WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychosocial stress indices

  1. Self-perceived stress reactivity is an indicator of psychosocial impairment at the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nater Urs M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work related stress is associated with a range of debilitating health outcomes. However, no unanimously accepted assessment tool exists for the early identification of individuals suffering from chronic job stress. The psychological concept of self-perceived stress reactivity refers to the individual disposition of a person to answer stressors with immediate as well as long lasting stress reactions, and it could be a valid indicator of current as well as prospective adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which perceived stress reactivity correlates with various parameters of psychosocial health, cardiovascular risk factors, and parameters of chronic stress and job stress in a sample of middle-aged industrial employees in a so-called "sandwich-position". Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 174 industrial employees were assessed for psychosocial and biological stress parameters. Differences between groups with high and low stress reactivity were analysed. Logistic regression models were applied to identify which parameters allow to predict perceived high versus low stress reactivity. Results In our sample various parameters of psychosocial stress like chronic stress and effort-reward imbalance were significantly increased in comparison to the normal population. Compared to employees with perceived low stress reactivity, those with perceived high stress reactivity showed poorer results in health-related complaints, depression, anxiety, sports behaviour, chronic stress, and effort-reward imbalance. The educational status of employees with perceived low stress reactivity is higher. Education, cardiovascular complaints, chronic stress, and effort-reward imbalance were moderate predictors for perceived stress reactivity. However, no relationship was found between stress reactivity and cardiovascular risk factors in our sample. Conclusions Job stress is a major burden in a relevant

  2. Self-perceived stress reactivity is an indicator of psychosocial impairment at the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Work related stress is associated with a range of debilitating health outcomes. However, no unanimously accepted assessment tool exists for the early identification of individuals suffering from chronic job stress. The psychological concept of self-perceived stress reactivity refers to the individual disposition of a person to answer stressors with immediate as well as long lasting stress reactions, and it could be a valid indicator of current as well as prospective adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which perceived stress reactivity correlates with various parameters of psychosocial health, cardiovascular risk factors, and parameters of chronic stress and job stress in a sample of middle-aged industrial employees in a so-called "sandwich-position". Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 174 industrial employees were assessed for psychosocial and biological stress parameters. Differences between groups with high and low stress reactivity were analysed. Logistic regression models were applied to identify which parameters allow to predict perceived high versus low stress reactivity. Results In our sample various parameters of psychosocial stress like chronic stress and effort-reward imbalance were significantly increased in comparison to the normal population. Compared to employees with perceived low stress reactivity, those with perceived high stress reactivity showed poorer results in health-related complaints, depression, anxiety, sports behaviour, chronic stress, and effort-reward imbalance. The educational status of employees with perceived low stress reactivity is higher. Education, cardiovascular complaints, chronic stress, and effort-reward imbalance were moderate predictors for perceived stress reactivity. However, no relationship was found between stress reactivity and cardiovascular risk factors in our sample. Conclusions Job stress is a major burden in a relevant subgroup of industrial

  3. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  4. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  5. Psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonas, Michael A; Lange, Nancy E; Celedón, Juan C

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview and discussion of recent epidemiologic and mechanistic studies of stress in relation to asthma incidence and morbidity. Recent findings suggest that stress, whether at the individual (i.e. epigenetics, perceived stress), family (i.e. prenatal maternal stress, early-life exposure, or intimate partner violence) or community (i.e. neighborhood violence; neighborhood disadvantage) level, influences asthma and asthma morbidity. Key recent findings regarding how psychosocial stress may influence asthma through Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, prenatal and postnatal maternal/caregiver stress, and community violence and deprivation are highlighted. New research illustrates the need to further examine, characterize, and address the influence of social and environmental factors (i.e. psychological stress) on asthma. Further, research and innovative methodologies are needed to characterize the relationship and pathways associated with stress at multiple levels to more fully understand and address asthma morbidity, and to design potential interventions, especially to address persistent disparities in asthma in ethnic minorities and economically disadvantaged communities.

  6. Psychosocial Indicators in North African Immigrant Women in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Rinaldo, Natascia; Caccialupi, Maria Giovanna; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2017-03-03

    The present research evaluated the psychosocial health and quality of life of North African (NA) immigrant women living in Italy. A survey of 205 NA-born and Italian-born women was carried out. Psychosocial, sociodemographic and migration data were collected. Anthropometric indices were computed by direct measurements of height, weight, waist and hip circumferences. Multivariate analysis showed that the main explanatory variable for all dimensions of psychosocial status was the migrant status. Other explanatory variables were educational level and number of children for psychological discomfort, and weight status for well-being, quality of life and stress. Anthropometric indices were explanatory variables for quality of life. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence of higher psychological stress and discomfort and lower well-being and quality of life in immigrant women. Public social support is necessary to control, maintain and improve the mental health outcomes of immigrant communities in the host country.

  7. Psychosocial stress and liver disease status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristin Constantin Vere; Costin Teodor Streba; Letitia Maria Streba; Alin Gabriel Ionescu; Felix Sima

    2009-01-01

    "Psychosocial stress" is an increasingly common concept in the challenging and highly-demanding modern society of today. Organic response to stress implicates two major components of the stress system,namely the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Stress is anamnestically reported by patients during the course of disease, usually accompanied by a decline in their overall health status. As the mechanisms involving glucocorticoids and catecholamines have been deciphered, and their actions on immune cell function deeper understood, it has become clear that stress has an impact on hepatic inflammatory response. An increasing number of articles have approached the link between psychosocial stress and the negative evolution of hepatic diseases. This article reviews a number of studies on both human populations and animal models performed in recent years, all linking stress, mainly of psychosocial nature, and the evolution of three important liver-related pathological entities: viral hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Psychosocial stress and inflammation in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, N D; Tarr, A J; Sheridan, J F

    2013-03-01

    Stress-induced immune dysregulation results in significant health consequences for immune related disorders including viral infections, chronic autoimmune disease, and tumor growth and metastasis. In this mini-review we discuss the sympathetic, neuroendocrine and immunologic mechanisms by which psychosocial stress can impact cancer biology. Both human and animal studies have shown the sympathetic and neuroendocrine responses to psychosocial stress significantly impacts cancer, in part, through regulation of inflammatory mediators. Psychosocial stressors stimulate neuroendocrine, sympathetic, and immune responses that result in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the subsequent regulation of inflammatory responses by immune cells. Social disruption (SDR) stress, a murine model of psychosocial stress and repeated social defeat, provides a novel and powerful tool to probe the mechanisms leading to stress-induced alterations in inflammation, tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. In this review, we will focus on SDR as an important model of psychosocial stress in understanding neural-immune mechanisms in cancer.

  9. [Psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, L; Müller-Kalthoff, T

    2002-10-01

    This article analyses drug-related deaths in the German Federal States of Bavaria (Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg counties) during 1999 and Baden-Wurttemberg (Stuttgart and Mannheim counties) during 1999 and in the first half of 2000. The persons who had been in contact with drug care services were studied for psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths. Epidemiological data from different sources (police, relatives, counselling centres, detoxification clinics, therapy and substitution treatment) were collated to estimate factors of psychosocial stress preceding drug deaths. The results in both Laender indicate high prevalence rates of a history of at least one non-fatal overdose (approx. 50%) or a suicide attempt (approx. 35%). More than 40% of the deceased had been suffering from at least one additional mental disorder, in most cases from depression. At least one critical life event (in most cases, a relapse) or a period of abstinence (i.e., due to imprisonment, therapy or detoxification) during the past three months before death was reported for more than half of the addicts. The results were discussed in the light of data on opiate users and the general population. Improved specialist training of therapeutic and medical workers as well as of any other co-operating professionals is considered a necessary prerequisite for an early detection of risk factors.

  10. Monitoring psychosocial stress at work: development of the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerszal-Bazyl, M; Cieślak, R

    2000-01-01

    Many studies on the impact of psychosocial working conditions on health prove that psychosocial stress at work is an important risk factor endangering workers' health. Thus it should be constantly monitored like other work hazards. The paper presents a newly developed instrument for stress monitoring called the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC). Its structure is based on Robert Karasek's model of job stress (Karasek, 1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990). It consists of 3 main scales Job Demands, Job Control, Social Support and 2 additional scales adapted from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (Elo, Leppanen, Lindstrom, & Ropponen, 1992), Well-Being and Desired Changes. The study of 8 occupational groups (bank and insurance specialists, middle medical personnel, construction workers, shop assistants, government and self-government administration officers, computer scientists, public transport drivers, teachers, N = 3,669) indicates that PWC has satisfactory psychometrics parameters. Norms for the 8 groups were developed.

  11. Effects of orthostasis on endocrine responses to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M; Ditzen, Beate; Strahler, Jana; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-12-01

    Standardized psychological procedures have been designed to induce physiological stress responses. However, the impact of standing (orthostasis) on the physiological reaction after psychological stress remains unclear. The purpose of the current analysis was to examine and quantify the relative contribution of orthostasis to the physiological stress response by comparing a "standing with stress" to a "standing without stress" condition. We investigated the effect of standing with and without stress on responses of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using a standardized psychosocial stress protocol (Trier Social Stress Test) and a non-stress condition in a repeated measures design. Subjects (N=30) were exposed to both conditions in randomized order and had to maintain a standing, upright position for 10minutes. In the "standing with stress" condition, significant increases in repeatedly assessed plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EP), as well as in saliva cortisol were found, while in the "standing without stress" condition, no significant changes in plasma epinephrine and saliva cortisol were observed. Calculations of the relative contribution of orthostasis to physiological stress responses revealed that 25.61% of the NE increase, 82.94% of the EP increase, and 68.91% of the cortisol increase, could be attributed to psychosocial stress adjusted for the effects of orthostasis and basal endocrine output. Although these results are indicative for a marked endocrine reaction that is caused by psychosocial stress alone, our findings show that the contribution of orthostasis must be taken into account when interpreting endocrine data collected in a psychosocial stress test.

  12. Psychosocial stress of the building construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tiwary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry plays a vital role in development of infrastructure of a country. About 50% of the subjects of unorganised sector belonged to construction industry in our country. The questionnaire based cross sectional prospective study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status and the psychosocial stress & strain faced by the workers due to occupational exposure. The average age of the workers was 30.6±10.9 years. Majority of them (79.2% were literates and earned below Rs 5000/-. About 59% were smokers and 37% consumed alcohol. The mean duration of present occupational exposure was 8.6±8.0 years. The workers were victim of different health impairment like occupational health hazards, psychosocial stress & strain etc. The psychosocial stress & strain were due to long working hours (73.3%, lower wages (60.4%, job uncertainty (56.9%, poor communication among workers with supervisors (22.7%. Exploitation by labour contractor, gender discrimination, sexual harassment was observed. Low job satisfaction (42.4%, injuries & accidents (47% were also reported. About 94.6% of the workers were not aware of the different social security schemes. This occupationally exposed group of workers were victims of different psychosocial stresses & strains and other health impairments.

  13. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    metabolomic profiling of women with and without post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to derive a signature of chronic stress and then apply that metabolomic...noted that phobic anxiety and social isolation were suggestively associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer (hazard ratios of 1.14 and 1.24...TERMS ovarian cancer, psychosocial stress, depression, anxiety , social support, metabolomics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  14. Novel biochemical markers of psychosocial stress in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Asberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, epidermal growth factor (EGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total tri-iodothyronine (TT3, total thyroxine (TT4, prolactin, and testosterone were measured in: 195 women on long-term sick-leave for a stress-related affective disorder, 45 women at risk for professional burnout, and 84 healthy women. RESULTS: We found significantly increased levels of MCP-1, VEGF and EGF in women exposed to prolonged psychosocial stress. Statistical analysis indicates that they independently associate with a significant risk for being classified as ill. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1, EGF, and VEGF are potential markers for screening and early intervention in women under prolonged psychosocial stress.

  15. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often

  16. Effect of chronic psychosocial stress on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Barbara; Neumann, Inga D; Müller, Martina; Reber, Stefan O; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which may progress towards inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)). NAFLD is regarded as a consequence of a sedentary, food-abundant lifestyle which, in the modern world, often coincides with chronically high levels of perceived psychosocial stress. Here, we aimed to characterize the effect of chronic psychosocial stress on the development of NAFLD/NASH in male mice either fed with standard chow or NASH-inducing high fat diet. Chronic psychosocial stress was induced by chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), a pre-clinically validated paradigm relevant for human affective and somatic disorders. Single housed (SHC) mice served as controls. Under standard chow conditions CSC mice revealed lower hepatic triglyceride levels but higher hepatic TNFα, MCP-1 and HMOX mRNA expression, while serum transaminase levels did not significantly differ from SHC mice. Under the NASH-inducing high-fat diet CSC and SHC mice showed similar body weight-gain and serum levels of glucose and adiponectin. Moreover, liver histology as well as TNFα, MCP-1 and HMOX expression were similar in CSC and SHC mice fed with HFD. Surprisingly, CSC showed even significantly lower transaminase levels than SHC mice fed with the same NASH-inducing diet. Together, these data indicate that under normal dietary conditions the CSC model induces noticeable hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation without causing manifest hepatocellular injury. In contrast, CSC exhibited a protective effect on hepatocellular injury in a dietary NASH-model. Identification of the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon may lead to novel therapeutic strategies to prevent progression of NAFLD.

  17. Psychosocial Stress and Sport Injuries in Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Blas Redondo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived social stress and its relation to sports injuries in tennis players. Sixty-three male tennis players, with a mean age of 31.62 years (SD = 8.93, Sports Clubs belonging to the Province of Alicante (Spain completed instruments of psychosocial stress and injuries sustained during the previous year the assessment. The results indicate that life events experienced was related to some of the injuries suffered by players. Relationships were found between the degree of psychological stress experienced and the negative evaluation of this strain, the type (lesions on wrists, ankles and sprains, and severity of injuries (minor injuries.

  18. Stimulation of systemic low-grade inflammation by psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    Psychosocial stress is an important precursor of disease and reduced quality of life in humans. The biological pathways between stress exposure and pathophysiological processes underlying disease have received substantial scientific attention, although the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system remain insufficiently understood. Recent attention has focused on chronic systemic low-grade inflammation as a promising pathway because elevated inflammation often accompanies chronic psychosocial distress. These alterations of inflammatory activity play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases that are adversely affected by chronic distress, such as cardiovascular disease. Transient increases in systemic inflammation are observed in response to acute psychosocial stress, with larger responses among individuals reporting adverse psychosocial states or conditions such as depression, lower self-esteem, or lower self-compassion. Recent evidence shows that lower subjective social status and perceived purpose in life are associated with sensitization of inflammatory stress responses to repeated stress exposure. The aims of this selective review article are to summarize current knowledge of the role of acute and chronic psychosocial stress on low-grade inflammation in humans and to discuss potential relationships between inflammatory responses to acute psychosocial stress and long-term development of disease.

  19. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  20. Urticarial dermographism: clinical features and response to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallengren, Joanna; Isaksson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Studies report that urticarial dermographism is exacerbated by "life events" and emotions. The aim of this study was to determine what aspects of life quality are affected by symptomatic dermographism and whether acute stress is a potential triggering factor. A total of 21 adult patients with urticarial dermographism completed a questionnaire on symptoms and quality of life. Twelve patients agreed to enrol in the study, which involved provocation by prick test and dermographism before and after a standardized psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test). Seventeen age-matched controls underwent corresponding tests. Of the patients answering the questionnaire, 43% reported that their disease had an impact on their quality of life and 33% that psychosocial stress precipitated the symptoms. However, the dermographic reaction in patients with urticaria factitia was not significantly intensified after the stress test. We conclude that the acute psychosocial stress test does not alter the magnitude of the dermographic reactions.

  1. Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers’ representative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a data set of works councils of trade union IG Metal, this paper investigates psychosocial stress and strain on this specific group in comparison to employees working in administration in general (leadership and non-leadership-role and a national reference value. Methods For assessing psychosocial work factors on works councils within the sector represented by the trade union IG Metal in Germany, a research by using the German standard version of COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was performed. The instrument includes 87 single items forming 25 aspects of strain and stress. Results from the study group of works councils were compared to those from employees working in administration and to the general population mean (COPSOQ database. Statistical analysis included t-tests, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of means. To be significant in terms of statistics, p Results All in all, 309 works councils from a national survey of the German chemical and metalworking industries took part in the study. 113 were full-time works council members (exempted from the duty to perform their regular work, 196 were voluntary members (acting as employee representatives on an honorary basis alongside their normal duties. Comparison between works councils and employees working in administration (leadership roles (N=1810 and non-leadership roles (N=2970 and for employees in general (N=35.000 showed unfavourable values for works councils for most scales. Significantly higher values indicating higher strain and stress were found for the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were obtained for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health. Favourable findings were found on the scales: influence at work, quantity of social relations and the partly positive values for quantitative

  2. The estrous cycle of the ewe is resistant to disruption by repeated, acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Tilbrook, Alan J; Karsch, Fred J

    2010-06-01

    Five experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that psychosocial stress interferes with the estrous cycle of sheep. In experiment 1, ewes were repeatedly isolated during the follicular phase. Timing, amplitude, and duration of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge were not affected. In experiment 2, follicular-phase ewes were subjected twice to a "layered stress" paradigm consisting of sequential, hourly application of isolation, restraint, blindfold, and predator cues. This reduced the LH pulse amplitude but did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 3, different acute stressors were given sequentially within the follicular phase: food denial plus unfamiliar noises and forced exercise, layered stress, exercise around midnight, and transportation. This, too, did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 4, variable acute psychosocial stress was given every 1-2 days for two entire estrous cycles; this did not disrupt any parameter of the cycle monitored. Lastly, experiment 5 examined whether the psychosocial stress paradigms of experiment 4 would disrupt the cycle and estrous behavior if sheep were metabolically stressed by chronic food restriction. Thirty percent of the food-restricted ewes exhibited deterioration of estrous cycle parameters followed by cessation of cycles and failure to express estrous behavior. However, disruption was not more evident in ewes that also encountered psychosocial stress. Collectively, these findings indicate the estrous cycle of sheep is remarkably resistant to disruption by acute bouts of psychosocial stress applied intermittently during either a single follicular phase or repeatedly over two estrous cycles.

  3. Early Psychosocial Stress Predicts Extra-Pair Copulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Koehler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheating on a mate, known as an extra-pair copulation (EPC, is considered unacceptable by most individuals. Nonetheless many individuals engage in such risky behaviors. Because individuals with high, as opposed to low, levels of early psychosocial stress are more risk prone and more likely to engage in opportunistic matings, we predicted that individuals reporting EPCs, one of many types of opportunistic mating (e.g., one-night stand, consecutive short-term relationships etc, have higher levels of early psychosocial stress than those who do not. Two types of EPCs were examined: EPC-self (EPC-S, having sex with someone other than one's mate, and EPC-other (EPC-O, having sex with someone else's mate. In a sample of 229 women and 161 men, significantly higher levels of early psychosocial stress were found amongst those reporting an EPC-S than those reporting none, irrespective of EPC-Os. Furthermore, the more EPC-Ss men, but not women, reported the higher their early psychosocial stress. Early psychosocial stress was not associated with EPC-Os irrespective of EPC-Ss. Participants were also classified into one of four groups (no EPCs, EPC-O only, EPC-S only, or EPC-S&O which significantly interacted with early psychosocial stress. Results are discussed from adaptationist and mechanist perspectives and why early psychosocial stress was higher in individuals reporting EPC-Ss irrespective of EPC-Os, but not EPC-Os irrespective of EPC-Ss, than those not reporting the EPC of interest.

  4. environmental stress indicators system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Therefore, if proper measures are not adopted in time, the current weak sustainability will lead ... land area as a transit basis for the carrying capacity of productivity and ..... results we know that environmental stress grew synchronously with ...

  5. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "bes

  6. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "bes

  7. Stressful Segregation Housing and Psychosocial Vulnerability in Prison Suicide Ideators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    Psychosocially vulnerable prisoners under stressful conditions of confinement are ill prepared to cope and at risk for developing suicide intention. The present study examined the relationships of depression, hopelessness, reasons for living, mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and stressful segregation housing with…

  8. Associations of Psychosocial Factors with the Stress of Infertility Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Myra G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial factors thought to be associated with perceived stress over the course of infertility treatment. The research was based on secondary analysis of data from the Study of Marriage, Family, and Life Quality with a sample of 128 people who completed an infertility-related stress instrument at all three measurement…

  9. Mitochondrial Gene Expression Profiles Are Associated with Maternal Psychosocial Stress in Pregnancy and Infant Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Luca; Chen, Jia; Nomura, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions mediate through the placenta and shape the fetal brain development. Between the environmental determinants of the fetal brain, maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy has been shown to negatively influence the infant temperament development. This in turn may have adverse consequences on the infant neurodevelopment extending throughout the entire life-span. However little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms of the effects of maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy on infant temperament. Environmental stressors such as maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy activate the stress response cascade that in turn drives the increase in the cellular energy demand of vital organs with high metabolic rates such as, in pregnancy, the placenta. Key players of the stress response cascade are the mitochondria. Here, we tested the expression of all 13 protein-coding genes encoded by the mitochondria in 108 placenta samples from the Stress in Pregnancy birth cohort, a study that aims at determining the influence of in utero exposure to maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy on infant temperament. We showed that the expression of the protein-coding mitochondrial-encoded gene MT-ND2 was positively associated with indices of maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy including Prenatal Perceived Stress (β = 0.259; p-regression = 0.004; r2-regression = 0.120), State Anxiety (β = 0.218; p-regression = 0.003; r2-regression = 0.153), Trait Anxiety (β = 0.262; p-regression = 0.003; r2-regression = 0.129) and Pregnancy Anxiety Total (β = 0.208; p-regression = 0.010; r2-regression = 0.103). In the meantime MT-ND2 was negatively associated with the infant temperament indices of Activity Level (β = -0.257; p-regression = 0.008; r2-regression = 0.165) and Smile and Laughter (β = -0.286; p-regression = 0.036; r2-regression = 0.082). Additionally, MT-ND6 was associated with the maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy index of Prenatal

  10. Enhanced emotional empathy after psychosocial stress in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.

  11. Psychosocial stress and obesity among children residing in Kaunas City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Petraviciene, Inga; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute

    2017-08-01

    An unfavorable psychosocial environment has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity among children. However, the available evidence on the association of low socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships with childhood obesity is scarce. The aim of our study was to conduct a simultaneous evaluation of the risks associated with pathological mother-child relationships, education level, and overweight/obesity among 4-6 year-old children. This cross-sectional study included 1489 mother-child pairs living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The Parenting Stress Index was measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children's overweight/obesity was defined as the body mass index ≥18kg/m(2). Logistic regression models as well as crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to indicate the strength of the associations between childhood overweight/obesity, maternal education level, and psychosocial stress. The percentage of children with overweight/obesity rose with an increasing Parenting Stress Index score. The percentage of children with overweight/obesity in the group of parents with better education and normal mother-child relations was 6.0%, while in the group of less educated parents and pathological mother-child relations, this percentage reached 13.9%. The stratified multivariable model showed that, with reference to the group of better educated parents and normal mother-child relations, lower education level and pathological mother-child relations were statistically significant risk factors for overweight/obesity in 4-6 year-old children, increasing the OR of overweight/obesity (aOR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.31-4.51). Pathological mother-child relations and maternal smoking mediated the effect of low maternal education level on children's BMI z-scores. Pathological mother-child relations, lower parental education levels, and smoking may be predictors of children's overweight/obesity. Measures

  12. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system.

  13. Psychosocial stress experience and DNA methylation in humans - implications for stress-adaptation and -resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Unternaehrer, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Psychosocial stress, especially early in life, is a risk factor for mental disorders. Recent evidence suggests that stress-related changes in epigenetic patterns, including DNA methylation, could mediate this association. Aim: to examine a potential association between psychosocial stress exposure and DNA methylation of two stress-related genes: the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Methods: We investigated DNA methylation i...

  14. Psychosocial versus physiological stress - Meta-analyses on deactivations and activations of the neural correlates of stress reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Müller, Veronika I; Chang, Amy; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Gur, Ruben C; Derntl, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    Stress is present in everyday life in various forms and situations. Two stressors frequently investigated are physiological and psychosocial stress. Besides similar subjective and hormonal responses, it has been suggested that they also share common neural substrates. The current study used activation-likelihood-estimation meta-analysis to test this assumption by integrating results of previous neuroimaging studies on stress processing. Reported results are cluster-level FWE corrected. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the anterior insula (AI) were the only regions that demonstrated overlapping activation for both stressors. Analysis of physiological stress showed consistent activation of cognitive and affective components of pain processing such as the insula, striatum, or the middle cingulate cortex. Contrarily, analysis across psychosocial stress revealed consistent activation of the right superior temporal gyrus and deactivation of the striatum. Notably, parts of the striatum appeared to be functionally specified: the dorsal striatum was activated in physiological stress, whereas the ventral striatum was deactivated in psychosocial stress. Additional functional connectivity and decoding analyses further characterized this functional heterogeneity and revealed higher associations of the dorsal striatum with motor regions and of the ventral striatum with reward processing. Based on our meta-analytic approach, activation of the IFG and the AI seems to indicate a global neural stress reaction. While physiological stress activates a motoric fight-or-flight reaction, during psychosocial stress attention is shifted towards emotion regulation and goal-directed behavior, and reward processing is reduced. Our results show the significance of differentiating physiological and psychosocial stress in neural engagement. Furthermore, the assessment of deactivations in addition to activations in stress research is highly recommended.

  15. Psychosocial Stress and Brain Function in Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Erin Burke; Cattrell, Anna; Jia, Tianye; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Brühl, Rüdiger; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Vetter, Nora C; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Buitelaar, Jan K; Happé, Francesca; Loth, Eva; Barker, Edward D; Schumann, Gunter

    2017-08-01

    The authors sought to explore how conduct, hyperactivity/inattention, and emotional symptoms are associated with neural reactivity to social-emotional stimuli, and the extent to which psychosocial stress modulates these relationships. Participants were community adolescents recruited as part of the European IMAGEN study. Bilateral amygdala regions of interest were used to assess the relationship between the three symptom domains and functional MRI neural reactivity during passive viewing of dynamic angry and neutral facial expressions. Exploratory functional connectivity and whole brain multiple regression approaches were used to analyze how the symptoms and psychosocial stress relate to other brain regions. In response to the social-emotional stimuli, adolescents with high levels of conduct or hyperactivity/inattention symptoms who had also experienced a greater number of stressful life events showed hyperactivity of the amygdala and several regions across the brain. This effect was not observed with emotional symptoms. A cluster in the midcingulate was found to be common to both conduct problems and hyperactivity symptoms. Exploratory functional connectivity analyses suggested that amygdala-precuneus connectivity is associated with hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. The results link hyperactive amygdala responses and regions critical for top-down emotional processing with high levels of psychosocial stress in individuals with greater conduct and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. This work highlights the importance of studying how psychosocial stress affects functional brain responses to social-emotional stimuli, particularly in adolescents with externalizing symptoms.

  16. Transcranial electrical stimulation modifies the neuronal response to psychosocial stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Andrea; Fischer, Thomas; Saiote, Catarina; Miller, Robert; Chaieb, Leila; Wang, Danny J J; Plessow, Franziska; Paulus, Walter; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2014-08-01

    Stress is a constant characteristic of everyday life in our society, playing a role in triggering several chronic disorders. Therefore, there is an ongoing need to develop new methods in order to manage stress reactions. The regulatory function of right medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is frequently reported by imaging studies during psychosocial stress situations. Here, we examined the effects of inhibitory and excitatory preconditioning stimulation via cathodal and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on psychosocial stress related behavioral indicators and physiological factors, including the cortisol level in the saliva and changes in brain perfusion. Twenty minutes real or sham tDCS was applied over the right mPFC of healthy subjects before the performance of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured during stimulation and after TSST, using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL). Comparing the effect of the different stimulation conditions, during anodal stimulation we found higher rCBF in the right mPFC, compared to the sham and in the right amygdala, superior PFC compared to the cathodal condition. Salivary cortisol levels showed a decrease in the anodal and increase in cathodal groups after completion of the TSST. The behavioral stress indicators indicated the increase of stress level, however, did not show any significant differences among groups. In this study we provide the first insights into the neuronal mechanisms mediating psychosocial stress responses by prefrontal tDCS.

  17. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often pr

  18. Psychosocial stress in pregnancy and preterm birth: associations and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gabriel D; Fraser, William D; Frasch, Martin G; Séguin, Jean R

    2013-11-01

    Psychosocial stress during pregnancy (PSP) is a risk factor of growing interest in the etiology of preterm birth (PTB). This literature review assesses the published evidence concerning the association between PSP and PTB, highlighting established and hypothesized physiological pathways mediating this association. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the keywords "psychosocial stress", "pregnancy", "pregnancy stress", "preterm", "preterm birth", "gestational age", "anxiety", and "social support". After applying the exclusion criteria, the search produced 107 articles. The association of PSP with PTB varied according to the dimensions and timing of PSP. Stronger associations were generally found in early pregnancy, and most studies demonstrating positive results found moderate effect sizes, with risk ratios between 1.2 and 2.1. Subjective perception of stress and pregnancy-related anxiety appeared to be the stress measures most closely associated with PTB. Potential physiological pathways identified included behavioral, infectious, neuroinflammatory, and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Future research should examine the biological pathways of these different psychosocial stress dimensions and at multiple time points across pregnancy. Culture-independent characterization of the vaginal microbiome and noninvasive monitoring of cholinergic activity represent two exciting frontiers in this research.

  19. Chronic psychosocial stress induces visceral hyperalgesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramullas, Mónica; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2012-05-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence has shown that chronic stress plays an important role in the onset and/or exacerbation of symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we aimed to investigate whether exposure to a chronic and temporally unpredictable psychosocial stressor alters visceral and somatic nociception as well as anxiety-related behaviour. In male C57BL/6J mice, chronic stress was induced by repeated exposure to social defeat (SD, 2 h) and overcrowding (OC, 24 h) during 19 consecutive days. Visceral and somatic nociception was evaluated by colorectal distension and a hot plate, respectively. The social interaction test was used to assess social anxiety. Mice exposed to psychosocial stress developed visceral hyperalgesia and somatic hypoalgesia 24 h following the last stress session. SD/OC mice also exhibited social anxiety-like behaviour. All these changes were also associated with physiological alterations, measured as a decreased faecal pellet output and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disruption. Taken together, these data confirm that this mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress may be useful for studies on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such stress-associated disorders and to further test potential therapies.

  20. Functional impairment, stress, and psychosocial intervention in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J

    2011-12-01

    The longitudinal course of bipolar disorder (BD) is highly impairing. This article reviews recent research on functional impairment in the course of BD, the roles of social and intrafamilial stress in relapse and recovery, and the role of adjunctive psychosocial interventions in reducing risk and enhancing functioning. Comparative findings in adult and childhood BD are highlighted. Life events and family-expressed emotion have emerged as significant predictors of the course of BD. Studies of social information processing suggest that impairments in the recognition of facial emotions may characterize both adult- and early-onset bipolar patients. Newly developed psychosocial interventions, particularly those that focus on family and social relationships, are associated with more rapid recovery from episodes and better psychosocial functioning. Family-based psychoeducational approaches are promising as early interventions for children with BD or children at risk of developing the disorder. For adults, interpersonal therapy, mindfulness-based strategies, and cognitive remediation may offer promise in enhancing functioning.

  1. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM forward and WM backward) and a DR memory task first during a control condition, and 1 week later during a stress challenge. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were assessed during the challenge. Only WM backward performance declined over conditions. Correlations between physiological stress responses and performance within the stress challenge were present only for WM forward and DR. For WM forward, higher cortisol responses were related to better performance. For DR, there was an inverted U-shape relation between cortisol responses and performance, as well as a cortisol × sAA interaction, with concurrent high or low responses related to optimal performance. This emphasizes the importance of including curvilinear and interaction effects when relating physiology to memory.

  2. Psychosocial work environment, stress factors and individual characteristics among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tuvesson; Mona, Eklund

    2014-01-20

    The psychosocial work environment is an important factor in psychiatric in-patient care, and knowing more of its correlates might open up new paths for future workplace interventions. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate perceptions of the psychosocial work environment among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care and how individual characteristics--Mastery, Moral Sensitivity, Perceived Stress, and Stress of Conscience--are related to different aspects of the psychosocial work environment. A total of 93 nursing staff members filled out five questionnaires: the QPSNordic 34+, Perceived Stress Scale, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and Mastery scale. Multivariate analysis showed that Perceived Stress was important for Organisational Climate perceptions. The Stress of Conscience subscale Internal Demands and Experience in current units were indicators of Role Clarity. The other Stress of Conscience subscale, External Demands and Restrictions, was related to Control at Work. Two types of stress, Perceived Stress and Stress of Conscience, were particularly important for the nursing staff's perception of the psychosocial work environment. Efforts to prevent stress may also contribute to improvements in the psychosocial work environment.

  3. Psychosocial Work Environment, Stress Factors and Individual Characteristics among Nursing Staff in Psychiatric In-Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvesson Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychosocial work environment is an important factor in psychiatric in-patient care, and knowing more of its correlates might open up new paths for future workplace interventions. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate perceptions of the psychosocial work environment among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care and how individual characteristics—Mastery, Moral Sensitivity, Perceived Stress, and Stress of Conscience—are related to different aspects of the psychosocial work environment. A total of 93 nursing staff members filled out five questionnaires: the QPSNordic 34+, Perceived Stress Scale, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and Mastery scale. Multivariate analysis showed that Perceived Stress was important for Organisational Climate perceptions. The Stress of Conscience subscale Internal Demands and Experience in current units were indicators of Role Clarity. The other Stress of Conscience subscale, External Demands and Restrictions, was related to Control at Work. Two types of stress, Perceived Stress and Stress of Conscience, were particularly important for the nursing staff’s perception of the psychosocial work environment. Efforts to prevent stress may also contribute to improvements in the psychosocial work environment.

  4. The impact of psychosocial stress on healthy skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, H J A; Momen, S E; Kleyn, C E

    2015-07-01

    Dermatologists are only too aware of the significant role psychosocial stress plays in the exacerbation of skin disease; indeed, it is often the first precipitant patients mention when they attend outpatient clinics. Of late, research has focused on understanding the 'brain-skin' axis, a complex interplay between the nervous and immune systems and the skin. In particular, there is an evolving body of literature exploring the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms by which psychosocial stress influences skin homeostasis. This article provides a broad overview of the literature, emphasizing the importance of individual stress perception and summarizing the varied roles of the major cutaneous stress-response pathways. Both central [the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the locus ceruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) sympathetic adrenomedullary system] and peripheral (the intracutaneous HPA axis and the release of mediators from peripheral sensory and autonomic nerves) pathways are discussed. Moreover, how activation of these pathways affects the skin's immune system, barrier function, wound healing and susceptibility to infection is reviewed. Although this field of research is rapidly expanding, several important questions remain unanswered, including: what is the precise role of mast cells in the cutaneous stress response?; what is the role of regulatory T-cells?; can therapeutic intervention be harnessed to prevent the stress-induced exacerbation of skin disease? It is anticipated that an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which psychosocial stress affects the homeostasis of healthy skin will not only increase knowledge of the brain-skin axis but will also improve the holistic management of stress-responsive cutaneous disease.

  5. Post-learning psychosocial stress enhances consolidation of neutral stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Diana; Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-10-01

    Post-learning stress has been reported to enhance memory consolidation in humans. This effect was observed in studies using physical stressors or an anticipatory speech task. In the present study 58 participants (28 females and 30 males) were exposed to a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition following the presentation of neutral and emotionally arousing positive and negative pictures, which were accompanied by a brief narrative. The stressor induced a significant neuroendocrine stress response in men and women. In a 24h delayed free recall test the stress group showed an enhanced memory for neutral but not for emotionally arousing positive and negative items. Additionally, a significant correlation between the cortisol stress response and memory for neutral items was evident. Thus, in contrast to previous studies, post-learning stress primarily enhanced consolidation of neutral material. Several theoretical and methodological explanations for the observed effects are discussed.

  6. Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakers, Florian; Rupprecht, Sven; Dreiling, Michelle; Bergmeier, Christoph; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias

    2017-02-22

    Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). However, cortisol alone cannot fully explain all effects of maternal stress especially during early to mid pregnancy before maturation of the fetal HPAA has even begun and expression of fetal glucocorticoid receptors is limited. This review focuses on mediators of maternal fetal stress transfer that in addition to cortisol have been proposed as transmitters of maternal stress: catecholamines, cytokines, serotonin/tryptophan, reactive-oxygen-species and the maternal microbiota. We propose that the effects of psychosocial maternal stress on fetal development and health and disease in later life are not a consequence of a single pathway but are mediated by multiple stress-transfer mechanisms acting together in a synergistic manner.

  7. Psychosocial Determinants of Chronic Stress in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-22

    and mental exhaustion ( Maslach , 1979; Pines & Aronson, 1980). Signs of physical exhaustion are chronic fatigue, weakness, and weariness. Accident...studies of nurses on the cumulative effects of dealing repeatedly with suffering and death of patients have not been done (Davidson & Jackson , 1985). It... Maslach , C. ~1979). The burn-out syndrome and patient care. In c. G~rf1eld (Ed.), Stress and survival (pp. 111-120). St. LOU1S! Mosby. Maslach , .c

  8. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  9. Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Sabrina; Piel, Marcel; Wolf, Oliver T

    2005-03-16

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to modulate memory in animals and humans. One popular model suggests that stress or GC treatment enhances memory consolidation while impairing delayed memory retrieval. Studies in humans have documented that treatment with GCs impairs delayed memory retrieval. Similar alterations after exposure to stress have not been observed thus far. In the present study, 19 young healthy male subjects were exposed to either a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition in a crossover manner. After both treatments, retrieval of a word list (learned 24 h earlier) containing 10 neutral, 10 negative, and 10 positive words was tested. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol and a decrease in mood. Memory retrieval (free recall) was significantly impaired after the stress condition. Follow-up analysis revealed that negative and positive words (i.e., emotionally arousing words) were affected, whereas no effect was observed for neutral words. No changes were detected for cued recall, working memory, or attention. The present study thus demonstrates that psychosocial stress impairs memory retrieval in humans and suggests that emotionally arousing material is especially sensitive to this effect.

  10. Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2014-01-01

    Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT) and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT). These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA), and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.

  11. Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Giles

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT. These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA, and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.

  12. No effects of psychosocial stress on intertemporal choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Haushofer

    Full Text Available Intertemporal choices - involving decisions which trade off instant and delayed outcomes - are often made under stress. It remains unknown, however, whether and how stress affects intertemporal choice. We subjected 142 healthy male subjects to a laboratory stress or control protocol, and asked them to make a series of intertemporal choices either directly after stress, or 20 minutes later (resulting in four experimental groups. Based on theory and evidence from behavioral economics and cellular neuroscience, we predicted a bidirectional effect of stress on intertemporal choice, with increases in impatience or present bias immediately after stress, but decreases in present bias or impatience when subjects are tested 20 minutes later. However, our results show no effects of stress on intertemporal choice at either time point, and individual differences in stress reactivity (changes in stress hormone levels over time are not related to individual differences in intertemporal choice. Together, we did not find support for the hypothesis that psychosocial laboratory stressors affect intertemporal choice.

  13. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  14. How to Identify and Prioritize Psychosocial Factors Impacting Stress Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia N Hocine

    Full Text Available We develop a methodological approach to identify and prioritize psychosocial factors (stressors requiring priority action to reduce stress levels. Data analysis was carried out on a random sample of 10 000 French employees who completed, during a routine interview with the occupational physician, a 25-item questionnaire about stress levels, as well as a questionnaire about 58 stressors grouped into 5 latent variables: job control, job context, relationships at work, tasks performed and recognition. Our method combines Importance-Performance Analysis, a valuable approach for prioritizing improvements in the quality of services, with Partial Least Squares-Path modeling, a Structural Equation Modeling approach widely applied in psychosocial research. Findings on our data suggest two areas worthy of attention: one with five stressors on which decision makers should concentrate, and another with five stressors that managers should leave alone when acting to reduce stress levels. We show that IPA is robust when answers to questions are dichotomized, as opposed to the initial 6-point Likert scale. We believe that our approach will be a useful tool for experts and decision-makers in the field of stress management and prevention.

  15. [Evaluation of interventions intended to reduce psychosocial work stress. Proposal for a classification scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, R; Bauer, J; Nübling, M; Rose, U; Krause, A

    2011-08-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of measures aiming to reduce psychosocial work stress is sporadic. This is contradictory to the requirement identified by the German Social Security Code (SGB VII) that interventions constitute the most important method of maintaining and improving employees' health. Reasons for this can be seen in the complexity of the subject and methodological issues concerning scientific standards. In addition, agreed quality standards are nonexistent for the evaluation of intervention measures. For this reason, a synopsis of existing audit and evaluation schemes was performed, thus, resulting in refined and adapted quality standards for intervention measures aiming to reduce psychosocial work stress. The quality criteria presented in this paper comprise aims, effectiveness, and facilitators, each being composed of several indicators. The criteria are designed as quality indicators which translate the outcome of an evaluation into quality figures. The process is transparent and offers a rational basis for communication, planning, and decision-making in health promotion.

  16. Depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress at work among older employees in three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Lunau, Thorsten; Wahrendorf, Morten; Dragano, Nico

    2012-07-20

    To assess whether an association of psychosocial stress at work with depressive symptoms among older employees is evident in a set of comparable empirical studies from Europe, North America and Asia. Cross-sectional and longitudinal multivariate regression analyses of data from 4 cohort studies with elder workers (2004 and 2006) testing associations of psychosocial stress at work ('effort-reward imbalance'; 'low control') with depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional analyses from 17 countries with 14.236 participants reveal elevated odds ratios of depressive symptoms among people experiencing high work stress compared to those with low or no work stress. Adjusted odds ratios vary from 1.64 (95% CI 1.02-2.63) in Japan to 1.97 (95% CI 1.75-2.23) in Europe and 2.28 (95% CI 1.59-3.28) in the USA. Odds ratios from additional longitudinal analyses (in 13 countries) controlling for baseline depression are smaller, but remain in part significant. Findings indicate that psychosocial stress at work might be a relevant risk factor for depressive symptoms among older employees across countries and continents. This observation may call for global policy efforts to improve quality of work in view of a rapidly aging workforce, in particular in times of economic globalization.

  17. Depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress at work among older employees in three continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegrist Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess whether an association of psychosocial stress at work with depressive symptoms among older employees is evident in a set of comparable empirical studies from Europe, North America and Asia. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal multivariate regression analyses of data from 4 cohort studies with elder workers (2004 and 2006 testing associations of psychosocial stress at work (‘effort-reward imbalance’; ‘low control’ with depressive symptoms. Results Cross-sectional analyses from 17 countries with 14.236 participants reveal elevated odds ratios of depressive symptoms among people experiencing high work stress compared to those with low or no work stress. Adjusted odds ratios vary from 1.64 (95% CI 1.02-2.63 in Japan to 1.97 (95% CI 1.75-2.23 in Europe and 2.28 (95% CI 1.59-3.28 in the USA. Odds ratios from additional longitudinal analyses (in 13 countries controlling for baseline depression are smaller, but remain in part significant. Conclusion Findings indicate that psychosocial stress at work might be a relevant risk factor for depressive symptoms among older employees across countries and continents. This observation may call for global policy efforts to improve quality of work in view of a rapidly aging workforce, in particular in times of economic globalization.

  18. [Presenteeism, Absenteeism and psychosocial stress at work among German clinicians in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J

    2013-10-01

    Presenteeism is determined as turning up at work despite ill health. In the last decade this phenomenon became much more relevant and will be a central topic for future research in workplace health, health promotion and productivity loss. Compared to absenteeism research data about presenteeism are comparatively rare. Especially employees in health care are at high risk for presenteeism. The present study examines the degree of presenteeism and absenteeism among German hospital clinicians in surgery focussing on associations with psychosocial stress at work. The stratified randomised sample consisted of 1 311 German clinicians in surgery from 489 hospitals. The frequencies of presenteeism and absenteeism were respectively assessed by one item. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model. About 90% of the respondents indicate that they were working despite illness at least once a year, 65% actually answered sometimes or often. Nearly two thirds were absent due to illness for a minimum of once a year. Multivariate logistic regression analyses show that organisational and work-related factors are clearly associated with presenteeism. Compared to absenteeism, presenteeism shows stronger associations with psychosocial workload. Significant associations with different components of psychosocial stress reveal elevated odds ratios between 1.4 and 2.8. High efforts and demands, low rewards and increased overcommitment were notably emerging factors. Clinicians in surgery are affected by presenteesim to a high degree whereas rates of absenteeism are less striking. As potential causes for elevated presenteeism different aspects of psychosocial stress at work were identified. Workplace health promotion on different levels can reduce presenteeism to improve the health status and job performance among this occupational group that bears heavy responsibility. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    OpenAIRE

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via...

  20. The impact of psychosocial stress on conceptual knowledge retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian J; Dietsch, Florian; Schneider, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The acquisition of conceptual knowledge in scientific domains is among the central aims of school instruction because this semantic declarative knowledge helps individuals make interferences and explain complex phenomena. Recent research shows that naïve concepts acquired during childhood persist in long-term memory long after learning the scientifically correct concepts in school. In this study, we investigated the effects of stress on the retrieval of these conceptual representations. To this end, 40 healthy men were randomly assigned to either psychosocial stress or a control condition and evaluated, as quickly and accurately as possible, statements that were compatible with scientific concepts or incompatible with those concepts. Some of these statements were true and some were false. Incompatible statements in this case are statements which are in line with adults' scientific concepts, but not with children's naïve theories. In contrast, compatible statements are in line with both. Stress induction was successful as evidenced by increases in blood pressure and cortisol concentrations in the stress group compared to the control group. Responses were delayed and less accurate for incompatible compared to compatible statements. Psychosocial stress had no main effect on retrieval, but abolished reaction time differences on false- vs. true-incompatible statements. This effect was mirrored in correlations between individuals' cortisol increases and reaction times. These results suggest that stress, as embodied by increases in cortisol concentrations, interferes with the retrieval of conceptual knowledge. They help to better understand conceptual knowledge retrieval in real-life situations such as examinations or problem solving in the workplace.

  1. Psychosocial stress at work and perceived quality of care among clinicians in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jens; Grosse Frie, Kirstin; Blum, Karl; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2011-05-20

    Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians' well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) and the demand-control model (job strain). The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians' self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting suboptimal quality of care. Magnitude of the association varies depending on the respective job stress model and the indicator of health care quality used. Odds ratios, adjusted for gender, occupational position and job experience vary between 1.04 (CI 0.70-1.57) and 3.21 (CI 2.23-4.61). Findings indicate that theoretical models of psychosocial stress at work can enrich the analysis of effects of working conditions on health care quality. Moreover, results suggest interventions for job related health promotion measures to improve the clinicians' working conditions, their quality of care and their patients' health.

  2. Psychosocial stress at work and perceived quality of care among clinicians in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von dem Knesebeck Olaf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians' well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Methods Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI and the demand-control model (job strain. The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians' self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting suboptimal quality of care. Magnitude of the association varies depending on the respective job stress model and the indicator of health care quality used. Odds ratios, adjusted for gender, occupational position and job experience vary between 1.04 (CI 0.70-1.57 and 3.21 (CI 2.23-4.61. Conclusion Findings indicate that theoretical models of psychosocial stress at work can enrich the analysis of effects of working conditions on health care quality. Moreover, results suggest interventions for job related health promotion measures to improve the clinicians' working conditions, their quality of care and their patients' health.

  3. Icariin attenuates glucocorticoid insensitivity mediated by repeated psychosocial stress on an ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Duan, Xiaohong; Xu, Changqing; Wu, Jinfeng; Liu, Baojun; Du, Yiji; Luo, Qingli; Jin, Hualiang; Gong, Weiyi; Dong, Jingcheng

    2014-04-01

    Evidence shows that psychosocial stress exacerbates asthma, but there is little intervention to alleviate negative effects of psychosocial stress on asthma. We investigated the role of icariin in anti-inflammation and anti-anxiety potential in a murine model combined psychosocial stress with allergic exposure. The results indicated that icariin administered remarkable increased activity in the center of the open field, reversed airway hyperresponsivenesss, reduced inflammatory cytokine infiltration to the lung and whole body and also in part recovered glucocorticoid responsiveness. Furthermore, our data also showed that icariin significantly inhibited increases of corticosterone and markedly increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and protein expression in the lungs of mice exposed to both stress and allergen. Collectively, we speculate that inducing glucocorticoid receptor modulation might be the potential mechanisms of icariin to facilitate corticosteroid responsiveness of cytokine production.

  4. Computing a Synthetic Chronic Psychosocial Stress Measurement in Multiple Datasets and its Application in the Replication of G × E Interactions of the EBF1 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abanish; Babyak, Michael A; Brummett, Beverly H; Jiang, Rong; Watkins, Lana L; Barefoot, John C; Kraus, William E; Shah, Svati H; Siegler, Ilene C; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Williams, Redford B

    2015-09-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress adversely affects health and is associated with the development of disease [Williams, 2008]. Systematic epidemiological and genetic studies are needed to uncover genetic variants that interact with stress to modify metabolic responses across the life cycle that are the proximal contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease and precipitation of acute clinical events. Among the central challenges in the field are to perform and replicate gene-by-environment (G × E) studies. The challenge of measurement of individual experience of psychosocial stress is magnified in this context. Although many research datasets exist that contain genotyping and disease-related data, measures of psychosocial stress are often either absent or vary substantially across studies. In this paper, we provide an algorithm to create a synthetic measure of chronic psychosocial stress across multiple datasets, applying a consistent criterion that uses proxy indicators of stress components. We validated the computed scores of chronic psychosocial stress by observing moderately strong and significant correlations with the self-rated chronic psychosocial stress in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort (Rho = 0.23, P psychosocial stress variable by providing three additional replications of our previous finding of gene-by-stress interaction with central obesity traits [Singh et al., 2015].

  5. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanagas Giedrius

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197. Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's.

