress, and social participation. In total, 16.1% of men and 14.8% of women had low leisure-time physical activity. The job strain (high demands/low control) and unemployed categories had significantly higher odds ratios of low leisure-time physical activity among both men and women compared with the relaxed (low demands/high control) reference category. However, the significant differences between the job strain, the unemployed, and the relaxed categories disappeared in the multivariate models. Respondents with job strain or unemployment have significantly higher odds ratios of low leisure-time physical activity than the relaxed category. However, after adjustments for education in particular the differences disappear. Nevertheless, the results suggest that the association between psychosocial work conditions, which are often dependent on education, and leisure-time physical activity may be interesting to study in more detail.

  14. Psychological workshops for children and adolescents suffering from malignant disease: The model of psychosocial support during hospitalization and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klikovac Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric psycho-oncology within psycho-oncology is a highly developed scientific discipline in the world, both at the level of basic research and the development of theoretical concepts and at the practical level, which refers to the creation and implementation of various models of psychosocial support to children and young people who are suffering from various malignant diseases and their families during all stages of the demanding oncology treatment. One of the models of psychosocial support for children are workshops, as a form of group psychological treatment in which children and young people who are in distress, crisis, shock and even trauma, acquire a new positive experience and which provides new insights and knowledge to empower and boost the quality of life for overcoming severe malignant disease and treatment through meaningful games, all of which leads to overcoming the 'downtime' and regression and encouraging further psychological development. The outcome of workshop activities are various products (drawings, photographs, videos, posters, written material, but also positive feelings and behaviours in children and adolescents. The main objectives of introducing psychological workshops at the department of pediatric hematology-oncology in our community are, on the one hand, to provide professional counselling and support to children and young people during hospitalization and, on the other, to introduce a standard psychological procedure and quality psychological practice of group psychological counselling for sick children and young people in the hospital environment.

  15. Psychosocial health coaching for chronically ill in a telehealth context: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenneke Van Genugten

    2015-10-01

    The results show that the structured, partly automated approach can be used in a telehealth context by means of health coaches. MAY appeared to be a suitable tool for providing input for psychosocial care. HCs attitudes towards the structured approach were positive, which is crucial to the success of the implementation of MAY. Based on these results, we recommend to continue this approach as it may strengthen the wellbeing of patients (to be evaluated in future work. However, improvements are necessary. The tool should get a better fit in the current working procedures, and support the translation from recommendations to action. Further automation may facilitate this. In conclusion, this study shows that it is possible for HCs to implement structured psychosocial care in a telehealth program but that combining digitalized and human efforts in one structure is a challenge. The appreciation of the health coaches is an important first step in this process.

  16. Examination of Psychosocial and Physiological Risk for Bulimic Symptoms in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes Transitioning to an Insulin Pump: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Claire M; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Fischer, Sarah; Markowitz, Jessica T; Muir, Andrew B; Laffel, Lori M

    2018-01-01

    This study tested hypotheses drawn from a risk model positing that psychosocial risk plus disease-related and treatment factors contribute to bulimic symptoms in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) transitioning to an insulin pump. The goal of this study was to examine whether disease-related factors, particularly disease- and treatment-based disruption in hunger and satiety, contribute to report of bulimic symptoms in youth with T1D after accounting for psychosocial risk factors. 43 youth (ages 10-17, 54% female) with established T1D were recruited before transition from multiple daily injections to insulin-pump therapy from three tertiary pediatric diabetes centers. Participants completed measures of bulimic symptoms, depressive symptoms dietary restraint, and the Diabetes Treatment and Satiety Scale, a diabetes-specific questionnaire assessing hunger and satiety cues and eating behavior in response to blood glucose levels and treatment. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess contributions of psychosocial and disease-based risk to report of bulimic symptoms. After assessing the contributions of body mass index, body image dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint, a significant 2-way interaction emerged between depression and diabetes-related uncontrollable hunger related to bulimic symptoms (β = 1.82, p < .01). In addition to psychosocial risk, disease- and treatment-based hunger and satiety dysregulation appear to be important factors contributing to report of bulimic symptoms in youth with T1D. These preliminary findings have significant treatment implications for bulimic symptoms in youth with T1D. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. [Psychosocial disintegration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S

    1994-08-01

    Among the patients referred for rehabilitation in the latter half of their working life, many are notable due to considerable discrepancies between their objectively ascertainable performance and its subjectively perceived decline. In these cases, the "substantial threat to earning capacity" cannot be explained by measurable organ deficiencies. Similarly, treatment efforts focussed solely at improved somatic functioning remain inefficient in terms of stabilization of earning capacity, because they do not bring about changes in the cause of subjective performance deterioration. The author in these circumstances assumes the presence of an independent syndrome, called "psychosocial disintegration". He describes the full picture of this disease entity, and suggests causal mechanisms as well as potential for remedial intervention. On account of the considerable social dimension of the disorder outlined, early identification of these gradually developing changes as well as qualified care of the insurants are indispensable. All those involved in treatment and care of the patients or working in some branch of the social security system should be familiar with this psychosocial disintegration syndrome in order to avoid the guidance and counselling mistakes that are frequently the case. As rehabilitation is impossible in case of inhibiting personal attitudes of an insurant, it is advisable to verify the individual's readiness for rehabilitation and/or to strengthen it by appropriate measures before engaging in costly in-patient service provision. If the needed motivation is to be achieved during participation in a rehabilitation measure, extended service provision will invariably be required.

  18. Psychosocial work conditions, social participation and social capital: a causal pathway investigated in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Social capital is often claimed to be promoted by stable social structures such as low migration rates between neighbourhoods and social networks that remain stable over time. However, stable social structures may also inhibit the formation of social capital in the form of social networks and social participation. One example is psychosocial conditions at work, which may be determined by characteristics such as demand and control in the work situation. The study examines the active workforce subpopulation within the Swedish Malmö Shoulder Neck Study. A total of 7836 individuals aged 45-69 years, were interviewed at baseline between 1992 and 1994, and at a 1-year follow-up. Four groups of baseline psychosocial work conditions categories defined by the Karasek-Theorell model (jobstrain, passive, active, relaxed) were analysed according to 13 different social participation items during the past year reported at the 1-year follow-up. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with the jobstrain group as a reference were estimated. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess differences in different aspects of social participation between the four psychosocial work conditions groups. The results show that the respondents within the active category in particular but also the relaxed category, have significantly higher participation in many of the 13 social participation items, even after multivariate adjustments. The results strongly suggest that psychosocial work conditions may be an important determinant of social capital measured as social participation, a finding of immediate public health relevance because of the well known positive association between social participation and health-related behaviours.

  19. A study into psychosocial factors as predictors of work-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hanif Abdul; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah; Naing, Lin

    2016-07-14

    To explore and determine relationship between psychosocial factors and work-related fatigue among emergency and critical care nurses in Brunei. Cross-sectional study conducted on all emergency and critical care nurses across Brunei public hospitals from February to April 2016. 201 nurses participated in the study (82% response rate). A total of 36% of the variance of chronic fatigue was explained by stress, trust in management, decision latitude, self-rated health, and work-family conflict. Burnout, self-rated health, commitment to workplace, and trust in management explained 30% of the variance of acute fatigue. Stress, work-family conflict and reward explained 28% of the variance of intershift recovery after controlling for significant sociodemographic variables. Smoking was identified as an important sociodemographic factor for work-related fatigue. Psychosocial factors were good predictors of work-related fatigue. A range of psychosocial factors were established, however more research is required to determine all possible causation factors of nurses' work-related fatigue.

  20. Psychosocial working conditions and diabetes self-management at work: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Nguyen, Xuan Quynh; Vu-Eickmann, Patricia; Krichbaum, Michael; Kulzer, Bernhard; Icks, Andrea; Angerer, Peter

    2018-03-31

    We conducted a qualitative study to expand our current understanding of the potential link between psychosocial working conditions and diabetes self-management at work. Thirty employed adults with diabetes mellitus living in Germany (n = 19 with type 1, n = 11 with type 2, 57% female, aged 24-64 years) were recruited. Using a topic guide, we carried out in-depth interviews in face-to-face contact or by telephone. Interviews were transcribed and content-analyzed using MaxQDA. Psychosocial working conditions perceived to detrimentally affect self-management activities included, amongst others, a high workload, poor job control, unhygienic working environments, the requirement to work under high or fluctuating temperature, perceived social norms at the workplace, and the attitude to prioritize work-related demands as opposed to diabetes-related demands. The types of self-management activities considered to be adversely affected related to glucose monitoring, insulin injections, dietary control, the ability to recognize hypoglycemia and health care use. Various types of occupational psychosocial factors may determine diabetes self-management practices at the workplace. Quantitative studies are needed to confirm our observations. Subsequently, interventions could be developed and evaluated to improve opportunities to adequately engage into diabetes self-management at work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychosocial Quality-of-Life, Lifestyle and Adiposity: A Longitudinal Study in Pre-schoolers (Ballabeina Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Susi, Kriemler; Marques-Vidal, Pedro M; Nydegger, Andreas; Puder, Jardena J

    2016-06-01

    In obesity prevention, understanding psychosocial influences in early life is pivotal. Reviews reported contradictory results and a lack of longitudinal studies focusing on underlying lifestyle factors. This study tested whether psychosocial Quality-Of-Life (QOL) was associated with pre-schoolers' lifestyle and adiposity changes over one school year and whether lifestyle moderated the latter. It was hypothesised that QOL might not impact adiposity in everybody but that this might depend on preceding lifestyle. Longitudinal data from 291 Swiss pre-schoolers (initially 3.9-6.3 years) was available. The following measures were used in longitudinal regressions: psychosocial QOL by PedsQL, adiposity (BMI z-score, waist, fat%), diet (food frequency), sedentary time and accelerometer-based activity. Concerning lifestyle, low psychosocial QOL was only related to unfavourable changes in diet (less fruit β = 0.21 and more fat intake β = -0.28) and lower physical activity (β = 0.21). Longitudinal QOL-adiposity relations appeared only after moderation by lifestyle factors (beta-range 0.13-0.67). Low psychosocial QOL was associated with increased adiposity in children with an unhealthy diet intake or high sedentary time. By contrast, low psychosocial QOL was associated with decreasing adiposity in high fruit consumers or more physically active pre-schoolers. Results emphasise the need for testing moderation in the QOL-adiposity relation. An unhealthy diet can be a vulnerability factor and high physical activity a protective factor in QOL-related adiposity. Consequently, QOL and lifestyle should be targeted concurrently in multi-factorial obesity prevention. The environment should be an 'activity encouraging, healthy food zone' that minimises opportunities for stress-induced eating. In addition, appropriate stress coping skills should be acquired.

  2. Eating disorder subtypes differ in their rates of psychosocial improvement over treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) are renowned for their poor short- and long-term treatment outcomes. To gain more insight into the reasons for these poor outcomes, the present study compared patients with AN-R (restrictive subtype), AN-BP (binge-purge subtype), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) over 12 weeks of specialized eating disorders treatment. Eighty-nine patients completed the Eating Disorder Examination- Questionnaire (EDE-Q) ...

  3. Multiple barriers to participation for people with psychosocial disability in Dehradun district, North India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Kaaren; Pant, Hira; Marella, Manjula; Singh, Lawrence; Murthy, Gvs; Grills, Nathan

    2018-02-27

    This study used a population-based cross-sectional survey to describe the prevalence of psychosocial disability and unmet need for access to services in North India. This study was conducted in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, in 2014. A population-based sample of 2441 people over the age of 18 years. The Rapid Assessment of Disability survey tool identified people with disability and used an adapted version of the Kessler scale to identify those with psychosocial disability. It additionally collected information on socioeconomic variables, access to community services and barriers to participation. Prevalence of psychosocial disability and unmet needs and descriptions of barriers to services were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between risk factors and psychosocial disability. Prevalence of psychosocial disability was 4.8% and 75% of participants with psychological distress also reported comorbid functional impairments. Adjusted ORs for depression of more than two were found for people who were unschooled, unemployed and of moderate or poor socioeconomic status. The unmet need for access to services was significantly higher in every domain for people with psychosocial disability and was more than 25% in the areas of employment, health service access and community consultation. People with psychosocial disability encountered greater barriers in each domain compared with controls. People who are poor, uneducated and unemployed are two to four times more likely to have psychosocial disability in Dehradun district. They face unmet needs in accessing community services and perceive negative social attitudes, lack of physical accessibility and lack of information as barriers limiting their participation. Social policy must increase access to education and reduce poverty but additionally ensure action is taken in all community services to increase information, physical accessibility and social inclusion of people with

  4. Webinar Presentation: Air Pollution, Social and Psychosocial Stress, and Respitory Health in the Southern California Children's Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Air Pollution, Social and Psychosocial Stress, and Respitory Health in the Southern California Children's Health Study, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome held on May 11, 2016.

  5. Bereaved relatives' decision about deceased organ donation: An integrated psycho-social study conducted in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jorge S; Martínez, José M; Soria-Oliver, María; Aramayona, Begoña; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Martín, María J; Almendros, Carmen

    2018-05-01

    Family refusal to organ donation of a deceased relative represents one of the most important barriers to organ transplantation. Although a large literature about family decisions has amassed, the existing evidence needs further integration and structuring. This study seeks to analyse relationships between bereaved relatives' decisions and a wide range of factors that converge in the family decision process, including interactions and complex relationship patterns, and taking psychosocial theoretical frameworks as reference to conceptualize empirical findings. This observational study examined 16 Spanish hospitals during a 36-month period. Transplant coordination teams collected data of 421 cases of family decision processes about donation (338 donations/83 refusals) through a previously validated instrument. Indicators of the following factors were collected: deceased's characteristics; circumstances of death; bereaved relatives' characteristics, beliefs, and expressions; behaviour of health and coordination staff; and family's emotional responses. Three global hypotheses related to bivariate and multivariate relations of factors with family decisions and relationships/interactions among factors were tested. Relatives' beliefs about the deceased's wishes concerning donation are the strongest predictor of family decisions. However, family decisions are also related to the deceased's characteristics, relatives' characteristics, satisfaction with medical attention, satisfaction with personal treatment and relatives' emotional responses, and other factors. Relatives' emotional reactions are related to satisfaction with health-staff interventions and condition family decision, even if deceased's will concerning donation is known and positive. Relatives' beliefs about deceased's wishes concerning donation vary as a function of deceased's characteristics and according to relatives' characteristics. Understanding of family decisions underlying organ donation may greatly

  6. Psychosocial risk factors for hospital readmission in COPD patients on early discharge services: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Christopher J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD occurs in up to 30% of patients, leading to excess morbidity and poor survival. Physiological risk factors predict readmission, but the impact of modifiable psychosocial risk factors remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate whether psychosocial risk factors independently predict readmission for AECOPD in patients referred to early discharge services (EDS. Methods This prospective cohort study included 79 patients with AECOPD cared for by nurse led EDS in the UK, and followed up for 12 months. Data on lung function, medical comorbidities, previous hospital admissions, medications, and sociodemographics were collected at baseline; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and social support were measured at baseline, 3 and 12-months. Exploratory multivariate models were fitted to identify psychosocial factors associated with readmission adjusted for known confounders. Results 26 patients were readmitted within 90 days and 60 patients were readmitted at least once during follow-up. Depression at baseline predicted readmission adjusted for sociodemographics and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (odds ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.60, p = 0.013. Perceived social support was not significantly associated with risk of readmission. Home ownership was associated with the total number of readmissions (B = 0.46, 95% CI -0.86 to -0.06, p = 0.024. Compared with those not readmitted, readmitted patients had worse SGRQ and HADS scores at 12 months. Conclusion Depressive symptoms and socioeconomic status, but not perceived social support, predict risk of readmission and readmission frequency for AECOPD in patients cared for by nurse-led EDS. Future work on reducing demand for unscheduled hospital admissions could include the design and evaluation of interventions aimed at optimising the psychosocial care of AECOPD patients managed at

  7. A prospective study of the psychosocial impact of a positive Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Stoner, Bradley P; Zaidi, Akbar A; Buckel, Christina; Tran, Molly; Leichliter, Jami S; Berman, Stuart M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2011-11-01

    Few data exist on potential harms of chlamydia screening. We assessed the psychosocial impact of receiving a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result. We prospectively studied women ≥16 years of age undergoing chlamydia testing in 2 Midwestern family planning clinics. We surveyed women at baseline and about 1 month after receiving test results, using 9 validated psychosocial scales/subscales and chlamydia-specific questions. Changes in scale scores were calculated for each woman. Mean percent changes in scores for chlamydia-positive and -negative women were compared using a t test. We enrolled 1807 women (response rate, 84%). Of the 1688 women with test results, 149 (8.8%) tested positive. At follow-up, chlamydia-positive women (n = 71) had a 75% increase in anxiety about sexual aspects of their life on the Multidimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire (P < 0.001), significantly greater than the 26% increase among 280 randomly selected chlamydia-negative women (P = 0.02). There were no differences for the other 8 scales/subscales, including general measures of anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Chlamydia-positive women were more likely than chlamydia-negative women to be "concerned about chlamydia" (80% vs. 40%, P < 0.001) and to report breaking up with a main partner (33% vs. 11%, P < 0.001) at follow-up. Women testing positive reported a range of chlamydia-specific concerns. Chlamydia-positive women had significant increases in anxiety about sex and concern about chlamydia, but did not have marked changes in more general measures of psychosocial well-being about 1 month after diagnosis. Chlamydia diagnoses were associated with some disruption of relationships with main partners. Chlamydia-specific concerns may guide counseling messages to minimize psychosocial impact.

  8. Psychosocial stressors and depression at a Swedish primary health care centre. A gender perspective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ranja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial stress may account for the higher prevalence of depression in women and in individuals with a low educational background. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between depression and socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and lifestyle circumstances from a gender perspective in a relatively affluent primary care setting. Methods Patients, aged 18- 75 years, visiting a drop-in clinic at a primary care health centre were screened with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. The physicians used also targeted screening with BDI. A questionnaire on socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and use of alcohol and tobacco was distributed. Among patients, who scored BDI ≥10, DSM-IV-criteria were used to diagnose depression. Of the 404 participants, 48 men and 76 women were diagnosed with depression. The reference group consisted of patients with BDI score Results The same three psychosocial stressors: feeling very stressed, perceived poor physical health and being dissatisfied with one's family situation were associated with depression equally in men and women. The negative predictive values of the main effect models in men and women were 90.7% and 76.5%, respectively. Being dissatisfied with one's work situation had high ORs in both men and women. Unemployment and smoking were associated with depression in men only. Conclusions Three questions, frequently asked by physicians, which involve patient's family and working situation as well as perceived stress and physical health, could be used as depression indicators in early detection of depression in men and women in primary health care.

  9. Correlation of headache frequency and psychosocial impairment in migraine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Müller, Melanie; Blum, Bernhard; Straube, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    To investigate if a headache frequency of 15 days per month constitutes a turning point in the psychosocial impairment associated with migraine. Migraine is differentiated into episodic and chronic forms based on a headache frequency criterion (headache days per month). It is presently not clear if this criterion represents a clinically and pathophysiologically meaningful turning point of the disease. Six hundred and one migraine patients completed measures of pain-specific disability (Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, von Korff scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 Health Survey), habitual well-being (Marburg questionnaire), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score). A significant increase of psychosocial impairment with the number of headache days per month was found at lower headache frequencies, but leveled off at higher headache frequencies. Visual inspection and spline interpolation suggested that the turning point was not exactly at 15 headache days per month but rather around 13.3 (confidence interval: 8.9-17.7) days. Accordingly, significant correlations between headache days and psychosocial impairment were found in the group with ≤13 headache days per month (Spearman's rho = 0.25, P 13 headache days (rho = -0.02, n.s.). These results suggest that a meaningful turning point in psychosocial impairment associated with migraine is located around 13.3 headache days per month, somewhat below the 15-headache days criterion that by definition separates chronic from episodic migraine. However, confidence intervals surrounding the turning point were large. Further studies will be needed to more exactly localize the turning point. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  10. Psychosocial correlates of police-registered youth crime. A Finnish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Parkkola, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This study is focused on psychosocial correlates of youth crime in a sample of 2330 Finnish boys born in 1981. Two kinds of data were combined: questionnaires completed by the boys at call-up in 1999 and crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001. One-fifth of the boys were registered to offending during the 4-year period in late adolescence; 14% were registered for one or two offences, 4% for three to five offences, and 3% for more than five offences. Crime accumulated heavily in those with more than five offences, as they accounted for 68% of all crime. Independent correlates of crime were living in a small community, parents' low educational level and divorce, having a regular relationship, self-reported delinquency, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness, whereas anxious-depressiveness was reversely associated with crime. Most psychosocial problems covaried linearly with offending frequency, being particularly manifested by multiple recidivists. However, recidivists had very rarely used mental health services. The results indicate that offending and various psychosocial problems accumulate in a small minority of boys not reached by mental health services.

  11. A Nationwide Population-Based Approach to Study Health-Related and Psychosocial Aspects of Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-31

    unbiased information on educational performance in adults with NF1. Education is an important and challenging life goal for anyone - but even more...from child - into adulthood in a similar approach by determining the following psychosocial and socioeconomic achievements or life goals based on... educational attainment (study 5) • to thoroughly investigate the psychosocial burden (depression, anxiety, quality of life) (study 6) and impairment in

  12. Processes of Metastudy: A Study of Psychosocial Adaptation to Childhood Chronic Health Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nichola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastudy introduces a systematically aggregated interpretive portrayal of a body of literature, based on saturation and the synthesis of findings. In this metastudy, the authors examined qualitative studies addressing psychosocial adaptation to childhood chronic health conditions, published over a 30-year period (1970–2000. They describe metastudy processes, including study identification, strategies for study search and retrieval, adjudication of difference in study design and rigor, and analysis of findings. They also illustrate metastudy components through examples drawn from this project and discuss implications for practice and recommendations.

  13. Childhood family psychosocial environment and carotid intima media thickness: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Eric B; Taylor, Shelley E; Polak, Joseph F; Wilhelm, Aude; Kalra, Preety; Matthews, Karen A

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about whether the childhood family psychosocial environment (characterized by cold, unaffectionate interactions, conflict, aggression, neglect and/or low nurturance) affects coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Objectives were to evaluate associations of childhood family psychosocial environment with carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis. The study population included 2659 CARDIA study participants, aged 37-52 years. Childhood family psychosocial environment was measured using a risky family questionnaire via self-report. Carotid IMT was calculated using the average of 20 measurements of mean common carotid, bulb and internal carotid IMT, assessed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images. Utilizing linear regression analyses adjusted for age, a 1-unit (range 0-21) increase in risky family score was associated with 0.0036 (95% CI: 0.0006,0.0066 mm) and 0.0020 (95% CI: 0.0002,0.0038) mm increase in mean IMT in white males and females, respectively. Formal mediation analyses and covariate adjustments suggested childhood socioeconomic position and smoking may be important mechanisms in white males and females, as well as education and depressive symptomatology in white males. No associations were found in black participants. Formal statistical tests for interaction between risky family score and sex, and between risky family score and race/ethnicity, demonstrated borderline evidence of interactions for both sex (p = 0.12) and race/ethnicity (p = 0.14) with risky family score for associations with mean IMT. In conclusion, childhood family psychosocial environment was positively associated with IMT in white participants, with little evidence of association in black participants. Mechanisms in white participants may include potential negative impacts of socioeconomic constraints on parenting quality, potentially influencing offspring's cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. smoking), socioeconomic position (e

  14. Psychosocial job conditions, fear avoidance beliefs and expected return to work following acute coronary syndrome: a cross-sectional study of fear-avoidance as a potential mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Mia; Rosengren, Annika; Gustavsson, Sara; Schiöler, Linus; Härenstam, Annika; Torén, Kjell

    2015-12-21

    Despite improvements in treatment, acute coronary syndrome remains a substantial cause for prolonged sick absences and premature retirement. Knowledge regarding what benefits return to work is limited, especially the effect of psychological processes and psychosocial work factors. The purposes of this cross-sectional study were two-fold: to examine associations between adverse psychosocial job conditions and fear-avoidance beliefs towards work, and to determine whether such beliefs mediated the relationship between work conditions and expected return to work in acute coronary syndrome survivors. Study inclusion criteria: acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina diagnosis, below 65 years of age, being a resident in the West county of Sweden and currently working. In all, 509 individuals (21.8 % women) accepted study participation and for whom all data of study interest were available for analysis. Psychosocial work variables; job demand-control and effort-reward imbalance, were assessed with standard questionnaire batteries. Linear regression models were used to investigate relationships between psychosocial factors and fear-avoidance, and to evaluate mediator effects for fear-avoidance. Both total sample and gender stratified analyses were calculated. Fear-avoidance beliefs about work were associated to psychosocial job environments characterized by high strain (β 1.4; CI 1.2-1.6), active and passive work and high effort-reward imbalance (β 0.6; CI 0.5-0.7). Further, such beliefs also mediated the relationship between adverse work conditions and expected time for return to work. However, these results were only observed in total sample analyses or among or male participants. For women only high strain was linked to fear-avoidance, and these relationships became non-significant when entering chosen confounders. This cross-sectional study showed that acute coronary syndrome survivors, who laboured under adverse psychosocial work conditions, held fear

  15. Long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Trond H; Emblem, Ragnhild

    2017-10-01

    Surgical congenital malformations often represent years of treatment, large number of hospital stays, treatment procedures, and long-term functional sequels affecting patients' psychosocial functioning. Both functional defects and psychosocial difficulties that occur commonly in childhood may pass through adolescence on to adulthood. This overview presents reports published over the past 3 decades to elucidate the long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations. Literature searches conducted on PubMed database revealed that less than 1% of all the records of surgical congenital malformations described long-term psychosocial consequences, but with diverse findings. This inconsistency may be due to methodological differences or deficiencies; especially in study design, patient sampling, and methods. Most of the studies revealed that the functional deficits may have great impact on patients' mental health, psychosocial functioning, and QoL; both short- and long-term negative consequences. Factors other than functional problems, e.g., repeated anesthesia, multiple hospitalization, traumatic treatment procedures, and parental dysfunctioning, may also predict long-term mental health and psychosocial functioning. Through multidisciplinary approach, pediatric surgeons should also be aware of deficits in emotional and psychosocial functioning. To achieve overall optimal psychosocial functioning, the challenge is to find a compromise between physically optimal treatment procedures and procedures that are not psychologically detrimental. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Hardiness, psychosocial factors and shift work tolerance among nurses - a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Magerøy, Nils; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-08-01

    To examine the predictive power of the subfactors of hardiness (commitment, control and challenge) on shift work tolerance (measured with sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety and depression) over 2 years in nurses working shifts. We also investigated the direct effects of psychosocial variables such as role conflict, social support and fair leadership on shift work tolerance, as well as their moderating role on the relationship between hardiness and shift work tolerance. Several scholars have discussed the role of individual differences and psychosocial variables in predicting shift work tolerance. The conclusions are not clear. Longitudinal questionnaire study. A sample of Norwegian nurses employed in shift work including nights participated in this longitudinal questionnaire study: 1877 at baseline, 1228 at 1-year follow-up and 659 nurses at 2-year follow-up. Data were collected in three waves, first wave in 2008 and third in 2011 and were analysed with a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses. We found that the subfactor commitment could predict fatigue over 1 year and anxiety and depression over 2 years. Challenge could predict anxiety over 1 year. Control was unrelated to shift work intolerance. Hardiness did not predict sleepiness. Social support, role conflict and fair leadership were important for some aspects of shift work tolerance; however, hardiness seemed to be more eminent for shift work tolerance than the psychosocial variables. Social support moderated the relationship between hardiness and shift work tolerance to some degree, but this interaction was weak. Hardiness can to some degree predict shift work tolerance over 2 years among nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Psychosocial Work Conditions and Burnout Among Brazilian Bank Employees: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maria do Socorro da Silva; Lopes, Cláudia S; Pastor-Valero, Maria; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2016-06-01

    Changes in the modern economy have affected the financial sector. Time pressures, excessive work demands, and job stress are frequent concerns among bank employees, which might predispose them to burnout symptoms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between burnout symptoms and exposure to psychosocial work conditions in bank employees. A cross-sectional study of 1046 bank employees was carried out in Pará and Amapá, northern Brazil. We applied a self-administered questionnaire evaluating socio-demographic characteristics, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and two job stress models (Demand-Control-Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance). Two levels of burnout symptoms were analysed: moderate level of burnout (MLB) and high level of burnout (HLB). Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between the two levels of burnout and the two stress models, controlling for relevant covariates. The overall prevalence of burnout was 71.8% (31.1% for HLB; 40.7% for MLB), regardless of gender. Exposure to adverse psychosocial conditions in the workplace, such as high strain, low social support at work, high effort/low reward, and over commitment showed strong association with HLB and MLB, and these associations were independent of age, gender, and other occupational characteristics. We found that psychosocial conditions in the financial sector involving high strain, low social support at work, high effort/low reward, and over commitment represent possible risk factors for moderate and HLB symptoms in bank employees. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  18. Psychosocial coping strategies in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprah, L.; Sostaric, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The aim of this review is to present common psychosocial problems in cancer patients and their possible coping strategies. Cancer patients are occupied with many psychosocial problems, which are only partially related to their health state and medical treatments. They are faced with a high social pressure, based on prejudices and stereotypes of this illness. The review presents the process of confrontation with the cancer diagnosis and of managing the psychological consequences of cancer. The effects of specific coping styles, psychosocial interventions and a social support on initiation, progression and recurrence of cancer are also described. Conclusions. Although some recent meta-analysis could not provide scientific evidence for the association between coping strategies and the cancer initiation, the progression or the recurrence (neither have studies rejected the thesis of association), the therapeutic window for the psychosocial intervention is still wide and shows an important effect on the quality of lives of many cancer patients. (author)

