Wadsby, Marie; Svedin, Carl Goran; Sydsjo, Gunilla
The aim of the present study was to make a 16-year follow-up of children of psychosocial risk mothers as concerns emotional/behavioural problems, self-esteem, life events, and academic grades. Forty-three teenagers (index group) and 61 reference teenagers were personally interviewed and asked to answer the Youth Self-report (YSR), the Self-image…
Wadsby, Marie; Svedin, Carl Goran; Sydsjo, Gunilla
The aim of the present study was to make a 16-year follow-up of children of psychosocial risk mothers as concerns emotional/behavioural problems, self-esteem, life events, and academic grades. Forty-three teenagers (index group) and 61 reference teenagers were personally interviewed and asked to answer the Youth Self-report (YSR), the Self-image…
Can Early Intervention Have an Impact on Future Life? A Study of Life Events, Social Interaction, and Child Behavior among Mothers at Psychosocial Risk and Their Children Eight Years after Interaction Treatment
Forty-six mothers at psychosocial risk who had undergone interaction treatment when their children were babies were studied with respect to experienced negative life events, social network, and behavior problems in children. One reference group comprising 45 nontreated mothers at psychosocial risk and one comprising 56 mothers without psychosocial…
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.
Klein Hesselink, J.; Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.
In this article, we concentrate on explaining job performance from the perspective of psychosocial risks in the work environment. Many risks may hinder good job performance. The article does not concentrate on physical (such as, carrying heavy loads) or environmental risks (such as, extreme heat or
Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…
Singh, A; Singh, S
A study of psychosocial correlates of institutionalized unwed teenage mothers, based on a sample of 44 teenagers at After-care Homes in Amritsar and Jullundur and a control group from Chandigarh, matched for age and occupation. EPI and Mittal's Adjustment Inventory were used and subjects were interviewed regarding their socioeconomic status, family size, home atmosphere, birth order, motivation for sex and number of sex partners. Monthly family income was somewhat lower among the unwed mothers and they came from larger and more frequently from broken homes; they were most often the eldest child. The most common reason for engaging in intercourse was promise of marriage; 59% had sex with only 1 partner. EPI scores for unmarried mothers suggests an antisocial personality; they are also found to be maladjusted with regard to all 4 areas (home, health/emotional, social, and school) covered by the Adjustment Inventory.
Jespersen, Anne Helbo; Hasle, Peter; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft
regulation, and particularly the enforcement in the form of inspection and audits of certified occupational health and safety management systems, face challenges in assessing psychosocial risks and the strategies used by regulators to overcome these challenges. While regulation has become more effective......Psychosocial risks constitute a significant problem in most workplaces, and they are generally considered more difficult to regulate than many other occupational health and safety risks. This article investigates the challenges of regulating psychosocial risks in the workplace. The difficulties lie...... in the particular nature of psychosocial risks: their complexity, uncertainty, value, and power divergences. Psychosocial risks therefore resemble ‘wicked problems’, typically characterized by unclear cause-effect relationships and uncertain solutions. We use the ‘wicked problems’ concept to show how workplace...
Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva
Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8,670 par...
Sterrett, Emma M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Kincaid, Carlye
African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality…
Sterrett, Emma M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Kincaid, Carlye
African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality…
Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H
Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.
Evaluated effects on children in Bosnia and Herzegovina of a 5-month psychosocial intervention program of weekly group meetings for mothers. Found that although all participants were exposed to severe trauma, their distress varied considerably. The intervention program had a positive effect on mothers' mental health, children's weight gain, and…
organizations on how to manage risks. Internal and external audits of compliance with the standard are key elements. Auditors should be competent to carry out the task and be familiar with risks of the areas they are auditing. The competences and practice of internal auditors have been studied...... in two Danish municipalities. The results show that auditors have a varied background and a limited knowledge about psychosocial risks. They have difficulties in carrying out audits and the results are mainly influenced by personal preferences....
María José Rodrigo
Full Text Available This study investigated: a mothers´ use and satisfaction with informal and formal supports in at-risk psychosocial contexts, and b the relationships between satisfaction with help and the mothers´ perception of their role (personal agency. Self-report data about the use and satisfaction with sources of help, and levels of internal control, self-efficacy, couple agreement, role difficulty and motivation for change were obtained from 519 mothers referred by Social Services and 519 non-referred mothers. Results indicated that at-risk mothers relied less upon close informal support and more on formal support than non atrisk mothers. They were also more satisfied with the formal sources of support and had lower levels of personal agency. There were beneficial effects of satisfaction with informal help and school support on several aspects of personal agency for both groups. However, satisfaction with school and social services support had a detrimental effect on couple agreement in the at-risk group. Implications of the results for providing social support to at-risk families are discussed.
Martí, Maria; Bonillo, Albert; Jané, Maria Claustre; Fisher, Elisa M.; Duch, Helena
Research Findings: Supportive mother-child interactions promote the development of social-emotional competence. Poverty and other associated psychosocial risk factors have a negative impact on mother-child interaction. In spite of Latino children being disproportionately represented among children living in poverty, research on mother-child…
Fumiyo, Ishikawa; Sumie, Suzuki; Akiko, Okumiya; Yasuko, Shimizu
This study focuses on the mother-son relationship of 13 mothers caring for single sons between the ages of 15 and 30 years who have higher brain dysfunction due to a traumatic brain injury. We aimed to elucidate the psychosocial adjustment process of mothers for 5 years following the injury to facilitate the social rehabilitation of both mother and son. Data obtained through a semistructured interview method were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. After 56 concepts were identified, 18 categories and then 8 core categories were semantically created. The 8 core categories were (a) avoid contact with son, (b) support son based on mother's own desire, (c) support son alone without external support, (d) realize mother's care limits and seek external support sources, (e) request and utilize external support, (f) support and work toward son's independence while monitoring his interactions with others, (g) mother considers own feelings and reenters society, and (h) strive for continued care of son with mother's acquired energy and efficient management skills. These were grouped into the following five stages: (a) avoidance, (b-c) closed, (d) support seeking, (e-f) withdrawal, and (g-h) reconstruction.
Zulkifli, A; Rogayah, J; Hashim, M H; Shukri, O; Azmi, H
A demographic and obstetric profile of pregnant mothers attending antenatal clinics in kelantan over period of one year was determined by a retrospective study of 10,032 registered pregnant mothers. The prevalence of risk factors related to the age of the mother, parity, weight, haemoglobin level, bad obstetric history and pregnancy related diseases were determined. Prevalence of teenage pregnancy and primigravida accounted for 4.3 and 17.2 percent respectively. Nearly 3.9 percent of the mothers weighed less than 40 kg and 44.5 percent of mothers were found to be anaemic (Hb less than 11g/d) at the first antenatal visit. Only 3.2 percent of the mothers did not have any designated risk factor. Previous bad obstetric history and pregnancy related disease accounted for 17.1 and 3.5 percent of mothers respectively.
Sep 9, 2007 ... from sickle cell disease (SCD) in Nigeria has been inadequate. ... Subjects: One hundred mothers of SCD affected children (SCD children) were the study .... including the application of Children Behaviour ... "using illness to manipulate to get wants". ... age (SCD=40.250:5.929 vs Asthma = 37.571 :7.013.
Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.
The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…
Helbo Jespersen, Anne; Hasle, Peter; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft
regulation, and particularly the enforcement in the form of inspection and audits of certified occupational health and safety management systems, face challenges in assessing psychosocial risks and the strategies used by regulators to overcome these challenges. While regulation has become more effective......Psychosocial risks constitute a significant problem in most workplaces, and they are generally considered more difficult to regulate than many other occupational health and safety risks. This article investigates the challenges of regulating psychosocial risks in the workplace. The difficulties lie...... in the particular nature of psychosocial risks: their complexity, uncertainty, value, and power divergences. Psychosocial risks therefore resemble ‘wicked problems’, typically characterized by unclear cause-effect relationships and uncertain solutions. We use the ‘wicked problems’ concept to show how workplace...
Sophie L. Cammidge
Full Text Available Advances in the treatment and life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF patients mean that motherhood is now a realistic option for many women with CF. This qualitative study explored the psychosocial impact and adjustments made when women with CF become mothers. Women with CF (n=11 were recruited via an online forum and participated in semistructured telephone interviews about their experiences of becoming a mother. Transcriptions were analysed using Grounded Theory. Analysis revealed three core categories: (i “Living with CF”: how becoming a mother impacted on health and treatment adherence, requiring a change in support from the CF team, (ii “Becoming a Mother”: balancing issues common to new mothers with their CF, and (iii “Pooling Personal Resources”: coping strategies in managing the dual demands of child and CF care. Participants experienced a variety of complex psychosocial processes. Most participants acknowledged an initial negative impact on CF care; however over time they reported successful adaptation to managing dual commitments and that adherence and motivation to stay well had improved. This study highlights the need for preconceptual psychosocial counselling and postpartum adjustment to CF care.