  6. Psychosocial work load and stress in the geriatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulon Madeleine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the decrease in informal care by family members and the demographic development, the importance of professional geriatric care will rise considerably. Aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial workplace situation for employees in this profession. Methods The German version of the COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work. The instrument includes 22 scales and 3 single items concerning demands, control, stress, support, and strain. Results between two study groups of geriatric care were compared to each other as well as to employees in general hospital care and a general population mean (COPSOQ database. Statistical analysis included t-tests, ANOVA and multiple comparisons of means. Statistical significance (p Results In total 889 respondents from 36 institutions took part in the study. 412 worked in Home Care (HC, 313 in Geriatric Nursing Homes (GNH, 164 in other professions (e.g. administration. Comparison between HC and GNH showed more favourable values for the first group for the most scales, e.g. lower quantitative and emotional demands and less work-privacy conflict, better possibilities for development etc. Compared to external values from the German COPSOQ database for general hospital care (N = 1.195 and the total mean across all professions, COPSOQ-total (N = 11.168, the results are again positive for HC workers on most of the scales concerning demands and social support. The only negative finding is the very low amount of social relations at work due to the obligation to work alone most of the time. Employees in GNH rate predictability, quality of leadership and feedback higher when compared to general hospital care and show some further favourable mean values compared to the COPSOQ mean value for all professions. A disadvantage for GNH is the high rating for job insecurity. A supplementary subgroup analysis showed that the degree of

  7. Psychosocial work load and stress in the geriatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nübling, Matthias; Vomstein, Martin; Schmidt, Sascha G; Gregersen, Sabine; Dulon, Madeleine; Nienhaus, Albert

    2010-07-21

    Due to the decrease in informal care by family members and the demographic development, the importance of professional geriatric care will rise considerably. Aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial workplace situation for employees in this profession. The German version of the COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was used for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work. The instrument includes 22 scales and 3 single items concerning demands, control, stress, support, and strain.Results between two study groups of geriatric care were compared to each other as well as to employees in general hospital care and a general population mean (COPSOQ database).Statistical analysis included t-tests, ANOVA and multiple comparisons of means. Statistical significance (p hospital care (N = 1.195) and the total mean across all professions, COPSOQ-total (N = 11.168), the results are again positive for HC workers on most of the scales concerning demands and social support. The only negative finding is the very low amount of social relations at work due to the obligation to work alone most of the time. Employees in GNH rate predictability, quality of leadership and feedback higher when compared to general hospital care and show some further favourable mean values compared to the COPSOQ mean value for all professions. A disadvantage for GNH is the high rating for job insecurity.A supplementary subgroup analysis showed that the degree of negative evaluation of psychosocial factors concerning demands was related to the amount of working hours per week and the number of on-call duties. Compared to employees in general hospital care and the COPSOQ overall mean value across all professions, geriatric care employees and especially home care workers evaluate their psychosocial working situation more positive for most aspects. However, this seems partly due to the very high proportion of part-time workers. Critical results for the two study groups are the relatively

  8. Perceived psychosocial stress and glucose intolerance among pregnant Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, M L; Whitcomb, B W; Pekow, P; Braun, B; Markenson, G; Dole, N; Manson, J E; Solomon, C G; Carbone, E T; Chasan-Taber, L

    2014-12-01

    Prior literature suggests a positive association between psychosocial stress and the risk of diabetes in non-pregnant populations, but studies during pregnancy are sparse. We evaluated the relationship between stress and glucose intolerance among 1115 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) prenatal care patients in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study in Western Massachusetts (2006-2011). Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) was administered in early (mean = 12.3 weeks gestation; range 4.1-18 weeks) and mid- (mean = 21.3 weeks gestation; range 18.1-26 weeks) pregnancy. Participants were classified as having a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance, based on the degree of abnormality on glucose tolerance testing between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance was 4.1%, 7.2%, and 14.5%, respectively. Absolute levels of early or mid-pregnancy stress were not significantly associated with glucose intolerance. However, participants with an increase in stress from early to mid-pregnancy had a 2.6-fold increased odds of gestational diabetes mellitus (95% confidence intervals: 1.0-6.9) as compared to those with no change or a decrease in stress after adjusting for age and pre-pregnancy body mass index. In addition, every one-point increase in stress scores was associated with a 5.5mg/dL increase in screening glucose level (β=5.5; standard deviation=2.8; P=0.05), after adjusting for the same variables. In this population of predominantly Puerto Rican women, stress patterns during pregnancy may influence the risk of glucose intolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Cortisol response to psychosocial stress during a depressive episode and remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cortisol responses to a standardized psychosocial stressor during a major depressive episode (MDE) and again during remission in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-six individuals with no personal or family history of a major psychiatric disorder (NC) and 24 individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) at Time 1 participated in the study. The MDD group showed robust cortisol responses during their index episode and after recovery. In contrast, the NC group showed habituation to the repeated psychosocial stressor, as evident in a flatter cortisol response profile at Time 2. Within the MDD group, net peak cortisol during the first stress test was positively associated with the duration of the index MDE and negatively associated with the total duration of all MDEs. Whereas summary indices of cortisol responses were relatively stable across repeated stress tasks within the MDD group, this was not the case for NC. Results demonstrate that cortisol responses fail to habituate to repeated psychosocial stress during recovery from an MDE and could reflect a trait-like marker of risk for recurrence.

  10. Psychosocial stress induces working memory impairments in an n-back paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoofs, Daniela; Preuss, Diana; Wolf, Oliver T

    2008-06-01

    In contrast to the substantial number of studies investigating the effects of stress on declarative memory, effects of stress on working memory have received less attention. We compared working memory (numerical n-back task with single digits) in 40 men exposed either to psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)) or a control condition. Task difficulty was varied using two conditions (2-back vs. 3-back). Salivary cortisol (as a marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA as a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity) were assessed immediately before and three times after the stress or control condition. As expected stress resulted in an increase in cortisol, sAA, and negative affect. Subjects exposed to stress showed significant working memory impairments in both workload conditions. The analysis of variance indicated a main effect of stress for reaction time as well as accuracy. In addition, for reaction time a stress-block interaction occurred. Follow up tests revealed that only during the first block at each level of difficulty performance was significantly impaired by stress. Thus, the effects of stress became smaller the longer the task was performed. Results provide further evidence for impaired working memory after acute stress and illustrate the time course of this phenomenon.

  11. Psychosocial work aspects, stress and musculoskeletal pain among musicians. A systematic review in search of correlates and predictors of playing-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacukowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-16

    Musicians face numerous psychosocial and physical demands at work resulting in high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. Unlike physical risks, little is known about psychosocial work factors influencing such health problems in this particular group. The paper aimed to identify psychosocial work demands resulting in musculoskeletal problems among musicians. A systematic review was undertaken to find data linking psychosocial work demands or stress with musculoskeletal disorders among musicians. The exploration of databases resulted in nine research studies linking psychosocial aspects of work or stress with musculoskeletal problems among musicians. The analyzed studies linked psychosocial aspects with musculoskeletal problems in three ways - showing proportions of people indicating particular causes of pain, indicating correlations between these variables or performing regression analysis showing psychosocial predictors of musculoskeletal pain. Only a few studies have undertaken the issue of psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal problems among musicians. The results revealed that some psychosocial aspects of work, e.g. long hours at work, work content, high job demands, low control/influence, lack of social support, were related to musculoskeletal pain, however, the methods and results were inconsistent. The extant studies employed variety of definitions of psychosocial aspects that hindered the possibility for consistent conclusions. Basing on those conclusions, future directions were offered.

  12. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory.

  13. Dynamic changes in DNA methylation of stress-associated genes (OXTR, BDNF ) after acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unternaehrer, E; Luers, P; Mill, J; Dempster, E; Meyer, A H; Staehli, S; Lieb, R; Hellhammer, D H; Meinlschmidt, G

    2012-08-14

    Environmentally induced epigenetic alterations are related to mental health. We investigated quantitative DNA methylation status before and after an acute psychosocial stressor in two stress-related genes: oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF ). The cross sectional study took place at the Division of Theoretical and Clinical Psychobiology, University of Trier, Germany and was conducted from February to August 2009. We included 83 participants aged 61-67 years. Thereof, 76 participants completed the full study procedure consisting of blood sampling before (pre-stress), 10 min after (post-stress) and 90 min after (follow-up) the Trier social stress test. We assessed quantitative DNA methylation of whole-blood cells using Sequenom EpiTYPER. Methylation status differed between sampling times in one target sequence of OXTR (POXTR (P=0.034), where it lost statistical significance when blood cell count was statistically controlled. We did not detect any time-associated differences in methylation status of the examined BDNF region. The results suggest a dynamic regulation of DNA methylation in OXTR-which may in part reflect changes in blood cell composition-but not BDNF after acute psychosocial stress. This may enhance the understanding of how psychosocial events alter DNA methylation and could provide new insights into the etiology of mental disorders.

  14. Triathletes Lose Their Advantageous Pain Modulation under Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Triathletes, who constantly engage in intensely stressful sport, were recently found to exhibit greater pain tolerance and more efficient pain inhibition capabilities than nonathletes. However, pain inhibition correlated negatively with retrospective reports of mental stress during training and competition. The aim of the current study was to test pain inhibition capabilities of triathletes under acute, controlled psychological stress manipulation. Participants were 25 triathletes and ironman triathletes who underwent the measurement of pain threshold, pain intolerance, tonic suprathreshold pain, and conditioned pain modulation before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST). Perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol levels were obtained as indices of stress. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction manifested in the subjective and objective indices. Overall, a significant reduction in pain threshold and in conditioned pain modulation efficacy was observed after the MIST, which reached the baseline levels observed previously in nonathletes. Paradoxically, the magnitude of this stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH) correlated negatively with the magnitude of the stress response; low-stress responders exhibited greater SIH than high-stress responders. The results suggest that under acute psychological stress, triathletes not only react with SIH and a reduction in pain modulation but also lose their advantageous pain modulation over nonathletes. The stronger the stress response recorded, the weaker the SIH. It appears that triathletes are not resilient to stress, responding with an increase in the sensitivity to pain as well as a decrease in pain inhibition. The possible effects of athletes' baseline pain profile and stress reactivity on SIH are discussed.

  15. Split-shift work in relation to stress, health and psychosocial work factors among bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlström, Jonas; Kecklund, Göran; Anund, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention. This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport. A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered. In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control. This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.

  16. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Tsuber

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  17. The NGF saga: from animal models of psychosocial stress to stress-related psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirulli, Francesca; Alleva, Enrico

    2009-08-01

    The role of the neurotrophins Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has been expanding over the last years from trophic factors involved in brain growth and differentiation, to much more complex messengers, involved in psycho-neuro-endocrine adaptations. Much of this research stems from a series of studies inspired by the life-long work of the Nobel laureate Rita Levi-Montalcini. A new field of research started when NGF was found to be released in the bloodstream as a result of psychosocial stressors in male mice. Subsequent studies have shown that, in humans, highly arousing situations also result in increased blood levels of NGF, underlying the unique role of this neurotrophin, compared to other neuroendocrine effectors, and its sensitivity to environmental variables endowed by a social nature. Data are reviewed to support the hypothesis that this neurotrophic factor, together with BDNF, could be involved in the neurobiological changes underlying physiological and pathological reactions to stress that can result in increased vulnerability to disease in humans, including risk for anxiety disorders, or in the complex pathophysiology associated with mood disorders. Indeed, numerous data indicate that neurotrophins are present in brain hypothalamic areas involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, circadian rhythms and metabolism. In addition, there is now evidence that, in addition to the nervous system, neurotrophins exert their effects in various tissue compartments as they are produced by a variety of non-neuronal cell types such as endocrine and immune cells, adipocytes, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, thus being in a position to coordinate brain and body reactions to external challenges. Aim of this review is to discuss the evidence suggesting a role for neurotrophins as multifunctional signaling molecules activated during allostatic responses to stressful events and their involvement in the complex

  18. Acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Miller, Arlene; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the relationships among acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea and to determine whether work-related psychosocial factors mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. A descriptive correlational cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 200 Korean-Chinese full-time migrant workers was recruited, and 170 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Acculturative stress was assessed by Sandh and Asrabadi's Acculturative Stress Scale. Work-related psychosocial factors were assessed by job demand, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict measures from the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Self-administered or face-to-face surveys were conducted by trained data collectors. Multiple regression and path analysis were used. Roughly 30% of the sample met the criteria for depression. Female workers had significantly higher depression scores than male workers. Acculturative stress and work-related psychosocial factors significantly predicted 26.3% of the variance in depression. A path model revealed the mediating effect of job demand on the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Our results indicate that work-related psychosocial factors are salient factors that lead to depression among Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea. The results suggest that occupational health-care professionals should promote the prevention and management of depression in this population and highlight the importance of acculturation context in the development of interventions designed to reduce work-related stress.

  19. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  20. Financial Stress, Shaming Experiences and Psychosocial Ill-Health: Studies into the Finances-Shame Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrin, Bengt; Aslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the Finances-Shame model and its explanatory power regarding the prevalence of psychosocial ill-health. The Finances-Shame model postulates that (i) the greater the financial stress and the more experiences of having been shamed, the greater the risk for psychosocial ill-health, (ii) the lesser the financial stress…

  1. Coping with Interpersonal Stress and Psychosocial Health among Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela T.

    2006-01-01

    This meta-analysis examines the relationship between active coping and psychosocial health among youth. Results from 40 studies of coping with interpersonal stress were synthesized using a random-effects model. Four areas of psychosocial functioning were examined: externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, social competence, and academic…

  2. Single and Multiple Indicators of Physical Attractiveness and Psychosocial Behaviors among Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Lerner, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Examined relations among several indicators of physical attractiveness (PA): height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness. Appraised whether multiple PA indicators accounted for more variation in measures of psychosocial functioning than did single PA indexes. Facial attractiveness was the most frequent statistically significant predictor of…

  3. How to measure prenatal stress? A systematic review of psychometric instruments to assess psychosocial stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, Irina; Bolten, Margarete; Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Hellhammer, Dirk H

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of literature documents associations of maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy with fetal, infant and child behaviour and development. However, findings across studies are often inconsistent, which may in part be due to differences in stress definitions and assessments. We systematically reviewed methods applied to assess maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy in studies looking at associations with biobehavioural outcomes in the offspring. A systematic literature search was performed on Web of Science and PubMed for the time period between January 1999 and October 2009. Psychometric instruments assessing maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy were identified and described if data on psychometric properties were available. We identified 115 publications that assessed psychosocial stress during pregnancy with validated methods. These publications applied overall 43 different instruments assessing constructs falling under seven categories, ordered according to their frequency of use: anxiety, depression, daily hassles, aspects of psychological symptomatology (not reduced to anxiety or depression), life events, specific socio-environmental stressors and stress related to pregnancy and parenting. If available, we provide information on validity and reliability of the instruments for samples of pregnant women. Within the 'prenatal stress' research, a broad range of instruments is applied to assess psychosocial stress during pregnancy. Prenatal stress research should take into consideration that the variety of methods in use might hamper the comparability of stress research results. In each category of stress constructs, one instrument with good psychometric properties in pregnant women is highlighted as the best currently available measure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Opioid partial agonist buprenorphine dampens responses to psychosocial stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Anya K; Jaffe, Jerome H; Childs, Emma; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-02-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical evidence indicates that opioid drugs have stress-dampening effects. In animal models, opioid analgesics attenuate responses to isolation distress, and in humans, opioids reduce stress related to anticipation of physical pain. The stress-reducing effects of opioid drugs may contribute to their abuse potential. Despite this evidence in laboratory animals, the effects of opioids on responses to psychosocial stress have not been determined in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a μ-opioid partial agonist used to treat opioid dependence and pain, on subjective and physiological responses to a stressful public speaking task in healthy adults. We hypothesized that buprenorphine would reduce subjective and physiological stress responses. Healthy adult volunteers (N=48) were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine, or 0.4mg sublingual buprenorphine in a two-session study with a stressful speaking task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and a non-stressful control task. During the sessions, the participants reported on their mood states, provided subjective appraisals of the task, and measures of salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure at regular intervals. Stress produced its expected effects, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and subjective ratings of anxiety and negative mood. In line with our hypothesis, both doses of buprenorphine significantly dampened salivary cortisol responses to stress. On self-report ratings, buprenorphine reduced how threatening participants found the tasks. These results suggest that enhanced opioid signaling dampens responses to social stress in humans, as it does in laboratory animals. This stress-dampening effect of buprenorphine may contribute to the non-medical use of opioid drugs.

  6. Depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress at work among older employees in three continents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegrist, Johannes; Lunau, Thorsten; Wahrendorf, Morten; Dragano, Nico

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether an association of psychosocial stress at work with depressive symptoms among older employees is evident in a set of comparable empirical studies from Europe, North America and Asia...

  7. Psychosocial stress at work in pregnant health workers from Havana city, Cuba 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, María de Lourdes; Instituto Nacional de Salud de los Trabajadores. La Habana, Cuba. Master en Psicología y en Salud Ocupaciona.; Aguilera, María de los Angeles; Instituto de Investigación en Salud Ocupacional, Universidad de Guadalajara, México. Doctora en Ciencias de la Salud en el Trabajo.; Aldrete, María Guadupe; Instituto de Investigación en Salud Ocupacional, Universidad de Guadalajara, México. Doctora en Ciencias de la Salud en el Trabajo.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Evaluate the level of psychosocial stress at work according to the models of demand-control of the work tension and imbalance effort recompense; and to determine associations between the psychosocial stress at work and pregnancy complications. Material and methods. We performed a prospective cohort study with 78 pregnant health workers from the municipality of the Havana city, Cuba, in the period 2005-2006. Those interviewed responded a version to Spanish of the Job Content Que...

  8. Brain 5-HT deficiency increases stress vulnerability and impairs antidepressant responses following psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Benjamin D; Ni, Jason R; Caron, Marc G

    2015-02-24

    Brain serotonin (5-HT) deficiency and exposure to psychosocial stress have both been implicated in the etiology of depression and anxiety disorders, but whether 5-HT deficiency influences susceptibility to depression- and anxiety-like phenotypes induced by psychosocial stress has not been formally established. Most clinically effective antidepressants increase the extracellular levels of 5-HT, and thus it has been hypothesized that antidepressant responses result from the reversal of endogenous 5-HT deficiency, but this hypothesis remains highly controversial. Here we evaluated the impact of brain 5-HT deficiency on stress susceptibility and antidepressant-like responses using tryptophan hydroxylase 2 knockin (Tph2KI) mice, which display 60-80% reductions in brain 5-HT. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to social defeat stress (SDS), a model of psychosocial stress, and prevents the fluoxetine (FLX)-induced reversal of SDS-induced social avoidance, suggesting that 5-HT deficiency may impair antidepressant responses. In light of recent clinical and preclinical studies highlighting the potential of inhibiting the lateral habenula (LHb) to achieve antidepressant and antidepressant-like responses, we also examined whether LHb inhibition could achieve antidepressant-like responses in FLX-insensitive Tph2KI mice subjected to SDS. Our data reveal that using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to inhibit LHb activity leads to reduced SDS-induced social avoidance behavior in both WT and Tph2KI mice. This observation provides additional preclinical evidence that inhibiting the LHb might represent a promising alternative therapeutic approach under conditions in which selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors are ineffective.

  9. A model of psychosocial work environment, stress, and satisfaction among dental students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schéle, Ingrid A; Hedman, Leif R; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-09-01

    Dental students are often described as stressed. The stress has, among other things, been connected to stressors in their psychosocial environment and inconsistent feedback. The hypothesis of this study was that the psychosocial work environment in dental schools leads to stress and affects the satisfaction of dental students and that tolerance for ambiguity shields students from stress. A web-based survey was sent to the entire Swedish dental student population in clinical training (N=805); the response rate was 40 percent. Structural equation modeling used in the analyses contains four main constructs: psychosocial work environment, tolerance for ambiguity, perceived stress, and student satisfaction (χ(2)=267.437, d.f.=174, pstress and satisfaction: it accounted for almost all of the explained variance in perceived stress for women, while about half of the variance for the men was explained by tolerance for ambiguity. This study concluded that about 40 percent of the total perceived stress of these female dental students was related to their psychosocial work environment. Tolerance for ambiguity shielded men but not women from stress. An improved psychosocial work environment in dental schools would decrease the stress of both male and female dental students.

  10. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  11. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  12. The effects of cortisol increase on long-term memory retrieval during and after acute psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effects of stress-induced cortisol increases on long-term memory retrieval during and after acute psychosocial stress were examined. Seventy male students were exposed to either a psychosocial stress task or to a non-stressful control task. During and after this task, retrieval was

  13. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to propionic acid revisited-Does psychosocial stress interfere with distractive effects in volunteers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacharra, Marlene; Schäper, Michael; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; van Thriel, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Local irritants stimulate the nervous system via chemosensory pathways that trigger cognitive distraction, subjective complaints about impaired health, and physiological defense reflexes (e.g. eye-blinks). At workplaces and in the environment chemical exposures often co-occur with psychosocial stress. This study investigated if stress modulates adverse effects of exposure to the local irritant and malodorant propionic acid (PA). Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (false negative feedback+salient surveillance) or control group. In a cross-over design, both groups were exposed for 4h to PA in concentrations of 0.3 and 0-20ppm (time-weighted average=10ppm). In the experimental group, the stress protocol induced moderate psychosocial stress as indicated by salivary cortisol and subjective responses. Despite concentration-dependent increases in chemosensory perceptions and symptoms, the level of exposure to PA had no impact upon the results of four out of six neurobehavioral tests. In the sustained attention test, there was a significant increase in error rates that corresponded to the exposure levels. However, a concentration-dependent impairment of spatial working memory and an adverse increase in eye-blink frequency were restricted to the control group. Stressed participants had shorter simple reaction times and high eye-blink frequency irrespective of exposure suggesting enhanced alertness. Psychosocial stress increased complaints, ocular irritation and unspecific symptoms at the end of the 0.3ppm exposure to a level that was comparable with that in the control group during exposure to 0-20ppm. Results indicate that the adverse effects of a local irritant and psychosocial stress are non-additive.

  14. Relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among Ghanaians in Amsterdam, the Netherlands--the GHAIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei, Bernard; Nicolaou, Mary; Boateng, Linda; Dijkshoorn, Henriette; van den Born, Bert-Jan; Agyemang, Charles

    2014-07-07

    Hypertension is highly prevalent among recent sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in western countries and some tend to associate their hypertension to psychosocial stress. However data on the relationship between hypertension and psychosocial stress among SSA migrants are rare. We assessed the relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among the largest SSA migrant population (Ghanaians) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were obtained from structured interviews along with medical examination among 212 participants from a cross-sectional study: the GHAIA study in 2010 in Amsterdam. Blood pressure was measured with a validated Oscillometric automated digital blood pressure device. Psychosocial stress was assessed by questionnaires on perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms and financial problems. Binary logistic regression was used to study associations between psychosocial stress and hypertension. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 54.7%. About two thirds of the study population experienced a moderate (31%) or high (36%) level of discrimination. 20.0% of the participants had mild depressive symptoms, whilst 9% had moderate depressive symptoms. The prevalence of financial stress was 34.8%. The psychosocial stresses we assessed were not significantly associated with hypertension: adjusted odds ratios comparing those with low levels and those with high levels were 0.99 (95% CI, 0.47-2.08) for perceived discrimination, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.26-2.49) for depressive symptoms and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.37-1.36) for financial stress, respectively. We did not find evidence for the association between psychosocial stress and hypertension among recent SSA migrants. More efforts are needed to unravel other potential factors that may underlie the high prevalence of hypertension among these populations.

  15. Exhaustion-related changes in cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychosocial stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Peter; Österberg, Kai; Wallergård, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    cortisol samples were collected. In addition, high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), t-wave amplitude (TWA), and α-amylase were assessed to examine stress reactivity and habituation in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The initial analyses showed clear hypothalamic......-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activations in both V-TSST sessions, together with habituation of cortisol and heart rate in the second session, but without any significant group differences. However, the former ED patients showed considerable variation in self-reported signs......Prior findings indicate that individuals scoring high on vital exhaustion show a dysfunctional stress response (DSR), that is, reduced cortisol reactivity and habituation to psychosocial stressors. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether a DSR may be a vulnerability factor...

  16. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eBuruck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  17. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  18. A Method for Psychosocial Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvich, Daniel F; Stowe, Taylor A; Godfrey, Jodi R; Weinshenker, David

    2016-06-01

    We describe a novel preclinical model of stress-induced relapse to cocaine use in rats using social defeat stress, an ethologically valid psychosocial stressor in rodents that closely resembles stressors that promote craving and relapse in humans. Rats self-administered cocaine for 20 days. On days 11, 14, 17, and 20, animals were subjected to social defeat stress or a nonstressful control condition following the session, with discrete environmental stimuli signaling the impending event. After extinction training, reinstatement was assessed following re-exposure to these discrete cues. Animals re-exposed to psychosocial stress-predictive cues exhibited increased serum corticosterone and significantly greater reinstatement of cocaine seeking than the control group, and active coping behaviors during social defeat episodes were associated with subsequent reinstatement magnitude. These studies are the first to describe an operant model of psychosocial stress-induced relapse in rodents and lay the foundation for future work investigating its neurobiological underpinnings.

  19. Molecular Signatures of Psychosocial Stress and Cognition Are Modulated by Chronic Lithium Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, Magdalena M; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Wichert, Sven P; Falkai, Peter; Rossner, Moritz J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Social defeat in rodents has been shown to be associated with maladaptive cellular and behavioral consequences including cognitive impairments. Although gene expression changes upon psychosocial stress have been described, a comprehensive transcriptome profiling study at the global level in precisely defined hippocampal subregions which are associated with learning has been lacking. In this study, we exposed adult C57Bl/6N mice for 3 weeks to "resident-intruder" paradigm and combined laser capture microdissection with microarray analyses to identify transcriptomic signatures of chronic psychosocial stress in dentate gyrus and CA3 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus. At the individual transcript level, we detected subregion specific stress responses whereas gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) identified several common pathways upregulated upon chronic psychosocial stress related to proteasomal function and energy supply. Behavioral profiling revealed stress-associated impairments most prominent in fear memory formation which was prevented by chronic lithium treatment. Thus, we again microdissected the CA3 region and performed global transcriptome analysis to search for molecular signatures altered by lithium treatment in stressed animals. By combining GSEA with unsupervised clustering, we detected pathways that are regulated by stress and lithium in the CA3 region of the hippocampus including proteasomal components, oxidative phosphorylation, and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Our study thus provides insight into hidden molecular phenotypes of chronic psychosocial stress and lithium treatment and proves a beneficial role for lithium treatment as an agent attenuating negative effects of psychosocial stress on cognition.

  20. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, H.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the re

  1. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity.

  2. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  3. Differential effects of mental concentration and acute psychosocial stress on cervical muscle activity and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Bahar; Haight, Ashley; Maluf, Katrina

    2013-10-01

    Physical and psychosocial stressors in the workplace have been independently associated with the development of neck pain, yet interactions among these risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mentally challenging computer work performed with and without exposure to a psychosocial stressor on cervical muscle activity and posture. Changes in cervical posture and electromyography of upper trapezius, cervical extensor, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were compared between a resting seated posture at baseline, a low stress condition with mental concentration, and a high stress condition with mental concentration and psychosocial stress in sixty healthy office workers. Forward head posture significantly increased with mental concentration compared to baseline, but did not change with further introduction of the stressor. Muscle activity significantly increased from the low stress to high stress condition for both the dominant and non-dominant upper trapezius, with no corresponding change in activity of the cervical extensors or flexors between stress conditions. These findings suggest that upper trapezius muscles are selectively activated by psychosocial stress independent of changes in concentration or posture, which may have implications for the prevention of stress-related trapezius myalgia in the workplace.

  4. [Psychosocial stress environment and health workers in public health: Differences between primary and hospital care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Bellón-Saameño, Juan Ángel; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    To describe the psychosocial environment of health professionals in public health in primary and hospital care, and compare it with that of the general Spanish working population, as well as to evaluate the effect of psychosocial risk factors on symptoms related to perceived stress. Cross-sectional study with stratified random sampling. Health care workers in the province of Granada, distributed in 5 hospitals and 4 health districts. A total of 738 employees (medical and nursing staff) of the Andalusian Health Service (SAS) were invited to take part. CopSoQ/Istas21 questionnaire developed for the multidimensional analysis of the psychosocial work environment. Stress symptoms were measured with the Stress Profile questionnaire. The response rate was 67.5%. Compared with the Spanish workforce, our sample showed high cognitive, emotional, and sensory psychological demands, possibilities for development and sense of direction in their work. Primary care physicians were the group with a worse psychosocial work environment. All the groups studied showed high levels of stress symptoms. Multivariate analysis showed that variables associated with high levels of stress symptom were younger and with possibilities for social relations, role conflict, and higher emotional demands, and insecurity at work. Our findings support that the psychosocial work environment of health workers differs from that of the Spanish working population, being more unfavorable in general practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of suboptimal health status with psychosocial stress, plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of glucocorticoid receptor α/β in lymphocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Xiang; Dong, Jing; Liu, You-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Song, Man-Shu; He, Yan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) has become a new public health challenge in China. This study investigated whether high SHS is associated with psychosocial stress, changes in cortisol level and/or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform expression. Three-hundred eighty-six workers employed in three companies in Beijing were recruited. The SHS score was derived from data collection in the SHS questionnaire (SHSQ-25). The short standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) was used to assess job-related psychosocial stress. The mean value of the five scales of COPSOQ and distribution of plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of GRα/GRβ between the high level of SHS group and the low level of SHS group were compared using a general linear model procedure. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of psychosocial stress on SHS. We identified three factors that were predictive of SHS, including "demands at work", "interpersonal relations and leadership" and "insecurity at work". Significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol and GRβ/GRα mRNA ratio were observed among the high SHS group. High level of SHS is associated with decreased mRNA expression of GRα. This study confirmed the association between chronic psychosocial stress and SHS, indicating that improving the psychosocial work environment may reduce SHS and then prevent chronic diseases effectively.

  6. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  7. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, Heather M; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9-12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  8. Relationship between Beta Estrogen Receptor Polymorphism and Psychosocial Stress on Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabet Catherine Jusuf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a normal stage of development experienced by elderly women. This study aimed to evaluate the association between polymorphisms of ERα & ERβ and the incidence of psychosocial stress on menopausal women. This research was conducted in BLU dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo and affiliate hospitals of Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Medical Faculty of Hasanuddin University in Makassar, using cross-sectional design. Obtained sample of 102 subjects who met the inclusion criteria and examined polymorphisms receptors ERβ. Data were statistically analyzed using the chi square test with p value <0.05. Results showed that respondents who experienced psychosocial stress has the most ERβ polymorphism homozygous dominant AA. There is ERβ polymorphism relationship with the occurrence of psychosocial stress in menopausal women.

  9. The neuroinflammatory and behavioral response to recurrent psychosocial stress: An [11C]PBR28 PET imaging study in stress-sensitized aged rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopschina Feltes, Paula; de Vries, Erik; Juárez Orozco, Luis; Vállez García, David; Moriguchi Jeckel, Cristina; Dierckx, Rudi; Doorduin, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the relationship between psychosocial stress and depressive-like behavior. However, it is still unknown if prior exposure to psychosocial stress has long-term influences in the response to a recurrence of the stressful stimulus later in life

  10. Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Changes During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Joint Effect of Early Life Stress and Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Pruessner, Jens C; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous evidence shows that acute stress changes both amygdala activity and its connectivity with a distributed brain network. Early life stress (ELS), especially emotional abuse (EA), is associated with altered reactivity to psychosocial stress in adulthood and moderates or even reverses the stress-attenuating effect of oxytocin (OXT). The neural underpinnings of the interaction between ELS and OXT remain unclear, though. Therefore, we here investigate the joint effect of ELS and OXT on transient changes in amygdala-centered functional connectivity induced by acute psychosocial stress, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design. Psychophysiological interaction analysis in the placebo session revealed stress-induced increases in functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Regression analysis showed that EA was positively associated with stress-induced changes in connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus. Moreover, hierarchical linear regression showed that this positive association between EA and stress-induced amygdala-hippocampal connectivity was moderated after the administration of intranasal OXT. Amygdala-hippocampal connectivity in the OXT session correlated negatively with cortisol stress responses. Our findings suggest that altered amygdala-hippocampal functional connectivity during psychosocial stress may have a crucial role in the altered sensitivity to OXT effects in individuals who have experienced EA in their childhood.

  11. Aerobic Fitness Level Affects Cardiovascular and Salivary Alpha Amylase Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Thomas; Boesch, Maria; Roos, Lilian; Tschopp, Céline; Frei, Klaus M; Annen, Hubert; La Marca, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training. Heart rate was measured continuously, and salivary alpha amylase was measured twice, before and after the stress intervention. In the same week, all volunteers participated in a physical fitness test and they responded to questionnaires on lifestyle factors and personal traits. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine ANS responses to acute psychosocial stress from physical fitness test performances, controlling for personal traits, behavioural factors, and socioeconomic data. Multiple linear regression revealed three variables predicting 15 % of the variance in heart rate response (area under the individual heart rate response curve during TSST-G) and four variables predicting 12 % of the variance in salivary alpha amylase response (salivary alpha amylase level immediately after the TSST-G) to acute psychosocial stress. A strong performance at the progressive endurance run (high maximal oxygen consumption) was a significant predictor of ANS response in both models: low area under the heart rate response curve during TSST-G as well as low salivary alpha amylase level after TSST-G. Further, high muscle power, non-smoking, high extraversion, and low agreeableness were predictors of a favourable ANS response in either one of the two dependent variables. Good physical fitness, especially good aerobic endurance capacity, is an important protective factor against health

  12. Relationships between Psychosocial Difficulties and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Women Subject to Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Song, Hyang Joo; Kim, Dong Goo; Yim, Yeong Shin

    2017-02-01

    Women subject to violence by their intimate partners often experience a range of psychosocial problems such as depression, excessive alcohol use, and stressful life events that, in turn, lead to health issues. This study examined psychosocial difficulties and oxidative stress levels in abused and non-abused Korean women and analyzed the relationship between psychosocial outcomes and oxidative stress levels. Markers were determined in 16 women (seven abused, nine non-abused). The two groups of women (abused and non-abused) were compared with respect to scores in depression, alcohol use, life stress events, and oxidative stress biomarkers using the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between depression, alcohol use, life stress events, and oxidative stress biomarkers were tested by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The abused women had significantly higher levels of oxidative stress markers and significantly lower levels of antioxidants than the non-abused women. Life stress events and oxidative biomarker levels were significantly correlated. These findings have implications for both social services providers and medical personnel when assessing abused women to ensure that they receive the most appropriate service. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  13. Psychosocial work environment and prediction of quality of care indicators in one Canadian health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Maxime; Courcy, François; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Gagnon, Serge; Maillet, Stéphanie

    2013-05-01

    Few studies link organizational variables and outcomes to quality indicators. This approach would expose operant mechanisms by which work environment characteristics and organizational outcomes affect clinical effectiveness, safety, and quality indicators. What are the predominant psychosocial variables in the explanation of organizational outcomes and quality indicators (in this case, medication errors and length of stay)? The primary objective of this study was to link the fields of evidence-based practice to the field of decision making, by providing an effective model of intervention to improve safety and quality. The study involved healthcare workers (n = 243) from 13 different care units of a university affiliated health center in Canada. Data regarding the psychosocial work environment (10 work climate scales, effort/reward imbalance, and social support) was linked to organizational outcomes (absenteeism, turnover, overtime), to the nurse/patient ratio and quality indicators (medication errors and length of stay) using path analyses. The models produced in this study revealed a contribution of some psychosocial factors to quality indicators, through an indirect effect of personnel- or human resources-related variables, more precisely: turnover, absenteeism, overtime, and nurse/patient ratio. Four perceptions of work environment appear to play an important part in the indirect effect on both medication errors and length of stay: apparent social support from supervisors, appreciation of the workload demands, pride in being part of one's work team, and effort/reward balance. This study reveals the importance of employee perceptions of the work environment as an indirect predictor of quality of care. Working to improve these perceptions is a good investment for loyalty and attendance. In general, better personnel conditions lead to fewer medication errors and shorter length of stay. © Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

  15. The effects of music listening on psychosocial stress and maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsing-Chi; Yu, Chen-Hsiang; Chen, Shu-Yueh; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2015-08-01

    While music listening has been studied as an intervention to help reduce anxiety in pregnant women, few studies have explored the effect of music listening on pregnancy-specific stress relief. This study examines the effects of music listening on psychosocial stress and maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy. A randomized controlled trial was implemented. A valid sample of 296 pregnant women in their second or third trimester was randomly distributed into an experimental group (n=145) and a control group (n=151). The experimental group received routine prenatal care and music listening. The control group received routine prenatal care only. Data were collected using a demographic form, Pregnancy Stress Rating Scale (PSRS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS). The post-test results identified a significantly lower level of psychosocial stress in the experimental group than in the control group, particularly in terms of the stresses related to baby care and changing family relationships and to maternal role identification. However, no statistically significant differences in terms of perceived stress and maternal-fetal attachment were found between the post-test results of the two groups. This study provides evidence in support of using of music in interventions designed to relieve psychosocial stress in prenatal women. IRB approval number: ER98223. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychosocial sources of stress and burnout in the construction sector: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliá, Josep L; Becerril, Marta

    2007-11-01

    This study develops and tests a structural equation model of social stress factors in the construction industry. Leadership behaviours, role conflict and mobbing behaviours are considered exogenous sources of stress; the experience of tension and burnout are considered mediator variables; and psychological well-being, propensity to quit and perceived quality are the final dependent variables. A sample of Spanish construction workers participated voluntarily and anonymously in the study. After considering the indices of modification, leadership showed direct effects on the propensity to quit and perceived quality. The overall fit of the model is adequate (chi2 (13)= 10.69, p = .637, GFI= .975, AGFI= .93, RMR= .230, NFI= .969, TLI= 1.016, CFI= 1.000, RMSEA= .329). Construction has been considered a sector characterized more by high physical risks than socially-related risks. In this context, these findings about the effects of social sources of stress in construction raise new questions about the organizational characteristics of the sector and their psychosocial risks.

  17. Psycho-social and Mental Variables and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Traffic Accident Survivors in Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi-Hassankiadeh, Naema; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Shahsavari, Hooman; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    To assess the psycho-social and mental variables associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a series of Iranian patients. A total of 528 eligible accident survivors in pre-sampling of a randomized controlled trial targeting PTSD were included in this cross-sectional study. Psycho-social characteristics associated to PTSD were explored in these survivors in an outpatient clinic. They completed the questionnaires via interview between six weeks to six months after accident. Data collection tools were PSS (DSM-V version) for PTSD and BDI-II for depression and a researcher-made questionnaire for psycho-social variables. There was a significant association between PTSD and the following variables; family communication, current depression, return to work, history of death of relatives, witnessed the death, length of amnesia, hospitalization, injured situation, and accident severity. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that some variables were associated with PTSD such as accident severity, (paccident and poor family communication who do not return to work. Thus, routine assessment of PTSD, depression and psycho-social variables after traffic accidents must be taken into account.

  18. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  19. [The acoustic indicator of saliva under stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalenkova, M A; Mikhaĭlova, Z D; Klemin, V A; Korkotashvili, L V; Abanin, A M; Klemina, A V; Dolgov, V V

    2014-03-01

    The situation of stress affects various organs and systems that results in development of functional disorders and/or somatic diseases. As a result, different noninvasive, including salivary, techniques of diagnostic of stress conditions are in the process of development. The dynamics of acoustic indicator of saliva is studied during the period of passing the exams. The relationship of indicator with levels of potassium, sodium, glucose and protein of saliva was analyzed. The sampling consisted of 102 students of 5 and 6 academic years of medical university. To detect the acoustic indicator of saliva acoustic analyzer AKBa-01- "BIOM" was applied. The level of potassium and sodium in saliva was detected using method of flame photometry. The level of glucose in saliva was detected by glucose oxydase technique using analyzer "EXAN-G". The protein in saliva was detected by biuretic technique. The correlation between acoustic indicator of saliva and analyzed indicators of saliva was established.

  20. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Bo M; Boot, Cécile R L; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-06-08

    Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate, stress, autonomy, co-worker support, and supervisor support were assessed using questionnaires, in a sample of health care workers (N = 277). Linear mixed models analyses were performed to assess to what extent social support and autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. A lower psychosocial safety climate score was associated with significantly higher stress (B = -0.21, 95% CI = -0.27 - -0.14). Neither co-worker support, supervisor support, nor autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. Taken together, autonomy and both social support measures diminished the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress by 12% (full model: B = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.25 - -0.11). Autonomy and social support together seemed to bring about a small decrease in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers. Future research should discern whether other psychosocial work factors explain a larger portion of this relation. This study was registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register, trial code: NTR5527 .

  1. Work teams and psychosocial risks and work stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Teamworking is a ‘double-edged sword’. On the one hand, teamworking has been recognised as a way of reducing work-related stress work-related stress by enhancing employees’ job autonomy. Conversely, there is a risk that teamworking could increase employee stress levels by enhancing work pressure. Th

  2. Work teams and psychosocial risks and work stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Teamworking is a ‘double-edged sword’. On the one hand, teamworking has been recognised as a way of reducing work-related stress work-related stress by enhancing employees’ job autonomy. Conversely, there is a risk that teamworking could increase employee stress levels by enhancing work pressure.

  3. Work teams and psychosocial risks and work stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Teamworking is a ‘double-edged sword’. On the one hand, teamworking has been recognised as a way of reducing work-related stress work-related stress by enhancing employees’ job autonomy. Conversely, there is a risk that teamworking could increase employee stress levels by enhancing work pressure. Th

  4. Interaction between the RGS6 gene and psychosocial stress on obesity-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2017-03-31

    Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and arises from the interactions between environmental factors and multiple genes. Psychosocial stress may affect the risk for obesity, modifying food intake and choice. A recent study suggested regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a novel candidate gene for obesity in terms of reward-related feeding under stress. In this study, we tried to verify the unidentified connection between RGS6 and human obesity with psychosocial stress in a Korean population. A total of 1,462 adult subjects, who participated in the Korean Association Resource cohort project, were included for this analysis. Obesity-related traits including waist circumference, body mass index, and visceral adipose tissue were recorded. A total of 4 intronic SNPs for the RGS6 gene were used for this study. We found that interactions between SNP rs2239219 and psychosocial stress are significantly associated with abdominal obesity (p = 0.007). As risk allele of this SNP increased, prevalence of abdominal obesity under high-stress conditions gradually increased (p = 0.013). However, we found no SNPs-by-stress interaction effect on other adiposity phenotypes. This study suggests that RGS6 is closely linked to stress-induced abdominal obesity in Korean adults.

  5. A Negative Life Event Impairs Psychosocial Stress, Recovery and Running Economy of Runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R T A; Brink, M S; Diercks, R L; Lemmink, K A P M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate how a negative life event (NLE) affects perceived psychosocial stress, recovery and running economy (RE). Competitive runners were monitored in a prospective non-experimental cohort study over one full training season in which they experienced the same unplanned severe

  6. A Negative Life Event Impairs Psychosocial Stress, Recovery and Running Economy of Runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R. T. A.; Brink, M. S.; Diercks, R. L.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The purpose was to investigate how a negative life event (NLE) affects perceived psychosocial stress, recovery and running economy (RE). Competitive runners were monitored in a prospective non-experimental cohort study over one full training season in which they experienced the same unplanned severe

  7. Expressive Writing for Gay-Related Stress: Psychosocial Benefits and Mechanisms Underlying Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E.; Goldfried, Marvin R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the effectiveness of an expressive writing intervention for gay men on outcomes related to psychosocial functioning. Method: Seventy-seven gay male college students (mean age = 20.19 years, SD = 1.99) were randomly assigned to write for 20 min a day for 3 consecutive days about either (a) the most stressful or…

  8. Disillusionment Trilogy: a Study of the Effects of Work-Related and Psychosocial Stress Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José FERNÁNDEZ GALINDO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, disorders derived from work-related and psychosocial stress are increasingly important. Here the influence of professional activities on personal and family life and on the psyche is analysed by means of three films filmed in different periods: the North American The Arrangement (1969, the Spanish The Green Pastures (1979 and the Canadian The Age of Ignorance (2007.

  9. Anxious attachment style predicts an enhanced cortisol response to group psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Nina; Thorn, Lisa; Oskis, Andrea; Hucklebridge, Frank; Evans, Phil; Clow, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Insecure attachment style is associated with poor health outcomes. A proposed pathway implicates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), dysregulation of which is associated with a wide range of mental and physical ill-health. However, data on stress reactivity in relation to attachment style is contradictory. This relationship was examined using the novel Trier Social Stress Test for groups (TSST-G): a group-based acute psychosocial stressor. Each participant, in the presence of other group members, individually performed public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks. Seventy-eight healthy young females (20.2 ± 3.2 years), in groups of up to six participants completed demographic information and the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), and were then exposed to the TSST-G. Physiological stress reactivity was assessed using salivary cortisol concentrations, measured on seven occasions at 10-min intervals. Vulnerable attachment predicted greater cortisol reactivity independent of age, smoking status, menstrual phase and body mass index. Supplementary analysis indicated that insecure anxious attachment style (high scores on the insecurity and proximity-seeking sub-scales of the VASQ) showed greater cortisol reactivity than participants with secure attachment style. Avoidant attachment style (high scores for insecurity and low scores for proximity seeking) was not significantly different from the secure attachment style. Attachment style was not associated with the timing of the cortisol peak or post-stress recovery in cortisol concentrations. These findings in healthy young females indicate subtle underlying changes in HPA axis function in relation to attachment style and may be important for future mental health and well-being.

  10. Psychosocial stress moderates the relationships between oxytocin, perinatal depression, and maternal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Gold, Ian; Feeley, Nancy; Hayton, Barbara; Carter, C Sue; Tulandi, Togas; Abenhaim, Haim A; Levin, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    The hormone oxytocin (OT) is of particular interest in the study of childbearing women, as it has a role in the onset and course of labor and breastfeeding. Recent research has linked OT to maternal caregiving behavior towards her infant, and to postpartum depressive symptomatology. There is also evidence that psychosocial adversity affects the oxytocin system. The present study investigated the relationship of endogenous OT in women during pregnancy and at 8weeks postpartum to psychosocial stress, maternal symptoms of depression, and maternal sensitive behavior. It was hypothesized that OT would mediate the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on maternal interactive behavior. We also tested the hypothesis that psychosocial stress would moderate the relationship between OT and maternal depressive symptoms and sensitive behavior. A community sample of 287 women was assessed at 12-14weeks of gestation, 32-34weeks of gestation, and 7-9weeks postpartum. We measured plasma OT, maternal symptoms of depression and psychosocial stress. At the postpartum home visit, maternal behavior in interaction with the infant was videotaped, and then coded to assess sensitivity. In the sample as a whole, OT was not related to maternal depressive symptoms or to sensitive maternal behavior. However, among women who reported high levels of psychosocial stress, higher levels of plasma OT were associated with fewer depressive symptoms and more sensitive maternal behavior. These results suggest that endogenous OT may act as a buffer against the deleterious effects of stress, thereby protecting high risk women from developing depressive symptoms and promoting more sensitive maternal interactive behavior.

  11. Investigation of the relationship between psychosocial stress and temporomandibular disorder in adults by measuring salivary cortisol concentration: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Ebtisam; Alshaarani, Fandi; Hamed, Hussein Abou; Nassar, Jihad Abou

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose of the Study: Psychological factors, particularly psychosocial stress, have been implicated as risk indicators for temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The aim of this study was to assess any differences in salivary cortisol concentration, scores of perceived stress scale (PSS), and scores of depression and distress between TMD patients and matched controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study comprised two groups; the patient group consisted of 60 patients attending the Department of Fixed Prosthodontics at the Faculty of Dentistry who met the inclusion criteria (42 females and 18 males aged 19–44), whereas the control group was selected to match the patient group in number, age and sex. Two questionnaires were used for stress assessment: The PSS 10 and the psychosocial measure of Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMD axis II. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by a competitive immunoenzymatic colorimetric method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA test, and independent t-test were used. Results: This study showed statistically significant differences between the patient group and the control group at the three measures of psychosocial stress (P < 0.05). Increased occurrence of this disorder in women has been observed. Conclusion: Psychosocial stress plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of TMD. Women are at increased risk of TMD when compared to men. Sub-types TMD patients approximately have the same level of stress. Muscle disorders were the most common. PMID:26929502

  12. Psychosocial Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment in Brazil – Perception of Parenting Style, Stressful Events and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pereira da Cruz Benetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association between measures of exposure to violence, stressful events, family socialization practices, and demographic characteristics in a group of adolescents from a Southern region of Brazil. Three hundred adolescents were investigated in a case-control study. The results showed that adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems had significant higher stressful events, violence exposure, and negative parental practices, compared with controls. However, exposure to violence was the most deteriorating condition associated with the adolescents’ clinical internalization and externalization behaviors. Findings suggest the benefit of targeting actions geared to strengthen the quality of family interactions as well as to implement preventive programs to reduce community violence impact and to enhance support in the community.

  13. Exhaustion-related changes in cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Peter; Österberg, Kai; Wallergård, Mattias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Johansson, Gerd; Karlson, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Prior findings indicate that individuals scoring high on vital exhaustion show a dysfunctional stress response (DSR), that is, reduced cortisol reactivity and habituation to psychosocial stressors. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether a DSR may be a vulnerability factor in exhaustion disorder (ED). We examined whether a DSR is present during the early stages of ED, and still is present after recovery. Three groups were studied: 1. Former ED patients (n=14); 2. persons who during the past 6 month had experienced stress at work and had a Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) score over 3.75, considered to indicate a pre-stage of ED (n=17); 3. persons who had not experienced stress at work during the past 6 months and had a SMBQ score below 2.75 (n=20). The participants were exposed twice to a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test (V-TSST), during which salivary cortisol samples were collected. In addition, high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), t-wave amplitude (TWA), and α-amylase were assessed to examine stress reactivity and habituation in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The initial analyses showed clear hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activations in both V-TSST sessions, together with habituation of cortisol and heart rate in the second session, but without any significant group differences. However, the former ED patients showed considerable variation in self-reported signs of exhaustion (SMBQ). This led us to assign former ED patients with lower ratings into the low SMBQ group (LOWS) and those with higher ratings to the high SMBQ group (HIGHS). When repeating the analyses a different picture emerged; the HIGHS showed a lower cortisol response to the V-TSST than did the LOWS. Both groups' cortisol response habituated to the second V-TSST session. The ANS responses did not differ between the two groups. Thus, persons in a pre-stage of ED and

  14. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease risk: the role of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress and depression are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and poorer prognosis, and physical (in)activity may be a key underlying biobehavioral mechanism. Physical activity has antidepressant effects, and physically fitter, more active individuals seem to be more biologically resilient to psychosocial stressors. This article will present data from a series of population cohort studies and laboratory-based psychophysiological studies to explore the role of physical activity as a protective factor against the effects of psychosocial stress on cardiovascular disease. These mechanisms may improve the treatment and prevention of stress-related illnesses and, thus, has important implications for public health and clinical care of high-risk patients.