  19. Interactions between lean management and the psychosocial work environment in a hospital setting - a multi-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhassan, Waqar; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Thor, Johan; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-10-22

    As health care struggles to meet increasing demands with limited resources, Lean has become a popular management approach. It has mainly been studied in relation to health care performance. The empirical evidence as to how Lean affects the psychosocial work environment has been contradictory. This study aims to study the interaction between Lean and the psychosocial work environment using a comprehensive model that takes Lean implementation information, as well as Lean theory and the particular context into consideration. The psychosocial work environment was measured twice with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) employee survey during Lean implementations on May-June 2010 (T1) (n = 129) and November-December 2011 (T2) (n = 131) at three units (an Emergency Department (ED), Ward-I and Ward-II). Information based on qualitative data analysis of the Lean implementations and context from a previous paper was used to predict expected change patterns in the psychosocial work environment from T1 to T2 and subsequently compared with COPSOQ-data through linear regression analysis. Between T1 and T2, qualitative information showed a well-organized and steady Lean implementation on Ward-I with active employee participation, a partial Lean implementation on Ward-II with employees not seeing a clear need for such an intervention, and deterioration in already implemented Lean activities at ED, due to the declining interest of top management. Quantitative data analysis showed a significant relation between the expected and actual results regarding changes in the psychosocial work environment. Ward-I showed major improvements especially related to job control and social support, ED showed a major decline with some exceptions while Ward-II also showed improvements similar to Ward-I. The results suggest that Lean may have a positive impact on the psychosocial work environment given that it is properly implemented. Also, the psychosocial work environment may even

  20. Exploring the nature of resilience in paramedic practice: A psycho-social study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clompus, S R; Albarran, J W

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has identified that paramedics experience high levels of stress and sickness rates which have escalated in recent years due to changes to workforce restructuring. While a number of studies have investigated resilience among healthcare professionals, there is little research exploring how paramedics address work challenges and how they become resilient. Using psycho-social methodology, seven paramedics participated in Free Association Narrative interviewing; all were based at one regional centre. In line with the study design, data analysis adopted a psycho-social approach that generated four themes and 10 sub-themes which, characterised participants' experiences. Coping and resilience was impacted upon via formal methods of support including management, debriefing and referral to outside agencies. Alongside this, more informal methods aided resilience. Informal methods included peer support, support from family and friends and the use of humour. Uniquely, this study uncovered how detachment is used to manage emotions. The study has implications for the services need to support the emotional needs of paramedics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Daya

    2007-10-04

    Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will need to address the problem of

  2. Changes in psychosocial work environment and depressive symptoms: a prospective study in junior physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Weigl, Matthias; Glaser, Jürgen; Petru, Raluca; Siegrist, Johannes; Angerer, Peter

    2013-12-01

    We examined the impact of changes in the psychosocial work environment on depressive symptoms in a sample of junior physicians, a high risk group for stress and mental disorders. This is a three-wave prospective study in 417 junior physicians during their residency in German hospitals. The psychosocial work environment was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire at Waves 1 and 2, and the depressive symptoms were assessed with the State-Trait Depression Scales at all three waves. Multivariate linear regression was applied for prospective associations between ERI across Waves 1 and 2, and baseline-adjusted depressive symptoms at Wave 3. Compared with the ERI scores at Wave 1, at Wave 2, and mean scores between the two waves, the baseline-adjusted ERI change scores between the two waves showed slightly better statistical power, predicting depressive symptoms at Wave 3 (β = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.38-1.18 for increased ERI per SD, β = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.22-1.06 for increased effort per SD, β = -0.65, 95% CI = -1.06 to -0.24 for increased reward per SD, and β = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.27-1.09 for increased overcommitment per SD). Negative changes in the psychosocial work environment, specifically increased ERI, are associated with depressive symptoms in German junior physicians. Reducing the non-reciprocity of working life, particularly improving reward at work, may have beneficial effects on prevention of mental health problems in the hospital workplace. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasundaram Daya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development

  4. PREVALENCE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS OF ALCOHOL USE DISORDER– A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE OF ASSAM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab Kumar Bhattacharjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Alcohol dependence, also known as alcoholism or alcohol use disorder, is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in many diseases and various psychosocial problems. There are many complications in managing as well as critical treatment in the study area. The number of alcohol use disorder is increasing in Northeast India day by day. This study was conducted with an aim to study the prevalence and psychosocial factors of alcohol use disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present study was a hospital-based, cross-sectional study from 1st December, 2015 to 30th November, 2016. A mixed research method of both qualitative and quantitative approaches, nonprobability purposive sampling and three different types of standard scales were applied among cases of age 20 and above. RESULTS 100 alcohol use disorder patients were assessed. Most of the patients were of 20-39 years age group. Majority (96% of total respondents were male. 48 percent of alcoholic dependence cases were from HSLC and HS standard, 98 percent of alcoholic dependence cases were from Hindu religion. Interestingly, 34 percent respondents were severely alcohol dependent, 48 percent of them suffered from high perceived stress, 66 percent of their families were problematic but the findings of hypotheses i.e., x2= 0.489 and x2= 0.097 depict there is no association between the levels of alcohol dependency and family functioning. It cannot be said ‘higher the level of stress higher the severity of alcohol dependency’. CONCLUSION There are many health and social problems which are related to alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorder leads to mental illnesses such as problems of stress, depression, aggression, anxiety, alienation, revenge, shock, indifference, frustration and sleeplessness.

  5. Negative Emotions and Suicidal Ideation during Psychosocial Treatments in Older Adults with Major Depression and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Gross, James J; Banerjee, Samprit; Duberstein, Paul R; Putrino, David; Alexopoulos, George S

    2017-06-01

    To examine the relationship of negative emotions with suicidal ideation during 12 weeks of Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) versus Supportive Therapy of Cognitively Impaired Older Adults (ST-CI), hypothesizing that improved negative emotions are associated with reduced suicidal ideation, PATH improves negative emotions more than ST-CI, and improved negative emotions, rather than other depression symptoms, predict reduction in suicidal ideation. In a randomized controlled trial of two home-delivered psychosocial interventions, 74 older participants (65-95 years old) with major depressive disorder and cognitive impairment were recruited in collaboration with community agencies. The sample reported less intense feelings than suicidal intention. Interventions and assessments were conducted in participants' homes. PATH focuses on improving emotion regulation, whereas ST-CI focuses on nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as understanding and empathy. Improved negative emotions were measured as improvement in Montgomery Asberg's Depression Rating Scales' (MADRS) observer ratings of sadness, anxiety, guilt, hopelessness, and anhedonia. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the MADRS Suicide Item. MADRS Negative Emotions scores were significantly associated with suicidal ideation during the course of treatment (F [1,165]  = 12.73, p = 0.0005). PATH participants had significantly greater improvement in MADRS emotions than ST-CI participants (treatment group by time: F [1,63.2]  = 7.02, p = 0.0102). Finally, improved negative emotions, between lagged and follow-up interview, significantly predicted reduction in suicidal ideation at follow-up interview (F [1, 96]  = 9.95, p = 0.0022). Findings thatimprovement in negative emotions mediates reduction in suicidal ideation may guide the development of psychosocial interventions for reduction of suicidal ideation (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00368940). Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric

  6. The relationship between psychosocial variables and measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was found to be the most important psychosocial variable in the present study, correlating with several .... It includes eight activities of daily living on which patients have to ..... Effects of aerobic exercise versus stress management treatment in.

  7. Study of Psycho-Social Factors Affecting Traffic Accidents Among Young Boys in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Seyyed Mohammad Hossein; Fekr Azad, Hossein; Tahmasebi, Siyamak; Rafiei, Hassan; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Tajlili, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Unprecedented growth of fatalities due to traffic accidents in the recent years has raised great concerns and efforts of authorities in order to identify and control the causes of these accidents. In the present study, the contribution of psychological, social, demographic, environmental and behavioral factors on traffic accidents was studied for young boys in Tehran, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial factors. The design of the present study was quantitative (correlational) in which a sample population including 253 boys from Tehran (Iran) with an age range of 18 to 24 who had been referred to insurance institutions, hospitals, correctional facilities as well as prisons, were selected using stratified cluster sampling during the year 2013.The subjects completed the following questionnaires: demographic, general health, lifestyle, Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ), young parenting, and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). For data analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, and inferential statistics including simultaneous regression, stepwise regression, and structural equations modeling were used. The findings indicated that in the psychosocial model of driving behavior (including lapses, mistakes, and intentional violations) and accidents, psychological factors, depression (P scope of these factors links accidents to other social issues and damages.

  8. Psychosocial functioning and intelligence both partly explain socioeconomic inequalities in premature death. A population-based male cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Falkstedt

    Full Text Available The possible contributions of psychosocial functioning and intelligence differences to socioeconomic status (SES-related inequalities in premature death were investigated. None of the previous studies focusing on inequalities in mortality has included measures of both psychosocial functioning and intelligence.The study was based on a cohort of 49 321 men born 1949-1951 from the general community in Sweden. Data on psychosocial functioning and intelligence from military conscription at ∼18 years of age were linked with register data on education, occupational class, and income at 35-39 years of age. Psychosocial functioning was rated by psychologists as a summary measure of differences in level of activity, power of initiative, independence, and emotional stability. Intelligence was measured through a multidimensional test. Causes of death between 40 and 57 years of age were followed in registers.The estimated inequalities in all-cause mortality by education and occupational class were attenuated with 32% (95% confidence interval: 20-45% and 41% (29-52% after adjustments for individual psychological differences; both psychosocial functioning and intelligence contributed to account for the inequalities. The inequalities in cardiovascular and injury mortality were attenuated by as much as 51% (24-76% and 52% (35-68% after the same adjustments, and the inequalities in alcohol-related mortality were attenuated by up to 33% (8-59%. Less of the inequalities were accounted for when those were measured by level of income, with which intelligence had a weaker correlation. The small SES-related inequalities in cancer mortality were not attenuated by adjustment for intelligence.Differences in psychosocial functioning and intelligence might both contribute to the explanation of observed SES-related inequalities in premature death, but the magnitude of their contributions likely varies with measure of socioeconomic status and cause of death. Both

  9. Psychosocial factors and health behavior among Korean adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Keeho

    2012-01-01

    This study was an attempt to identify associations between health behavior, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, healthy diet, and physical activity, and psychosocial factors. This cross- sectional study was conducted among 1,500 participants aged between 30 and 69 years, selected from a population-based database in October 2009 through multiple-stratified random sampling. Information was collected about the participants' smoking and drinking habits, dietary behavior, level of physical activity, stress, coping strategies, impulsiveness, personality, social support, sense of coherence, self-efficacy, health communication, and sociodemographics. Agreeableness, as a personality trait, was negatively associated with smoking and a healthy diet, while extraversion was positively associated with drinking. The tendency to consume a healthy diet decreased in individuals with perceived higher stress, whereas it increased in individuals who had access to greater social support. Self-efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of all health behaviors. Provider-patient communication and physical environment were important factors in promoting positive healthy behavior, such as consumption of a healthy diet and taking regular exercise. Psychosocial factors influence individuals' smoking and drinking habits, dietary intake, and exercise patterns.

  10. Study protocol for a comparative effectiveness trial of two models of perinatal integrated psychosocial assessment: the PIPA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Nicole; Black, Emma; Chambers, Georgina M; Schmied, Virginia; Matthey, Stephen; Farrell, Josephine; Kingston, Dawn; Bisits, Andrew; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2017-07-20

    Studies examining psychosocial and depression assessment programs in maternity settings have not adequately considered the context in which psychosocial assessment occurs or how broader components of integrated care, including clinician decision-making aids, may optimise program delivery and its cost-effectiveness. There is also limited evidence relating to the diagnostic accuracy of symptom-based screening measures used in this context. The Perinatal Integrated Psychosocial Assessment (PIPA) Project was developed to address these knowledge gaps. The primary aims of the PIPA Project are to examine the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of two alternative models of integrated psychosocial care during pregnancy: 'care as usual' (the SAFE START model) and an alternative model (the PIPA model). The acceptability and perceived benefit of each model of care from the perspective of both pregnant women and their healthcare providers will also be assessed. Our secondary aim is to examine the psychometric properties of a number of symptom-based screening tools for depression and anxiety when used in pregnancy. This is a comparative-effectiveness study comparing 'care as usual' to an alternative model sequentially over two 12-month periods. Data will be collected from women at Time 1 (initial antenatal psychosocial assessment), Time 2 (2-weeks after Time 1) and from clinicians at Time 3 for each condition. Primary aims will be evaluated using a between-groups design, and the secondary aim using a within group design. The PIPA Project will provide evidence relating to the clinical- and cost- effectiveness of psychosocial assessment integrated with electronic clinician decision making prompts, and referral options that are tailored to the woman's psychosocial risk, in the maternity care setting. It will also address research recommendations from the Australian (2011) and NICE (2015) Clinical Practice Guidelines. ACTRN12617000932369.

  11. Brief psychosocial therapy for the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer disease (the CALM-AD trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Clive; Brown, Richard; Fossey, Jane; Douglas, Simon; Bradley, Paul; Hancock, Judith; James, Ian A; Juszczak, Edmund; Bentham, Peter; Burns, Alistair; Lindesay, James; Jacoby, Robin; O'Brien, John; Bullock, Roger; Johnson, Tony; Holmes, Clive; Howard, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Good practice guidelines state that a psychological intervention should usually precede pharmacotherapy, but there are no data evaluating the feasibility of psychological interventions used in this way. At the first stage of a randomized blinded placebo-controlled trial, 318 patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) with clinically significant agitated behavior were treated in an open design with a psychological intervention (brief psychosocial therapy [BPST]) for 4 weeks, preceding randomization to pharmacotherapy. The therapy involved social interaction, personalized music, or removal of environmental triggers. Overall, 318 patients with AD completed BPST with an improvement of 5.6 points on the total Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI; mean [SD], 63.3 [16.0] to 57.7 [18.4], t = 4.8, df = 317, p 95% of patients. More detailed evaluation of outcome was completed for the 198 patients with AD from these centers, who experienced a mean improvement of 6.6 points on the total CMAI (mean [SD], 62.2 [14.3] to 55.6 [15.8], t = 6.5, df = 197, p < 0.0001). Overall, 43% of participants achieved a 30% improvement in their level of agitation. The specific attributable benefits of BPST cannot be determined from an open trial. However, the BPST therapy was feasible and was successfully delivered according to an operationalized manual. The encouraging outcome indicates the need for a randomized controlled trial of BPST.

  12. Psychosocial profile of pediatric brain tumor survivors with neurocognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marieke Anna; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yvonne Narda; van Vuurden, Dannis Gilbert; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Gidding, Corrie; Beek, Laura Rachel; Granzen, Bernd; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Grootenhuis, Martha Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    With more children surviving a brain tumor, neurocognitive consequences of the tumor and its treatment become apparent, which could affect psychosocial functioning. The present study therefore aimed to assess psychosocial functioning of pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) in detail. Psychosocial functioning of PBTS (8-18 years) with parent-reported neurocognitive complaints was compared to normative data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), self-esteem, psychosocial adjustment, and executive functioning (one-sample t tests) and to a sibling control group on fatigue (independent-samples t test). Self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires were included, where appropriate, providing complementary information. Eighty-two PBTS (mean age 13.4 years, SD 3.2, 49 % males) and 43 healthy siblings (mean age 14.3, SD 2.4, 40 % males) were included. As compared to the normative population, PBTS themselves reported decreased physical, psychological, and generic HRQOL (d = 0.39-0.62, p psychosocial adjustment seemed not to be affected. Parents of PBTS reported more psychosocial (d = 0.81, p psychosocial adjustment problems for female PBTS aged 8-11 years than for the female normative population (d = 0.69, p psychosocial problems, as reported by PBTS, parents, and teachers. Systematic screening of psychosocial functioning is necessary so that tailored support from professionals can be offered to PBTS with neurocognitive complaints.

  13. The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) Study: Methods of Data Collection and Characteristics of Study Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Serra, Consol; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H.; Sarquis, Leila M.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.; Harris, E. Clare; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derett, Sarah; McBride, David; Gray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) study was established to explore the hypothesis that common musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and associated disability are importantly influenced by culturally determined health beliefs and expectations. This paper describes the methods of data collection and various characteristics of the study sample. Methods/Principal Findings A standardised questionnaire covering musculoskeletal symptoms, disability and potential risk factors, was used to collect information from 47 samples of nurses, office workers, and other (mostly manual) workers in 18 countries from six continents. In addition, local investigators provided data on economic aspects of employment for each occupational group. Participation exceeded 80% in 33 of the 47 occupational groups, and after pre-specified exclusions, analysis was based on 12,426 subjects (92 to 1018 per occupational group). As expected, there was high usage of computer keyboards by office workers, while nurses had the highest prevalence of heavy manual lifting in all but one country. There was substantial heterogeneity between occupational groups in economic and psychosocial aspects of work; three- to five-fold variation in awareness of someone outside work with musculoskeletal pain; and more than ten-fold variation in the prevalence of adverse health beliefs about back and arm pain, and in awareness of terms such as “repetitive strain injury” (RSI). Conclusions/Significance The large differences in psychosocial risk factors (including knowledge and beliefs about MSDs) between occupational groups should allow the study hypothesis to be addressed effectively. PMID:22792189

  14. The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability study: methods of data collection and characteristics of study sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Coggon

    Full Text Available The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability study was established to explore the hypothesis that common musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs and associated disability are importantly influenced by culturally determined health beliefs and expectations. This paper describes the methods of data collection and various characteristics of the study sample.A standardised questionnaire covering musculoskeletal symptoms, disability and potential risk factors, was used to collect information from 47 samples of nurses, office workers, and other (mostly manual workers in 18 countries from six continents. In addition, local investigators provided data on economic aspects of employment for each occupational group. Participation exceeded 80% in 33 of the 47 occupational groups, and after pre-specified exclusions, analysis was based on 12,426 subjects (92 to 1018 per occupational group. As expected, there was high usage of computer keyboards by office workers, while nurses had the highest prevalence of heavy manual lifting in all but one country. There was substantial heterogeneity between occupational groups in economic and psychosocial aspects of work; three- to five-fold variation in awareness of someone outside work with musculoskeletal pain; and more than ten-fold variation in the prevalence of adverse health beliefs about back and arm pain, and in awareness of terms such as "repetitive strain injury" (RSI.The large differences in psychosocial risk factors (including knowledge and beliefs about MSDs between occupational groups should allow the study hypothesis to be addressed effectively.

  15. Bidirectional associations between psychosocial well-being and body mass index in European children: longitudinal findings from the IDEFICS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Hunsberger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The negative impact of childhood overweight on psychosocial well-being has been demonstrated in a number of studies. There is also evidence that psychosocial well-being may influence future overweight. We examined the bidirectional association between childhood overweight and psychosocial well-being in children from a large European cohort. The dual aim was to investigate the chronology of associations between overweight and psychosocial health indicators and the extent to which these associations may be explained by parental education. Methods Participants from the IDEFICS study were recruited from eight countries between September 2007 and June 2008 when the children were aged 2 to 9.9 years old. Children and families provided data on lifestyle, psychosocial well-being, and measured anthropometry at baseline and at follow-up 2 years later. This study includes children with weight, height, and psychosocial well-being measurements at both time points (n = 7,831. Psychosocial well-being was measured by the KINDL® and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire respectively. The first instrument measures health-related quality of life including emotional well-being, self-esteem, parent relations and social relations while the second measures well-being based on emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer-related problems. Logistic regression was used for modeling longitudinal associations. Results Children who were overweight at baseline had increased risk of poor health-related quality of life (odds ratio (OR = 1.23; 95 % confidence interval (CI:1.03–1.48 measured 2 years later; this association was unidirectional. In contrast to health-related quality of life, poor well-being at baseline was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.39; 95 % CI:1.03–1.86 at 2 year follow-up; this association was also only observed in one direction. Adjustment for parental education did not change our findings

  16. Relationship between stress-related psychosocial work factors and suboptimal health among Chinese medical staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying-Zhi; Chu, Xi; Meng, Shi-Jiao; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Li-Juan; Yan, Yu-Xiang

    2018-03-06

    The study aimed to develop and validate a model to measure psychosocial factors at work among medical staff in China based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The second aim of the current study was to clarify the association between stress-related psychosocial work factors and suboptimal health status. The cross-sectional study was conducted using clustered sampling method. Xuanwu Hospital, a 3A grade hospital in Beijing. Nine hundred and fourteen medical staff aged over 40 years were sampled. Seven hundred and ninety-seven valid questionnaires were collected and used for further analyses. The sample included 94% of the Han population. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and the Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaires-25 were used to assess the psychosocial factors at work and suboptimal health status, respectively. CFA was conducted to establish the evaluating method of COPSOQ. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between suboptimal health status and stress-related psychosocial work factors among Chinese medical staff. There was a strong correlation among the five dimensions of COPSOQ based on the first-order factor model. Then, we established two second-order factors including negative and positive psychosocial work stress factors to evaluate psychosocial factors at work, and the second-order factor model fit well. The high score in negative (OR (95% CI)=1.47 (1.34 to 1.62), Pwork factors increased and decreased the risk of suboptimal health, respectively. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounders and when using different cut-offs of suboptimal health status. Among medical staff, the second-order factor model was a suitable method to evaluate the COPSOQ. The negative and positive psychosocial work stress factors might be the risk and protective factors of suboptimal health, respectively. Moreover, negative psychosocial work stress was the most associated

  17. Psychosocial factors associated with broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy: findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoph Berg, Cecilie; Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Torgersen, Leila; Hamer, Robert; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy, including factors associated with continuation, incidence and remission. A total of 41 157 women completed questionnaires at approximately gestation week 18, including items on eating disorders and psychosocial characteristics as a part of Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Incident bulimia nervosa during the first trimester was significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression and low self-esteem and life satisfaction, whereas remission was significantly associated with higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. Continuation was not significantly related to any of the psychosocial variables tested. Onset of bulimia nervosa during pregnancy is associated with mood and anxiety symptoms. Remission of bulimic symptoms and new onset of bulimia nervosa are associated with opposite profiles of self-esteem, and life satisfaction measures.

  18. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Ömer; Çubukçuoğlu, Zeynep; Erdin, Soner; Taş, Cumhur; Onur, Ece; Berk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502); household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501); participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414); hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567), superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667), and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450); and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597). There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  19. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Aydemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Methods: Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502; household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501; participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414; hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567, superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667, and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450; and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597. There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  20. Associations between the workplace-effort in psychosocial risk management and the employee-rating of the psychosocial work environment - a multilevel study of 7565 employees in 1013 workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Madsen, Ida Elisabeth Huitfeldt; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Hasle, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the association between the workplace-effort in psychosocial risk management and later employee-rating of the psychosocial work environment. The study is based on data from two questionnaire surveys - one including 1013 workplaces and one including 7565 employees from these workplaces. The association was analyzed using multi-level linear regression. The association for five different trade-groups and for five different psychosocial work environment domains was examined. Limited but statistically significant better employee-ratings of the psychosocial work environment in the respective domains were observed among Danish workplaces that prioritized "development possibilities for employees," "recognition of employees," "employees influence on own work tasks," good "communication at the workplace," and "help to prevent work overload." Danish workplaces with a high effort in psychosocial risk management in the preceding year had a small but significantly more positive rating of the psychosocial work environment by the employees. However, future studies are needed to establish the causality of the associations.

  1. Bidirectional relations between parenting practices and child externalizing behavior: a cross-lagged panel analysis in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or CD. Parenting practices and child behavior problems were assessed at six time-points using multiple measures and multiple reporters. The data were analyzed using cross-lagged panel analyses. Results indicated robust temporal stabilities of parenting practices and child behavior problems, in the context of treatment-related improvements, but bidirectional effects between parenting practices and child behavior were less frequently detected. Our findings suggest that bidirectional effects are relatively smaller than the temporal stability of each construct for school-age children with ODD/CD and their parents, following a multi-modal clinical intervention that is directed at both parents and children. Implications for treatment and intervention are discussed.

  2. Supported exercise improves controlled eating and weight through its effects on psychosocial factors: extending a systematic research program toward treatment development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral weight-loss treatments have been overwhelmingly unsuccessful. Many inadequately address both behavioral theory and extant research--especially in regard to the lack of viability of simply educating individuals on improved eating and exercise behaviors. The aim was to synthesize research on associations of changes in exercise behaviors, psychosocial factors, eating behaviors, and weight; and then conduct further direct testing to inform the development of an improved treatment approach. A systematic program of health behavior-change research based on social cognitive theory, and extensions of that theory applied to exercise and weight loss, was first reviewed. Then, to extend this research toward treatment development and application, a field-based study of obese adults was conducted. Treatments incorporated a consistent component of cognitive-behaviorally supported exercise during 26 weeks that was paired with either standard nutrition education (n = 183) or cognitive-behavioral methods for controlled eating that emphasized self-regulatory methods such as goal setting and caloric tracking, cognitive restructuring, and eating cue awareness (n = 247). Both treatment conditions were associated with improved self-efficacy, self-regulation, mood, exercise, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight, and waist circumference; with improvements in self-regulation for eating, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight, and waist circumference significantly greater in the cognitive-behavioral nutrition condition. Changes in exercise- and eating-related self-efficacy and self-regulation were associated with changes in exercise and eating (R(2) = 0.40 and 0.17, respectively), with mood change increasing the explanatory power to R(2) = 0.43 and 0.20. Improved self-efficacy and self-regulation for exercise carried over to self-efficacy and self-regulation for controlled eating (β= 0.53 and 0.68, respectively). Development and longitudinal testing of a new and different

  3. Interacting psychosocial and environmental correlates of leisure-time physical activity: a three-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Kerr, Jacqueline; Cardon, Greet; Sallis, James F

    2014-07-01

    The main study objective was to examine the moderating effects of perceived enjoyment, barriers/benefits, perceived social support and self-efficacy, on the associations of perceived environmental attributes with walking for recreation and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and whether these potential moderating effects differed by gender and study site. Data from three observational studies in the United States (Seattle and Baltimore), Australia (Adelaide), and Belgium (Ghent) were pooled. In total, 6014 adults (20-65 years, 55.7% women) were recruited in high-/low-walkable and high-/low-income neighborhoods. All participants completed the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, a validated questionnaire on psychosocial attributes, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. General additive mixed models were conducted in R. Enjoyment of physical activity, perceived barriers to physical activity, perceived benefits of physical activity, social support from family and friends, and self-efficacy for physical activity moderated the relationships of specific perceived environmental characteristics with walking for recreation and/or leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Overall, moderating effects were in the same direction: environmental perceptions were positively associated with leisure-time activity, but associations were strongest in adults with less positive scores on psychosocial attributes. The findings were fairly consistent across gender and study sites. The present study findings are promising, as it seems that those who might benefit most from environmental interventions to promote physical activity, may mainly be adults at risk of being insufficiently active or those difficult to reach through individual health promotion programs.

  4. A naturalistic study on the relationship among resilient factors, psychiatric symptoms, and psychosocial functioning in a sample of residential patients with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, Nicola; Zizolfi, Daniele; Ielmini, Marta; Pagani, Roberto; Caselli, Ivano; Diurni, Marcello; Milano, Anna; Callegari, Camilla

    2018-01-01

    Resilience is a multidimensional process of adaptation aimed to overcome stressful or traumatic life experiences; only in the last few years it has been considered as a personal resource in psychosis and schizophrenia. This study aimed to assess the relationship between intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience factors and schizophrenia, particularly whether and how resilience can improve the course of psychotic illness. In this observational study, all patients recruited had to fulfill the following inclusion criteria: diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 ); aged between 18 and 65 years; provided written informed consent; to be clinically stable (Clinical Global Impression Scale SPSS. Partial correlations were evaluated to assess the relationship between RSA total scores and subscores and BPRS-A, SANS, SAPS, and LSP total scores, removing the common variance among variables. Then, a series of hierarchical multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association between resilience, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning. A statistically significant negative correlation among intrapersonal resilience factors and BPRS-A total score emerged, predicting psychiatric symptoms severity and explaining approximately 31% of the BPRS-A variance; otherwise, only the interpersonal resilience factors associated with social support were statistically and positively correlated with LSP total score, predicting psychosocial functioning and explaining the 11% of LSP variance. The specific contribution that resilience factors may have in predicting the severity of symptoms and the extent of psychosocial functioning emphasizes the importance of personalizing treatment for patients affected by schizophrenia, promoting personal resources, and translating them into better outcomes.

  5. Relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among Ghanaians in Amsterdam, the Netherlands--the GHAIA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyei, Bernard; Nicolaou, Mary; Boateng, Linda; Dijkshoorn, Henriette; van den Born, Bert-Jan; Agyemang, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent among recent sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in western countries and some tend to associate their hypertension to psychosocial stress. However data on the relationship between hypertension and psychosocial stress among SSA migrants are rare. We assessed the

  6. Psychosocial work factors and burnout : a study of a working general population and patients at a stress rehabilitation clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Norlund, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Background The psychosocial work environment affects our health (e.g., sick leave and mortality rates). Research on psychosocial work factors and burnout has focused on specific workplaces or occupations and rarely evaluated in the general population or used longitudinal designs. In Sweden, the diagnosis of exhaustion disorder (closely related to burnout) is a common cause for sick leave. The effects of psychosocial work environments on the process of returning to work has not been studied in...