Full Text Available Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude questionnaire. Results. Psychological factors (emotions, unresolved grief, communication, and negative judgments about suicide complicate the nurse's assessment and treatment of suicidal patients. Some nurses (=122 indicated that euthanasia was never justified and 11 were unsure of justifications and evaluated each case on its merits. Justifications for euthanasia included poor symptom control, poor quality of life, incurable illness or permanent disability, terminal illness, and terminal illness with inadequate symptom control or impending death, patient autonomy, and clinical organ death. The nurses indicated some confusion and misconceptions about definitions and examples of euthanasia, assisted suicide, and double effect. Strategies for interdisciplinary clinical intervention are suggested to identify and resolve these psychosocial barriers.
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A
Mexican-origin adolescent mothers are at increased risk for poor psychosocial functioning as a result of various stressors with which they must contend; however, existing theory suggests that cultural strengths may help mitigate the negative effects of stress. As such, the current study examined the associations between cultural and economic stressors and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 207; M age = 16.23 years, SD = 1.0) internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the degree to which ethnic identity affirmation and familism values moderated these links. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of discrimination, acculturative stress, and economic stress also reported higher depressive symptoms and greater involvement in risky behaviors. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation minimized the negative associations between cultural stressors and adolescents' involvement in risky behaviors, with the associations being weakest among adolescents with high levels of ethnic identity. Familism appeared to serve a protective function under conditions of low levels of discrimination, but not under conditions of high levels of discrimination. Findings are discussed with special attention to the developmental and cultural contexts in which these adolescent mothers' lives are embedded, and implications for future research and practice are presented.
Kiely, M; Gantz, M G; El-Khorazaty, M N; El-Mohandes, A A E
Screening for psychosocial and behavioural risks, such as depression, intimate partner violence, and smoking, during pregnancy is considered to be state of the art in prenatal care. This prospective longitudinal analysis examines the added benefit of repeated screening, compared with a single screening, in identifying such risks during pregnancy. Data were collected as part of a randomised controlled trial to address intimate partner violence, depression, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in African American women. Prenatal care sites in the District of Columbia serving mainly women of minority background. A cohort of 1044 African American pregnant women in the District of Columbia. Mothers were classified by their initial response (acknowledgement of risks), and these data were updated during pregnancy. Risks were considered new if they were not previously reported. Standard hypothesis tests and logistic regression were used to predict the acknowledgment of any new risk(s) during pregnancy. New risks: psychosocial variables to understand what factors might help identify the acknowledgement of additional risk(s). Repeated screening identified more mothers acknowledging risk over time. Reported smoking increased by 11%, environmental tobacco smoke exposure increased by 19%, intimate partner violence increased by 9%, and depression increased by 20%. The psychosocial variables collected at the baseline that were entered into the logistic regression model included relationship status, education, Medicaid, illicit drug use, and alcohol use during pregnancy. Among these, only education less than high school was associated with the acknowledgement of new risk in the bivariate analyses, and significantly predicted the identification of new risks (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.90). It is difficult to predict early on who will acknowledge new risks over the course of pregnancy, and thus all women should be screened repeatedly to allow for the identification of risks
Copeland, Debra Beach; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee
This study compared the psychosocial factors, self-esteem, sense of mastery, life stress, and social support among first-time married and single mothers in early parenthood. A cross-sectional comparative design was used to study secondary data. A convenience sample of 80 first-time mothers completed self-report instruments on self-esteem, sense of mastery, social, and life stress at 6-8 weeks after birth. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and ANOVA. A statistically significant difference was found between married and single mothers on self esteem (F = 9.314, df = 1, p = .003) and sense of mastery (F = 4.919, df = 1, p = .030). There were no statistical differences found between married and single mothers on social support and life stress. Findings support Belsky's (1984) theoretical assertion that personal psychological resources are most indicative of successful parenting. Further, interventions directed toward enhancing single mothers' sense of mastery and self-esteem may be needed to facilitate maternal role transition.
De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola
Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.
Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Brilman, EI; van den Berg, MD
Background: Research on the aetiology of late-life depression has typically focused on either risk factors from the psychosocial stress-vulnerability domain or degenerative biological changes (for instance, vascular disease). We examined whether vascular risk factors could be interpreted within the
Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva
the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants......The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... on average gained 2 kg of weight and 8% became obese during follow-up. The experience of major life events in childhood, work life and adult life was associated with weight gain and obesity in women, but not in men. Vital exhaustion was associated with weight gain in a dose-response manner in men (P = 0...
Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; Soler Sánchez, María I; García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Sáez Navarro, M C; Sánchez Meca, Julio
This work analyses the way in which various psychosocial risk indicators may predict mobbing. A sample of 638 workers, 168 men and 470 women, from the fruit-and-vegetable sector was evaluated. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to all employees who were present on the evaluation days in the companies comprising the study. After analysing the data obtained with the mobbing questionnaire NAQ-RE (Sáez, García-Izquierdo, and Llor, 2003) and with the psychosocial risk factors evaluation method of the INSHT (Martín and Pérez, 1997), using canonical regression, we found that several psychosocial factors such as role definition, mental workload, interest in the workers, and supervision / participation predict two types of mobbing: personal mobbing and work-performance-related mobbing.
Chester, Charlene; Jones, Deborah J.; Zalot, Alecia; Sterrett, Emma
This study examined the relative roles of parents and peers in the psychosocial adjustment of African American youth (7-15 years old) from single mother homes (N = 242). Main effects of both positive parenting and peer relationship quality were found for youth depressive symptoms. In addition, a main effect of peer relationship quality and an…
Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Widerszal-Bazyl, M.; Zolnierczyk-Zreda, D.; Zwetsloot, G.
The nature of work has changed dramatically due to globalisation, migration, technological advances and the emergence of the knowledge-based economy. These changes have been accompanied by the increased prevalence of new and emerging types of risk to workers' health and safety, such as psychosocial
The reality of psychosocial risks concerns all companies, all sectors and all professions, including freelancers and farmers. Employees, public sector workers, supervisors, managers, directors, no profile is spared from these new forms of suffering at work. The situation is especially worrying as the reality of this occupational health issue is almost certainly under-estimated.
Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Widerszal-Bazyl, M.; Zolnierczyk-Zreda, D.; Zwetsloot, G.
The nature of work has changed dramatically due to globalisation, migration, technological advances and the emergence of the knowledge-based economy. These changes have been accompanied by the increased prevalence of new and emerging types of risk to workers' health and safety, such as psychosocial
Houtman, I.; Douwes, M.; Jong, T. de; Meeuwsen, J.M.; Jongen, M.; Brekelmans, F.; Nieboer-Op de Weegh, M.; Brouwer, D.; Bossche, S. van dern; Zwetsloot, G.; Reinert, D.; Neitzer, I.; Hauke, A.; Flaspöler, E.; Zieschang, H.; Kolk, A.; Nies, E.; Brüggemann-Prieshoff, H.; Roman, D.; Karpowicz, J.; Perista, H.; Cabrita, J.; Corral, A.
The aim of the report was to get a better understanding of the implications and interactions of the physical and psychosocial risks related to work and the workplace in order to identify whether legislative actions should be considered, and, if so, in which specific areas and/or for which specific
Simona eDe Falco
Full Text Available Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.
Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez
Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Methods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed database indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced during adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interventions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.
Full Text Available The study presents the interim results of research carried out on drug-dependent pregnant women and mothers. The aim of the study is to identify individual and social characteristics which, in combination, enable individuals to cope with life stress. The authors highlight several important risks and protective factors which are effective across multiple influence domains. Negative effects revealed by the study include dysfunctional key interpersonal relationships, unstable partnerships and family environment, housing problems and emotional disorders.
Heuvel, S. van den
It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption
Full Text Available This paper is aimed to explore the possible relationship between workers' lack of time management and several psychosocial risks. The psychosocial risks were assessed by means of the ISTAS21 Questionnaire, the Spanish version of the CoPsoQ (Copenhagen Psychological Questionnaire. More specifically, nine dimensions, which are directly related with time management, satisfaction, health and stress, were selected for evaluation. Time management was measured through the following variables: quantitative demands, influences and control of the time. Drawing on a sample of 142 workers from four departments (development, implantation, support and administration, the research results show that the employees who belong to a department that offers few opportunities for individual time management are less satisfied, have worse general and mental health, and experience more behavioral, symptomatic and cognitive stress than those who can manage their work schedule.
metabolomic profiling of women with and without post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to derive a signature of chronic stress and then apply that metabolomic...noted that phobic anxiety and social isolation were suggestively associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer (hazard ratios of 1.14 and 1.24...TERMS ovarian cancer, psychosocial stress, depression, anxiety , social support, metabolomics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF
Lee, Ju Young; Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi
Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in middle school students and to identify associated psychosocial risk factors and depression. Methods This study was part of a larger epidemiological study on childhood psychiatric disorders conducted in Osan, a city of Republic of Korea. We used IAS for internet addiction, K-YSR for subjects' emotional and behavioral problems and K-CDI for depressive symptoms. We used the data of n=1217 completed cases. We p...