  15. Sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Sarah; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Females begin to demonstrate greater negative affective responses to stress than males in adolescence. This may reflect the concurrent emergence of underlying differences in physiological response systems, including corticolimbic circuitries, the hypothalamic—pituitary— adrenal axis (HPAA), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This review examines when sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress emerge and the directionality of these differences over development. Indeed, the literature indicates that sex differences emerge during adolescence and persist into adulthood for all three physiological response systems. However, the directionality of the differences varies by system. The emerging corti-colimbic reactivity literature suggests greater female reactivity, particularly in limbic regions densely innervated by gonadal hormone receptors. In contrast, males generally show higher levels of HPAA and ANS reactivity. We argue that the contrasting directionality of corticolimbic and peripheral physiological responses may reflect specific effects of gonadal hormones on distinct systems and also sex differences in evolved behavioral responses that demand different levels of peripheral physiological activation. Studies that examine both subjective reports of negative affect and physiological responses indicate that beginning in adolescence, females respond to acute stressors with more intense negative affect than males despite their comparatively lower peripheral physiological responses. This dissociation is not clearly explained by sex differences in the strength of the relationship between physiological and subjective responses. We suggest that females' greater subjective responsivity may instead arise from a greater activity in brain regions that translate stress responses to subjective awareness in adolescence. Future research directions include investigations of the role of pubertal hormones in physiological reactivity

  16. Impulsivity, risk taking, and cortisol reactivity as a function of psychosocial stress and personality in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finy, M Sima; Bresin, Konrad; Korol, Donna L; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is characterized by hormonal changes and increased disinhibited behaviors, explanations for these developmental changes that include personality and environmental factors have not been fully elucidated. We examined the interactions between psychosocial stress and the traits of negative emotionality and constraint on impulsive and risk-taking behaviors as well as salivary cortisol reactivity in 88 adolescents. In terms of behavioral outcomes, analyses revealed that negative emotionality and constraint were protective of impulsivity and risk taking, respectively, for adolescents in the no-stress condition; personality did not relate to either behavior in the stress condition. Low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition engaged in less risk taking than low-constraint adolescents in the no-stress condition, whereas there was no effect of stress group for high-constraint adolescents. In terms of cortisol reactivity, analyses revealed that low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition exhibited greater cortisol reactivity compared to high-constraint adolescents, which suggests that low-constraint adolescents mobilize greater resources (e.g., increased cognitive control, heightened attention to threat) in stressful situations relative to nonstressful ones. These results demonstrate that two facets of disinhibition and cortisol reactivity are differentially affected by psychosocial stress and personality (and their interactions) in adolescents.

  17. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis.

  18. Psychosocial indicators among aircraft maintenance workers with and without neck and shoulder musculoskeletal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A; Nogueira, H; Diniz, A; Barbieri, D

    2012-01-01

    In the aircraft maintenance industry, most of workers performs manual handling tasks of different materials, varying from small objects up to large pieces of the aircraft. It can increase the occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), which are strongly associated with high physical demands required by the task. Moreover, psychosocial demands are considered as risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in both the upper limbs and lumbar spine. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess psychosocial indicators among aircraft maintenance workers according to the presence of neck and shoulder musculoskeletal symptoms. Eighty workers of an aircraft maintenance company were evaluated (32.69 ± 8.25 years, 79.8 ± 13.4 kg, 175 ± 7 cm). According to physical examination, 50 workers were classified as asymptomatic (AS - 4.1 ± 3.17 positive signs) whilst 30 workers were classified as symptomatic (SS - 26.72 ± 11.44 positive signs). AS and SS have shown similar profile of demand (p = 0.62), control (p = 0.66) and social support (p = 0.74) according to the Job Content Questionnaire. However, the groups are different when considering work engagement variables. In general, SS have higher scores than AS (p < 0.05).

  19. Maternal Weight Predicts Children's Psychosocial Development via Parenting Stress and Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Sarah; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Wendt, Verena; Grube, Matthias; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Gausche, Ruth; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children's psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children's weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI), mother–child emotional availability (EA), and maternal parenting stress are associated with children's weight and psychosocial development (i.e., internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence) and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included three assessment points (~11 months apart). The baseline sample consisted of N = 194 mothers and their children aged 5–47 months (M = 28.18, SD = 8.44, 99 girls). At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother–child interactions, coding them with the EA Scales (fourth edition). We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI–SDS scores. Children's externalizing and internalizing problems (t1–t3) and social competence (t3, N = 118) were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1.5–5), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior), and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3–6: social-emotional competence). Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM) and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI–SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence) in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to serve as

  20. Maternal weight predicts children’s psychosocial development via parenting stress and emotional availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bergmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children’s psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children’s weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI, mother-child emotional availability (EA and maternal parenting stress are associated with children’s weight and psychosocial development (i.e. internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included 3 assessment points (approx. 11 months apart. The baseline sample consisted of N=194 mothers and their children aged 5 to 47 months (M=28.18, SD=8.44, 99 girls. At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother-child interactions, coding them with the Emotional Availability Scales (4th edition. We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI-SDS scores. Children’s externalizing and internalizing problems (t1-t3 and social competence (t3, N=118 were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL1, 5-5, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3-6: social-emotional competence. Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI-SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to

  1. Glucocorticoid levels after exposure to predator odor and chronic psychosocial stress with dexamethasone application in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Ana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radojicic, Zoran; Djulejic, Vuk; Ilankovic, Andrej; Starcevic, Branislav; Filipovic, Branislav

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of specific psychosocial paradigm on predator animal posttraumatic stress model and to test the hypothesis that psychosocially stressed rats would exibit abnormal levels of cortisol and a larger suppression of cortisol levels after the application of dexamethasone. Animals were divided in two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group was exposed to two types of stressors: acute immobilization stress, and combined predator stress and daily social stress with application of dexamethasone. Blood sampling was performed at three different times. We found statistically significant results after analyzing the differences between cortisol levels in different times of blood sampling in the group of animals exposed to stress with dexamethasone application. Statistical significance was found when we compared the experimental group with the control group in terms of elevated cortisol levels during blood sampling after stress paradigm exposition. Many significant disruptions in the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis were observed, such as decrease in basal cortisol levels and enhanced dexamethasone-induced inhibition of cortisol levels. These findings are important because their impact can translate to human individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder, which is the most important role of every animal model in research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. Physiological and subjective responses after psychosocial stress in Chinese hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiansheng; Zhao, Li; Lai, Yinyan; Jiang, Suwen; Shen, Xueyong; Liu, Sheng

    2015-02-01

    Compared with healthy participants, Chinese patients with hepatitis B (HB) experience more psychosocial stress. The present study provided the first examination of physiological and subjective responses to stress in Chinese HB patients. A standard psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), was administered to 26 Chinese HB patients and 24 healthy control participants. Cortisol concentrations were measured in blood samples collected before and after the stressor. Self-reported emotional responses and cardiovascular measures were examined before and after the TSST. Depression and anxiety were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Chinese HB patients exhibited higher cortisol response to the stressor than healthy control participants. Compared with healthy participants, Chinese HB patients showed higher levels of anxiety, depression and nervousness, and lower levels of calmness after the TSST. HB patients reported more negative life events in the previous 6 months and obtained higher adversity scores, as compared with control participants. Significant correlations were obtained between adversity scores and change cortisol secretion after TSST in HB patients, but not in healthy participants. This study firstly demonstrates that physiological and subjective responses to psychosocial stress among Chinese HB patients were different from that in healthy control participants.

  3. Chronic psychosocial stress makes rats more 'pessimistic' in the ambiguous-cue interpretation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papciak, Justyna; Popik, Piotr; Fuchs, Eberhard; Rygula, Rafal

    2013-11-01

    Human decisions are often biased by emotions. Stressed and depressed individuals tend to make negative, pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Chronic psychosocial stress has previously been shown to induce a spectrum of behavioural and physiological changes in rats that are considered the correlates of depressive symptoms in humans. In this study, we investigate whether chronic social defeat makes animals more 'pessimistic'. To measure the changes in cognitive judgement bias, we applied the ambiguous-cue interpretation paradigm. In the operant boxes, the rats were trained to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment. Cognitive bias was tested by measuring the pattern of animals' responses to a tone of intermediate frequency (ambiguous-cue). To induce chronic psychosocial stress, we subjected the animals to daily social defeat in the resident-intruder paradigm for 3 weeks. We report that chronic psychosocial stress makes rats more pessimistic.

  4. Psychosocial stress and major cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Emil; Norlund, Fredrika; Stebbins, Amanda; Armstrong, Paul W; Chiswell, Karen; Granger, Christopher B; López-Sendón, José; Pella, Daniel; Soffer, Joseph; Sy, Rody; Wallentin, Lars; White, Harvey D; Stewart, Ralph A H; Held, Claes

    2017-09-28

    Assess the risk of ischemic events associated with psychosocial stress in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). Psychosocial stress was assessed by a questionnaire in 14,577 patients (median age 65.0, IQR 59, 71; 81.6% males) with stable CHD on optimal secondary preventive therapy in the prospective randomised STABILITY clinical trial. Adjusted Cox regression models were used to assess associations between individual stressors, baseline cardiovascular risk factors, and outcomes. After 3.7 years of follow-up, depressive symptoms, loss of interest, and financial stress were associated with increased risk (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) of CV death (1.21, 1.09-1.34; 1.15, 1.05-1.27; and 1.19, 1.08-1.30, respectively) and the primary composite endpoint of CV death, non-fatal MI, or non-fatal stroke (1.21, 1.13-1.30; 1.19, 1.11-1.27; and 1.17, 1.10-1.24, respectively). Living alone was related to higher risk of CV death (1.68, 1.38-2.05) and the primary composite endpoint (1.28, 1.11-1.48), whereas being married as compared with being widowed, was associated with lower risk of CV death (0.64, 0.49-0.82) and the primary composite endpoint (0.81, 0.67-0.97). Psychosocial stress, such as depressive symptoms, loss of interest, living alone, and financial stress, was associated with increased CV mortality in patients with stable CHD despite optimal medical secondary prevention treatment. Secondary prevention of CHD should therefore focus also on psychosocial issues both in clinical management and in future clinical trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex-dependent effects of chronic psychosocial stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Krivenko, Anna; Eisenmann, Eric D; Bui, Albert D; Seeley, Sarah; Fry, Megan E; Lawson, Joseph D; Stoner, Lauren E; Johnson, Brandon L; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience many debilitating symptoms, including intrusive memories, persistent anxiety and avoidance of trauma-related cues. PTSD also results in numerous physiological complications, including increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, characterization of PTSD-induced cardiovascular alterations is lacking, especially in preclinical models of the disorder. Thus, we examined the impact of a psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to psychosocial stress or control conditions for 31 days. Stressed rats were given two cat exposures, separated by a period of 10 days, and were subjected to daily social instability throughout the paradigm. Control rats were handled daily for the duration of the experiment. Rats were tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM) on day 32, and hearts were isolated on day 33 and subjected to 20 min ischemia and 2 h reperfusion on a Langendorff isolated heart system. Stressed male and female rats gained less body weight relative to controls, but only stressed males exhibited increased anxiety on the EPM. Male, but not female, rats exposed to psychosocial stress exhibited significantly larger infarcts and attenuated post-ischemic recovery of contractile function compared to controls. Our data demonstrate that predator stress combined with daily social instability sex-dependently increases myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Thus, this manipulation may be useful for studying potential mechanisms underlying cardiovascular alterations in PTSD, as well as sex differences in the cardiovascular stress response.

  6. PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING AS AN INDICATOR OF SOCIAL SECURITY OF PERSON AND SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov

    2016-01-01

    Summarizes theoretical approaches to the definition of psychosocial well-being. It shows the relationship of psychosocial well-being, social tension, social security and social health. As the methodology of research used the environmental approach. Actualized the problem of psychosocial well-being of students in modern conditions. It shows the results of the study of subjective well-being of the students using the technique of «Scale of subjective well-being» (Perrudet-Badoux, Mendelssohn and...

  7. Psychosocial Stress During First Pregnancy Predicts Infant Health Outcomes in the First Postnatal Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, A L; DiBenedetto, M R; Paul, I M; Zhu, J; Kjerulff, K H

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of psychosocial stress during pregnancy on infant health outcomes in the first postnatal year. A sample of 3000 women completed a stress inventory (the Psychosocial Hassles Scale) during their third trimester before first childbirth. Infant health outcomes were measured via maternal report at 1, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Poisson regression was used to model the effect of maternal stress during pregnancy on infant health outcomes in the first year, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, insurance coverage, marital status, and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Women who were younger, minority, unmarried, publicly insured and without a college degree were more likely to report high levels of prenatal stress. High prenatal stress was a significant predictor of maternal reporting of gastrointestinal illness (p stress was also a significant predictor of urgent care visits (p stress is associated with increased maternal reporting of infant illness, as well as increased frequency of both urgent care visits and emergency department visits.

  8. Attenuated DHEA and DHEA-S response to acute psychosocial stress in individuals with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoling; Zhong, Wen; An, Haiyan; Fu, Mingyu; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhenggang; Xiao, Zhongju

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, a relationship between depression and basal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels has frequently been suggested, but responses of these adrenal steroids to psychosocial stress have not been examined in individuals with depressive disorders. In this study, we examined salivary DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol/DHEA response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in individuals with depressive disorders and in healthy controls to discover whether the responses of DHEA and DHEA-S to acute psychosocial stress could be a more sensitive marker of HPA dysfunction in depressive disorders. We compared salivary cortisol, DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol/DHEA levels to the TSST tests between 38 individuals with depression and 43 healthy controls aged 18.4-25.9 years. Depression severity was assessed by the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Salivary samples were evaluated at four time points: the baseline (-10 time point), before the TSST started (0 time point), the end of the TSST (+20 time point), and the recovery (+50 time points). No significant differences existed in the basal adrenal hormonal levels between subjects with depressive disorders and controls; however, at the end of TSST, attenuated DHEA and DHEA-S response was identified in subjects with depressive disorders compared to that found in healthy subjects. The differences in the DHEA and DHEA-S levels at the +20 time point, as well as the differences in the cortisol/DHEA at the +50 time point, exhibited negative correlations with depression severity. Attenuated DHEA and DHEA-S response to acute psychosocial stress was identified in subjects with depressive disorders. These findings help us to discover the bi-directional relationship between depression and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, hence furthering our understanding of whether altered DHEA and DHEA-S response to psychosocial stress may be a more sensitive method than

  9. Psychosocial stress inhibits amplitude of gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulses independent of cortisol action on the type II glucocorticoid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Tilbrook, Alan J; Karsch, Fred J

    2009-02-01

    Our laboratory has developed a paradigm of psychosocial stress (sequential layering of isolation, blindfold, and predator cues) that robustly elevates cortisol secretion and decreases LH pulse amplitude in ovariectomized ewes. This decrease in LH pulse amplitude is due, at least in part, to a reduction in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, caused by cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The first experiment of the current study aimed to determine whether this layered psychosocial stress also inhibits pulsatile GnRH release into pituitary portal blood. The stress paradigm significantly reduced GnRH pulse amplitude compared with nonstressed ovariectomized ewes. The second experiment tested if this stress-induced decrease in GnRH pulse amplitude is mediated by cortisol action on the type II GR. Ovariectomized ewes were allocated to three groups: nonstress control, stress, and stress plus the type II GR antagonist RU486. The layered psychosocial stress paradigm decreased GnRH and LH pulse amplitude compared with nonstress controls. Importantly, the stress also lowered GnRH pulse amplitude to a comparable extent in ewes in which cortisol action via the type II GR was antagonized. Therefore, we conclude that psychosocial stress reduces the amplitude of GnRH pulses independent of cortisol action on the type II GR. The present findings, combined with our recent observations, suggest that the mechanisms by which psychosocial stress inhibits reproductive neuroendocrine activity at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels are fundamentally different.

  10. Psychosocial problems of women with stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Stadnicka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was evaluation of the influence of stress urinary incontinence on women’s quality of life. Material and method. The study covered 275 women between 30–65 years of age. The study was conducted using the following tools: [i]Gaudenz [/i]Questionnaire, [i]King’s Health Questionnaire[/i] (KHQ, [i]Female Sexual Function Index[/i] (FIFI Questionnaire, and a questionnaire devised by the authors of the study. Results. The study shows that the disease has a negative effect on evaluation of the quality of thee women’s lives. The symptoms of stress urinary incontinence had a significant influence on the feeling of emotional comfort, social and professional activity of the surveyed women – respectively p= 0.000; p=0.000; p=0.000. Nearly every third woman (28.7% felt great mental discomfort related to the disease symptoms, 31.7% a considerable discomfort, 33.1% a moderate, and very few women (6.5 % claimed that the disease had a minimal effect on their emotional state. About two-thirds of the surveyed women (68.7% were sexually active, and the remaining 31.3% declared the lack of sexual intercourse. Conclusions. The occurrence of stress urinary incontinence symptoms affects the quality of life of women, especially their mental state and interpersonal contacts. Most women with the symptoms of stress urinary incontinence fulfill their sexual needs; however, many of them do not feel complete satisfaction with their sex life.

  11. Perceived psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Ai; Ferrara, Assiamira; Brown, Susan D.; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Crites, Yvonne; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence links perceived stress—a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor—with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestational Diabetes’s Effects on Moms (GEM) study: 1,353 women with gestational diabetes who delivered a term singleton within Kaiser Permanente Northern California were included. Perceived stress near the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis was measured using the validated Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10). Gestational weight gain was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Binomial regression analyses adjusted for gestational age and maternal age at the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis, and race/ethnicity and estimated rate ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Among women with a normal pregravid Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), there was a significant association between high (Q4) PSS score and risk of both exceeding and gaining below the Institute of Medicine recommendations compared to those with lower stress (Q1) [adjusted RR = 2.16 95% CI 1.45–3.21; RR = 1.39 95% CI 1.01–1.91, respectively.] Among women with pregravid overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2), there was no association. Although the temporal relationship could not be established from this study, there may be a complex interplay between psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. Further studies examining stress earlier in pregnancy, risk of developing gestational diabetes and excess/inadequate gestational weight gain are warranted to clarify these complex relationships. PMID:28350836

  12. Burnout and Hypocortisolism - A Matter of Severity? A Study on ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-01-01

    Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol...

  13. Stress indicators in steers at slaughtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarrilli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the blood modifications of some slaughtering-linked stress hormones in cattle subject to butcher standardized procedures. The blood samples of 20 Limousine 12-13 months old steers have been collected before slaughtering, during lairage, and after stunning by captive bolt gun, during exsanguination. The plasma level of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and beta-endorphin have been assayed by EIA. The data indicate that catecholamines, cortisol and beta-endorphin did not significantly increase after stunning in these animals.

  14. Early Life Stress and Physical and Psychosocial Functioning in Late Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. Methods The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934–44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Results Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = −0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: −0.71 to −0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = −0.89, 95% CI: −1.58 to −0.20) and (b = −0.65, 95% CI: −1.25 to −0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = −0.70, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Conclusion Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood. PMID:23861956

  15. Early life stress and physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Alastalo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. METHODS: The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Of them, 267 (14.8% had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36 between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. RESULTS: Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = -0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.71 to -0.08. Those men separated in school age (>7 years and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.58 to -0.20 and (b = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.05, respectively. Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = -0.70, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.06. These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. CONCLUSION: Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

  16. Developmental regression, depression, and psychosocial stress in an adolescent with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David S; Munir, Kerim M; Karweck, Andrea J; Davidson, Emily J; Stein, Martin T

    2013-04-01

    Kristen is a 13-year-old girl with Down syndrome (DS) who was seen urgently with concerns of cognitive and developmental regression including loss of language, social, and toileting skills. The evaluation in the DS clinic focused on potential medical diagnoses including atlantoaxial joint instability, vitamin deficiency, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and seizures. A comprehensive medical evaluation yielded only a finding of moderate OSA. A reactive depression was considered in association with several psychosocial factors including moving homes, entering puberty/onset of menses, and classroom change from an integrated setting to a self-contained classroom comprising unfamiliar peers with behavior challenges.Urgent referrals for psychological and psychiatric evaluations were initiated. Neuropsychological testing did not suggest true regression in cognitive, language, and academic skills, although decreases in motivation and performance were noted with a reaction to stress and multiple environmental changes as a potential causative factor. Psychiatry consultation supported this finding in that psychosocial stress temporally correlated with Kristen's regression in skills.Working collaboratively, the team determined that Kristen's presentation was consistent with a reactive form of depression (DSM-IV-TR: depressive disorder, not otherwise specified). Kristen's presentation was exacerbated by salient environmental stress and sleep apnea, rather than a cognitive regression associated with a medical cause. Treatment consisted of an antidepressant medication, continuous positive airway pressure for OSA, and increased psychosocial supports. Her school initiated a change in classroom placement. With this multimodal approach to evaluation and intervention, Kristen steadily improved and she returned to her baseline function.

  17. Psychosocial Work Environment, Stress Factors and Individual Characteristics among Nursing Staff in Psychiatric In-Patient Care

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvesson Hanna; Eklund Mona

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial work environment is an important factor in psychiatric in-patient care, and knowing more of its correlates might open up new paths for future workplace interventions. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate perceptions of the psychosocial work environment among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care and how individual characteristics—Mastery, Moral Sensitivity, Perceived Stress, and Stress of Conscience—are related to different aspects of the psychosoc...

  18. The Hispanic Stress Inventory--Adolescent Version: a culturally informed psychosocial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C; Fisher, Dennis G; Córdova, David; Napper, Lucy E

    2012-03-01

    A 2-phase study was conducted to develop a culturally informed measure of psychosocial stress for adolescents: the Hispanic Stress Inventory--Adolescent Version (HSI-A). Phase 1 involved item development through the collection of open-ended focus group interview data (n = 170) from a heterogeneous sample of Hispanic youths residing in the southwest and northeast United States. In Phase 2, we examined the psychometric properties of the HSI-A (n = 1,651), which involved the use of factor analytic procedures to determine the underlying scale structure of the HSI-A for foreign-born and U.S.-born participants in an aggregated analytic approach. An 8-factor solution was established, with factors that include Family Economic Stress, Acculturation-Gap Stress, Culture and Educational Stress, Immigration-Related Stress, Discrimination Stress, Family Immigration Stress, Community and Gang-Related Stress, and Family and Drug-Related Stress. Concurrent, related validity estimates were calculated to determine relations between HSI-A and other measures of child psychopathology and behavioral and emotional disturbances. HSI-A total stress appraisal scores were significantly correlated with both the Children's Depression Inventory and the Youth Self Report (p stress appraisal score reliability alpha at .92.

  19. Can Architectural Design alter the Physiological reaction to Psychosocial Stress ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson Fich, Lars; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment...... is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants...

  20. Mercury and psychosocial stress exposure interact to predict maternal diurnal cortisol during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Coull, Brent A; Schnaas, Lourdes; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Tamayo y Ortiz, Marcela; Wright, Rosalind J; Wright, Robert O

    2015-03-27

    Disrupted maternal prenatal cortisol production influences offspring development. Factors influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis include social (e.g., stressful life events) and physical/chemical (e.g., toxic metals) pollutants. Mercury (Hg) is a common contaminant of fish and exposure is widespread in the US. No prior study has examined the joint associations of stress and mercury with maternal cortisol profiles in pregnancy. To investigate potential synergistic influences of prenatal stress and Hg exposures on diurnal cortisol in pregnant women. Analyses included 732 women (aged 27.4 ± 5.6 years) from a Mexico City pregnancy cohort. Participants collected saliva samples on two consecutive days (mean 19.52 ± 3.00 weeks gestation) and reported life stressors over the past 6 months. Hg was assessed in toe nail clippings collected during pregnancy. There were no main effects of Hg or psychosocial stress exposure on diurnal cortisol (ps > .20) but strong evidence of interaction effects on cortisol slope (interaction B = .006, SE = .003, p = .034) and cortisol at times 1 and 2 (interaction B = -.071, SE = .028, p = .013; B = -.078, SE = .032, p = .014). Women above the median for Hg and psychosocial stress exposure experienced a blunted morning cortisol response compared to women exposed to higher stress but lower Hg levels. Social and physical environmental factors interact to alter aspects of maternal diurnal cortisol during pregnancy. Research focusing solely on either domain may miss synergistic influences with potentially important consequences to the offspring.

  1. Caffeine prevents cognitive impairment induced by chronic psychosocial stress and/or high fat-high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Abdul-Razzak, K K; Khabour, O F; Al-Tuweiq, G M; Alzubi, M A; Alkadhi, K A

    2013-01-15

    Caffeine alleviates cognitive impairment associated with a variety of health conditions. In this study, we examined the effect of caffeine treatment on chronic stress- and/or high fat-high carbohydrate Western diet (WD)-induced impairment of learning and memory in rats. Chronic psychosocial stress, WD and caffeine (0.3 g/L in drinking water) were simultaneously administered for 3 months to adult male Wistar rats. At the conclusion of the 3 months, and while the previous treatments continued, rats were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for learning, short-term and long-term memory. This procedure was applied on a daily basis to all animals for 5 consecutive days or until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Chronic stress and/or WD groups caused impaired learning, which was prevented by chronic caffeine administration. In the memory tests, chronic caffeine administration also prevented memory impairment during chronic stress conditions and/or WD. Furthermore, DTC value for caffeine treated stress, WD, and stress/WD groups indicated that caffeine normalizes memory impairment in these groups. These results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented stress and/or WD-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory.

  2. Visceral obesity and psychosocial stress: a generalised control theory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2016-07-01

    The linking of control theory and information theory via the Data Rate Theorem and its generalisations allows for construction of necessary conditions statistical models of body mass regulation in the context of interaction with a complex dynamic environment. By focusing on the stress-related induction of central obesity via failure of HPA axis regulation, we explore implications for strategies of prevention and treatment. It rapidly becomes evident that individual-centred biomedical reductionism is an inadequate paradigm. Without mitigation of HPA axis or related dysfunctions arising from social pathologies of power imbalance, economic insecurity, and so on, it is unlikely that permanent changes in visceral obesity for individuals can be maintained without constant therapeutic effort, an expensive - and likely unsustainable - public policy.

  3. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller d

  4. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller de

  5. ТHE INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONAL INTELIGENCE IN PROTECTION OF THE MENTAL HEALTH IN CONDITIONS OF A PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupco Kevereski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available If our time is stressful, than protecting and promoting of our mental health is imperative of the time that is coming.In modern literature there is a huge interest for the determination of the mental health of the emotional intelligence, which is treated as a factor for it’s keeping and development. This paper is based on the assumption that the emotional intelligence has considerable contribution for understanding the relationship between psychosocial stress and mental health, seen through three important variables: self-confidence, depression and aggressiveness. In the research were included 72 people, and for variables’ measurement are used: questionnaire for measuring emotional intelligence (PК-45, stress inventory and questionnaire for emotional structure of the person- Profile index of emotions. The results from the regressive analyses showed that stress is connected to the three indicators of the mental health. People with low emotional intelligence react with lower self-confidence and high depression and aggressiveness in stressful situations. The two competencies of emotional intelligence (EI - self consciousness and social consciousness statistically are different from the other relevant measures which show that EI is important thing in understanding the relationship between the stress and mental health.

  6. Burnout and Hypocortisolism - A Matter of Severity? A Study on ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-01-01

    Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women) and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women), underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after, and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol, or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition, patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. However, there was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol. This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  7. Burnout and hypocortisolism – a matter of severity? A study on ACTH and cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin eLennartsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Methods: Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women, underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. Results: In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. There was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol however. Conclusion: This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  8. Good self-rated health is related to psychosocial resources and a strong cortisol response to acute stress: the LiVicordia study of middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristenson, Margareta; Olsson, Anders G; Kucinskiene, Zita

    2005-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a strong predictor for disease and death. The relations among SRH, psychosocial factors, and cortisol dynamics were tested using pooled data from the LiVicordia study of 50-year-old men in Lithuania (n = 94) and Sweden (n = 89), controlling for effect of residence. SRH was assessed by "How would you assess your own health?" A standardized laboratory stress test included measures of cortisol in serum and saliva. Good SRH related to high scale scores of decision latitude, social support at work, coping, self-esteem, and sense of coherence; to low scores of overcommitment (all p stress (r = .27, p = .001). Findings that good SRH related to favorable psychosocial characteristics and to a dynamic cortisol stress response indicate a possible explanation for observed lower risk for disease and death in this state.

  9. The effects of sex and hormonal status on the physiological response to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajantie, Eero; Phillips, David I W

    2006-02-01

    Whether one is male or female is one of the most important determinants of human health. While males are more susceptible to cardiovascular and infectious disease, they are outnumbered by women for many autoimmune disorders, fibromyalgia and chronic pain. Recently, individual differences in the physiological response to stress have emerged as a potentially important risk factor for these disorders. This raises the possibility that sex differences in prevalence of disease could at least in part be explained by sex differences in the nature of the physiological response to stress. In a psychophysiological laboratory, the autonomic nervous system response can be provoked by many different stressors including physical, mental and psychosocial tasks, while the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) response seems to be more specific to a psychosocial challenge incorporating ego involvement. The responses of both systems to different psychosocial challenges have been subject to extensive research, although in respect of sex differences the HPAA response has probably been more systematically studied. In this review, we focus on sex differences in HPAA and autonomic nervous system responses to acute psychosocial stress. Although some differences are dependent on the stressor used, the responses of both systems show marked and consistent differences according to sex, with the phase of the menstrual cycle, menopausal status and pregnancy having marked effects. Between puberty and menopause, adult women usually show lower HPAA and autonomic responses than men of same age. However, the HPAA response is higher in the luteal phase, when for example post stress free cortisol levels approach those of men. After menopause, there is an increase in sympathoadrenal responsiveness, which is attenuated during oral hormone replacement therapy, with most evidence suggesting that HPAA activity shows the same trends. Interestingly, pregnancy is associated with an attenuated response of

  10. The hippocampal response to psychosocial stress varies with salivary uric acid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Adam M; Wheelock, Muriah D; Harnett, Nathaniel G; Mrug, Sylvie; Granger, Douglas A; Knight, David C

    2016-12-17

    Uric acid is a naturally occurring, endogenous compound that impacts mental health. In particular, uric acid levels are associated with emotion-related psychopathology (e.g., anxiety and depression). Therefore, understanding uric acid's impact on the brain would provide valuable new knowledge regarding neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between uric acid and mental health. Brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus underlie stress reactivity and emotion regulation. Thus, uric acid may impact emotion by modifying the function of these brain regions. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a psychosocial stress task to investigate the relationship between baseline uric acid levels (in saliva) and brain function. Results demonstrate that activity within the bilateral hippocampal complex varied with uric acid concentrations. Specifically, activity within the hippocampus and surrounding cortex increased as a function of uric acid level. The current findings suggest that uric acid levels modulate stress-related hippocampal activity. Given that the hippocampus has been implicated in emotion regulation during psychosocial stress, the present findings offer a potential mechanism by which uric acid impacts mental health. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Psychosocial stress at work and alcohol consumption patterns in offshore oil workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jahina Moura; Abreu, Angela Mendes; Portela, Luciana Fernandes

    2017-07-13

    The objectives were to assess the association between psychosocial stress at work and alcohol consumption patterns in offshore oil workers. This was a cross-sectional study of 210 workers on offshore oil rigs in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July to September 2014. The data collection instrument was a self-completed multidimensional questionnaire. Exposure to stress was measured by the demand-control model and alcohol consumption pattern was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Statistical analyses were based on the multivariate logistic regression model. Participants' mean age was 32.9 years (SD ± 8.1 years). Most were married (62.9%) and reported having a religion (84.5%); 15.2% reported abusive levels of alcohol consumption, 20.3% had finished university, and 56.6% had fewer than 5 years of offshore experience. All the participants were subject to 12-hour daily shifts for 15 days followed by 15 days off, and 62.4% worked on fixed shifts. The multivariate analyses showed that workers exposed to workplace stress (OR = 3.30; 95%CI: 1.18-9.27) had higher odds of alcohol abuse when compared to unexposed workers. The results help elucidate what is still a controversial issue in the literature, i.e., the relationship between psychosocial stress and alcohol consumption, and point to the need for further studies.

  12. The psychosocial indicators related to neuroticism in both sexes: A study of incoming university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hung Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroticism may have great impact on mental and physical health in both sexes. The aims of this study were to explore whether relationships between neuroticism scores and psychosocial indicators as well as metabolic syndrome in a population of incoming university students existed in the different sexes. In total, 4266 incoming students were included in this study. The test battery comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including the neuroticism subscale of the Maudsley Personality Inventory, the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, the measurement of support functions, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multivariate logistic regression showed that higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores, higher Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision scores, and higher 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire scores were significantly correlated with neuroticism in both sexes, but lower perceived routine support: measurement of support functions scores were associated only with the male participants. No significant differences were found in terms of body mass index or other metabolic profiles. Individuals with poorer mental health and a poorer personal lifestyle had higher neuroticism scores, and sex effects may influence the scale of perceived social support in the neuroticism group. However, the lack of an association between neuroticism score and metabolic syndrome may be due to the recruitment of younger participants in this study.

  13. The psychosocial indicators related to neuroticism in both sexes: A study of incoming university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Hung; Cheng, Shu-Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Lee, I-Hui; Lee, Chih-Ting; Chen, Kao-Chin; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yang, Yen-Kuang; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Neuroticism may have great impact on mental and physical health in both sexes. The aims of this study were to explore whether relationships between neuroticism scores and psychosocial indicators as well as metabolic syndrome in a population of incoming university students existed in the different sexes. In total, 4266 incoming students were included in this study. The test battery comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including the neuroticism subscale of the Maudsley Personality Inventory, the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, the measurement of support functions, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multivariate logistic regression showed that higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores, higher Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision scores, and higher 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire scores were significantly correlated with neuroticism in both sexes, but lower perceived routine support: measurement of support functions scores were associated only with the male participants. No significant differences were found in terms of body mass index or other metabolic profiles. Individuals with poorer mental health and a poorer personal lifestyle had higher neuroticism scores, and sex effects may influence the scale of perceived social support in the neuroticism group. However, the lack of an association between neuroticism score and metabolic syndrome may be due to the recruitment of younger participants in this study.

  14. Financial Stress Indices and Financial Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Robert; Hoeberichts, Marco; Vasicek, Borek; Zigraiova, Diana; Smidkova, Katerina; de Haan, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a Financial Stress Index (FSI) for 28 OECD countries and examines its relationship to crises using a novel database for financial crises. A stress index measures the current state of stress in the financial system and summarizes it in a single statistic. Our results suggest that

  15. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S. Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent “perceived social mobility.” Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories. PMID:25932460

  16. Perceptions of social mobility: development of a new psychosocial indicator associated with adolescent risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C H; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent "perceived social mobility." Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.

  17. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent perceived social mobility. Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1 projected future social status and (2 current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥ 4 hours of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.

  18. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Aydemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Methods: Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502; household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501; participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414; hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567, superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667, and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450; and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597. There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  19. Psychosocial stress, glucocorticoids, and structural alterations in the tree shrew hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, E; Flügge, G; Ohl, F; Lucassen, P; Vollmann-Honsdorf, G K; Michaelis, T

    2001-06-01

    Animal models for chronic stress represent an indispensable preclinical approach to human pathology since clinical data point to a major role of psychological stress experiences, acute and/or chronic, to the development of behavioral and physiological disturbances. Chronic emotional arousal is a consequence of various types of social interactions, and one major neurohumoral accompaniment is the activation of the classic stress circuit, the limbic--hypothalamic--pituitary--adrenocortical (LHPA) axis. The adrenocortical glucocorticoid hormones cortisol and corticosterone are principal effectors within this circuit since they affect neurotransmission and neuroendocrine control, thus having profound effects on mood and behavior. Using the experimental paradigm of chronic psychosocial stress in tree shrews, we investigated the impact of aversive chronic social encounters on hippocampal structure and function. In chronically stressed animals, we observed dendritic atrophy of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and an impairment of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. However, a stress-induced loss of hippocampal neurons was not observed in this animal model. This review summarizes our recent results on structural changes occurring during chronic stress in neurons of the hippocampus and their potential influence on learning and memory. We discuss whether these changes are reversible and to what extent glucocorticoids might be responsible for the stress-induced effects.

  20. Does cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor mediate suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in response to psychosocial stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Pytiak, Andrew V; Tilbrook, Alan J; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Karsch, Fred J

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the importance of cortisol in mediating inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion in sheep exposed to a psychosocial stress. First, we developed an acute psychosocial stress model that involves sequential layering of novel stressors over 3-4 h. This layered-stress paradigm robustly activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and unambiguously inhibited pulsatile LH secretion. We next used this paradigm to test the hypothesis that cortisol, acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mediates stress-induced suppression of pulsatile LH secretion. Our approach was to determine whether an antagonist of the type II GR (RU486) reverses inhibition of LH pulsatility in response to the layered stress. We used two animal models to assess different aspects of LH pulse regulation. With the first model (ovariectomized ewe), LH pulse characteristics could vary as a function of both altered GnRH pulses and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. In this case, antagonism of the type II GR did not prevent stress-induced inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion. With the second model (pituitary-clamped ovariectomized ewe), pulsatile GnRH input to the pituitary was fixed to enable assessment of stress effects specifically at the pituitary level. In this case, the layered stress inhibited pituitary responsiveness to GnRH and antagonism of the type II GR reversed the effect. Collectively, these findings indicate acute psychosocial stress inhibits pulsatile LH secretion, at least in part, by reducing pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Cortisol, acting via the type II GR, is an obligatory mediator of this effect. However, under conditions in which GnRH input to the pituitary is not clamped, antagonism of the type II GR does not prevent stress-induced inhibition of LH pulsatility, implicating an additional pathway of suppression that is independent of cortisol acting via this receptor.

  1. CYCLES OF POVERTY, FOOD INSECURITY, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS AMONG AIDS CARE VOLUNTEERS IN URBAN ETHIOPIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2011-05-01

    With the rollout of AIDS therapies, volunteer AIDS care has been promoted across Africa under the assumption that volunteerism is economically imperative in settings of health professional and resource scarcity. As low-income volunteers have become a major part of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment workforces, it is imperative to question how poverty impacts their well-being. This chapter presents epidemiologic data collected during the 2008 food crisis from a sample of 110 AIDS care volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as well as narratives offered by HIV-positive volunteers, highlighting a widely overlooked way in which food insecurity and mental distress impact efforts to treat AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Food insecurity and elevated common mental disorder (CMD) symptom loads were common and tightly linked among the volunteers in the sample. Volunteers who were HIV-positive (17 percent) fared slightly worse in terms of food insecurity and psychosocial well-being. However, positive HIV serostatus was not associated with CMD in multivariate analyses accounting for food insecurity. Narratives illustrate how being HIV-positive shaped experiences of psychosocial stress, which involved unemployment and lack of prospects for marital relationships or strife within them. Our focus demonstrates the potential for mixing ethnographic and epidemiological methods to inform policy questions regarding poverty-reduction through compensation for volunteers' valuable labor, as well as AIDS care program sustainability. [volunteerism, AIDS care, food insecurity, livelihoods, HIV, psychosocial health].

  2. Chronic psychosocial stress increases the risk for inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sebastian; Grunwald, Nicole; Rümmele, Petra; Endlicher, Esther; Lechner, Anja; Neumann, Inga D; Obermeier, Florian; Reber, Stefan O

    2012-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) than the general population. Furthermore, chronic psychosocial stress increases the likelihood of developing IBD and multiple types of malignant neoplasms, including CRC. Here, for the first time, we investigate the effects of chronic psychosocial stress in male mice on an artificially induced CRC, by employing the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing paradigm in combination with the reliable azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) CRC model. Colonoscopy revealed that CSC mice showed accelerated macroscopic suspect lesions. In addition, more CSC mice developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and/or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in the colonic tissue compared to the single-housed control mice (SHC). CSC mice showed an increased number of Ki67+ and a decreased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling epithelial cells in colonic tissue. Colonic liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), cyclooxygenase II (COXII), tumor necrosis factor, forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) mRNA as well as colonic ß-catenin, COXII, and LRH-1 protein expression were also increased in CSC compared with SHC mice. Although the number of CD4+ Th cells was increased, a tendency toward a decreased colonic interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression was observed. Furthermore, despite an increased percentage of CD3+ cells and CD3+/FoxP3+ double-positive cells within mesenteric lymph node cells of CSC mice, IFN-γ secretion from these cells was unaffected. Altogether, our results suggest that chronic psychosocial stress increases the risk for AOM/DSS-induced and, thus, inflammation-related CRC. Finally, assessment of additional time points may test whether the shift from tumor-protective Th1 cell to regulatory T-cell immunity represents a consequence of increased carcinogenesis or a causal factor involved in its development.

  3. Implications of psychosocial stress on memory formation in a typical male versus female student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Sandra; van Stegeren, Anda H; Joëls, Marian

    2011-05-01

    Stress is known to differentially modulate memory function. Memory can be impaired or strengthened by stress, depending on e.g. the memory type and phase under study, the emotional value of the learned information and the sex of the subjects. Here, we addressed the latter and investigated the impact of psychosocial stress on long-term memory for neutral and emotional pictures and working memory in typical samples of male versus female students. In total, 77 subjects (54 women of which 39 used oral contraceptives) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or a control condition, and then engaged in a long-term memory task (emotionally arousing and neutral pictures; surprise recall after one week) and a working memory (n-back) task. During the experiment salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels as well as subjective affect state were assessed. As expected, stress hormone concentrations as well as subjective negative affect states increased significantly in response to the stress task. Men reacted more to the stressor in terms of cortisol responses than women, probably due to oral contraceptive use of the latter. Results show that, in male as well as in female students, memory for emotional arousing information was better than for neutral information, in both the stress and control condition. Stress enhanced recognition memory for emotional versus neutral pictures only in male subjects. Moreover, stress enhanced working memory, particularly in males, during the first block of a 2-back task. The lack of stress effects on memory in women might be explained by oral contraceptive use, leading to blunted HPA-axis responses and secondary to reduced stress effects on memory. The results emphasize that stress affects both long-term and working memory differentially in male versus female students.

  4. Psychosocial safety climate: a multilevel theory of work stress in the health and community service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, M F; McTernan, W

    2011-12-01

    Work stress is widely thought to be a significant problem in the health and community services sector. We reviewed evidence from a range of different data sources that confirms this belief. High levels of psychosocial risk factors, psychological health problems and workers compensation claims for stress are found in the sector. We propose a multilevel theoretical model of work stress to account for the results. Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) refers to a climate for psychological health and safety. It reflects the balance of concern by management about psychological health v. productivity. By extending the health erosion and motivational paths of the Job Demands-Resources model we propose that PSC within work organisations predicts work conditions and in turn psychological health and engagement. Over and above this, however, we expect that the external environment of the sector particularly government policies, driven by economic rationalist ideology, is increasing work pressure and exhaustion. These conditions are likely to lead to a reduced quality of service, errors and mistakes.

  5. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  6. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    a substantial number of symptoms 3 years after the incident. Thus, a treatment program designed to target PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed children was established. Objectives The first aim of this study was to provide preliminary evidence that a classroom-based psychosocial intervention program for children....... Furthermore, the results indicated that the Darryl instrument is a useful screening tool for assessing PTSD symptoms in this sample of children. Keywords Trauma Disaster Treatment Children Assessment...

  7. Psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Wendelbo, Troels

    Nordic countries. We find that the effect of pay and 'sociability' on absence depends on the individual being employed in a private or public organization. We also find that the effect of pay depends on being a manager or not, and so do work pressure, job security, cooperation, climate among colleagues......This paper studies the interaction of sector and occupational status with psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism. The odds ratio and population attributable risk are estimated based on data from a survey of 10,748 individuals from four......, and whether work gets the individual down....

  8. Psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Wendelbo, Troels

    This paper studies the interaction of sector and occupational status with psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism. The odds ratio and population attributable risk are estimated based on data from a survey of 10,748 individuals from four...... Nordic countries. We find that the effect of pay and 'sociability' on absence depends on the individual being employed in a private or public organization. We also find that the effect of pay depends on being a manager or not, and so do work pressure, job security, cooperation, climate among colleagues...

  9. Which DSM-IV personality disorders are most strongly associated with indices of psychosocial morbidity in psychiatric outpatients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Martinez, Jennifer; Morgan, Theresa A

    2012-10-01

    The DSM-5 Work Group for Personality and Personality Disorders (PDs) recommended retaining 6 specific PD "types" (antisocial, avoidant, borderline, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal) and eliminating the other 4 PDs currently included in DSM-IV (paranoid, schizoid, histrionic, and dependent). One important clinical aspect of PDs is their association with indices of psychosocial morbidity. Because the literature on the relationship between PDs and psychosocial morbidity in psychiatric patients is limited, we undertook the current analysis of the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project database to examine which PDs were most strongly associated with a variety of measures of psychosocial morbidity. We tested the hypothesis that the disorders recommended for retention in DSM-5 would be associated with more severe morbidity than the disorders recommended for deletion. A total of 2150 psychiatric outpatients were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axes I and II disorders and 7 measures of psychosocial morbidity. We examined the correlation between each PD dimensional score and each measure of morbidity and then conducted multiple regression analyses to determine which PDs were independently associated with the indices of morbidity. For the 6 PDs proposed for retention in DSM-5, 36 (85.7%) of the 42 correlations were significant, whereas for the 4 PDs proposed for deletion, 26 (92.9%) of the 28 correlations were significant. In the regression analyses for the 6 PDs proposed for retention in DSM-5, 19 (45.2%) of the 42 β coefficients were significant, whereas for the 4 PDs proposed for deletion, 7 (25.0%) of the 28 β coefficients were significant. The results of the present study, along with the results of other studies, do not provide clear evidence for the preferential retention of some PDs over others based on their association with indices of psychosocial morbidity.

  10. The context specificity of anxiety responses induced by chronic psychosocial stress in rats: a shift from anxiety to social phobia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsy, Boglárka; Leveleki, Csilla; Zelena, Dóra; Haller, József

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the anxiety-increasing effects of chronic psychosocial stress generalize to non-social (i.e. heterotypic) stressful situations. To investigate this issue, we repeatedly exposed rats to predictable or unpredictable psychosocial stress for 5 or 12 days and examined their anxiety in two markedly different contexts: the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Psychosocial stress and the social interaction test were administered under highly similar conditions, i.e. the two situations were homotypic. Psychosocial stress did not affect anxiety in the elevated plus-maze under any condition, but markedly increased anxiety in the social interaction test. In contrast, repeated restraint-a non-social stressor heterotypic to both the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests-increased plus-maze anxiety, demonstrating that anxiety in this test was sensitive to repeated restraint, and the effects were manifested in heterotypic situations. Thus, the anxiety-related effects of chronic psychosocial stress-unlike those of the chronic non-social stressor-were context-dependent. This is reminiscent of phobic anxiety, which manifests in specific situations only. In addition, behavior in the social interaction test showed changes that went beyond simple anxiogenesis. Socially stressed rats spent nearly 40% of total time in aggressive interactions. Based on recent data showing that social phobics are prone to violence under social pressure, and also based on the situation-dependent effects of the social stressor, we suggest that chronic psychosocial stress leads to a behavioral profile akin to social phobia.

  11. No matter of etiology: biogenetic, psychosocial and vulnerability-stress causal explanations fail to improve attitudes towards schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Schmick, Sylvia; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2014-03-30

    Many anti-stigma campaigns emphasize biogenetic causes to convey that schizophrenia is an "illness like others". A growing body of studies shows that although biogenetic explanations reduce blame, they tend to reinforce prognostic pessimism and harsher treatment of people with schizophrenia. In contrast, psychosocial explanations attenuate prognostic pessimism and perceived otherness, but seem less suitable to reduce blame. We hypothesized that a vulnerability-stress model that combines biogenetic and psychosocial explanations would yield clearer stigma-reducing effects than the mono-causal models. In an online-experiment, 416 participants from the general population randomly received either a vulnerability-stress, biogenetic, psychosocial or control-intervention, which consisted of information text and video presentation of a case-example. Causal beliefs, stereotypes and desired social distance were assessed by self-report. Baseline causal beliefs were weakly associated with stereotypes. The vulnerability-stress intervention did not reduce stigma more effectively than the biogenetic or psychosocial intervention and was less effective in reducing perceived blame than the biogenetic intervention. Compared to the control-intervention, no intervention showed significant stigma-reducing effects, but the psychosocial and vulnerability-stress conditions both increased blame. We found no evidence for vulnerability-stress explanations as a mean to reduce stigma. We propose further research to identify more effective ways to tackle stigma.

  12. Quantifying Multiple Work-Related Psychosocial Risk Factors: Proposal for a Composite Indicator Based on the COPSOQ II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, Adrienne; Nistor, Katalin; Zakor, Tünde; Szabó, Anita; Nistor, Anikó; Ádám, Szilvia; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna

    2017-05-23

    To determine national reference values for the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) across occupational sectors and develop a composite score to estimate the cumulative effect of multiple work-related stressors, in order to facilitate the implementation of occupational health directives on psychosocial risk assessment. Cross-sectional data was collected via an online questionnaire. The sample included 13,104 individuals and was representative of the general Hungarian adult working population in terms of gender, age, education, and occupation. Mean scores were calculated for 18 scales on work environment and for 5 outcome scales of the COPSOQ II across 18 occupational sectors. We analyzed the association between a composite psychosocial risk score (CPRS), reflecting severity of exposure to multiple risk factors, and high stress, burnout, sleep troubles, and poor self-rated health. We found occupation-related differences in the mean scores on all COPSOQ II scales. Scores on the "Stress" scale ranged from 47.9 to 56.2, with the highest mean score in accommodation and food services sector. Variability was greatest with respect to emotional demands (range 40.3-67.6) and smallest with respect to role clarity (range 70.3-75.7). The prevalence of negative health outcomes increased with the CPRS. Five risk categories were formed, for which the odds ratio of negative outcomes ranged from 1.6 to 56.5. The sector-specific psychosocial risk profiles covering 18 work environmental factors can be used as a reference in organizational surveys and international comparisons. The CPRS proved to be a powerful predictor of self-reported negative health outcomes.