  7. Psychosocial outcomes of Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with acute coronary syndromes: a prospective repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dominic S K; Chau, Janita P C; Chang, Anne M

    2007-08-01

    Western studies have suggested that emotional stress and distress impacted on the morbidity and mortality in people following acute coronary events. Symptoms of anxiety and depression have been associated with re-infarction and death, prolonged recovery and disability and depression may precipitate the client's low self-esteem. This study examined perceived anxiety, depression and self-esteem of Hong Kong Chinese clients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) over a 6-month period following hospital admission. To examine: A prospective, repeated measures design with measures taken on two occasions over a 6-month period; (1) within the 1st week of hospital admission following the onset of ACS and (2) at 6 months follow up. Convenient sample of 182 voluntary consented clients admitted with ACS to a major public hospital in Hong Kong who could communicate in Chinese, complete questionnaires, cognitive intact, and were haemodynamically stable and free from acute chest pain at the time of interview. Baseline data were obtained within 1 week after hospital admission. The follow-up data was collected 6 months after hospital discharge. The Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), State Self-esteem Scale (SSES), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess anxiety and depression, state self-esteem, and trait self-esteem, respectively. Findings suggested gender differences in clients' perception in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Improvements in clients' perception of these variables were evident over the 6-month period following their acute coronary events. The study confirmed the western notion that psychosocial problems are common among coronary clients and this also applies to Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with ACS. Further studies to explore effective interventions to address these psychosocial issues are recommended.

  8. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Results Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. Conclusions There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among

  9. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-05-15

    Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers.

  10. The Portuguese long version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) - a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Susel; Azevedo, Luís F; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; Nübling, Matthias; da Costa, José Torres

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are now widely recognised as one of the biggest challenges for occupational safety and health (OSH) and a major public health concern. The aim of this paper is to investigate the Portuguese long version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II), in order to analyse the psychometric properties of the instrument and to validate it. The Portuguese COPSOQ II was issued to a total of 745 Portuguese employees from both private and public organisations across several economic sectors at a baseline and then 2 weeks later. Methodological quality appraisal was based on COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) recommendations. An analysis of the psychometric properties of the long version of COPSOQ II (internal consistency, intraclass correlation coefficient, floor and ceiling effects, response rate, missing values, mean and standard deviation, exploratory factor analysis) was performed to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument. The COPSOQ II had a response rate of 60.6% (test) and a follow-up response rate of 59.5% (retest). In general, a Cronbach's alpha of the COPSOQ scales (test and retest) was above the conventional threshold of 0.70. The test-retest reliability estimated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a higher reliability for most of the scales, above the conventional 0.7, except for eight scales. The proportion of the missing values was less than 1.3%, except for two scales. The average scores and standard deviations showed similar results to the original Danish study, except for eight scales. All of the scales had low floor and ceiling effects, with one exception . Overall, the exploratory factor analysis presented good results in 27 scales assuming a reflective measurement model. The hypothesized factor structure under a reflective model was not supported in 14 scales and for some but not all of these scales the explanation may be a formative

  11. Psychosocial factors and psychological well-being: a study from a nationally representative sample of Korean workers

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Bum-Joon; LAMICHHANE, Dirga Kumar; JUNG, Dal-Young; MOON, So-Hyun; KIM, Seong-Jin; KIM, Hwan-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine how each psychosocial factor on working conditions is related to a worker?s well-being. Data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey were analyzed for 33,569 employed workers aged ?15 years. Well-being was evaluated through the WHO-5 questionnaire and variables about occupational psychosocial factors were classified into eight categories. The prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression model. Overall, 44.3% of men and 57.4% of women wer...

  12. Effects of Psychosocial Work Factors on Lifestyle Changes: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, K. O.; Thomsen, J. F.; Mikkelsen, S.

    2011-01-01

    controlling for potential confounders. There were no other significant findings in the expected direction except for some of the confounders. CONCLUSIONS:: We found only limited and inconsistent support for the hypothesis that a poor psychosocial work environment is associated with an adverse lifestyle......OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the effect of the demand-control-support model, the effort-reward imbalance model, and emotional demands on smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index. METHODS:: This is a 2-year prospective cohort study of 3224 public sector employees. Measures...... were assessed with questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict changes in lifestyle factors. RESULTS:: Low reward predicted smoking, low-decision latitude predicted being inactive, and high demands predicted high-alcohol consumption but only for men at follow-up even after...

  13. Effects of psychosocial work factors on lifestyle changes: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Karin Olofsson; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Rugulies, Reiner; Mors, Ole; Kærgaard, Anette; Kolstad, Henrik A; Kaerlev, Linda; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Hansen, Ase Marie; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of the demand-control-support model, the effort-reward imbalance model, and emotional demands on smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index. This is a 2-year prospective cohort study of 3224 public sector employees. Measures were assessed with questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict changes in lifestyle factors. Low reward predicted smoking, low-decision latitude predicted being inactive, and high demands predicted high-alcohol consumption but only for men at follow-up even after controlling for potential confounders. There were no other significant findings in the expected direction except for some of the confounders. We found only limited and inconsistent support for the hypothesis that a poor psychosocial work environment is associated with an adverse lifestyle.

  14. Victimisation and psychosocial difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns: a school-based study of adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, P

    2014-11-01

    This study examined victimisation, substance misuse, relationships, sexual activity, mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour among adolescents with sexual orientation concerns in comparison to those without such concerns. 1112 Irish students (mean age 14 yrs) in 17 mixed-gender secondary schools completed a self-report questionnaire with standardised scales and measures of psychosocial difficulties. 58 students (5%) reported having concerns regarding their sexual orientation. Compared with their peers, they had higher levels of mental health difficulties and a markedly-increased prevalence of attempted suicide (29% vs. 2%), physical assault (40% vs. 8%), sexual assault (16%vs. 1%) and substance misuse. Almost all those (90%) with sexual orientation concerns reported having had sex compared to just 4% of their peers. These results highlight the significant difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns in adolescents in Ireland. Early and targeted interventions are essential to address their needs.

  15. A Qualitative Study of Doctors of Chiropractic in a Nova Scotian Practice-based Research Network: Barriers and Facilitators to the Screening and Management of Psychosocial Factors for Patients With Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Peter; Hayden, Jill A; Des Rosiers, Piaf; Harman, Katherine; French, Simon D; Curran, Janet A; Hefford, Warren

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess chiropractors' awareness of clinical practice guidelines for low back pain and to identify barriers and facilitators to the screening and management of psychosocial factors in patients with low back pain. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework with 10 Nova Scotian chiropractors who were members of a practice-based research network. The participants correctly identified what the guidelines generally recommend and described the value of psychosocial factors; however, none of the participants could name specific clinical practice guidelines for low back pain. We identified 6 themes related to barriers and facilitators for chiropractors screening and managing psychosocial factors. The themes revolved around the participants' desire to fulfill patients' anatomy-focused treatment expectations and a perceived lack of training for managing psychosocial factors. Participants had concerns about going beyond the chiropractic scope of practice, and they perceived a lack of practical psychosocial screening and management resources. Social factors, such as the influence of other health care practitioners, were reported as both barriers and facilitators to screening and managing psychosocial factors. The participants in this study reported that they mostly treated with an anatomical and biomechanical focus and that they did not always address psychosocial factors identified in their patients with low back pain. Although these findings are limited to Nova Scotian chiropractors, the barriers identified appeared to be potentially modifiable and could be considered in other groups. Low-cost interventions, such as continuing education using evidence-informed behavior change techniques, could be considered to address these barriers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Eating in moderation and the essential role of awareness. A Dutch longitudinal study identifying psychosocial predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walthouwer, Michel Jean Louis; Oenema, Anke; Candel, Math; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2015-04-01

    Eating in moderation, i.e. the attempt to monitor and limit the intake of energy-dense foods, is a promising strategy in the prevention of weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine which psychosocial factors derived from the I-Change Model (ICM) were associated with eating in moderation, and whether these factors differed between adults with a correct (aware) or incorrect (unaware) perception of their dietary behaviour. This study used a longitudinal design with measurements at baseline (N = 483) and six-month follow-up (N = 379). Eating in moderation was defined as the average daily energy intake from energy-dense food products and was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the associations between the ICM factors and eating in moderation. The moderating role of awareness was examined by including interactions between awareness and the ICM factors in the regression analyses using the pick-a-point approach to further examine the associations for aware and unaware participants. Participants who were aware of their dietary behaviour had a significantly lower average daily energy intake compared to those who were unaware. Eating in moderation was predicted by awareness, risk perception, social influence and intention. Among the aware participants, eating in moderation was predicted by risk perception, attitude, social influence and intention. Among the unaware participants, only risk perception and self-efficacy were significantly associated with eating in moderation. Our findings show that psychosocial factors may only predict eating in moderation when people are aware of their risk behaviour. Therefore, interventions aimed at promoting complex behaviours, such as eating in moderation, should first focus on improving individuals' awareness of their risk behaviour before targeting motivational factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Psychosocial adjustment in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Aguilar, Salvador; Guerra-Cruz, Hilda Griselda; Cupil-Rodríguez, Aura Lizbet; Calderillo-Ruiz, Germán; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial adaptation is a measurement that represents the patient's adjustment to those changes involved in their illness. We undertook this study to search for individual characteristics and clinical aspects associated with successful psychosocial adjustment in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing (CT) chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Seventy-five patients with CRC treated with CT or CRT in a cancer center were included. Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale Self-Reporting (PAIS-SR) questionnaire was used as a measurement of psychosocial adjustment. Psychosocial adaptation was successful in 18 patients (24%) and unsuccessful in 57 patients (76%). Young patients, married patients and males showed lower psychosocial adaptation to disease. This is associated with the decrease in sexual relations, economic resources and psychological symptoms. Patients complained that they were unsatisfied due to the lack of disease and treatment information offered by the heath care team. In the process of adaptation, clinical features such as tumor location and treatment scheme are considered basic, as well as age, education, marital status. Areas such as sexuality, interpersonal and family relationships, economic status and emotional state of patients affected by the disease and treatments provide a deep complexity in the study of the psychosocial adaptation process in patients with CRC.

  18. Psychosocial health and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Chenchang; Yao, Xing; Yang, Yinmei; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue

    2018-01-01

    Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, infection status, psychosocial variables and suicide ideation reports of participants were collected. Logistic regressions were used to identify potential factors associated with suicidal ideation and to verify the syndemic effect of psychosocial factors. Additionally, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed. In total, four hundred sixty-five PLWHA participated, 31.6% (n = 147) of whom had suicidal ideation. The results from univariate analysis showed that older age, low education level, being married, having children, and psychosocial variables (high perceived stigma, depression, low self-esteem, social support and resilience) were significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that depression (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.62-4.51), perceived stigma (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.17-3.32), and low social support (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.08-3.20) and self-esteem (OR = 4.11, 95%CI = 2.06-8.16) were statistically significant. PLWHA with at least two psychosocial health problems were nearly 5 times more likely (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 3.11-7.17) to have had suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation is frequent among PLWHA in China and is consistent with prevalence estimates from abroad. Psychosocial health problems were the determining factors associated with suicidal ideation, and a syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions was confirmed in predicting suicidal ideation. Therefore, early screening

  19. Psychosocial health and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China.An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, infection status, psychosocial variables and suicide ideation reports of participants were collected. Logistic regressions were used to identify potential factors associated with suicidal ideation and to verify the syndemic effect of psychosocial factors. Additionally, odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were computed.In total, four hundred sixty-five PLWHA participated, 31.6% (n = 147 of whom had suicidal ideation. The results from univariate analysis showed that older age, low education level, being married, having children, and psychosocial variables (high perceived stigma, depression, low self-esteem, social support and resilience were significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that depression (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.62-4.51, perceived stigma (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.17-3.32, and low social support (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.08-3.20 and self-esteem (OR = 4.11, 95%CI = 2.06-8.16 were statistically significant. PLWHA with at least two psychosocial health problems were nearly 5 times more likely (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 3.11-7.17 to have had suicidal ideation.Suicidal ideation is frequent among PLWHA in China and is consistent with prevalence estimates from abroad. Psychosocial health problems were the determining factors associated with suicidal ideation, and a syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions was confirmed in predicting suicidal ideation. Therefore, early

  20. Psychosocial health and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xing; Yang, Yinmei; Yan, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Background Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, infection status, psychosocial variables and suicide ideation reports of participants were collected. Logistic regressions were used to identify potential factors associated with suicidal ideation and to verify the syndemic effect of psychosocial factors. Additionally, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed. Results In total, four hundred sixty-five PLWHA participated, 31.6% (n = 147) of whom had suicidal ideation. The results from univariate analysis showed that older age, low education level, being married, having children, and psychosocial variables (high perceived stigma, depression, low self-esteem, social support and resilience) were significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that depression (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.62–4.51), perceived stigma (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.17–3.32), and low social support (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.08–3.20) and self-esteem (OR = 4.11, 95%CI = 2.06–8.16) were statistically significant. PLWHA with at least two psychosocial health problems were nearly 5 times more likely (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 3.11–7.17) to have had suicidal ideation. Conclusions Suicidal ideation is frequent among PLWHA in China and is consistent with prevalence estimates from abroad. Psychosocial health problems were the determining factors associated with suicidal ideation, and a syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions was confirmed in

  1. Effects of a psychosocial intervention on survival among patients with stage I breast and prostate cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrock, D; Palmer, R F; Taylor, B

    1999-05-01

    Psychosocial factors have been linked to the development and progression of cancer and shown to be relevant in cancer care. However, the evidence that psychosocial interventions affect cancer survival is less conclusive. Few methodologically sound studies have addressed this issue. To investigate the effects of a 6-week psychosocial intervention on survival among patients with stage I breast and prostate cancer. Matched case-control. 3 rural hospitals or cancer centers in central Pennsylvania. 21 breast and 29 prostate stage I cancer patients (treatment group) matched with 74 breast and 65 prostate stage I cancer patients from the same hospitals who did not receive the intervention (control group). Six 2-hour health psychology classes conducted by a licensed staff psychologist. Survival time was compared between the 2 groups and with national norms. The intervention group lived significantly longer than did matched controls. At 4- to 7-year follow-up (median = 4.2 years), none of the breast cancer patients in the intervention group died, whereas 12% of those in the control group died. Twice as many matched-control prostate cancer patients died compared with those in the intervention group (28% vs 14%). Control group survival was similar to national norms. These results are consistent with prior clinical trials and suggest that short-term psychosocial interventions that encourage the expression of emotions, provide social support, and teach coping skills can influence survival among cancer patients. However, self-selection bias cannot be ruled out as an alternative explanation for the results. These interventions merit further consideration and research.

  2. Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study......Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study...

  3. Empirically Based Psychosocial Therapies for Schizophrenia: The Disconnection between Science and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Shean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirically validated psychosocial therapies for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were described in the report of the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT, 2009. The PORT team identified eight psychosocial treatments: assertive community treatment, supported employment, cognitive behavioral therapy, family-based services, token economy, skills training, psychosocial interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders, and psychosocial interventions for weight management. PORT listings of empirically validated psychosocial therapies provide a useful template for the design of effective recovery-oriented mental health care systems. Unfortunately, surveys indicate that PORT listings have not been implemented in clinical settings. Obstacles to the implementation of PORT psychosocial therapy listings and suggestions for changes needed to foster implementation are discussed. Limitations of PORT therapy listings that are based on therapy outcome efficacy studies are discussed, and cross-cultural and course and outcome studies of correlates of recovery are summarized.

  4. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. AIMS: To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We...... hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. METHOD: A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were......, learning disorder and conduct disorder (Ptic severity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning...

  5. Concerns voiced by patients and GPs’ responses during psychosocial visits in primary care: a historical cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butalid, L.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dulmen, S. van; Bensing, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In a recent study comparing psychosocial consultations prior to and after the implementation of national clinical guidelines in the Netherlands, we found that general practitioners (GPs) showed less empathy in the more recent consultations. As a consequence, patients possibly have less

  6. Concerns voiced by patients and GPs' responses during psychosocial visits in primary care : a historical cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butalid, Ligaya; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; van Dulmen, Sandra; Bensing, Jozien M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In a recent study comparing psychosocial consultations prior to and after the implementation of national clinical guidelines in the Netherlands, we found that general practitioners (GPs) showed less empathy in the more recent consultations. As a consequence, patients possibly have less

  7. Validity of the European society of cardiology's psychosocial screening interview in patients with coronary artery disease : The THORESCI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfort, E.M.J.; Denollet, J.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Kupper, N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) psychosocial screening instrument. Methods: A total of 508 acute (67%) or elective (33%) percutaneous coronary intervention patients (mean [standard deviation]age = 63 [10] years, 81% male)

  8. Parents' views on growth hormone treatment for their children: psychosocial issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dongen N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nadine van Dongen,1 Ad A Kaptein21Patient Intelligence Panel Health Ltd, London, United Kingdom; 2Section Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The NetherlandsBackground: We evaluated the opinions of parents in The Netherlands concerning treatment of their children with growth hormone, and examined beliefs and perceptions about treatment and quality of health care communication and support.Methods: An Internet survey was completed by 69 parents who had children prescribed growth hormone and were part of the Patient Intelligence Panel. Acceptance of the diagnosis and treatment was investigated with reference to four topics, ie, search and quality of information, involvement in decision-making process, operational aspects, and emotional problems and support.Results: Among the parents surveyed, 48% reported a lack of freedom to choose the type of growth hormone device that best suited their needs, 92% believed that their children (and they themselves would benefit if the children self-administered growth hormone, and 65% believed training to support self-administration would be helpful. According to 79%, the availability of support from another parent with experience of treating their own child with growth hormone, alongside their doctor, would be valuable. Thirty-seven percent of the parents indicated that their children felt anxious about administration of growth hormone, and 83% of parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome their anxiety. An increase in reluctance to receive treatment with growth hormone was observed by 40% of parents after the children reached puberty, and 57% of these parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome this reluctance.Conclusion: Understanding how growth hormone treatments and their implications are perceived by parents is a first step towards addressing quality of growth hormone treatment, which may be instrumental in improving adherence. The data show a need for

  9. [(Dis)satisfaction with mental healthcare work: a study in Psychosocial Care Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, José Maria Ximenes; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Assis, Marluce Maria Araújo

    2011-04-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze satisfaction in the workplace of mental healthcare professionals who serve in Psychosocial Care Centers (Caps). The research is of a qualitative nature and the data-collecting medium was semistructured interviews with 19 workers of three Caps in Fortaleza, in the Northern Brazilian State of Ceará. The treatment of the empirical material was based upon the analysis of content with an emphasis on the thematic bias. The results revealed the determinants of (dis)satisfaction present in the daily routine of these workers. The relationships established with the users were singled out as the main source of satisfaction, whereas the work and wage conditions were the main motives for dissatisfaction. In addition to these aspects, consequences of (dis)satisfaction at work in the private, social and organizational field of the workers' life in the Caps were revealed, mainly in physical and mental health. Lastly, they emphasized the urgent need for implementation - on the part of public administration - of strategies that seek to reduce the precariousness of healthcare work, especially in mental health, with a view to mitigating damages potentially caused by such work.

  10. Evidence-Base Update of Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weersing, V. Robin; Jeffreys, Megan; Do, Minh-Chau T.; Schwartz, Karen T. G.; Bolano, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Depression in youth is prevalent and disabling and tends to presage a chronic and recurrent course of illness and impairment in adulthood. Clinical trial research in youth depression has a 30 year history, and evidence-based treatment reviews appeared in 1998 and 2008. The current review of 42 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) updates these reviews to include RCTs published between 2008 and 2014 (N = 14) and re-evaluates previously reviewed literature. Given the growing maturity of the field, this review utilized a stringent set of methodological criteria for trial inclusion, most notable for excluding trials based in sub-clinical samples of youth that had been included in previous reviews (N = 12) and including well-designed RCTs with null and negative findings (N = 8). Findings from the current review suggest that evidence for child treatments is notably weaker than for adolescent interventions, with no child treatments achieving well-established status and the evidentiary basis of treatments downgraded from previous reports. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for clinically depressed children appears to be possibly efficacious, with mixed findings across trials. For depressed adolescents, both CBT and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) are well-established interventions, with evidence of efficacy in multiple trials by independent investigative teams. This positive conclusion is tempered by the small size of the IPT literature (N = 6) and concern that CBT effects may be attenuated in clinically complicated samples and when compared against active control conditions. In conclusion, data on predictors, moderators, and mediators are examined and priorities for future research discussed. PMID:27870579

  11. Evidence Base Update of Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weersing, V Robin; Jeffreys, Megan; Do, Minh-Chau T; Schwartz, Karen T G; Bolano, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Depression in youth is prevalent and disabling and tends to presage a chronic and recurrent course of illness and impairment in adulthood. Clinical trial research in youth depression has a 30-year history, and evidence-based treatment reviews appeared in 1998 and 2008. The current review of 42 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) updates these reviews to include RCTs published between 2008 and 2014 (N = 14) and reevaluates previously reviewed literature. Given the growing maturity of the field, this review utilized a stringent set of methodological criteria for trial inclusion, most notable for excluding trials based in subclinical samples of youth that had been included in previous reviews (N = 12) and including well-designed RCTs with null and negative findings (N = 8). Findings from the current review suggest that evidence for child treatments is notably weaker than for adolescent interventions, with no child treatments achieving well-established status and the evidentiary basis of treatments downgraded from previous reports. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for clinically depressed children appears to be possibly efficacious, with mixed findings across trials. For depressed adolescents, both CBT and interpersonal psychotherapy are well-established interventions, with evidence of efficacy in multiple trials by independent investigative teams. This positive conclusion is tempered by the small size of the interpersonal psychotherapy literature (N = 6) and concern that CBT effects may be attenuated in clinically complicated samples and when compared against active control conditions. Data on predictors, moderators, and mediators are examined and priorities for future research discussed.

  12. Psychosocial impact of onychomycosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Anna; Franca, Katlein; Fernandez, Alexandra; Nouri, Keyvan

    2013-11-01

    Onychomycosis (tinea unguium) is the most common nail disorder. Nonetheless, it requires lengthy, often ineffective treatments, and recurrence is frequent. Predominantly a disease of the elderly, onychomycosis is becoming more and more common. Besides interfering with normal nail function, fungal nail infections are relatively painful, unsightly in appearance, disrupt daily activities, and have a negative psychosocial connotation. Commonly reported psychosocial factors are embarrassment, low self-esteem, and social withdrawal. Yet advances in therapy have been achieved since these reports were made, and many of these treatment options have proven to be more effective. Thus, the impact of these advances on psychosocial well-being of patients with onychomycosis is worth analyzing. The objective of this paper is to review studies that investigated the psychosocial impact of onychomycosis on a variety of patient populations. An alternative, total patient approach that dermatologists and general practitioners alike could use to incorporate patients' psychosocial well-being into the holistic management of onychomycosis will also be discussed. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J; Robertson, Mary M; Leckman, James F; Peterson, Bradley S

    2010-07-01

    Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were assessed around 18 years of age regarding psychosocial functioning and lifetime psychiatric disorders. Compared with controls, individuals with Tourette syndrome had substantially lower CGAS scores (P = 10(-8)) and higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression, learning disorder and conduct disorder (Ptic severity. Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning and high comorbidity rates in late adolescence.

  14. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; padulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  15. Are risk estimates biased in follow-up studies of psychosocial factors with low base-line participation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Johan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low participation in population-based follow-up studies addressing psychosocial risk factors may cause biased estimation of health risk but the issue has seldom been examined. We compared risk estimates for selected health outcomes among respondents and the entire source population. Methods In a Danish cohort study of associations between psychosocial characteristics of the work environment and mental health, the source population of public service workers comprised 10,036 employees in 502 work units of which 4,489 participated (participation rate 45%. Data on the psychosocial work environment were obtained for each work unit by calculating the average of the employee self-reports. The average values were assigned all employees and non-respondent at the work unit. Outcome data on sick leave and prescription of antidepressant medication during the follow-up period (1.4.2007-31.12.2008 was obtained by linkage to national registries. Results Respondents differed at baseline from non-respondents by gender, age, employment status, sick leave and hospitalization for affective disorders. However, risk estimates for sick leave and prescription of antidepressant medication, during follow-up, based on the subset of participants, did only differ marginally from risk estimates based upon the entire population. Conclusions We found no indications that low participation at baseline distorts the estimates of associations between the work unit level of psychosocial work environment and mental health outcomes during follow-up. These results may not be valid for other exposures or outcomes.

  16. Work-aged stroke survivors’ psychosocial challenges and follow-up needs. A qualitative exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Martinsen, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Background Suffering a stroke in the age span between 18-67 years means being threatened by a serious illness during a productive phase of life. During this phase, people usually focus on education, launching a career and/or establishing a family, and the role commitments are many and demanding. Suffering a stroke during this phase of life might give rise to different psychosocial challenges and problems compared to suffering a stroke later in life. A number of psychosocial challenges h...

  17. Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purgato, M.; Gross, A.L.; Jordans, M.J.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.; Barbui, C.; Tol, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this

  18. A prospective study of musculoskeletal outcomes among manufacturing workers: II. Effects of psychosocial stress and work organization factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerr, Fredric; Fethke, Nathan B; Anton, Dan; Merlino, Linda; Rosecrance, John; Marcus, Michele; Jones, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize associations between psychosocial and work organizational risk factors and upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. Methodological limitations of previous studies of psychosocial and work organizational risk factors and musculoskeletal outcomes have produced inconsistent associations. In this prospective epidemiologic study of 386 workers, questionnaires to assess decision latitude ("control") and psychological job demands ("demand") were administered to study participants and were used to classify them into job strain "quadrants". Measures of job stress and job change were collected during each week of follow-up. Incident hand/arm and neck/shoulder symptoms and disorders were ascertained weekly. Associations between exposure measures and musculoskeletal outcomes were estimated with proportional hazard methods. When compared to the low-demand/high-control job strain referent category, large increases in risk of hand/arm disorders were observed for both high-demand/high-control (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.23, 16.4]) and high-demand/low-control job strain categories (HR = 5.18,95% CI = [1.39, 19.4]). Similar associations were observed for hand/arm symptoms. A strong association was also observed between the low-demand/low-control job strain category and neck/shoulder disorders (HR = 6.46, 95% CI = [1.46, 28.6]). Statistically significant associations were also observed between weekly stress level and weekly job change and several musculoskeletal outcomes. Associations between psychosocial risk factors and work organizational factors and musculoskeletal outcomes were large and in the hypothesized direction. Prevention of occupational musculoskeletal disorders may require attention to psychosocial and work organizational factors in addition to physical factors. Methods to control adverse effects of psychosocial and work organizational risk factors should be explored.

  19. The associations between psychosocial working conditions and changes in common mental disorders: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Hanna; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2014-06-11

    Common mental disorders (CMD) are prevalent in working populations and have adverse consequences for employee well-being and work ability, even leading to early retirement. Several studies report associations between psychosocial working conditions and CMD. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research within a broad framework of psychosocial working conditions and improvement in CMD. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between several psychosocial working conditions and deteriorating and improving CMD among ageing employees over a five-to-six-year follow-up period. The study is based on the Helsinki Health Study baseline survey in 2001-2002 and a follow-up in 2007 (N = 4340, response rate 83%) conducted among 40-60-year-old female and male employees. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure common mental disorders. Psychosocial working conditions were measured in terms of job strain, organisational justice, work-family interface, social support and workplace bullying. The covariates included sociodemographic and health factors. Following adjustment for all the covariates, family-to-work (OR 1.41, 95% Cl 1.04-1.91) and work-to-family conflicts (OR 1.99, 95% Cl 1.42-2.78) and workplace bullying (OR 1.40, 95% Cl 1.09-1.79) were associated with deterioration, and family-to-work conflicts (OR 1.65, 95% Cl 1.66-2.34) and social support (OR 1.47, 95% Cl 1.07-2.00) with improvement in CMD. Adverse psychosocial working conditions contribute to poor mental health among employees. Preventing workplace bullying, promoting social support and achieving a better balance between work and family may help employees to maintain their mental health.

  20. Psychosocial functioning in patients with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole - an office-based real-world setting. Results from the German post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, F; Zacher, A; Nass, A; Urban, R; Werner, C; Spevakné-Göröcs, T; Kungel, M; Ebrecht, M; Modell, S

    2009-05-01

    Aripiprazole (ABILIFY) is an effective antipsychotic used in a dose range from 10 to 30 mg, administered once daily. Soon after its approval in Germany for treatment of schizophrenia, a 12-month post-marketing surveillance study was initiated that included 1 096 patients cared for by 408 office-based psychiatrists and/or neurologists in private practice. The aim was to gain further insights into safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in an outpatient real-life setting focusing on general health, well-being and psychosocial functioning. Efficacy was rated by using standard CGI, SF-12 and SIWM-PsySo instruments for severity of disease, physical and mental health outcomes and psychosocial state, respectively. Safety was evaluated according to the reports of adverse events. Mean total daily dose of aripiprazole increased from 15.4 mg at the visit after 1 month to 17.6 mg at the visits after 6 to 12 months, the most frequently administered maintenance dose being 15 mg. Within the observation period significant improvements of CGI, SF-12 and SIWM-PsySo scores over time versus baseline values were observed (pmuch" or "very much" improved. Aripiprazole was overall well tolerated; 19.9% of patients discontinued treatment after 12 months. Adverse effects in general were moderate to mild and corresponded to the known tolerability profile of aripiprazole. Psychotic side effects reported were probably due to a recurrence of the underlying schizophrenic disorder. The results indicate that aripiprazole may be an efficacious and safe treatment option for pre-treated patients with schizophrenia also in a naturalistic psychiatrist/neurologist practice setting with effects on health and psychosocial functioning and a comparably low dropout rate.