Milena Nunes Alves de Sousa
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks at informal work in the mining sector of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, from miners' perspective. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted with 371 informal mining workers. They responded two questionnaires for assessing work performed in three dimensions: ergonomic factors; psychosocial factors; and occupational risks. The scores of the items of each dimension were added so that, the higher the score, the lower workers' satisfaction related to the area investigated. The results indicated that noise was common in the working environment (66%. Most workers (54.7% pointed out that the work was too hard and that it required attention and reasoning (85.7%. The workers emphasized the lack of training for working in mining (59.3% and few of them regarded the maintenance of the workplace as a component to prevent lumbago (32.3%. Risk of accidents was pointed out as the factor that needed increased attention in daily work (56.6%. All occupational risks were mentioned, including physical and chemical risks. There was significant correlation between age and occupational risks, indicating that the greater the age, the greater the perception of harmful agents (ρ = -0.23; p < 0.01. In the end, it was observed that, to a greater or lesser degree, all workers perceived ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks in informal mining. Length of service and age were the features that interfered significantly with the understanding of those factors and occupational risks.
Elisa Ansoleaga M
Full Text Available There is growing evidence on the association between exposure to psychosocial risk at work and adverse health outcomes. Objective: to describe and analyze the presence of psychosocial risks at work and mental health symptoms in non-clinical workers from a public hospital. Methods: a crosssectional study was conducted at a public hospital in Santiago (Chile. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to assess exposure to psychosocial risks (demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models. The outcome variables were depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and psychotropic drug consumption. The analysis was descriptive and associative (Fisher’s exact test Results: 47% of the workers showed high psychological demands, 46% low autonomy, 61% low social support and 75% imbalance between effort expended and rewards received. The prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms in the total sample was 10% and 30% respectively, while 25% reported having used psychotropic drugs. The consumption of psychotropic drugs was significantly higher (p < 0.05 among those with low social support and effort-reward imbalance. Discussion: the consumption of psychotropic drugs was associated with low social support and imbalance between efforts expended and rewards received. This might have implications in the workers’ health and performance; therefore, further research is required, particularly on this kind of population, to understand this relationship and thus develop prevention programs in this regard.
Knoph Berg, Cecilie; Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Torgersen, Leila; Hamer, Robert; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy, including factors associated with continuation, incidence and remission. A total of 41 157 women completed questionnaires at approximately gestation week 18, including items on eating disorders and psychosocial characteristics as a part of Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Incident bulimia nervosa during the first trimester was significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression and low self-esteem and life satisfaction, whereas remission was significantly associated with higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. Continuation was not significantly related to any of the psychosocial variables tested. Onset of bulimia nervosa during pregnancy is associated with mood and anxiety symptoms. Remission of bulimic symptoms and new onset of bulimia nervosa are associated with opposite profiles of self-esteem, and life satisfaction measures.
Spyridou, Andria; Schauer, Maggie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina
High levels of stress due to diverse psychosocial factors have a direct impact on the mothers' wellbeing during pregnancy and both direct and indirect effects on the fetus. In most cases, psychosocial risk factors present during pregnancy will not disappear after delivery and might influence the parent-child relationship, affecting the healthy development of the offspring in the long term. We introduce a short innovative prenatal assessment to detect psychosocial risk factors through an easy to use instrument for obstetrical medical staff in the daily clinical practice, the KINDEX Spanish Version. In the present study midwives and gynecologists interviewed one hundred nineteen pregnant women in a public health center using the KINDEX Spanish Version. Sixty-seven women were then randomly selected to participate in an extended standardized validation interview conducted by a clinical psychologist using established questionnaires to assesses current stress (ESI, PSS-14), symptoms of psychopathology (HSCL-25, PDS) and traumatic experiences (PDS, CFV). Ethical approval was granted and informed consent was required for participation in this study. The KINDEX sum score, as assessed by medical staff, correlated significantly with stress, psychopathology and trauma as measured during the clinical expert interview. The KINDEX shows strong concurrent validity. Its use by medical staff in daily clinical practice is feasible for public health contexts. Certain items in the KINDEX are related to the respective scales assessing the same risks (e.g.PSS-4 as the shorter version of the PSS-14 and items from the ESI) used in the validation interview. The KINDEX Spanish Version is a valid tool in the hands of medical staff to identify women with multiple psychosocial risk factors in public health settings. The KINDEX Spanish Version could serve as a base-instrument for the referral of at-risk women to appropriate psychosocial intervention. Such early interventions could prove pivotal
Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise
, menopausal status and life style factors. Results: We found major life events in adult life (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.36) and major life events at work (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.38 to 5.50), lacking a confidant (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.53) and dissatisfaction with social network (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and....../or dysfunctional social networks is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women, and stress reactions such as vital exhaustion and intake of sleep medications may play a more important role in the development of metabolic syndrome men....
Restrepo, Paula Andrea
Full Text Available In Colombia, there are few studies on the association of psychosocial and environmental factors with the most prevalent mental disorders; such studies are important due to the context of violence, social insecurity, and job and economic instability in the country. The objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial and environmental risk factors for mental disorders, in users of psychological services in Colombia. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a Questionnaire to evaluate the Axis-IV of the DSM-IV-TR were applied to 490 participants. The analysis comprised descriptive statistics and risk factors. As risk factors for depression, there were identified housing problems, access to health care services, problems related to the primary group, economics, problems of the social environment, and labor. For generalized anxiety, there were identified economic and education issues. For panic disorders, the risk factors were related to social environment, and for social phobia, the risk factors were problems in education, work and social environment
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167666.html Preterm Birth Risk Spikes in Mothers With Sleep Disorders Pregnant ... during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth, a new study finds. The California research looked ...
Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Alayon, Silvia; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Frongillo, Edward A; Menon, Purnima
The pathways through which behavior change interventions impact breastfeeding practices have not been well studied. This study aimed to examine: (1) the effects of exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and hypothesized psychosocial determinants (i.e. knowledge, intention, beliefs, social norms, and self-efficacy); and (2) the pathways through which exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling are associated with EBF. We used survey data from mothers with children interpersonal counseling only, both or neither was 51%, 5%, 19% and 25%, respectively. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal counseling had additive effects on EBF as well as on related psychosocial factors, compared with no exposure. For example, EBF prevalence was 26.1 percentage points (pp) higher in the group that received interpersonal counseling only, 3.9 pp higher in the mass media group and 31.8 pp higher in the group that received both interventions. As hypothesized, more than 90% of the total effect of the two interventions on EBF was explained by the psychosocial factors measured. Our findings suggest that combining different behavior change interventions leads to greater changes in psychosocial factors, which in turn positively affects breastfeeding behaviors.
Langenhan, Melissa K; Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya
In times of continuous change and volatile markets, organizations are increasingly characterized by downsizing, work intensification, and resource rationalization. This has resulted in diversification, and the emergence of new risks within the field of occupational health and safety, with an important impact. This paper focuses on one such type of risk in the modern workplace-psychosocial risks. The current study aimed to explore stakeholder perspectives, regarding the extent to which psychosocial risks are incorporated into strategic risk management practices, at both the business and policy level. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 professionals, representing employer, expert, policy maker, and trade union stakeholder perspectives. It was found that the majority of organizations do not sufficiently, if at all, understand and incorporate psychosocial risks into strategic decision making, whereby the key barrier related to practical difficulties of not knowing how to manage psychosocial risks adequately. The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes) and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance.
Vargas-Porras, Carolina; Villamizar-Carvajal, Beatriz; Ardila-Suárez, Edinson Fabian
To determine the factors associated with the risk of negligence in child care during the first year of rearing in adolescent and adult mothers. This was cross-sectional correlation study with a non-probabilistic sample composed of 250 mothers during their first year of child rearing. The information was collected through the Parenting Inventory for Teenagers and Adults. 88 teenager mothers and 162 adult mothers participated in this study. In general low scores were found in all dimensions in both adolescent mothers group and adult mother group, which indicate the existence of deficiencies in the adequate maternal behavior and risk of negligent care to their children. In the group of teenage mothers there was an evident and significant correlation between the factors: maternal age and occupation dimension belief in punishment and occupation with inappropriate expectations dimension. The group of adult mothers showed significant correlation between: educational level with the dimensions of role reversal, belief in punishment and lack of empathy; socioeconomic dimension with the belief in punishment and age of the child with the lack of empathy dimension. Child rearing expectations of mothers show a high risk of negligence in child care. Therefore, nurses should promote the strengthening of the maternal role. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Krans, Elizabeth E; Davis, Matthew M; Palladino, Christie L
To evaluate patterns of prenatal care utilization stratified by medical and psychosocial risk. A retrospective cohort of 786 pregnant women who subsequently delivered live births from 1999 to 2003 at the University of Michigan were classified into high medical, high psychosocial, high medical and high psychosocial (dual high risk) and low-risk pregnancies. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses assessed the association between risk and prenatal care utilization using the Kotelchuck Index. Of 786 pregnancies, 202 (25.7%) were high medical risk, 178 (22.7%) were high psychosocial risk, 227 (28.9%) were dual high risk and 179 (22.8%) were low-risk. Over 31% of dual high risk and 25% of high medical risk pregnancies received "adequate plus" prenatal care versus 10% of high psychosocial risk pregnancies. In multivariate analyses, adjusted for risk, race and insurance, high psychosocial risk pregnancies (OR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.06-2.72) were significantly more likely to receive inadequate prenatal care than care of greater intensity. Many high psychosocial risk pregnancies do not receive adequate prenatal care.