  13. Psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD produces physiological and behavioral sequelae and a traumatic memory four months following stress onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Park, Collin R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2015-08-01

    We have a well-established animal model of PTSD composed of predator exposure administered in conjunction with social instability that produces PTSD-like behavioral and physiological abnormalities one month after stress initiation. Here, we assessed whether the PTSD-like effects would persist for at least 4months after the initiation of the psychosocial stress regimen. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 2 or 3 predator-based fear conditioning sessions. During each session, rats were placed in a chamber for a 3-min period that terminated with a 30-s tone, followed by 1h of immobilization of the rats during cat exposure (Day 1). All rats in the stress groups received a second fear conditioning session 10days later (Day 11). Half of the stress rats received a third fear conditioning session 3weeks later (Day 32). The two cat-exposed groups were also exposed to daily unstable housing conditions for the entire duration of the psychosocial stress regimen. The control group received stable (conventional) housing conditions and an equivalent amount of chamber exposure on Days 1, 11 and 32, without cat exposure. Behavioral testing commenced for all groups on Day 116. The stress groups demonstrated increased anxiety on the elevated plus maze, impaired object recognition memory and robust contextual and cued fear conditioned memory 3months after the last conditioning session. Combined data from the two stress groups revealed lower post-stress corticosterone levels and greater diastolic blood pressure relative to the control group. These findings indicate that predator-based psychosocial stress produces persistent PTSD-like physiological and behavioral abnormalities that may provide insight into the neurobiological and endocrine sequelae in traumatized people with PTSD.

  14. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  15. Work-related psychosocial stress and the risk of type 2 diabetes in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, K-Y; Xu, W; Mangialasche, F; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H-X

    2017-06-01

    Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores. From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged ≥60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM. During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27-7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22-31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17-76.53). Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  16. A Negative Life Event Impairs Psychosocial Stress, Recovery and Running Economy of Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, R T A; Brink, M S; Diercks, R L; Lemmink, K A P M

    2016-03-01

    The purpose was to investigate how a negative life event (NLE) affects perceived psychosocial stress, recovery and running economy (RE). Competitive runners were monitored in a prospective non-experimental cohort study over one full training season in which they experienced the same unplanned severe NLE. 16 runners recorded stress and recovery scores (RESTQ-Sport) every week. The average scores over 3 weeks before the NLE were used as a baseline and were compared to scores during the week of the NLE (week 0), week 1 and week 2. 7 runners completed a submaximal treadmill test before and after the NLE. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that most scores on general stress scales were increased in week 0 and 1. Of the general recovery scales, "general well-being" was decreased in week 0 and 1, "social" and "physical recovery" were decreased in week 0. No changes in the sport-specific stress scales were found. However, 2 of the sport-specific recovery scales were decreased in week 0. An impaired RE was shown 3 weeks after the NLE. Therefore, it is important to know what is going on in an athlete's life, because stressful life events alter RE after the stress and recovery already returned to normal levels.

  17. The antidepressant fluoxetine normalizes the nuclear glucocorticoid receptor evoked by psychosocial stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, M.; Simić, I.; Djordjević, J.; Radojčić, M. B.; Adžić, M.

    2011-12-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and stress disorders. Glucocorticoids, key regulators of the stress response, exert diverse effects on cellular processes in the hippocampus. Beside non-genomic pathways, glucocorticoid effects are mediated through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a ligand activated transcriptional factor that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. We analysed the GR protein levels both in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of the hippocampus of Wistar rats exposed to chronic psychosocial isolation stress upon chronic fluoxetine (FLU) treatment. Under chronic stress, corticosterone levels (CORT) were decreased compared to the control, and treatment with FLU did not change its level in the stressed rats. At the molecular level, FLU normalized the level of nuclear GR protein in the hippocampus of the stressed rats. Discrepancy between normalization of nuclear GR in the hippocampus and lack of normalization of HPA axis activity judged by CORT, suggests that other brain structures such as the amygdale and prefrontal cortex that also regulate HPA axis activity, seem not to be normalized by the FLU treatment used in our study.

  18. Neighborhood food environment role in modifying psychosocial stress-diet relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Izumi, Betty T; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A; Lockett, Murlisa

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to highly palatable foods may increase eating in response to stress, but this behavioral response has not been examined in relation to the neighborhood food environment. This study examined whether the neighborhood food environment modified relationships between psychosocial stress and dietary behaviors. Probability-sample survey (n=460) and in-person food environment audit data were used. Dietary behaviors were measured using 17 snack food items and a single eating-out-of-home item. Chronic stress was derived from five subscales; major life events was a count of nine items. The neighborhood food environment was measured as availability of large grocery stores, small grocery stores, and convenience stores, as well as proportion of restaurants that were fast food. Two-level hierarchical regression models were estimated. Snack food intake was positively associated with convenience store availability and negatively associated with large grocery store availability. The measures of chronic stress and major life events were generally not associated with either dietary behavior overall, although Latinos were less likely to eat out at high levels of major life events than African Americans. Stress-neighborhood food environment interactions were not statistically significant. Important questions remain regarding the role of the neighborhood food environment in the stress-diet relationship that warrant further investigation.

  19. The effect of acute exercise and psychosocial stress on fine motor skills and testosterone concentration in the saliva of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Koedijker, Johan M; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of different stressors on fine motor skills, the concentration of testosterone (T), and their interaction in adolescents. Therefore, 62 high school students aged 14-15 years were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (exercise, psychosocial stress) and a control group. Exercise stress was induced at 65-75% of the maximum heart rate by running for 15 minutes (n = 24). Psychosocial stress was generated by an intelligence test (HAWIK-IV), which was uncontrollable and characterized by social-evaluative-threat to the students (n = 21). The control group followed was part of a regular school lesson with the same duration (n = 28). Saliva was collected after a normal school lesson (pre-test) as well as after the intervention/control period (post-test) and was analyzed for testosterone. Fine motor skills were assessed pre- and post-intervention using a manual dexterity test (Flower Trail) from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. A repeated measure ANCOVA including gender as a covariate revealed a significant group by test interaction, indicating an increase in manual dexterity only for the psychosocial stress group. Correlation analysis of all students shows that the change of testosterone from pre- to post-test was directly linked (r = -.31, p = .01) to the changes in manual dexterity performance. Participants showing high increases in testosterone from pre- to post-test made fewer mistakes in the fine motor skills task. Findings suggest that manual dexterity increases when psychosocial stress is induced and that improvement of manual dexterity performance corresponds with the increase of testosterone.

  20. The effect of acute exercise and psychosocial stress on fine motor skills and testosterone concentration in the saliva of high school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Wegner

    Full Text Available Little is known about the influence of different stressors on fine motor skills, the concentration of testosterone (T, and their interaction in adolescents. Therefore, 62 high school students aged 14-15 years were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (exercise, psychosocial stress and a control group. Exercise stress was induced at 65-75% of the maximum heart rate by running for 15 minutes (n = 24. Psychosocial stress was generated by an intelligence test (HAWIK-IV, which was uncontrollable and characterized by social-evaluative-threat to the students (n = 21. The control group followed was part of a regular school lesson with the same duration (n = 28. Saliva was collected after a normal school lesson (pre-test as well as after the intervention/control period (post-test and was analyzed for testosterone. Fine motor skills were assessed pre- and post-intervention using a manual dexterity test (Flower Trail from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. A repeated measure ANCOVA including gender as a covariate revealed a significant group by test interaction, indicating an increase in manual dexterity only for the psychosocial stress group. Correlation analysis of all students shows that the change of testosterone from pre- to post-test was directly linked (r = -.31, p = .01 to the changes in manual dexterity performance. Participants showing high increases in testosterone from pre- to post-test made fewer mistakes in the fine motor skills task. Findings suggest that manual dexterity increases when psychosocial stress is induced and that improvement of manual dexterity performance corresponds with the increase of testosterone.

  1. The implicit Power Motive and Adolescents' Salivary Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress and Exercise in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Scheuermann, Katharina S; Machado, Sergio; Budde, Henning

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined the moderating effect of the power motive on salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress and exercise in adolescents. Fifty-seven high school students aged M = 14.8 years participated in the study. The Operant Motive Test was applied to measure the implicit power motive and the Personality Research Form was used to measure the explicit power motive. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after the stress stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. An exercise group ran 15 minutes at a defined heart rate of 65-75% HRmax. A psychosocial stress group worked on a standard intelligence test for the same amount of time under the assumption, that their test scores will be made public in class after the test. The control group participated in a regular class session. The implicit power motive was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels in the psychosocial stress group. The explicit power motive was not associated with cortisol responses. Findings suggest that the implicit power motive moderates the cortisol responses to acute stress in an adolescent age group with higher responses to psychosocial stress in comparison to exercise or control conditions.

  2. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  3. Psychosocial stress on neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunctions in Alzheimer's disease: the emerging role for microglia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen, Sami; Youssef, Andrew; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V; Landreth, Gary E; Malm, Tarja; Tian, Li

    2017-02-06

    Chronic psychosocial stress is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and associated cognitive deficits. Chronic stress also primes microglia and induces inflammatory responses in the adult brain, thereby compromising synapse-supportive roles of microglia and deteriorating cognitive functions during aging. Substantial evidence demonstrates that failure of microglia to clear abnormally accumulating amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in AD. Moreover, genome-wide association studies have linked variants in several immune genes the expression of which in the brain is restricted to microglia, such as TREM2 and CR1, with cognitive dysfunctions in LOAD. Thus, inflammation-promoting chronic stress may create a vicious cycle of aggravated microglial dysfunction accompanied by increased Aβ accumulation, collectively exacerbating neurodegeneration. Surprisingly however, little is known about whether and how chronic stress contributes to microglia-mediated neuroinflammation that may underlie cognitive impairments in AD. This review aims to summarize the currently available clinical and preclinical data and outline potential molecular mechanisms linking stress, AD and neurodegeneration, to foster future research in this field.

  4. Anger responses to psychosocial stress predict heart rate and cortisol stress responses in men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Lerman, Michelle; Wolf, Jutta M

    2014-11-01

    While previous research has suggested that anger and fear responses to stress are linked to distinct sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress responses, little is known about how these emotions predict hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Further, earlier research primarily relied on retrospective self-report of emotion. The current study aimed at addressing both issues in male and female individuals by assessing the role of anger and fear in predicting heart rate and cortisol stress responses using both self-report and facial coding analysis to assess emotion responses. We exposed 32 healthy students (18 female; 19.6±1.7 yr) to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (TSST) and measured heart rate and salivary cortisol levels throughout the protocol. Anger and fear before and after stress exposure was assessed by self-report, and video recordings of the TSST were assessed by a certified facial coder to determine emotion expression (FACS). Self-reported emotions and emotion expressions did not correlate (all p>.23). Increases in self-reported fear predicted blunted cortisol responses in men (β=0.41, p=.04). Also for men, longer durations of anger expression predicted exaggerated cortisol responses (β=0.67 p=.004), and more anger incidences predicted exaggerated cortisol and heart rate responses (β=0.51, p=.033; β=0.46, p=.066, resp.). Anger and fear did not predict SNS or HPA activity for females (all p>.23). The current differential self-report and facial coding findings support the use of multiple modes of emotion assessment. Particularly, FACS but not self-report revealed a robust anger-stress association that could have important downstream health effects for men. For women, future research may clarify the role of other emotions, such as self-conscious expressions of shame, for physiological stress responses. A better understanding of the emotion-stress link may contribute to behavioral interventions targeting health-promoting ways of

  5. Interaction of sleep quality and psychosocial stress on obesity in African Americans: the Cardiovascular Health Epidemiology Study (CHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yuan-Xiang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with whites, sleep disturbance and sleep deprivation appear more prevalent in African Americans (AA. Long-term sleep deprivation may increase the risk of obesity through multiple metabolic and endocrine alterations. Previous studies have reported contradictory results on the association between habitual sleep duration and obesity. Accordingly, we aimed to assess whether sleep quality and duration are inversely associated with body mass index (BMI and obesity and test whether these associations are modified by psychosocial stress, known to influence sleep quality. Methods A sample of 1,515 AA residents of metropolitan Atlanta, aged 30-65 years, was recruited by a random-digit-dialing method in 2007-08. The outcome obesity was defined by BMI (kg/m2 continuously and categorically (BMI ≥ 30 versus BMI Results The mean (standard deviation age was 47.5 (17.0 years, and 1,096 (72% were women. GSQ score categorized into tertiles was associated with BMI. Among women, after multivariable adjustment that included age, gender, physical activity, smoking status, education, total family income, financial stress and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and myocardial infarction, obesity was associated with sleep quality as assessed by GSQ continuous score, [odds ratio, OR (95% C.I.: 1.08 (1.03 - 1.12], and with a worse sleep disturbance subcomponent score [OR (95% C.I.: 1.48 (1.16 - 1.89]. Among all participants, stress modified the association between obesity and sleep quality; there was an increased likelihood of obesity in the medium stress category, OR (95% C.I.: 1.09 (1.02 - 1.17. Conclusion Sleep quality was associated with obesity in women. The association of sleep quality with obesity was modified by perceived stress. Our results indicate the need for simultaneous assessment of sleep and stress.

  6. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in sheep is attenuated during lactation in response to psychosocial and predator stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, C R; Tilbrook, A J

    2016-04-01

    Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by psychosocial stress is attenuated during lactation. We tested the hypothesis that lactating ewes will have attenuated HPA axis responses to isolation and restraint but will have greater responses to predator stress in the form of barking dogs. We imposed two 4 h stressors: psychosocial stress (isolation and restraint of ewes) and predator stress (barking dogs). Blood was collected intravenous every 10 min from nonlactating ewes (n = 6), lactating ewes with lambs present but not able to be suckled (n = 6), and lactating ewes with lambs present and able to be suckled (n = 6). Plasma cortisol and oxytocin were measured. For nonlactating ewes, cortisol increased (P HPA axis response to a stressor that may be perceived to threaten the welfare of themselves and/or their offspring. The role of oxytocin in attenuation of the HPA axis to stress in sheep is unclear from the current research and requires further investigation.

  8. Short-term psychosocial stress protects photoreceptors from damage via corticosterone-mediated activation of the AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkwa, Tembei K; Neumann, Inga D; Tamm, Ernst R; Ohlmann, Andreas; Reber, Stefan O

    2014-02-01

    Apoptotic death of photoreceptors in hereditary retinal degenerations can be prevented by neuroprotective molecules. Here, we report that adrenal glucocorticoids (GC) released during psychosocial stress protect photoreceptors from apoptosis after light damage. Psychosocial stress is known to be the main type of stressor humans are exposed to and was induced here in mice by 10h of chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC). Photoreceptor damage was generated by subsequent exposure to white light. Short-term psychosocial stress prior to illumination significantly reduced the number of apoptotic photoreceptors, an effect that was absent in adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. The neuroprotective effect was completely restored in ADX mice substituted with GC. Moreover, phosphorylation of retinal AKT increased following CSC or exogenous GC treatment, an effect that was again absent in ADX mice exposed to CSC. Finally, inhibition of AKT signaling with triciribine blocked the stress- and GC-mediated neuroprotective effects on photoreceptors. In summary, we provide evidence that 1) short-term psychosocial stress protects photoreceptors from light-induced damage and 2) the protective effect is most likely mediated by GC-induced activation of the AKT signaling pathway.

  9. Psychosocial generalised resistance resources and clinical indicators of patients suffering from Osteoarthritis at the Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Tuszyńska-Bogucka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was investigation of the correlations between medical indicators of the course of illness and psychological factors, treated as generalised resistance resources, according to the Salutogenic Model by A.Antonovsky. The salutogenic orientation is one of the more viable paradigms for health promotion research and practice, and is offered as a useful theory for taking a salutogenic approach to health research. Materials and methods. Data was used of 67 patients at Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland, suffering from Osteoarthritis. Using psychological test methods: SOC-29, CISS, AIS, IZZ, KNS, GSES, BDI and The Index of Severity for Osteoarthritis of the Hip or the Knee and The Low Back Pain Rating Scale as medical indicators of the course of the illness. Results. Analysis showed significance correlations between some psychosocial (sense of coherence, stress coping strategies, acceptance of illness, health behaviour, hope for success, self-efficacy and depression and medical variables (intensity of the degenerative disease and low back spine. Conclusions. Results of analysis showed that psychological factors within the meaning of psychosocial resources may be potential pathways for improving or disturbing the treatment effects in the course of hip and knee osteoarthritis treatment, and/or the patient’s condition.

  10. Psychological stress and strain on employees in dialysis facilities: a cross-sectional study with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Maren; Kozak, Agnessa; Wendeler, Dana; Paderow, Lara; Nübling, Matthias; Nienhaus, Albert

    2014-02-05

    Work in dialysis facilities involves long term contact with chronically ill patients. International comparisons make it clear that dialysis work is being concentrated, staff is being reduced and more patients are being treated. It is more than 20 years since the last German publication on job strains and job satisfaction experienced by dialysis staff was published. The present study examines the stress and strain currently experienced by the staff of German dialysis facilities. The staff of 20 dialysis facilities were surveyed with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). The questionnaire was extended by adding dialysis-specific questions. The data from the dialysis facilities were assessed by comparison with other professions in medical care - nurses and geriatric nurses - using data recorded in the German COPSOQ database. A total of 367 employees took part in the study, corresponding to a response rate of 55%. For almost all psychosocial aspects, the dialysis staff regarded the stress and strain as being more critical than did the geriatric nurses. There were some positive differences in comparison to hospital nursing, including less conflict between work and private life. However, there were also negative differences, such as fewer possibilities of influencing the work. The results of the study show that dialysis work exhibits both positive and negative aspects in comparison with other healthcare professions. The results in the different facilities were highly variable, indicating that the deficits found in the individual scales are not inevitable consequences of working in dialysis in general, but are influenced and might be favourably altered by the individual facilities.

  11. The mediating role of cultural coping behaviours on the relationships between academic stress and positive psychosocial well-being outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ben C H; Soucie, Kendall M; Huang, Siqi; Laith, Refa

    2017-03-10

    While culture's effect on the coping process has long been acknowledged in the stress-coping literature conceptually, empirical evidence and attempts to discern the specific relationship between culture and coping remain very scarce. Against this backdrop, the present study applied the Cultural Transactional Theory (Chun, Moos, & Cronkite, 2006) to examine the mediating role of cultural coping behaviours (Collective, Engagement and Avoidance Coping) on the relationship between academic stress (AS) and two positive psychosocial well-being outcome measures: Collective Self-esteem (CSE) and Subjective Well-being (SWB). Responses from a sample of undergraduate students in Canada (N = 328) were analysed to test a theory-driven, hypothesised model of coping using structural equation modelling (SEM). As hypothesised, the SEM results showed that: (a) the proposed cultural coping model fit the data well; (b) Engagement Coping and Collective Coping partially mediated the association between AS and the outcomes and (c) the path relationships among the constructs were in the hypothesised directions. A set of preliminary exploratory analyses indicated that Collective Coping was most strongly endorsed by the African/Black and the Middle Eastern cultural groups as compared to other ethnic groups. Implications of the study's findings for future research and practice concerning culture, stress, and coping are discussed.

  12. Psychosocial stress after reactivation of drug-related memory impairs later recall in abstinent heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Shi, Jie; Epstein, David H; Lu, Lin

    2009-04-01

    Stress and stress hormone are known to play important roles in modulating different stages of memory including reconsolidation. In a previous study, we found that treatment with stress or corticosterone after a single memory reactivation disrupted reconsolidation of a drug-related memory in rats. Here we presumed that stress after memory reactivation can effectively inhibit drug-related memory by disrupting its reconsolidation in abstinent heroin addicts. In the present study, 21 abstinent heroin addicts learned a word list (containing ten neutral, ten heroin-related negative, and ten heroin-related positive words) on day 1; retrieval of a word list (learned 24 h earlier) was made on day 2; and immediately after retrieval, they were exposed to either a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition in a crossover manner. On day 3, free recall of the word list and other psychological and physical responses were assessed. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol and a decrease in mood. Memory recall was significantly impaired after the stress condition. Follow-up analysis revealed that heroin-related negative and positive words (i.e., heroin-related words) were affected, whereas no effect was observed for neutral words. No changes were detected for cued recall, working memory, or attention. Stress after drug-related memory retrieval significantly decreased its subsequent recall, likely through impaired drug-related memory reconsolidation process. Reconsolidation blockade may thus provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of relapse in drug addiction.

  13. Evaluating a theory of stress and adjustment when predicting long-term psychosocial outcome after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutterford, Neil A; Wood, Rodger L

    2006-05-01

    Kendall and Terry (1996) include many psychosocial predictors in their theoretical model that explains individual differences in psychosocial adjustment (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). The model depicts appraisal and coping variables as mediating relationships between situation factors, environmental and personal resources, and multidimensional outcome. The aim of this study was to explore these theoretical relationships at very late stages of recovery from traumatic brain injury. A total of 131 participants who were more than 10 years post-injury (mean = 15.31 years) completed several psychosocial measures relating to outcome dimensions comprising employment, community integration, life satisfaction, quality of life (QoL), and emotion. There was no evidence that appraisal and coping variables mediated relationships between psychosocial and any of the outcome variables. However, when appraisal and coping variables were combined with psychosocial variables as direct predictors of outcome, every outcome except employment status was reliably predicted, accounting for between 31 and 46% of the variance. Personality significantly influenced all predicted outcomes. Self-efficacy contributed to the prediction of all outcomes except QoL. Data did not support for the theory of stress and adjustment as a framework for explaining the nature of predictive relationships between psychosocial variables and very long-term, multidimensional outcome after brain injury.

  14. Psychosocial safety climate as a lead indicator of workplace bullying and harassment, job resources, psychological health and employee engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rebecca; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is defined as shared perceptions of organizational policies, practices and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety, that stem largely from management practices. PSC theory extends the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework and proposes that organizational level PSC determines work conditions and subsequently, psychological health problems and work engagement. Our sample was derived from the Australian Workplace Barometer project and comprised 30 organizations, and 220 employees. As expected, hierarchical linear modeling showed that organizational PSC was negatively associated with workplace bullying and harassment (demands) and in turn psychological health problems (health impairment path). PSC was also positively associated with work rewards (resources) and in turn work engagement (motivational path). Accordingly, we found that PSC triggered both the health impairment and motivational pathways, thus justifying extending the JD-R model in a multilevel way. Further we found that PSC, as an organization-based resource, moderated the positive relationship between bullying/harassment and psychological health problems, and the negative relationship between bullying/harassment and engagement. The findings provide evidence for a multilevel model of PSC as a lead indicator of workplace psychosocial hazards (high demands, low resources), psychological health and employee engagement, and as a potential moderator of psychosocial hazard effects. PSC is therefore an efficient target for primary and secondary intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An increase in salivary interleukin-6 level following acute psychosocial stress and its biological correlates in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shuhei; Sugaya, Nagisa; Kimura, Kenta; Ogawa, Namiko; Yamada, Kosuke C; Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Mikami, Ikuyo; Hirata, Kanako; Nagano, Yuichiro; Nomura, Shinobu

    2013-10-01

    Although interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been investigated frequently in stress research, knowledge regarding the biological processes of IL-6 in association with psychosocial stress remains incomplete. This study focused on salivary IL-6 and reports its temporal variation and biological correlates following acute psychosocial stress. Fifty healthy young adults (39 male and 11 female students) were subjected to the psychosocial stress test 'Trier Social Stress Test' (TSST), wherein the participants were asked to deliver a speech and perform a mental arithmetic task in front of 2 audiences. Collection of saliva samples, measurement of heart rate, and assessment of negative moods by visual analogue scales were conducted before, during, and after TSST. Salivary IL-6 levels increased by approximately 50% in response to the TSST and remained elevated for 20 min after the stress tasks were completed. Cluster analyses revealed that individuals with sustained elevation of IL-6 levels following the TSST exhibited a lower cortisol response compared to individuals with lower IL-6 levels. In the correlation analyses, a greater IL-6 response was associated with a higher heart rate during the mental arithmetic task (r=.351, ppsychosocial stress, and suggests that sympathetic activity and cortisol secretion are involved in elevation of salivary IL-6 levels.

  16. Psychological adjustment and psychosocial stress among Japanese couples with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender....... CONCLUSIONS Women were significantly more distressed than men. Poor quality of the marital relationship was significantly associated with impaired psychological adjustment among women, but not among men. These gender discrepancies may foster a mutual worsening of psychological adjustment and marital...... relationships in RPL couples. The need to seek help not only in women but also in a substantial portion of men suggests the importance of couple-based psychological care in the management of RPL....

  17. Examining SLV-323, a novel NK1 receptor antagonist, in a chronic psychosocial stress model for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czeh, B; Pudovkina, O; van der Hart, MGC; Simon, M; Heilbronner, U; Michaelis, T; Watanabe, T; Frahm, J; Fuchs, E

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Substance P antagonists have been proposed as candidates for a new class of antidepressant compounds. Objectives: We examined the effects of SLV-323, a novel neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonist, in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm of adult male tree shrews. Methods: Animals we

  18. [Psycho-social sources of stress and burnout in schools: research on a sample of Italian teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedditzi, Maria Luisa; Nonnis, M

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show the existence of stress and burnout among teachers. The psycho-social sources of stress and burnout in teachers cover many aspects, often of conflictual nature, affecting the relationship with the school organization, colleagues, parents, students, and many other variables. This study aimed at exploring the incidence of burnout among teachers in primary and secondary schools and to describing the characteristics of burnout taking into account the educational level, the location of the school and the teacher's length of service. Another objective of this study was to identify, among the principal sources of teachers' job stress, those sources that are more able to predict the occurrence of burnout. Among these predictors of stress we considered the personal image of the teacher with respect to the work-family interface and the gap between professional and social status. 882 teachers from the cities of Rome, Bari, Cagliari and Sassari completed the Maslach burnout Inventory (MBI), and an adaptation to the school environment of the OSI (Organizational Stress Indicator, Cooper, Sloan & Williams). The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and analysis of the multivariate variance. 29.9% of the teachers surveyed presented high levels of emotional exhaustion, 33.8% had the highest scores of depersonalization; 28.3% had a low level of professional achievement; 8.2% of the teachers were in burnout. Interpersonal conflict and personal image were included among the predictors of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. The study highlights the existence of burnout among teachers and the need for prevention, particularly against depersonalization, that affects the quality of both the teacher-student relationship and the teaching-learning process.

  19. Repeated psychosocial stress at night, but not day, affects the central molecular clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlang, Manuela S; Savelyev, Sergey A; Johansson, Anne-Sofie; Reber, Stefan O; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Lundkvist, Gabriella B S

    2014-11-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the outcome of repeated social defeat (SD) on behavior, physiology and immunology is more negative when applied during the dark/active phase as compared with the light/inactive phase of male C57BL/6 mice. Here, we investigated the effects of the same stress paradigm, which combines a psychosocial and novelty stressor, on the circadian clock in transgenic PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) and wildtype (WT) mice by subjecting them to repeated SD, either in the early light phase (social defeat light = SDL) or in the early dark phase (social defeat dark = SDD) across 19 days. The PER2::LUC rhythms and clock gene mRNA expression were analyzed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the adrenal gland, and PER2 protein expression in the SCN was assessed. SDD mice showed increased PER2::LUC rhythm amplitude in the SCN, reduced Per2 and Cryptochrome1 mRNA expression in the adrenal gland, and increased PER2 protein expression in the posterior part of the SCN compared with single-housed control (SHC) and SDL mice. In contrast, PER2::LUC rhythms in the SCN of SDL mice were not affected. However, SDL mice exhibited a 2-hour phase advance of the PER2::LUC rhythm in the adrenal gland compared to SHC mice. Furthermore, plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and BDNF mRNA in the SCN were elevated in SDL mice. Taken together, these results show that the SCN molecular rhythmicity is affected by repeated SDD, but not SDL, while the adrenal peripheral clock is influenced mainly by SDL. The observed increase in BDNF in the SDL group may act to protect against the negative consequences of repeated psychosocial stress.

  20. Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Negative Feedback Inhibition: Enhanced Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Signaling despite Lower Cytoplasmic GR Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchsl, Andrea M; Reber, Stefan O

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), a pre-clinically validated mouse model for chronic psychosocial stress, results in increased basal and acute stress-induced plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. We assessed CSC effects on hippocampal glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and FK506 binding protein (FKBP51) expression, acute heterotypic stressor-induced GR translocation, as well as GC effects on gene expression and cell viability in isolated hippocampal cells. CSC mice showed decreased GR mRNA and cytoplasmic protein levels compared with single-housed control (SHC) mice. Basal and acute stress-induced nuclear GR protein expression were comparable between CSC and SHC mice, as were MR and FKBP51 mRNA and/or cytoplasmic protein levels. In vitro the effect of corticosterone (CORT) on hippocampal cell viability and gene transcription was more pronounced in CSC versus SHC mice. In summary, CSC mice show an, if at all, increased hippocampal GC signaling capacity despite lower cytoplasmic GR protein expression, making negative feedback deficits in the hippocampus unlikely to contribute to the increased ACTH drive following CSC.

  1. The relationship between psychosocial stress, age, BMI, CRP, lifestyle, and the metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Okazaki, Ai; Ohmori, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the factors which may be associated with the metabolic syndrome by exploring the relationship between psychosocial stress, age, body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP), lifestyle factors, and the components of the metabolic syndrome, such as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS), body fat percentage, and triglyceride concentration, among apparently healthy subjects. Psychosocial stress was measured by the use of the inventory to measure psychosocial stress (IMPS). One thousand four hundred and ninety-nine people out of 1,941 public school workers admitted to a hospital for a medical check-up responded to the IMPS, yielding a response rate of 77.2%. A total of 1,201 workers excluding 298 who were taking medication for various diseases were analyzed with the use of hierarchical multiple regression models. It was found that IMPS-measured stress score, age, BMI, and smoking habit were associated with an increase in glycated hemoglobin among men, while alcohol consumption was associated with a decrease in glycated hemoglobin. Stress score, age, BMI, and alcohol consumption were found to be associated with an increase in FBS among men, while smoking and exercise habits were associated with a decrease in FBS. CRP was found to be associated with an increase in body fat percentage among men, though stress score was not associated with an increase in body fat percentage. Stress score, age, and BMI were associated with an increase in triglyceride concentration among women. The findings of the present study seem to be in line with the hypothesis that psychosocial stress plays an important role in developing the metabolic syndrome, which may be associated with inflammatory processes in the vascular wall, resulting in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  2. The Association between Prenatal Psychosocial Stress and Blood Pressure in the Child at Age 5-7 Years

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prenatal maternal stress could have permanent effects on the offspring's tissue structure and function, which may predispose to cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether maternal psychosocial stress is a prenatal factor affecting the blood pressure (BP) of offspring. STUDY DESIGN: In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, around gestational week 16, depressive symptoms, state-anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain ...

  3. [Psychosocial risks, quality of employment, and workplace stress in Chilean wage-earning workers: a gender perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Díaz, Ximena; Mauro, Amalia

    2016-07-21

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of work-related stress in Chile and its association with exposure to workplace psychosocial risks and quality of employment, considering gender differences. The cross-sectional study included a representative probabilistic national sample of 3,010 salaried workers (1,486 women and 1,524 men). Eighteen percent reported work-related stress (23.8% of women and 14.8% of men). People exposed to psychosocial risks had a higher probability of experiencing stress, and women were more likely to suffer stress than men. Women and men in precarious work showed increased likelihood of distress, compared to workers with less precarious jobs. However, women in precarious jobs were more likely to suffer stress than men in the same situation. The study concluded that women had more precarious jobs, experienced greater exposure to psychosocial risks, and suffered more stress than men. This is evidence of double discrimination (social and gender-based) in the Chilean labor market.

  4. Neuropeptide Y gene-by-psychosocial stress interaction effect is associated with obesity in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2016-07-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is a crucial risk factor in the development of many diseases including obesity. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), distributed throughout the peripheral and central nervous system, is believed to pay a role in the pathophysiologic relationship between stress and obesity. Although several animal studies have investigated the impact on obesity of interactions between NPY single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and stress, the same remains to be analyzed in humans. To identify NPY gene-by-stress interaction effects on human obesity, we analyzed the interaction between four NPY SNPs and stress with obesity-related traits, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT). A total of 1468 adult subjects were included for this analysis. In a SNP-only model without interaction with stress, no significant SNPs were found (pSNP>0.05). However, NPY SNPs-by-stress interaction effects were significantly linked to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and VAT (pintobesity. Among the obesity traits, mean changes of VAT by increased stress levels in homozygous risk allele carriers were the greatest (range of mean increases for four SNPs (min-max)=12.57cm(2)-29.86cm(2)). This study suggests that common polymorphisms for NPY were associated with human obesity by interacting with psychosocial stress, emphasizing the need for stress management in obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions for managing stress in multiple sclerosis: the contribution of mindfulness-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz San José, A; Oreja-Guevara, C; Cebolla Lorenzo, S; Carrillo Notario, L; Rodríguez Vega, B; Bayón Pérez, C

    2016-03-01

    Depression or anxiety in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been linked to a more severe course of the disease and higher numbers of relapses, in addition to poorer treatment adherence and exacerbated immune system dysregulation. Recent investigations indicate that psychotherapeutic interventions for stress management, such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), could improve quality of life, depression, anxiety, and fatigue in MS patients. Mindfulness fosters the ability to slow down and observe experiences as they truly are, which improves affect regulation. Mindfulness is acquired through training; its advantage over other psychotherapeutic interventions is that effects may remain over time, since cultivating mindfulness depends on regular practising of abilities learned during training. The objective of this article is to review the current evidence of psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions, including MBIs for stress management, and their beneficial effects on MS patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic psychosocial stress: does it modulate immunity to the influenza vaccine in Hong Kong Chinese elderly caregivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Wong, Chun Kwok; Chan, Frank Wan Kin; Chan, Paul K S; Ngai, Karry; Mercer, Stewart; Woo, Jean

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies evaluated the effects of psychosocial stress on influenza vaccine responses. However, there were methodological limitations. This study aims to determine whether chronic stress is associated with poorer influenza-specific immune responses to influenza vaccines in Hong Kong Chinese elderly people. This is a prospective study with a 12-week follow-up. Subjects were recruited from government general out-patient clinics, non-government organizations, and public housing estates in Hong Kong. Participants include 55 caregivers of spouses with chronic conditions that impaired their activities of daily living and 61 age- and sex-matched non-caregivers. A single-dose trivalent influenza vaccine was given to all subjects by intramuscular ingestion. Blood samples were collected before vaccination, at 6 weeks, and at 12 weeks after vaccination. Influenza vaccine strain-specific antibody titers were measured by the hemagglutination inhibition method. Lymphocyte subsets were analyzed for ratios and absolute counts, and cytokine concentration were measured by flow cytometry. Validated scales were used to assess psychological (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and caregiver strain), social (multidimensional social support scale), and lifestyle factors (physical exercise, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption) at baseline prior to vaccination. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were also collected. Albumin levels were measured as an indicator for nutritional status in subjects. Caregivers had statistically significant (p < 0.05) lower cell-mediated immune responses to influenza vaccination at 12 weeks when compared with those of the controls. No differences in humoral immune response to vaccination were observed between caregivers and controls. Hong Kong Chinese elderly who experience chronic stress have a significantly lower cell-mediated immune response to influenza vaccination when compared with non-caregivers.

  7. Work-related psychosocial stress as a risk factor for asthma, allergy, and respiratory infections in the Swedish workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson-Broberg, Roma; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association between work-related psychosocial stress and asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections. 532 randomly selected occupationally active people (272 men, 260 women; M age = 41 yr., SD = 13) in Sweden participated. Information on history of asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections was collected by a postal self-report questionnaire. Work stress was assessed based on the demands-control-support model. Current asthma and respiratory infections were associated with work-related psychosocial stress. When stratified for sex, these associations were only found in men. Associations between low control, low support, and current asthma were found among young participants ( 40 years) low supervisor support was associated with frequent respiratory infections.

  8. Effects of psychosocial stress on the goal-directed and habit memory systems during learning and later execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Marion; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Radel, Rémi

    2017-03-01

    Instrumental learning occurs through both goal-directed and habit memory systems, which are supported by anatomically distinct brain systems. Interestingly, stress may promote habits at the expense of goal-directed performance, since stress before training in an instrumental task was found to cause individuals to carry on with the learned association in spite of a devalued outcome. These findings nevertheless left pending questions, and it has been difficult to determine which system is primarily affected by stress (an improved habit system, an impaired goal-directed system, or both) and at what point the stress acts (at the moment of learning by making more resistant habits, or after devaluation by making individuals less sensitive to change in the outcome value). The present study (N=72 participants, 63 males and 9 females) aimed to answer these questions with (i) an instrumental task that dissociates the two memory systems and (ii) three conditions of psychosocial stress exposure (Trier Social Stress Test): stress induced before learning, before devaluation, and not induced for the control group. The study confirms that exposure to psychosocial stress leads to habitual performance. Moreover, it provides new insight into this effect by locating its origin as an impairment in the capacity of the goal-directed system rather than a reinforcement in habit learning. These results are discussed in light of recent neurobiological models of stress and memory.

  9. The chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews: evaluation of a novel animal model for depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Marja; Kramer, Marian; Hiemke, Christoph; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2002-02-01

    To improve our knowledge of the causal mechanisms of stress-related disorders such as depression, we need animal models that mirror the situation in patients. One promising model is the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews, which is based on the territorial behaviour of these animals that can be used to establish naturally occurring challenging situations under experimental control in the laboratory. Co-existence of two males in visual and olfactory contact leads to a stable dominant-subordinate relationship, with subordinates showing distinct stress-induced behavioural and neuroendocrine alterations that are comparable to the symptoms observed during episodes of depression in patients such as constantly elevated circulating glucocorticoid hormones due to a chronic hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To elucidate whether the chronic psychosocial stress model in tree shrews besides its "face validity" for depression also has "predictive validity", we treated subordinate tree shrews with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine and found a time-dependent restoration of both endocrine and behavioural parameters. In contrast, the anxiolytic diazepam was ineffective. Although the chronic psychosocial stress model in tree shrews requires further validation, it has sufficient face, predictive, and construct validity to become an interesting non-rodent model for research on the etiology and pathophysiology of depression.

  10. Chronic Psychosocial Factors and Acute Physiological Responses to Laboratory-Induced Stress in Healthy Populations: A Quantitative Review of 30 Years of Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Hamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis included 729 studies from 161 articles investigating how acute stress responsivity (including stress reactivity and recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis, autonomic, and cardiovascular systems) changes with various chronic psychosocial exposures (job stress; general life stress; depression or hopelessness;…

  11. Chronic Psychosocial Factors and Acute Physiological Responses to Laboratory-Induced Stress in Healthy Populations: A Quantitative Review of 30 Years of Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Hamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis included 729 studies from 161 articles investigating how acute stress responsivity (including stress reactivity and recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis, autonomic, and cardiovascular systems) changes with various chronic psychosocial exposures (job stress; general life stress; depression or hopelessness;…

  12. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  13. The effects of cortisol increase on long-term memory retrieval during and after acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaar, Marieke S; Elzinga, Bernet M; Spinhoven, Philip; Everaerd, Walter A M

    2008-03-01

    In this study the effects of stress-induced cortisol increases on long-term memory retrieval during and after acute psychosocial stress were examined. Seventy male students were exposed to either a psychosocial stress task or to a non-stressful control task. During and after this task, retrieval was tested for idiosyncratic emotionally negative and neutral word pair associations that were learned 1 day or 5 weeks earlier. Within the stress condition, retrieval of negative words, 5 weeks after learning, was impaired both during and after the stress task compared to the control group. Further, during the stress task, when sympathetic activity was enhanced, impaired retrieval of both neutral and emotional words was significantly related to enhanced cortisol response. In contrast, after the stress task, when cortisol levels were still increased but sympathetic activity was low again, no association was found between cortisol increase and retrieval of either neutral or emotional material. These results are in line with the previous animal research showing that when arousal is high, cortisol increase can impair memory retrieval.

  14. Anti-stress effects of drinking green tea with lowered caffeine and enriched theanine, epigallocatechin and arginine on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Hara, Ayane; Nakagawa, Aimi; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ohshio, Megumi; Morita, Akio; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-11-15

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the anti-stress effects of drinking green tea have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to explore anti-stress effects of green tea and roles of tea components in a mouse model of psychosocial stress. We examined anti-stress effects of three types of green teas, theanine-rich "Gyokuro", standard "Sencha", and Sencha with lowered caffeine (low-caffeine green tea). Furthermore, the roles of tea components such as caffeine, catechins, and other amino acids in anti-stress effects were examined. To prepare low-caffeine green tea, plucked new tea leaves were treated with a hot-water spray. Mice were psychosocially stressed from a conflict among male mice under confrontational housing. Mice consumed each tea that was eluted with room temperature water ad libitum. As a marker for the stress response, adrenal hypertrophy was compared with mice that ingested water. Caffeine was significantly lowered by spraying hot-water on tea leaves. While epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the main catechin in tea leaves, epigallocatechin (EGC) was mainly infused into water at room temperature. Adrenal hypertrophy was significantly suppressed in mice that ingested theanine-rich and low-caffeine green tea that were eluted with water at room temperature. Caffeine and EGCG suppressed the anti-stress effects of theanine while EGC and arginine (Arg) retained these effects. These results suggest that drinking green tea exhibits anti-stress effects, where theanine, EGC and Arg cooperatively abolish the counter-effect of caffeine and EGCG on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. [Psychosocial indication of liver transplantation for alcohol-related liver failure: current controversies and imminent issues in Japanese society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Tetsuya

    2012-10-01

    Organ transplant therapy is becoming a usual practice also in Japan, which dramatically improves the length and quality of life in patients with end-stage organ disease. Liver transplantation was resumed in Japan much later than that in the West and is continued now under unique circumstances where more than 90% of grafts come from living donors. Nevertheless the number of liver transplantation for alcohol-related liver failure shows a sharp rise to the level comparable to the West, and not a few physical and/or psychosocial problems caused by recidivism after transplantation are coming up. To find appropriate solutions to how to predict recidivism and define psychosocial indication of liver transplantation in our society, and to how to monitor and support sobriety after transplantation, there is an urgent need for multidisciplinary management by hepatologist, transplant surgeon, psychiatrist, and dependence specialist. Life-saving therapy and dependence management are expected to work closely together from the viewpoints of transparency, equity, utility, and autonomy requested in transplant therapy, protection of living donors, and consideration for donor family and public emotion.

  16. Tic Frequency Decreases during Short-term Psychosocial Stress - An Experimental Study on Children with Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Judith; Enghardt, Stephanie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that psychosocial stress influences situational fluctuations of tic frequency. However, evidence from experimental studies is lacking. The current study investigated the effects of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) on tic frequency in 31 children and adolescents with tic disorders. A relaxation and a concentration situation served as control conditions. Patients were asked either to suppress their tics or to "tic freely." Physiological measures of stress were measured throughout the experiment. The TSST-C elicited a clear stress response with elevated levels of saliva cortisol, increased heart rate, and a larger number of skin conductance responses. During relaxation and concentration, the instruction to suppress tics reduced the number of tics, whereas during stress, the number of tics was low, regardless of the given instruction. Our study suggests that the stress might result in a situational decrease of tic frequency.

  17. Relevant indicators of psychosocial risks for the prevention of burnout in the hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estryn-Behar, M.; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Guetarni, K.; Fry, G.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The European study NEXT-PRESST questions the validity of the models of workplace stress from samples of nurses from 10 European countries. The re-use of this 2008 questionnaire in a Parisian University hospital confirms the validity of reports. Furthermore, the French study Health and

  18. Relevant indicators of psychosocial risks for the prevention of burnout in the hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estryn-Behar, M.; Heijden, van der B.; Guetarni, K.; Fry, G.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The European study NEXT-PRESST questions the validity of the models of workplace stress from samples of nurses from 10 European countries. The re-use of this 2008 questionnaire in a Parisian University hospital confirms the validity of reports. Furthermore, the French study Health and

  19. Stress management standards: a warning indicator for employee health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazi, A; Haslam, C O

    2013-01-01

    ... (MS) to help organizations to assess work-related stress. To investigate the relationships between the MS indicator tool and employee health, job attitudes, work performance and environmental outcomes...

  20. Psychosocial stress based on public speech in humans: is there a real life/laboratory setting cross-adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, D; Hlavacova, N; Dicko, I; Solarikova, P; Brezina, I

    2016-07-01

    Repeated or chronic exposure to stressors is associated with changes in neuroendocrine responses depending on the type, intensity, number and frequency of stress exposure as well as previous stress experience. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that salivary cortisol and cardiovascular responses to real-life psychosocial stressors related to public performance can cross-adapt with responses to psychosocial stress induced by public speech under laboratory setting. The sample consisted of 22 healthy male volunteers, which were either actors, more precisely students of dramatic arts or non-actors, students of other fields. The stress task consisted of 15 min anticipatory preparation phase and 15 min of public speech on an emotionally charged topic. The actors, who were accustomed to public speaking, responded with a rise in salivary cortisol as well as blood pressure to laboratory public speech. The values of salivary cortisol, systolic blood pressure and state anxiety were lower in actors compared to non-actors. Unlike non-actors, subjects with experience in public speaking did not show stress-induced rise in the heart rate. Evaluation of personality traits revealed that actors scored significantly higher in extraversion than the subjects in the non-actor group. In conclusion, neuroendocrine responses to real-life stressors in actors can partially cross-adapt with responses to psychosocial stress under laboratory setting. The most evident adaptation was at the level of heart rate responses. The public speech tasks may be of help in evaluation of the ability to cope with stress in real life in artists by simple laboratory testing.

  1. Stressful life events and psychosocial correlates of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, George; Chouliaras, George; Margoni, Daphne; Korlou, Sophia; Hantzara, Vassiliki; Panayotou, Ioanna; Roma, Eleftheria; Liakopoulou, Magda; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association of psychiatric and psychosocial correlates with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity in children and adolescents. METHODS A total of 85 pediatric IBD patients (in remission or active state of the disease) and their parents completed a series of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews measuring life events, depression, anxiety, family dysfunction, and parent mental health. Differences between the remission and the IBD active group and the association of any significant variable with the disease activity state were examined. RESULTS Parents of children being in active state of the disease reported more life events (P = 0.005) and stressful life events (P = 0.048) during the past year and more mental health symptoms (P < 0.001), while the children themselves reported higher levels of anxiety symptoms (P = 0.017) compared to the remission group. In the logistic regression multivariate analysis, the only predictor which had a significant positive effect on the probability of the patients being in active state was parent mental health symptoms (OR = 4.8; 95%CI: 1.2-25.8). CONCLUSION Life events, child anxiety and parent mental health symptoms may be important correlates of pediatric IBD activity and targets of thorough assessment and treatment. PMID:27679771

  2. Psychosocial stress evoked by a virtual audience: relation to neuroendocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Owen; Matheson, Kimberly; Martinez, Alejandra; Merali, Zul; Anisman, Hymie

    2007-10-01

    A modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was employed to determine whether exposure to a virtual audience using virtual reality (VR) technology would prompt an increase of neuroendocrine activity comparable to that prompted by a real audience. Following an anticipatory period, participants completed a speech or a speech-plus-math challenge in front of either a virtual audience, a panel of judges they were led to believe was behind a one-way mirror, or an audience comprised of confederates. An additional group that had prepared a speech was simply directed to observe the virtual audience but did not deliver the speech. Finally, a control group completed questionnaires for the duration of the experiment. Cortisol samples were obtained upon arrival to the laboratory, just before the challenge, and 15 and 30 minutes after the task. Participants also completed a measure assessing stressor appraisals of the task before and after the challenge. Anticipation of the task was associated with a modest increase of cortisol levels, and a further rise of cortisol was evident in response to the challenge. The neuroendocrine changes evoked by the virtual audience were comparable to those elicited by the imagined audience (behind the one-way mirror) but less than changes evoked by the panel of confederates. Stressor appraisals were higher post-challenge compared to those reported prior to the task; however, appraisals were similar across each group. These data suggest that VR technology may be amenable to evaluating the impact of psychosocial stressors such as the TSST.

  3. The relationship between psychosocial job stress and burnout in emergency departments: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Ríos-Rísquez, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship and predictive power of various psychosocial job stressors for the 3 dimensions of burnout in emergency departments. This study was structured as a cross-sectional design, with a questionnaire as the tool. The data were gathered using an anonymous questionnaire in 3 hospitals in Spain. The sample consisted of 191 emergency departments. Burnout was evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the job stressors by the Nursing Stress Scale. The Burnout Model in this study consisted of 3 dimensions: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy. The model that predicted the emotional exhaustion dimension was formed by 2 variables: Excessive workload and lack of emotional support. These 2 variables explained 19.4% of variance in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism had 4 predictors that explained 25.8% of variance: Interpersonal conflicts, lack of social support, excessive workload, and type of contract. Finally, variability in reduced professional efficacy was predicted by 3 variables: Interpersonal conflicts, lack of social support, and the type of shift worked, which explained 10.4% of variance. From the point of view of nurse leaders, organizational interventions, and the management of human resources, this analysis of the principal causes of burnout is particularly useful to select, prioritize, and implement preventive measures that will improve the quality of care offered to patients and the well-being of personnel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuxi Yao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms and long (1,600 ms visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group, individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the

  5. Association between perceived racism and physiological stress indices in Native Hawaiians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Grandinetti, Andrew; Keller, Stefan; Nacapoy, Andrea H; Kingi, Te Kani; Mau, Marjorie K

    2012-02-01

    The association between racism and the physical health of native U.S. populations has yet to be examined despite their high risk for stress-related disorders and a history of discrimination toward them. We examined the correlation between perceived racism and the two physiological stress indices of cortisol level and blood pressure in 146 adult Native Hawaiians. Attributed and felt racism were assessed with a 10-item shortened version of the Oppression Questionnaire. Height, weight, blood pressure, and salivary cortisol samples (AM and PM) were collected and analyzed along with information on Hawaiian ancestry, BMI, age, sex, marital status, education level, general psychological stress, and ethnic identity. The results indicated that Native Hawaiians reporting more attributed racism had significantly (P racism, after adjusting for socio-demographic, biological, and psychosocial confounders. Native Hawaiians reporting more felt racism had a significantly higher systolic blood pressure than those reporting less, but this association was not significant after adjusting for the aforementioned confounders. Racism appears to be a chronic stressor that can "get under the skin" of Native Hawaiians by affecting their physical health and risk for stress-related diseases, possibly, through mechanisms of cortisol dysregulation.