  1. Psychosocial, demographic, and treatment-seeking strategic behavior, including faith healing practices, among patients with epilepsy in northwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Surender Kumar; Sharma, Krishan; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Pathak, Ashis

    2008-08-01

    The data on sociocultural, demographic, and psychosocial aspects and types of treatment strategies adopted by families of patients with epilepsy in northwestern India were collected by the interview schedule method from 400 patients (200 idiopathic and 200 symptomatic) at the outpatient department of the Neurology and Epilepsy Clinic of the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. Epilepsy was classified as idiopathic or symptomatic on the basis of clinical tests (EEG, CT scan, and MRI). It was observed that socioeconomic factors had no bearing on epilepsy in the present sample. Early onset, that is, before 20 years of age, reduced the chances of patients' finding a spouse among those who disclosed the disease information, thereby impacting the nuptial and fertility rates of patients with epilepsy. The present sample of patients was well informed about and sensitized to the efficacy of the modern system of medicine, as 80% of patients sought medical treatment on the very same day as or within a week of onset of seizures. The data were compatible with the framed hypothesis that well-being and safety of the patient would override the stigma burden factor, as 94% of the affected families made no attempt to hide the disease from their neighbors, friends, and colleagues, and teachers of the affected patients. Surprisingly, only 7.5% of the families admitted that they consulted a faith healer. Families did adopt some culturally prevalent methods to control involuntary movements during seizures. It can be concluded that trust in faith healers exists strongly as an undercurrent, but is not overtly admitted by the majority of patients. Some families concurrently visited modern hospitals and occult healers seeking a cure for the disease. The fear of having a child with epilepsy or other abnormalities discouraged married patients from becoming pregnant after developing epilepsy.

  2. Cognitive and psychosocial development of HIV pediatric patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoridou Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychosocial development of pediatric HIV patients has not been extensively evaluated. The study objectives were to evaluate whether emotional and social functions are differentially associated with HIV-related complications. Methods A matched case-control study design was conducted. The case group (n = 20 consisted of vertically infected children with HIV (aged 3-18 years receiving HAART in Greece. Each case was matched with two randomly selected healthy controls from a school-based population. CNS imaging and clinical findings were used to identify patients with HIV-related neuroimaging abnormalities. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale III and Griffiths Mental Abilities Scales were applied to assess cognitive abilities. The age specific Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to evaluate emotional adjustment and social skills. The Fisher's exact test, student's t-test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare categorical, continuous, and ordinal scores, respectively, of the above scales between groups. Results HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities did not differ from patients with neuroimaging abnormalities with respect to either age at HAART initiation (p = 0.306 or months of HAART treatment (p = 0.964. While HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities had similar cognitive development with their healthy peers, patients with neuroimaging abnormalities had lower mean General (p = 0.027 and Practical (p = 0.042 Intelligence Quotient scores. HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities had an increased likelihood of both Abnormal Emotional Symptoms (p = 0.047 and Hyperactivity scores (p = 0.0009. In contrast, HIV patients with neuroimaging abnormalities had an increased likelihood of presenting with Abnormal Peer Problems (p = 0.033. Conclusions HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities are more likely to experience maladjustment with respect to their emotional and activity spheres

  3. The Role of the Social Network in Access to Psychosocial Services for Migrant Elderly-A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Daphne; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2017-10-11

    Abstract : Background: Despite high prevalence of mental problems among elderly migrants in The Netherlands, the use of psychosocial care services by this group is low. Scientific evidence points at the crucial role of social support for mental health and the use of psychosocial services. We therefore explored the role of social networks in the access to psychosocial care among elderly migrants in The Netherlands. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured group interviews and individual interviews. The eight group and eleven individual interviews (respectively n = 58 and n = 11) were conducted in The Netherlands with Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, and Dutch elderly. The data were analysed through coding and comparing fragments and recognizing patterns. Results: Support of the social network is important to navigate to psychosocial care and is most frequently provided by children. However, the social network of elderly migrants is generally not able to meet the needs of the elderly. This is mostly due to poor mental health literacy of the social network, taboo, and stigma around mental illness and the busy lives of the social network members. Conclusion s : Strategies to address help-seeking barriers should consider mental health literacy in elderly migrants as well as their social networks, and counteract taboos and stigma of mental health problems.

  4. Psychosocial factors and psychological well-being: a study from a nationally representative sample of Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bum-Joon; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Jung, Dal-Young; Moon, So-Hyun; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2016-06-10

    This study was conducted to examine how each psychosocial factor on working conditions is related to a worker's well-being. Data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey were analyzed for 33,569 employed workers aged ≥15 years. Well-being was evaluated through the WHO-5 questionnaire and variables about occupational psychosocial factors were classified into eight categories. The prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression model. Overall, 44.3% of men and 57.4% of women were in a low well-being group. In a univariate analysis, most of the psychosocial factors on working conditions are significantly related with a worker's low well-being, except for insufficient job autonomy in both genders and job insecurity for males only. After adjusting for sociodemographic and structural factors on working conditions, job dissatisfaction, lack of reward, lack of social support, violence and discrimination at work still showed a statistically significant association with a worker's low well-being for both genders. We found that psychosocial working conditions were associated with the workers' well-being.

  5. The Role of the Social Network in Access to Psychosocial Services for Migrant Elderly—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Schoenmakers

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Despite high prevalence of mental problems among elderly migrants in The Netherlands, the use of psychosocial care services by this group is low. Scientific evidence points at the crucial role of social support for mental health and the use of psychosocial services. We therefore explored the role of social networks in the access to psychosocial care among elderly migrants in The Netherlands. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured group interviews and individual interviews. The eight group and eleven individual interviews (respectively n = 58 and n = 11 were conducted in The Netherlands with Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, and Dutch elderly. The data were analysed through coding and comparing fragments and recognizing patterns. Results: Support of the social network is important to navigate to psychosocial care and is most frequently provided by children. However, the social network of elderly migrants is generally not able to meet the needs of the elderly. This is mostly due to poor mental health literacy of the social network, taboo, and stigma around mental illness and the busy lives of the social network members. Conclusions: Strategies to address help-seeking barriers should consider mental health literacy in elderly migrants as well as their social networks, and counteract taboos and stigma of mental health problems.

  6. A Qualitative Study of Migrant-related Stressors, Psychosocial Outcomes and HIV Risk Behavior among Truck Drivers in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J.; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at 1) determining Potentially Traumatic Events (PTEs), labor migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviors among truck drivers in Zambia and 2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted fifteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population. PMID:27681145

  7. Portable treatment systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  8. Portable treatment systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas

  9. A naturalistic study on the relationship among resilient factors, psychiatric symptoms, and psychosocial functioning in a sample of residential patients with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poloni N

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available  Nicola Poloni, Daniele Zizolfi, Marta Ielmini, Roberto Pagani, Ivano Caselli, Marcello Diurni, Anna Milano, Camilla Callegari Department of Medicine and Surgery, Division of Psychiatry, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy Objective: Resilience is a multidimensional process of adaptation aimed to overcome stressful or traumatic life experiences; only in the last few years it has been considered as a personal resource in psychosis and schizophrenia. This study aimed to assess the relationship between intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience factors and schizophrenia, particularly whether and how resilience can improve the course of psychotic illness. Patients and methods: In this observational study, all patients recruited had to fulfill the following inclusion criteria: diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5; aged between 18 and 65 years; provided written informed consent; to be clinically stable (Clinical Global Impression Scale <3; history of illness ≥5 years; to be compliant with antipsychotic therapy over the last year; and regular submission to periodic monthly psychiatric visits. Patients were evaluated through the following scales: Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA for resilience; Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Anchored version (BPRS-A, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS for psychotic symptomatology; and Life Skills Profile (LSP for psychosocial functioning. ­Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS. Partial correlations were evaluated to assess the relationship between RSA total scores and subscores and BPRS-A, SANS, SAPS, and LSP total scores, removing the common variance among variables. Then, a series of hierarchical multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association between resilience, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning. Results: A statistically significant

  10. High ratings of satisfaction with fertility treatment are common: findings from the Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) Research Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims were: (i). to identify gender differences in evaluation of medical and patient-centred (psychosocial) care in fertility clinics and (ii). to identify predictors of satisfaction. METHODS: An epidemiological prospective study based on questionnaire responses among all new coupl...

  11. Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire - A validation study using the Job Demand-Resources model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Berthelsen

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the nomological validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II by using an extension of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model with aspects of work ability as outcome.The study design is cross-sectional. All staff working at public dental organizations in four regions of Sweden were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire (75% response rate, n = 1345. The questionnaire was based on COPSOQ II scales, the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, and the one-item Work Ability Score in combination with a proprietary item. The data was analysed by Structural Equation Modelling.This study contributed to the literature by showing that: A The scale characteristics were satisfactory and the construct validity of COPSOQ instrument could be integrated in the JD-R framework; B Job resources arising from leadership may be a driver of the two processes included in the JD-R model; and C Both the health impairment and motivational processes were associated with WA, and the results suggested that leadership may impact WA, in particularly by securing task resources.In conclusion, the nomological validity of COPSOQ was supported as the JD-R model-can be operationalized by the instrument. This may be helpful for transferral of complex survey results and work life theories to practitioners in the field.

  12. The relationship between psychosocial job stress and burnout in emergency departments: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Ríos-Rísquez, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship and predictive power of various psychosocial job stressors for the 3 dimensions of burnout in emergency departments. This study was structured as a cross-sectional design, with a questionnaire as the tool. The data were gathered using an anonymous questionnaire in 3 hospitals in Spain. The sample consisted of 191 emergency departments. Burnout was evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the job stressors by the Nursing Stress Scale. The Burnout Model in this study consisted of 3 dimensions: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy. The model that predicted the emotional exhaustion dimension was formed by 2 variables: Excessive workload and lack of emotional support. These 2 variables explained 19.4% of variance in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism had 4 predictors that explained 25.8% of variance: Interpersonal conflicts, lack of social support, excessive workload, and type of contract. Finally, variability in reduced professional efficacy was predicted by 3 variables: Interpersonal conflicts, lack of social support, and the type of shift worked, which explained 10.4% of variance. From the point of view of nurse leaders, organizational interventions, and the management of human resources, this analysis of the principal causes of burnout is particularly useful to select, prioritize, and implement preventive measures that will improve the quality of care offered to patients and the well-being of personnel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire - A validation study using the Job Demand-Resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Hanne; Hakanen, Jari J; Westerlund, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the nomological validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) by using an extension of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model with aspects of work ability as outcome. The study design is cross-sectional. All staff working at public dental organizations in four regions of Sweden were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire (75% response rate, n = 1345). The questionnaire was based on COPSOQ II scales, the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, and the one-item Work Ability Score in combination with a proprietary item. The data was analysed by Structural Equation Modelling. This study contributed to the literature by showing that: A) The scale characteristics were satisfactory and the construct validity of COPSOQ instrument could be integrated in the JD-R framework; B) Job resources arising from leadership may be a driver of the two processes included in the JD-R model; and C) Both the health impairment and motivational processes were associated with WA, and the results suggested that leadership may impact WA, in particularly by securing task resources. In conclusion, the nomological validity of COPSOQ was supported as the JD-R model-can be operationalized by the instrument. This may be helpful for transferral of complex survey results and work life theories to practitioners in the field.

  14. Psychosocial Studies of Migration and Community: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas D. Perkins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the special issue on psychosocial studies of migration and community, we briefly reflect on the global increase in, and issues related to, both international and domestic migration, particularly from rural areas of less developed countries, which has fueled rapid urbanization and intercultural tensions in both post-industrial and developing countries. Topics covered in the issue are summarized, including an Italian study of the emotional impact of discrimination against immigrant adolescents; acculturation, integration and adaptation of Muslim immigrant youth in New Zealand; perceptions of human trafficking in Moldova; Chinese migrant workers´ social networks, life satisfaction and political participation; physician brain drain from sub-Saharan Africa; and a critical analysis of the oppressive and liberating impact of organizations on immigrants, multiculturalism, and social justice. The issue concludes with commentary articles by four leading international scholars of migration and community. The breadth of topics helps to address wide-ranging gaps in the literature, but more psychological and social research must connect ecologically across multiple levels and to cultural, political, economic, and environmental studies of migration and community.

  15. Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourander, Andre; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Ikonen, Maria; Lindroos, Jarna; Luntamo, Terhi; Koskelainen, Merja; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans

    2010-07-01

    To our knowledge, no population study examining psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents exists. To study cross-sectional associations between cyberbullying and psychiatric and psychosomatic problems among adolescents. Population-based cross-sectional study. Finland. The sample consists of 2215 Finnish adolescents aged 13 to 16 years with complete information about cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Self-reports of cyberbullying and cybervictimization during the past 6 months. In the total sample, 4.8% were cybervictims only, 7.4% were cyberbullies only, and 5.4% were cyberbully-victims. Cybervictim-only status was associated with living in a family with other than 2 biological parents, perceived difficulties, emotional and peer problems, headache, recurrent abdominal pain, sleeping difficulties, and not feeling safe at school. Cyberbully-only status was associated with perceived difficulties, hyperactivity, conduct problems, low prosocial behavior, frequent smoking and drunkenness, headache, and not feeling safe at school. Cyberbully-victim status was associated with all of these risk factors. Among cybervictims, being cyberbullied by a same-sex or opposite-sex adult, by an unknown person, and by a group of people were associated with fear for safety, indicating possible trauma. Both cyberbullying and cybervictimization are associated with psychiatric and psychosomatic problems. The most troubled are those who are both cyberbullies and cybervictims. This indicates the need for new strategies for cyberbullying prevention and intervention.

  16. Effects of Horticultural Therapy on Psychosocial Health in Older Nursing Home Residents: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Min; Ji, Jeng-Yi

    2015-09-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of horticultural therapy on psychosocial health in older nursing home residents. A combined quantitative and qualitative design was adopted. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 10 older residents from a nursing home in Taichung, Taiwan. Participants joined a 10-week indoor horticultural program once a week, with each session lasting for about 1.5 hours. A single-group design with multiple measurements was adopted for the quantitative component of this study. Interviews held 1-2 days before the intervention (T0) were used to collect baseline data. The two outcome variables of this study, depression and loneliness, were reassessed during the 5th (T1) and 10th (T2) weeks of the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the mean differences among T0, T1, and T2 measures. After the 10-week program, qualitative data were collected by asking participants to share their program participation experiences. The results of generalized estimating equation showed significant improvements in depression and loneliness. Four categories emerged from the qualitative data content analysis: social connection, anticipation and hope, sense of achievement, and companionship. Given the beneficial effects of the horticulture therapy, the inclusion of horticultural activities in nursing home activity programs is recommended.

  17. Theory-based psychosocial factors that discriminate between weight-loss success and failure over 6 months in women with morbid obesity receiving behavioral treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H

    2015-06-01

    To improve success rates of behavioral weight-loss treatments, a better understanding of psychosocial factors that discriminate between weight-loss success and failure is required. The inclusion of cognitive-behavioral methods and manageable amounts of exercise might induce greater improvements than traditional methods of education in healthy eating practices. Women with morbid obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m(2)] were recruited for a treatment of supported exercise paired with either a cognitive-behavioral or an educational approach to eating change over 6 months. They were classified as either successful with (i.e., at least 5 % loss; n = 40) or failed at (no loss, or weight gain; n = 43) weight loss. Discriminate function analysis incorporated theory-based models of 1 (self-efficacy), 5 (self-efficacy, self-regulation, mood, physical self-concept, body satisfaction), and 3 (self-efficacy, self-regulation, mood) psychosocial predictors at both month 6, and change from baseline-month 6. All three models significantly discriminated weight-loss success/failure (66, 88, and 87 % for success; and 81, 87, and 88 % for failure, respectively). Self-regulation had the strongest correlations within the multi-predictor models (0.90-0.96), and all variables entered were above the standard of 0.30 set for relevance. Participants in the cognitive-behavioral nutrition group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in all psychosocial variables and success with weight loss. Completing at least two sessions of exercise per week predicted success/failure with weight loss better than overall volume of exercise. New and relevant findings regarding treatment-induced psychosocial changes might be useful in the architecture of more successful behavioral weight-loss interventions.

  18. The psychosocial work environment among physicians employed at Danish oncology departments in 2009. A nationwide cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2013-01-01

    Working as a physician at an oncology department has some distinctive characteristics that may lead to a stressful work environment. The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide description of the work conditions of all oncologists in Denmark. By comparing the results of the present...... study with those of a similar study carried out in 2006, the aim was furthermore to elucidate changes in the psychosocial work environment over time....

  19. Development of psychosocial case studies by students to improve their ability to understand and analyze human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Saldaña, Omar; Rodríguez Carballeira, Álvaro; Espelt, Esteve; Jiménez, Yirsa; Porrúa, Clara; Escartín Solanelles, Jordi; Castrechini Trotta, Ángela; Codina, Núria (Codina Mata); Pestana, José Vicente; Vidal i Moranta, Tomeu

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an active learning methodology based on the development and analysis of case studies by college students and explores its effects on academic performance and on students' capacity of understanding and analysing human behaviour. A group of 54 students who were taking the course Social Psychology at the University of Barcelona developed written stories where psychosocial concepts were represented. Results showed that participants, after developing their own case studies, imp...

  20. The Quality of Life of Hemodialysis Patients Is Affected Not Only by Medical but also Psychosocial Factors: a Canonical Correlation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Kang, Gun Woo; Woo, Jungmin

    2018-04-02

    The quality of life (QoL) of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is very poor, plausibly due to both psychosocial and medical factors. This study aimed to determine the relationship among psychosocial factors, medical factors, and QoL in patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In total, 55 male and 47 female patients were evaluated (mean age, 57.1 ± 12.0 years). The QoL was evaluated using the Korean version of World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Abbreviated Version. The psychosocial factors were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Zarit Burden Interview. The medical factors were assessed using laboratory examinations. Correlation and canonical correlation analyses were performed to investigate the association patterns. The QoL was significantly correlated with the psychosocial factors, and to a lesser extent with the medical factors. The medical and psychosocial factors were also correlated. The canonical correlation analysis indicated a correlation between QoL and psychosocial factors (1st canonical correlation = 0.696, P psychosocial factors were also correlated (1st canonical correlation = 0.689, P Psychosocial factors influence QoL in patients with ESRD, and should thus be carefully considered when caring for these patients in clinical practice. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  1. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Nicolaas, S. M.; Schepers, S. A.; van den Bergh, E. M. M.; de Boer, Y.; Streng, I.; van Dijk-Lokkart, E. M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Verhaak, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare

  2. Quality of life psychosocial characteristics in Greek patients with leg ulcers: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Armyra, Kalliopi; Christodoulou, Christos; Sgontzou, Themis; Karypidis, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, George; Liordou, Fotini; Zakopoulou, Nikoletta; Zouridaki, Eftychia

    2016-10-01

    Chronic leg ulcers are a public health problem that can have a significant impact on the patient's physical, socioeconomic and psychological status. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness in patients suffering from leg ulcers. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the study. The quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness of the patient were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES) and the UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3), respectively. The mean DLQI score was 13·38 ± 2·59, suggesting a serious effect on the quality of life of patients. Those with leg ulcers had statistically significant higher scores according to the HADS-total scale (P = 0·031) and HADS-anxiety subscale (P = 0·015) compared with healthy volunteers. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the UCLA-scale (P = 0·029). Female patients presented with a higher score of anxiety (P = 0·027) and social isolation (P = 0·048), and worse quality of life (P = 0·018) than male patients. A severe quality of life impairment was documented, reflecting a significant psychosocial impact on patients with leg ulcers. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Psychosocial implications of tubal ligation in a rural health district: A phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutala Prosper M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tubal ligation is the most popular family planning method worldwide. While its benefits, such as effectiveness in protecting against pregnancies, minimal need for long-term follow-up and low side-effects profile are well documented, it has many reported complications. However, to date, these complications have not been described by residents in Congo. Therefore, the study aimed at exploring the experience of women who had undergone tubal ligation, focusing on perceptions of physical, psychological and contextual experiences of participants. Methods This qualitative study used a semi-structured questionnaire in a phenomenological paradigm to collect data. Fifteen participants were purposefully selected among sterilized women who had a ligation procedure performed, were aged between 30 and 40 years, and were living within the catchment area of the district hospital. Data were collected by two registered nurses, tape-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Reading and re-reading cut and paste techniques, and integration were used to establish codes, categories, themes, and description. Results Diverse and sometimes opposite changes in somatic symptoms, psychological symptoms, productivity, ecological relationships, doctor-client relationships, ethical issues, and change of life style were the major problem domains. Conclusions Clients reported conflicting experiences in several areas of their lives after tubal sterilization. Management, including awareness of the particular features of the client, is needed to decrease the likelihood of psychosocial morbidity and/or to select clients in need of sterilization.

  4. Body dissatisfaction in women's artistic gymnastics: A longitudinal study of psychosocial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Clara Mockdece; Filgueiras Meireles, Juliana Fernandes; Berbert de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique; Schubring, Astrid; Barker-Ruchti, Natalie; Caputo Ferreira, Maria Elisa

    2017-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction is prevalent in women's artistic gymnastics (WAG). Cross-sectional research points to social and individual risk factors, however it does not account for potential changes in body dissatisfaction during an athletic season. This study aimed to determine how gymnasts' body dissatisfaction, risk factors for eating disorders, media internalisation, perfectionism and mood state change during pre-competition, competition and post-competition seasons and to identify how these psychosocial indicators impact on body dissatisfaction during the athletic year. The sample consisted of 20 Brazilian elite women's artistic gymnasts aged 10-16 years. Data were obtained from a 9-month study using: Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ); Eating Attitude Test-26; Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3); Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS); Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and triceps and subscapular skinfolds. Body dissatisfaction was higher during the competition season and disordered eating, perfectionism and vigour values were higher in the pre-competition season. Disordered eating has been found as the strongest predictor of body dissatisfaction during all seasons, and mood state partly contributed to body dissatisfaction in the competitive season. Stakeholders should understand that body dissatisfaction and the prevalence of disordered eating may change over time.

  5. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work—physical, psychosocial, and organisational.
METHODS—The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company.
RESULTS—Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high incidence of sickness among both women and men. For heavy lifting, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22 to 2.39) among women, and OR 1.70 (1.20 to 2.41) among men was found. For monotonous movements the risk estimates were OR 1.42 (1.03 to 1.97) and OR 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for women and men, respectively. Working instead of taking sick leave when ill, was more prevalent in the group with a high incidence of sickness (OR 1.74 (1.30 to 2.33) for women, OR 1.60 (1.22 to 2.10) for men). Overtime work of more than 50 hours a year was linked with low incidence of sickness for women and men. Among women, 16% reported bullying at the workplace, which was linked with a doubled risk of high incidence of sickness (OR 1.91 (1.31 to 2.77)). For men, the strongest association was found for those reporting anxiety about reorganisation of the workplace (OR 1.93 (1.34 to 2.77)).
CONCLUSIONS—Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.


Keywords: incidence of sickness; work environment; sex PMID:11171931

  6. Understanding Depressive Symptoms and Psychosocial Stressors on Twitter: A Corpus-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Danielle; Smith, Hilary; Cheney, Tyler; Stoddard, Greg; Coppersmith, Glen; Bryan, Craig; Conway, Mike

    2017-02-28

    With a lifetime prevalence of 16.2%, major depressive disorder is the fifth biggest contributor to the disease burden in the United States. The aim of this study, building on previous work qualitatively analyzing depression-related Twitter data, was to describe the development of a comprehensive annotation scheme (ie, coding scheme) for manually annotating Twitter data with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Edition 5 (DSM 5) major depressive symptoms (eg, depressed mood, weight change, psychomotor agitation, or retardation) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Edition IV (DSM-IV) psychosocial stressors (eg, educational problems, problems with primary support group, housing problems). Using this annotation scheme, we developed an annotated corpus, Depressive Symptom and Psychosocial Stressors Acquired Depression, the SAD corpus, consisting of 9300 tweets randomly sampled from the Twitter application programming interface (API) using depression-related keywords (eg, depressed, gloomy, grief). An analysis of our annotated corpus yielded several key results. First, 72.09% (6829/9473) of tweets containing relevant keywords were nonindicative of depressive symptoms (eg, "we're in for a new economic depression"). Second, the most prevalent symptoms in our dataset were depressed mood and fatigue or loss of energy. Third, less than 2% of tweets contained more than one depression related category (eg, diminished ability to think or concentrate, depressed mood). Finally, we found very high positive correlations between some depression-related symptoms in our annotated dataset (eg, fatigue or loss of energy and educational problems; educational problems and diminished ability to think). We successfully developed an annotation scheme and an annotated corpus, the SAD corpus, consisting of 9300 tweets randomly-selected from the Twitter application programming interface using depression-related keywords. Our analyses suggest that keyword

  7. Exposure to psychosocial risks at work in prisons: does contact with inmates matter? A pilot study among prison workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Ali; Ronda, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Álvares, Nahum; Mateo, Inmaculada

    2011-04-01

    Research has lately increased its focus on work conditions as predictors of stress among prison workers but only few studies have focused on how the exposure of workers to psychosocial risks vary according to their occupational groups and their contact with inmates. Work psychosocial risks (demands, control and social support) were assessed using the Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire among 164 Spanish prison workers (43 per cent of those surveyed). Regression analysis was used to explore how psychosocial hazards and their combinations (outcome variables) vary according to occupational groups. Results suggest that psychosocial risks were highest among guards that have more contact with inmates. Implications of the findings for policy making and practice application are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Intrinsic motivation, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia: testing mediator and moderator effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Eri; Xie, Bin; Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationships among neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning for persons with schizophrenia. Hypotheses concerning both mediator and moderator mechanisms were tested. 120 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited as they entered outpatient psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Measures of psychosocial functioning and intrinsic motivation were administered at baseline. Measures of neurocognition were administered at baseline by testers blind to scores on other study variables. Data were analyzed using latent construct modeling to test for mediator and moderator effects. There were strong bivariate relationships between neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning. The results demonstrated that intrinsic motivation strongly mediated the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. This mediation was evidenced by: (i) the direct path from neurocognition to functional outcome no longer being statistically significant after the introduction of motivation into the model, (ii) the statistical significance of the indirect path from neurocognition through motivation to functional outcome. There was no support for the two moderation hypotheses: the level of neurocognition did not influence the relationship between intrinsic motivation and psychosocial functioning, nor did the level of intrinsic motivation influence the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Neurocognition influences psychosocial functioning through its relationship with intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is a critical mechanism for explaining the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Implications for the theoretical understanding and psychosocial treatment of intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia are discussed.

  9. Relationship of psychological symptoms, antipsychotics and social data with psychosocial function in schizophrenia patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlelawati, A Talib; Kartini, Abdullah; Norsidah, Kuzaifah; Ramli, Musa; Wan Azizi, Wan Sulaiman; Tariq, Abdul Razak

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial function and the role of relevant sociodemographic data and antipsychotic use in the prediction of psychosocial function among multiracial schizophrenia outpatients in Malaysia. A total of 223 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Psychological symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale whilst the psychosocial function was assessed using the Personal and Social Performance scale. Sociodemographic and treatment variables were gathered through interview or review of the medical records. All dimensions of psychosocial functions were inversely correlated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale sub-domains. Only the disorganization sub-domain significantly predicts all dimensions of psychosocial function. For social data, body mass index and employment status were significant predictors of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. Typical antipsychotics significantly predict social function negatively as compared to sulpiride (β = -0.152, P = 0.028). We found that the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial functions were relatively consistent with the findings from the Caucasian population. Additionally, disorganization was the only significant predictor of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. This further emphasized the importance of cognition in psychosocial function. The roles of sulpiride, body mass index and employment status as predictors of psychosocial function were also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Determinants of Psychosocial Health in Psoriatic Patients: A Multi­national Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Lesner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data on the differences in the impact of psoriasis between various countries with respect to quality of life (QoL. The aim of this study was to explore the psychosocial health of patients with psoriasis in different European countries. A total of 682 patients were recruited in 13 European countries. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic information, negative life events, suicidal ideation and satisfaction with their dermatologist. Depression and anxiety were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and QoL with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI and EuroQoL (EQ-5D. The lowest anxiety and depression scoring was noted in patients from Denmark, the lowest level of impairment in QoL in subjects from Spain, and the highest level of impairment in QoL in patients from Italy. The most relevant parameters influencing patients’ well-being were severity of pruritus and satisfaction with their dermatologist. The level of anxiety and depression symptoms correlated significantly with suicidal ideation.

  11. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    .95) for women and men, respectively. Working instead of taking sick leave when ill, was more prevalent in the group with a high incidence of sickness (OR 1.74 (1.30 to 2.33) for women, OR 1.60 (1.22 to 2.10) for men). Overtime work of more than 50 hours a year was linked with low incidence of sickness for women......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... incidence of sickness among both women and men. For heavy lifting, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22 to 2.39) among women, and OR 1.70 (1.20 to 2.41) among men was found. For monotonous movements the risk estimates were OR 1.42 (1.03 to 1.97) and OR 1.45 (1.08 to 1...

  12. Predicting Circulatory Diseases from Psychosocial Safety Climate: A Prospective Cohort Study from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Becher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Circulatory diseases (CDs (including myocardial infarction, angina, stroke or hypertension are among the leading causes of death in the world. In this paper, we explore for the first time the impact of a specific aspect of organizational climate, Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC, on CDs. We used two waves of interview data from Australia, with an average lag of 5 years (excluding baseline CDs, final n = 1223. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the prospective associations between PSC at baseline on incident CDs at follow-up. It was found that participants in low PSC environments were 59% more likely to develop new CD than those in high PSC environments. Logistic regression showed that high PSC at baseline predicts lower CD risk at follow-up (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–1.00 and this risk remained unchanged even after additional adjustment for known job design risk factors (effort reward imbalance and job strain. These results suggest that PSC is an independent risk factor for CDs in Australia. Beyond job design this study implicates organizational climate and prevailing management values regarding worker psychological health as the genesis of CDs.