Jespersen, Anne Helbo; Hohnen, Pernille; Hasle, Peter
abstract Psychosocial risks are widely recognized as a major challenge at work, a challenge that most organiza- tions find difficult to manage in practice. The OHSAS 18001 standard provides a framework for the man- agement of occupational health and safety risks, including psychosocial risks....... However, such occupational health and safety management (OHSM) systems tend to have difficulties in adequately addressing psychosocial risks at work. A crucial element in the OHSM system is internal audits. We have investigated how two Danish municipalities have transformed the general audit guidelines...... into account. On the basis of our study, we reach two major conclusions: first, that the standard provides little help in auditing the management of psychosocial risks in relation to OHSM systems; and second, that the full potential for management of psychosocial risks cannot be achieved without developing...
Bradbury, Angela R; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa A; Egleston, Brian L; Henry-Moss, Dare; Domchek, Susan M; Daly, Mary B; Tuchman, Lisa; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula K; Shorter, Rebecca; Karpink, Kelsey; Sands, Colleen Burke
To evaluate the impact of breast cancer family history and maternal BRCA1/2 mutation on the psychosocial adjustment and perceived risk in girls age 11 to 19 years old. Girls age 11 to 19 years old with one or more relatives with breast cancer or a familial BRCA1/2 mutation (breast cancer family history [BCFH] positive, n = 208; n = 69 with BRCA1/2-positive mother), peers (BCFH negative, n = 112), and their mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment, breast cancer-specific distress, and perceived risk of breast cancer. General psychosocial adjustment did not differ significantly between BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative girls, either by self-report or mother report, except for higher self-esteem among BCFH-positive girls (P = .01). BCFH-positive girls had higher breast cancer-specific distress than BCFH-negative girls (P < .001), but girls from BRCA1/2-positive families did not differ from other BCFH-positive peers. BCFH-positive girls were more likely to report themselves at increased self-risk for breast cancer in adulthood than BCFH-negative peers (74% v 33%, respectively; P ≤ .001). Girls from BRCA1/2-positive families were more likely than other BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative peers to report themselves at increased risk (P < .001). In all groups, perceived risk of breast cancer was associated with older age. Higher breast cancer-specific distress among adolescent girls was associated with higher self-perceived risk of breast cancer and higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. Adolescent girls from BRCA1/2-positive and breast cancer families have higher self-esteem and do not have poorer psychosocial adjustment than peers. However, they do experience greater breast cancer-specific distress and perceived risk of breast cancer, particularly among older girls. Understanding the impact is important to optimize responses to growing up in families at familial and genetic risk for breast cancer, particularly given the debate over the genetic
Malow, R M; Cassagnol, T; McMahon, R; Jennings, T E; Roatta, V G
This study describes the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among low-income, Haitian women, identifies theoretically relevant mediating psychosocial HIV risk predictors, and provides formative data for developing culturally and gender sensitive interventions for this distinctive, high risk, and understudied population. Confidential interview surveys were administered to 101 women of Haitian descent while they awaited their medical appointments at a local low-income, community medical clinic. Moderately high levels of sexual risk behavior (i.e., unprotected sex with nonmonogamous partners; multiple lifetime partners) were reported. On average, these women reported a belief in their HIV susceptibility, relatively little HIV-related anxiety, somewhat inadequate levels of communication regarding safer sex practices, and lack of adequate confidence in their ability to negotiate safer behaviors in sexual encounters. Both personal and partner condom attitudes were unfavorable and these attitudes predicted condom use levels. It was concluded that interventions need to be developed for Haitian women to improve their attitudes toward condom use and their confidence in negotiating safer sexual practices. However, these interventions cannot be developed in a vacuum. Although it is crucial to consider the woman's individual attitudes and behaviors, it is also important to consider the male partner's attitudes toward sex and the woman's relationship with her male partner within the context of Haitian culture. Only by determining and targeting important potential motivations for safe sex within the cultural context can we most effectively reduce HIV sex risk behavior in Haitian women.
Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.; Hoogendoorn, L.
Study Design. A systematic review of observational studies. Objectives. To assess whether psychosocial factors at work and in private life are risk factors for the occurrence of back pain. Summary of Background Data. Several reviews on risk factors for back pain have paid attention to psychosocial f
Milczarek, M.; Brun, E.; Houtman, I.; Goudswaard, A.; Evers, M.; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Roskams, N.; Op de Beeck, R.; Pahkin, K.; Berthet, M.; Morvan, E.; Kuhn, K.; Kaluza, K.; Hupke, M.; Hauke, A.; Reinert, D.; Widerszal-Bazyl, M.; Perez, J.; Oncins de Frutos, M.
This report is in cooperation with TNO Work and Employment and the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. The expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks was carried out by means of the Delphi method. The main emerging psychosocial risks revealed were related to new forms of employment
Johanna M. Mathibe-Neke
Full Text Available Background: The physiological and psychological changes caused by pregnancy may increase a woman’s vulnerability to depression, which may in turn have adverse effects on both maternal and foetal wellbeing. Inadequate psychosocial risk assessment of women by midwives may lead to lack of psychosocial support during pregnancy and childbirth. Pregnant women who lack psychosocial support may experience stress, anxiety and depression that could possibly affect foetal wellbeing. Objective:The objective of this study was toexplore and describe the perception of psychosocial risk assessment and psychosocial care by midwives providing antenatal care to pregnant women. Method: An interpretive and descriptive qualitative approach was adopted. Three focus group interviews were conducted with midwives working in three Maternal Obstetric Units in Gauteng Province, using a semi-structured interview guide. The constant comparison data analysis approach was used. Results:Findings revealed that midwives are aware of and have encountered a high prevalence of psychosocial problems in pregnant women. Furthermore, they acknowledged the importance of psychosocial care for pregnant women although they stated that they were not equipped adequately to offer psychosocial assessment and psychosocial care. Conclusion:The findings provided a basis for incorporation of psychosocial care into routine antenatal care.
Goossens, Gwendoline; Kadji, Caroline; Delvenne, Veronique
Teen pregnancy remains a public health problem of varying importance in developing and developed countries. There are risks and consequences for teen parents and the child on the medical and socioeconomic level. We conducted a literature search on multiple databases, focusing on the risk and the consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing. We used different combined keywords as teen pregnancy, teen mother, teenage parents, teenage childbearing, teenage mother depression. Our search included different type of journals to have access on different views (medical, psychological, epidemiologic). The teen mothers are more at risk for postnatal depression, school dropout and bad socioeconomic status. The babies and children are more at risk for prematurity and low birthweight and later for developmental delays and behavior disorders. Pregnancy in adolescence should be supported in an interdisciplinary way (gynecologist, psychologist, child psychiatrist, midwives, pediatrician). We need further studies that allow targeting patients most at risk and personalizing maximum support.
In recent years, major changes have occurred in Italian working conditions and employment patterns due to several concurrent factors: increasing occupation in the tertiary sector, implementation of new technologies, labour market globalization, higher variability of working time arrangements, decrease of traditional physical-chemical risks, ageing of general/working population, access to work of people with disabilities, growing immigration of extra-community workers. Thus, psychosocial risk factors are becoming crucial issues of the present work organization, dealing with job content (complexity, meaning, uncertainties), mental work load, time pressure, variable working hours; career perspectives, role conflicts and ambiguity, education and training, personal relations, social support, work/family conflicts; age and cultural discrimination. The Occupational Health Physician has to deal with these multidimensional and multifaceted aspects of work stress by different and concurrent approaches, at both group and individual levels, with epidemiological and clinical perspectives, enacting preventive and therapeutic strategies. Both "external" work load and individual "responses" have to be properly considered and risk has to be assessed with "relative" rather than "absolute" criteria, addressed not only at fitness to work, but also to corrective actions. Hence, the OHP has to act in closer collaboration with work psychologists, sociologists, human resources managers and work organisation experts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of international research reveals that single mothers experience poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with socioeconomic disadvantage identified as an important contributory factor in understanding this health disparity. Much less research, however, has focused specifically on the psychological well-being of single mothers who are employed, despite their growing presence in the labor force. Of the research which has considered employment, the focus has been on employment status per se rather than on other important work-related factors which may impact psychological health, such as psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict. The aim of this study was to: (1 compare employed single mothers and employed partnered mothers on measures of psychological distress, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict; and (2 explore the potential role of work-family conflict and psychosocial work quality as explanations for any observed differences in psychological distress based on partner status. Method Analysis of data obtained from a cross-sectional telephone survey of employed parents in a mid-sized Western Canadian city. Analyses were based on 674 employed mothers (438 partnered and 236 single, who were 25-50 years old, with at least one child in the household. Results Compared to employed single mothers, employed partnered mothers were older, had more education and reported fewer hours of paid work. Single mothers reported higher levels of psychological distress, financial hardship, work-family conflict and poor psychosocial work quality. Statistical adjustment for income adequacy, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict each independently resulted in single motherhood no longer being associated with psychological distress. Conclusions While single employed mothers did experience higher levels of psychological distress than their partnered counterparts, differences between these
Affleck, Glenn; And Others
Mothers (N=67) with newborns who required intensive care were followed up six months after hospital discharge. Mothers' appraisals of risk and prevention were related to mood disturbance and attitudes toward future childbearing. The most important predictor of mothers' expectations of future pregnancies was whether the child was first born.…
Joesch, J M; Smith, K R
The purpose of this study is to determine how children's health conditions are related to their mothers' risk of divorce or separation. The study is based on data from over 7,000 children born to once-married mothers identified in the 1988 Child Health Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey. The effects of 15 childhood health conditions on the mothers' risk of divorce are estimated with Cox's proportional hazard models. Controlling for demographic, marital, and reproductive measures, we find that mothers' prospects for divorce are affected both positively or negatively by their children's health status, depending on the type of childhood condition and, in the case of low birth weight children, timing within the marriage. Women whose children have congenital heart disease, cerebral palsy, are blind, or had low birth weight appear to have higher risks of marital disruption than mothers of healthy children. In contrast, mothers whose children have migraines, learning disabilities, respiratory allergies, missing/deformed digits or limbs, or asthma have somewhat lower rates of divorce.