  6. Increased anxiety, voluntary alcohol consumption and ethanol-induced place preference in mice following chronic psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2013-07-01

    Stress exposure is known to be a risk factor for alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Comorbid chronic stress and alcohol dependence may lead to a complicated and potentially severe treatment profile. To gain an understanding of the interaction between chronic psychosocial stress and drug exposure, we studied the effects of concomitant chronic stress exposure on alcohol reward using two-bottle choice and ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP). The study consisted of exposure of the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) mice "intruders" to an aggressive "resident" mouse for 19 consecutive days. Control mice were single housed (SHC). Ethanol consumption using two-bottle choice paradigm and ethanol CPP acquisition was assessed at the end of this time period. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to SHC controls. Importantly, in the two-bottle choice procedure, CSC mice showed higher alcohol intake than SHC. When testing their response to ethanol-induced CPP, CSC mice achieved higher preference for the ethanol-paired chamber. In fact, CSC exposure increased ethanol-CPP acquisition. Taken together, these data demonstrate the long-term consequences of chronic psychosocial stress on alcohol intake in male mice, suggesting chronic stress as a risk factor for developing alcohol consumption and/or anxiety disorders.

  7. Heart rate variability (HRV): an indicator of stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Durek, Joseph J.; O'Kane, Barbara L.; Tran, Nhien; Moses, Sophia; Luthra, Megha; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N.

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) can be an important indicator of several conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system, including traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder and peripheral neuropathy [3], [4], [10] & [11]. Recent work has shown that some of the HRV features can potentially be used for distinguishing a subject's normal mental state from a stressed one [4], [13] & [14]. In all of these past works, although processing is done in both frequency and time domains, few classification algorithms have been explored for classifying normal from stressed RRintervals. In this paper we used 30 s intervals from the Electrocardiogram (ECG) time series collected during normal and stressed conditions, produced by means of a modified version of the Trier social stress test, to compute HRV-driven features and subsequently applied a set of classification algorithms to distinguish stressed from normal conditions. To classify RR-intervals, we explored classification algorithms that are commonly used for medical applications, namely 1) logistic regression (LR) [16] and 2) linear discriminant analysis (LDA) [6]. Classification performance for various levels of stress over the entire test was quantified using precision, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity measures. Results from both classifiers were then compared to find an optimal classifier and HRV features for stress detection. This work, performed under an IRB-approved protocol, not only provides a method for developing models and classifiers based on human data, but also provides a foundation for a stress indicator tool based on HRV. Further, these classification tools will not only benefit many civilian applications for detecting stress, but also security and military applications for screening such as: border patrol, stress detection for deception [3],[17], and wounded-warrior triage [12].

  8. Effects of acute psychosocial stress on neural activity to emotional and neutral faces in a face recognition memory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijia; Weerda, Riklef; Milde, Christopher; Wolf, Oliver T; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute psychosocial stress impairs recognition of declarative memory and that emotional material is especially sensitive to this effect. Animal studies suggest a central role of the amygdala which modulates memory processes in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and other brain areas. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural correlates of stress-induced modulation of emotional recognition memory in humans. Twenty-seven healthy, right-handed, non-smoker male volunteers performed an emotional face recognition task. During encoding, participants were presented with 50 fearful and 50 neutral faces. One hour later, they underwent either a stress (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control procedure outside the scanner which was followed immediately by the recognition session inside the scanner, where participants had to discriminate between 100 old and 50 new faces. Stress increased salivary cortisol, blood pressure and pulse, and decreased the mood of participants but did not impact recognition memory. BOLD data during recognition revealed a stress condition by emotion interaction in the left inferior frontal gyrus and right hippocampus which was due to a stress-induced increase of neural activity to fearful and a decrease to neutral faces. Functional connectivity analyses revealed a stress-induced increase in coupling between the right amygdala and the right fusiform gyrus, when processing fearful as compared to neutral faces. Our results provide evidence that acute psychosocial stress affects medial temporal and frontal brain areas differentially for neutral and emotional items, with a stress-induced privileged processing of emotional stimuli.

  9. Predator exposure/psychosocial stress animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder modulates neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Brad Wilson

    Full Text Available Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD can develop in response to a traumatic event involving a threat to life. To date, no diagnostic biomarkers have been identified for PTSD. Recent research points toward physiological abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, sympathoadrenal medullary and immune system that may be implicated in the disorder. The modulation of neurotransmitters is another possible mechanism, but their role in the progression of PTSD is poorly understood. Low serotonin (5-HT may be a factor, but it may not be the only neurotransmitter affected as modulation affects levels of other neurotransmitters. In this study, we hypothesized the predator exposure/psychosocial stress rodent model of PTSD may alter levels of 5-HT and other neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. We induced PTSD via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress model, whereby rats were placed in a cage with a cat for 1 hour on days 1 and 11 of the 31-day experiment. Rats also received psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. On day 32, the rats were sacrificed and the brains dissected to remove the hippocampus and PFC. Norepinephrine (NE, 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, homovanillic acid (HVA, dopamine (DA, and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, and 5-HT levels in the hippocampus and PFC were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In the hippocampus, 5-HT and HVA were lower, while NE and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. In the PFC, only 5-HT was lower, while NE, DA, and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also examined and confirmed our findings. These results demonstrate that the predator exposure/psychosocial stress model of PTSD produces neurotransmitter changes similar to those seen in human patients and may

  10. COMT Val158Met genotype selectively alters prefrontal [18F]fallypride displacement and subjective feelings of stress in response to a psychosocial stress challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hernaus

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT plays an essential role in degradation of extracellular dopamine in prefrontal regions of the brain. Although a polymorphism in this gene, COMT Val(158Met, affects human behavior in response to stress little is known about its effect on dopaminergic activity associated with the human stress response, which may be of interest for stress-related psychiatric disorders such as psychosis. We aimed to investigate the effect of variations in COMT genotype on in vivo measures of stress-induced prefrontal cortex (PFC dopaminergic processing and subjective stress responses. A combined sample of healthy controls and healthy first-degree relatives of psychosis patients (n = 26 were subjected to an [(18F]fallypride Positron Emission Tomography scan. Psychosocial stress during the scan was induced using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task and subjective stress was assessed every 12 minutes. Parametric t-maps, generated using the linear extension of the simplified reference region model, revealed an effect of COMT genotype on the spatial extent of [(18F]fallypride displacement. Detected effects of exposure to psychosocial stress were unilateral and remained restricted to the left superior and right inferior frontal gyrus, with Met-hetero- and homozygotes showing less [(18F]fallypride displacement than Val-homozygotes. Additionally, Met-hetero- and homozygotes experienced larger subjective stress responses than Val-homozygotes. The direction of the effects remained the same when the data was analyzed separately for controls and first-degree relatives. The human stress response may be mediated in part by COMT-dependent dopaminergic PFC activity, providing speculation for the neurobiology underlying COMT-dependent differences in human behaviour following stress. Implications of these results for stress-related psychopathology and models of dopaminergic functioning are discussed.

  11. The association between prenatal psychosocial stress and blood pressure in the child at age 5-7 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée E van Dijk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Prenatal maternal stress could have permanent effects on the offspring's tissue structure and function, which may predispose to cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether maternal psychosocial stress is a prenatal factor affecting the blood pressure (BP of offspring. STUDY DESIGN: In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study, around gestational week 16, depressive symptoms, state-anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain were recorded by questionnaire. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80(th percentiles. Systolic and diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP were measured in the offspring at age 5-7 years. Inclusion criteria were: no use of antihypertensive medication during pregnancy; singleton birth; no reported cardiovascular problems in the child (N = 2968 included. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, the single stress scales were not associated with systolic and diastolic BP, MAP and hypertension (p>0.05. The presence of 3-4 psychosocial stressors prenatally (4% was associated with 1.5 mmHg higher systolic and diastolic BP (p = 0.046; p = 0.04 and 1.5 mmHg higher MAP in the offspring (p = 0.02 compared to no stressors (46%. The presence of 3-4 stressors did not significantly increase the risk for hypertension (OR 1.8; 95% CI 0.93.4. Associations did not differ between sexes. Bonferroni correction for multiple testing rendered all associations non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of multiple psychosocial stressors during pregnancy was associated with higher systolic and diastolic BP and MAP in the child at age 5-7. Further investigation of maternal prenatal stress may be valuable for later life cardiovascular health.

  12. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.

  13. Assessment of differences in psychosocial resources and state of health of rural and urban residents – based on studies carried out on students during examination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zarzycka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Civilization changes of the environment shaping the psychosocial resources from rural to urban influence human health. [b]aim.[/b] The study aimed to identify the differences due to the place of residence (rural, urban as far as health resources are concerned (social support, sense of coherence, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration in plasma and health in examination stress situations. The study also determined the concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (health resource and cortisol (stress indicator. [b]material and methods.[/b] The psychosocial variables were assessed using the scales: ISEL-48v. Coll., SOC-29, SF-36v.2™ o and analogue scale (perception of examination stress. The study included, based on a stratified sampling (year of study and purposive sampling (written examination, major, 731 students representing the six universities in Lublin, south-east Poland. Among the respondents, 130 students were rural residents. [b]results.[/b] Health resources of students living in rural and urban areas generally differ statistically significantly in social support and the subscales of availability of tangible support, availability of appreciative support, the availability of cognitive-evaluative support and a sense of resourcefulness. The study recorded a sstatistically significantly larger network of family ties among students living in rural areas. The demonstrated diversity of resources did not substantially affect the perceived health, with the exception of pain sensation. Examination stress assessed by subjective opinion of the respondents and plasma cortisol levels vary relative to the place of residence. Students residing in rural areas showed significantly lower cortisol levels values, but subjectively perceived the situation of examation as more stressful. [b]conclusions[/b]. Differences in health resources and their mechanism of impact on health, to a limited extent, were conditioned by the place

  14. Associations between Psychosocial and Physiological Factors and Diabetes Health Indicators in Asian and Pacific Islander Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between psychosocial and physiological factors and diabetes’ health indicators have not been widely investigated among Asians and Pacific Islanders. We hypothesize that health behaviour and depression are directly or indirectly associated with diabetes’ health indicators such as BMI, glycemic control, general health, and diabetes quality of life. Our hypothesis was tested through a structural equation modelling (SEM approach. Questionnaires that assessed health behaviour, depression, general health, diabetes quality of life, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, along with patients’ demographic information, were obtained from 207 Asian and Pacific Islander adults with type 2 diabetes. IBM SPSS Amos 20 was used for the SEM analysis at 5% level of significance, and the goodness fit of the SEM model was also evaluated. The final SEM model showed that diet and exercise and foot care had positive associations, while depression had a negative association with diabetes’ health indicators. The results highlighted the importance of exercise and depression in diabetes patients’ BMI, glycemic control, general health, and quality of life, which provide evidence for the need to alleviate patients’ depression besides education and training in diet and exercise in future intervention studies among Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  16. Children's psychosocial functioning and parents' quality of life in paediatric short stature: The mediating role of caregiving stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neuza; Bullinger, Monika; Sommer, Rachel; Rohenkohl, Anja; Witt, Stefanie; Quitmann, Julia

    2017-09-27

    On the basis of the multidimensional model of the caregiving process, this study aimed (a) to compare the levels of quality of life (QoL) and psychological problems of children with short stature and the levels of caregiving stress and QoL of their parents, between diagnostic, treatment, and current height deviation groups, and (b) to examine the direct and indirect links, via caregiving stress, between children's psychosocial functioning and their parents' QoL. The sample was collected in 5 European countries and comprised 238 dyads of 8- to 18-year-old children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency or idiopathic short stature and one of their parents. The children completed self-report measures of height-related QoL (Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth Core Module) and psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire); the parents reported on their own QoL (EUROHIS-QOL-8 Index) and caregiving stress (Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth Effects on Parents subscale). Children who were treated and who achieved normal height reported better QoL compared to those untreated and with current short stature. Parents of children with idiopathic short stature and current short stature presented greater caregiving stress than parents of children with growth hormone deficiency and achieved normal height. Children's better psychosocial functioning was indirectly associated with parents' better QoL, via less caregiving stress, and these links were invariant across diagnoses, treatment status, and current height deviation. These results suggest that, along with growth hormone treatments, multidisciplinary interventions in paediatric endocrinology should be family-centred, by targeting both the children's psychosocial functioning and the parents' stress, in order to improve individual and family adaptation. Key Practitioner Message Height-related quality of life impairments and more internalizing problems in children and

  17. Stress management standards: a warning indicator for employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, A; Haslam, C O

    2013-07-01

    Psychological stress is a major cause of lost working days in the UK. The Health & Safety Executive (HSE) has developed management standards (MS) to help organizations to assess work-related stress. To investigate the relationships between the MS indicator tool and employee health, job attitudes, work performance and environmental outcomes. The first phase involved a survey employing the MS indicator tool, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), job attitudes, work performance and environmental measures in a call centre from a large utility company. The second phase comprised six focus groups to investigate what employees believed contributed to their perceived stress. Three hundred and four call centre employees responded with a response rate of 85%. Significant negative correlations were found between GHQ-12 and two MS dimensions; demands (Rho = -0.211, P stress were associated with reduced job performance, job motivation and increased intention to quit but low stress levels were associated with reduced job satisfaction. Lack of management support, recognition and development opportunities were identified as sources of stress. The findings support the utility of the MS as a measure of employee attitudes and performance.

  18. Lipid biomarkers in Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: new indicators of thermal stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kneeland, J.

    2013-08-30

    Lipid content and fatty acid profiles of corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts are known to vary in response to high-temperature stress. To better understand the heat-stress response in these symbionts, we investigated cultures of Symbiodinium goreauii type C1 and Symbiodinium sp. clade subtype D1 grown under a range of temperatures and durations. The predominant lipids produced by Symbiodinium are palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) saturated fatty acids and their unsaturated analogs, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3; DHA), and a variety of sterols. Prolonged exposure to high temperature causes the relative amount of unsaturated acids within the C18 fatty acids in Symbiodinium tissue to decrease. Thermal stress also causes a decrease in abundance of fatty acids relative to sterols, as well as the more specific ratio of DHA to an algal 4-methyl sterol. These shifts in fatty acid unsaturation and fatty acid-to-sterol ratios are common to both types C1 and D1, but the apparent thermal threshold of lipid changes is lower for type C1. This work indicates that ratios among free fatty acids and sterols in Symbiodinium can be used as sensitive indicators of thermal stress. If the Symbiodinium lipid stress response is unchanged in hospite, the algal heat-stress biomarkers we have identified could be measured to detect thermal stress within the coral holobiont. These results provide new insights into the potential role of lipids in the overall Symbiodinium thermal stress response. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. The impact of acute psychosocial stress on magnetoencephalographic correlates of emotional attention and exogenous visual attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Elling

    Full Text Available Stress-induced acute activation of the cerebral catecholaminergic systems has often been found in rodents. However, little is known regarding the consequences of this activation on higher cognitive functions in humans. Theoretical inferences would suggest increased distractibility in the sense of increased exogenous attention and emotional attention. The present study investigated the influence of acute stress responses on magnetoencephalographic (MEG correlates of visual attention. Healthy male subjects were presented emotional and neutral pictures in three subsequent MEG recording sessions after being exposed to a TSST-like social stressor, intended to trigger a HPA-response. The subjects anticipation of another follow-up stressor was designed to sustain the short-lived central catecholaminergic stress reactions throughout the ongoing MEG recordings. The heart rate indicates a stable level of anticipatory stress during this time span, subsequent cortisol concentrations and self-report measures of stress were increased. With regard to the MEG correlates of attentional functions, we found that the N1m amplitude remained constantly elevated during stressor anticipation. The magnetic early posterior negativity (EPNm was present but, surprisingly, was not at all modulated during stressor anticipation. This suggests that a general increase of the influence of exogenous attention but no specific effect regarding emotional attention in this time interval. Regarding the time course of the effects, an influence of the HPA on these MEG correlates of attention seems less likely. An influence of cerebral catecholaminergic systems is plausible, but not definite.

  20. Investigation of Stress Indices and Directional Loading of Eccentric Reducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Carter,E.A. Wais, E.C. Rodabaugh

    2003-08-01

    OAK- B135 Engineering for fatigue is an essential concern in piping systems. Addressing this concern, the ASME Section III and ANSI B31.1 Codes provide stress indices and stress intensification factors (SIFs) to be used in the design and evaluation of Class 1, 2 and 3 systems. In recent research cosponsored by EPRI and the U.S. DOE, new test data have been developed for comparison with the ASME stress indices and SIFs. This report presents the results of fatigue tests on eccentric reducers, taking into account the directionality of the loading. As detailed in the report, the results can help to improve the evaluation of reducers and can help to reduce unnecessary conservatism in piping system design.

  1. Measuring occupational stress: development of the pressure management indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Cooper, C L

    1998-10-01

    The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome scales measure job satisfaction, organizational satisfaction, organizational security, organizational commitment, anxiety--depression, resilience, worry, physical symptoms, and exhaustion. The stressor scales cover pressure from workload, relationships, career development, managerial responsibility, personal responsibility, home demands, and daily hassles. The moderator variables measure drive, impatience, control, decision latitude, and the coping strategies of problem focus, life work balance, and social support.

  2. ADMINISTRATION OF CACAO BEANS (Theobroma cacao L. EXTRACTS DECREASE MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION AND INCREASE BLOOD NOx CONCENTRATION IN WHITE RAT (Ra"us norvegicus INDUCED BY PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Wiryanthini IA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS causing accumulation of oxidative damage caused by exceeding anti oxidant capacity in the body. Psychological stress as psychosocial stress can induce oxidative stress which subsequently cause increase blood malondialdehyde (MDA and decrease blood nitrate and nitrite (NOx concentration as intermediate product of nitric oxide (NO. Cacao beans extracts contained anti oxidant flavanols consist of catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aims of this study is to investigate the effect of cacao beans (Theobroma cacao L. extracts for decreasing MDA and increasing NOx concentration in white rat (Ra$us norvegicus blood in stress oxidative state induced by psychosocial stress. It is an experimental study with Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. This study revealed decrease MDA concentration in group P1 (11.47 vs 8.04, P2 (11.92 vs 5.44 and P3 (11.69 vs 2.87 with P = 0.000 and increase NOx concentration in oxidative stress white rat induced by psychosocial stress a[er administration of cacao beans extract in group P1 (1909.83 vs 2085.16, P2 (1912.5 vs 2231.83 and P3 (1871.5 vs 2339.83 with P = 0.005. This study showed that cacao beans extract can inhibit oxidative stress caused by psychosocial stress.

  3. Enhancing effects of acute psychosocial stress on priming of non-declarative memory in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Almela, Mercedes; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-05-01

    Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarative memory and declarative memory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarative memory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems.

  4. Seasonal changes in stress indicators in high level football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, O; Kellmann, M; Ammann, T; Schnittker, R; Meyer, T

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed at describing changes in stress and performance indicators throughout a competitive season in high level football. 15 players (19.5±3.0 years, 181±5 cm, 75.7±9.0 kg) competing under professional circumstances were tested at baseline and 3 times during the season 2008/09 (in-season 1, 2, 3). Testing consisted of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (Total Stress and Recovery score), vertical jump tests (counter movement and drop jump (DJ)), and a maximal ramp-like running test. Average match exposure was higher during a 3-weeks period prior to in-season 3 compared to in-season 1 and 2 (1.5 vs. 1 h/week, p=0.05). Total Stress score was elevated at in-season 1 and 2 compared to baseline (pcorrelated with the corresponding changes in Total Stress score (r=-0.55 and r=-0.61, pstress and a lack of recovery towards the end of a season might be indicated by psychometric deteriorations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Mechanical twinning as stress indicator in fault rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, H.

    2011-12-01

    At low stresses and elevated temperatures rocks deform by dislocation movements and diffusion. At very high stresses they undergo brittle failure. For many minerals there is an intermediate regime where mechanical twinning occurs. This has been studied extensively in calcite (Turner, Griggs and Heard, GSA Mem. 1954) and also documented for quartz (Tullis, Science, 1972). In this study we use twinning microstructures to characterize rocks that were subjected to seismic stresses, specifically pseudotachylites and samples from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. For calcite in SAFOD samples, dislocation densities derived from TEM images as well as twin densities measured by optical microscopy, indicate stresses between 50 and 200 MPa. Similar residual stress magnitudes were obtained from preserved lattice distortion determined by synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction. Also quartz shows characteristic twin microstructures. Orientation maps with SEM-EBSD reveal that quartz associated with pseudotachylite veins is profusely twinned, similar to structures observed in quartz subjected to meteorite impacts. It suggests that local dynamic seismic stresses during earthquakes are responsible for Dauphiné twinning. Thus microstructures in minerals add information to constrain macroscopic conditions during faulting.

  6. Psychosocial assistance to students with posttraumatic stress disorder in primary and secondary schools in post-war Bosnia Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanović, Mevludin; Srabović, Sehaveta; Rasidović, Munevera; Sehović, Mirela; Hasanbasić, Emir; Husanović, Jasminka; Hodzić, Renata

    2009-12-01

    The 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) has had a tremendous impact on civilians; thousands of inhabitants were left with numerous traumatic experiences. Many children suffered or witnessed horrifying acts of violence and aggression. Although young trauma victims are often resilient, many experience mental health difficulties, including PTSD. The aim of the study was to estimate whether psychosocial support given by the School Project of Humanitarian Association of " Prijateljice" reduced posttraumatic consequences in students in primary and secondary schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina after 1992-1995 war. A stratified sample of 336 students in primary and secondary schools located in two entities of North-East Bosnia and Herzegovina, involved in psychosocial support, was compared with 72 voluntarily selected same-age students from the same schools who were not involved in this project. Data were collected on two occasions, beginning of December 2005 and end of May 2006, by using a self-evaluation survey method for measuring symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to DSM IV. The Index of Children Post-traumatic reactions were used. The severity of PTSD symptoms among students involved in the School Project decreased from (mean+/-standard deviation=35.3+/-10.2 to 26.7+/-8.7) (t=13.1, Pwork with students by giving them psychosocial support within the School Project resulted in significant reduction of PTSD symptoms' severity.

  7. Chronic psychosocial stress in mice leads to changes in brain functional connectivity and metabolite levels comparable to human depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Joanes; Azzinnari, Damiano; Seuwen, Aline; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R; Rudin, Markus

    2016-11-15

    Human depression, for which chronic psychosocial stress is a major risk factor, is characterized by consistent alterations in neurocircuitry. For example, there is increased functional connectivity (FC) within and between regions comprising the default mode network (DMN) including prefrontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Alterations in network FC are associated with specific aspects of psychopathology. In mice, chronic psychosocial stress (CPS) leads to depression-relevant behavior, including increased fear learning, learned helplessness, fatigue and decreased motivation for reward. Using multimodal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), we investigated CPS effects on function and structure in the mouse brain under light anesthesia. Mice underwent a baseline MRI/MRS session, followed by 15-day CPS (n=26) or control handling (n=27), and a post-treatment MRI/MRS session. In BOLD fMRI, relative to controls, CPS mice exhibited robust, reproducible increases in FC within 8 of 9 identified cortical networks, including the prefrontal and cingulate cortices that contribute to the "mouse DMN". CPS mice exhibited increases in between-network FC, including amygdala - prefrontal cortex and amygdala - cingulate cortex. MRS identified metabolic alterations in CPS mice as increased inositol levels in amygdala and increased glycerophosphorylcholine levels in prefrontal cortex. Diffusion-weighted MRI detected increased fractional anisotropic values in the cingulum. This study demonstrates that chronic psychosocial stress induces FC states in the mouse brain analogous to those observed in depression, as well as cerebral metabolism and white matter pathway alterations that contribute to understanding of pathological processes. It also demonstrates the importance of brain imaging to the establishment of valid animal models in translational psychiatry.

  8. Psychosocial treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in adult refugees: a systematic review of prospective treatment outcome studies and a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palic, Sabina; Elklit, Ask

    2011-06-01

    Refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often present with complicated traumatic symptoms, prolonged and repeated exposure to traumatic events, acculturation, and social problems. A consensus about suitability of psychosocial treatments for refugees does not exist. Never the less there is a need to review the state of knowledge about effective treatments for traumatized refugees, to help guide the practitioners in their choice of treatment methods. A systematic review of treatment outcome studies was carried out. Twenty-five studies were reviewed. The majority were treatment studies of different forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The rest were reports of outcomes of alternative treatments and a small group of studies of multidisciplinary treatments. The amount of grey literature not covered by the review could not be estimated precisely. Included studies are methodologically diverse and consist of different refugee populations. This makes a broad interpretation of the treatment results only tentative. Very large effect sizes were obtained in some of the CBT studies, indicating a broad suitability of CBT in the treatment of core symptoms of PTSD in adult refugees. Empirical evidence also points to the possibility that the maladaptive traumatic reactions in refugees can take shape of more complex reactions than those strictly specified in the diagnostic category of PTSD. Effectiveness of CBT treatments has as yet not been tested on the whole range of symptoms in these complex cases. There are few studies of treatments alternative to CBT and they are less methodologically rigorous than the CBT studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relevance of a Healthy Change Process and Psychosocial Work Environment Factors in Predicting Stress, Health Complaints, and Commitment Among Employees in a Ghanaian Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Quaye, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was intended to examine the effect of the healthiness of change process and psychosocial work environment factors in predicting job stress, health complaints and commitment among employees in a Ghanaian bank (N=132), undergoing organizational change. The change process was measured in terms of dimensions from the Healthy Change Process Index (HCPI) and the psychosocial work environment was measured by the Demands-Control-Support (DCS) model. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal...

  10. Does psychosocial competency training for junior physicians working in pediatric medicine improve individual skills and perceived job stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Monika; Baresi, Lisa; Groneberg, David; Mache, Stefanie

    2016-12-01

    Pediatricians' job performance, work engagement, and job satisfaction are essential for both the individual physician and quality of care for their little patients and parents. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly augment pediatricians' individual and professional competencies. In this study, we developed and implemented a psychosocial competency training (PCT) teaching different psychosocial competencies and stress coping techniques. We investigated (1) the influence of the PCT on work-related characteristics: stress perception, work engagement, job satisfaction and (2) explored pediatricians' outcomes and satisfaction with PCT. Fifty-four junior physicians working in pediatric hospital departments participated in the training and were randomized in an intervention (n = 26) or a control group (n = 28). In the beginning, at follow-up 1 and 2, both groups answered a self-rated questionnaire on perceived training outcomes and work-related factors. The intervention group showed that their job satisfaction significantly increased while perceived stress scores decreased after taking part in the PCT. No substantial changes were observed with regard to pediatricians' work engagement. Participating physicians evaluated PCT with high scores for training design, content, received outcome, and overall satisfaction with the training.

  11. Evaluation of Oxygen Deficit Stress on Germination Indicators and Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hoseini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship oxygen deficit stress on germination indicators and seedling growth of five wheat cultivars in laboratory condition, an experiment with Randomized Complete Block design in factorial arrangement with three replications was conducted in 2008. The treatments consisted of five wheat cultivars (Chamran, Flat, Roshan, Stare and Shole as A factor, and two oxygen level (normal seed and seed under oxygen deficit stress conditions as B factor in each of these figures was done. Results showed that oxygen deficit stress caused to decrease for various cultivars germination percentage, germination rate, allometric coefficient, seed vigor index and other germination indicators. Therefore, this test as a suitable method for determining the quality of various seed lot can be used in the water logging condition. In addition, among different cultivars characterized that Roshan cultivar was more resistant to oxygen deficit stress than Chamran, Flat and Star cultivars. Although Chamran cultivar is common cultivar in Khouzestan, but of look most germination indicators arranged as weak seed class. The highest correlation coefficients among the tested cultivars have been related to seed vigor with seedling length and dry weight of radicle with seedling with 0.92 and 0.90, respectively.

  12. NASA test flights with increased flight stress indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the objectives, results, and conclusions stemming from a series of six test flights conducted for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF). Results from the test flights indicate that: (1) the current two U.S. balloon films are capable of being flown at significantly increased flight stress index values; (2) payload weights less than the design minimum payload can be reliably flown without fear of structural failure due to increased circumferential stress; and (3) large and rapid decreases in payload weight can be tolerated by current balloons without structural failure.

  13. Physical and psychosocial stress exposures in US dental schools: the need for expanded ergonomics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Linda J; Stuart-Buttle, Carol; Wyszynski, Theresa C; Wilson, Earlena R

    2004-03-01

    Dental students train in an environment similar to dentists in private practice. The literature reveals that physical and psychosocial stressors in dental schools are associated with adverse health outcomes. While dental educators have provided resources to address psychosocial factors and ergonomics training at the didactic level, the reinforcement of biomechanics at the clinic level has been overlooked. In this article the authors introduce a descriptive analysis of an ergonomics awareness program that expands the ergonomic training by including an assessment of the physical work performed by dental students in the clinic environment.

  14. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  15. Ventilation rates indicate stress-coping styles in Nile tilapia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rodrigo E Barreto; Gilson L Volpato

    2011-12-01

    Behavioural responses to stress can form distinct profiles in a wide range of animals: proactive and reactive profiles or coping styles. Stress responsiveness can also differentiate between the behavioural profiles. The tendency to regain feed intake following transfer to a novel social-isolation tank (the speed of acclimation) can discriminate between proactive or reactive profiles. Consequently, differential stress responsiveness can be linked to this feeding behaviour trait. This study shows that ventilation rates of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), correlate with the rate of feeding resumption, following transfer to a novel social-isolation aquarium. Therefore, ventilation rate (VR) indicates coping styles; consequently, VR is a proxy for the way fish will deal with environmental challenges.

  16. Impact of psychosocial stress on airway inflammation and its mechanism in a murine model of allergic asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bei; DUAN Xiao-hong; WU Jin-feng; LIU Bao-jun; LUO Qing-li; JIN Hua-liang; DU Yi-jie

    2013-01-01

    Background It has already been recognized that psychosocial stress evokes asthma exacerbation; however,the mechanism of how stress gets inside the body is not clear.This study aimed to observe the impact of psychosocial stress on airway inflammation and its mechanism in the ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mice combined with social disruption stress.Methods Thirty-six male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into:control group,asthma group (ovalbumin-induced),asthma plus social disruption stress group (SDR),and SDR group.The open field video tracking system was used to assess animal behaviors.The invasive pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic lung compliance (cdyn) test system from Buxco was applied to detect pulmonary function.The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was utilized to determine OVA-IgE,T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines (IL-4,IL-5,IL-13) and corticosterone in mouse serum,the Th2 cytokines (IL-4,IL-5,IL-13,IL-6,TNF-α) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF),and IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the supernatant of splenocytes cultured in vitro.Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining was used to assess airway inflammation in lung histology.The cell count kit-8 assay (CCK-8) was applied to evaluate the inhibitory effect of corticosterone on splenocyte proliferation induced by lipopolysacchadde (LPS).Real time-PCR and Western blotting were utilized to determine glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA and GR protein expression in lungs.Results The open field test showed that combined allergen exposure and repeated stress significantly shortened the time the mice spent in the center of the open field (P <0.01),increased ambulatory activity (P <0.01) and the count of fecal boli (P <0.01),but deceased vertical activity (P <0.01).Results from pulmonary function demonstrated that airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was enhanced by psychosocial stress compared with allergy exposure alone.The ELISA results showed that cytokines in serum and BALF were significantly increased (P <0

  17. Relationships of work-related psychosocial risks, stress, individual factors and burnout - Questionnaire survey among emergency physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivana M; Arandjelović, Mirjana Ž; Jovanović, Jovica M; Nešić, Milkica M

    2017-03-24

    Psychosocial risks represent a great challenge for safety and health protection at work in Europe. The purpose of this study has been to determine the relationships of psychosocial risks arising from work, stress, personal characteristics and burnout among physicians and nurses in the Emergency Medical Service (EMS). We performed a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey which contained the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). A total of 88 physicians and 80 nurses completed the survey. Physicians demonstrated higher emotional (mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD) = 74.57±16.85) and cognitive (M±SD = 75.95±13.74) demands as compared to nurses. Both groups had high sensory demands and responsibilities at work, in spite of the low degree of their autonomy. The meaning of work, commitment to the workplace, and insecurity at work were high for both groups. Among all participants, stressful behavior and reactions were within the limits of low values ( 60). Personal and patient-related burnout was high for both groups, where physicians were significantly affected by work-related burnout. The influence at work, degree of freedom at work, social support, sense of coherence, mental health, and problem-focused coping are negatively related to work-related burnout. Based on personal factors and coping styles, emergency physicians and nurses are representing a self-selective professional group that meets high work demands, great responsibility, strong commitment and insecurity at work. Burnout of physicians and nurses in the EMS tends to be ignored, although it has severe consequences on their mental and general health. Med Pr 2017;68(2):178-178.

  18. Contributions of fMRI towards our understanding of the response to psychosocial stress in epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2014-06-01

    There are multiple definitions of stress. For this review, as a reference point, we will use the concept of acute emotional/psychosocial stress ("stress"). The presence of acute stress has been reported to have a significant effect on seizure control, with several studies showing patients with seizure disorders being able to predict with reasonable accuracy seizure occurrence within the following hours or days. However, neuroimaging investigations of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying stress reactivity (e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation) in humans, in general, and in patients with seizure disorders, in particular, are scarce. The reasons for this are multiple and likely include difficulty with designing appropriate probes that test various aspects of stress response, obtaining approval for studies that induce stress in patients who are prone to having stress-induced seizures, difficulties with assessing the physiological response to stress inside the scanner (e.g., heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygenation, cortisol levels, and galvanic skin responses), participant identification, and choice of epilepsy syndrome for investigation. With the recent explosion of neuroimaging literature focusing on correlating stress of various types and levels with cortical activations in healthy and diseased populations, it is incumbent upon us to examine the available neuroimaging data in patients with seizure disorders in order to identify the existing gaps and the needs/directions for future investigations. This approach is consistent with the goals of several of the 2014 Benchmarks for Epilepsy Research for the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the American Epilepsy Society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [LIFE CONDITIONS: NON-SPECIFIC STRESS INDICATORS AND DENTOALVEOLAR PATHOLOGIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosticone, Romina; Pescucci, Lisa; Porreca, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Trauma, diseases, diet, daily work and environmental factors shape bodies. From birth to death, these processes leave on the skeleton markers that can be recognized and studied, thus providing an overview of the health conditions of past populations. The present work analyzes data collected in seven necropolises. During our study, we exploited nonspecific stress and dental pathologies as key indicators of health conditions. In particula; we analyzed the three most common indicators of stress: porotic hyperostosis; enamel hypoplasia; and Harris lines on shins. Additionally, we examined the most important dental alveolar pathologies, including carious lesions, periodontal diseases, antemortem tooth loss, abscesses, and calculi. The data we analyzed suggest that, despite the different urban and suburban origins, all the samples belong to a middle-range or low social class, whose living conditions were modest. The only necropolis which stands out is Casal Bertone Mausoleo, where the samples present the lowest frequencies with respect to both the stress indicators and the oral pathologies, suggesting better living conditions.

  20. Psychosocial Stress at Work Doubles the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Women Evidence from the Whitehall II Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heraclides, A.; Chandola, T.; Witte, Daniel Rinse

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To investigate the effect of psychosocial stress at work on risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for conventional risk factors, among a sample of British, white-collar, middle-aged men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This was a prospective analysis (19912004) from the Whitehall...... phases. The job strain and iso-strain models were used to assess psychosocial work stress. RESULTS - iso-strain in the workplace was associated with a twofold higher risk of type 2 diabetes in age-adjusted analysis in women but not in men (hazard ratio 1.94 [95% CI 1.17-3.21]). This effect remained...... robust to adjustment for socioeconomic position and outside work stressors and was only attenuated by 20% after adjustment for health behaviors, obesity, and other type 2 diabetes risk factors. CONCLUSIONS - Psychosocial work stress was an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes among women after a 15...

  1. Sanitation-related psychosocial stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Hulland, Kristyna R S; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Freeman, Matthew C; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-08-01

    While sanitation interventions have focused primarily on child health, women's unique health risks from inadequate sanitation are gaining recognition as a priority issue. This study examines the range of sanitation-related psychosocial stressors during routine sanitation practices in Odisha, India. Between August 2013 and March 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 56 women in four life stages: adolescent, newly married, pregnant and established adult women in three settings: urban slums, rural villages and indigenous villages. Using a grounded theory approach, the study team transcribed, translated, coded and discussed interviews using detailed analytic memos to identify and characterize stressors at each life stage and study site. We found that sanitation practices encompassed more than defecation and urination and included carrying water, washing, bathing, menstrual management, and changing clothes. During the course of these activities, women encountered three broad types of stressors-environmental, social, and sexual-the intensity of which were modified by the woman's life stage, living environment, and access to sanitation facilities. Environmental barriers, social factors and fears of sexual violence all contributed to sanitation-related psychosocial stress. Though women responded with small changes to sanitation practices, they were unable to significantly modify their circumstances, notably by achieving adequate privacy for sanitation-related behaviors. A better understanding of the range of causes of stress and adaptive behaviors is needed to inform context-specific, gender-sensitive sanitation interventions.

  2. Thermal Indices and Thermophysiological Modeling for Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, George; Fiala, Dusan

    2015-12-15

    The assessment of the risk of human exposure to heat is a topic as relevant today as a century ago. The introduction and use of heat stress indices and models to predict and quantify heat stress and heat strain has helped to reduce morbidity and mortality in industrial, military, sports, and leisure activities dramatically. Models used range from simple instruments that attempt to mimic the human-environment heat exchange to complex thermophysiological models that simulate both internal and external heat and mass transfer, including related processes through (protective) clothing. This article discusses the most commonly used indices and models and looks at how these are deployed in the different contexts of industrial, military, and biometeorological applications, with focus on use to predict related thermal sensations, acute risk of heat illness, and epidemiological analysis of morbidity and mortality. A critical assessment is made of tendencies to use simple indices such as WBGT in more complex conditions (e.g., while wearing protective clothing), or when employed in conjunction with inappropriate sensors. Regarding the more complex thermophysiological models, the article discusses more recent developments including model individualization approaches and advanced systems that combine simulation models with (body worn) sensors to provide real-time risk assessment. The models discussed in the article range from historical indices to recent developments in using thermophysiological models in (bio) meteorological applications as an indicator of the combined effect of outdoor weather settings on humans.

  3. Catecholamines in amniotic fluid as indicators of intrapartum fetal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashiro,Yuriko

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Catecholamines were measured in the amniotic fluid and in the first voided newborn urine obtained from appropriate-for-date infants of term deliveries. Catecholamine values in the amniotic fluid and urine were nearly equal when expressed in terms of creatinine. Significant positive correlations were observed between the amniotic fluid and urine of norepinephrine and epinephrine. In normal cases (n = 32 that underwent uneventful vaginal delivery, the 95% confidence limits for norepinephrine and epinephrine in the amniotic fluid were 1.53 to 2.33 ng/ml and 0.16 to 0.30 ng/ml, respectively. In cases of moderate stress (n = 12, only norepinephrine showed significantly higher values than the normal cases, while in cases of severe stress (n = 12, norepinephrine became more significantly high, and epinephrine was found to be elevated significantly. A significant difference was noted in the incidence of fetal stress between the infants with more than and those with less than 2.30 ng/ml of norepinephrine, the upper limits of the normal 95% confidence limits. However, for epinephrine such a significant difference was not noted. It was concluded that amniotic fluid catecholamines are of fetal origin and reflect fetal sympathoadrenal activity directly, even during labor, and that their level may be a good indicator of fetal condition and stress.

  4. Thoracic radiography and oxidative stress indices in heartworm affected dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Rath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography and status of oxidative stress parameters in heartworm affected dogs in Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dirofilariasis by wet blood smear and modified Knott’s test and equal numbers of dogs as control were included in this study. The present study was conducted in heartworm affected dogs to see the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography. Similarly, the evaluation was undertaken for observing any alterations in oxidative stress status in affected as well as non-affected, but healthy control dogs by adopting standard procedure. Results: Thoracic radiography revealed cardiac enlargement, round heart appearance suggestive of right ventricular hypertrophy, tortuous pulmonary artery and darkening of lungs. Alterations in oxidative stress indices showed a significant rise of lipid peroxidase activity, non-significant rise of superoxide dismutase and a significant although reverse trend for catalase levels in affected dogs in comparison to Dirofilaria negative control but apparently healthy dogs. Conclusions: Radiographic changes, as well as alterations in oxidative stress parameters, may not be diagnostic for heartworm infection, but useful for detecting heartworm disease, assessing severity and evaluating cardiopulmonary parenchyma changes and gives a fair idea about the degree of severity of the disease. It aids as contributing factors in disease pathogenesis.

  5. Using the HSE stress indicator tool in a military context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Robert S; Dobson, Karen; Davison, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) stress indicator tool was conducted to determine whether it was suitable for use with Ministry of Defence (MoD) personnel. A total of 1031 respondents from the Army, Navy, Air Force and MoD civilians completed a questionnaire containing the HSE tool and supplementary measures of work-life balance, engagement, deployment, leave taken and hours of work. Six measures of adverse reaction to the stressors were also reported: perceptions of job stress, job stress and health, psychological strain, fatigue after work, work ability and quality of working life. The stressor scales, particularly the 'demands' and 'relationships' scales, were associated with adverse outcomes as was the work-life balance scale. The HSE tool had some validity when used with MoD personnel, but its content was too narrow. The content validity of the tool can be improved for use in a military context with the addition of a 'work-life balance' scale'. The HSE stress tool was tested with a mixed sample of MoD employees. The ‘Demands and “Relationships” scales were associated with adverse outcomes. An additional Work–Life Balance’ scale improved the content validity, demonstrating the importance of assessing the psychometric qualities of scales when used within particular contexts to ensure validity.

  6. Psycho-trauma, psychosocial adjustment and symptomatic Post-traumatic stress disorder among internally displaced persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Lateef Sheikh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment.MethodsCross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose symptomatic PTSD, composite international diagnostic interview for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Results Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2% had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1% had poor living conditions, and only12 (4.7% had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%, been evacuated from their town (96% and witnessing violence (88%. More than half (58% of IDPs had experienced 11 – 15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were, having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (Adjusted Odd Ratio [AOR]3.5, 95% CI 1.7 – 7.5; p= 0.001 and witnessing death of a family member ( 3.7, 1.2 – 11.5; p=0.0259.ConclusionWe concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma.Key words Post traumatic stress disorder, psychosocial adjustment

  7. Psychosocial stress induces hyperphagia and exacerbates diet-induced insulin resistance and the manifestations of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghez, Valentina; Razzoli, Maria; Carobbio, Stefania; Campbell, Mark; McCallum, Jacob; Cero, Cheryl; Ceresini, Graziano; Cabassi, Aderville; Govoni, Paolo; Franceschini, Paolo; de Santis, Valentina; Gurney, Allison; Ninkovic, Ivana; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    Stress and hypercaloric food are recognized risk factors for obesity, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Given the complexity of these metabolic processes and the unavailability of animal models, there is poor understanding of their underlying mechanisms. We established a model of chronic psychosocial stress in which subordinate mice are vulnerable to weight gain while dominant mice are resilient. Subordinate mice fed a standard diet showed marked hyperphagia, high leptin, low adiponectin, and dyslipidemia. Despite these molecular signatures of MetS and T2D, subordinate mice fed a standard diet were still euglycemic. We hypothesized that stress predisposes subordinate mice to develop T2D when synergizing with other risk factors. High fat diet aggravated dyslipidemia and the MetS thus causing a pre-diabetes-like state in subordinate mice. Contrary to subordinates, dominant mice were fully protected from stress-induced metabolic disorders when fed both a standard- and a high fat-diet. Dominant mice showed a hyperphagic response that was similar to subordinate but, unlike subordinates, showed a significant increase in VO2, VCO2, and respiratory exchange ratio when compared to control mice. Overall, we demonstrated a robust stress- and social status-dependent effect on the development of MetS and T2D and provided insights on the physiological mechanisms. Our results are reminiscent of the effect of the individual socioeconomic status on human health and provide an animal model to study the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  8. Physical discomfort and psychosocial job stress among male and female operators at telecommunication call centers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Chen, Chih-Yong; Lu, Shih-Yi

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of job stress, distributions of major job stressors, and associations between perceived job stress levels and multiple physical discomforts are assessed via a cross-sectional study of 1023 male and female operators at telecommunication call centers in Taiwan. Cases of discomfort are identified via questionnaire surveys requiring respondents to self-reported symptoms of discomfort. Information is obtained on demographics, health status, perceived job stress levels, major job stressors and psychosocial job characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression models are developed to predict physical discomfort in nine body areas. 'Eye strain', 'hoarse or painful throat' and 'musculoskeletal discomfort' are the most pronounced and prevalent complaints after prolonged work time at call centers. Female operators had higher prevalence of physical discomfort than male operators for all body areas. 'Encountering difficult customers' ranked as the most important job stress factor among both male and female operators. Working in a call center for more than 4 years is strongly associated with discomfort in all body areas (odds ratio ranges from 1.65 to 2.15). Analysis of risk factors vs. physical discomfort reveals that operators who perceive higher job stress have significantly increased risk of several health complaints, including eye strain, tinnitus, hoarse or painful throat, chronic cough with phlegm, chest tightness, irritable stomach or peptic ulcers, frequent urination and musculoskeletal discomfort.

  9. Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity to psychosocial stress in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Silja; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Feldt, Kimmo; Pyhälä, Riikka; Tammelin, Tuija; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G; Strandberg, Timo E; Räikkönen, Katri

    2013-04-01

    Children who undertake more physical activity (PA) not only have more optimal physical health but also enjoy better mental health. However, the pathways by which PA affects well-being remain unclear. To address this question, we examined whether objectively measured daytime PA was associated with diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPAA) activity and HPAA responses to psychosocial stress. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a birth cohort in Helsinki, Finland. We studied 258 8-year-old children. PA was assessed with wrist-worn accelerometers. Overall PA and percentage of time spent in vigorous PA (VPA) were categorized by sex into thirds. Salivary cortisol was measured diurnally and in response to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. The children in different PA groups did not show differences in diurnal salivary cortisol (P > .10 for overall PA and VPA). Children with the highest levels of overall PA or VPA showed no, or only small, increases over time in salivary cortisol after stress (P = .10 and P =.03 for time in analyses of PA and VPA, respectively), whereas children belonging to the lowest and intermediate thirds showed significant increases over time in salivary cortisol after stress (P ≤ .002 for time in the analyses of overall PA and VPA). These results suggest that children with lower levels of daytime PA have higher HPAA activity in response to stress. These findings may offer insight into the pathways of PA on physical and mental well-being.

  10. The acute salivary ghrelin response to a psychosocial stress is enhanced in symptomatic patients with bulimia nervosa: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Serino, Ismene; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Maj, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Stress is a precipitating factor for both binge eating and bulimia nervosa (BN); however, the biological mechanisms through which it may trigger binge eating are poorly understood. There is evidence that the adrenal hormone cortisol and the gastric peptide ghrelin might be involved in stress-induced food ingestion. We hypothesized that symptomatic patients with BN might disclose deranged responses of ghrelin and/or cortisol to stressors and that this could be related to their binge-eating behaviour. Here we investigated salivary cortisol and ghrelin responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 10 women with acute BN and 10 age-matched healthy females. Eating-related psychopathology and behaviours were assessed by self-report measures. No significant differences emerged between bulimic patients and healthy controls in the pre-stress salivary levels of both cortisol and ghrelin. The BN patients displayed normal cortisol but enhanced ghrelin responses to TSST. No significant correlations emerged between stress-induced salivary hormone changes and self-report measures of binge eating. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing deranged salivary ghrelin reactivity to a psychosocial stressor in symptomatic patients with BN. The extent to which this could contribute to the binge-eating behaviour of BN subjects awaits clarification. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Psychosocial indicators of health-related quality of life in children with cancer 2 months after end of successful treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice-Stam, H.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Brons, P.P.T.; Caron, H.N.; Last, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify psychosocial correlates of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in pediatric cancer patients after completion of cancer treatment. Multiple regression analyses were performed to predict self-reported HRQoL of 52 patients aged 8 to 15 years, and parent-repor

  12. Psychosocial indicators of health-related quality of life in children with cancer 2 months after end of successful treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice-Stam, H.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Brons, P.P.T.; Caron, H.N.; Last, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify psychosocial correlates of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in pediatric cancer patients after completion of cancer treatment. Multiple regression analyses were performed to predict self-reported HRQoL of 52 patients aged 8 to 15 years, and parent-repor

  13. Psychosocial Hazard Analysis in a Heterogeneous Workforce: Determinants of Work Stress in Blue- and White-Collar Workers of the European Steel Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Yannick Arnold; Bellingrath, Silja

    2017-01-01

    The European steel industry's workforce is highly heterogeneous and consists of various occupational groups, presumably facing different psychosocial stressors. The few existing studies on the subject mainly focused on physical constraints of blue-collar workers, whereas the supposable psychosocial workload received only little research attention. This is remarkable considering the challenges associated with statutory required risk assessment of psychosocial hazards. Valid measures of hazard analysis must account for various stressors and reliably identify them, also between occupational groups. The present study, based on a sample of blue- and white-collar workers (N = 124) from the European steel industry, aims to provide a first insight into psychosocial stressors and strain at work in this rarely researched industrial sector. Furthermore, two well-known theoretical roadmaps in job analysis are examined regarding their utility for risk assessment in heterogeneous workforces: the German standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and the short version of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the COPSOQ was better suited to predict various strain indices in the present sample. Especially stressors relating to socioemotional aspects, such as work-privacy conflict, revealed a reasonable impact, indicating the need for comprehensive solutions at the organizational level instead of solutions focusing on single workplaces. To conclude, a broadly diversified and validated approach in psychosocial risk assessment is needed to adequately assess the variety of psychosocial factors at work and in different occupational groups.

  14. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample.