  13. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the importance of physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). METHODS: Case-referent study of 267 new cases of tennis elbow and 388 referents from the background population enrolled from general practices in Ringkjoebing County, Denmark. RESULTS......: Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related...... index was established based on posture, repetition, and force. The adjusted ORs for tennis elbow at low, medium, and high strain were 1.4 (CI 0.8 to 2.7), 2.0 (CI 1.1 to 3.7), and 4.4 (CI 2.3 to 8.7). Low social support at work, adjusted for physical strain, was a risk factor among women (OR 2.4, CI 1...

  14. Psychosocial and physical work environment, and risk of pelvic pain in pregnancy. A study within the Danish national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The sparse knowledge of the aetiology of pelvic pain in pregnancy makes evidence based prevention a limited option. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between pelvic pain in pregnancy and physical and psychosocial working conditions. METHODS: This study used self reported...... data on working conditions for 1219 cases and 1539 controls, sampled as a nested case-control study within the Danish national birth cohort. Cases and controls were selected on the basis of self reported pelvic pain intensity, pain localisation, and pain impact on daily living activities. Exposure data...... were collected prospectively; early in pregnancy and before the onset of pelvic pain. Main outcome measures were odds ratios for pelvic pain in pregnancy as a function of physical and psychosocial working conditions. RESULTS: Pregnant women with fixed evening work and with rotating shifts (without...

  15. Reciprocal effects of treatment-induced increases in exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates, in obese adults seeking weight loss: a field-based trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A better understanding of interrelations of exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates of self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation, may be useful for the architecture of improved weight loss treatments. Theory-based research within field settings, with samples possessing high probabilities of health risks, might enable rapid application of useful findings. Methods Adult volunteers with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] 35–50 kg/m2; age = 43.0 ± 9.5 y; 83% female) were randomly assigned to six monthly cognitive-behavioral exercise support sessions paired with either group-based nutrition education (n = 145) or cognitive behavioral methods applied to improved eating (n = 149). After specification of mediation models using a bias-corrected bootstrapping procedure, a series of reciprocal effects analyses assessed: a) the reciprocal effects of changes in exercise and fruit and vegetable intake, resulting from the treatments, b) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables tested (i.e. self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation) and fruit and vegetable change, resulting from change in exercise volume, and c) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables and exercise change, resulting from change in fruit and vegetable intake. Results Mediation analyses suggested a reciprocal effect between changes in exercise volume and fruit and vegetable intake. After inclusion of psychosocial variables, also found were reciprocal effects between change in fruit and vegetable intake and change in mood, self-efficacy for controlled eating, and self-regulation for eating; and change in exercise volume and change in mood and exercise-related self-regulation. Conclusion Findings had implications for behavioral weight-loss theory and treatment. Specifically, results suggested that treatments should focus upon, and leverage, the transfer effects from each of the primary weight

  16. Moderating effect of gender on the prospective relation of physical activity with psychosocial outcomes and asthma control in adolescents: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adolescents with asthma experience more psychosocial and physiological problems compared to their healthy peers. Physical activity (PA) might decrease these problems. This study was the first observational longitudinal study to examine whether habitual PA could predict changes in

  17. PSYCHOSOCIAL MORBIDITY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING MASTECTOMY FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Konnakkaparambil Ramakrishnan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast Cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide and carries significant psychosocial morbidity. The diagnosis of the disease and the treatment modalities like surgery and chemotherapy contribute to the morbidity. The recognition of the psychosocial morbidity associated with mastectomy can help us formulate effective counselling strategies. The objectives of this study were- to assess the psychosocial morbidity in patients undergoing mastectomy for carcinoma breast, to identify the preoperative variables that predict the morbidity and to find out the correlation between degree of neuroticism of the individual and morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS 35 female patients who had mastectomy for breast cancer were evaluated at three time-points, preoperatively, immediately after surgery and 2 months after surgery. Anxiety and depression was assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, psychological distress was measured using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and neuroticism was assessed by Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism subscale (EPI-N. RESULTS There was a high level of anxiety, depression and GHQ scores preoperatively with a further worsening of these over the three interviews. Age, marital status and menopausal status were factors which had an influence on psychosocial morbidity. Preoperative EPI-N scores positively correlated with psychosocial morbidity. CONCLUSION There is a high level of psychosocial morbidity in patients undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer and mastectomy seems to worsen it in the first two months after surgery. Our study shows that psychosocial morbidity is affected by age, marital status, menopausal status and level of neuroticism.

  18. Analysis of psychosocial factors influencing the distribution and projection of Spanish scientific activity: report of the initial qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GESCIT (Grup d'Estudis Socials de la Ciència i la Tecnologia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this first phase of a longer study, we identify a number of psycho-social factors which are affecting science in Spain: attitudes, stereotypes, prejudices, values, beliefs, and attribution processes. We also examine how these factors might help or hinder Spanish science's greater impact in the international scientific community. This study falls within the framework of the Social Psychology of Science, the main principle of which is to explain scientific work by appeal to psycho-social variables and processes. We use qualitative methods to analyse a wide sample of material gleaned from the Spanish scientific community, and report on those elements that construct and perpetuate the perceptions, images and representations of current Spanish science research.

  19. Psychosocial effects of radiotherapy after mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughson, A.V.M.; Cooper, A.F.; Smith, D.C.; McArdle, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychosocial morbidity was measured in 47 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy and in 38 who received no further treatment after mastectomy. Roughly one third of all patients experienced depression or anxiety. One month after operation, before radiotherapy, there were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the measures of psychosocial morbidity. Knowledge of impending treatment did not seem to influence morbidity. At three months patients who had completed radiotherapy had significantly more somatic symptoms and social dysfunction than those not so treated. At six months the radiotherapy group continued to show more somatic symptoms, but a year after operation there were no significant differences between the groups. Although several patients who received radiotherapy were upset by their treatment, the study failed to confirm that depression and anxiety were commoner among those given radiotherapy than among patients given no further treatment. (author)

  20. A descriptive qualitative study of student learning in a psychosocial nursing class infused with art, literature, music, and film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alice; Curtis, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Nursing educators have long valued and supported the integration of liberal arts in professional nursing programs. This descriptive qualitative study explores the meanings students derive from the integration of liberal arts content into a psychosocial nursing class. Questionnaires, class observation, and focus group interviews revealed five themes: an interesting hook, a deeper level of understanding, developing self-understanding, developing empathy and increasing cultural awareness. Researchers suggest that integrating liberal arts into nursing education enhances student learning.

  1. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    assessed around 18 years of age regarding psychosocial functioning and lifetime psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Compared with controls, individuals with Tourette syndrome had substantially lower CGAS scores (P = 10(-8)) and higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression...

  2. Disillusionment Trilogy: a Study of the Effects of Work-Related and Psychosocial Stress Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José FERNÁNDEZ GALINDO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, disorders derived from work-related and psychosocial stress are increasingly important. Here the influence of professional activities on personal and family life and on the psyche is analysed by means of three films filmed in different periods: the North American The Arrangement (1969, the Spanish The Green Pastures (1979 and the Canadian The Age of Ignorance (2007.

  3. Psychosocial Factors Related to Lateral and Medial Epicondylitis: Results From Pooled Study Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiese, Matthew S; Hegmann, Kurt T; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Tang, Ruoliang; Garg, Arun

    2016-06-01

    The goal is to assess the relationships between psychosocial factors and both medial and lateral epicondylitis after adjustment for personal and job physical exposures. One thousand eight hundred twenty-four participants were included in pooled analyses. Ten psychosocial factors were assessed. One hundred twenty-one (6.6%) and 34 (1.9%) participants have lateral and medial epicondylitis, respectively. Nine psychosocial factors assessed had significant trends or associations with lateral epicondylitis, the largest of which was between physical exhaustion after work and lateral epicondylitis with and odds ratio of 7.04 (95% confidence interval = 2.02 to 24.51). Eight psychosocial factors had significant trends or relationships with medial epicondylitis, with the largest being between mental exhaustion after work with an odds ratio of 6.51 (95% confidence interval = 1.57 to 27.04). The breadth and strength of these associations after adjustment for confounding factors demonstrate meaningful relationships that need to be further investigated in prospective analyses.

  4. Human Resource Strategic Management in NPOs: An Explorative Study on Managers' Psychosocial Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevene, Paula; Cortini, Michela

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This explorative research aims at examining the social representation of psychosocial training in NPOs managers. Design/methodology/approach: An adopted multiple research approach was adopted to analyse a corpus of qualitative data. A detailed semi-structured interview was administered to 122 senior managers of as many Italian NPOs.…

  5. Psychosocial work factors and sick leave, occupational accident, and disability pension: a cohort study of civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkka, Katariina; Kuoppala, Jaana; Väänänen-Tomppo, Irma; Lamminpää, Anne

    2013-02-01

    To study associations between psychosocial work factors (PWF) and sick leave, occupational accident, and disability pension. A random population of 967 civil servants participated in a survey on PWF and health. The median follow-up time was 7 years. Frequent feedback from supervisor, good opportunities for mental growth, good team climate, and high appreciation were associated with a decrease in the risk of sickness absences and shift/period work, monotonous movements, and crowdedness of workplace were associated with an increase in the risk of sickness absences. Good communication at work was associated with a decrease in client violence and high work pressure was associated with an increased risk of occupational accidents. High work control and good team climate were associated with a decreased and shift/period work and client violence was associated with an increased risk of disability pensions. Psychosocial work factors can predict health outcomes with economic impact.

  6. Phase 2 pilot study of Pathfinders: a psychosocial intervention for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Amy P; Herndon, James E; Coan, April; Staley, Tina; Wheeler, Jane L; Rowe, Krista; Smith, Sophia K; Shaw, H; Lyerly, H Kim

    2010-07-01

    Pathfinders is a multi-faceted psychosocial care program for cancer patients; it was developed in community oncology and adapted to the academic oncology setting. This prospective, single-arm, phase 2 pilot study examined the acceptability and feasibility of Pathfinders for women with metastatic breast cancer. Over 3 months, participants completed patient-reported surveys including the Patient Care Monitor (PCM, review of systems), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Breast Cancer (FACT-B), Self Efficacy, and a single-item survey asking patients whether the program was helpful to them. A technology-based data collection system was used to capture electronic patient-reported outcomes at point of care, report symptoms in real time to clinicians, and collect warehouse data to provide a detailed longitudinal picture of the patient experience when receiving Pathfinders. Participants (n = 50) were: mean age 51 (SD 11); 76% white, 20% black; 74% married; 50% college degree. Forty-two (n = 42) patients completed baseline and 3-month assessments. Statistically significant improvements (all P < 0.05) occurred in PCM subscales for Distress (mean [SE] = -3.42 [1.21]), Despair (-4.53 [1.56]), and Quality of Life (2.88 [0.97]), and the FACT-B Emotional Wellbeing subscale (2.07 [0.46]). Of the 29 participants asked if Pathfinders was helpful, 27 (93%) responded positively and two did not respond. Other instruments measuring symptoms, quality of life, and self-efficacy showed improvement. In a phase 2 pilot study, Pathfinders was helpful to patients and is feasible in an academic medical center. Follow-up data collected at the 3-month assessment suggest that the program impacts various psychological outcomes, notably distress and despair.

  7. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: A study amongst Malaysian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd A. Idris

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout and motivational pathways (i.e. work engagement. Motivation for the study: So far, integration of PSC in the JD-R model is only tested in a Western context (i.e. Australia. We tested the emerging construct of PSC in Malaysia, an Eastern developing country in the Asian region. Research design, approach and method: A random population based sample was derived using household maps provided by Department of Statistics, Malaysia; 291 employees (response rate 50.52% from the State of Selangor, Malaysia participated. Cross-sectional data were analysed using structural equation modelling. Main findings: We found that PSC was negatively related to job demands and positively related to job resources. Job demands, in turn, predicted burnout (i.e. exhaustion and cynicism, whereas job resources predicted engagement. Both burnout and engagement were associated with performance. Bootstrapping showed significant indirect effects of PSC on burnout via job demands, PSC on performance via burnout and PSC on performance via the resources-engagement pathway. Practical/managerial implications: Our findings are consistent with previous research that suggests that PSC should be a target to improve working conditions and in turn reduce burnout and improve engagement and productivity. Contribution/value-add: These findings suggest that JD-R theory may be expanded to include PSC as an antecedent and that the expanded JD-R model is largely valid in an Eastern, developing economy setting.

  8. Choice of measure matters: A study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial resources in a middle-aged normal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Festin

    Full Text Available Psychosocial resources may serve as an important link to explain socioeconomic differences in health. Earlier studies have demonstrated that education, income and occupational status cannot be used interchangeably as indicators of a hypothetical latent social dimension. In the same manner, it is important to disentangle the effect of measuring different constructs of psychosocial resources. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse if associations between socioeconomic status (SES and psychosocial resources differ depending on the measures used. A cross-sectional population-based study of a random sample (n = 1007 of middle-aged individuals (45-69 years old, 50% women in Sweden was performed using questionnaire and register data. SES was measured as education, occupation, household income and self-rated economy. Psychosocial resources were measured as social integration, social support, mastery, self-esteem, sense of coherence (SOC and trust. Logistic regression models were applied to analyse the relationships controlling for the effects of possible confounders. The measures of SES were low or moderately correlated to each other as were the measures of psychosocial resources. After controlling for age, sex, country of birth and employment status, household income and self-rated economy were associated with all six psychosocial resources; occupation was associated with three (social integration, self-esteem and trust and education with two (social integration and self-esteem. Social integration and self-esteem showed a significant and graded relationship with all SES measures; trust was associated with all SES measures except education, whereas SOC and mastery were only associated with household income and self-rated economy. After controlling for other SES measures, no associations with psychosocial resources remained for education or occupation. In conclusion, associations between SES and psychosocial resources did differ depending on the

  9. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees: A 3-year follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hoekstra, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Van Der Beek, A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees’ mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in mental health in older employees at 3-year follow-up. Methods The current study used data from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM), in workers aged 45–65 years (n = ...

  10. Environmental and psycho-social factors related to prostate cancer risk in the Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei Ling; Lin, Ji; Hou, Jian Guo; Xu, Lei; Cui, Xin Gang; Xu, Xing Xing; Yu, Yong Wei; Han, Xue; Wang, Guo Min; Guo, Jian Ming; Xu, Dan Feng; Thompson, Timothy C; Cao, Guang Wen; Zhang, Hong Wei

    2014-09-01

    To study the risk environmental and psycho-social factors associated to prostate cancer (PCa) in Chinese population. 250 PCa patients and 500 controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Information was collected and logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for relationship between lifestyle, eating habits and psycho-social factors with PCa risk. Green vegetables and green tea were associated with a decreased risk of PCa (OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.28-0.53; OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.87, respectively). Family history of PCa (OR=7.16, 95% CI: 2.01-25.49), history of prostate diseases (OR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.53-3.41), alcohol consumption (OR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.33-2.90), red meat consumption (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.20-2.52), barbecued (OR=2.29, 95% CI: 1.11-4.73) or fried (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.24-4.43) foods were related with increased PCa risk. Negative psycho-social factors including occupational setbacks (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.00-2.59), marital separation (OR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.29-2.91), self-contained suffering (OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.58-3.55), and high sensitivity to the personal comments (OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.18-2.54) were related to PCa. Regular consumption of green vegetables and green tea may suggest protective effects on PCa. Alcohol consumption, red meat consumption and barbecued or fried foods were associated with PCa. Negative psycho-social factors may also play a role in the incidence of PCa in Chinese population. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Psycho-social impact of stillbirths on women and their families in Tamil Nadu, India - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Subramaniam, Sudharshini; Kalsingh, Maria Jusler

    2018-04-20

    Stillbirth has serious psycho-social consequences on the parents and on the family. The psychological impact of stillbirth is strongly influenced by the social and cultural context. There is very scarce information on this from the Indian context. This qualitative study was conducted to understand the psycho-social impact, aggravating factors, coping styles and health system response to stillbirths. A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews with mothers who experienced stillbirth in the past 1 year and their families. A total of 8 women and two health care providers were interviewed by trained interviewers. The interviews were transcribed into the local language and thematic analysis was performed by the researchers retaining the transcripts in the local language. Themes were identified, and a conceptual framework was developed. Women who experienced stillbirths suffered from serious forms of grief and guilt. These emotions were aggravated by the insensitive health system, health care providers, friends, and neighbours, as well as strained marital relationship and financial burdens. The women and their families were disturbed by the 'suddenness' of the stillbirth and frantically searched for the cause. They were frustrated when they couldn't find the cause and blamed various people in their lives. The women and their families perceived poor quality of services provided in the health system and reported that the health care providers were inconsiderate and insensitive. On the other hand, the health care providers reported that they were over-worked, and the health facilities were under-staffed. The community health workers reported that they felt caught in the crossfire between the health facility staff and the family who suffered the stillbirth. The women reported several coping mechanisms including isolation, immersion in work, placing maternal love on other children, the anticipation of next pregnancy and religiosity. Stillbirth is a major cause

  12. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Bültmann, Ute

    2010-01-01

    and Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long...... work environment, and equally important, the organizations should be attentive to employees with symptoms of burnout......Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation...

  13. Psychosocial predictors of energy underreporting in a large doubly labeled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooze, Janet A; Subar, Amy F; Thompson, Frances E; Troiano, Richard; Schatzkin, Arthur; Kipnis, Victor

    2004-05-01

    Underreporting of energy intake is associated with self-reported diet measures and appears to be selective according to personal characteristics. Doubly labeled water is an unbiased reference biomarker for energy intake that may be used to assess underreporting. Our objective was to determine which factors are associated with underreporting of energy intake on food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs). The study participants were 484 men and women aged 40-69 y who resided in Montgomery County, MD. Using the doubly labeled water method to measure total energy expenditure, we considered numerous psychosocial, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors in multiple logistic regression models for prediction of the probability of underreporting on the FFQ and 24HR. In the FFQ models, fear of negative evaluation, weight-loss history, and percentage of energy from fat were the best predictors of underreporting in women (R(2) = 0.09); body mass index, comparison of activity level with that of others of the same sex and age, and eating frequency were the best predictors in men (R(2) = 0.10). In the 24HR models, social desirability, fear of negative evaluation, body mass index, percentage of energy from fat, usual activity, and variability in number of meals per day were the best predictors of underreporting in women (R(2) = 0.22); social desirability, dietary restraint, body mass index, eating frequency, dieting history, and education were the best predictors in men (R(2) = 0.25). Although the final models were significantly related to underreporting on both the FFQ and the 24HR, the amount of variation explained by these models was relatively low, especially for the FFQ.

  14. Psychosocial, Physical, and Neurophysiological Risk Factors for Chronic Neck Pain: A Prospective Inception Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Bahar; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Maluf, Katrina S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify modifiable risk factors for the development of first-onset chronic neck pain among an inception cohort of healthy individuals working in a high-risk occupation. Candidate risk factors identified from previous studies were categorized into psychosocial, physical, and neurophysiological domains, which were assessed concurrently in a baseline evaluation of 171 office workers within the first 3 months of hire. Participants completed monthly online surveys over the subsequent year to identify the presence of chronic interfering neck pain, defined as a Neck Disability Index score ≥5 points for 3 or more months. Data were analyzed using backward logistic regression to identify significant predictors within each domain, which were then entered into a multivariate regression model adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Development of chronic interfering neck pain was predicted by depressed mood (odds ratio [OR] = 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-10.31, P = .03), cervical extensor endurance (OR = .92, 95% CI, .87-.97, P = .001), and diffuse noxious inhibitory control (OR = .90, 95% CI, .83-.98, P = .02) at baseline. These findings provide the first evidence that individuals with preexisting impairments in mood and descending pain modulation may be at greater risk for developing chronic neck pain when exposed to peripheral nociceptive stimuli such as that produced during muscle fatigue. Depressed mood, poor muscle endurance, and impaired endogenous pain inhibition are predisposing factors for the development of new-onset chronic neck pain of nonspecific origin in office workers. These findings may assist with primary prevention by allowing clinicians to screen for individuals at risk of developing chronic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do child's psychosocial functioning, and parent and family characteristics predict early alcohol use? The TRAILS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-02-01

    Given the negative consequences of early alcohol use for health and social functioning, it is essential to detect children at risk of early drinking. The aim of this study is to determine predictors of early alcohol use that can easily be detected in Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). We obtained data from the first two waves on 1261 Dutch adolescents who participated in TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) at ages 10-14 years and from the PCH records regarding ages 4-10 years. Early adolescence alcohol use (age 10-14 years) was defined as alcohol use at least once at ages 10-12 years (wave 1) and at least once in the previous 4 weeks at ages 12-14 years (wave 2). Predictors of early alcohol use concerned parent and teacher reports at wave 1 and PCH registrations, regarding the child's psychosocial functioning, and parental and socio-demographic characteristics. A total of 17.2% of the adolescents reported early alcohol use. Predictors of early alcohol use were teacher-reported aggressive behaviour [odds ratios (OR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.86; 1.11-3.11], being a boy (OR 1.80, 95%-CI 1.31-2.56), being a non-immigrant (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.05-5.09), and low and middle educational level of the father (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.12-2.62 and OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.16-2.70, respectively), mutually adjusted. A limited set of factors was predictive for early alcohol use. Use of this set may improve the detection of early adolescence alcohol use in PCH. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Relation between psychosocial variables and the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional and prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai Keisuke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional and prospective study used a variety of psychological inventories to evaluate the relationship between psychosocial factors and the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants were 304 patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated as outpatients at diabetes clinics. All participants were assessed for HbA1c and completed the following self-report psychological inventories: 1 Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ, 2 Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey (PAID, 3 Well-being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12, 4 Self-Esteem Scale (SES, 5 Social Support Scale, and 6 Self-Efficacy Scale. HbA1c was again measured one year later. The relationships between the psychosocial variables obtained by analysis of the psychological inventories and baseline or one-year follow-up HbA1c were determined. Results Baseline HbA1cwas significantly correlated with age, diet treatment regimen, number of microvascular complication of diabetes, and the total scores of DTSQ, W-BQ12, PAID, SES and the Self-Efficacy Scale. Hierarchical stepwise multiple regression revealed that significant predictors of baseline HbA1c were total DTSQ and PAID scores, along with age, diet treatment regimen, and number of microvascular complication of diabetes after adjustment for demographic, clinical and other psychosocial variables. Two hundred and ninety patients (95.4% of 304 were followed and assessed one year after baseline. Hierarchical stepwise multiple regression analysis showed the significant predictors of follow-up HbA1c to be total DTSQ and PAID scores, along with age and diet treatment regimen. However, the correlation between baseline and follow-up HbA1c was so high that the only other variable to retain significance was diet treatment regimen once baseline HbA1c was included in the regression of follow-up HbA1c. Conclusion The DTSQ and the PAID predicted both current and future HbA1c to a similar and

  17. Exploring the Medical and Psychosocial Concerns of Adolescents and Young Adults With Craniofacial Microsomia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kayla V; Ormond, Kelly E; Moscarello, Tia; Bruce, Janine S; Bereknyei Merrell, Sylvia; Chang, Kay W; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of adolescents and young adults with craniofacial microsomia, including the impact of growing up with this craniofacial condition on daily life and sense of self. The results may guide future research on optimally supporting individuals with craniofacial microsomia during this critical life phase. Participants were recruited through a craniofacial center, online patient support groups, and social media sites. Eleven individual semistructured interviews with participants between 12 and 22 years old were conducted by a single interviewer, transcribed, iteratively coded, and thematically analyzed. Five themes were evident in the data: (1) impact on personal growth and character development, (2) negative psychosocial impact, (3) deciding to hide or reveal the condition, (4) desire to make personal surgical decisions, and (5) struggles with hearing loss. We identified both medical and psychosocial concerns prevalent among adolescents with craniofacial microsomia. Although adolescents with craniofacial microsomia exhibit considerable resilience, the challenges they face impact their sense of self and should be addressed through psychosocial support and counseling. Further research should investigate the potential benefit of the wider use of hearing aids, as well as the involvement of patients in decision-making about reconstructive ear surgery.

  18. Psychosocial Functioning of Children with and without Dyslexia: A Follow-up Study from Ages Four to Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhiala, P; Torppa, M; Eklund, K; Aro, T; Poikkeus, A-M; Heikkilä, R; Ahonen, T

    2015-08-01

    This longitudinal study compares developmental changes in psychosocial functioning during the transition into school of children with and without dyslexia. In addition, it examines the effects of gender and family risk for dyslexia in terms of the associations between dyslexia and psychosocial functioning. Children's psychosocial functioning (social skills, inattention and externalizing and internalizing problems) was evaluated by their parents at ages 4, 6 and 9, and diagnosis for dyslexia was made at age 8 (in grade 2). The findings indicated that children with dyslexia were already rated as having poorer social skills and being more inattentive than were typical readers before their entry into school. Significant interactions of gender and diagnosis of dyslexia emerged for social skills and inattention. The social skills of boys with dyslexia improved after school entry as compared to the level of girls without dyslexia, whereas the social skills of girls with dyslexia did not improve. Boys with dyslexia were rated as showing a high level of inattention both prior to and after school entry, whereas, for girls with dyslexia, inattention ratings increased after school entry, eventually matching the boys' levels. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Mental stress and psychosocial factors at work in relation to multiple-site musculoskeletal pain: a longitudinal study of kitchen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Eija; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Riihimäki, Hilkka

    2011-04-01

    Among 385 female kitchen workers, we examined (1) whether mental stress and psychosocial factors at work (job control, skill discretion, supervisor support, co-worker relationships, and hurry) predict multiple-site musculoskeletal pain (MSP; defined as pain at ≥ 3 of seven sites) and (2) reversedly, whether MSP predicts these psychosocial factors. Data were collected by questionnaire at 3-month intervals during 2 years. Trajectory analysis was applied. Four trajectories of MSP prevalence emerged: Low, Descending, Ascending, and High. For the psychosocial factors, a two-trajectory model (Ascending or High vs. Low) yielded the best fit. In logistic regression analysis, with the Low MSP trajectory as reference, poor co-worker relationships (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), mental stress (3.1) and hurry (2.1) at baseline predicted belonging to the High MSP trajectory. Also MSP at baseline predicted the trajectories (Ascending vs. Low) of low job control (2.2) and mental stress (3.2). Adverse changes in most psychosocial factors were associated with belonging to the High (ORs between 2.3 and 8.6) and Ascending (2.7-5.5) MSP trajectories. In generalized estimating equations, time-lagged by 3 months, all psychosocial factors but two predicted MSP (1.4-2.1), allowing, e.g. for MSP at baseline, and vice versa, MSP predicted low job control, low supervisor support, and mental stress (1.4-2.0), after adjustment for e.g. the relevant psychosocial factor at baseline. In conclusion, we found that several psychosocial factors predicted MSP and that MSP predicted several psychosocial factors. The results suggest a cumulative process in which adverse psychosocial factors and MSP influence each other. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychosocial care for persons affected by emergencies and major incidents: a Delphi study to determine the needs of professional first responders for education, training and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John; Kemp, Verity; Newman, Jonathan; Novelli, David; Doyle, Christopher; Walter, Darren; Williams, Richard

    2013-10-01

    The role of ambulance clinicians in providing psychosocial care in major incidents and emergencies is recognised in recent Department of Health guidance. The study described in this paper identified NHS professional first responders' needs for education about survivors' psychosocial responses, training in psychosocial skills, and continuing support. Ambulance staff participated in an online Delphi questionnaire, comprising 74 items (Round 1) on 7-point Likert scales. Second-round and third-round participants each received feedback based on the previous round, and responded to modified versions of the original items and to new items for clarification. One hundred and two participants took part in Round 1; 47 statements (64%) achieved consensus. In Round 2, 72 people from Round 1 participated; 15 out of 39 statements (38%) achieved consensus. In Round 3, 49 people from Round 2 participated; 15 out of 27 statements (59%) achieved consensus. Overall, there was consensus in the following areas: 'psychosocial needs of patients' (consensus in 34/37 items); 'possible sources of stress in your work' (8/9); 'impacts of distress in your work' (7/10); 'meeting your own emotional needs' (4/5); 'support within your organisation' (2/5); 'needs for training in psychosocial skills for patients' (15/15); 'my needs for psychosocial training and support' (5/6). Ambulance clinicians recognise their own education needs and the importance of their being offered psychosocial training and support. The authors recommend that, in order to meet patients' psychosocial needs effectively, ambulance clinicians are provided with education and training in a number of skills and their own psychosocial support should be enhanced.

  1. The association between psychosocial and structural-level stressors and HIV injection drug risk behavior among Malaysian fishermen: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Michalopoulos, Lynn Murphy; Jiwatram-Negr?n, Tina; Choo, Martin K. K.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaysian fishermen have been identified as a key-affected HIV population with HIV rates 10 times higher than national rates. A number of studies have identified that psychosocial and structural-level stressors increase HIV injection drug risk behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examine psychosocial and structural-level stressors of injection drug use and HIV injection drug risk behaviors among Malaysian fishermen. Methods The study employs a cross-sectional design using res...