Walker, Lorraine O; Xie, Bo; Hendrickson, Sherry G; Sterling, Bobbie S
To test the association of behavioral and psychosocial health domains with contextual variables and perceived health in ethnically and economically diverse postpartum women. Mail survey of a stratified random sample. Southwestern community in Texas. Non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic women (N = 168). A questionnaire was sent to a sample of 600 women. The adjusted response rate was 32.8%. The questionnaire covered behavioral (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use) and psychosocial (depression symptoms and body image) health, contextual variables (race/ethnicity, income, perceived stress, and social support), and perceived health. Hypotheses were tested using linear and logistic regression. Body image, dietary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and depression symptoms were all significantly correlated (Spearman ρ = -.15 to .47). Higher income was associated with increased odds of higher alcohol use (more than 1 drink on 1 to 4 days in a 14-day period). African American ethnicity was correlated with less healthy dietary behaviors and Hispanic ethnicity with less physical activity. In multivariable regressions, perceived stress was associated with less healthy dietary behaviors, increased odds of depression, and decreased odds of higher alcohol use, whereas social support was associated with less body image dissatisfaction, more physical activity, and decreased odds of depression. All behavioral and psychosocial domains were significantly correlated with perceived health, with higher alcohol use related to more favorable perceived health. In regressions analyses, perceived stress was a significant contextual predictor of perceived health. Stress and social support had more consistent relationships to behavioral and psychosocial variables than race/ethnicity and income level. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The mental shock of parents who have had a baby with congenital malformation cannot be overstressed. In this paper, we report a 29-year-old mother who has a new-born baby with Apert syndrome to show her psychosocial acceptance after the diagnosis by using "baby memorandum" (memo that is used in our neonatal unit for communication between mothers and nurses). The mother wrote her honest and frank feelings on these memo pages for two months after delivery. Thus, the memo was useful to understan...
Remus, Furtună; Angela, Domnariu; Petru, Lazăr
The human activity concerning an occupation is resultant from the interaction between the psycho-biological, socio-cultural and organizational-occupational factors. Tehnological development, automation and computerization that are to be found in all the branches of activity, the level of speed in which things develop, as well as reaching their complexity, require less and less physical aptitudes and more cognitive qualifications. The person included in the work process is bound in most of the cases to come in line with the organizational-occupational situations that are specific to the demands of the job. The role of the programmer is essencial in the process of execution of ordered softwares, thus the truly brilliant ideas can only come from well-rested minds, concentrated on their tasks. The actual requirements of the jobs, besides the high number of benefits and opportunities, also create a series of psycho-social risks, which can increase the level of stress during work activity, especially for those who work under pressure.
Baor, Liora; Blickstein, Isaac
Infertility is invariably described as a crisis event. Couples who encounter infertility are further challenged with the accompanied sense of profound losses: loss of health, sexuality, status and prestige, relationship, self-confidence, self-esteem, security, and the fantasy for biological parenthood. Fertility treatments (ART) create hope and cure for the problem on one hand, but place a tremendous burden on the couple's resources on the other. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), carry potential risks for both the infant and for the mother, in addition to diverse negative psychosocial consequences for the couple. However, it seems that couples either ignore these risks or are unaware of them, and therefore, wish to accomplish the "instant family" (more than one child) via a shortcut (one pregnancy). Although it is impossible to ignore the numerous children born with the aid of ART, it is crucial that professionals inform the couple about the medical as well as the psychological consequences that accompany fertility treatments, to enable couples to make more realistic decisions.
Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J
This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
C.; Sharp; Fonagy, P.; Goodyer, I. M.
One class of parent-child interaction that has recently received attention is maternal engagement with her child at a mental level. The current study operationalises this notion by asking the mothers of 354 7-11 year old children drawn from a larger community sample (n=659) to guess the responses of their children, who in turn, were asked to attribute thoughts to their peers in distressing peer-related scenarios. The following predictions were made: (1) mothers would be above chance in the ac...
Jespersen, Anne Helbo; Hohnen, Pernille; Hasle, Peter
, such occupational health and safety management (OHSM) systems tend to have difficulties in adequately addressing psychosocial risks at work. A crucial element in the OHSM system is internal audits. We have investigated how two Danish municipalities have transformed the general audit guidelines into internal audit...... practices capable of targeting the psychosocial risks. The results show that the municipalities experienced difficulties in transforming the general audit guidelines into practical models, and we found that this led to significant variations in audit practices. The explanation for these difficulties can...... be found both in the nature of the psychosocial risks and in implementation constraints. Compared to traditional safety audits, auditing psychosocial risks appears to require different methods and auditor competencies, a factor that the OHSAS 18001 standard does not explicitly take into account...
Montag, Annika C
Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children.
Montag, Annika C
Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. PMID:27499649
Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Acker, Deborah; Webb, Tina; Brenzel, Allen; Lorenz, Douglas J; Young, Audrey; Thompson, Richard
This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article "History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse" (Pierce et al., 2017) .
Raveis, Victoria H.; Pretter, Sheindy; Carrero, Monique
The occurrence of cancer is an event of significant importance to family functioning. The present analysis reports on an understudied group profoundly affected by this health event: older mothers caring for an adult child with cancer. As part of a study of breast cancer survivors and their family caregivers, a subsample (N = 13) of older…
Driscoll, Joan Riley; Easterbrooks, M. Ann
There is no one style of parenting which characterizes young mothers as a group. In addition, life circumstances play an important role in shaping maternal behaviour. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of maternal play behaviour and contextual (social and personal) factors associated with these different patterns. In this study, 107…
Chlebowski, Susan M
The child whose mother is diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is at risk for developing this disorder. The mother with BPD may be limited in her ability to negotiate a secure attachment with her baby. Mothers with BPD may have difficulties with bonding, internalization, affect attunement, and attachment. Because it is through mirroring and mentalization that a child can learn emotional regulation and master the early stages of development, the child may fail to develop object constancy and master the tasks of separation and individuation. The authors present two cases of patients with BPD. The first case is of a patient with BPD who, after surrendering custody of her two children to their father, participated in weekly Dynamic Deconstructive Psychotherapy sessions for two years. The second case is a mother with BPD who presents for dyadic therapy with her three-month-old daughter. In each case the mother developed insight regarding her relationship with her mother and how that relationship affected the relationship with her own child. The author concludes that psychiatry should consider prepartum screening for BPD and if necessary, early dyadic intervention.
Ji, Juye; Brooks, Devon; Barth, Richard P; Kim, Hansung
Adopted children often are exposed to preadoptive stressors--such as prenatal substance exposure, child maltreatment, and out-of-home placements--that increase their risks for psychosocial maladjustment. Psychosocial adjustment of adopted children emerges as the product of pre- and postadoptive factors. This study builds on previous research, which fails to simultaneously assess the influences of pre- and postadoptive factors, by examining the impact of adoptive family sense of coherence on adoptee's psychosocial adjustment beyond the effects of preadoptive risks. Using a sample of adoptive families (n = 385) taking part in the California Long Range Adoption Study, structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicate a significant impact of family sense of coherence on adoptees' psychosocial adjustment and a considerably less significant role of preadoptive risks. The findings suggest the importance of assessing adoptive family's ability to respond to stress and of helping families to build and maintain their capacity to cope with stress despite the sometimes fractious pressures of adoption.
GOTO, Aya; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Thi Tu Van; Pham, Nghiem Minh; Chung, Thi Mong Thuy; Trinh, Huu Phuc; Yabe, Junko; Sasaki, Hitomi; Yasumura, Seiji
We conducted this cross-sectional study among 392 Japanese and 294 Vietnamese mothers who attended routine child health visits in a Japanese city and at a tertiary hospital in Vietnam, in order to investigate the prevalence and associated sociodemographic, parenting, and psychological characteristics of low maternal confidence in child rearing among them. All data were collected from medical files in Japan, and from medical files and self-administered questionnaires in Vietnam. The proportion...