  15. Psychosocial predictors of chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Sri Lankan tsunami survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommen, Miriam J J; Sanders, Angelique J M L; Buck, Nicole; Arntz, Arnoud

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) identified in Western samples generalize to low Social-Economical-Status (SES) populations in an underdeveloped Asian country. The study included 113 survivors of the 2004-tsunami on the south coast of Sri Lanka, recruited from 4 preschools and 10 villages for displaced persons. With logistic regressions the relations between interview-based PTSD diagnosis and psychological factors were assessed, controlling for putative confounders. Fifteen months post-trauma the prevalence of PTSD was 52.2%. Multivariate analyses indicated that negative interpretation of tsunami-memories was significantly (PPTSD. Of the putative confounders, gender and (non-replaced) lost work equipment were related to current PTSD (PPTSD is quite universal, suggesting that interventions focusing on this factor may be important in treatment of tsunami survivors who are suffering from chronic PTSD.

  16. Examining novel concepts of the pathophysiology of depression in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, E; Czéh, B; Flügge, G

    2004-09-01

    Despite decades of research on psychiatric disorders, the aetiology and precise biological mechanisms that underlie depressive diseases are still poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that psychiatric disorders not only have a neurochemical basis but are also associated with morphological alterations in central nervous neurons and/or glial cells. Antidepressants may act by restoring structure as well as function of neural networks, meaning that they may, as a fundamental principle, affect neural plasticity underlying normal brain functioning. To examine these novel concepts of the pathophysiology of depression and antidepressant medication we have carried out a series of experiments using the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews, an animal model with a high validity for the pathophysiology of depressive disorders, in which the animals were treated with the tricyclic antidepressant compound clomipramine. We found that one month of stress reduced cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus, and decreased the total hippocampal volume. Gene transcription analysis revealed that, under these experimental conditions, expression of genes known to be involved in processes of cell differentiation is suppressed. These effects of social conflict on hippocampal cells, including gene transcription, and on the entire hippocampal volume could be counteracted by chronic treatment with the antidepressant clomipramine. Stress also induced a constant hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and suppressed both motor and marking behaviour. These neuroendocrine and behavioural stress-induced changes were also re-normalized by clomipramine.

  17. Appropriate nominal stresses for use with ASME Code pressure-loading stress indices for nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.

    1976-06-01

    This program is part of a cooperative effort with industry to develop and verify analytical methods for assessing the safety of nuclear pressure-vessel and piping-system design. The study of nominal stresses and stress indices described is part of a continuing study of design rules for nozzles in pressure vessels being coordinated by the PVRC Subcommittee on Reinforced Openings and External Loadings. Results from these studies are used by appropriate ASME Code groups in drafting new and improved design rules.

  18. Chronic psychosocial stress induces reversible mitochondrial damage and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type-1 upregulation in the rat intestine and IBS-like gut dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, María; Alonso, Carmen; Guilarte, Mar; Serra, Jordi; Martínez, Cristina; González-Castro, Ana M; Lobo, Beatriz; Antolín, María; Andreu, Antoni L; García-Arumí, Elena; Casellas, Montserrat; Saperas, Esteban; Malagelada, Juan Ramón; Azpiroz, Fernando; Santos, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The association between psychological and environmental stress with functional gastrointestinal disorders, especially irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. We aimed to probe chronic psychosocial stress as a primary inducer of intestinal dysfunction and investigate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling and mitochondrial damage as key contributors to the stress-mediated effects. Wistar-Kyoto rats were submitted to crowding stress (CS; 8 rats/cage) or sham-crowding stress (SC; 2 rats/cage) for up to 15 consecutive days. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity was evaluated. Intestinal tissues were obtained 1h, 1, 7, or 30 days after stress exposure, to assess neutrophil infiltration, epithelial ion transport, mitochondrial function, and CRF receptors expression. Colonic response to CRF (10 μg/kg i.p.) and hyperalgesia were evaluated after ending stress exposure. Chronic psychosocial stress activated HPA axis and induced reversible intestinal mucosal inflammation. Epithelial permeability and conductance were increased in CS rats, effect that lasted for up to 7 days after stress cessation. Visceral hypersensitivity persisted for up to 30 days post stress. Abnormal colonic response to exogenous CRF lasted for up to 7 days after stress. Mitochondrial activity was disturbed throughout the intestine, although mitochondrial response to CRF was preserved. Colonic expression of CRF receptor type-1 was increased in CS rats, and negatively correlated with body weight gain. In conclusion, chronic psychosocial stress triggers reversible inflammation, persistent epithelial dysfunction, and colonic hyperalgesia. These findings support crowding stress as a suitable animal model to unravel the complex pathophysiology underlying to common human intestinal stress-related disorders, such as IBS.

  19. Wall shear stress indicators in abnormal aortic geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis, occurs at specific locations in the arterial tree. Characterizing flow and forces at these locations is crucial to understanding the genesis of disease. Measures such as time average wall shear stress, oscillatory shear index, relative residence time and temporal wall shear stress gradients have been shown to identify plaque prone regions. The present paper examines these indices in three aortic geometries obtained from patients whose aortas are deformed due to a genetic pathology and compared to one normal geometry. This patient group is known to be prone to aortic dissection and our study aims to identify early indicators that will enable timely intervention. Data obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is used to reconstruct the aortic arch. The local unsteady flow characteristics are calculated, fully resolving the flow field throughout the entire cardiac cycle. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different red blood cell loading. The impact of the deformed aortic geometries is analyzed to identify flow patterns that could lead to arterial disease at certain locations.

  20. Psychosocial Stress, Internalized Symptoms, and the Academic Achievement of Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Sylvia Alatorre; de Los Reyes, Rydda

    1999-01-01

    Examined the relationship between stressful life events, internalized symptoms of stress, and academic achievement in urban Hispanic high school students. Found direct effects of stressful life events and perceived competence on school grades and internalized symptoms. Multiplicative interactions for perceived competence were not significant…

  1. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase: Is there consistency between psychosocial stress test and burdensome work shifts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2017-07-10

    This study examined the consistency of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) total daily secretion between laboratory and field circumstances. The 95 participants were shift working female health care professionals with high (n = 53) or low (n = 42) psychosocial stress (job strain) measured by the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The Trier Social Stress Test including a 5-minute free speech and a mental arithmetic task was conducted with four, and field measurements with three daily saliva samples of cortisol and sAA during circadian rhythm and inter-shift recovery controlled morning shift, night shift, and a day off. The associations of salivary cortisol and sAA area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) between laboratory and field were tested using OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) regression. The sAA AUCg output in the laboratory was correlated with output during all field measurement days and similarly among high and low job strain groups (p<0.001). SAA AUCi and salivary cortisol AUCg and AUCi were not correlated between laboratory and field measurement, neither in the whole sample nor among low or high job strain group. In conclusion, a laboratory measure of sAA AUCg output is promising in predicting stress-related output during burdensome work shifts and leisure time, whereas sAA AUCi or salivary cortisol seem not to have this potential.

  2. Aftershock decay, productivity, and stress rates in Hawaii: Indicators of temperature and stress from magma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Fred W.; Wright, Tom; Nakata, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    We examined dozens of aftershock sequences in Hawaii in terms of Gutenberg-Richter and modified Omori law parameters. We studied p, the rate of aftershock decay; Ap, the aftershock productivity, defined as the observed divided by the expected number of aftershocks; and c, the time delay when aftershock rates begin to fall. We found that for earthquakes shallower than 20 km, p values >1.2 are near active magma centers. We associate this high decay rate with higher temperatures and faster stress relaxation near magma reservoirs. Deep earthquakes near Kilauea's inferred magma transport path show a range of p values, suggesting the absence of a large, deep magma reservoir. Aftershock productivity is >4.0 for flank earthquakes known to be triggered by intrusions but is normal (0.25 to 4.0) for isolated main shocks. We infer that continuing, post-main shock stress from the intrusion adds to the main shock's stress step and causes higher Ap. High Ap in other zones suggests less obvious intrusions and pulsing magma pressure near Kilauea's feeding conduit. We calculate stress rates and stress rate changes from pre-main shock and aftershock rates. Stress rate increased after many intrusions but decreased after large M7–8 earthquakes. Stress rates are highest in the seismically active volcano flanks and lowest in areas far from volcanic centers. We found sequences triggered by intrusions tend to have high Ap, high (>0.10 day) c values, a stress rate increase, and sometimes a peak in aftershock rate hours after the main shock. We interpret these values as indicating continuing intrusive stress after the main shock.

  3. Promoting Psychosocial Adjustment and Stress Management in First-Year College Students: The Benefits of Engagement in a Psychosocial Wellness Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Colleen S.; Travers, Lea V.; Bryant, Fred B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective/Methods: This research evaluates the effectiveness of a psychosocial wellness seminar for first-year college students, from 2009 to 2011, using an 8-month prospective quasi-experimental design. Participants/Results: Compared with controls ("n" = 22) involved in an alternative seminar, intervention participants ("n" =…

  4. Context-dependent enhancement of declarative memory performance following acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, T; Giesbrecht, T; Jelicic, M; Merckelbach, H

    2007-09-01

    Studies on how acute stress affects learning and memory have yielded inconsistent findings, with some studies reporting enhancing effects while others report impairing effects. Recently, Joëls et al. [Joëls, M., Pu, Z., Wiegert, O., Oitzl, M.S., Krugers, H.J., 2006. Learning under stress: how does it work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 152-158] argued that stress will enhance memory only when the memory acquisition phase and stressor share the same spatiotemporal context (i.e., context-congruency). The current study tested this hypothesis by looking at whether context-congruent stress enhances declarative memory performance. Undergraduates were assigned to a personality stress group (n=16), a memory stress group (n=18), or a no-stress control group (n=18). While being exposed to the acute stressor or a control task, participants encoded personality- and memory-related words and were tested for free recall 24h later. Relative to controls, stress significantly enhanced recall of context-congruent words, but only for personality words. This suggests that acute stress may strengthen the consolidation of memory material when the stressor matches the to-be-remembered information in place and time.

  5. Implications of psychosocial stress on memory formation in a typical male versus female student sample.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; van Stegeren, A.H.; Joëls, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to differentially modulate memory function. Memory can be impaired or strengthened by stress, depending on e.g. the memory type and phase under study, the emotional value of the learned information and the sex of the subjects. Here, we addressed the latter and investigated the impact

  6. Implications of psychosocial stress on memory formation in a typical male versus female student sample.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; van Stegeren, A.H.; Joëls, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to differentially modulate memory function. Memory can be impaired or strengthened by stress, depending on e.g. the memory type and phase under study, the emotional value of the learned information and the sex of the subjects. Here, we addressed the latter and investigated the impact

  7. Is vertebral body osteophytosis a reliable indicator of occupational stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszka, Anna; Weiss, Elizabeth; Piontek, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Whether activity patterns cause vertebral body osteophytosis (VO) remains unanswered. Although, many previous researchers indicate physical activity as an etiological factor of VO, a number of recent studies have questioned this conclusion. Thus, using a sample of 101 adult males from medieval Poland, this current study examines whether individuals with VO have greater entheseal change (EC) scores since EC are commonly used as an indicator of activity. The sample was divided into younger adults (20 to 40 years old) and older adults (41 to 56 years old). Three aggregate variables (aggregate VO, upper limb ECs, and lower limb ECs) were created to determine whether VO may be useful in activity pattern reconstructions. No significant age differences were found and, thus, all correlations were run without age controls. A significant positive correlation was found between aggregate VO and lower limb EC (rho = 0.347, p occupational stresses and there may be similar etiologies present in VO and EC formation, but there remains much unexplained variance that suggests that VO and EC etiologies are complex.

  8. Microbial Activity Indices: Sensitive Soil Quality Indicators for Trace Metal Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-Tao; T.BECQUER; C.QUANTIN; M.BENEDETTI; P.LAVELLE; DAI Jun

    2005-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, total and DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-extractable Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd contents, microbial biomass carbon (C) content and the organic C mineralization rate of the soils in a long-term trace metal-contaminated paddy region of Guangdong, China were determined to assess the sensitivity of microbial indices to moderately metal-contaminated paddy soils. The mean contents of total Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 251,250, 171, and 2.4mg kg-1 respectively. DTPA-extractable metals were correlated positively and significantly with total metals, CEC, and organic C (except for DTPA-extractable Cd), while they were negatively and highly significantly correlated with pH, total Fe and Mn. Metal stress resulted in relatively low ratios of microbial biomass C to organic C and in remarkable inhibition of the microbial metabolic quotient and C mineralization rate, which eventually led to increases in soil organic C and C/N. Moreover, microbial respiratory activity showed a stronger correlation to DTPA-extractable metals than to total metal content. Likewise, in the acid paddy soils some "linked" microbial activity indices, such as metabolic quotient and ratios of basal respiration to organic C, especially during initial incubation, were found to be more sensitive indicators of soil trace metal contamination than microbial biomass C or basal respiration alone.

  9. Thermal imaging to detect physiological indicators of stress in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Carl B.; Skipper, Julie A.; Petkie, Douglas T.

    2013-05-01

    Real-time, stand-off sensing of human subjects to detect emotional state would be valuable in many defense, security and medical scenarios. We are developing a multimodal sensor platform that incorporates high-resolution electro-optical and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras and a millimeter-wave radar system to identify individuals who are psychologically stressed. Recent experiments have aimed to: 1) assess responses to physical versus psychological stressors; 2) examine the impact of topical skin products on thermal signatures; and 3) evaluate the fidelity of vital signs extracted from thermal imagery and radar signatures. Registered image and sensor data were collected as subjects (n=32) performed mental and physical tasks. In each image, the face was segmented into 29 non-overlapping segments based on fiducial points automatically output by our facial feature tracker. Image features were defined that facilitated discrimination between psychological and physical stress states. To test the ability to intentionally mask thermal responses indicative of anxiety or fear, subjects applied one of four topical skin products to one half of their face before performing tasks. Finally, we evaluated the performance of two non-contact techniques to detect respiration and heart rate: chest displacement extracted from the radar signal and temperature fluctuations at the nose tip and regions near superficial arteries to detect respiration and heart rates, respectively, extracted from the MWIR imagery. Our results are very satisfactory: classification of physical versus psychological stressors is repeatedly greater than 90%, thermal masking was almost always ineffective, and accurate heart and respiration rates are detectable in both thermal and radar signatures.

  10. Low vigorous physical activity is associated with increased adrenocortical reactivity to psychosocial stress in students with high stress perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Ludyga, Sebastian; Mücke, Manuel; Colledge, Flora; Brand, Serge; Pühse, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The pathways by which physical activity impacts on participants' health are still not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to go beyond existing research by combining methods from survey-based and experimental stress research, and by examining whether the potential of vigorous physical activity (VPA) to attenuate physiological and psychological stress responses is moderated by participants' subjective stress perception. The sample consisted of 42 undergraduate students (M=21.2±2.2 years, 52% women). Participants self-reported their stress and wore an accelerometer device for seven consecutive days. To examine differences in the adrenocortical, autonomic and psychological stress reactivity, salivary free cortisol, heart rate, state anxiety, mood and calmness were assessed prior to, during and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The cut-offs of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) were used to distinguish between students below/above current VPA recommendations. High levels of perceived stress combined with VPA levels below the ACSM's standards (strategy to increase physiological and psychological stress resilience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychosocial stress enhances non-drug-related positive memory retrieval in male abstinent heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Lu, Lin

    2010-11-12

    Stress exposure in addicted individuals is known to provoke drug craving, presumably through a memory-like process, but less is known about the effects of stress on non-drug-related affective memory retrieval per se in such individuals, which is likely to provide important insights into therapy for relapse. In present study, we explored the effect of stress on retrieval of neutral and emotionally valenced (positive and negative) words in abstinent heroin addicts. In present study, 28 male inpatient abstinent heroin addicts and 20 sex-, age-, education- and economic status-matched healthy control participants were assessed for 24h delayed recall of valenced and neutral word lists on two occasions 4 weeks apart-once in a nonstress control condition, once after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test in a counterbalanced design. In addition, attention, working memory, blood pressure, heart rate and salivary cortisol were assessed. We found acute stress at the time of word list recall enhanced retrieval of positively valenced words, but no effect on negative and neutral word retrieval in abstinent heroin addicts was observed. No changes were detected for attention and working memory. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol, blood pressure and heart rate. Stress can enhance non-drug-related positive memory in abstinent heroin addicts. Our findings will provide richer information in understanding dysregulation of their emotional memory processing under stress and hopefully provide insight into designing improved treatments for drug addiction.

  12. Individual Differences in the Psychobiological Response to Psychosocial Stress (Trier Social Stress Test): The Relevance of Trait Anxiety and Coping Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villada, Carolina; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of some personality traits to the physiological and psychological response to a standardized laboratory psychosocial stressor (trier social stress test). Cortisol and affective response (anxiety and mood) were analysed in a mixed-sex group composed of 35 young adults who participated in a crossover design (18 men and 17 women). After verifying a statistically significant response to the trier social stress test in all parameters studied in both sex groups, exploratory cluster analyses were carried out to identify sub-groups based on their psychophysiological responses. These analyses showed two different groups: subjects displaying lower psychological response along with higher cortisol response (cluster 1) compared with the group with high affective reactivity along with lower cortisol response (cluster 2). Interestingly, we also found significant differences in trait anxiety and coping styles when the two clusters were compared. Subjects in cluster 1 showed lower scores on trait anxiety and higher scores on active coping, whereas the subjects in the second cluster obtained higher scores on anxiety and on coping focused on emotions and mental disengagement. These findings support the importance of personality traits and coping styles in understanding the overall integrative psychobiological responsiveness to social stress.

  13. An evaluation of a psychosocial stress and coping model in the police work context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Stress is a social reality which does not exist in isolation, but in many social situations, especially work-related environments. Police officers in particular suffer from highly negative stress related outcomes.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine how Moos's hypothesised stress and coping model (1994 fitted a sample of police officers.Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to understand police officers' unique needs and how the frequency and/or intensity of perceived stress could be reduced so that they would be able to cope more effectively with stress.Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental survey design, following the quantitative tradition, was used in pursuit of the research objectives. A random sample of 505 participants was extracted from a population of serving male and female police officers reflecting the typical South African ethnic groups. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to establish the adequacy of between the hypothesised Moos model and the sample.Main findings: The hypothesised theoretical framework was disproved. A respecified model and inter-correlations confirm that some officers experience burnout, while, paradoxically, others continue to be unaffected because of the buffering effect of social support, personality factors and other resilience factors not revealed in this study.Practical/managerial implications: The study calls on police management for awareness of the negative health consequences of prolonged stressors. Simultaneously, employee assistance programmes could be directed to problem-solving strategies, perceived self-efficacy and learned resourcefulness to improve control over prolonged negative stress consequences among members.Contribution/value-add: This research provides a theoretical framework to understand, describe and assess individual well-being in the police work context.

  14. Relationships among stressful life events and physiological markers, treatment adherence, and psychosocial functioning among youth with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walders-Abramson, Natalie; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Anderson, Barbara; El Ghormli, Laure; Geffner, Mitchell; Kaplan, Joan; Koontz, Michaela B; Saletsky, Ron; Payan, Marisa; Yasuda, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relationships between stressful life events and physiological measures, adherence to prescribed oral medication regimens, depressive symptoms, and impaired quality of life (QoL) in adolescents with recent-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). Data were collected from 497 ethnically diverse participants (66% female) in the final year of the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth multicenter clinical trial. Exposure to 32 possible events over the previous year and rating of subsequent distress were collected by self-report and summarized as a major stressors score. This score was analyzed for relationship to glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c and treatment failure), body mass index, diagnosis of hypertension or triglyceride dyslipidemia, adherence to a prescribed oral medication regimen, presence of depressive symptoms, and impaired QoL. The total number of major stressful life events in the adolescents with T2D was calculated, with 33% reporting none, 67% reporting ≥ 1, 47% reporting ≥ 2, 33% reporting ≥ 3, and 20% reporting ≥ 4. There were no associations between the major stressors score and physiological measures or diagnosis of comorbidities. The odds of medication nonadherence increased significantly from those reporting ≥ 1 major stressor (OR, 1.58; P = .0265) to those reporting ≥ 4 major stressors (OR, 2.70; P = .0009). Significant odds of elevated depressive symptoms and impaired QoL were also found with increased reporting of major stressors. Exposure to major stressful life events is associated with lower adherence to prescribed oral medication regimens and impaired psychosocial functioning in adolescents with T2D. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fiscal Stress in Wisconsin Small Governments: Indicators and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolensky, Robert P.; Enright, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 59 Wisconsin officials to determine the fiscal crises in U.S. small towns. Results did not reveal a fiscal crisis, but fiscal stress was evident. Wisconsin small governments responded to fiscal stress though increasing local taxes, borrowing money, obtaining increased state aid and shared revenue, reducing expenditures, and promoting…

  16. [Association between demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors of job stress in a sample of health care workers employed in two Italian hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, C G; Gerbaudo, Laura; Benso, P G; Violante, B

    2009-01-01

    Job stress has negative effects on both health care work ers' (HCW) health and on work organization. To assess whether the presence of stressful conditions, individually considered, or combined in the iso-strain model, is significantly associated with specific socio-demographic characteristics, also with the aim of providing organizational tools for management to reduce stress in the working environment according to Italian law 81/2008. The extended version of the Job Content Questionnaire was administered to 265 healthy HCW in seven paired wards of two hospitals. The five psychosocial scales Job Demand (JD), Job Control (JC), Social Support (SS), Skill Underutilization (SuS), and Job Insecurity (JI) were calculated. The factors JD, JC, and SS were combined together to separate a group of 33 HCW in iso-strain conditions from another group of 232 HCW not in iso-strain conditions. Several socio-demographic variables were collected. Statistically significant associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors, whereas the iso-strain conditions were not related to any socio-demographic parameter. Data suggest the need for alternative policies to reduce job stress: for example, actions addressed to operative units or HCW with specific socio-demographic characteristics could be effective in improving individual psychosocial factors; however, integrated actions aimed at reorganizing the working environment as a whole should be implemented to correct iso-strain conditions.

  17. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2004, a firework factory in a residential area of a large Danish city exploded. The children at the local school were screened for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 16 months and 3½ years after the incident. A large proportion of the children still suffered from a substantial number of symptoms 3½ years after the…

  18. Physiological and endocrine reactions to psychosocial stress in alcohol use disorders: duration of abstinence matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starcke, K.; Holst, R.J. van; Brink, W. van den; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research findings suggest that heavy alcohol use is associated with alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system function and that early abstinence is associated with blunted stress responsiveness. METHODS: This study investigated abstinent a

  19. Psycho-Social Factors Causing Stress: A Study of Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Geetika; Tyagi, Harish Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The present investigation was planned to determine the influence of type of personality, gender, age, qualification and experience causing stress among teacher educators at work. Method: A sample of 100 subjects from male and female teachers teaching in teacher training colleges, Delhi, India was drawn randomly. The data was collected by…

  20. Can architectural design alter the physiological reaction to psychosocial stress? A virtual TSST experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fich, Lars Brorson; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Wallergård, Mattias; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse

    2014-08-01

    Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intercorrelation between immunological biomarkers and job stress indicators among female nurses: A nine-month longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Suk eYoon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some immunological biomarkers have been reported to be associated with job stress. This study was conducted to explore an intercorrelation between the psychological components of job stress and various immunological biomarkers among female nurses. To assess monthly and weekly job stress, 41 nurses had repeatedly completed the questionnaires such as the GJSQ, the POMS and the CES-D. Using flow cytometry and radioimmunoassay, the number of white blood cells, lymphocytic proliferation to mitogens, and toxoid were measured. Moreover, the levels of hydrocortisol, IL-b, INF-r, and TNF-a and salivary IgA were eveluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. When the Pearson correlation coefficients between job stress and immunological biomarkers were estimated after adjusting for age and smoking status, Clashes: conflict at work was significantly related to the number of CD4 cells (r = 0.36, p-value < 0.05, CD4 to CD8 ratio (0.35; < 0.05, response to concanavalin A (0.42; < 0.05, and phytohemagglutinin (0.35; < 0.05. Additionally, the level of hydrocortisol was significantly related to seven psychosocial measures; i.e., role conflict (-0.47; < 0.01, role ambiguity (-0.39; < 0.05, clashes at work (-0.38; < 0.05, control & influence at work (0.53; < 0.01, task control (0.55; < 0.001, resources at work (0.35; < 0.05, and skill underutilization (0.43; < 0.05. The results indicate that 1 the psychological job stress is associated with the levels of some immunological biomarkers in nurses; and 2 especially, hydrocortisol shows a remarkable relationship with diverse job stress indicators.

  2. Predicting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity from psychosocial stress and stress-response genes : a random forest regression approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, D.; Hoekstra, P. J.; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; Bralten, Janita; Oosterlaan, J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Faraone, S. V.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Hartman, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants contributing to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by the involvement of numerous common genetic variants with small effects, interacting with each other as well as with environmental factors, such as stress exposure. Random forest regression

  3. Predicting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity from psychosocial stress and stress-response genes: a random forest regression approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, D. van der; Hoekstra, P.J.; Donkelaar, M.M.J. van; Bralten, J.B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.; Faraone, S.V; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hartman, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants contributing to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by the involvement of numerous common genetic variants with small effects, interacting with each other as well as with environmental factors, such as stress exposure. Random forest regression

  4. Self-compassion as a predictor of interleukin-6 response to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breines, Juliana G; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that self-compassion is associated with lower levels of stress-induced inflammation. On two consecutive days, plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed at baseline and at 30 and 120 min following exposure to a standardized laboratory stressor in a sample of 41 healthy young adults. Participants who were higher in self-compassion exhibited significantly lower day 1 IL-6 responses, even when controlling for self-esteem, depressive symptoms, demographic factors, and distress. Self-compassion was not related to day 2 IL-6 response but was inversely related to day 2 baseline IL-6 levels, and to increase in baseline IL-6 from day 1 to day 2. These findings suggest that self-compassion may serve as a protective factor against stress-induced inflammation and inflammation-related disease.

  5. Psycho-social risks at work: stress and coping strategies in oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sandra da Fonte Sousa; Santos, Margarida Maria Magalhães Cabugueira Custódio dos; Carolino, Elisabete Teresa da Mata Almeida

    2013-01-01

    to identify sources of stress and coping strategies in nurses who work in three Head and Neck Surgery Oncology Services, in three central hospitals in Portugal. a cross-sectional descriptive-exploratory study, whose sample was made up of the 96 nurses from the three services. The following were used in the data collection: a socio-demographic questionnaire; the 12-item General Health Questionnaire; and the Occupational Stress Inventory; Brief COPE. reasonable levels of general health were ascertained. The most-mentioned stressors were: burden with work; low pay; the physical space where they work; emotionally-disturbing situations and lack of recognition of the profession. The most-used coping strategies were: planning; active coping; acceptance and self-distraction. the stressors identified are mainly related to organizational aspects and work conditions, and the coping strategies chosen are aimed at resolving problems and improving the nurses’ well-being. A significant percentage of the nurses presents high levels of pressure and depressed emotions. The results presented corroborate previous studies which warn of the importance of developing strategies for preventing these stress levels.

  6. Psycho-social risks at work: stress and coping strategies in oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra da Fonte Sousa Gomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify sources of stress and coping strategies in nurses who work in three Head and Neck Surgery Oncology Services, in three central hospitals in Portugal. METHOD: a cross-sectional descriptive-exploratory study, whose sample was made up of the 96 nurses from the three services. The following were used in the data collection: a socio-demographic questionnaire; the 12-item General Health Questionnaire; and the Occupational Stress Inventory; Brief COPE. RESULTS: reasonable levels of general health were ascertained. The most-mentioned stressors were: burden with work; low pay; the physical space where they work; emotionally-disturbing situations and lack of recognition of the profession. The most-used coping strategies were: planning; active coping; acceptance and self-distraction. CONCLUSION: the stressors identified are mainly related to organizational aspects and work conditions, and the coping strategies chosen are aimed at resolving problems and improving the nurses' well-being. A significant percentage of the nurses presents high levels of pressure and depressed emotions. The results presented corroborate previous studies which warn of the importance of developing strategies for preventing these stress levels.

  7. The role of psychosocial stress in the onset and progression of bipolar disorder and its comorbidities: the need for earlier and alternative modes of therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R M; Leverich, G S

    2006-01-01

    Psychosocial stress plays an important role at multiple junctures in the onset and course of bipolar disorder. Childhood adversity may be a risk factor for vulnerability to early onset illness, and an array of stressors may be relevant not only to the onset, recurrence, and progression of affective episodes, but the highly prevalent substance abuse comorbidities as well. A substantial group of controlled studies indicate that various cognitive behavioral psychotherapies and psychoeducational approaches may yield better outcomes in bipolar disorder than treatment as usual. Yet these approaches do not appear to be frequently or systematically employed in clinical practice, and this may contribute to the considerable residual morbidity and mortality associated with conventional treatment. Possible practical approaches to reducing this deficit (in an illness that is already underdiagnosed and undertreated even with routine medications) are offered. Without the mobilization of new clinical and public health approaches to earlier and more effective treatment and supportive interventions, bipolar illness will continue to have grave implications for many patients' long-term well being.

  8. Longitudinal Impact of Frequent Geographic Relocation from Adolescence to Adulthood on Psychosocial Stress and Vital Exhaustion at Ages 32 and 42 Years: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K. C.; Twisk, J W R; H. C. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Background We assessed mobility in different life stages over a 29-year period from adolescence through adulthood and its correlation with psychosocial stress and vital exhaustion at ages 32 and 42 years. Methods Data were derived from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, an observational longitudinal study of 420 boys and girls from age 13 to 42 years. Measurements included cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR), psychosocial stress (measured by a Dutch scale of ...

  9. The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and related psychosocial consequences of burn injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, Judith; Wyka, Katarzyna; Leahy, Nicole; Yurt, Roger; Difede, JoAnn

    2015-01-01

    Burn injuries are unique in their medical and psychological impact, yet there has been little exploration of psychiatric treatment for this population. This uncontrolled pilot study assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a treatment protocol designed to address posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, coping with scarring, and community integration among adult burn survivors. A 14-session, manualized treatment protocol was created using cognitive-behavioral interventions including imaginal exposure, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, modeling, and in vivo exposure. Responses were measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Index, Community Integration Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and Burn Specific Health Scale. Nine of 10 enrolled patients (60% women; mean = 42 years old) completed treatment. Burn size was 0.5% to 65%; mechanism of injury included flame (4), scald (5), and contact (1) burns. Mean acute hospitalization was 30.1 days (range = 13-87); mean time from injury to treatment was 3.2 months (range = 1-7). Baseline mean posttraumatic stress score was 68 on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (severe); scores decreased by 36% to a mean of 45.3 at posttreatment, with a large effect size. Baseline self-reported depression was 21 (moderate) on the Beck Depression Index, decreasing by 47% to a mean of 12 posttreatment (nonclinical). Change in community reintegration score was significant and large, and body image showed significant improvement. The protocol showed promise in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, self-image, and community reintegration following burn injury. These findings suggest that coping may improve with treatment and symptoms should not be dismissed as unavoidable consequences of burn injury.

  10. Race-Related Stress, Quality of Life Indicators, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…

  11. Chronic psychosocial stress impairs early LTP but not late LTP in the dentate gyrus of at-risk rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Tran, Trinh T

    2014-11-07

    The CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus are physically and functionally closely related but they react differently to insults. This study examined the effect of chronic psychosocial stress on the dentate gyrus of an at-risk (preclinical) rat model of Alzheimer's disease (subAβ rats). Chronic psychosocial stress was produced using a rat intruder model. The at-risk rat model of Alzheimer's disease was created by osmotic pump infusion of sub-pathological dose of Aβ (160 pmol Aβ1-42/day i.c.v) for 14 days. Electrophysiological methods were used to evoke and record early and late phase LTP in the dentate gyrus of anesthetized rats, and immunoblotting was used to measure levels of memory-related signaling molecules in the same region. Electrophysiological and molecular tests in the dentate gyrus showed that subAβ rats or stressed rats were not different from control rats. However, when the subAβ rats were chronically stressed, the combined treatments severely suppressed early phase LTP without affecting the late phase LTP of dentate gyrus. Additionally, in the chronically stressed subAβ rats the expected elevation of levels of phosphorylated CaMKII did not materialize after expression of early phase LTP suggesting impaired phosphorylation, which may explain the severely blocked early phase LTP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in midlife on health functioning after labor market exit--results from the GAZEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Sembajwe, Grace; Zins, Marie; Berkman, Lisa; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    To study long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in mid-life on health functioning after labor market exit using two established work stress models. In the frame of the prospective French Gazel cohort study, data on psychosocial work stress were assessed using the full questionnaires measuring the demand-control-support model (in 1997 and 1999) and the effort-reward imbalance model (in 1998). In 2007, health functioning was assessed, using the Short Form 36 mental and physical component scores. Multivariate regressions were calculated to predict health functioning in 2007, controlling for age, gender, social position, and baseline self-perceived health. Consistent effects of both work stress models and their single components on mental and physical health functioning during retirement were observed. Effects remained significant after adjustment including baseline self-perceived health. Whereas the predictive power of both work stress models was similar in the case of the physical composite score, in the case of the mental health score, values of model fit were slightly higher for the effort-reward imbalance model (R(2): 0.13) compared with the demand-control model (R²: 0.11). Findings underline the importance of working conditions in midlife not only for health in midlife but also for health functioning after labor market exit.

  13. Stimulated infrared emission from rocks: assessing a stress indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Freund

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of stress-activated positive hole (p-hole charge carriers on the infrared (IR emission from rocks, we subjected a portion (~10 vol.% of a large (60×30×7.5 cm3 block of anorthosite, a nearly monomineralic (Ca-rich feldspar igneous rock, to uniaxial deviatory stress up to failure. We measured the IR emission from a flat surface ≈40 cm from the stressed rock volume over the 800–1300 cm−1 (7.7–12.5 μm range. Upon loading, the intensity and spectrum of the IR emission change. Narrow bands near instantly appear at 930 cm−1 (10.75 μm, 880 cm−1 (11.36 μm, 820 cm−1 (12.4 μm plus additional bands in the 1000–1300 cm−1 (10.0–7.7 μm range. Upon further loading the bands broaden and shift. Their intensities increase but also fluctuate. Near the emission maxima at 300 K, at 1150 cm−1 and 1030 cm−1 (8.7 and 9 μm, barely any intensity increase occurs suggesting that the temperature of the surface does not actually increase. We propose that the observed narrow IR emission bands arise from vibrationally excited O-O stretching modes which form when p-hole charge carriers (activated in the stressed rock spread into the unstressed portion of the rock to the surface, where they recombine and radiatively decay. The effect, stimulated IR emission due to hole-hole recombination, may help explain the enhanced IR emission seen in night-time satellite images of the land surface before major earthquakes known as "thermal anomalies''.

  14. Blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and insulin response to psychosocial stress in young adults born preterm at very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseva, Nina; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Pyhälä, Riikka; Moltchanova, Elena; Feldt, Kimmo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Hovi, Petteri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Andersson, Sture; Eriksson, Johan G; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500 g) have higher levels of cardiovascular risk factors, including impaired glucose regulation, than their term-born peers. This could be mediated through altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) response to stress. To compare HPAA, glucose and insulin responses provoked by psychosocial stress in VLBW subjects versus a comparison group of term-born controls. We studied 54 unimpaired young adults, aged 19-27 years, born at VLBW and a comparison group of 40 adults born at term, group-matched for age, sex and birth hospital, from one regional centre in southern Finland. The participants underwent a standardized psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). In conjunction with TSST, we measured salivary cortisol, plasma ACTH, cortisol, glucose and insulin. Data were analysed with mixed-effects model and multiple linear regression analyses. Baseline concentrations for cortisol, ACTH, insulin and glucose were similar in VLBW and comparison groups. During TSST, analysed with mixed-effects model, overall concentrations of plasma cortisol were 17·2% lower (95% CI; 3·5 to 28·9) in the VLBW group. The VLBW group also had lower salivary (P = 0·04) and plasma cortisol (P = 0·02) responses to TSST. Insulin and glucose concentrations correlated with changes in cortisol concentrations. Accordingly, VLBW subjects had 26·5% lower increment in insulin (95% CI; 9·8-40·1). Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, hormonal contraception, menstrual cycle phase, time of day and parental education. VLBW adults have lower HPAA responses to psychosocial stress than term-born controls. This is accompanied by a lower insulin response. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Physical and psychosocial functioning following motor vehicle trauma: relationships with chronic pain, posttraumatic stress, and medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Joshua D; Masci, Jarod; Bennett, Shira A; Beck, J Gayle

    2010-04-01

    Chronic pain and PTSD are known to hold substantial comorbidity following traumatic injury. Although pharmacological agents have been examined in the treatment of pain and PTSD individually, little is known regarding the relationship of medication use with functioning in patients with comorbid conditions. This research examined the relationships of pain, PTSD, and medication use across physical and psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic pain following motor vehicle injury (N=234). Separate analyses were conducted for opioids, SSRIs, and sedative/anxiolytics, respectively. Several relevant effects were noted: (1) Pain evidenced strong associations with reduced functioning across both physical and psychosocial domains, (2) Opioid use held interactive relationships with PTSD across both functioning domains. Specifically, opioids were associated with greater physical impairment in patients without comorbid PTSD. Opioids also were related to greater psychosocial impairment in patients without PTSD while PTSD was associated with greater impairment in patients not using opioids, (3) Opioid use evidenced a marginal interaction with pain on psychosocial functioning. Opioids were associated with greater psychosocial impairment among patients with high-pain, and high-pain was associated with greater impairment among opioid users, (4) SSRIs held a marginal interaction with PTSD such that PTSD was related to poorer psychosocial functioning only among individuals not using an SSRI, and (5) Anxiolytic use evidenced a marginal interaction with PTSD on physical functioning although no between-group differences were noted. These data suggest that PTSD symptomology may be an important consideration in determining treatment modality for patients experiencing pain subsequent to traumatic injury.

  16. Variation in oxidative stress indices of two green seaweeds growing under different heavy metal stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Gehan A; Ismail, Mona M

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined in the green seaweed species Cladophora glomerata and Ulva compressa collected from El-Mex and Sidi Kirayr locations. The heavy metal concentrations in algal tissues were in direct correlation with their soluble concentrations in seawater with the descending order: Festress than U. compressa, due to its ability to produce non-enzymatic and enzymatic compounds for scavenging of the produced reactive oxygen species. The recorded contents of the oxidative stress indices (phenols, antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and ascorbic acid) and the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were higher in both tested seaweeds from El-Mex bay. Additionally, the estimated metal pollution index and pollution load index for the tested algae and seawaters ensured their ability as metal pollution bioindicators for monitoring marine environment quality and as biomarkers for oxidative damage assessment.

  17. Dark chocolate attenuates intracellular pro-inflammatory reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Ulrike; Arpagaus, Angela; Meister, Rebecca E; von Känel, Roland; Huber, Susanne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2016-10-01

    Flavanol-rich dark chocolate consumption relates to lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the effect of acute dark chocolate consumption on inflammatory measures before and after stress. Healthy men, aged 20-50years, were randomly assigned to a single intake of either 50g of flavanol-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50g of optically identical flavanol-free placebo-chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate intake, both groups underwent the 15-min Trier Social Stress Test. We measured DNA-binding-activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as well as plasma and whole blood mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, prior to chocolate intake as well as before and several times after stress. We also repeatedly measured the flavanol epicatechin and the stress hormones epinephrine and cortisol in plasma and saliva, respectively. Compared to the placebo-chocolate-group, the dark-chocolate-group revealed a marginal increase in IL-10 mRNA prior to stress (p=0.065), and a significantly blunted stress reactivity of NF-κB-BA, IL-1β mRNA, and IL-6 mRNA (p's⩽0.036) with higher epicatechin levels relating to lower pro-inflammatory stress reactivity (p's⩽0.033). Stress hormone changes to stress were controlled. None of the other measures showed a significant chocolate effect (p's⩾0.19). Our findings indicate that acute flavanol-rich dark chocolate exerts anti-inflammatory effects both by increasing mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and by attenuating the intracellular pro-inflammatory stress response. This mechanism may add to beneficial effects of dark chocolate on cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Academic Major as a Perceived Stress Indicator: Extending Stress Management Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ross W.; Casazza, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research that has explored stress differences between "hard" and "soft" academic majors did not provide clear criteria for categorizing "hard" and "soft" majors, used a single item to measure reported stress, and reported contradictory stress differences between academic majors (Myrtek, Hilgenberg,…

  19. Academic Major as a Perceived Stress Indicator: Extending Stress Management Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ross W.; Casazza, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research that has explored stress differences between "hard" and "soft" academic majors did not provide clear criteria for categorizing "hard" and "soft" majors, used a single item to measure reported stress, and reported contradictory stress differences between academic majors (Myrtek, Hilgenberg, Brugner, & Muller, 1997). With an…

  20. Revisions and further developments of the occupational stress indicator: Lisrel results from four dutch studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.; Frese, M.; Cooper, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) is a popular instrument for the diagnosis of stress and stress-related personality and outcome variables. However, one weakness of the OSI was the low reliability of some of its scales. This paper describes in a series of 4 studies improvements of the

  1. Protein Thiols as an Indication of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Rezaei Chianeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thiol is an organic compound that contain sulphhydryl group that have a critical role in preventing any involvement of oxidative stress in the cell. These defensive functions are generally considered to be carried out by the low molecular weight thiol glutathione and by cysteine residues in the active sites of proteins such as thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin. In addition, there are thiols exposed on protein surfaces that are not directly involved with protein function, although they can interact with the intracellular environment.The process of protection of the cell against an oxidative damage occur by thiol and cystein residue that has a low molecular weight. These residue are present in the active sites of a protein like, peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin. Apart from intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism by protein thiol, there are presence of thiol in outer surface of protein that are not involved with the function of protein, even though they can interact with intracellular part of the cell. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 443-456

  2. Severe psychosocial stress and heavy cigarette smoking during pregnancy: an examination of the pre- and perinatal risk factors associated with ADHD and Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Maria G; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Lin, Haiqun; Kim, Young-Shin; Scahill, Lawrence; Lombroso, Paul J; King, Robert A; Peterson, Bradley S; Leckman, James F

    2010-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently diagnosed in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). The basis for this co-occurrence is uncertain. This study aimed to determine if specific pre- and perinatal risk factors, including heavy maternal smoking and severe psychosocial stress during pregnancy, were associated with one or both disorders, or neither. We compared maternal report data on pre- and perinatal risk factors on 222 children between the ages of 7 and 18 years including 45 individuals with TS alone, 52 individuals with ADHD alone, 60 individuals with condition of comorbid TS + ADHD, and 65 unaffected control children. Pre- and perinatal histories as well as psychiatric assessments were performed using standardized questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with the mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio for each variable of interest. Compared to the mothers of unaffected control children, the mothers of children with ADHD alone reported higher rates of heavy smoking (>10 cigarettes per day) during pregnancy and higher levels of severe psychosocial stress during pregnancy (OR = 13.5, p high levels of psychosocial stress compared to the control children, but these differences failed to reach statistical significance (heavy smoking: OR = 8.5, p pregnancy were independently associated with a diagnosis of ADHD. TS patients also had higher rates of these risk factors, but the ORs failed to reach statistical significance. Efforts are needed to reduce the frequency of these risk factors in high-risk populations. Future studies, using genetically sensitive designs, are also needed to sort out the causal pathways.

  3. Critical body temperature profile as indicator of heat stress vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, P K; Dutta, Priya; Nag, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Extreme climatic heat is a major health concern among workers in different occupational pursuits. People in the regions of western India confront frequent heat emergencies, with great risk of mortality and morbidity. Taking account of informal occupational groups (foundry and sheet metal, FSM, N=587; ceramic and pottery, CP, N=426; stone quarry, SQ, N=934) in different seasons, the study examined the body temperature profiling as indicator of vulnerability to environmental warmth. About 3/4th of 1947 workers had habitual exposure at 30.1-35.5°C WBGT and ~10% of them were exposed to 38.2-41.6°C WBGT. The responses of FSM, CP and SQ workers indicated prevailing high heat load during summer and post-monsoon months. Local skin temperatures (T(sk)) varied significantly in different seasons, with consistently high level in summer, followed by post-monsoon and winter months. The mean difference of T(cr) and T(sk) was ~5.2°C up to 26.7°C WBGT, and ~2.5°C beyond 30°C WBGT. Nearly 90% of the workers had T(cr) within 38°C, suggesting their self-adjustment strategy in pacing work and regulating T(cr). In extreme heat, the limit of peripheral adjustability (35-36°C T(sk)) and the narrowing down of the difference between T(cr) and T(sk) might indicate the limit of one's ability to withstand heat exposure.

  4. Background of SIFs and Stress Indices for Moment Loadings of Piping Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. A. Wais; E. C. Rodabaugh

    2005-06-15

    This report provides background information, references, and equations for twenty-four piping components (thirteen component SIFs and eleven component stress indices) that justify the values or expressions for the SIFs and indices.

  5. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries presents specific challenges. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016. Studies included randomised and controlled clinical trials comparing psychosocial interventions with waiting list or treatment as usual in adult refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD resettled in high-income countries. PTSD symptoms post-intervention was the primary outcome. We computed standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This study is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42015027843. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD symptoms relative to control groups (SMD -1·03, 95% CI -1·55 to -0·51; number needed to treat 4·4; I2 86%; 95% CI 77 to 91). Narrative exposure therapy, a manualized short-term variant of cognitive behavioural therapy with a trauma focus, was the best-supported intervention (5 RCTs, 187 participants, SMD -0·78, 95% CI -1·18 to -0·38, I2 37%; 95% CI 0 to 77). Methodological quality of the included studies was limited. Overall, psychosocial interventions for asylum seekers and refugees with PTSD resettled in high-income countries were found to provide significant benefits in reducing PTSD symptoms. Yet, the number of studies is small and their methodological quality limited, so that more rigorous trials should be conducted in the future.

  6. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries presents specific challenges. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016. Studies included randomised and controlled clinical trials comparing psychosocial interventions with waiting list or treatment as usual in adult refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD resettled in high-income countries. PTSD symptoms post-intervention was the primary outcome. We computed standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This study is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42015027843. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD symptoms relative to control groups (SMD -1·03, 95% CI -1·55 to -0·51; number needed to treat 4·4; I2 86%; 95% CI 77 to 91). Narrative exposure therapy, a manualized short-term variant of cognitive behavioural therapy with a trauma focus, was the best-supported intervention (5 RCTs, 187 participants, SMD -0·78, 95% CI -1·18 to -0·38, I2 37%; 95% CI 0 to 77). Methodological quality of the included studies was limited. Overall, psychosocial interventions for asylum seekers and refugees with PTSD resettled in high-income countries were found to provide significant benefits in reducing PTSD symptoms. Yet, the number of studies is small and their methodological quality limited, so that more rigorous trials should be conducted in the future. PMID:28151992

  7. Wheat stress indicator model, Crop Condition Assessment Division (CCAD) data base interface driver, user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of the wheat stress indicator model CCAD data base interface driver is described. The purpose of this system is to interface the wheat stress indicator model with the CCAD operational data base. The interface driver routine decides what meteorological stations should be processed and calls the proper subroutines to process the stations.

  8. Psychosocial stress and multi-site musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional survey of patient care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembajwe, Grace; Tveito, Torill Helene; Hopcia, Karen; Kenwood, Christopher; O'Day, Elizabeth Tucker; Stoddard, Anne M; Dennerlein, Jack T; Hashimoto, Dean; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and multi-site musculoskeletal pain among patient care workers. In a survey of 1,572 workers from two hospitals, occupational psychosocial factors and health outcomes of workers with single and multi-site pain were evaluated using items from the Job Content Questionnaire that was designed to measure psychological demands, decision latitude, and social support. An adapted Nordic Questionnaire provided data on the musculoskeletal pain outcome. Covariates included body mass index, age, gender, and occupation. The analyses revealed statistically significant associations between psychosocial demands and multi-site musculoskeletal pain among patient care associates, nurses, and administrative personnel, both men and women. Supervisor support played a significant role for nurses and women. These results remained statistically significant after adjusting for covariates. These results highlight the associations between workplace psychosocial strain and multi-site musculoskeletal pain, setting the stage for future longitudinal explorations. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. a Simple Interpretation of the Rice Spectral Indices Space for Assessment of Heavy Metal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Huang, F.; Liu, X. N.

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metal stress will induce the change of the bio-parameters like chlorophyll, nitrogen and water content of rice. In this paper, we analyzed the traditional spectral index which has strong relationship in general with the three bio-parameters using hyperspectral data acquired by ASD. It is found that some indies do not work well when the heavy metal stress exists, however, some indies still has ability to estimate the above three bio-parameters. A new interpretation is proposed to classify the stress level based on both the physical mechanism analysis and the statistic model after we describe and discuss studies on the expression of spectral indices of rice under heavy metal stress. The 3-axes spectral indices spaces, which are constructed of 3 spectral indices sensitive to rice's chlorophyll concentration, nitrogen concentration and water concentration respectively, are used to visualize the linkage between heavy metal stress and spectrum of rice canopy.

  10. Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Houshmand, M; Azhar, K; Zulkifli, I; Bejo, M H; Kamyab, A

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of period on the performance, immunity, and some stress indicators of broilers fed 2 levels of protein and stocked at a normal or high stocking density...

  11. Psychosocial assistance project decreases posttraumatic stress disorder and depression amongst primary and secondary schools students in post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevludin Hasanović

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess whether psychosocial support of the School Project of the Humanitarian Society (HS “Prijateljice (Girlfriends” had a positive effect on reducing posttraumatic consequences in Bosnia-Herzegovina primary and secondary school students, aft er the 1992-1995 war. Subjects and Methods. A stratified sample of 336 students, aged 13.5±1.6 (10 to 18 years, in primary and secondary schools, involved in psychosocial support, were compared with 72 randomly selected peers from the same schools, not involved in this project. Data were collected in December 2005 and in May 2006. Th e Children’s Depression Inventory and the Child Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index were utilized. Statistical analysis involved McNemar’s test, Students’ t-test, Chi-square test and Pearson’s correlation test. Results. According to DSM, the prevalence of PTSD and depression among students involved in the School Project, significantly decreased from 46.1% to 13.4% and 25.6% to 1.8%, respectively (McNemar’s test,P<0.001; P<0.001, respectively. In the control group the prevalenceof PTSP and depression decreased from 30.5% to 23.6% and 22.2%to 11.1%, respectively, with no significance (McNemar’s test, p=0.332; p=0.077, significantly. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of both PTSD and depression compared to the boys. Age, the numberof traumatic episodes, and suicidal behavior correlated with the intensity of PTSD symptoms and depression symptoms. Conclusions.Psychosocial support within the School Project resulted in a significant reduction of PTSP and depression amongst the involved students compared to the controls. Schools and other institutions ought to envisage as many projects as possible to be implemented in school and out-of-school to assist young people to overcome more easily the consequences of the war in their development.