  2. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Long Yang

    Full Text Available Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and the associated psychosocial factors among bladder/kidney cancer patients.A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients with bladder/kidney cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 489 early-stage cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinical variables, depression, anxiety, PTSD, perceived social support and positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and resilience anonymously during October 2013 and August 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and psychological disorders, while controlling for possible covariates.The prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD was 77.5%, 69.3% and 25.2%, respectively, while 24.9% of patients had psychological co-morbidity. Psychosocial resources together explained more than one-third of the variance on psychological disorders. Under standardized estimate (β sequence, patient's perception of social support from family was significantly associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD (p < 0.01. Optimism and resilience showed integrated and independent effects on psychological disorders, and hope represented the significant association with PTSD only (p < 0.01.The high prevalence of psychological disorders in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage bladder/kidney cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings

  3. Psychosocial Aspects of Dental Anxiety and Clinical Pain Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    This Danish Doctoral Dissertation in the science of Odontology contains 7 chapters: 1) Introduction to a social perspective on dental treatment, anxiety and pain throughout time, 2) research models and methods to study dental anxiety and clinical pain phenomena, 3) the fear of dental treatment...... .. what it is and what it is not and how many have it, 4) clinical pain treatment, psychosocial aspects in relation to anxiety, 4) patients and dentists' roles, pain perception and anxiety, 6) psychosocial aspects of managing anxiety and pain phenomena, and 7) Conclusions and proposals for the future...

  4. Effects of psychosocial work characteristics on hair cortisol - findings from a post-trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Raphael M; Barrech, Amira; Gündel, Harald; Lang, Jessica; Quinete, Natalia Soares; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian

    2017-07-01

    Prolonged work stress, as indicated by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, jeopardizes health. Cortisol represents a candidate mechanism connecting stress to ill health. However, previous findings appear inconclusive, and recommendations were made to assess work stress at multiple time points and also to investigate ERI (sub-)components. This study therefore examines the effects of two single time points, as well as the mean and change scores between time points of ERI and its components on hair cortisol concentration (HCC), a long-term cortisol measurement. Participants were 66 male factory workers (age: 40.68 ± 6.74 years; HCC: 9.00 ± 7.11 pg/mg), who were followed up after a stress management intervention (2006-2008). In 2008 (T1) and 2015 (T2), participants completed a 23-item ERI questionnaire, assessing effort, the three reward components (esteem, job security, job promotion) and over-commitment. In 2015, participants also provided a 3-cm hair segment close to the scalp for HCC analysis, as well as information on relevant confounders (i.e. medication intake, age, work characteristics, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, number of stressful life events). Linear regressions revealed hardly any cross-sectional or longitudinal effect of ERI and its components on HCC. Only the change scores between T1 and T2 of job security were negatively associated with lower HCC in unadjusted (β = -.320; p = .009) and adjusted (β = -.288; p = .044) models. In this study, only a decrease of perceived job security over time was significantly associated with higher HCC, and other predictors were not related to this outcome. Especially after correction for multiple testing, this study revealed just a weak association of different psychosocial work measurements with HCC. Lay summary This study showed that an increase in perceived job insecurity is correlated with higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The higher levels of cortisol might

  5. Exploring the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governmental support for holistic kidney disease treatment and careful teaming of key role players to reduce the severity and far-reaching bio-psychosocial effects of HD and CAPD treatment are recommended. Hierdie artikel beskryf 'n kwalitatiewe studie wat die bio-psigososiale effekte van niervervangingsterapie op ...

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of Subjects with Heart Failure in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with high morbidity and mortality most especially in developing countries including Nigeria. In the country, most patients present late for treatment and with attendant high treatment default. Thus, the study set out to examine the psychosocial correlates of subjects with HF. It was a ...

  7. Psychosocial work environment, job mobility and gender differences in turnover behaviour: a prospective study among the Swedish general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Mia; Härenstam, Annika; Rosengren, Annika; Schiöler, Linus; Olin, Anna-Carin; Lissner, Lauren; Waern, Margda; Torén, Kjell

    2014-06-14

    Throughout the literature, substantial evidence supports associations between poor psychosocial work characteristics and a variety of ill-health outcomes. Yet, few reports strategies workers carry out to improve detrimental work conditions and consequently their health, such as changing jobs. The aim of this study was to examine if adverse psychosocial work exposure, as measured with the job demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models, could predict job mobility over a 5 years observation period. Participants were working men and women (n = 940; 54.3% women), aged 24-60 years from the population of Gothenburg and surrounding metropolitan area. Job demand-control and effort-reward variables were compared with independent t-tests and chi2-test in persons with and without job mobility. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse whether psychosocial factors could predict job mobility. All regression analyses were stratified by gender. Exposure to a combination of high demands-low control or high imbalance between effort and reward was related to increased odds of changing jobs (OR 1.63; CI 1.03-2.59 and OR 1.46; CI 1.13-1.89 respectively). When analysing men and women separately, men had a higher OR of changing jobs when exposed to either high demands-low control (OR 2.72; CI 1.24-5.98) or high effort-reward imbalance (OR 1.74; CI 1.11-2.72) compared to reference values. The only significant associations for women was slightly decreased odds for turnover in high reward jobs (OR 0.96; CI 0.92-0.99). The results indicate that workers will seek to improve poor work environment by changing jobs. There were notable gender differences, where men tended to engage in job mobility when exposed to adverse psychosocial factors, while women did not. The lack of measures for mechanisms driving job mobility was a limitation of this study, thus preventing conclusions regarding psychosocial factors as the primary source for job mobility.

  8. Parent-child dialogue about epilepsy and psychosocial wellbeing: a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    O'Toole, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions occurring in childhood. However, the consequences of epilepsy extend beyond seizures to include psychosocial effects interfering with the child’s social experiences, quality of life (QOL), and family relations. One particular challenge children living with epilepsy (CWE) and their parents face is the presence, or fear, of societal epilepsy-related stigma, which can sometimes limit family discussions about epilepsy. However...

  9. [Burnout and psychosocial risk factors in the career of flight attendants: Descriptive study of a population of Lebanese flight attendants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa, N; Zreik, H; Richa, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of demographic factors (gender and age), work related factors (the position and years of practice) and psychosocial risk factors (cognitive demands, demands to hide emotions, work-family conflict, offensive behaviors…) on the development of burnout among flight attendants, and the nature of psychosocial factors to which they are exposed. The sample was divided into two groups: 67 flight attendants and 67 persons in various jobs. Our sampling units were informed and consented to fill in two questionnaires: the Copenhagen burnout inventory (CBI) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). The burnout syndrome affected both groups equally. It affected equally the women as well as men, whatever their age categories and their years of experience. The flight attendants occupying an intermediate position in the hierarchy had the highest score on the burnout syndrome. The psychosocial factors significantly found in flight attendants compared to the control group were: demands for hiding emotions, quantitative demands, emotional demands, temporal demands, lack of influence at work, of rewards, of possibility for development and variation of work, poor quality of leadership, exposure to sexual harassment, lack of social support from supervisors, colleagues, social community at work and work-family conflict. Four of them correlated positively with the development of burnout: quantitative demands, temporal demands, emotional demands and work-family conflict. Their expected work volume is very high (quantitative demands). They have to perform their tasks quickly in a limited time without forgetting the technical constraints (temporal demands). They have to work with an average of three hundred passengers besides colleagues and subordinates, which requires diligent control of the emotions promoted by the airline code of conduct based on repression of emotions (emotional demands). These demands affect the

  10. A cohort study on psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology in adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Isabela Ribeiro; Castro, Marta; Sarmento, Sofia Lourenço; Moura, Cláudia; Viana, Victor; Areias, José Carlos; Areias, Maria Emília Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Our purpose was to study psychosocial adjustment and psychiatric morbidity of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Design All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion. Clinical data was obtained through the patient's clinical records. Setting A teaching and tertiary care facility in Porto, Portugal. Participants We evaluated 110 CHD patients (62 male) aged from 12 to 26 years (mean=18.00±3.617), 58 cyanotic. All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion in a tertiary hospital. Demographic information and clinical history were collected. Primary and secondary outcome measures Questionnaires regarded topics such as social support, family educational style, self-image and physical limitations, a standardised psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Lifetime version (SADS-L), and a self-report questionnaire on psychosocial adjustment, youth self-report or adult self-report. One of the relatives completed an observational version of the same questionnaire (child behaviour checklist (CBCL) or ABCL (adult behaviour checklist)). Results We found a 21.8% lifetime prevalence of psychopathology, 31.3%, in females, 14.5% in males, showing a somewhat increased proneness in CHD patients. Females also showed worse psychosocial adjustment, with more somatic complaints (u=260 000; p=0.011), anxiety/depression (u=984 000; p=0.002), aggressive behaviour (u=920 500; p=0.001), attention problems (u=1123 500; p=0.027), thought problems (u=1069 500; p=0.010), internalisation (u=869 000; p=0.0) and externalisation (u=1163 000; p=0.05). Patients with severe CHD (u=939 000; p=0.03) and surgical repair (u=719 000; p=0.037) showed worse psychosocial adjustment. Those with poor social support showed more withdrawal (u=557 500; p=0.0) and social problems (u=748 500; p=0.023), and patients with unsatisfactory school performance revealed more anxiety/depression (u=916

  11. Psychosocial factors associated with adherence to treatment and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisla Ücker Calvetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this article was to investigate the biopsychosocial factors that influence adherence to treatment and the quality of life of individuals who have been successfully following the HIV/AIDS treatment. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study carried out with 120 HIV positive participants in the south of Brazil. Among the variables studied, of note are: perceived stress, social support, symptoms of anxiety and depression and quality of life. Results: The results show that a moderate to high adherence to the treatment paired with a strong sense of social support indicate a higher quality of life. Conclusion: The combination of social support and antiretroviral treatment have an impact on physical conditions, improving immune response and quality of life.

  12. Childhood cancer in the cinema: how the celluloid mirror reflects psychosocial care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavisic, Jovana; Chilton, Julie; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa L; Martin, Andrés

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the childhood cancer experience in commercially produced, readily available films that include a character with childhood cancer, with a particular focus on psychosocial care. We reviewed 29 films, using quantitative and qualitative content analysis, to identify the medical and psychosocial characteristics of the cinematic childhood cancer experience. We rated psychosocial support on a 5-point scale (0 to 4) based on the availability and efficacy of support characters in the categories of nonprofessional internal (eg, parent), nonprofessional external (eg, friend), professional medical (eg, oncologist), and professional psychosocial (eg, social worker) supports. Film depicts an unrealistic, bleak picture of childhood cancer, with a 66% mortality rate among the 35 characters evaluated. Psychosocial supports portrayed in film are generally limited to resources already available to families before the cancer diagnosis: mean ratings across films were 2.4 for both nonprofessional, 1.6 for professional medical, and 0.3 for professional psychosocial supports (Kruskal-Wallis χ3=43.1051, Plandscape. Film generally depicts images of an isolated family courageously battling cancer alone with limited support from a treatment team solely dedicated to medical care. Commercially available films minimize the importance of the psychosocial dimension of care, which can perpetuate stigma around psychosocial needs and interventions. These films can be used to encourage discussion about how to optimize psychosocial care in pediatric oncology so that such care is not abandoned in actual practice as it is, for entertainment purposes, on the screen.

  13. Organizational and psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: a cross-sectional study of French workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigouin, Pascal; Ha, Catherine; Bodin, Julie; Le Manac'h, Audrey Petit; Descatha, Alexis; Goldberg, Marcel; Roquelaure, Yves

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the organizational and psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in workers exposed to various levels of work-related constraints, with a special focus on factors related to the work organization. From 3,710 workers, representative of a French region's working population, trained occupational physicians diagnosed a total of 156 cases of CTS between 2002 and 2005. Diagnoses were established by standardized physical examination, while personal factors and work exposure were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Statistical associations between CTS and personal and work-related factors were analyzed for each gender using logistic regression modeling. Among the factors related to work organization, working with temporary workers was associated with CTS for women (OR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.23-3.25), but not for men. Task rotation during the job (OR = 2.45 95 % CI 1.41-4.24) and work pace dependent on quantified targets (OR = 1.93 95 % CI 1.08-3.46) were associated with CTS only for men. The work-related psychosocial factors highlighted by the logistic modeling were high psychological demand for women (OR = 1.90, 95 % CI 1.17-3.09) and low skill discretion (OR = 1.77, 95 % CI 1.01-3.11) for men. This study has identified some psychosocial factors and factors related to work organization associated with clinically diagnosed and symptom-only cases of CTS as well as personal and biomechanical factors. However, due to the cross-sectional design of the study, no causal conclusion could be drawn and longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm these results.

  14. Does Walkability Contribute to Geographic Variation in Psychosocial Distress? A Spatial Analysis of 91,142 Members of the 45 and Up Study in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Darren J; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Bauman, Adrian E

    2018-02-06

    Walkability describes the capacity of the built environment to promote walking, and has been proposed as a potential focus for community-level mental health planning. We evaluated this possibility by examining the contribution of area-level walkability to variation in psychosocial distress in a population cohort at spatial scales comparable to those used for regional planning in Sydney, Australia. Data on psychosocial distress were analysed for 91,142 respondents to the 45 and Up Study baseline survey between January 2006 and April 2009. We fit conditional auto regression models at the postal area level to obtain smoothed "disease maps" for psychosocial distress, and assess its association with area-level walkability after adjusting for individual- and area-level factors. Prevalence of psychosocial distress was 7.8%; similar for low (7.9%), low-medium (7.9%), medium-high (8.0%), and high (7.4%) walkability areas; and decreased with reducing postal area socioeconomic disadvantage: 12.2% (most), 9.3%, 7.5%, 5.9%, and 4.7% (least). Unadjusted disease maps indicated strong geographic clustering of psychosocial distress with 99.0% of excess prevalence due to unobserved and spatially structured factors, which was reduced to 55.3% in fully adjusted maps. Spatial and unstructured variance decreased by 97.3% and 39.8% after adjusting for individual-level factors, and another 2.3% and 4.2% with the inclusions of area-level factors. Excess prevalence of psychosocial distress in postal areas was attenuated in adjusted models but remained spatially structured. Postal area prevalence of high psychosocial distress is geographically clustered in Sydney, but is unrelated to postal area walkability. Area-level socioeconomic disadvantage makes a small contribution to this spatial structure; however, community-level mental health planning will likely deliver greatest benefits by focusing on individual-level contributors to disease burden and inequality associated with psychosocial

  15. Does Chinese culture influence psychosocial factors for heroin use among young adolescents in China? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Jian; Lu, Zhouping; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2010-09-21

    Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of culturally competent intervention programs for heroin use intervention and

  16. Does Chinese culture influence psychosocial factors for heroin use among young adolescents in China? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. Results A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. Conclusions This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of

  17. Determinants and implications of cancer patients' psychosocial needs.

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    Ernstmann, N; Neumann, M; Ommen, O; Galushko, M; Wirtz, M; Voltz, R; Hallek, M; Pfaff, H

    2009-11-01

    Cancer patients often experience distress. However, the majority of newly diagnosed patients gradually adapt to the crisis. When symptoms of distress and anxiety persist over months, patients require psychosocial support. The aim of the present study was to determine the proportion of cancer patients who indicate the need for psychosocial support and to identify sociodemographic, psychological and illness-related factors predicting the need for psychosocial support in a German sample. The cross-sectional retrospective study was administered to 710 cancer patients who had been inpatients at the University Hospital of Cologne. The response rate was 49.5%. Patients suffering from bronchial, oesophageal, colorectal, breast, prostate and skin cancer participated in the study. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the German version of the Major Depression Inventory. The level of anxiety was assessed with the state subscale of the German version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. To measure the functional aspects of health-related quality of life, the scales "physical functioning", "role functioning", "emotional functioning", "cognitive functioning" and "role functioning" of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were used. Of the cancer patients, 18.9% indicate an unmet need for psychosocial support and 9.5% are actually using psychosocial services. In a multiple logistic regression, significant indicators of the need for psychosocial support are gender [p = 0.014; standardised effect coefficient (sc) = 1.615] and emotional functioning (p Emotional functioning is a central predictor of the requirement for psychosocial support. Women are emotionally more affected than men and need more psychosocial support. The prognostic validity of the severity of depression and anxiety is limited.

  18. Psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college males: A cross-sectional exploratory study

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    Ovidiu Tatar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most college males are not immunized against the human papillomavirus (HPV and are at high risk of HPV infection. Most research of correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college males has assessed vaccine acceptability as a binary outcome, e.g., vaccinated or not vaccinated, without considering that some students may not even be aware that the HPV vaccine can be given to males. Our objective was to evaluate the psychosocial correlates of HPV acceptability in college males, based on multiple stages of HPV decision-making. Methods: We used an online questionnaire to collect data from college men aged 18–26 enrolled at three Canadian universities between September 2013 and April 2014. Vaccine acceptability assessment was informed by the six-stage decision-making Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM. We sought information on socio-demographics, health behaviors, HPV vaccine benefits and barriers, worry, susceptibility, severity related to HPV infection and social norms. HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge was measured with validated scales. Psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability were assessed with bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Actual and perceived HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge scores were calculated. Results: The final sample size was 428. Most male college students were unaware that the HPV vaccine could be given to males, unengaged or undecided about getting the HPV vaccine. Significant correlates of higher HPV vaccine acceptability were: increased HPV knowledge, having discussed the HPV vaccine with a healthcare provider, and social norms. Being in an exclusive sexual relationship was significantly associated with lower HPV vaccine acceptability. Students' actual HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge was low and positively correlated to their perception about their HPV knowledge. Conclusions: We provided a fine-tuned analysis of psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college

  19. Developing of health perception and psychosocial skills in disadventaged students: a school based interventional study from Canakkale

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    Sibel Cevizci

    2015-02-01

    CONCLUSION: Students with disadvantages gained physical, psychological and social skills (being interactive; sharing, communicating, enterprising features of leadership and social supporting as well as the development of health perception. Two students, who successfully completed these training activities in our study group, were chosen to the project camp. One of these two students, who successfully completed the activities in the project camp and past the final exam was accepted by science trip in the United Kingdom. In conclusion, professional group trainings at early ages may be helpful for developing characteristics of health perception, psychosocial skills, enterprising in disadvantaged students [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 39-48

  20. Social gradient in the metabolic syndrome not explained by psychosocial and behavioural factors: evidence from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina; Osler, Merete

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stressors may mediate the effect of social status on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper explores this hypothesis in a random sample of the general population. DESIGN: A total of 3462 women and 2576 men aged 20-97 years from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. METHODS...... and depression, perceived stress, social network and cohabitation. Behavioural factors were smoking, alcohol and physical activity. RESULTS: There was an inverse social gradient in the prevalence of the seven components of the MS. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for occupying the most...

  1. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, Mk; Jiloha, Rc; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, Gk

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.

  2. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case–control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670

  3. Psychosocial impact on anophthalmic patients wearing ocular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, M C; dos Santos, D M; Bannwart, L C; Moreno, A; Pesqueira, A A; Haddad, M F; dos Santos, E G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the improvement in psychosocial awareness of anophthalmic patients wearing ocular prostheses and its relationship with demographic characteristics, factors of loss/treatment, social activity, and relationship between professional and patient. Surveys including a form for evaluation of psychosocial pattern were conducted with 40 anophthalmic patients rehabilitated with ocular prosthesis at the Center of Oral Oncology in the authors' dental school from January 1998 to November 2010. The improvement in psychosocial awareness was assessed by comparing the perception of some feelings reported in the period of eye loss and currently. Wilcoxon tests were applied for comparison of patients' perception between the periods. χ(2) tests were used to assess the relationship between the improvement in psychosocial awareness and the variables of the study. In addition, the logistic regression model measured this relationship with the measure of odds ratio. The feelings of shame, shyness, preoccupation with hiding it, sadness, insecurity and fear were significant for improvement in psychosocial awareness. It was concluded that the anophthalmic patients wearing an ocular prosthesis has significant improvement in psychosocial awareness after rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Workplace psychosocial factors associated with work-related injury absence: a study from a nationally representative sample of Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Nakata, Akinori; Park, Jae Bum; Swanson, Naomi G

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the association between psychosocial factors and injury absence in the workplace. This study aims to assess the association of comprehensive workplace psychosocial factors with work-related injury absence among Korean workers. The data (n = 7,856) were derived from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006 with a representative sample (n = 10,043) of the Korean working population. The survey instrument contained questions about hours of work, physical risk factors, work organization, and the effect of work on health/injury. Work-related injury absence was indicated by a dichotomous variable with at least 1 day absence during the preceding 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratio and confidence interval (CI). Incremental adjustments for sociodemographic, health behavior, and occupational confounding variables were employed in the models. The overall 1-year prevalence of work-related injury absence in this study was 1.37 % (95 % CI, 1.11-1.63 %). Those who experienced violence at work (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 7.05 (95 % CI, 2.69-18.5)), threat of violence at work (aOR, 4.25 (95 % CI, 1.32-13.64)), low job autonomy (aOR, 1.79 (95 % CI, 1.17-2.74)), and high job strain (aOR, 2.38 (95 % CI, 1.29-4.42) had an increased risk of injury absence, compared with their respective counterparts (p workers in Korea were at a near fourfold risk of work absence due to occupational injuries, compared with managers in low-risk jobs. Workplace violence and increased job strain were two key workplace psychosocial factors associated with work-related injury absence.

  5. Do television and electronic games predict children's psychosocial adjustment? Longitudinal research using the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion

    2013-05-01

    Screen entertainment for young children has been associated with several aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Most research is from North America and focuses on television. Few longitudinal studies have compared the effects of TV and electronic games, or have investigated gender differences. To explore how time watching TV and playing electronic games at age 5 years each predicts change in psychosocial adjustment in a representative sample of 7 year-olds from the UK. Typical daily hours viewing television and playing electronic games at age 5 years were reported by mothers of 11 014 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviour were reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Change in adjustment from age 5 years to 7 years was regressed on screen exposures; adjusting for family characteristics and functioning, and child characteristics. Watching TV for 3 h or more at 5 years predicted a 0.13 point increase (95% CI 0.03 to 0.24) in conduct problems by 7 years, compared with watching for under an hour, but playing electronic games was not associated with conduct problems. No associations were found between either type of screen time and emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems or prosocial behaviour. There was no evidence of gender differences in the effect of screen time. TV but not electronic games predicted a small increase in conduct problems. Screen time did not predict other aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Further work is required to establish causal mechanisms.

  6. Access to mental health and psychosocial services in Cambodia by survivors of trafficking and exploitation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberdein, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the extreme forms of violence and acute and longer-term mental health consequences associated with trafficking and exploitation. However, there has been little research on post-trafficking mental health and psychosocial support services for survivors. This study explored the availability and accessibility of mental health and psychosocial support services in Cambodia for women, men and children trafficked and exploited for sex or labour purposes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of representatives from seven service organizations providing mental health and psychosocial support services for people who have been trafficked. This qualitative method was selected to gain insights into the service approaches and challenges faced by the small number of post-trafficking service providers in Cambodia. A conceptual framework outlining access dimensions associated with service provision guided the structure of the study. Findings indicate that among the available post-trafficking services, there are few trained mental health specialists, an over-representation of shelter services in urban versus rural areas and limited services for males, people with disabilities, individuals exploited for labour (versus sexual exploitation) and those with more serious mental illnesses. Providers believe that discrimination and stigma related to both mental health and human trafficking hinder trafficked people's willingness to access services, but suggest that awareness-raising may reduce these prejudices. Care in this sector is precarious due to over-reliance on financial support by donors versus government. Recent increases in newly qualified professionals and providers suggest potential improvements in the quality and availability of psychological support for trafficking survivors. Psychological support for the growing number of identified trafficking survivors in Cambodia will depend on improved geographical

  7. Impaired mental well-being and psychosocial risk: a cross-sectional study in female nursing home direct staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier, C; Fontana, L; Fort, E; Vohito, M; Sellier, B; Perrier, C; Glerant, V; Couprie, F; Agard, J P; Charbotel, B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to quantify the impaired mental well-being and psychosocial stress experienced by nursing home staff and to determine the relationship between impaired mental well-being assessed on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to psychosocial stress assessed on Siegrist's effort/reward and overcommitment model. Methods A transverse study was conducted in France on 2471 female employees in 105 nursing homes for the elderly. Personal and occupational data were collected by questionnaire for 668 housekeepers, 1454 nursing assistants and 349 nurses. Results 36.8% of participants (n=896) showed impaired mental well-being, 42.7% (n=1039) overcommitment and 9% (n=224) effort/reward imbalance. Overcommitment (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.27; 95% CI (1.21 to 1.34)) and effort–reward imbalance (PR=1.19; 95% CI (1.12 to 1.27)) were significantly associated with presence of impaired mental well-being after adjustment for personal factors (age and private life events). Taking effort and reward levels into account, the frequency of impaired mental well-being was highest in case of exposure to great extrinsic effort and low rewards of any type: esteem, PR=3.53, 95% CI (3.06 to 4.08); earnings, PR=3.48, 95% CI (2.99 to 4.06); or job security, PR=3.30, 95% CI (2.88 to 3.78). Participants in situations of overcommitment and of effort/reward imbalance were at the highest risk of impaired mental well-being: PR=3.86, 95% CI (3.42 to 4.35). Conclusions Several changes in nursing home organisation can be suggested to reduce staff exposure to factors of psychosocial stress. Qualitative studies of the relation between impaired mental well-being and psychosocial stress in nursing home staff could guide prevention of impaired mental well-being at work. PMID:25829371

  8. Psychosocial factors and obesity in 17 high-, middle- and low-income countries: the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, A; Teo, K; Rangarajan, S; Kabali, C; Khumalo, I; Kutty, V R; Gupta, R; Yusuf, R; Iqbal, R; Ismail, N; Altuntas, Y; Kelishadi, R; Diaz, R; Avezum, A; Chifamba, J; Zatonska, K; Wei, L; Liao, X; Lopez-Jaramillo, P; Yusufali, A; Seron, P; Lear, S A; Yusuf, S

    2015-08-01

    Psychosocial stress has been proposed to contribute to obesity, particularly abdominal, or central obesity, through chronic activation of the neuroendocrine systems. However, these putative relationships are complex and dependent on country and cultural context. We investigated the association between psychosocial factors and general and abdominal obesity in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiologic study. This observational, cross-sectional study enrolled 151 966 individuals aged 35-70 years from 628 urban and rural communities in 17 high-, middle- and low-income countries. Data were collected for 125 290 individuals regarding education, anthropometrics, hypertension/diabetes, tobacco/alcohol use, diet and psychosocial factors (self-perceived stress and depression). After standardization for age, sex, country income and urban/rural location, the proportion with obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg m(-)(2)) increased from 15.7% in 40 831 individuals with no stress to 20.5% in 7720 individuals with permanent stress, with corresponding proportions for ethnicity- and sex-specific central obesity of 48.6% and 53.5%, respectively (P<0.0001 for both). Associations between stress and hypertension/diabetes tended to be inverse. Estimating the total effect of permanent stress with age, sex, physical activity, education and region as confounders, no relationship between stress and obesity persisted (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for obesity 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.10)). There was no relationship between ethnicity- and sex-specific central obesity (adjusted PR 1.00 (0.97-1.02)). Stratification by region yielded inconsistent associations. Depression was weakly but independently linked to obesity (PR 1.08 (1.04-1.12)), and very marginally to abdominal obesity (PR 1.01 (1.00-1.03)). Although individuals with permanent stress tended to be slightly more obese, there was no overall independent effect and no evidence that abdominal obesity or its consequences

  9. Psychosocial and clinical predictors of retention in outpatient alcoholism treatment Preditores psicossociais e clínicos de retenção ao tratamento para alcoolismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maria Corrêa Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One of the factors associated with low rates of compliance in the treatment for alcoholism seems to be the intensity of craving for alcohol. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between alcohol craving and biopsychosocial addiction model-related variables and to verify whether these variables could predict treatment retention. METHODS: The sample consisted of 257 male alcoholics who were enrolled in two different pharmacological trials conducted at the Universidade de São Paulo in Brazil. Based on four factors measured at baseline - biological (age, race, and family alcoholism, psychiatric (depression symptoms, social (financial and marital status, and addiction (craving intensity, severity of alcohol dependence, smoking status, drinking history, preferential beverage, daily intake of alcohol before treatment - direct logistic regression was performed to analyze these factors' influence on treatment retention after controlling for medication groups and AA attendance. RESULTS: Increasing age, participation in Alcoholics Anonymous groups, and beer preference among drinkers were independently associated with higher treatment retention. Conversely, higher scores for depression increased dropout rates. CONCLUSION: Health services should identify the treatment practices and therapists that improve retention. Information about patients' characteristics linked to dropouts should be studied to render treatment programs more responsive and attractive, combining pharmacological agents with more intensive and diversified psychosocial interventions.OBJETIVO: Um dos fatores associados com baixas taxas de adesão ao tratamento para alcoolismo parece ser a intensidade da fissura pelo álcool. Este estudo objetiva avaliar a associação entre a fissura pelo álcool e variáveis relacionadas ao modelo biopsicossocial de dependência, bem como verificar se estas variáveis prevêem retenção ao tratamento. MÉTODO: A amostra foi composta por

  10. Care workers health in Swiss nursing homes and its association with psychosocial work environment: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaini, Suzanne R; Zúñiga, Franziska; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Simon, Michael; Kunz, Regina; De Geest, Sabina; Schwendimann, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated poor health of care workers in nursing homes. Yet, little is known about the prevalence of physical and mental health outcomes, and their associations with the psychosocial work environment in nursing homes. (1) To explore the prevalence of physical and mental health outcomes of care workers in Swiss nursing homes, (2) their association with psychosocial work environment. This is a secondary data analysis of the cross-sectional Swiss Nursing Home Human Resources Project (SHURP). We used survey data on socio-demographic characteristics and work environment factors from care workers (N=3471) working in Swiss nursing homes (N=155), collected between May 2012 and April 2013. GEE logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship between psychosocial work environment and physical and mental health outcomes, taking into account care workers' age. Back pain (19.0%) and emotional exhaustion (24.2%) were the most frequent self-reported physical and mental health. Back pain was associated with increased workload (odds ratios (OR) 1.52, confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.79), conflict with other health professionals and lack of recognition (OR 1.72, CI 1.40-2.11), and frequent verbal aggression by residents (OR 1.36, CI 1.06-1.74), and inversely associated with staffing adequacy (OR 0.69, CI 0.56-0.84); emotional exhaustion was associated with increased workload (OR 1.96, CI 1.65-2.34), lack of job preparation (OR 1.41, CI 1.14-1.73), and conflict with other health professionals and lack of recognition (OR 1.68, CI 1.37-2.06), and inversely associated with leadership (OR 0.70, CI 0.56-0.87). Physical and mental health among care workers in Swiss nursing homes is of concern. Modifying psychosocial work environment factors offer promising strategies to improve health. Longitudinal studies are needed to conduct targeted assessments of care workers health status, taking into account their age, along with the exposure to all four

  11. [Study on psychosocial factors of suicide ideation among peasant workers in Guiyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Peng, Anhui; Zhang, Lirong

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate psychosocial factors on suicidal ideation of peasant workers in Guiyang City. According to stratified cluster sampling method, five hundred and one peasant workers were randomly investigated with the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and the Short Form 36-Item Health Survey Scale (SF-36). 9.58% of peasant workers had suicide ideation in last year and logistic regression model analysis showed that the main psychosocial risk factors for suicide ideation were gender (OR: 2.279; 95% CI: 1.107 - 4.693), satisfaction with the life (OR: 0.368; 95% CI: 0.188 - 0.722), subjective support (OR: 0.921; 95% CI: 0.857 - 0.990) and mental health (OR: 0.991; 95% CI: 0.986 - 0.997). Women peasant workers could serve as the important object for late prevention of suicidal behavior in peasant workers in Guiyang City. It was especially important to improve mental health status of peasant workers for the prevention of suicidal ideation.