David, Daryn H; McMahon, Thomas J; Luthar, Suniya L; Suchman, Nancy E
Ego development, the capacity to derive coherent, nuanced meaning from one's life experiences, often has significant impact on psychosocial adjustment during adulthood. Research with nonclinical populations has indicated links between higher ego development and healthy emotional coping and interpersonal relationships. Emerging research with substance-abusing mothers suggests that higher levels of ego development are associated with improved parenting but also with increased rates of psychopathology. Less is known about how ego development is related to other psychosocial factors important for substance-abusing mothers' functioning and capacity to parent, including the proclivity to engage in risky behaviors, adaptive coping behaviors, and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. The present study examines these links. Participants included 182 methadonemaintained women who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a relational parenting intervention for substance-abusing mothers (Luthar, Suchman, & Altomare, 2007). Data were analyzed using a series of MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs controlling for maternal IQ and depression. Mothers with higher levels of ego development reported more adaptive coping techniques and greater readiness to engage in psychotherapy but also reported a heightened desire for strong sensations. Findings are discussed in light of mothers' psychological processes and parenting capacities. The significance of findings for developing parenting interventions for substance-abusing mothers is also discussed.
Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia
The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…
Linkages among family violence, maternal mental health, and parenting attitudes are not clearly understood. To investigate the relationships of abuse (childhood and/or partner), everyday stressors, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anger with abusive parenting attitudes. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in interviews with 53 low-income, single mothers from wave two of a 3-wave study. A conceptual framework and bivariate correlations guided a series of multiple regressions to identify the best predictors for each variable. A high prevalence of abuse, depressive symptoms, and abusive parenting attitudes was found. Few women had ever received mental health treatment. Abuse (partner and childhood physical) predicted higher everyday stressors which in turn predicted lower self-esteem. Childhood abuse and lower self-esteem predicted more depressive symptoms. More depressive symptoms were related to higher levels of state anger. More everyday stressors and more depressive symptoms predicted higher levels of trait anger. Higher levels of anger expression were associated with higher everyday stressors and lower self-esteem. The presence of partner abuse best predicted higher levels of overall abusive parenting attitudes and more parent-child role reversal. Less parental empathy was associated with higher levels of state anger. This study partially explains the relationships of maternal abuse history and mental health status with parenting attitudes. Other predictors of parenting attitudes remain to be identified. The findings underscore the need for healthcare providers to consider the mental health status and abuse histories of low-income, single mothers. The potential disturbance in the parenting process of single mothers in abusive relationships warrants further investigation.
Sellers, Ruth; Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon T; Mahedy, Liam; Potter, Robert; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Ajay; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan
Depression is known to be influenced by psychosocial stressors. For mothers with recurrent depressive illness, the presence of psychopathology in their children may have important effects on their own mental health. Although the impact of maternal depression on child mental health is well-established, no study to date, as far as we are aware, has examined the extent to which offspring psychopathology influences the course of depression in mothers with a history of recurrent depressive illness, what types of child psychopathology impact maternal mental health, or whether risks vary by child gender. Aims were to (a) Use a longitudinal design to examine whether adolescent psychopathology (depression, disruptive behavior disorder; DBD) predicts recurrence of a depressive episode and depression symptom course in women with a history of recurrent depression; and (b) To test if observed effects vary by child gender. 299 mothers with recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring were assessed on 2 occasions, 29 months apart. Maternal depression and offspring psychopathology were assessed using semistructured interview measures. Cross-generational links across time were assessed using structural equation modeling. Analyses were adjusted for past severity of maternal depression. Offspring depression symptoms but not DBD symptoms at baseline predicted future episode recurrence in mothers. Depression symptoms in daughters (β = .16, p = .039) but not sons (β = -.07, p = .461), predicted an increase in maternal depression symptoms across time. Psychopathology in daughters is associated with long-term depressive symptoms in women (mothers) with a history of recurrent depression. Findings highlight the importance of careful assessment and management of mental health problems in adolescents for more effective management of maternal depression. This study suggests that offspring symptoms of depression may be important for the recurrence of maternal depression
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial functioning is poor in patients with pectus excavatum (PE. However, a comprehensive understanding of this issue does not exist. The aim of this study was to assess the severity of psychosocial problems as associated with PE, as well as to identify its risk factors. Methods A comparative study was performed at the Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences/Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital in Chengdu, China. Patients age 6 to 16 who admitted to the outpatient department for the evaluation or treatment for PE were included in the study. In addition to parental reports of child psychosocial problems on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, parents also filled in other structured questionnaires, including socio-demographic variables, patients' medical and psychological characteristics. The severity of malformation was assessed by CT scan. For comparison, an age- and gender- matched control group was recruited from the general population. The socio-demographic and scores on CBCL were compared between patients and control subjects. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to examine risk factors for psychosocial problems in patients. Results No statistically significant differences were found with respect to social-demographic variables between children with PE and control subjects. Compared with control subjects, children with PE displayed higher prevalence of psychosocial problems in the different scales of the CBCL questionnaire such as 'withdraw', 'anxious-depressed', 'social problems' and 'total problems'. Both univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that age, severity of malformation, and being teased about PE were significantly associated with patients' psychosocial problems. Conclusions The information derived from this study supports the opinion that children with PE have more psychosocial problems than children from the general population. Multiple medical and psychosocial factors were
Full Text Available Annika C Montag Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology and Teratology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs are a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. Keywords: fetal alcohol-spectrum disorder (FASD, alcohol, pregnancy, screening, biomarkers, SBIRT
Motlagh, Maria G; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Lin, Haiqun; Kim, Young-Shin; Scahill, Lawrence; Lombroso, Paul J; King, Robert A; Peterson, Bradley S; Leckman, James F
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently diagnosed in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). The basis for this co-occurrence is uncertain. This study aimed to determine if specific pre- and perinatal risk factors, including heavy maternal smoking and severe psychosocial stress during pregnancy, were associated with one or both disorders, or neither. We compared maternal report data on pre- and perinatal risk factors on 222 children between the ages of 7 and 18 years including 45 individuals with TS alone, 52 individuals with ADHD alone, 60 individuals with condition of comorbid TS + ADHD, and 65 unaffected control children. Pre- and perinatal histories as well as psychiatric assessments were performed using standardized questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with the mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio for each variable of interest. Compared to the mothers of unaffected control children, the mothers of children with ADHD alone reported higher rates of heavy smoking (>10 cigarettes per day) during pregnancy and higher levels of severe psychosocial stress during pregnancy (OR = 13.5, p high levels of psychosocial stress compared to the control children, but these differences failed to reach statistical significance (heavy smoking: OR = 8.5, p pregnancy were independently associated with a diagnosis of ADHD. TS patients also had higher rates of these risk factors, but the ORs failed to reach statistical significance. Efforts are needed to reduce the frequency of these risk factors in high-risk populations. Future studies, using genetically sensitive designs, are also needed to sort out the causal pathways.
Winther Frederiksen, Thomas; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of occupational noise (current and cumulative doses) and psychosocial work factors (psychological demands and decision latitude) on tinnitus occurrence among workers, using objective and non-self-reported exposure measures to prevent...... protection) are not associated with tinnitus. Also, results indicated that the psychosocial working conditions we observed in this cohort of mainly industrial workers were not associated with tinnitus. Therefore, psychosocial working conditions comparable to those observed in this study are probably...... reporting bias. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from a Danish survey from 2009 to 2010 that included 534 workers from children day care units and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between risk factors (current noise exposure, cumulative noise exposure and psychosocial working...
Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate
Research has documented that adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking, but less attention has examined why this risk exists. The current paper reviews the literature on different psychosocial mechanisms [self-medication hypothesis, social factors (social modeling,…
Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate
Research has documented that adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking, but less attention has examined why this risk exists. The current paper reviews the literature on different psychosocial mechanisms [self-medication hypothesis, social factors (social modeling,…
Søndergaard, Charlotte; Olsen, J.; Friis-Hasché, Erik;
AIM: To examine the association between psychosocial exposures during pregnancy and the risk of infantile colic. METHODS: The study included 378 infants and was conducted as a substudy of the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1997 to 1999, with prenatal data collected twice during pregnancy. A di....... Whether or not this relationship is causal requires further investigations.......AIM: To examine the association between psychosocial exposures during pregnancy and the risk of infantile colic. METHODS: The study included 378 infants and was conducted as a substudy of the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1997 to 1999, with prenatal data collected twice during pregnancy...