  12. Psychosocial stress enhances IgE-mediated triphasic cutaneous reaction in mice: Antagonism by Yokukan-san (a Kampo medicine and diazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Tahara

    2001-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that IgE-mediated triphasic cutaneous reactions were exacerbated by social isolation stress and suggest that Yokukan-san and diazepam antagonize isolation stress-induced cutaneous reactions partly through their sedative action on social isolation stress.

  13. Evaluating experimental cerebral malaria using oxidative stress indicator OKD48 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takashi; Iwawaki, Takao; Akai, Ryoko; Suzue, Kazutomo; Hirai, Makoto; Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Okada, Hiroko; Hisaeda, Hajime

    2014-09-01

    Cerebral malaria is a fatal complication of malaria. Conventional methods for evaluating experimental cerebral malaria have several drawbacks. Therefore, we aimed to develop an easy-to-use method for evaluating experimental cerebral malaria using OKD48 (Keap1-dependent Oxidative stress Detector, No-48-luciferase) mice to evaluate oxidative stress. OKD48 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain (PbA) suffered from experimental cerebral malaria and oxidative stress was successfully detected in the brains of living OKD48 mice developing experimental cerebral malaria. Oxidative stress in the brain was dependent on the development of experimental cerebral malaria, as prevention of experimental cerebral malaria did not elicit oxidative stress. We provide a novel evaluation method for experimental cerebral malaria using oxidative stress indicator OKD48 mice.

  14. Magnetic indication of the stress-induced martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Ga alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heczko, O. [Laboratory of Materials Science, Helsinki University of Technology, Vuorimiehentie 2A, P.O. Box 6200, FIN-02015 TKK, Espoo (Finland); L' vov, V.A. [Radiophysics Department, Taras Shevchenko University, Glushkov str. 2, build. 5, 03022 Kiev (Ukraine); Straka, L. [Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Rakentajanaukio 2C, P.O. Box 2200, FIN-02015, Espoo (Finland)]. E-mail: ladislav.straka@hut.fi; Hannula, S.-P. [Laboratory of Materials Science, Helsinki University of Technology, Vuorimiehentie 2A, P.O. Box 6200, FIN-02015 TKK, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    A quantitative study of the stress-induced martensitic transformation in Ni{sub 49.7}Mn{sub 29.1}Ga{sub 21.2} magnetic shape memory alloy has been carried out in two different ways: the first way is based on the measurements of saturation magnetization under variable mechanical stress and the second one is founded on the quantitative theoretical treatment of experimental stress-strain loops. A functional dependence between the volume fraction of transformed martensite and applied stress has been determined from both magnetization and strain values. A quantitative agreement between the functions determined in two different ways has been observed, and hence, the effectiveness of the magnetic indication of the stress-induced martensitic transformations has been proved. This method can be used to monitor stress-induced transformations in martensitic films, needles and small specimens.

  15. Magnetic indication of the stress-induced martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic Ni Mn Ga alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heczko, O.; L'vov, V. A.; Straka, L.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2006-07-01

    A quantitative study of the stress-induced martensitic transformation in Ni 49.7Mn 29.1Ga 21.2 magnetic shape memory alloy has been carried out in two different ways: the first way is based on the measurements of saturation magnetization under variable mechanical stress and the second one is founded on the quantitative theoretical treatment of experimental stress-strain loops. A functional dependence between the volume fraction of transformed martensite and applied stress has been determined from both magnetization and strain values. A quantitative agreement between the functions determined in two different ways has been observed, and hence, the effectiveness of the magnetic indication of the stress-induced martensitic transformations has been proved. This method can be used to monitor stress-induced transformations in martensitic films, needles and small specimens.

  16. Comparison of drought stress indices in beech forests: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilhar U

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Two drought stress indices were applied to managed as well as old-growth beech forests and gaps for the 2001 to 2013 period to aid in the development of an efficient tool for field water supply diagnosis. The relative extractable soil water (REW, which was calculated from the soil water content in the root zone, and the transpiration index (TI, calculated as the ratio between the actual and potential transpiration were used. Both indices were calculated on a daily basis using the water balance model BROOK90, which was fitted and tested using measured data on throughfall and soil water content. A sensitivity analysis apportioned to the input parameters of the drought stress indices was conducted to assess uncertainty. Both drought stress indices showed the greatest drought stress in the years 2009, 2003 and 2011, as also indicated by the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI at the nearest meteorological station. However, drought stress intensity and duration differed between the indices and study sites. Greater water supply stress was shown in the forests than the gaps. Furthermore, the agreement among the indices was smaller for gaps compared with forests, which implies that careful index selection is needed when comparing water supply stresses in different stages of forest stand development. Due to the low amount of input data required and the parameters that can be measured with relative ease in the field, REW might be an efficient tool for field water supply diagnosis when analyzing the drought stresses of similar forest types and at unique stages of development. REW satisfactorily indicated drought stress in forests but to a lesser extent in gaps. TI demonstrated more consistent differences in drought stress between forests and gaps and therefore proved to be the appropriate index for a detailed analysis of drought stress variation between different stages of forest stand development. However, due to a greater number of

  17. Arousal Predisposition as a Vulnerability Indicator for Psychosis: A General Population Online Stress Induction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Clamor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N=104; Mage=27.7 years, SD=11.2, range 18–70. Participants rated their AP and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Participants reported their stress-levels before and after two stress inductions including an arithmetic and a social stressor. The participants with an increased AP generally felt more stressed. However, AP was not associated with the specific stress-response. As expected, positive psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with AP, but this was not mediated by general stress-levels. Its association to subtle, nonclinical psychotic symptoms supports our assumption that AP could be a vulnerability indicator for psychosis. The trait is easily accessible via a short self-report and could facilitate the identification of people at risk and be a promising target for early stress-management. Further research is needed to clarify its predictive value for stress-responses.

  18. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase: subclinical indicators of stress as cardiometabolic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, S.; Dima-Cozma, L.C.; Ghiciuc, C.M.; Pasquali, V.; Saponaro, A.; Patacchioli, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the potential for cardiovascular (CV) stress-induced risk is primarily based on the theoretical (obvious) side effects of stress on the CV system. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase, produced respectively by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system during stress response, are still not included in the routine evaluation of CV risk and require additional and definitive validation. Therefore, this article overviews studies published between 2010 and 2015, in which salivary cortisol and α-amylase were measured as stress biomarkers to examine their associations with CV/CMR (cardiometabolic risk) clinical and subclinical indicators. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases was performed, and 54 key articles related to the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as subclinical indicators of stress and CV/CMR factors, including studies that emphasized methodological biases that could influence the accuracy of study outcomes, were ultimately identified. Overall, the biological impact of stress measured by salivary cortisol and α-amylase was associated with CV/CMR factors. Results supported the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as potential diagnostic tools for detecting stress-induced cardiac diseases and especially to describe the mechanisms by which stress potentially contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CV diseases. PMID:28177057

  19. Psychosocial generalised resistance resources and clinical indicators of patients suffering from Osteoarthritis at the Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Tuszyńska-Bogucka

    2015-05-01

    Results of analysis showed that psychological factors within the meaning of psychosocial resources may be potential pathways for improving or disturbing the treatment effects in the course of hip and knee osteoarthritis treatment, and/or the patient’s condition.

  20. A valid method for comparing rational and empirical heat stress indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Rick; Bates, Graham

    2002-03-01

    No single heat stress index has gained universal acceptance within the past 20 years, despite extensive research. It is currently difficult to directly and quantitatively compare the many rational and empirical indices that are available, which results in confusion and a reluctance to change to a different index. A method is developed using the concept of limiting metabolic rate, which allows virtually all heat stress indices to be compared with one another. Because all occupational heat stress indices are based, explicitly or implicitly, on the human heat balance equation, a unique value of metabolic rate can be found that just allows an unrestricted work/rest cycle in particular environmental conditions. A comparison using this methodology shows that there are very large differences between the recommended limits under the various indices, even for similar populations of acclimatized workers.

  1. Validating the Heat Stress Indices for Using In Heavy Work Activities in Hot and Dry Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Sayed Mohammad; Taheri, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Necessity of evaluating heat stress in the workplace, require validation of indices and selection optimal index. The present study aimed to assess the precision and validity of some heat stress indices and select the optimum index for using in heavy work activities in hot and dry climates. It carried out on 184 workers from 40 brick kilns workshops in the city of Qom, central Iran (as representative hot and dry climates). After reviewing the working process and evaluation the activity of workers and the type of work, environmental and physiological parameters according to standards recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) including ISO 7243 and ISO 9886 were measured and indices were calculated. Workers engaged in indoor kiln experienced the highest values of natural wet temperature, dry temperature, globe temperature and relative humidity among studied sections (Pstress index (HSI) indices had the highest correlation with other physiological parameters among the other heat stress indices. Relationship between WBGT index and carotid artery temperature (r=0.49), skin temperature (r=0.319), and oral temperature (r=0.203) was statistically significant (P=0.006). Since WBGT index, as the most applicable index for evaluating heat stress in workplaces is approved by ISO, and due to the positive features of WBGT such as ease of measurement and calculation, and with respect to some limitation in application of HSI; WBGT can be introduced as the most valid empirical index of heat stress in the brick workshops.

  2. Beyond preadoptive risk: The impact of adoptive family environment on adopted youth's psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Juye; Brooks, Devon; Barth, Richard P; Kim, Hansung

    2010-07-01

    Adopted children often are exposed to preadoptive stressors--such as prenatal substance exposure, child maltreatment, and out-of-home placements--that increase their risks for psychosocial maladjustment. Psychosocial adjustment of adopted children emerges as the product of pre- and postadoptive factors. This study builds on previous research, which fails to simultaneously assess the influences of pre- and postadoptive factors, by examining the impact of adoptive family sense of coherence on adoptee's psychosocial adjustment beyond the effects of preadoptive risks. Using a sample of adoptive families (n = 385) taking part in the California Long Range Adoption Study, structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicate a significant impact of family sense of coherence on adoptees' psychosocial adjustment and a considerably less significant role of preadoptive risks. The findings suggest the importance of assessing adoptive family's ability to respond to stress and of helping families to build and maintain their capacity to cope with stress despite the sometimes fractious pressures of adoption.

  3. Clinical feasibility of cervical exercise to improve neck pain, body function, and psychosocial factors in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Doo; Kim, Suhn Yeop

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of cervical exercise on neck pain, disability, and psychosocial factors in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. [Subjects] Thirty patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, who also complained of neck pain. [Methods] The cervical exercise group (n = 15) participated in cervical exercises for 30 min, 3 times/week for 6 weeks, and the control group (n = 16) underwent conventional physical therapy alone, without exercise. The exercises were performed in the following order: cervical relaxation, local muscle stabilization, and global muscle stabilization using a sling system. [Results] Compared to the control group, the cervical exercise group demonstrated significant decreases as follows: Visual analogue scale score, 4.2 vs. 1.0; Neck disability index, 3.9 vs. 1.9; and depression on the Symptom checklist-90-revised, 9.4 vs. 4.3 and on the Hopkins symptom checklist-25, 6.3 vs. 2.8. However, anxiety on the Symptom checklist-90-revised (3.1 vs. 1.3) was not significantly different. Effect sizes were as follows: Visual analogue scale score, 1.8; Neck disability index, 0.9; depression, 1.0; and anxiety on Symptom checklist-90-revised and Hopkins symptom checklist-25, 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Cervical exercise is effective in improving neck pain, disability, and efficacy of psychological treatment for depression in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

  4. Association between Perceived Racism and Physiological Stress Indices in Native Hawaiians

    OpenAIRE

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Grandinetti, Andrew; Keller, Stefan; Nacapoy, Andrea H; Kingi, Te Kani; Mau, Marjorie K.

    2011-01-01

    The association between racism and the physical health of native U.S. populations has yet to be examined despite their high risk for stress-related disorders and a history of discrimination toward them. We examined the correlation between perceived racism and the two physiological stress indices of cortisol level and blood pressure in 146 adult Native Hawaiians. Attributed and felt racism were assessed with a 10-item shortened version of the Oppression Questionnaire. Height, weight, blood pre...

  5. Assessment of safety and health of storage workers - a psychosocial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadłowska-Wrzesińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is still a lot to do as far as prevention and elimination of traditional health and work safety hazards is concerned, the problem of psychosocial risk prevention is extremely important nowadays. It is crucial to take into consideration the health of workers and promotion of health in the workplace, as the occupational stress epidemics is getting more and more widespread. Methods: The article is based on the statistic analysis of accidents at work as well as the analysis of health problems resulting from the job itself. The latest work safety reports have been reviewed and special attention has been paid to psychosocial risk analysis. The author has tried to explicate the terms of new and emerging risks as regards storage work. Results: Various threat aspects of storage work have been evaluated. Deficits in psychosocial hazard identification have been indicated. What is more, no correlation between occupational tasks of storage workers and their knowledge about psychosocial risks has been emphasized.  An exemplified approach to warehouse psychosocial threat identification has been presented. The approach is based on the diagnosis of the current situation.  Conclusions: The psychosocial risk of storage work may lead to health deterioration, greater accident risk and worse performance at work. Such consequences mean that the psychosocial risks affect both an individual and the organization. Therefore, we should expect more intense efforts to increase psychosocial risk awareness of both employers and employees.

  6. Brain Correlates of the Interaction Between 5-HTTLPR and Psychosocial Stress Mediating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Zwiers, Marcel; Mennes, Maarten; Schweren, Lizanne J.; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR genotype has been found to moderate the effect of stress on severity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with stronger effects of stress in carriers of the short allele than in individuals homozygous for the tong allele. The underlying ne

  7. [Assessing work-related stress: an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatto, Francesco; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Di Blas, Lisa; Ferrante, Donatella

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a preliminary validation of an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool (IT), an instrument for assessing work-related stress at the organizational level, originally developed in Britain by the Health and Safety Executive. A scale that assesses the physical work environment has been added to the original version of the IT. 190 employees of the University of Trieste have been enrolled in the study. A confirmatory analysis showed a satisfactory fit of the eight-factors structure of the instrument. Further psychometric analysis showed adequate internal consistency of the IT scales and good criterion validity, as evidenced by the correlations with self-perception of stress, work satisfaction and motivation. In conclusion, the Indicator Tool proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of work-related stress at the organizational level, and it is also compatible with the instructions provided by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Circular letter 18/11/2010).

  8. Sensation seeking, coping with stress, and readiness to engage in therapy: does ego development influence the psychosocial functioning of substance-abusing mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daryn H; McMahon, Thomas J; Luthar, Suniya L; Suchman, Nancy E

    2012-04-01

    Ego development, the capacity to derive coherent, nuanced meaning from one's life experiences, often has significant impact on psychosocial adjustment during adulthood. Research with nonclinical populations has indicated links between higher ego development and healthy emotional coping and interpersonal relationships. Emerging research with substance-abusing mothers suggests that higher levels of ego development are associated with improved parenting but also with increased rates of psychopathology. Less is known about how ego development is related to other psychosocial factors important for substance-abusing mothers' functioning and capacity to parent, including the proclivity to engage in risky behaviors, adaptive coping behaviors, and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. The present study examines these links. Participants included 182 methadonemaintained women who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a relational parenting intervention for substance-abusing mothers (Luthar, Suchman, & Altomare, 2007). Data were analyzed using a series of MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs controlling for maternal IQ and depression. Mothers with higher levels of ego development reported more adaptive coping techniques and greater readiness to engage in psychotherapy but also reported a heightened desire for strong sensations. Findings are discussed in light of mothers' psychological processes and parenting capacities. The significance of findings for developing parenting interventions for substance-abusing mothers is also discussed.

  9. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.

  10. Long-term psychosocial outcomes after intraoperative awareness with recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkala, Tanja; Ranta, Seppo; Wennervirta, Johanna; Henriksson, Markus; Suominen, Kirsi; Hynynen, Markku

    2014-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder, a common psychiatric disorder in the general population, may follow a traumatic experience of awareness with recall during general anesthesia. We conducted a matched cohort design with 9 subjects after intraoperative awareness with recall during general anesthesia. A psychiatric diagnostic interview and questionnaire were performed on 9 matched controls and 9 subjects, a median of 17.2 years from their documented awareness episode. The subjects and the matched controls completed a battery of questionnaires related to psychosocial well-being, after which they participated in a diagnostic Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders. Patients with awareness did not seem to differ from their matched controls in subsequent psychosocial outcome, psychiatric morbidity, or quality of life. We found no indication that intraoperative awareness with recall had any deleterious long-term effects on patients' psychosocial outcome.

  11. HEMATOLOGICAL INDICES OF RAT ORGANISMS UNDER CONDITIONS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND LIPOSOMAL PREPARATION ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khariv

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of search of the influence of developed complex liposomal drug on dynamics of hematological parameters of rat organisms under conditions of simulated oxidative stress caused by the use of carbon tetrachloride. Intramuscular injection of 50% tetrachloromethane to rats at a dose of 0.25 ml per 100 g of body weight causes antigenic load on the body and leads to disruption of physiologic level of hematological indices of experimental animal organisms. This indicates the number reduce of red blood cells, hemoglobin content, hemoglobin concentration in erythrocyte, increasing the number of leukocytes, mass of hemoglobin in erythrocyte and increased of color index. To normalize the hematological indices of rat organisms for the development of oxidative stress it is advisable to apply the liposomal drug that incorporates contains butafosfan, interferon, milk thistle and vitamins. When using liposomal drug to rats, under conditions of oxidative stress, the normalization of hematological indices comes in blood, namely on 14th day within physiological variables were indicators of the number of erythrocytes of hemoglobin content, white blood cell count and indices of red blood cells compared to controls, indicating a recovery of hematopoietic function of marrow.

  12. Food availability is expressed through physiological stress indicators in nestling white ibis: A food supplementation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.; Gawlik, D.E.; Call, Erynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological responses to environmental stress such as adrenocortical hormones and cellular stress proteins have recently emerged as potentially powerful tools for investigating physiological effects of avian food limitation. However, little is known about the physiological stress responses of free-living nestling birds to environmental variation in food availability. We experimentally tested how hydrologically mediated changes in food availability affect the physiological stress responses of juvenile white ibises Eudocimus albus in a fluctuating wetland. We provided supplementary food to free-living nestlings during 2years with contrasting hydrologic and food availability conditions, and used plasma (PCORT) and faecal (FCORT) corticosterone and heat shock proteins (HSP60 and HSP70) from first-hatched (A-nestlings) and second-hatched (B-nestlings) to detect relatively short- to long-term responses to food limitation. Nestling physiological stress responses were relatively low in all treatments during the year with optimal food availability, but PCORT, FCORT and HSP60 levels increased during the poor food year. FCORT and HSP60 responses were clearly due to nutritional condition as elevated concentrations were evident primarily in control nestlings. Significant year by hatch order interactions for both FCORT and HSP60 revealed that these increases were largely incurred by B-nestlings. FCORT and HSP60 responses were also well developed early in neonatal development and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment suggesting a chronic stress response. PCORT and HSP70 were less informative stress responses. The nutritionally mediated increases in FCORT and HSP60 provide compelling evidence that white ibis nestlings can be physiologically affected by environmental food levels. FCORT and HSP60 are effective indicators of nutritional mediated stress for nestling white ibises and potentially for other species prone to capture or handling stress. ?? 2010 The Authors

  13. Psychosocial Work Environment and Myocardial Infarction: Improving Risk Estimation by Combining Two Complementary Job Stress Models in the SHEEP Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Peter; J. Siegrist; J. Hallqvist; C. Reuterwall; T. Theorell; The SHEEP Study Group

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Associations between two alternative formulations of job stress derived from the effort-reward imbalance and the job strain model and first non-fatal acute myocardial infarction were studied...

  14. Adverse psychosocial factors predict poorer prognosis in HIV disease: a meta-analytic review of prospective investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Vedhara, Kavita

    2009-05-01

    There is a growing epidemiological literature focusing on the association between psychosocial stress and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), but inconsistent findings have been published. We aimed to quantify the association between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. We searched Medline; PsycINFO; Web of Science; PubMed up to 19 January 2009, and included population studies with a prospective design that investigated associations between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression or AIDS. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and estimates of associations. The overall meta-analysis examined 36 articles including 100 psychosocial and disease related relationships. It exhibited a small, but robust positive association between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV progression (correlation coefficient as combined size effect 0.059, 95% confidence interval 0.043-0.074, pHIV disease progression than stress stimuli per se, and that all of the immunological and clinical outcome indicators (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome stage, CD4+ T-cell decline, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mortality, and human immunodeficiency virus disease or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome symptoms) except for viral load exhibited detrimental effects by adverse psychosocial factors. In conclusion, the current review reveals a robust relationship between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. Furthermore, there would appear to be some evidence for particular psychosocial factors to be most strongly associated with HIV disease progression.

  15. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  16. Empirical applications of an environmental stress indicator and the environmental efficiency revolution in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the first aim is to apply the structure of material flow analysis (MFA and ecological footprint model to construct an environmental stress indicator. Secondly, an impact, population, affluence and technology (IPAT analysis is used to resolve indicators related to MFA and resource yield productivity. The research indicates following results: (1 The 2007 per capita ecological deficit in Taiwan is 6.3441 square hm.The figures reflect that productivity and life intensity of residents have exceeded the carrying capacity of Taiwan's ecological economic system. (2 Wealth becomes the most important factor in material needs and pollution discharge. (3 Environmental efficiency and ecological efficiency slowed down dramatically, demonstrating that use of resources and total amount of environmental stress stay at a developmental stage. Therefore, if proper measures are not adopted, the current weak sustainability will lead into the vicious circle which departs from sustainable development.

  17. Heart Rate Variability as an Indicator of Chronic Stress Caused by Lameness in Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Kovács

    Full Text Available Most experimental studies on animal stress physiology have focused on acute stress, while chronic stress, which is also encountered in intensive dairy cattle farming--e.g. in case of lameness--, has received little attention. We investigated heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV as indicators of the autonomic nervous system activity and fecal glucocorticoid concentrations as the indicator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in lame (with locomotion scores 4 and 5; n = 51 and non-lame (with locomotion scores 1 and 2; n = 52 Holstein-Friesian cows. Data recorded during the periods of undisturbed lying--representing baseline cardiac activity--were involved in the analysis. Besides linear analysis methods of the cardiac inter-beat interval (time-domain geometric, frequency domain and Poincaré analyses non-linear HRV parameters were also evaluated. With the exception of standard deviation 1 (SD1, all HRV indices were affected by lameness. Heart rate was lower in lame cows than in non-lame ones. Vagal tone parameters were higher in lame cows than in non-lame animals, while indices of the sympathovagal balance reflected on a decreased sympathetic activity in lame cows. All geometric and non-linear HRV measures were lower in lame cows compared to non-lame ones suggesting that chronic stress influenced linear and non-linear characteristics of cardiac function. Lameness had no effect on fecal glucocorticoid concentrations. Our results demonstrate that HRV analysis is a reliable method in the assessment of chronic stress, however, it requires further studies to fully understand the elevated parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic tone in lame animals.

  18. 丹江口库区脆弱期移民心理社会应激状况调查%Analysis of psychosocial stress of vulnerable immigrants in Danjiangkou area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书敏; 谭琳琳; 郭朝阳; 王建伟; 张智民; 田庆丰; 时松和

    2014-01-01

    Aim:To find out the psychosocial stress status of the vulnerable immigrants .Methods:The stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method was used .The questionnaires included the basic information questionnaire and psychological social stress survey.Results:The score of negative emotions,life events,negative coping style,positive emotions and total stress-score were higher in the vulnerable immigrants than that in the resettlement of residents ,and the differences were sta-tistically significant(P<0.05).The scores of life events were statistically significant among the groups with different age (P<0.05),and the scores of the youngest immigrants were the highest .The difference in negative emotions and total stress-score of immigrants with different per capita income was statistically significant ( P<0.05 ) .The scores of negative coping style and stress score of the Buddhist belief immigrants were higher ,and there were statistical differences in those in-dicators among different faiths(P<0.05).The multiple logistic regression reveals that factors influencing total stress-score included per capita income ,age,religion,the manners and customs ,the pace of life and relocation areas .Conclusion:The psychosocial stress status of vulnerable immigrants are poorer .The relevant departments should improve their migration poli-cies,carry out the psychological interventions for specific situations and provide a wide range of social support and we should increase the government′s late efforts .%目的:研究丹江口库区脆弱期移民的心理社会应激状况。方法:运用多阶段分层整群抽样的方法,采用自编居民基本情况调查表和团体用心理社会应激调查表( PSSG )对脆弱期移民做问卷调查。结果:脆弱期移民和对照安置地居民的生活事件、消极情绪、积极情绪、消极应对方式得分和应激总分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);不同年龄段的移民生活事件得分

  19. Modelo de intervención psicosocial en las organizaciones frente al estrés laboral: estrategia operativa Model of psychosocial intervention in organizations opposed to job stress: operational strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Navarro Aparicio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un modelo de actuación frente a los factores de riesgo psicosociales derivados del estrés laboral. Primeramente relaciona los principales efectos que ocasiona en toda organización el estrés laboral. Al mismo tiempo establece sus prioridades de actuación, para acto seguido indicar las actividades que deben ejecutarse. Dentro de esta fase de actuación, diferencia aquellas que van dirigidas a la organización de forma colectiva, cuya prioridad es manifiesta, frente a las acciones que deben ofrecerse a los afectados de forma individualizada. Así pues, se trata de un modelo de intervención que interactúa tanto en las medidas organizativas generales como en aquellas específicas y de perfil individual, en la lucha de un fenómeno en auge como es el estrés laboral.The article presents a model for action against the risk factors derived from psychosocial stress. The first lists the main effects on any organization that causes stress at work. At the same time establishing their priorities for action, then to indicate the activities to be implemented. Within this stage of action, unlike those that are directed to the organization of a collective, whose priority is obvious, compared to shares to be offered to the affected individual. Thus, it is an intervention model that interacts both in general and organizational measures in those specific and individual profile in the struggle of a growing phenomenon as is the stress at work.

  20. A New EO-Based Indicator for Assessing and Monitoring Climate-Related Vegetation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Niall; Gobron, Nadine

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a study in which a new environmental indicator, called Annual Vegetation Stress (AVS), has been developed, based on annual anomalies of satellite-measured Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR ), and used to map the area affected annually by vegetation stress during the period 2003-2014, for 108 selected developing countries. Analysis of the results for six countries in the "tropical and subtropical forests" ecoregion, reveals good correspondence between high AVS values, and the occurrence of climatic extremes (droughts) and anthropogenic disturbance (deforestation). The results for Equatorial Guinea suggest that the recent trend of large-scale droughts and rainfall deficits in Central and Western Africa, contribute to increased vegetation stress in the region's tropical rainforests. In East Timor there is evidence of a "biological lag" effect, whereby the main impacts of drought on the country's seasonally dry tropical forests are delayed until the year following the climate event.

  1. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  2. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  3. Association of attachment disorganization, attachment-related emotion regulation, and cortisol response after standardized psychosocial stress procedure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment representations are related to maintaining biological homeostasis, including physiological stress and emotional regulation. Therefore, recent research has focused on attachment stress regulation and hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA axis reactivity. However, the attachment disorganization underlying emotion regulation associated with the HPA axis response has not yet been investigated. In our study, the attachment representation and the HPA-axis reactivity by cortisol level before and after the Trier Social Stress Test were assessed in a sample of 98 healthy non-clinical subjects. As expected, approximately 30% of this sample showed a disorganized attachment representation. The subjects’ unresolved attachment (breakdown of emotional regulation showed a prolonged cortisol recovery. No differences were found between the attachment patterns in the increase and the delta of the cortisol response. However, the cortisol reactivity differed significantly for the occurrence of emotional regulation. The subjects with a high occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation showed a higher cortisol response than the subjects with an unresolved attachment and the ones with a low occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation. Regulating the negative emotions of stressful situations may require more attention as it might lead to an increased activation of the physiological system.

  4. Stress-related psychosocial factors at work, fatigue, and risky driving behavior in bus rapid transport (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Sergio A; Ortiz, Viviola Gómez; Cendales, Boris E

    2017-07-01

    There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two. A sample of 524 male Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) operators were drawn from four transport companies in Bogotá, Colombia. The participants answered a survey which included an adapted version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) for BRT operators, as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance and Job Content Questionnaires, the Subjective Fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) and the Need for Recovery after Work Scale (NFR). Utilizing Structural Equation Models (SEM) it was found that risky driving behaviors in BRT operators could be predicted through job strain, effort-reward imbalance and social support at work. It was also found that fatigue and need for recovery fully mediate the associations between job strain and risky driving, and between social support and risky driving, but not the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) and risky driving. The results of this study suggest that a) stress related working conditions (Job Strain, Social Support and ERI) are relevant predictors of risky driving in BRT operators, and b) that fatigue is the mechanism which links another kind of stress related to working conditions (job strain and low social support) with risky driving. The mechanism by which ERI increases risky driving in BRT operators remains unexplained. This research suggests that in addition to the individual centered stress-reduction occupational programs, fatigue management interventions aimed to changing some working conditions may reduce

  5. Biological stress indicators as risk markers for increased alcohol use following traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Sebastian; Muehlhan, Markus; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Stalder, Tobias; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann

    2017-01-20

    Alcohol misuse is a common sequela of traumatic event experiences causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Although biological stress indicators have been identified as useful risk markers for the development of trauma-related disorders, no such biological indicators exist for the risk of increased alcohol use after trauma exposure. This is the first study to prospectively investigate the predictive value of long-term cortisol levels and acute stress reactivity for the risk of increased alcohol use following traumatic events. Male soldiers were examined before and 12 months following deployment using a standardized diagnostic interview. We analyzed the moderating role of baseline hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs, n = 153) as well as baseline salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase stress reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor (n = 145) in the association between new-onset traumatic events (according to the DSM-IV A1 criterion) and subsequent daily alcohol use. No main effects of pre-traumatic HCC or salivary stress markers on subsequent change in alcohol use were observed. However, we found that with decreasing HCC, the number of new-onset traumatic events was more strongly associated with subsequent alcohol use independent from changes in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. No such relation was seen for the acute stress reactivity data. Taken together, this study provides first evidence suggesting that individual differences in long-term cortisol regulation are involved in the association between traumatic experiences and subsequent alcohol use. HCC may thus serve as a potential target in the early identification of individuals vulnerable for increased alcohol use following traumatic events. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  7. Decay of aftershock density with distance indicates triggering by dynamic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, K R; Brodsky, E E

    2006-06-01

    The majority of earthquakes are aftershocks, yet aftershock physics is not well understood. Many studies suggest that static stress changes trigger aftershocks, but recent work suggests that shaking (dynamic stresses) may also play a role. Here we measure the decay of aftershocks as a function of distance from magnitude 2-6 mainshocks in order to clarify the aftershock triggering process. We find that for short times after the mainshock, when low background seismicity rates allow for good aftershock detection, the decay is well fitted by a single inverse power law over distances of 0.2-50 km. The consistency of the trend indicates that the same triggering mechanism is working over the entire range. As static stress changes at the more distant aftershocks are negligible, this suggests that dynamic stresses may be triggering all of these aftershocks. We infer that the observed aftershock density is consistent with the probability of triggering aftershocks being nearly proportional to seismic wave amplitude. The data are not fitted well by models that combine static stress change with the evolution of frictionally locked faults.

  8. Water stress indices for the sugarcane crop on different irrigated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo G. Brunini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a crop of vital importance to Brazil, in the production of sugar and ethanol, power generation and raw materials for various purposes. Strategic information such as topography and canopy temperature can provide management technologies accessible to farmers. The objective of this study was to determine water stress indices for sugarcane in irrigated areas, with different exposures and slopes. The daily water stress index of the plants and the water potential in the soil were evaluated and the production system was analyzed. The experiment was carried out in an “Experimental Watershed”, using six surfaces, two horizontal and the other ones with 20 and 40% North and South exposure slopes. Water stress level was determined by measuring the temperatures of the vegetation cover and the ambient air. Watering was carried out using a drip irrigation system. The results showed that water stress index of sugarcane varies according to exposure and slope of the terrain, while areas whose water stress index was above 5.0 oC had lower yield values.

  9. Workplace drinking climate, stress, and problem indicators: assessing the influence of teamwork (group cohesion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E

    1998-09-01

    While job-related alcohol use may be associated with problems for drinkers, less is known about the effects of employee drinking on co-workers. We hypothesized that either exposure to co-worker drinking or the presence of a drinking climate would positively correlate with reports of stress and other problems. Following previous research, we also predicted that work group cohesion (or team orientation) would buffer against such problems. Two random samples of municipal employees (Ns = 909 and 1,068) completed anonymous surveys. These assessed individual drinking, co-worker drinking, task-oriented group cohesion, the direct reports of negative consequences due to co-worker substance use, and five problem indicators: job stress, job withdrawal, health problems, and performance (work accidents and absences). In each sample, drinking climate correlated with stress and withdrawal more so than did reports of individual drinking. Drinking climate and individual job stress were negatively associated with cohesion. ANCOVA results indicated that drinking climate combined with low cohesion resulted in increased vulnerability for all five problems. Moreover, cohesion appeared to attenuate the negative impact of exposure to drinking norms. As many as 40% of employees report at least one negative consequence associated with co-worker substance use (alcohol and drugs). Because teamwork may buffer negative effects of drinking climate on co-workers, workplace prevention efforts might be enhanced through a focus on the social environment. These efforts would include team-building and discussions of the impact of co-worker drinking on employee productivity.

  10. Psychosocial Stress Related to the Loss of a Close Relative the Year Before or During Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    László, Krisztina D; Qin, Liu Xiao; Svensson, Tobias;

    2013-01-01

    Mange studier peger på, at stress hos den gravide kan påvirke udfaldet af graviditeten. Dette studie undersøger, om sorg hos den gravide øger risikoen for dødfødsel. Studiet er baseret på en landsdækkende svensk undersøgelse, som inkluderer data fra knap 3 millioner fødsler i perioden 1973-2006. ...

  11. Association of depression, psycho-social stress and acculturation with respiratory disease among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Stanislav; Tucker, Katherine L; Gao, Xiang; Falcon, Luis M; Qawi, Imrana; Brugge, Doug

    2011-04-01

    To assess associations between acculturation, depression, and self-reported stress score with reported diagnosis of respiratory disease (RD) in Puerto Rican adults, participants (N = 1,168) were identified from areas of high Hispanic density in the Boston, MA metropolitan area. Eligible participants were interviewed in the home by bilingual interviewers in either Spanish or English. Scales included topics ranging from general background to depressive symptomatology. Respiratory disease was self-reported and checked against prescribed medication. More than one-third (37.8%) of subjects reported doctor-diagnosed RD. A final binary logistical regression model (N = 850), which was adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, poverty) showed that RD was significantly associated with psychological acculturation (OR = 1.97, P = 0.005), depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.52, P = 0.03) high perceived stress score (OR = 1.97, P = 0.009), and current smoking (OR = 1.61, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations included a high level of language acculturation (OR = 0.65, P = 0.03), light (OR = 0.67, P = 0.01) and moderate to heavy physical activity versus sedentary physical activity (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03). We found self reported physician diagnosed RD was associated with high perceived stress and depression, as well as higher levels of psychological acculturation. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if there is a causal pathway for these associations.

  12. Peptic ulcers after the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami: possible existence of psychosocial stress ulcers in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Iijima, Kastunori; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Norihiro; Hoshi, Tatsuya; Sano, Nozomu; Ohyauchi, Motoki; Ito, Hirotaka; Atsumi, Tomoaki; Konishi, Hidetomo; Asonuma, Sho; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-04-01

    Societal stress derived from an event that affects the whole society, e. g., a natural disaster, provides a unique, indirect way of determining the relationship between psychological stress and peptic ulcer disease in humans. In this study, we investigated the changing patterns of the incidence of peptic ulcers before and after the Great East Japan earthquake, which occurred on 11 March, 2011. Clinical data of patients with peptic ulcers were retrospectively collected during the 3 months after the earthquake (2011) from 7 major hospitals in the middle of the stricken area, and were compared with the data for the same period of the previous year (2010). The eligible subjects were classified into four groups according to Helicobacter pylori infection status and intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The incidence of all types of peptic ulcers was 1.5-fold increased after the earthquake, and in particular, the incidence of hemorrhagic ulcers was 2.2-fold increased; the gastric ulcer/duodenal ulcer ratio in hemorrhagic ulcers was also significantly increased (p psychological stress alone induced peptic ulcers in humans independently of H. pylori infection and NSAID intake.

  13. Effects of nutritional supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil on antioxidant status and psychosocial stress in smokers: an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, H; Kinoyama, M; Watanabe, A; Shirao, K; Kihara, H; Arai, M

    2007-12-01

    Nutritional supplement foods containing antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil (mainly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, C22:6n-3), referred to as capsules, were administered to seven smokers every day for 34 days. Concentrations of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in serum, activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma and the concentration of 8-isoprostane (8-epi-prostaglandin F(2) alpha) in the urine showed an increase or a tendency to increase after the end of administration. The frequency of subjects showing poor state of psychological health evidenced by a total score of 8 points or more on the General Health Questionnaire (30-item edition) scale was 42.9%, although there was a significant decrease to 14.3% upon completion of administration of the capsules. These biochemical and psychological changes were mostly returned to the basal level one month after the end of administration of the capsules. The results suggest that administration of antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil to smokers resulted in an increase in antioxidant capacity. Effectiveness in alleviating psychosocial stress likely to be attributable to DHA was also observed.

  14. Groundwater Development Stress: Global-Scale Indices Compared to Regional Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M; Clark, Brian R; Ely, David M; Faunt, Claudia C

    2017-08-15

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Antipsychotic Treatment Reduces Indices of Oxidative Stress in First-Episode Psychosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Kriisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 38 first-episode psychosis (FEP patients and 37 control subjects were recruited for the study of indices of oxidative stress (OxS. The main purpose of the study was to compare the OxS statuses (serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total level of peroxides (TPX, oxidative stress index (OSI, and ratio oxidized methionine (Met-SO to methionine (Met between antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients and individuals without a history of psychiatric disorders. Subsequently, the impact of 7-month antipsychotic treatment was evaluated on the OxS status in FEP patients. An attempt was made to assess links between OxS signature and inflammation markers. The oxidative stress indices remained generally unchanged in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients compared to control subjects. Despite that, there was a significant correlation between the levels of TPX and EGF (endothelial growth factor in FEP patients. This correlation disappeared after antipsychotic treatment of FEP patients. Moreover, antipsychotic treatment was associated with a significant reduction in OxS indices, including TPX, OSI, and ratio between Met-SO and Met. By contrast, in chronic SCZ patients we established a significant high-grade OxS. In conclusion, the markers of total antioxidative capacity, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation revealed no high-grade OxS in FEP patients. Nevertheless, antipsychotic treatment induced a considerable anti-inflammatory effect. OxS levels were also significantly decreased if compared in FEP patients before and after antipsychotic treatment.

  16. Stress Coefficients for Soil Water Balance Combined with Water Stress Indicators for Irrigation Scheduling of Woody Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several causes for the failure of empirical models to estimate soil water depletion and to calculate irrigation depths, and the problem is particularly critical in tall, uneven, deficit irrigated (DI crops in Mediterranean climates. Locally measured indicators that quantify water status are useful for addressing those causes and providing feed-back information for improving the adequacy of simple models. Because of their high aerodynamic resistance, the canopy conductance of woody crops is an important factor in determining evapotranspiration (ET, and accurate stress coefficient (Ks values are needed to quantify the impact of stomatal closure on ET. A brief overview of basic general principles for irrigation scheduling is presented with emphasis on DI applications that require Ks modelling. The limitations of existing technology related to scheduling of woody crops are discussed, including the shortcomings of plant-based approaches. In relation to soil water deficit and/or predawn leaf water potential, several woody crop Ks functions are presented in a secondary analysis. Whenever the total and readily available water data were available, a simple Ks model was tested. The ultimate aim of this discussion is to illustrate the central concept: that a combination of simple ET models and water stress indicators is required for scheduling irrigation of deep-rooted woody crops.

  17. Una aproximación psicosocial al estrés escolar A psychosocial approximaton to school stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Susana Martínez Díaz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta el estrés como un fenómeno real en la vida escolar, a partir de un análisis reflexivo fruto de seis estudios llevados a cabo en la Facultad de Psicología de la Universidad de La Sabana, en los niveles de educación básica, media y superior. Los resultados de los estudios, como las casuísticas relacionadas con el estrés sufrido por estudiantes de todos los niveles de educación, evidencian que existen factores psicosociales generadores de estrés, los cuales están asociados a la pérdida de uno de los padres de familia, a la enfermedad de un hermano o un familiar, al exceso de tareas, al bajo rendimiento académico, a la presión perturbadora, a la presentación de exámenes, entre otros.This paper presents stress as a real phenomenon in school life and is the result of a reflective analysis based on six studies carried out at the levels of basic, middle and higher education carried out by the Faculty of Psychology at La Sabana University. The results of the studies, as well as the casuistics related to the stress suffered by students at all levels of education, provide evidence of the existence of stress generating factors which are related to loss of a parent, disease of a sibling or a relative, excess homework, low academic performance, disturbing pressure, sitting exams, among others.

  18. Chronic psychosocial stress causes delayed extinction and exacerbates reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bahi, Amine; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Here, we examined the impact of chronic subordinate colony (CSC) exposure on EtOH-CPP extinction, as well as ethanol-induced reinstatement of CPP.Methods: Mice were conditioned with saline or 1.5 g/kg ethanol and were tested in the EtOH-CPP model. In the first experiment, the mice were subjected to 19 days of chronic stress, and EtOH-CPP extinction was assessed during seven daily trials without ethanol injection. In the second experiment and after the EtOH-CPP test, the mice were s...

  19. Profile of mood states and stress-related biochemical indices in long-term yoga practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Nobuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown the short-term or intermediate-term practice of yoga to be useful for ameliorating several mental disorders and psychosomatic disorders. However, little is known about the long-term influences of yoga on the mental state or stress-related biochemical indices. If yoga training has a stress-reduction effect and also improves an individual's mental states for a long time, long-term yoga practitioners may have a better mental state and lower stress-related biochemical indices in comparison to non-experienced participants. This study simultaneously examined the differences in mental states and urinary stress-related biochemical indices between long-term yoga practitioners and non-experienced participants. Methods The participants were 38 healthy females with more than 2 years of experience with yoga (long-term yoga group and 37 age-matched healthy females who had not participated in yoga (control group. Their mental states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. The level of cortisol, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and biopyrrin in urine were used as stress-related biochemical indices. Results The average self-rated mental disturbance, tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, and fatigue scores of the long-term yoga group were lower than those of the control group. There was a trend toward a higher vigor score in the long-term yoga group than that in the control group. There were no significant differences in the scores for depression and confusion in the POMS between the two groups. The urine 8-OHdG concentration showed a trend toward to being lower in the long-term yoga group in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences in the levels of urine biopyrrin or cortisol. Conclusions The present findings suggest that long-term yoga training can reduce the scores related to mental health indicators such as self-rated anxiety, anger, and fatigue.

  20. Suitability of Stem Diameter Variations as an Indicator of Water Stress of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-yang; DUAN Ai-wang; MENG Zhao-jiang; LIU Zu-gui

    2006-01-01

    Water stress effects on stem diameter variations (SDV) were studied in a pot experiment on cotton (Gossypium hirustum L. Meimian99B). Water restriction was imposed at the flowering stage and were compared with a well-watered control treatment. The volumetric soil water content (θv) and SDV were monitored continuously. The objective was to determine the feasibility of using the parameters derived from stem diameter measurements, including maximum daily stem shrinkage (MDS), maximum daily stem diameter (MXSD), and minimum daily stem diameter (MNSD) as indicators of plant water stress. The different behavior of SDV was founded at different growth stages. At stem-maturing stage, MDS increased and MNSD decreased in deficit-irrigated plants compared with the control plants, therefore, it appeared that MDS and MNSD ccould be used as available indicators of plant water status. At stem growth stage, there were no significant differences in MDS values between treatments but MXSD and MNSD responded sharply to soil water deficits. Thus, for rapidly growing cotton, the course of MXSD or MNSD with time offered a consistent stress indicator. SDV was also closely related to atmospheric factors, solar radiation (Rs) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were found to be the predominant factors affecting MDS, followed by the relative humidity (RH), while air temperature (Ta) and wind velocity had the least effect. A good linear relationship was founded (r2 = 0.921) between MDS and environmental variables (Rs, VPD, RH, and θv), which can be used to establish a reference value for detecting plant water stress based on the MDS patterns.

  1. Effect of UVA Fluence Rate on Indicators of Oxidative Stress in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Hoerter, Christopher S. Ward, Kyle D. Bale, Admasu N. Gizachew, Rachelle Graham, Jaclyn Reynolds, Melanie E. Ward, Chesca Choi, Jean-Leonard Kagabo, Michael Sauer, Tara Kuipers, Timothy Hotchkiss, Nate Banner, Renee A. Chellson, Theresa Ohaeri, L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the course of a day human skin is exposed to solar UV radiation that fluctuates in fluence rate within the UVA (290-315 nm and UVB (315-400 nm spectrum. Variables affecting the fluence rate reaching skin cells include differences in UVA and UVB penetrating ability, presence or absence of sunscreens, atmospheric conditions, and season and geographical location where the exposure occurs. Our study determined the effect of UVA fluence rate in solar-simulated (SSR and tanning-bed radiation (TBR on four indicators of oxidative stress---protein oxidation, glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and reactive oxygen species--in human dermal fibroblasts after receiving equivalent UVA and UVB doses. Our results show that the higher UVA fluence rate in TBR increases the level of all four indicators of oxidative stress. In sequential exposures when cells are exposed first to SSR, the lower UVA fluence rate in SSR induces a protective response that protects against oxidative stress following a second exposure to a higher UVA fluence rate. Our studies underscore the important role of UVA fluence rate in determining how human skin cells respond to a given dose of radiation containing both UVA and UVB radiation.

  2. "Stress" hyperglycaemia during acute myocardial infarction: an indicator of pre-existing diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, D J; Alberti, K G; Julian, D G

    1983-07-23

    Hyperglycaemia occurring at admission in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction is generally held to represent stress hyperglycaemia. 26 patients, not previously known to be diabetic, had blood glucose values greater than or equal to 10 mmol/l on admission to a coronary care unit. 16 survived for 2 months at which time a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed diabetes in 10 (63%) and impaired glucose tolerance in 1 (WHO criteria). All those with abnormal glucose tolerance at 2 months had had raised glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1) (greater than 7.5%) on admission, indicating pre-existing diabetes. All those with a HbA1 level over 8% had abnormal glucose tolerance. 7 of the 10 who died or did not have an OGTT also had raised HbA1 at admission. An admission blood glucose greater than or equal to 10 mmol/l in patients with severe chest pain is more likely to indicate previously undiagnosed diabetes than "stress" hyperglycaemia. There is no evidence that myocardial infarction precipitates diabetes. The glycosylated haemoglobin concentration can be used to distinguish between stress hyperglycaemia and hyperglycaemia caused by diabetes.

  3. Application of oxidative stress indices in natural populations of Perna viridis as biomarker of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, K B; Verlecar, X N; Chainy, G B N

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress indices were measured in gills and digestive glands of Perna viridis collected from three coastal locations in Goa i.e., Bambolim, Marmugao Harbour and Malim. In addition to lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase and two non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) were investigated in order to understand their variation with respect to pollution status of the sampling locations. We observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes of both the tissues at Mormugao Harbour and Malim, suggesting that the animals at these two locations are at higher level of oxidative stress as compared to those at Bambolim. Conversely, low levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione, observed at Mormugao Harbour and Malim indicate that the animals may use these compounds to counteract stress in the tissues. This study shows that changes in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione in tissues of P. viridis can be used as molecular biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs.

  4. Larger amygdala volumes after childhood trauma associated with depression and cortisol response to psychosocial stress in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Buss

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Childhood trauma is a major risk factor for the development of affective disorders later in life. We sought to determine whether this risk is linked to neurostructural changes in limbic brain regions after childhood trauma. Methods :We recruited 49 medically healthy adult women (28.2±7.1 years of age from the Atlanta area to include women with/without childhood trauma and with/without major depression (MDD. Childhood trauma exposure was quantified using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ.Lifetime and current diagnoses of MDD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID. Current depressive symptoms were assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Magnetic resonance images were acquired, preprocessed, and registered into stereotactic space. Volume analyses of the left and right amygdala were performed using the interactive software package DISPLAY developed at the Brain Imaging Center of the Montreal Neurological Institute, and a standardized segmentation protocol was applied to outline the anatomical boundaries of the amygdala. Total plasma cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST were measured. Results : When stratifying groups by childhood trauma exposure and MDD, women with both childhood trauma and MDD had largest right amygdala volumes compared to all other groups (interaction effect: F=6.172, p= 0.017. Correlational analyses revealed that higher CTQ scores were associated with larger left (r=0.31, p<0.05 and right (r=0.31, p<0.05 amygdala volumes. These correlations remained significant when controlling for age, race, and lifetime diagnoses of MDD and PTSD. Higher CTQ scores were associated with current depression scores (r=0.30, p<0.05, which in turn were positively associated with the size of the right amygdala volume (r=0.32, p<0.05. Finally, the size of the left amygdala was associated with increased cortisol response

  5. Follicular apoptosis in the mussel (Mytella strigata) as potential indicator of environmental stress in coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gasca, Alejandra; Leal-Tarin, Beatriz; Rios-Sicairos, Julian; Hernandez-Cornejo, Rubi; Aguilar-Zarate, Gabriela; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Follicular apoptosis in the tropical mussel Mytella strigata was assessed in three coastal lagoons located in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. Mussels were collected from three coastal lagoons associated with different scenarios of anthropogenic stress during one year. The gonad of each mussel was dissected, weighed, and sampled for histology and apoptosis analysis by TUNEL labeling. Two apoptotic indices were used: the apoptotic index of cells (AIC) based on the number of follicular cells in apoptosis in one thousand cells counted per gonad, and the apoptotic index of follicles (AIF) based on the number of follicular cells per follicle per gonad. Both indices showed high association with each other for all developmental stages, although AIF seemed to better discriminate among sites. Higher AIF and AIC were observed at the Urias Estuary (1.6 and 1.5 respectively) ranked as highly polluted, followed by Ensenada del Pabellon (0.82 and 0.95 respectively), ranked as moderately polluted, and the Teacapan Estuary (0.57 and 0.76 respectively) ranked as slightly polluted. Our data indicate that the apoptotic index in tropical mussels could be a useful indicator of environmental stress in coastal ecosystems; however, the ecological relevance of follicular apoptosis in polluted environments needs further investigation.