  12. Organizational commitment among general practitioners: a cross-sectional study of the role of psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusio, Hannamaria; Heponiemi, Tarja; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2010-06-01

    To examine whether general practitioners (GP) working in primary health care have lower organizational commitment compared with physicians working in other health sectors. The authors also tested whether psychosocial factors (job demands, job control, and colleague consultation) explain these differences in commitment between GPs and other physicians. Cross-sectional postal questionnaire. Setting and participants. A postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of physicians (n = 5000) drawn from the Finnish Association database in 2006. A total of 2841 physicians (response rate 57%) returned the questionnaire, of which 2657 (545 GPs and 2090 other physicians) fulfilled all the participant criteria. Organizational commitment was measured with two different indicators: intention to change jobs and low affective commitment. GPs were less committed to their organizations than other physicians. Work-related psychosocial factors (high job demands, low job control, and poor colleague consultation) were all significant risk factors for low organizational commitment. The evidence collected suggests that policies that reduce psychological demands, such as job demands and low control, may contribute to better organizational commitment and, thus, alleviate the shortages of physicians in primary care. Furthermore, giving GPs a stronger say in decisions concerning their work and providing them with more variety in work tasks may even improve the quality of primary care. The strategies for workplace development should focus on redesigning jobs and identifying GPs at higher risk, such as those with especially high job strain.

  13. Psychosocial outcomes and counselee satisfaction following genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: A patient-reported outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberguggenberger, Anne; Sztankay, Monika; Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Weber, Ingrid; Hubalek, Michael; Kemmler, Georg; Zschocke, Johannes; Martini, Caroline; Egle, Daniel; Dünser, Martina; Gamper, Eva; Meraner, Verena

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the psychosocial consequences of genetic counseling and testing (GCT) for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) at follow-up in a "real-life" sample of counselees at an Austrian tertiary care center. The study cohort included counselees who had undergone genetic counseling for HBOC and completed a follow-up self-report questionnaire battery on psychosocial outcomes (quality of life, psychological distress, satisfaction with counseling and decisions). For comparison of distress, we recruited a reference sample of breast cancer survivors (BCS; n=665) who had not requested GCT in the same setting. Overall, counselees did not exhibit increased levels of anxiety and depression when compared to BCS. No specific follow-up deleterious psychosocial consequences were detected among the former group. Of the 137 counselees, 22.6% and 9.8% experienced clinically relevant levels of anxiety and depression, respectively, at an average follow-up time of 1.8years. However, both anxiety and depression significantly decreased with time and were alike between counselees with and without cancer diagnosis. Follow-up cancer worry seems to be significantly higher among counselees who had not undergone genetic testing or were undecided about it than among counselees who had been tested. Our results strongly support GCT as part of routine care for patients with HBOC. The risk factors of increased distress in specific subgroups of counselees, such as recent cancer diagnosis or uncertainty about testing, warrant further exploration and specific attention in clinical routines. Particularly, the psychological needs of undecided counselees warrant ongoing attention and potential follow-ups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A developmental study of heavy episodic drinking among college students: the role of psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessor, Richard; Costa, Frances M; Krueger, Patrick M; Turbin, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    A theory-based protection/risk model was applied to explain variation in college students' heavy episodic drinking. Key aims were (1) to establish that psychosocial and behavioral protective factors and risk factors can account for cross-sectional and developmental variation in heavy episodic drinking, and (2) to examine whether protection moderates the impact of risk on heavy episodic drinking. Random- and fixed-effects maximum likelihood regression analyses were used to examine data from a three-wave longitudinal study. Data were collected in fall of 2002, spring of 2003, and spring of 2004 from college students (N=975; 548 men) who were first-semester freshmen at Wave 1. Psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors accounted for substantial variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking, and protection moderated the impact of risk. Findings held for both genders and were consistent across the three separate waves of data. Key predictors of heavy episodic drinking were social and individual controls protection (e.g., parental sanctions for transgression and attitudinal intolerance of deviance, respectively); models risk (peer models for substance use); behavioral protection (attendance at religious services); and behavioral risk (cigarette smoking and marijuana use). Changes in controls protection, models risk, and opportunity risk were associated with change in heavy episodic drinking. An explanatory model based on both psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors was effective in accounting for variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking. A useful heuristic was demonstrated through the articulation of models, controls, support, opportunity, and vulnerability to characterize the social context, and of controls, vulnerability, and other behaviors to characterize individuals.

  15. Organizational change, psychosocial work environment, and non-disability early retirement: a prospective study among senior public employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinegaard, Nina; Jensen, Johan Høy; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2017-05-01

    Objective This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58-64 years (N=3254) from the Capital Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011. Weekly data on non-disability early retirement transfer were obtained from the DREAM register database, which holds weekly information about all public benefit payments in Denmark. Hazard ratios (HR) for early retirement following employees' 60 th birthday were estimated with Cox regression adjusted for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results Exposure to change of management [HR 1.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13-1.66], mergers (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48), and relocation of work unit (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.54) increased rate of non-disability early retirement, while demerging of work unit did not (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.79-1.33). Work units with lower levels of social capital (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.41), organizational justice, (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.32), and quality of management (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.25) increased rate of early retirement. Conclusion Organizational change and poor psychosocial work environment contribute to non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees, measured at work-unit level.

  16. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems amongst nurses at a university hospital in Estonia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimann, Tiina; Merisalu, Eda

    2015-07-01

    Rapid changes in the Estonian health care system have placed extra pressure on the nursing profession, but the potential impacts of psychosocial changes have not been investigated. We aimed to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst nurses at the university hospital in Estonia. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital (TUH). Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms and burnout) were measured using version two of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's r correlation with sequential Bonferroni correction were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the full-time working population of nurses). The highest mean scores recorded for the positive work-related psychosocial factors studied were meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships and mutual trust between employees. The highest scores for the negative factors studied were the demands for hiding emotions, work pace, cognitive and emotional demands. Stress and burnout showed the highest mean scores amongst the MHPs. Quantitative and emotional demands were positively related to all of the studied MHPs, while work pace and role conflicts had a positive correlation with stress and burnout. All of the studied negative psychosocial factors were significantly correlated with burnout. work-related psychosocial risk factors such as quantitative demands work load, emotional demands, work pace and role conflicts, had significant positive relationships with MHPS in nurses in Estonia, and may contribute to high levels of stress as well as burnout amongst nurses: . © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Contribution of Psychosocial Factors to Physical Activity in Women of Color in the Saving Lives Staying Active (SALSA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; McNeill, Lorna H; Soltero, Erica G; Orlando Edwards, Raul; Lee, Rebecca E

    2017-07-01

    Culturally appropriate, innovative strategies to increase physical activity (PA) in women of color are needed. This study examined whether participation in SALSA, an 8-week randomized, crossover pilot study to promote PA, led to improved psychosocial outcomes and whether these changes were associated with changes in PA over time. Women of color (N = 50) completed Internet-based questionnaires on PA, exercise self-efficacy, motivational readiness, stress, and social support at three time points. Women reported high socioeconomic status, decreases in exercise self-efficacy, and increases in motivational readiness for exercise and a number of stressful events (p motivational readiness for exercise varied by group (p = .043). Changes in psychosocial factors were associated with increases in PA. Latin dance improved motivational readiness for PA. Future studies are needed to determine whether Latin dance improves other psychological measures and quality of life in women of color in an effort to increase PA and reduce health disparities.

  18. Sanitation-related psychosocial stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Hulland, Kristyna R S; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Freeman, Matthew C; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-08-01

    While sanitation interventions have focused primarily on child health, women's unique health risks from inadequate sanitation are gaining recognition as a priority issue. This study examines the range of sanitation-related psychosocial stressors during routine sanitation practices in Odisha, India. Between August 2013 and March 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 56 women in four life stages: adolescent, newly married, pregnant and established adult women in three settings: urban slums, rural villages and indigenous villages. Using a grounded theory approach, the study team transcribed, translated, coded and discussed interviews using detailed analytic memos to identify and characterize stressors at each life stage and study site. We found that sanitation practices encompassed more than defecation and urination and included carrying water, washing, bathing, menstrual management, and changing clothes. During the course of these activities, women encountered three broad types of stressors-environmental, social, and sexual-the intensity of which were modified by the woman's life stage, living environment, and access to sanitation facilities. Environmental barriers, social factors and fears of sexual violence all contributed to sanitation-related psychosocial stress. Though women responded with small changes to sanitation practices, they were unable to significantly modify their circumstances, notably by achieving adequate privacy for sanitation-related behaviors. A better understanding of the range of causes of stress and adaptive behaviors is needed to inform context-specific, gender-sensitive sanitation interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The psychosocial work environment among physicians employed at Danish oncology departments in 2009. A nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2013-01-01

    Working as a physician at an oncology department has some distinctive characteristics that may lead to a stressful work environment. The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide description of the work conditions of all oncologists in Denmark. By comparing the results of the present study with those of a similar study carried out in 2006, the aim was furthermore to elucidate changes in the psychosocial work environment over time. From May to September 2009, 330 physicians employed at six oncology centres and seven community based oncology departments were invited to participate in a survey based on the short version of the COPSOQ II questionnaire. The results were compared with data from a representative section of Danish employees and with data from the 2006 survey. Two hundred and twenty of the 330 invited physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 67%). Concerning the aspects quantitative demands, work pace, emotional demands, influence, burnout and stress, the oncologists reported worse work conditions than the average Danish employee. However, with regard to possibilities for development, meaning of work and commitment to workplace, the oncologists reported better work conditions. Between 2006 and 2009, substantial improvement was seen concerning several of the assessed work environment aspects within the group of young physicians at the oncology centres. Though substantial improvement of the work conditions has been achieved between 2006 and 2009, certain aspects of the psychosocial work environment at Danish oncology departments still require attention.

  20. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS IN COMMUNITY ORAL HEALTH PROBLEMS: A STUDY ON DENTAL TREATMENT DISCONTINUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aryadi Joelimar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The low value of F/DMF-T ration on Performed Treatment Index in Indoneisa gives an indication of great problems in dental treatment utilization. Dental treatment utilization is affected by several obstacles, the greatest among which is psychosocial obstacles. In this study the psychosocial obstacles were detected through Intrinsic Obstacles, Obstacles in Transportation, and Obstacles in Dental Clinic related to their effects on their discontinuation of dental treatments at Balkesmas Kiara, Kecamatan Senen, Jakarta Pusat. The discontinuation of dental treatments was mostly affected by Intrinsic Obstacles, through its components as Types of Cases, Dental Anxiety Scale, and Intrinsic Motivation. Generally Obstacles in Transportation had no effects, excpet its components of Travel Time and Tiredness. Obstacles in Dental Clinic had a significant effect on the discontinuation of dental treatments through the unpleasant manner of the druggist, the hot waiting room, and the high expense on drugs.

  1. Psychosocial and psychosexual aspects of disorders of sex development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2010-01-01

    Psychosocial aspects of the treatment of disorders of sex development (DSDs) concern gender assignment, information management and communication, timing of medical interventions, consequences of surgery, and sexuality. Although outcome is often satisfactory, a variety of medical and psychosocial

  2. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care.

  3. Are Hospital Workers Healthy?: A Study of Cardiometabolic, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Obesity Among Hospital Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela V; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Karhade, Mandar; Baun, William B; Perkison, William B; Pompeii, Lisa A; Brown, Henry S; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the cardiometabolic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with weight status among hospital employees. A total of n = 924 employees across the six hospitals in Texas participated in this cross-sectional study, 2012 to 2013. Association between weight status and waist circumference, blood pressure, biomarkers, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial factors was assessed. About 78.1% of employees were overweight/obese. Obese participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥30.0 kg/m) had higher consumption of potatoes, fats, sugary beverages, and spent more time watching television, playing computer games, and sitting than those having normal weight. Being obese was positively associated with blood pressure, blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein, and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein. Finally, 78.8% of workers were dissatisfied with their worksite wellness with dissatisfaction being higher among obese employees. Being overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m) was positively associated with blood pressure, but not other variables. Understanding the risk profile of hospital workers is critical to developing effective interventions.

  4. Influence of psychosocial risk factors on the trajectory of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatori Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies involving child/adolescent mental health problems are scarce in developing countries, particularly in regions characterized by adverse living conditions. We examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the trajectory of child/adolescent mental health problems (CAMHP over time. Methods A population-based sample of 6- to 13-year-olds with CAMHP was followed-up from 2002–2003 (Time 1/T1 to 2007–2008 (Time 2/T2, with 86 out of 124 eligible children/adolescents at T1 being reassessed at T2 (sample loss: 30.6%. Outcome: CAMHP at T2 according to the Child Behavior Checklist/CBCL’s total problem scale. Psychosocial factors: T1 variables (child/adolescent’s age, family socioeconomic status; trajectory of variables from T1 to T2 (child/adolescent exposure to severe physical punishment, mother exposure to severe physical marital violence, maternal anxiety/depression; and T2 variables (maternal education, child/adolescent’s social support and pro-social activities. Results Multivariate analysis identified two risk factors for child/adolescent MHP at T2: aggravation of child/adolescent physical punishment and aggravation of maternal anxiety/depression. Conclusions The current study shows the importance of considering child/adolescent physical punishment and maternal anxiety/depression in intervention models and mental health care policies.

  5. Meeting psychosocial needs for persons with dementia in home care services - a qualitative study of different perceptions and practices among health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anette; Hauge, Solveig; Bergland, Ådel

    2017-09-11

    The majority of persons with dementia are home-dwelling. To enable these persons to stay in their own homes as long as possible, a holistic, individual and flexible care is recommended. Despite a requirement for meeting psychological, social and physical needs, home care services seem to focus on patients' physical needs. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to explore how the psychosocial needs of home-dwelling, older persons with dementia were perceived, emphasized and met by home care services. A descriptive, qualitative approach was used. Data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews with 24 health care providers in home care services from four municipalities. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. This study showed major differences in how health care providers perceived the psychosocial needs of older home-dwelling persons with dementia and how they perceived their responsibilities for meeting those psychosocial needs. The differences in the health care providers' perceptions seemed to significantly influence the provided care. Three co-existing logics of care were identified: the physical need-oriented logic, the renouncement logic and the integrated logic. The differences in how health care providers perceived the psychosocial needs of persons with dementia and their responsibilities for meeting those needs, influenced how the psychosocial needs were met. These differences indicates a need for a clarification of how psychosocial needs should be conceptualized and who should be responsible for meeting these needs. Further, increased competence and increased consciousness of psychosocial needs and how those needs can be met, are essential for delivering high-quality holistic care that enables persons with dementia to live in their own home for as long as possible.

  6. Psychosocial Work Hazards, Self-Rated Health and Burnout: A Comparison Study of Public and Private Sector Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsi-Chen; Cheng, Yawen

    2018-04-01

    To compare psychosocial work conditions and health status between public and private sector employees and to examine if psychosocial work conditions explained the health differences. Two thousand four hundred fourty one public and 15,589 private sector employees participated in a cross-sectional survey. Psychosocial work hazards, self-rated health (SRH), and burnout status were assessed by questionnaire. As compared with private sector employees, public sector employees reported better psychosocial work conditions and better SRH, but higher risk of workplace violence (WPV) and higher levels of client-related burnout. Regression analyses indicated that higher psychosocial job demands, lower workplace justice, and WPV experience were associated with poor SRH and higher burnout. The public-private difference in client-related burnout remained even with adjustment of psychosocial work factors. Greater risks of WPV and client-related burnout observed in public sector employees warrant further investigation.

  7. Barriers against psychosocial communication: oncologists' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlind, Hanna; Kettis, Åsa; Glimelius, Bengt; Ring, Lena

    2013-10-20

    To explore oncologists' psychosocial attitudes and beliefs and their perceptions regarding barriers against psychosocial communication. A questionnaire was distributed to oncologists in Sweden (n = 537). Questions covered demography, the Physician Psychosocial Beliefs Scale (PPBS), and barriers against psychosocial communication. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine what factors contribute the most to the PPBS score and the total number of barriers and barriers affecting clinical practice, respectively. Spearman rank-order correlation was used to determine correlation between PPBS score and number of barriers. Questionnaire response rate was 64%. Mean PPBS value was 85.5 (range, 49 to 123; SD, 13.0). Most oncologists (93%) perceived one or more barriers in communicating psychosocial aspects with patients. On average, five different communication barriers were perceived, of which most were perceived to affect clinical practice. These barriers included insufficient consultation time, lack of resources for taking care of problems discovered, and lack of methods to evaluate patients' psychosocial health in clinical practice. There was a positive correlation (rs = 0.490; P barriers (ie, less psychosocially oriented oncologists perceived more barriers). Oncologists with supplementary education with a psychosocial focus perceived fewer barriers/barriers affecting clinical practice (P barriers affecting psychosocial communication in clinical practice. Interventions aiming to improve psychosocial communication must therefore be multifaceted and individualized to clinics and individual oncologists. It is important to minimize barriers to facilitate optimal care and treatment of patients with cancer.

  8. Idioms of distress: alternatives in the expression of psychosocial distress: a case study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, M

    1981-12-01

    This paper focuses attention on alternative modes of expressing distress and the need to analyze particular manifestations of distress in relation to personal and cultural meaning complexes as well as the availability and social implications of coexisting idioms of expression. To illustrate this point the case of South Kanarese Havik Brahmin women is presented. These women are described as having a weak social support network and limited opportunities to ventilate feelings and seek counsel outside the household. Alternative means of expressing psychosocial distress resorted to by Havik women are discussed in relation to associated Brahminic values, norms and stereotypes. Somatization is focused upon as an important idiom through which distress is communicated. Idioms of distress more peripheral to the personal or cultural behavioral repertoire of Havik women are considered as adaptive responses in circumstances where other modes of expression fail to communicate distress adequately or provide appropriate coping strategies. The importance of an 'idioms of distress' approach to psychiatric evaluation is noted.

  9. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  10. Psychosocial student functioning in comprehensive dental clinic education: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R

    2018-02-17

    The aims were to describe first-year clinical dental students' psychosocial experiences in a known well-functioning comprehensive clinic teaching group (F+Grp) and a known dysfunctional group (Dys-Grp) and, thus, discover and describe phenomena related to psychosocial functioning of students. These groups were compared and contrasted regarding negative stress symptoms, perfectionism and coping with stress. Eight female dental students (mean 26 years old), four in each group, were interviewed after the first clinical year about learning and emotional experiences. The students also rated their perceived stress using a 0-10 scale, where 0 is no stress, and 10 is highest stress. Qualitative analyses involved searching for recurring themes and discovery of categories of clinical and social functioning. All 8 students were revisited as dentists after 8 years and filled out a 15-item survey as longitudinal validation of their first-year clinical experiences and to estimate group consensus and informant accuracy. Both groups suffered from negative stress symptoms attributed to lack of time for clinical tasks, worries about work quality with confusion about their own expectations and worries about how others perceived them. Dys-Grp experienced higher negative stress and maladaptive perfectionism and described crying behaviours, withdrawal and unwillingness to cooperate with others. In contrast, students in F+Grp provided rich content about mutual cooperation related to social networking and positive support. The 8 subjects exhibited high internal consistency (α  =  .98) in their responses to the follow-up survey about their first year of clinic. The comprehensive care teaching clinic environment with students working in groups appeared to provide a possibility for students to support each other for improved stress coping. Unfortunately, the opposite also occurred. Positive, supportive teacher supervision of student challenges related to perfectionism and stress is

  11. A prospective study of psychosocial work characteristics and long sick leave of Japanese male employees in multiple workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Honda, Ryumon; Yamada, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Morikawa, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial work characteristics associated with long sick leave in a large population of male Japanese employees in multiple workplaces. We examined various psychosocial work characteristics (job overload, job control, supervisor support, coworker support, support by family and friends, role ambiguity, role conflict, intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict) of employees in six factories at the base line. We then conducted a follow-up survey on the recorded long sick leaves of ≥ 30 continuous days taken by the employees due to any medical condition. We found 574 cases of long sick leave out of 15,531 subjects during an average 5.07-yr follow-up. The results showed that high supervisor support was significantly associated with a decrease in the hazard ratio (HR) of long sick leave after adjustment for several confounding factors (95%CI; 0.69-0.97). High role ambiguity also tended to increase HR, but without reaching significance (95%CI; 0.99-1.41). The results suggest that supervisor support in the workplace may be important to reduce long sick leave in Japanese male employees.

  12. The association between postural alignment and psychosocial factors to upper quadrant pain in high school students: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Yolandi; Crous, Lynette Christine; Louw, Quinette Abigail; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Schreve, Kristiaan

    2009-12-01

    Prolonged sitting and psychosocial factors have been associated with musculoskeletal symptoms among adolescents. However, the impact of prolonged static sitting on musculoskeletal pain among South African high school students is uncertain. A prospective observational study was performed to determine whether sitting postural alignment and psychosocial factors contribute to the development of upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain (UQMP) in grade ten high school students working on desktop computers. The sitting postural alignment, depression, anxiety and computer use of 104 asymptomatic students were measured at baseline. At three and six months post baseline, the prevalence of UQMP was determined. Twenty-seven students developed UQMP due to seated or computer-related activities. An extreme cervical angle (43.95 degrees; OR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1-7.3) and a combination of extreme cervical and thoracic angles (71.1 degrees; OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-5.6) were significant postural risk factors for the development of UQMP. Boys with any extreme angle were more likely to suffer pain compared with boys with all middle range angles (OR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.0-24.5). No similar effect was found for girls. There was no strong relationship between depression, anxiety, computer exposure and UQMP among South African high school students.

  13. Institutional capacity to provide psychosocial oncology support services: A report from the Association of Oncology Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad; Kayser, Karen; Padgett, Lynne; Sundstrom, Laura; Jobin, Chad; Nelson, Krista; Fineberg, Iris C

    2016-06-15

    This study reports cancer-treating institutions' capacity to deliver comprehensive psychosocial support services. Oncology care providers at 60 cancer-treating institutions completed surveys assessing the capacity of their institutions to provide psychosocial care. Capacity was assessed with the Cancer Psychosocial Care Matrix (CPCM) from the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Scores represented individuals' perceptions of their cancer program's performance with respect to 10 fundamental elements of psychosocial care. Among 2134 respondents, 62% reported a mid-level capacity for ≥5 of 10 CPCM items. In comparison with other types of cancer programs (eg, NCI-designated, academic, or comprehensive centers), providers at community cancer programs reported a significantly greater capacity with respect to patient-provider communication, psychosocial needs assessment, and continuity in the delivery of psychosocial care over time. Nurses and primary medical providers reported a significantly lower capacity for linking patients and families with needed psychosocial services within their respective cancer programs. They also reported a significantly higher capacity for conducting follow-up, re-evaluations, and adjustments of psychosocial treatment plans. Cancer programs are performing moderately well in terms of communicating to patients the importance of psychosocial care, identifying patient psychosocial needs, and referring patients and families to psychosocial services. They are doing less well with respect to the provision of that care over time. Findings suggest that gaps in psychosocial service capacity are a function of patient, provider, and system characteristics. These results may be useful in formulating strategies to enhance psychosocial care delivery. Cancer 2016;122:1937-45. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  14. Longevity, Esthetic Perception, and Psychosocial Impact of Teeth Bleaching by Low (6%) Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration for In-office Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, E; Bersezio, C; Bottner, J; Avalos, F; Godoy, I; Inda, D; Vildósola, P; Saad, Jrc; Oliveira, O B; Martín, J

    The aim was to evaluate the color longevity after nine months of in-office bleaching with gel (6% hydrogen peroxide), to compare this to a control concentration of 35% in a split-mouth study model, and to assess the dental confidence and psychosocial impact on patients. Twenty-seven patients were assessed at the nine-month recall. The bleaching procedure with 6% or 35% hydrogen peroxide gel was performed randomly in the upper hemi-arch of each patient. The color was measured at baseline and at one week, one month, and nine months after the procedure, using the Vita Easyshade spectrophotometer, the Vita classical shade guide organized by value, and Vita Bleach Guide 3DMaster. Moreover, two surveys, OHIP-Esthetics and PIDAQ, were used to assess the esthetic self-perception and psychosocial impact of the bleaching procedure. During the nine-month recall, the color was assessed before and after dental prophylaxis. Twenty-seven patients participated in the nine-month recall. There was a significant difference in ΔE between the two groups at all times assessed (p0.20). There was no significant difference in ΔSGU at all times (p>0.05). There was a significant difference in OHIP-Esthetics and PIDAQ sums compared with baseline scores (p<0.03). The two compounds remained effective at nine months, with a slight rebound of color, and maintained their objective color difference but not the subjective color difference. Patients were satisfied with the bleaching procedure, and this had a positive impact on esthetic perception and a positive psychosocial impact at the nine-month recall.

  15. Tic Frequency Decreases during Short-term Psychosocial Stress - An Experimental Study on Children with Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Judith; Enghardt, Stephanie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that psychosocial stress influences situational fluctuations of tic frequency. However, evidence from experimental studies is lacking. The current study investigated the effects of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) on tic frequency in 31 children and adolescents with tic disorders. A relaxation and a concentration situation served as control conditions. Patients were asked either to suppress their tics or to "tic freely." Physiological measures of stress were measured throughout the experiment. The TSST-C elicited a clear stress response with elevated levels of saliva cortisol, increased heart rate, and a larger number of skin conductance responses. During relaxation and concentration, the instruction to suppress tics reduced the number of tics, whereas during stress, the number of tics was low, regardless of the given instruction. Our study suggests that the stress might result in a situational decrease of tic frequency.

  16. Psychosocial factors and their predictive value in chiropractic patients with low back pain: a prospective inception cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Alan C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being able to estimate the likelihood of poor recovery from episodes of back pain is important for care. Studies of psychosocial factors in inception cohorts in general practice and occupational populations have begun to make inroads to these problems. However, no studies have yet investigated this in chiropractic patients. Methods A prospective inception cohort study of patients presenting to a UK chiropractic practice for new episodes of non-specific low back pain (LBP was conducted. Baseline questionnaires asked about age, gender, occupation, work status, duration of current episode, chronicity, aggravating features and bothersomeness using Deyo's 'Core Set'. Psychological factors (fear-avoidance beliefs, inevitability, anxiety/distress and coping, and co-morbidity were also assessed at baseline. Satisfaction with care, number of attendances and pain impact were determined at 6 weeks. Predictors of poor outcome were sought by the calculation of relative risk ratios. Results Most patients presented within 4 weeks of onset. Of 158 eligible and willing patients, 130 completed both baseline and 6-week follow-up questionnaires. Greatest improvements at 6 weeks were in interference with normal work (ES 1.12 and LBP bothersomeness (ES 1.37. Although most patients began with moderate-high back pain bothersomeness scores, few had high psychometric ones. Co-morbidity was a risk for high-moderate interference with normal work at 6 weeks (RR 2.37; 95% C.I. 1.15–4.74. An episode duration of >4 weeks was associated with moderate to high bothersomeness at 6 weeks (RR 2.07; 95% C.I. 1.19 – 3.38 and negative outlook (inevitability with moderate to high interference with normal work (RR 2.56; 95% C.I. 1.08 – 5.08. Conclusion Patients attending a private UK chiropractic clinic for new episodes of non-specific LBP exhibited few psychosocial predictors of poor outcome, unlike other patient populations that have been studied. Despite

  17. Psychosocial factors and colleagues' perceptions of return-to-work opportunities for workers with a psychiatric disorder: a Japanese population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R

    2017-04-04

    This study examined associations between psychosocial factors and the perception that adequate employment opportunities might not be provided for people with limited work capacity due to psychiatric disorders. We conducted an online, cross-sectional survey of 3,710 employed individuals aged 20 to 69 years in Japan. Our survey included the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire and investigated participants' perception of opportunities in their workplace for individuals with a psychiatric disorder returning to work (colleagues' negative perception) and psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate potential associations between psychosocial factors and colleagues' negative perception. Colleagues' negative perception was associated with low workplace social support (middle tertile: Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.26, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.12-1.40; low tertile: OR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.32-1.58; p for trend Psychosocial factors may affect colleagues' perceptions of individuals with a psychiatric disorder returning to work in Japan. Greater consideration of psychosocial factors in the workplace may be necessary to facilitate people with a psychiatric disorder successfully returning to work in Japan, as elsewhere.

  18. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. METHODS: This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age......, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight.......0001), independent of BMI SDS at entry. However, improvements in psychosocial well-being were also observed in those increasing their BMI SDS (n = 315). CONCLUSIONS: In a large group of children and youths, psychosocial well-being improved during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme...

  19. A livelihood intervention to improve economic and psychosocial well-being in rural Uganda: Longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Kakuhikire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV and poverty are inextricably intertwined in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic and livelihood intervention strategies have been suggested to help mitigate the adverse economic effects of HIV, but few intervention studies have focused specifically on HIV-positive persons. We conducted three pilot studies to assess a livelihood intervention consisting of an initial orientation and loan package of chickens and associated implements to create poultry microenterprises. We enrolled 15 HIV-positive and 22 HIV-negative participants and followed them for up to 18 months. Over the course of follow-up, participants achieved high chicken survival and loan repayment rates. Median monthly income increased, and severe food insecurity declined, although these changes were not statistically significant (P-values ranged from 0.11 to 0.68. In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of three HIV-positive participants identified a constellation of economic and psychosocial benefits, including improved social integration and reduced stigma.

  20. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: the multicentre, rater blinded, randomised Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F.B.; Buss, D.V.; Eckermann, A.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers.......To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers....

  1. A Descriptive Study of Sex Differences in Psychosocial Factors and Elder Mistreatment in a Chinese Community Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qi Dong

    2008-12-01

    Conclusion: The sociodemographic characteristics associated with EM differed between men and women. Lower levels of psychosocial measures were associated with EM in both men and women. Among those with EM, there are significant sex differences across these sociodemographic and psychosocial factors.

  2. Communicating psychosocial problems in German well-child visits. What facilitates, what impedes pediatric exploration? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippeit, Lorena; Belzer, Florian; Martens-Le Bouar, Heike; Mall, Volker; Barth, Michael

    2014-11-01

    To examine whether, and if so, how psychosocial topics are discussed between parents and pediatricians. Thirty well-child visits at eight pediatricians' practices in southwest Germany were video recorded. Conversations were analyzed. Although psychosocial topics were frequently touched upon, they were rarely thoroughly explored. Pediatricians pursued a rather reserved conversation style. Especially when parents withdraw and psychosocial stressors are less baby-related, pediatricians hardly explore the psychosocial situation. In summary, the pediatrician's conversation style, the nature of the stressors and the parents' openness are paramount in determining the depth of psychosocial exploration. In order to ensure a good and fair quality of care to all parents, pediatricians should be provided with tailored communicative skills training allowing them to create a climate in which parents may open up and build trust toward their pediatrician. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees, a 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Bo M; Boot, Cécile R L; Hoekstra, Trynke; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2018-01-01

    Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees' mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in mental health in older employees at 3-year follow-up. The current study used data from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM), in workers aged 45-65 years (n = 5249). Two-year (2010-2012) exposure was assessed for psychological demands, autonomy, support, mental load, and distributive justice. Linear regression analyses were performed to compare improved exposure to unfavourable psychosocial work factors with stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure and mental health at follow-up (2013), corrected for confounders. Analyses were stratified for age groups (45-54 and 55-65 years) and gender. In certain subgroups, stable unfavourable exposure to psychological demands, autonomy, support, and distributive justice was associated with a significantly lower mental health score than improved exposure. Stable favourable exposure to support was associated with a higher mental health score than improved support, whereas stable favourable exposure to autonomy was associated with a lower mental health score compared to improved exposure. There is a longitudinal association between changes in exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health. Improvement in unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors was associated with improved mental health. This is important information for organisations that consider deploying measures to improve the psychosocial work environment of older workers.

  4. Does routine psychosocial screening improve referral to psychosocial care providers and patient-radiotherapist communication? A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, Anna P B M; Lechner, Lilian; Eekers, Daniëlle B P; Houben, Ruud M A; van Gils, Francis C J M; Ambergen, Ton; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2013-11-01

    This study tests whether using a screening instrument improves referral to psychosocial care providers (e.g. psychologist) and facilitates patient-radiotherapist communication. A cluster randomized controlled trial was used. Fourteen radiotherapists were randomly allocated to the experimental or control group and 568 of their patients received care in accordance with the group to which their radiotherapist was allocated. Patients in the experimental group were asked to complete a screening instrument before and at the end of the radiation treatment period. All patients were requested to complete questionnaires concerning patient-physician communication after the first consultation and concerning psychosocial care 3 and 12 months post-intervention. Patients who completed the screening instrument were referred to social workers at an earlier stage than patients who did not (Pcommunication. Our results suggest that a simple screening procedure can be valuable for the timely treatment of psychosocial problems in patients. Future efforts should be directed at appropriate timing of screening and enhancing physicians' awareness regarding the importance of identifying, discussing and treating psychosocial problems in cancer patients. Psychosocial screening can be enhanced by effective radiotherapist-patient communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  6. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs

  7. Studying psychosocial adaptation to end-stage renal disease: the proximal-distal model of health-related outcomes as a base model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ramony; Brooks, Robert; Erlich, Jonathan; Gallagher, Martin; Snelling, Paul; Chow, Josephine; Suranyi, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Studying psychosocial adaptation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasingly important, as it may explain the variability in health outcomes unaccounted for by clinical factors. The Brenner et al. proximal-distal model of health-related outcomes provides a theoretical foundation for understanding psychosocial adaptation and integrating health outcomes, clinical, and psychosocial factors (Brenner MH, Curbow B, Legro MW. The proximal-distal continuum of multiple health outcome measures: the case of cataract surgery. Med Care. 1995;33(4 Suppl):AS236-44). This study aims to empirically validate the proximal-distal model in the dialysis population and examine the impact of psychosocial factors on the model. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with a sample of long-term dialysis patients (n=201). Eleven factors: quality of life (QoL), depression, positive affect, comorbidity, symptoms, physical functioning, disease accommodation, loss, self-efficacy, illness acceptance, and social support were measured by standardized psychometric scales. A three-month average of hemoglobin was used. Latent composite structural equation modeling was used to examine the models. The proximal-distal model with slight modification was supported by fit statistics [χ(2)=16.04, df=13, P=.25, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.024], indicating that the impact of clinical factors on QoL is mediated through a range of functional and psychological factors, except for hemoglobin which impacts directly on QoL. The model with additional psychosocial factors was also supported by fit statistics (χ(2)=43.59, df=41, P=.36, RMSEA=0.018). These additional factors mainly impact on symptom status, psychological states, and QoL components of the model. The present study supported the proximal-distal model in the dialysis population and demonstrated the considerable impact of psychosocial factors on the model. The proximal-distal model plus psychosocial factors as a

  8. Understanding the associations between psychosocial factors and severity of crime in juvenile delinquency: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkıran, Sarper; Mutluer, Tuba; Tufan, Ali Evren; Semerci, Bengi

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a serious and common problem. To date, several studies have focused on possible psychosocial risk factors for delinquency among youths and on the implications of childhood mental illness on child criminality. However, the literature on prevalence of psychopathology and predictors of crime severity among delinquent youths in Turkey is sparse. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show the associations between crime severity and psychosocial factors such as gender, age, criminal history, concomitant attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other comorbid psychiatric conditions, along with behavioral problem domains of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). This analytical cross-sectional study sample consisted of 52 individuals (30 females and 22 males) who were sent to a pilot detention facility in Istanbul, Turkey. The participants' age ranged from 8 to 18 years ( M =13.4; SD =2.9). Self-rating scales were administered in an interview format, and the crime severity information was provided by participants' admission documents. No differences were found in terms of gender, age, children's past history of crime and substance abuse. However, family crime history was significantly higher in the high severity crime group ( P =0.026). Having one or more comorbid psychiatric disorder was associated with high crime severity ( P =0.018). The most common psychiatric disorders were found to be ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorder. Findings suggest that a family history of crime comes across as a very strong predictor of severity of crime. Among psychiatric factors, ADHD and CD were associated with commitment of more severe crimes in delinquent youths in our sample. Anxious/depressed traits as depicted by CBCL are found to be associated with less severe crimes.

  9. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  10. "It's Like Power to Move": Black Students' Psychosocial Experiences in Black Studies Courses at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman-Hilliard, Collette; Beasley, Samuel T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined Black students' experiences in culture-centered courses that focused on the historical and contemporary experiences of Blacks in America and across the African diaspora. Using a qualitative approach, the authors investigated the perceptions of how Black Studies courses shaped the psychosocial experiences and identity…

  11. No effect on survival of home psychosocial intervention in a randomized study of Danish colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Boesen, Sidsel H

    2009-01-01

    social class and marital status. Likewise, no significant interactions were found between group and these covariates (all p>/=0.08). In the substudy of the possible effect of the intervention on immune parameters, there were no differences between the two groups with respect to lymphocyte proliferation...... or an intervention group. The intervention group received 10 home visits from a project nurse or a medical doctor during the first 2 years after discharge. The home visits aimed at providing emotional support and information. A subgroup of 55 patients provided blood samples 3, 12 and 24 months after discharge...... (all p>/=0.078) or natural killer cell activity (all p>/=0.33) and no consistent effect on the number of specific subsets of cells (phenotypes) during follow-up.Conclusion: The study failed to provide evidence that the psychosocial intervention provided as home visits significantly affected...

  12. Relationship of psychosocial risk factors, certain personality traits and myocardial infarction in Indians: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI. Materials and Methods: A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001. However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2, Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE over lifetime (P = 0.058 and subjective well-being (P = 0.987 were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001, dominant (P = 0.03, egoistic (P < 0.001 and introvert (P < 0.001 personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.

  13. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in abused children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshanpour, Firoozeh; Hajebi, Ahmad; Panaghi, Leili; Ahmadabadi, Zohre

    2017-01-01

    Background: Child abuse is a significant public health and social problem worldwide. It can be described as a failure to provide care and protection for children by the parents or other caregivers. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in abused children and their families. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the psychosocial support unit of a pediatric hospital in Bandar Abbas, Iran, from 2012 to 2013. The participants consisted of child abuse cases and their parents who referred to the psychosocial support unit to receive services. Services delivered in this unit included parenting skills training, psychiatric treatments, and supportive services. The effectiveness of the interventions was assessed with Child Abuse Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ). Participants were assessed at baseline, at 3, and 6 months follow-ups. ANOVA with repeated measures and Friedman test were used to evaluate the effect of the interventions. Results: A total of 68 children and their parents enrolled in this study, of whom 53% were males. Post-intervention follow-ups revealed significant changes in mothers' general health questionnaire (pchildren's conduct problem (pabuses significantly decreased (p<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that psychosocial interventions effectively improved child-parents interaction and mental health of parents. The effectiveness of interventions based on subgroup analysis and implications of the results have been discussed for further development of psychosocial interventions in the health system.

  14. Differences in the association between psychosocial work conditions and physical work load in female- and male-dominated occupations. MUSIC-Norrtälje Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, M; Pernold, G; Ahlberg-Hultén, G; Härenstam, A; Theorell, T; Vingård, E; Waldenström, M; Hjelm, E W

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated whether there is a relationship between high physical work load and adverse psychosocial work factors, and whether this relationship is different for women and men. Separate analyses for female registered nurses and assistant nurses were made because these are common occupations involving high physical and psychological demands. This study was part of the MUSIC-Norrtälje study, a population study with the overall aim of identifying risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. The respondents, 1423 gainfully employed men and women, were randomly selected from the study population. The exposure assessments referred to a typical workday during the previous 12 months. Physical exposure was investigated by interview, psychosocial work factors by interview and questionnaire. For the women, but not the men, mainly routine work and a job strain situation, according to the model of Karasek and Theorell, increased the probability of having a high physical work load, assessed as a time-weighted average of energy expenditure in multiples of the resting metabolic rate. Results indicated that in female-dominated occupations, high physical work load might also imply adverse psychosocial conditions. A higher frequency of high physical work load and job strain was observed among assistant nurses compared with registered nurses. Covariance between physical and psychosocial demands makes it difficult to determine the relative influence of each in health problems. Results of the present study imply that this is a larger problem in studies of women than men.

  15. Burnout and Hypocortisolism - A Matter of Severity? A Study on ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-01-01

    Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women) and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women), underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after, and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol, or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition, patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. However, there was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol. This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  16. Burnout and hypocortisolism – a matter of severity? A study on ACTH and cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin eLennartsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Methods: Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women, underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. Results: In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. There was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol however. Conclusion: This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  17. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  18. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  19. Changes in the psychosocial work characteristics and insulin resistance among Japanese male workers: a three-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Ayako; Inoue, Akiomi; Mafune, Kosuke; Nakagawa, Toru; Hayashi, Takeshi; Hiro, Hisanori

    2016-11-29

    This study investigated the impact of changes in psychosocial work characteristics on insulin resistance (IR) among Japanese male workers. Subjects were 1,815 male workers who received a comprehensive health examination and requested measurement of their serum insulin level in Fiscal Years (FY) 2008 and 2011. Psychosocial work characteristics, including job demands, job control, and workplace social support (from supervisors and coworkers), were assessed in each of the job demands-control and demand-control-support models. Psychosocial work characteristics were assessed by the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Changes in the psychosocial work characteristics were measured by creating a four-category variable for each of the psychosocial work characteristics: (1) stable low group, (2) increased group, (3) decreased group, and (4) stable high group. We defined IR as a value of 2.5 or more on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), or having a diagnosis of diabetes. A series of multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. The group experiencing a decrease in supervisor support had a significantly higher risk of having IR compared to the stable high group with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.44; 95% CI: 1.48-4.02. After adjusting for covariates, this significant association was unchanged; the OR was 2.19; 95% CI: 1.23-3.91. On the other hand, there was no significant association of changes in the psychosocial work characteristics, expect for decrease in supervisor support, with IR. A decrease in supervisor support was found to be an independent risk factor for worsening IR.

  20. Dyslexia and psycho-social functioning: an exploratory study of the role of self-esteem and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terras, Melody M; Thompson, Lucy C; Minnis, Helen

    2009-11-01

    Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Children. University of Denver, CO: Denver; 1985) and psycho-social adjustment using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 1997; 38: 581-586) and examined child and parent understanding, attitudes and the perceived impact of reading difficulties on daily life. Sixty-eight children assessed as dyslexic on the basis of discrepancy scores (mean age 11.2 years; 44 male), and their parents, participated. No global self-esteem deficit was found, but the mean score for both child and parent-rated scholastic competence was significantly lower than that of the general population. Rates of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties were significantly higher than in the general population and were correlated with self-esteem. For children who had high global self-worth, both children and their parents had more positive attitudes towards their reading difficulties and were less likely to perceive a negative impact on relationships. The association between academic self-esteem and emotional symptoms is consistent with the proposed link between dyslexia and internalizing difficulties. Good self-esteem and a good understanding of dyslexia may help children avoid some of these difficulties. Further research with larger more representative samples is necessary as understanding the factors that promote successful psycho-social adjustment is essential to the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies.

  1. Psychosocial influences on prisoner suicide: a case-control study of near-lethal self-harm in women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith; Rivlin, Adrienne; Fazel, Seena

    2011-03-01

    We examined the psychosocial influences on female prisoner suicide by carrying out a study of near-lethal self-harm. We interviewed 60 women prisoners who had recently engaged in near-lethal self-harm (cases) and 60 others who had never carried out near-lethal acts in prison (controls) from all closed female prison establishments in England and Wales, using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. We gathered information on socio-demographic and criminological variables, life events and childhood trauma, exposure to suicidal behaviour, contributory and precipitating factors for near-lethal self-harm, social support and psychological characteristics. While socio-demographic factors were only modestly associated with near-lethal self-harm, being on remand, in single cell accommodation, and reporting negative experiences of imprisonment were strong correlates. Recent life events and past trauma, including different forms of childhood abuse, were also significantly associated with near-lethal self-harm, as were a family history of suicide and high scores on measures of depression, aggression, impulsivity and hostility, and low levels of self-esteem and social support. Our findings underline the importance of both individual and prison-related factors for suicide in custody, and hence the need for a comprehensive approach to suicide prevention in women's prisons. Given the multiple needs of female prisoners at-risk of self-harm and suicide, complex psychosocial interventions are likely to be required, including interventions for abused and bereaved women, and initiatives to improve staff-prisoner relationships and reduce bullying. The findings of this research may provide insights into factors leading to suicidal behaviour in other forensic and institutional settings, such as detention centres and psychiatric hospitals, and may assist in developing suicide prevention policies for prisoners and other at-risk populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Psychosocial and contextual determinants of alcohol and drug use disorders in the National Latino and Asian American Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jeanne E; Mezuk, Briana

    2014-06-01

    In the U.S., Latino and Asian American immigrants and ethnic minorities may be at increased risk for alcohol and drug use disorders (AUDs/DUDs). The role of psychosocial and contextual characteristics as potential factors underlying this increased risk is unresolved. Participants include 4649 adults from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between acculturation, acculturative stress, neighborhood characteristics, family characteristics, and discrimination and AUDs/DUDs. Models were stratified by age of immigration and ethnicity and controlled for demographic and mental health characteristics. Overall, 9.6% of Latino and 4.1% of Asian participants met criteria for lifetime AUDs/DUDs. Acculturation, family conflict, and discrimination were positively associated with AUDs/DUDs (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals [95%CIs]: 1.80[1.54-2.09], 1.24[1.12-1.36], and 1.54[1.38-1.73]), while neighborhood safety and family cohesion were protective for AUDs/DUDs (ORs[95%CIs]: 0.75[0.66-0.85] and 0.79[0.69-0.90]). Acculturative stress and neighborhood cohesion were not related to AUDs/DUDs. The relationships between family conflict and family cohesion with AUDs/DUDs were attenuated after accounting for other psychosocial and contextual factors. These relationships were generally consistent across ethnic and age of immigration subgroups. Factors such as acculturation, discrimination, and neighborhood safety, are robustly and largely universally related to AUDs/DUDs among first and later generation Latino and Asian immigrants. Further research is required to understand how and why these factors relate to risk of substance misuse, and to identify ways to apply these factors in prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Earthquakes in El Salvador: a descriptive study of health concerns in a rural community and the clinical implications: Part III--Mental health and psychosocial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woersching, Joanna C; Snyder, Audrey E

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, the mountain town of San Sebastian, El Salvador experienced a series of earthquakes that affected the livelihood of its people. A convenience sample of 100 households of 594 inhabitants of San Sebastian and the surrounding rural farming areas was completed. One study participant for each household was evaluated for mental health and psychosocial changes after the earthquakes. The participant's questionnaire was used to investigate the relationship between physical health, access to health care, housing, food and water, and the occurrence of negative mental health markers six months after the disasters. Findings indicate that the majority (67%) of respondents experienced 6 or more mental health complaints. Risk factors associated with multiple negative mental health symptoms included change in household income and loss of job, a new illness or a new injury in the household, reliance on healthcare services since the earthquake, and managing a chronic illness. Findings indicate a need for rapid, acute mental health screening with at-risk groups and the need to educate the entire community regarding what medical and mental health treatments are available to reduce barriers to treatment and increase public awareness.

  4. The correlation between ostomy knowledge and self-care ability with psychosocial adjustment in Chinese patients with a permanent colostomy: a descriptive study .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Meng, Ai-feng; Yang, Li-Fang; Zhang, Yi-nan

    2013-07-01

    A colostomy can have a negative impact on patient quality of life. Research suggests that psychosocial adaptation is positively associated with quality of life, but few reports address this adaptation and its related factors in patients with a permanent colostomy. A 4-month, descriptive study was conducted to assess the impact of ostomy knowledge and ability to self-care on the psychosocial adjustment of 54 Chinese outpatients (47 men, 14 participants 40 to 50 years old, 40 participants 50 to 70 years old) with a permanent colostomy to investigate the correlation between stoma knowledge, self-care ability, and psychosocial adjustment. Assessment instruments included a sociodemographic data questionnaire and a Chinese translation of the Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 that comprises 20 items in three domains (positive emotions, negative emotions, and social life). Participants rated statements on a scale from 0 (totally disagree) to 4 (totally agree); a score of 40 indicates a low level of psychosocial adjustment. Participants also completed the Stoma-related Knowledge Scale, comprising 14 5-point Likert scale questions where low scores indicate low knowledge, and they answered one question regarding self-care ability. Data were analyzed using statistical software for social science. The average stoma-related knowledge score suggested moderate levels of knowledge (45.112 ± 13.358). Twenty (20) participants managed all stoma care aspects independently, 30 required some assistance, and four (4) required care by someone else. The three domains of psychosocial adjustment scores (positive emotions, negative emotions, and social life) were 17.60 ± 4.093,12.92 ± 3.440, and 19.15 ± 6.316, respectively. Knowledge and the three domains of psychosocial adjustment were positively correlated with positive emotion (r = .610, P = 0.001), negative emotion (r = .696, P = 0.000), and social life adjustment (r = .617, P = 0.001). A significant difference in psychosocial adjustment

  5. The influence of exercise training on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in children with congenital heart disease:A review of intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, K.; Helbing, W.A.; Utens, E.M.W.J.

    Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, associated with lowered quality of life. This review presents intervention studies on the influence of an exercise program on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in

  6. Impact of Burnout and Psychosocial Work Characteristics on Future Long-Term Sickness Absence. Prospective Results of the Danish PUMA Study Among Human Service Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bultmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Ingelise; Villadsen, Ebbe; Diderichsen, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and

  7. Psychosocial problems and barriers to improved diabetes management: results of the Cross-National Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyrot, M.; Rubin, R.R.; Lauritzen, T.; Snoek, F.J.; Matthews, D.R.; Skovlund, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine patient- and provider-reported psychosocial problems and barriers to effective self-care and resources for dealing with those barriers. Methods: Cross-sectional study using face-to-face or telephone interviews with diabetic patients and health-care providers in 13 countries in Asia,

  8. Systematic review of psychosocial outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeff; Watson, Maggie; Aitken, Joanne F; Hyde, Melissa K

    2017-11-01

    New advanced melanoma therapies are associated with improved survival; however, quality of survivorship, particularly psychosocial outcomes, for patients overall and those treated with newer therapies is unclear. Synthesize qualitative and quantitative evidence about psychosocial outcomes for advanced (stage III/IV) melanoma patients. Five databases were searched (01/01/1980 to 31/01/2016). Inclusion criteria were as follows: advanced melanoma patients or sub-group analysis; assessed psychosocial outcomes; and English language. Fifty-two studies met review criteria (4 qualitative, 48 quantitative). Trials comprise mostly medical not psychosocial interventions, with psychosocial outcomes assessed within broader quality of life measures. Patients receiving chemotherapy or IFN-alpha showed decreased emotional and social function and increased distress. Five trials of newer therapies appeared to show improvements in emotional and social function. Descriptive studies suggest that patients with advanced, versus localized disease, had decreased emotional and social function and increased distress. Contributors to distress were largely unexplored, and no clear framework described coping/adjustment trajectories. Patients with advanced versus localized disease had more supportive care needs, particularly amount, quality, and timing of melanoma-related information, communication with and emotional support from clinicians. Limitations included: lack of theoretical underpinnings guiding study design; inconsistent measurement approaches; small sample sizes; non-representative sampling; and cross-sectional design. Quality trial evidence is needed to clarify the impact of treatment innovations for advanced melanoma on patients' psychosocial well-being. Survivorship research and subsequent translation of that knowledge into programs and services currently lags behind gains in the medical treatment of advanced melanoma, a troubling circumstance that requires immediate and focused

  9. Psychosocial approach to endocrine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonino, Nicoletta; Tomba, Elena; Fava, Giovanni A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the psychosocial aspects of endocrine disease, such as the role of life stress in the pathogenesis of some conditions, their association with affective disorders, and the presence of residual symptoms after adequate treatment. In clinical endocrinology, exploration of psychosocial antecedents may elucidate the temporal relationships between life events and symptom onset, as it has been shown to be relevant for pituitary (Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia) or thyroid (Graves' disease) conditions, as well as the role of allostatic load, linked to chronic stress, in uncovering a person's vulnerability. After endocrine abnormalities are established, they are frequently associated with a wide range of psychological symptoms: at times, such symptoms reach the level of psychiatric illness (mainly mood and anxiety disorders); at other times, however, they can only be identified by the subclinical forms of assessment provided by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR). Indeed, in a population study, the majority of patients suffered from at least one of the three DCPR syndromes considered: irritable mood, demoralization, persistent somatization. In particular, irritable mood was found to occur in 46% of 146 patients successfully treated for endocrine conditions, a rate similar to that found in cardiology and higher than in oncology and gastroenterology. Long-standing endocrine disorders may imply a degree of irreversibility of the pathological process and induce highly individualized affective responses. In patients who showed persistence or even worsening of psychological distress upon proper endocrine treatment, the value of appropriate psychiatric interventions was underscored. As it happened in other fields of clinical medicine, a conceptual shift from a merely biomedical care to a psychosomatic consideration of the person and his/her quality of life appears to be necessary for improving

  10. The tense the hostile and the distressed : Multidimensional psychosocial risk profiles based on the ESC interview in coronary artery disease patients. The THORESCI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfort, E.M.J.; Denollet, J.; Vermunt, J.K.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Kupper, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background While single psychosocial factors have been associated with cardiovascular outcomes, it is still unclear how they cluster. Therefore, we examined whether latent multidimensional psychosocial risk profiles could be identified in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) psychosocial

  11. A randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of a STOMA psychosocial intervention programme on the outcomes of colorectal patients with a stoma: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Hoon; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Lai, Jiunn Herng; He, Hong-Gu

    2015-06-01

    To report a study protocol that evaluates the effects of a psychosocial intervention on patients with a newly formed stoma. With the loss of a significant body function and distorted body image, stoma patients experience physical, psychological and social challenges. Nurses have an important role in helping patients' make a smooth transition to living with their stoma. Limited studies have examined the effects of psychosocial interventions on improving stoma-related health outcomes. A randomized controlled trial is planned. Eighty-four patients with newly formed stoma in a tertiary hospital in Singapore (Research Ethics Committee approval obtained in January 2013) will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to either a control group who receive routine care or an intervention group who receive STOMA psychosocial intervention besides routine care. Outcome variables include stoma care self-efficacy, days to stoma proficiency, length of hospital stay, acceptance of stoma, anxiety and depression and quality of life. Data will be collected at four time points: before randomization and intervention (baseline), on the day of discharge (mid-intervention), at 4 weeks after discharge (postintervention 1) and at 4 months after discharge (postintervention 2). This study will develop a psychosocial intervention programme, which may improve patients' stoma-related outcomes. The findings will provide direction to health professionals about education and the type of support that could be offered to patients concerning stoma care in the hospital setting, which will eventually improve their quality of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in accident and emergency attenders suffering from psychosocial crises: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneseth, Mette; Alsaker, Kjersti; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2012-01-01

    Aims This paper is a report of a study of health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients attending an Accident and Emergency department because of psychosocial crises. Background Psychosocial crises are commonplace globally, but there is little knowledge about patients attending Accident and Emergency departments because of psychosocial crises. Methods Data were collected at an Accident and Emergency department in Norway from September 2008 to June 2009. A total of 99 adults participated in the baseline study and 41 of these participated at 2 months follow-up. The Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Post Traumatic Symptom Scale were used to obtain data. Findings Participants reported significantly lower scores in all health-related quality of life domains at baseline compared with the general Norwegian population. The mental health score was two standard deviations below the norm. Health-related quality of life scores were improved and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reduced after 2 months. High levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reported by 78% of the participants at baseline and 59% at follow-up. Participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at follow-up also reported low health-related quality of life scores. Conclusion This study suggests a need for an acute psychosocial intervention and an opportunity to receive follow-up support at Accident and Emergency departments. PMID:21740459

  13. Gene-by-Psychosocial Factor Interactions Influence Diastolic Blood Pressure in European and African Ancestry Populations: Meta-Analysis of Four Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Smith

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual variability in blood pressure (BP is influenced by both genetic and non-genetic factors including socioeconomic and psychosocial stressors. A deeper understanding of the gene-by-socioeconomic/psychosocial factor interactions on BP may help to identify individuals that are genetically susceptible to high BP in specific social contexts. In this study, we used a genomic region-based method for longitudinal analysis, Longitudinal Gene-Environment-Wide Interaction Studies (LGEWIS, to evaluate the effects of interactions between known socioeconomic/psychosocial and genetic risk factors on systolic and diastolic BP in four large epidemiologic cohorts of European and/or African ancestry. After correction for multiple testing, two interactions were significantly associated with diastolic BP. In European ancestry participants, outward/trait anger score had a significant interaction with the C10orf107 genomic region (p = 0.0019. In African ancestry participants, depressive symptom score had a significant interaction with the HFE genomic region (p = 0.0048. This study provides a foundation for using genomic region-based longitudinal analysis to identify subgroups of the population that may be at greater risk of elevated BP due to the combined influence of genetic and socioeconomic/psychosocial risk factors.

  14. Does a parental history of cancer moderate the associations between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems in teenagers: a HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Elisabeth; Bjelland, Ingvar; Fosså, Sophie D; Loge, Jon H; Sørebø, Oystein; Dahl, Alv A

    2014-08-01

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