  6. Psychosocial causes and consequences of pathological gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological use of computer and video games has been associated with indicators of psychosocial well-being, such as loneliness, low self-esteem, low social competence, and low life satisfaction. However, few studies have decisively demonstrated whether these indicators of psychosocial well-being

  7. Sleep diaries of Vietnam War veterans with chronic PTSD: the relationships among insomnia symptoms, psychosocial stress, and nightmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Philip R; Harb, Gerlinde C; Cook, Joan M; Barilla, Holly; Ross, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired sleep and nightmares are known symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the veteran population. In order to assess prospectively the sleep disturbances in this population, sleep diaries are an effective way to obtain information over an extended period of time. In this investigation, a sample of veterans (N = 105) completed daily sleep diaries for a 6-week period. Greater PTSD severity and nightmare-related distress were correlated with more awakenings, shorter duration of sleep, longer sleep latency, and greater frequency of nightmares. Perceived frequency of daytime stressors was associated with an increased number of nightmares, nightmare-related distress, and longer sleep latency. The use of sleep diaries in future investigations may allow targeted treatments for veteran populations with PTSD and sleep disturbances.

  8. Use of the dialectical behavior therapy skills and management of psychosocial stress with newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogwell Anderson, Rebecca; Jensik, Kathleen; Peloza, David; Walker, Alonzo

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related health concerns have the potential to impact quality of life for patients with breast cancer. National cancer organizations such as the National Cancer Institute, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network have acknowledged that all patients with cancer experience some level of distress during the course of illness and treatment. Literature on cancer suggests a range of expected distress from 20% to 50% among all patients diagnosed with cancer. Acknowledging and managing this distress with patients with cancer and providing them behavioral-based Interventions are important parts of cancer research. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy skill is are an empirically proven treatment modality across numerous patient populations. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization and effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy skills modified for use with patients with breast cancer.

  9. [Circadian rhythm and stress in the elderly: a study using salivary cortisol levels as an indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibayashi, S; Koizumi, A

    1989-10-01

    Biological response to stress was studied in the healthy elderly by fluctuations of their circadian rhythms using salivary cortisol levels as an indicator. Social activities per se may not be stressors, but may serve as a "eustress" to the elderly when they are in good health because their rhythm is maintained. Concerning the occupations of the subjects, the rhythms of elderly watchmen showed no disturbance when they slept for three hours between 23:00 and 2:00. However, those who were unable to sleep showed disturbed rhythms. We concluded that disturbance of a rhythm that has been established on the basis of being active during the day time and sleeping at night could be a stressor to the elderly rather than stress due to working as a guard.

  10. Condutas de risco à saúde e indicadores de estresse psicossocial em adolescentes estudantes do Ensino Médio Health risk behaviors and psychosocial distress indicators in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Diniz de Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar a associação entre condutas de risco à saúde (tabagismo, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e uso de drogas e indicadores de estresse psicossocial em adolescentes estudantes do ensino médio. A pesquisa foi realizada com amostra constituída por 4.210 adolescentes estudantes de escolas públicas do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. O Global School-based Student Health Survey foi usado para coletar dados pessoais (demográficos e socioeconômicos e comportamentais, e para obter medidas dos indicadores de estresse psicossocial (variáveis desfecho. Foram observadas prevalências de tristeza, sentimento de solidão, pensamento de suicídio, dificuldade para dormir devido à preocupação e planos de suicídio. Tabagismo, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e uso de drogas foi relatado, respectivamente, por 7,7%, 30,3% e 6,9%. As prevalências de indicadores de estresse psicossocial foram maiores entre as moças, e as prevalências de exposição a condutas de risco à saúde foram maiores entre os rapazes. Concluiu-se com o estudo que o uso de drogas está diretamente associado ao pensamento e plano de suicídio e, entre as moças, o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas foi um fator associado ao estresse psicossocial.The purpose of this article was to examine the association between health risk behaviors (tobacco, alcohol, and drug use and psychosocial distress indicators among high school students. The sample consisted of 4,210 adolescent students from public schools in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to collect personal (demographic and socioeconomic and behavioral data and to obtain measures of psychosocial distress indicators (outcome variables. Prevalence rates were observed for sadness, loneliness, suicidal ideation, sleeplessness due to worries, and suicidal planning. Self-reported prevalence rates for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use were 7.7%, 30.3%, and 6

  11. Metabolic indicators of drought stress tolerance in wheat: glutamine synthetase isoenzymes and Rubisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán; Németh, Edit; Guóth, Adrienn; Bona, Lajos; Wodala, Barnabás; Pécsváradi, Attila

    2013-06-01

    Drought stress has a considerable impact on the ecosystem and agriculture. Continuous water deficit induces early leaf senescence in plants. During this process, chloroplasts are degraded and photosynthesis drastically drops. The objective of this investigation was to look into the regulation of nitrogen and carbon metabolism during water deficit. Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; EC 4.1.1.39) and the total protein contents inform us of the sink-source relation in plants. Glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) isoenzymes are good markers of plastid status (GS2) and the nitrogen metabolism (GS1). Tolerant and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were tested, which are widely used in agriculture. The amount of protein, Rubisco and GS isoforms in leaves were measured during the grain filling period, as indicative traits that ultimately determine the onset and stage of senescence. The symptoms of senescence first appeared on the oldest and finally on the youngest leaves. Drought stress disrupted the sequentiality of senescence in the sensitive varieties. An untimely senescence appeared in flag leaves, earlier than in the older leaves. Total protein and Rubisco contents decreased and the GS2 isoenzyme declined considerably in the youngest leaves. In the tolerant varieties, however, these physiological parameters did not change under drought, only the sequential senescence of leaf levels accelerated in some cases compared to the control, well-watered plants. Our results revealed that GS is a good indicator of drought stress, which can be applied for the characterization of wheat cultivars in terms of drought stress tolerance.

  12. Associations of Job Stress Indicators with Oxidative Biomarkers in Japanese Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers have suggested that oxidative damage may be one of the mechanisms linking job stress with coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between job stress indicators and oxidative biomarkers. The study included 567 subjects (272 men, 295 women who answered questionnaires related to their work and underwent a medical examination. Job stress evaluated using the demands-control-support model was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire. Effort-reward imbalance was measured using the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. Urinary hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG were measured by the modified ferrous ion oxidation xylenol orange version-1 method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. In men, the changes in the odds ratios for high urinary H2O2 associated with a 1-standard-deviation (SD increase in worksite social support were 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.53, 0.91 univariately and 0.68 (95%CI 0.51, 0.90 after adjustment for covariates. The change in the odds ratio for high urinary H2O2 associated with a 1-SD increase in effort-reward ratio was 1.35 (95% CI 1.03, 1.78 after adjustment for covariates. In women, there were no significant associations of the two job stress indicators with urinary H2O2 and 8-OHdG levels after adjustment for covariates (p > 0.05.

  13. A Survey of the Relationship between Climatic Heat Stress Indices and Fundamental Milk Components Considering Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Marami Milani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between four bioclimatic indices for cattle (environmental stress, heat load, modified heat load, and respiratory rate predictor indices and three main milk components (fat, protein, and milk yield considering uncertainty. The climate parameters used to calculate the climate indices were taken from the NASA-Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (NASA-MERRA reanalysis from 2002 to 2010. Cow milk data were considered for the same period from April to September when the cows use the natural pasture. The study is based on a linear regression analysis using correlations as a summarizing diagnostic. Bootstrapping is used to represent uncertainty information in the confidence intervals. The main results identify an interesting relationship between the milk compounds and climate indices under all climate conditions. During spring, there are reasonably high correlations between the fat and protein concentrations vs. the climate indices, whereas there are insignificant dependencies between the milk yield and climate indices. During summer, the correlation between the fat and protein concentrations with the climate indices decreased in comparison with the spring results, whereas the correlation for the milk yield increased. This methodology is suggested for studies investigating the impacts of climate variability/change on food and agriculture using short term data considering uncertainty.

  14. The psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in very young and pre-school children in the context of selected sociodemographic indicators in the Czech Republic and in some others countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Včelařová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this study present the results of surveys in significant areas of social peda-gogy relating to both the prevention of overweight and obesity in children, and healthy lifestyle edu-cation. The psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in early age and preschool children are monitored in the context of selected socio-demographic indicators in the Czech Republic, Great Brit-ain, the USA, Australia, some European countries, Iran and China. The purpose of such oriented stud-ies is to find appropriate preventive, pedagogical or therapeutic interventions that could contribute to the elimination of risk factors in the particular societies. It turns out that the sociodemographic and psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in chil-dren (in terms of particular countries cannot be always uniformly described and defined. Numerous psychosocial or sociodemographic characteristics were found when comparing different ethnic groups, the different age cohorts of parents or the different developmental stages of children, when comparing countries with various standards of living, or even just, when comparing different socio-economic strata within the same country. It also appears that the relationships identified by the be-low-mentioned researches don´t have a straight forward effect, but are also modified by the influ-ence of other variables. A common feature overweight and obesity in children in the majority of countries seems to be associated with significant social inequalities within a specific country. Accord-ing to some authors, one of the possible ways to fight overweight and obesity in children is to reduce the inequalities of the macroeconomic society

  15. Force-feeding procedure and physiological indicators of stress in male mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guémené, D; Guy, G; Noirault, J; Garreau-Mills, M; Gouraud, P; Faure, J M

    2001-12-01

    1. The effects of the force-feeding procedure and its different components on various physiological indicators of acute and chronic stress were investigated in male mule ducks before and during a 12-d cramming period. 2. The highest concentration of corticosterone were measured after injection of ACTH agonist, during the pre-experimental period when the ducks were still housed in collective floor pens and at the time of transfer. 3. During the cramming period, corticosterone measured before and after force-feeding did not differ significantly though there was a non-significant trend towards an increase in certain cases. 4. The different components of force-feeding, including manipulation, intubation, force-feeding with a standard or a large amount of food had no significant effect upon corticosterone concentrations. 5. There was no indication from ACTH agonist challenge either of a change in adrenal sensitivity or a change in its responsiveness. 6. The heterocyte-lymphocyte ratio measured before and at the end of the cramming period did not differ significantly. 7. In conclusion, we observed no significant indication that force-feeding is perceived as an acute or chronic stress by male mule ducks, in our experimental conditions. Nevertheless, it remains to be shown that their adrenocorticotropic axis is responsive to acute stressors.

  16. Response of vegetation indices to changes in three measures of leaf water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Warren B.

    1991-01-01

    The responses of vegetation indices to changes in water stress were evaluated in two separate laboratory experiments. In one experiment the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the near-IR to red ratio (near-IR/red), the Infrared Index (II), and the Moisture Stress Index (MSI) were more highly correlated to leaf water potential in lodgepole pine branches than were the Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI), the mid-IR ratio (Mid-IR), or any of the single Thematic Mapper (TM) bands. In the other experiment, these six indices and the TM Tasseled Cap brightness, greenness, and wetness indices responded to changes in leaf relative water content (RWC) differently than they responded to changes in leaf water content (WC) of three plant species, and the responses were dependent on how experimental replicates were pooled. With no pooling, the LWCI was the most highly correlated index to both RWC and WC among replications, followed by the II, MSI, and wetness. Only the LWCI was highly correlated to RWC and WC when replications were pooled within species. With among species pooling the LWCI was the only index highly correlated with RWC, while the II, MSI, Mid-IR, and wetness were most highly correlated with WC.

  17. EFFECTS OF TRANSPORTATION STRESS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ANDRONIE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research monitored the response of some welfare indicators in sport horses during transport by assessing the intensity of stress during travel time, changes in heart rate, cortisol, lactic acid and creatinine levels. The horses included in the study were separated into 2 groups: horses that were transported for the first time (A n: 12 and horses that had been previously transported (B n: 10. The values of the indicators varied between the two groups regardless of the fact that travel length and transport conditions were almost identical. The heart rate and cortisol levels were elevated in horses from group A as compared to the ones in group B while the latter showed increased levels of these indicators upon repeating the loading and unloading (100-130 nmol/l. The recorded value of lactic acid was higher for the first group (2,2 mmol/l, only until the moment when the horses adapted to the effort, after which it decreased (1,8 mmol/l. Transport of horses under certain conditions related to their adjusting to manhandling during loading and unloading operations, as well as the animals’ temper, may be considered a stress factor with significant depreciating effect on horse welfare.

  18. Community-based, acute posttraumatic stress management: a description and evaluation of a psychosocial-intervention continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Robert D; Behar, Lenore; Paulson, Robert; Delman, Jon; Schmid, Lisa; Smith, Stefanie F

    2004-01-01

    Much of today's psychological trauma can be identified as resulting from sudden and seemingly random events, and particularly from events that involve the loss of human life. This article presents a perspective on how behavioral health providers may approach the design, development, and implementation of community-based psychological trauma interventions. These interventions allow those community members most affected by the trauma to play a central role in the resolution of, and community adaptation to, traumatic losses. After a brief discussion of "critical incident stress debriefing"--a common form of psychological "first aid" that is sometimes used following traumatic events that affect a community--the article turns to the description of a community-based trauma-response program that provides a continuum-of-care model for the care and management of individual and group reactions to shared, traumatic events. A recent evaluation of that program, which was developed by the Community Services Program of the Trauma Center in Boston, is presented as an important first step toward determining the types of community-based responses that show promise in our efforts to ameliorate the impact of traumatic events in communities nationwide and internationally.

  19. Effectiveness of LISTEN on loneliness, neuroimmunological stress response, psychosocial functioning, quality of life, and physical health measures of chronic illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Theeke

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: LISTEN can effectively diminish loneliness and decrease the systolic blood pressure in community-dwelling, chronically ill, older adults. Results indicate that this population, if left with untreated loneliness, may experience functional impairment over a period as short as 4 months. Further studies on LISTEN are needed with larger samples, in varied populations, and over longer periods of time to assess the long-term effects of diminishing loneliness in multiple chronic conditions.

  20. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    .... This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016...

  1. Psychosocial aspects of strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Binocular vision is characterized by a harmonious relation between sensory and motor systems of both eyes. This relation enables directing visual axes toward the observed object simultaneously, fusing images from two eyes, and the sense of threedimensionality. Motility and binocular vision disorders occur in manifest and latent strabismus. The irregular position of eyes in strabismus is perceived by most people as an esthetic defect. Also, psychosocial consequences and the importance of treating strabismus are very superficially explained in this context. Bearing in mind the results of recent researches, which indicate that individuals of all ages with strabismus face different difficulties in psychosocial functioning, we believe that this issue in our surroundings should be dealt with. Strabismus leads to forming prejudices which usually have a negative impact on socialization and employment opportunities. Timely treatment of strabismus has a positive influence on the functionality of binocular vision, building self-esteem and self-satisfaction, being accepted by typically developing population, the quality and quantity of social interaction. The aim of this paper is to present the relation between strabismus and psychosocial reactions with regard to the available literature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179025: Kreiranje Protokola za procenu edukativnih potencijala dece sa smetnjama u razvoju kao kriterijuma za izradu individualnih obrazovnih programa i br. 179017: Socijalna participacija osoba sa intelektualnom ometenošću

  2. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  3. [Salivary cortisol as an indicator of physological stress in children and adults; a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; García García, I; Rodríguez López, M A; Ortegón Piñero, A; Cortés Castell, E

    2014-05-01

    Salivary cortisol is a steroid hormone that is produced in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and secreted into saliva when persons are under stress. High levels of cortisol in saliva can be produced by many different factors, including obesity and certain psychological disorders. The articles selected for inclusion in this review were identified using Google Scholar and Medline, and this search obtained a total of 57 items. The validity of these studies was established according to the degree of evidence presented, by citations and by their applicability to the healthcare context in Spain. Specifically, this review takes into consideration studies of salivary cortisol and stress in children and adults, and those examining the relation between high levels of salivary cortisol and other disorders such as anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, social phobia or emotional deprivation. These studies show that salivary cortisol is a clear indicator of stress in both children and adults. High levels of this hormone in saliva are associated with the following main consequences: reduced immune function, affecting healing and thus prolonging recovery time; delayed growth in children; increased blood pressure and heart rate in both children and adults.

  4. Non-suicidal self-injury among psychiatric outpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian posttraumatic stress disorder male war veterans: Prevalence and psychosocial correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Aukst Margetić, Branka; Ožanić Bulić, Suzana; Đuretić, Irena; Kniewald, Hrvoje; Jukić, Tatjana; Paradžik, Ljubica

    2015-05-01

    The children of male veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk of emotional and behavioral problems. However, no studies have examined non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in this population of youth. To determine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of lifetime NSSI in a sample of psychiatric outpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male veterans. Consecutive outpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans, aged 12 to 18 years, were assessed on the Deliberate Self Harm Inventory, the Youth Self-Report, the Family Assessment Device, the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Demographics Questionnaire. Of the whole sample, 52.7% of adolescents reported NSSI at least once during their lifetime. Lifetime NSSI was significantly associated with internalizing symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-4.42, p = .040), poor family functioning (adjusted OR = 6.54; 95% CI: 2.02-21.22, p = .002), lower maternal and paternal care (adjusted OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.40-0.56, p = .000 and adjusted OR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73-0.91, p = .000, respectively) and higher paternal control (adjusted OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.59-2.14, p = .000) in multivariate analysis. No association was found between lifetime NSSI and any of the socio-demographic variables. NSSI is a significant clinical problem in outpatient adolescent offspring of PTSD male veterans, which may be influenced by clinical and family factors. Interventions aimed at reducing internalizing symptoms and improving family functioning and parental behaviors are needed in the treatment of adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans engaging in NSSI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Provider perceptions of patient psychosocial needs after orofacial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzali, James L; Marshall, Grant N; Shetty, Vivek; Yamashita, Dennis-Duke R; Sinha, Uttam K; Rayburn, Nadine R

    2007-08-01

    Vulnerable populations are at particular risk for developing psychosocial sequelae after they experience orofacial injury. To enhance understanding of awareness, perspectives, and beliefs regarding attendant psychosocial issues, surgeons who provide orofacial injury care to indigent patients were surveyed. We surveyed 26 oral and maxillofacial surgeons and 15 otolaryngology surgeons at a large, urban, Level 1 trauma center. The survey, which measured providers' perceptions of pertinent contextual elements and patients' psychosocial needs after assaultive orofacial injury, was based on semistructured interviews with 15 oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The overall survey response rate was 85.4% (35 of 41). Respondents ranked interpersonal violence as the dominant cause of orofacial injury among patients. Anxiety (eg, post-traumatic stress), depression, and legal issues were the most significant psychosocial sequelae identified by respondents. Alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and homelessness were identified as the most important contributors to orofacial reinjury and patient noncompliance with postsurgical instructions. Less than half of respondents (44.7%) believed that patients' problems with depression, anxiety, or substance abuse were currently addressed in an adequate way in the hospital. The vast majority (94.7%) believed that a psychosocial aftercare program was needed, and most agreed that such a program would decrease the risk of reinjury and would promote patient compliance with aftercare instructions and return for scheduled follow-up care. Respondents identified the specialty mental health service in their hospital or a community-based setting as the preferred locations for such a program, and they indicated that lack of financial resources and trained personnel were the most significant barriers to implementation of such a program within the setting of trauma services. Surgeons who provide care to indigent patients with orofacial injury perceive a great need

  6. Psychosocial Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Watkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay advocates for a paradigm shift in psychology toward the activity and ethics of accompaniment. Accompaniment requires a reorientation of the subjectivity, interpersonal practices, and critical understanding of the accompanier so that (she can stand alongside others who desire listening, witnessing, advocacy, space to develop critical inquiry and research, and joint imagination and action to address desired and needed changes. The idea of “accompaniment” emerged in liberation theology in Latin America, and migrated into liberatory forms of psychology as “psychosocial accompaniment.” This essay explores accompaniment and its ethics from a phenomenological perspective, highlighting differences from mainstream stances in psychology. Attention is also given to the effects of accompaniment on the accompanier. Efforts to decolonize psychology require careful attention to the psychic decolonization of its practitioners and to the cultivation of decolonizing interpersonal practices that provide a relational and ethical foundation for joint research, restorative healing, and transformative action. Such practices endeavor through dialogue to build mutual respect and understanding, promote effective solidarity, and contribute to the empowerment of those marginalized. The decolonization of psychology should enable practitioners to be more effective in working for increased social, economic, and environmental justice; peace building and reconciliation; and local and global ecological sustainability.

  7. The Autonomous Stress Indicator for Remotely Monitoring Power System State and Watching for Potential Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Joos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed Autonomous Stress Indicator (ASI is a device that monitors the contents of the protection relays on a suspect weak power system bus and generates a performance level related to the degree of system performance degradation or instability. This gives the system operators some time (minutes to take corrective action. In a given operating area there would not likely be a need for an ASI on every bus. Note that the ASI does not trip any breakers; it is an INFORMATION ONLY device. An important feature is that the system operator can subsequently interrogate the ASI to determine the factor(s that led to the performance level that has been initially annunciated, thereby leading to a course of action. This paper traces the development of the ASI which is an ongoing project. The ASI could be also described as a stress-alert device whose function is to alert the System Operator of a stressful condition at its location. The characteristics (or essential qualities of this device are autonomy, selectivity, accuracy and intelligence. These will fulfill the requirements of the recommendation of the Canada –US Task Force in the August 2003 system collapse. Preliminary tests on the IEEE 39-bus model indicate that the concept has merit and development work is in progress. While the ASI can be applied to all power system operating conditions, its principal application is to the degraded state of the system where the System Operator must act to restore the system to the secure state before it migrates to a stage of collapse. The work of ASI actually begins with the Areas of Vulnerability and ends with the Predictive Module as described in detail in this paper. An application example of a degraded system using the IEEE 39-bus system is included.

  8. Effect of Iron Enriched Bread Intake on the Oxidative Stress Indices in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Heidari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Contrary to the proven benefits of iron, few concerns in producing the oxidative stress is remained problematic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in the male Wistar rats fed bread supplemented with iron in different doses i.e., 35 (basic, 70 (two fold, 140 (four fold, and 210 mg/kg (six fold with or without NaHCO3 (250 mg/kg. Methods In this experimental study Iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, albumin, total protein, uric acid and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, were evaluated in 30 rats at the first and last day of the experiment (day 30. In addition, phytic acid levels were detected in all baked breads. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test procedure though SPSS statistical software version 20. Results Serum iron level in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 decreased significantly in the last day of the trial. Higher level of serum iron was seen in rats that received iron twofold, fourfold and sixfold and rats that received iron fourfold plus NaHCO3. Serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin in groups of rats that received fourfold level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received iron sixfold showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05. Serum total protein and uric acid in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received twofold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Serum total protein levels in rats that received fourfold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Bread with NaHCO3 showed higher phytic acid levels than other groups. Conclusions These results indicate that oxidative stress was not induced, whereas some antioxidant activities were significantly changed in rats that received iron-enriched bread.

  9. [Psychosocial aspects of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Bernadett; Baji, Ildikó; Rigó, János

    2015-12-13

    Distress conditions during pregnancy may contribute to the development of preeclampsia by altering functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, e.g. activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines. Preeclampsia may also precipitate mental health problems due to long-term hospitalization or unpredictable and uncontrollable events such as preterm labor and newborn complications. Besides, preeclampsia may induce persistent neurocognitive complaints with a negative impact on patients' quality of life. As growing evidence indicates that poor maternal mental health has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, psychosocial interventions may be beneficial for women with preeclampsia.

  10. Types of ectomycorrhiza as pollution stress indicators: case studies in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraigher, Hojka; Al Sayegh Petkovsek, Samar; Grebenc, Tine; Simoncic, Primoz

    2007-05-01

    Mycorrhiza is the main spatial and temporal linkage between different constituents in a forest ecosystem. The functional compatibility and stress tolerance of ectomycorrhizal types is species specific, and therefore the information on the ectomycorrhizal community structure can add to the understanding of processes in forest ecosystems and can also be applied as tools for bioindication of pollution stress in forest soils. We have studied the effects of pollution (N and S) on trees and forest soils by: (1) quantification of ECM types diversity as in situ indicators in forest stands, (2) determination and quantification of pollution-sensitive or -insensitive ECM types as passive monitors, (3) root growth and development of ECM on nonmycorrhizal spruce seedlings, planted at the studied sites (active monitors), and (4) ECM infection (a bioassay based on mycorrhizal inoculum potential) of seedlings in an experimental set-up as ex situ testers. ECM species richness for Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) showed higher values in unpolluted sites than in polluted ones, while the differences were not significant for European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica). As pollution-sensitive or -insensitive ECM species in spruce forests, we suggest Hydnum rufescens (sensitive) and Paxillus involutus (unsensitive). Mycorrhizal potential in Norway spruce seedlings as a bioassay for soil N and S pollution was effective, and is suggested as an additional, standardized and widely comparable system in bioindication of soil pollution.

  11. Vitellogenin cleavage products as indicators for toxic stress in zebra fish embryos: a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündel, Ulrike; Benndorf, Dirk; von Bergen, Martin; Altenburger, Rolf; Küster, Eberhard

    2007-12-01

    Vitellogenins (Vtgs) are the major yolk proteins in all oviparous animals. Systematic and regulated processing of these during embryogenesis is crucial for embryonic development. In the present study, toxicant-induced disturbance of Vtg degradation processes during Danio rerio (DR) embryogenesis was analysed to establish a sensitive tool for monitoring toxic stress at the molecular level. A 2-DE-based proteomic approach for whole DR embryos was established to study Vtg cleavage products (lipovitellin (Lv) derivatives). Ethanol was chosen as a positive control for a toxicity related change in the proteome of whole zebra fish embryos. Protein extracts from embryos treated with two ethanol concentrations, 0.5 and 2% v/v, showing either no or very strong visible effects, like absent heartbeat and blood circulation, were examined. Significant changes in the Lv pattern were detected for both conditions. The results are interpreted as scope for the use of the high abundant Lv derivatives as sensitive stress indicators in zebra fish embryos reflecting the overall fitness of the intact organisms.

  12. Psychosocial predictors of musculoskeletal symptoms: the relevance of mediated and moderated relationships / Preditores psicossociais de sintomas osteomusculares: a importância das relações de mediação e moderação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Amaral Pinheiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a theoretical model that associates psychosocial variables in occupational settings to musculoskeletal symptoms, looking for possible relationships of mediation and moderation. A sample of 494 government workers of a bank (owned and administered by the government responded to a questionnaire that included psychosocial variable measurements of the occupational setting, stress reactivity (emotional exhaustion, coping styles and a scale of musculoskeletal symptoms frequency, besides questions on habits and lifestyle. The results showed that emotional exhaustion was the most powerful predictor of symptoms report, which indicates the stress reaction is a path by which psychosocial aspects may affect musculoskeletal health.

  13. The appraisal of chronic stress and the development of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, N; Gyntelberg, F; Faber, J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome (MES). This review gives a systematic overview of prospective cohort studies investigating chronic psychosocial stress as a risk factor for incident MES and the individual elements of MES......), while no association was found regarding distress. Evaluating WS the results were equivocal and indicated that different types of WS affected the BP differently between men and women. In conclusion, a longitudinal association between chronic psychosocial stress and the development of MES seems present....... Thirty-nine studies were included. An association between chronic psychosocial stress and the development of MES was generally supported. Regarding the four elements of MES: i) weight gain: the prospective studies supported etiological roles for relationship stress, perceived stress, and distress, while...

  14. Stress degradation studies on citicoline sodium and development of a validated stability-indicating HPLC assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmi A Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: High performance liquid chromatography presents a useful aspect for the development of stability indicating assays. Objective of the current study was to establish inherent stability of citicoline sodium through stress studies under a variety of international conference on harmonization recommended test conditions and to develop a stability-indicating assay. Materials and Methods: Thermal stability studies were performed in a hot air oven (Hicon and photo stability studies were carried out under the sunlight. The chromatographic separations were carried out on a reverse phase phenomenox C18 (250 mm΄4.6 mm i.d., particle size 5 ΅m column. The chromatographic method was fine tuned using the sample generated from forced degradation studies. Mobile phase consists of mixture of buffer (potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate, tetra butyl ammonium, triethyl amine; pH 5.5; 0.002M and methanol (95:5, v/v. Results: Good resolution between the peaks corresponds to degradation products and the analyte was achieved on 5 ΅, 250 mm΄4.6 mm i.d., C18 column (Luna, phenomenox, USA. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, range, and selectivity. Conclusion: The study shows that citicoline sodium is a labile molecule in acid, oxidative, and alkali conditions. It is stable to light and dry heat. A stability-indicating method was developed and is recommended for analysis of the drug and degradation products in stability samples.

  15. [The role of individual stress resistance in realization of immobilization and zoosocial stress effects on pulmonary surfactant system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, N N; Bryndina, I G

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to immobilization and psychosocial stress on surface activity, biochemical composition of pulmonary surfactant and lung fluid balance of rats with different stress-resistance. It is shown that both types of stress lead to elevation of lysophospholipids level and decrease of surface-active properties of pulmonary surfactant, more prominent in stress-vulnerable rats. Blood supply was decreased and extravascular fluid was increased under the psychosocial stress only in stress-vulnerable animals, in all rest cases the blood supply was increased and the content of extravascular fluid was not changed. Surfactant alteration was coupled on the level of 11-OCS in the blood and amount of fluid in the lungs. The obtained results indicate that different degree of impairment in the pulmonary surfactant system during immobilization and psychosocial conflicts depends on different resistance to emotional stress.

  16. Diluted bitumen causes deformities and molecular responses indicative of oxidative stress in Japanese medaka embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Barry N; Hodson, P V; Langlois, V S

    2015-08-01

    This study characterized the toxicity and physiological effects of unweathered diluted bitumen (Access Western Blend dilbit; AWB) to fish. Embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed for 17 days to dilutions of physically-dispersed (water accommodated fraction; WAF) and chemically-dispersed (chemically-enhanced WAF; CEWAF) dilbit. AWB dilbit exposure was not lethal to medaka, but resulted in a high prevalence of blue sac disease (BSD), impaired development, and abnormal or un-inflated swim bladders at hatch. Physiological effects were indicated by the relative mRNA levels of key genes associated with, among others, cell cycling and the response to mutations (p53), xenobiotic metabolism (ahr, arnt2), phase I (cyp1a) and II processes associated with oxidative stress (cat, g6pdh, hsp70, gst, gpx, gsr, nfe2, and sod). AWB dilbit treatment increased p53 and cyp1a transcript levels (1.5-fold and >15-fold, respectively), with significant, but less pronounced changes in indicators of oxidative stress and metabolism. The exposure-related changes in embryotoxicity and mRNA synthesis were consistent with metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to reactive and toxic metabolites. Medaka embryos responded similarly to WAF and CEWAF treatments, but CEWAF was about 100 times more efficient in delivering toxic concentrations of PAHs. The toxicity of chemically-dispersed nujol, a non-toxic mineral oil used as an experimental control, suggested that a portion of the observed effects of AWB could be attributed to excess dispersant in solution. This first study of the physiological effects of dilbit toxicity to fish embryos provides a baseline to compare toxicity between dilbit and conventional crude oils, and the groundwork for the development of molecular biomarkers of the sensitivity and level of risk of native Canadian fish species to dilbit exposure.

  17. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poynton, Helen C., E-mail: helen.poynton@umb.edu; Robinson, William E.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Hannigan, Robyn E.

    2014-10-15

    , three transcripts directly involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced in the metal treatments at 2 weeks and were further up-regulated at 4 weeks. Overall, correlation of tissue concentrations and gene expression responses indicates that as mussels accumulate higher concentrations of metals, initial stress responses are mobilized to protect tissues. However, given the role of UPR in apoptosis, it serves as an early indicator of stress, which once overwhelmed will result in adverse physiological effects.

  18. The relationship between wellbeing indicators and teacher psychological stress in Eastern Cape public schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik L.M. Vazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Positive psychological and subjective wellbeing indicators have proven to be protective against certain physical illnesses but have been rarely assessed in teacher stress.Research purpose: The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship between indicators of wellbeing and stress and to further assess the relative importance of these wellbeing indicators in explaining stress variance in a large sample of Eastern Cape primary and high school teachers in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The majority of teacher stress studies focus on the misfit between the individual’s resources and the environmental demands. There is a scarcity of studies reporting on protective factors in teaching and we know little about their possible role as possible protective factors against stress. This is important in developing stress prevention strategies.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey was used targeting public school teachers in the Eastern Cape. The sample size was 562 randomly selected teachers from both public primary and high schools.Main findings: The results revealed that stress is prevalent amongst teachers. Subjective and psychological wellbeing factors added significantly to the explained stress variance. Also, both negative affect and role problems had significant positive correlations with stress, whilst psychological wellbeing had a strong inverse relationship with stress.Practical/managerial implications: The results implied that interventions focusing on improving psychological wellbeing and reduction of negative affect can contribute to stress prevention.Contribution/value-add: The results contributed towards a better understanding of the relative importance of wellbeing constructs as protective factors against teacher stress.

  19. Modeling spatially- and temporally-explicit water stress indices for use in life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, L.; Venkatesh, A.; Karuppiah, R.; Usadi, A.; Pfister, S.; Hellweg, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water scarcity is a regional issue in many areas across the world, and can affect human health and ecosystems locally. Water stress indices (WSIs) have been developed as quantitative indicators of such scarcities - examples include the Falkenmark indicator, Social Water Stress Index, and the Water Supply Stress Index1. Application of these indices helps us understand water supply and demand risks for multiple users, including those in the agricultural, industrial, residential and commercial sectors. Pfister et al.2 developed a method to calculate WSIs that were used to estimate characterization factors (CFs) in order to quantify environmental impacts of freshwater consumption within a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. Global WSIs were based on data from the WaterGAP model3, and presented as annual averages for watersheds. Since water supply and demand varies regionally and temporally, the resolution used in Pfister et al. does not effectively differentiate between seasonal and permanent water scarcity. This study aims to improve the temporal and spatial resolution of the water scarcity calculations used to estimate WSIs and CFs. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)4 hydrological model to properly simulate water supply in different world regions with high spatial and temporal resolution, and coupled it with water use data from WaterGAP3 and Pfister et al.5. Input data to SWAT included weather, land use, soil characteristics and a digital elevation model (DEM), all from publicly available global data sets. Potential evapotranspiration, which affects water supply, was determined using an improved Priestley-Taylor approach. In contrast to most other hydrological studies, large reservoirs, water consumption and major water transfers were simulated. The model was calibrated against observed monthly discharge, actual evapotranspiration, and snow water equivalents wherever appropriate. Based on these simulations, monthly WSIs were calculated for a few

  20. Absence of earthquake correlation with Earth tides: An indication of high preseismic fault stress rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, J.E.; Agnew, D.C.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Oppenheimer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Because the rate of stress change from the Earth tides exceeds that from tectonic stress accumulation, tidal triggering of earthquakes would be expected if the final hours of loading of the fault were at the tectonic rate and if rupture began soon after the achievement of a critical stress level. We analyze the tidal stresses and stress rates on the fault planes and at the times of 13,042 earthquakes which are so close to the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in California that we may take the fault plane to be known. We find that the stresses and stress rates from Earth tides at the times of earthquakes are distributed in the same way as tidal stresses and stress rates at random times. While the rate of earthquakes when the tidal stress promotes failure is 2% higher than when the stress does not, this difference in rate is not statistically significant. This lack of tidal triggering implies that preseismic stress rates in the nucleation zones of earthquakes are at least 0.15 bar/h just preceding seismic failure, much above the long-term tectonic stress rate of 10-4 bar/h.

  1. Infertility-related stress in men and women predicts treatment outcome 1 year later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boivin, J; Schmidt, Lone

    2005-01-01

    stress, psychology, psychosocial, reproduction, marital, gender, counselling, infertility, in vitro fertilization, fertility......stress, psychology, psychosocial, reproduction, marital, gender, counselling, infertility, in vitro fertilization, fertility...

  2. Stress degradation studies on betahistine and development of a validated stability-indicating assay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Alaa; Sheha, Mahmoud

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of this work was to study the stability of betahistine (BET) at different stress conditions and to develop a sensitive stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay method. The stress conditions applied were including the effect of heat, moisture, acid-base, and ultra-violet (UV) light. Betahistine and its decomposition products were derivatized by reaction with dansyl chloride (Dan-Cl) and analyzed by HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector (FL) set at 336 and 531 nm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The drug was particularly labile at UV light and oxygen rich media. Two potential degradation products could be separated and identified by spectral methods. The chromatographic method involved Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C(18) column kept at 30+/-2 degrees C and a gradient elution with mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.02 mol L(-1) sodium acetate. The response factor of dansylated BET monitored by fluorescence detection was 32 times more than its UV response. The calibration curve of BET in bulk form was linear from 0.005 to 4.2 ng microL(-1). Intraday and interday precision were less than 0.04% (CV), and accuracy was between 99.2% and 100.9% over 2.0 ng microL(-1). The limit of detection was 0.002 ng microL(-1). The method was also validated for sample stability during reaction, robustness and selectivity. The method was applied for purity testing of betahistine in tablet form.

  3. The Impact of Perceived College Students and Psychosocial Factors on Missed Class and Work in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jenifer J.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of how missed class and work are influenced by psychosocial factors is important. The authors collected data from 303 college students through self-report questionnaires. Moderation analysis indicated that with higher perceived stress, students were more likely to miss class if they were less satisfied with social support and less…

  4. The Impact of Perceived College Students and Psychosocial Factors on Missed Class and Work in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jenifer J.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of how missed class and work are influenced by psychosocial factors is important. The authors collected data from 303 college students through self-report questionnaires. Moderation analysis indicated that with higher perceived stress, students were more likely to miss class if they were less satisfied with social support and less…

  5. Measuring stress level of dairy cows during milking using by geometric indices of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Kovács

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHeart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV were investigated in cows (n=32, age: 3.86 years, milk production: 35±2.5 kg, DIM: 150±15 milked in a parallel milking parlour. Geometric parameters of HRV (SD1 and SD2 were calculated using Poincare graphs. HRV indices of resting 1 h after midday milking (reference period were compared to those measured during the different phases of the evening milking (driving; in the holding pen; udder preparation; milking; after milking in the milking stall. There was no difference between the reference period and the different phases of milking in animal welfare terms. During the reference period SD2 (198.5 ms was significantly higher (p<0.05 than every other measured period suggesting an increasing parasympathetic tone after milking. This parasympathetic predominance decreased with time of the day (1.5 h after milking. SD2 was significantly affected by parity, by the breeding bull (p<0.01 and by milk production (p<0.05. SD2 was notably higher (102.8 ms in multiparous cows than in primiparous cows (p<0.017; α=0.005 during resting and milking. Results suggested that a conventional milking process is not really stressful for cows. Primiparous cows were more susceptible of milking process than multiparous ones. SD2 is a good marker of vagus activity and affected by several independent factors.

  6. In-situ shear stress indicator using heated strain gages at the flow boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chi-An; Yang, Fuling

    2011-11-01

    This work borrows the concept of hot-wire anemometry and sketch a technique that uses local heat transfer to infer the flow field and the corresponding stress. Conventional strain gages were mounted at the flow solid boundary as the heat source and acrylic boundary was chosen for its low thermal conductivity ensuring heat accumulation when a gage is energized. The gage would now work in slightly overheated state and its self-heating leads to an additional thermal strain. When exposed to a flow field, heat is brought away by local forced convection, resulting in deviations in gage signal from that developed in quiescent liquid. We have developed a facility to achieve synchronous gage measurements at different locations on a solid boundary. Three steady flow motions were considered: circular Couette flow, rectilinear uniform flow, and rectilinear oscillating flow. Preliminary tests show the gage reading does respond to the imposed flow through thermal effects and greater deviation was measured in flows of higher shear strain rates. The correlation between the gage signals and the imposed flow field is further examined by theoretical analysis. We also introduced a second solid boundary to the vicinity of the gage in the two rectilinear flows. The gage readings demonstrate rises in its magnitudes indicating wall amplification effect on the local shear strain, agreeing to the drag augmentation by a second solid boundary reported in many multiphase flow literatures.

  7. The Effect of One-week Glutamine Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Indices in Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Javanamani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background &objectives: Glutamine has antioxidant properties and can be used to treat some diseases. This study was conducted to assess the effect of one-week glutamine supplementation on oxidative stress indices in young healthy men.   Methods: Nineteen active healthy men volunteered for this study. This study was conducted in biochemistry lab of Ardabil branch of Islamic Azad University in Spring 2014. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled method into two groups: Glutamine (n = 9 and placebo group (n = 10. The participants took supplement (0.15 g/kg glutamine + 15g sweetener + 250ml water or placebo (15g sweetener + 250ml water daily for 7 days before main trial.Fasting blood samples were taken before and after supplementation. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC of plasma, reduced glutathione (GHS level of serum, and malondialdehyde (MDA of plasma were measured.   Results: GHS significantly increased after treatment compared with pre-treatment in Glutamine group (p0.05.   Conclusions: These results showed that one-week daily oral supplementation of glutamine has been able to increase GHS probably because of greater glutamine availability .

  8. Fasting-induced changes of immunological and stress indicators in breeding female eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeon, Sophie; Martínez, Javier; Criscuolo, François; Le Maho, Yvon; Raclot, Thierry

    2006-07-01

    One adaptive significance of immunosuppression during reproduction can be explained by the immunopathology-avoidance hypothesis. This hypothesis states that since heat shock proteins (HSP) are highly conserved proteins found in both pathogen and host, and are expressed at a higher level during reproduction, the risk of autoimmunity is then increased, HSP being the target of the host's immune response. Reduced immunocompetence has been attributed to hormonal regulation, in particular by glucocorticoids. The current study aimed at testing the immunopathology-avoidance hypothesis and the implication of corticosterone in incubating fasting common eiders (Somateria mollissima). To this end, we have measured immunological and stress indicators including immunoglobulin (IgY), HSP70, HSP60, and corticosterone levels in breeding females. A multivariate general linear model analysis showed that female body condition, IgY, HSP70, and HSP60 levels were the main variables explaining the model. Females showed a significant decrease by 15% of their IgY index during incubation. Conversely, HSP70 and HSP60 levels significantly increased by 12 and 10%, respectively throughout incubation. Moreover, there was a positive significant relationship between both HSP whereas HSP60 levels were negatively correlated to IgY index. Plasma corticosterone levels showed a tendency to decrease during incubation. We conclude that these findings are consistent with the immunopathology-avoidance hypothesis in breeding eiders. Nevertheless, the long-term reproductive costs and the underlying mechanisms of such an immunosuppression remain to be determined and will require further experiments.

  9. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulay, Anne Marie; Bare, Jane; Camillis, De Camillo; Döll, Petra; Gassert, Francis; Gerten, Dieter; Humbert, Sebastien; Inaba, Atsushi; Itsubo, Norihiro; Lemoine, Yann; Margni, Manuele; Motoshita, Masaharu; Núñez, Montse; Pastor, A.V.; Ridoutt, Brad; Schencker, Urs; Shirakawa, Naoki; Vionnet, Samuel; Worbe, Sebastien; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential

  10. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulay, Anne Marie; Bare, Jane; Camillis, De Camillo; Döll, Petra; Gassert, Francis; Gerten, Dieter; Humbert, Sebastien; Inaba, Atsushi; Itsubo, Norihiro; Lemoine, Yann; Margni, Manuele; Motoshita, Masaharu; Núñez, Montse; Pastor, A.V.; Ridoutt, Brad; Schencker, Urs; Shirakawa, Naoki; Vionnet, Samuel; Worbe, Sebastien; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential deprivatio

  11. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eMatuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  12. Neuro-Epigenetic Indications of Acute Stress Response in Humans: The Case of MicroRNA-29c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Vaisvaser

    Full Text Available Stress research has progressively become more integrative in nature, seeking to unfold crucial relations between the different phenotypic levels of stress manifestations. This study sought to unravel stress-induced variations in expression of human microRNAs sampled in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and further assess their relationship with neuronal and psychological indices. We obtained blood samples from 49 healthy male participants before and three hours after performing a social stress task, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. A seed-based functional connectivity (FC analysis was conducted for the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, a key area of stress regulation. Out of hundreds of microRNAs, a specific increase was identified in microRNA-29c (miR-29c expression, corresponding with both the experience of sustained stress via self-reports, and alterations in vmPFC functional connectivity. Explicitly, miR-29c expression levels corresponded with both increased connectivity of the vmPFC with the anterior insula (aIns, and decreased connectivity of the vmPFC with the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC. Our findings further revealed that miR-29c mediates an indirect path linking enhanced vmPFC-aIns connectivity during stress with subsequent experiences of sustained stress. The correlative patterns of miR-29c expression and vmPFC FC, along with the mediating effects on subjective stress sustainment and the presumed localization of miR-29c in astrocytes, together point to an intriguing assumption; miR-29c may serve as a biomarker in the blood for stress-induced functional neural alterations reflecting regulatory processes. Such a multi-level model may hold the key for future personalized intervention in stress psychopathology.

  13. Intention retrieval and deactivation following an acute psychosocial stressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Walser

    Full Text Available We often form intentions but have to postpone them until the appropriate situation for retrieval and execution has come, an ability also referred to as event-based prospective memory. After intention completion, our cognitive system has to deactivate no-more-relevant intention representations from memory to avoid interference with subsequent tasks. In everyday life, we frequently rely on these abilities also in stressful situations. Surprisingly, little is known about potential stress effects on these functions. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the reliability of event-based prospective memory and of intention deactivation in conditions of acute psychosocial stress. To this aim, eighty-two participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test, a standardized stress protocol, or a standardized control situation. Following this treatment, participants performed a computerized event-based prospective memory task with non-salient and focal prospective memory cues in order to assess prospective memory performance and deactivation of completed intentions. Although the stress group showed elevated levels of salivary cortisol as marker of a stress-related increase in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity throughout the cognitive testing period compared to the no-stress group, prospective memory performance and deactivation of completed intentions did not differ between groups. Findings indicate that cognitive control processes subserving intention retrieval and deactivation after completion may be mostly preserved even under conditions of acute stress.

  14. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, Leena J. [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gaikwad, Sushama M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@unipune.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add

  15. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C.; Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J.

    2013-01-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature u

  16. [Structural analysis for psychosocial factors including health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) associated with lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Ooshita, Y; Tsukahara, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify psychosocial characteristics associated with preventive health behavior for lifestyle-related diseases. The author performed objective health examinations and gave questionnaires to 289 men (39.7 +/- 11.8 years, mean +/- SD) and 80 women (32.8 +/- 10.4 years) engaged in office work. Psychosocial factors included lifestyle and perceived stress, as well as the health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) as newly developed indicators for health behavior. The principal component analysis for men did not extract lifestyle from the psychosocial structures. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC (IHLC), chance HLC (CHLC), professional HLC (PHLC) and stress significantly contributed to SOC. Principal component analysis using psychosocial factors in women showed two psychosocial structures, i.e. the second principal (high SOC, high lifestyle, and low stress) and the 4th principal components (high supernatural HLC, and high PHLC). Both components were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. SOC was recognized to be negatively associated with age, stress, and total cholesterol, and positively with IHLC, FHLC, lifestyle, and gamma-GTP using multiple regression analysis for women. These results indicated a distinguishable sex difference regarding the involvement of psychosocial factors including HLC and SOC in objective health. SOC seems likely to be involved not in objective health, but closely with stress, suggesting a direct influence on mental health. Lifestyle should be divided into more detailed categories such as smoking and salt intake. Structural analysis of women suggests that SOC is involved directly or indirectly through lifestyle in objective health, different from men. To further clarify causal relationships between psychosocial factors and risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases, a longitudinal study is necessary based on these results.

  17. Psychosocial stressors in the lives of great jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalano, F

    1997-02-01

    Brief biographical information on four great jazz tenor saxophone players of the past is presented to illustrate the similar psychosocial stressors these men seemed to experience, namely, severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of their art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style. Ages at death of 80 great jazz musicians may indicate that the stressful life style of jazz musicians may be reflected in a shortened life span, but a control group is needed.

  18. Leaf developmental stability of Platanus acerifolia under urban environmental stress and its implication as an environmental indicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hao; WANG Xiangrong

    2006-01-01

    The developmental stability indices,leaf width based fluctuating asymmetry (FA1),and lateral vein length based directional asymmetry (RDA1) of Platanus acerifolia were studied.All the leaves were sampled from 14 sites that were categorized based on different urban environmental stress levels (UESL) in Shanghai metropolitan,China.Besides,foliar stomatal density and stomatal length were also studied as the subsidiary indices to test the availability of developmental stability indices as the indicator under a stressful environment.Results showed seasonal variation of FA1 and RDA1 existed among the 14 sites,but the data showed significant negative correlation between FA1 and UESL (FA1=0.029-0.000 9UESL+0.000 3UESL2,r=0.766 5,P=0.001 4).However,a similar trend was not found between RDA1 and UESL.Furthermore,the significant correlation among FA1 and leaf stomatal length and stomatal density implied they could be used as indicators of urban stress levels on a small scale.It seemed that RDA1 was possibly a normal parameter during leaf development but it was unavailable for use as an indicator of urban stresses.

  19. Molecular Indicators of Chronic Stress in a Model Pinniped - The Northern Elephant Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    experienced recent acute stress, and chronically stressed animals can offer substantial information relevant to management and conservation of marine...Overview of Experimental Design The proposed work will be conducted in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), a tractable marine mammal system...fall. This life- history stage represents a baseline state in this species with no additional confounding features such as breeding or molting. In

  20. Disease specific stress of tumor patients at the beginning of radiotherapy. Effect on psychosocial support requirement; Krankheitsspezifische Belastungen von Tumorpatienten zu Beginn einer Strahlentherapie. Auswirkungen auf den psychosozialen Betreuungsbedarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlen, S.; Hollenhorst, H.; Schymura, B.; Firsching, M.; Duehmke, E. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Aydemir, U. [Inst. fuer Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Herschbach, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Ger