Jesse, D Elizabeth; Reed, Pamela G
To determine the relationships of spirituality and psychosocial well-being to health risk behaviors in pregnant Appalachian women. Descriptive study of 120 women between 16 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The instruments used were the Spiritual Perspective Scale and religiosity items from the Jarel Well-Being Scale. Psychosocial well-being was measured by the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile. Four items measured health risk behaviors. Higher levels of spirituality (spiritual perspective and religiosity) were significantly correlated with greater satisfaction with social support, higher levels of self-esteem, and decreased levels of smoking. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and spiritual variables explained 25% of the variance in frequency of smoking, and in the logistic regression analysis, psychosocial stress was the only variable that significantly predicted substance use. Higher levels of spirituality and lower levels of stress are associated with decreased health risk behaviors among pregnant women from Appalachia. Increasing spiritual resources and decreasing stress during pregnancy offer the potential to improve health promotion efforts in pregnancy with women from Appalachia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies involving child/adolescent mental health problems are scarce in developing countries, particularly in regions characterized by adverse living conditions. We examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the trajectory of child/adolescent mental health problems (CAMHP over time. Methods A population-based sample of 6- to 13-year-olds with CAMHP was followed-up from 2002–2003 (Time 1/T1 to 2007–2008 (Time 2/T2, with 86 out of 124 eligible children/adolescents at T1 being reassessed at T2 (sample loss: 30.6%. Outcome: CAMHP at T2 according to the Child Behavior Checklist/CBCL’s total problem scale. Psychosocial factors: T1 variables (child/adolescent’s age, family socioeconomic status; trajectory of variables from T1 to T2 (child/adolescent exposure to severe physical punishment, mother exposure to severe physical marital violence, maternal anxiety/depression; and T2 variables (maternal education, child/adolescent’s social support and pro-social activities. Results Multivariate analysis identified two risk factors for child/adolescent MHP at T2: aggravation of child/adolescent physical punishment and aggravation of maternal anxiety/depression. Conclusions The current study shows the importance of considering child/adolescent physical punishment and maternal anxiety/depression in intervention models and mental health care policies.
Wahn, Elisabeth Hertfelt; Nissen, Eva
Among Swedish pregnant teenage girls it is unusual to continue pregnancy and to choose to have a baby. Swedish teenage mothers can therefore be expected to differ from adult mothers, at a group level. The aim of this study was to describe and compare teenage mothers who were giving birth in hospital with adult mothers as to sociodemographic background, perception of health and social support. A descriptive comparative study was conducted over one year, in a county in south-western Sweden, which comprised a group of all teenage mothers aged 15-19, who gave birth at hospital (study group n=97) and the same number of adult mothers aged 25-29, matched for parity and birth of a baby closest to the index mother (reference group). Both groups answered a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, health, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and support. Information on the mothers' pregnancy and delivery was obtained from their maternal health and delivery charts. Teenage mothers had more often been exposed to a difficult family situation, had more often experienced school failure than adult mothers, and showed health-risk behavior. Teenage mothers perceived less support, had lower self-esteem, and more depressive symptoms than adult mothers. Teenage mothers differed from adult mothers regarding family situation and health behavior as well as perception of support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms, which may negatively influence their ability to cope with parenthood. Efforts should be made early in pregnancy to meet both health and support needs of teenage mothers.
Palomo-Vélez, Gonzalo; Carrasco, Jairo; Bastías, Álvaro; Méndez, María Doris; Jiménez, Andrés
Characterize the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and work satisfaction in female seasonal agricultural workers in central Chile. Cross-sectional study in a non-probability sample of 106 female workers for a fruit trading and export company in the region of Maule, Chile. The interviews were conducted in September and October 2013. The SUSESO ISTA-21 questionnaire was used to evaluate five areas of psychosocial risk in the workplace (psychological requirements, active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, compensation, and "double presence"). Questionnaire S10/12 was used to measure labor satisfaction in three areas (satisfaction with benefits received, satisfaction with the company's physical environment, and satisfaction with supervision) and satisfaction in general. The level of psychosocial risk was high in two areas (double presence, and active work and possibilities of development) and medium in the other areas; the level of satisfaction was high in all three areas. The perception of psychosocial risk factors was negatively associated with work satisfaction in three areas: active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, and compensation (compensation was negatively associated except for satisfaction with the company's physical environment). Risks associated with seasonal work and the main issues that workers consider to affect their satisfaction with work and, by extension, their general well-being, are concentrated mainly in the three areas identified.
Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Borrell, Carme; Bernales, Pamela; González, María José; Ibañez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Vallebuona, Clélia
The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers' exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors.
Møller, Mette; Gregersen, Nils Petter
This study examined the relation between risk-taking behaviour while driving, the psychosocial function of driving, leisure time activities, car oriented peer group interaction and educational attainment. Two thousand four hundred seventeen drivers aged 18-25, randomly selected from the Danish Dr...
Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.
There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has
Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Siegrist, Johannes; Bultmann, Ute
Background: Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined b
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking.
Fernandes, Cláudia; Pereira, Anabela
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking. PMID:27253900
Anstey, Erica H; Shoemaker, Meredith L; Barrera, Chloe M; O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Verma, Ashley B; Holman, Dawn M
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and a leading cause of death from cancer among U.S. women. Studies have suggested that breastfeeding reduces breast cancer risk among parous women, and there is mounting evidence that this association may differ by subtype such that breastfeeding may be more protective of some invasive breast cancer types. The purpose of this review is to discuss breast cancer disparities in the context of breastfeeding and the implications for black mothers. Black women in the U.S. have lower rates of breastfeeding and nearly twice the rates of triple-negative breast cancer (an aggressive subtype) compared with white women. In addition to individual challenges to breastfeeding, black women may also differentially face contextual barriers such as a lack of social and cultural acceptance in their communities, inadequate support from the healthcare community, and unsupportive work environments. More work is needed to improve the social factors and policies that influence breastfeeding rates at a population level. Such efforts should give special consideration to the needs of black mothers to adequately address disparities in breastfeeding among this group and possibly help reduce breast cancer risk. Interventions such as peer counseling, hospital policy changes, breastfeeding-specific clinic appointments, group prenatal education, and enhanced breastfeeding programs have been shown to be effective in communities of color. A comprehensive approach that integrates interventions across multiple levels and settings may be most successful in helping mothers reach their breastfeeding goals and reducing disparities in breastfeeding and potentially breast cancer incidence. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert
Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9% of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults.
Clark, Alice Jessie; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters
exhaustion were both associated with a higher risk of COPD in an exposure-dependent manner, with high vital exhaustion being associated with a hazard ratio [HR] of 2.31 (95% CI 1.69-3.16) for women and 2.48 (1.69-3.64) for men. A higher risk of COPD was also found in participants who experienced economic...... hardship or had a dysfunctional social network. Furthermore, the accumulation of psychosocial risk factors was associated with a higher risk of COPD in both women (HR = 2.40, 1.78-3.22) and men (HR = 1.93, 1.33-2.80). Psychosocial vulnerability may be important to consider both in clinical practice...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Adolescents constitute about 22 per cent of India's population. This huge section of population represents a great 'demographic dividend' and offers a dependable potential to drive and sustain economic growth that India has experienced in last few years. Adolescents are generally considered healthy by themselves, their families, even healthcare providers and society at large. Yet they are known to suffer significant morbidity caused by risk taking behaviour and inadequate access to health care. OBJECTIVES To study the demographic profile of the adolescent girls living in rural areas. To study the psychosocial risk profile of the adolescent girls using the ‘HEEADSSS’ approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Chinakakani village, the Rural Field Practice Area of NRI Medical College, Guntur for six months from February to July 2015. A total of 191 sample was selected by systematic random sampling method after listing out the adolescent girls residing in the study village. The pre- designed, pre-tested semi- structured schedule was administered to the respondents by interview method. WHO ‘HEEADSSS’ questionnaire is made appropriate and suitable to the rural areas consisting of eight components namely, Home and Environment, Education and Employment, Eating habits, Activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide and Depression and Safety. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The data collected was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and EPI Info statistical package. The psychosocial risk of each adolescent was quantified using a 100 point scale developed by the Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. RESULTS Only 9.9% of the rural adolescent girls were found to be normal based upon the psychosocial ‘HEEADSSS’ risk score, 73.3% girls are having mild-to-moderate psychosocial risk, 13.6% and 3.1% were found with severe and very severe risk respectively. CONCLUSION Psychosocial risk
Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen
Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)
Todd Christopher J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD occurs in up to 30% of patients, leading to excess morbidity and poor survival. Physiological risk factors predict readmission, but the impact of modifiable psychosocial risk factors remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate whether psychosocial risk factors independently predict readmission for AECOPD in patients referred to early discharge services (EDS. Methods This prospective cohort study included 79 patients with AECOPD cared for by nurse led EDS in the UK, and followed up for 12 months. Data on lung function, medical comorbidities, previous hospital admissions, medications, and sociodemographics were collected at baseline; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and social support were measured at baseline, 3 and 12-months. Exploratory multivariate models were fitted to identify psychosocial factors associated with readmission adjusted for known confounders. Results 26 patients were readmitted within 90 days and 60 patients were readmitted at least once during follow-up. Depression at baseline predicted readmission adjusted for sociodemographics and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (odds ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.60, p = 0.013. Perceived social support was not significantly associated with risk of readmission. Home ownership was associated with the total number of readmissions (B = 0.46, 95% CI -0.86 to -0.06, p = 0.024. Compared with those not readmitted, readmitted patients had worse SGRQ and HADS scores at 12 months. Conclusion Depressive symptoms and socioeconomic status, but not perceived social support, predict risk of readmission and readmission frequency for AECOPD in patients cared for by nurse-led EDS. Future work on reducing demand for unscheduled hospital admissions could include the design and evaluation of interventions aimed at optimising the psychosocial care of AECOPD patients managed at
Stańczak, Aleksander; Merecz-Kot, Dorota
Psychosocial risks in workplace are common phenomenon, stressing even for so-called white collar workers. The aim of the study was to indicate the most important threats in terms of banking sector employees. The studied subjects were 484 employees employed in 26 companies. The Scale of Psychosocial Risk (SPR) was used as a research tool. The most frequent and the most stressful categories of threats were: lack of control over workload and lack of career development chances. Banking sector employees are obliged to follow strict procedures of customer service and they regard their promotion chances as low. Employees's appraisal system is another strongly stressful factor. Work in a banking sector involves a great mental strain and the high risk of dismissal. Interpersonal relationships at work turned out to be the least stressful work facet in the banking sector. Given the most serious sources of psychosocial risks, the authors suggested to take the following actions: changes in work and work control system, education of employees and managerial staff and regular monitoring of occurring threats.
Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Fattori, Alice
Background: Following EU requirements, in recent years standard procedures for the assessment of work-related stress have been developed in Italy. However, while such standardization has facilitated the spread and use of these procedures, it has brought a lack of specificity in risk assessment....... Objectives: To exemplify a method for the assessment of work-related stress that was developed by the University of Milan to allow the definition of risk profiles tailored to the different organizational settings. Methods: We examined risk factors for work-related stress in call centre operators employed......” and the “subjective” evaluation instruments. Results: Results obtained by means of the standardized “Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire“ and “Job Content Questionnaire”, interpreted in the light of consultations with key organizational figures and individual interviews with employees, have allowed the detection...
Hüsler, Gebhard; Plancherel, Bernard; Werlen, Egon
This research has tested a social disintegration model in conjunction with risk and protection factors that have the power to differentiate relative, weighted interactions among variables in different socially disintegrated groups. The model was tested in a cross-sectional sample of 1082 at-risk youth in Switzerland. Structural equation analyses show significant differences between the social disintegration (low, moderate, high) groups and gender, indicating that the model works differently for groups and for gender. For the highly disintegrated adolescents results clearly show that the risk factors (negative mood, peer network, delinquency) are more important than the protective factors (family relations, secure sense of self). Family relations lose all protective value against negative peer influence, but personal variables, such as secure self, gain protective power.
@@ 1.You You quarreled with her mother.She was very angry and ran out of home.优优跟妈妈吵了一架,赌气跑了出去. 2.She walked to a noodle shop.And she felt a little hungry.她来到一个拉面铺前,才感到自己有些饿了.
Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S
Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.
Biello, Katie B; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J
In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., "syndemic") of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable-a count score of the number of five psychosocial conditions endorsed-and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42 % reported ≥2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ≥4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25-30 % increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions.
Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Fattori, Alice
Background: Following EU requirements, in recent years standard procedures for the assessment of work-related stress have been developed in Italy. However, while such standardization has facilitated the spread and use of these procedures, it has brought a lack of specificity in risk assessment. O...
Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.
Teamworking is a ‘double-edged sword’. On the one hand, teamworking has been recognised as a way of reducing work-related stress work-related stress by enhancing employees’ job autonomy. Conversely, there is a risk that teamworking could increase employee stress levels by enhancing work pressure. Th
Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.
Teamworking is a ‘double-edged sword’. On the one hand, teamworking has been recognised as a way of reducing work-related stress work-related stress by enhancing employees’ job autonomy. Conversely, there is a risk that teamworking could increase employee stress levels by enhancing work pressure.
Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.
Teamworking is a ‘double-edged sword’. On the one hand, teamworking has been recognised as a way of reducing work-related stress work-related stress by enhancing employees’ job autonomy. Conversely, there is a risk that teamworking could increase employee stress levels by enhancing work pressure. Th
Chronic stress and depression are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and poorer prognosis, and physical (in)activity may be a key underlying biobehavioral mechanism. Physical activity has antidepressant effects, and physically fitter, more active individuals seem to be more biologically resilient to psychosocial stressors. This article will present data from a series of population cohort studies and laboratory-based psychophysiological studies to explore the role of physical activity as a protective factor against the effects of psychosocial stress on cardiovascular disease. These mechanisms may improve the treatment and prevention of stress-related illnesses and, thus, has important implications for public health and clinical care of high-risk patients.
Munro, Michelle L; Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Lori, Jody R; Martyn, Kristy K
To explore the clinical acceptability and perceptions of use of a prenatal event history calendar (EHC) for prenatal psychosocial risk assessment in Black pregnant women. A qualitative descriptive study focused on interviews and prenatal EHCs completed by Black pregnant women. Inner city hospital prenatal care clinic in Southeastern Michigan. Thirty 18-35 year old pregnant Black women receiving prenatal care at the participating clinic. Women completed the prenatal EHCs and their perceptions of its use were obtained through face to face interviews. The constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser, 1978, 1992) revealed themes from participants' descriptions about use of a prenatal EHC for prenatal psychosocial risk assessment. Three main themes emerged describing how the prenatal EHC enhanced communication. The prenatal EHC provided "an opening" for disclosure, "an understanding with you," and a way for providers to "know you, your life, and future plans." The participants' completed prenatal EHCs included information regarding their pre-pregnancies, trimester histories, and future plans. These completed prenatal EHCs showed patterns of change in life events and behaviors that included worries, stressors, and risk behaviors. The participants perceived the prenatal EHC as an easy to use tool that should be used to improve communication with health care providers. The prenatal EHC allows the patient and provider to "start on the same page" and provides an additional avenue for discussion of sensitive psychosocial issues with Black pregnant women. As a clinical tool, the prenatal EHC facilitated patient-provider communication for pregnant women often marked by health disparities. The prenatal EHC is a clinically acceptable tool to assess for psychosocial risk factors of Black women in a prenatal clinical setting. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Kaerlev, Linda; Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie;
Low participation in population-based follow-up studies addressing psychosocial risk factors may cause biased estimation of health risk but the issue has seldom been examined. We compared risk estimates for selected health outcomes among respondents and the entire source population.......Low participation in population-based follow-up studies addressing psychosocial risk factors may cause biased estimation of health risk but the issue has seldom been examined. We compared risk estimates for selected health outcomes among respondents and the entire source population....
Full Text Available We review approaches to creation of safe learning environment in preschools: protecting, training, personally developing, creative. We explore the possibilities of this environment examination. We reveal child development risks and threats to educational environment security of preschool institutions. A special emphasis is on personal developmental and constructive approaches. Tolerance development in children is seen as a means of prevention and creation conditions for psychological security of educational environment, and indirect control of children social development process. At the same time, the aim is development of interactional culture in preschool educational institution, built on important tolerance principles: non-violence, voluntary choice, personal responsibility, accepting the Other.
... Resources and Publications What are the risks of preeclampsia & eclampsia to the mother? Skip sharing on social ... links Share this: Page Content Risks During Pregnancy Preeclampsia during pregnancy is mild in 75% of cases. ...
Full Text Available Mobbing, a rising issue in the occupational health area, has recently been paid attention more and more in the academic and business settings. Mobbing is a series of action having multidimensional features socially and psychologically, and it is frequent in occupational environment. Mobbing may present itself as behaviors, words, acts, gestures, or writings that affect personality, dignity, physical, and psychological integrity. Early 1990s were the time studies about mobbing started to be done, indicating its negative effects on both individual and the working place. These extend from stress and depression to psychosomatic disorders, and even chronicle diseases and cardiovascular problems. Workplace mobbing is repetitive, unreasonable malicious behavior directed toward an employee or a group of employees, that creates risk to health and safety. It may manifest as intimidation, physical violence, discrimination, threats, social isolation, and destabilization. The most prominent result is lack of continuity. Organizational problems, time pressure, lack of leadership and task definition etc. are defined to be potential risk factors. For prevention, there must be an organized intervention including a strategically approach towards mobbing and a positive environment at workplace. There is a need for standardization, and studies to define and evaluate mobbing behavior in order to make a comparison between different cultures and occupations. In this review article mobbing was examined with the view of public health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 515-520
Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Hannerz, Harald; Juhl, Mette;
OBJECTIVE: A number of studies examined the effects of prenatal stress on birth outcomes with diverging and inconclusive results. We aimed to examine if working with high job strain during pregnancy measured in week 16 was associated with risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small....../large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and second, if social support affected any associations. DESIGN: Study population was 48 890 pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Multinomial logistic regression estimated ORs. Covariates included: maternal age, BMI, parity, exercise, smoking, alcohol and coffee...... consumption, manual work, serious maternal disease, parental height and gestational age at interview. In accordance with Good Epidemiological Practice, a protocol outlined the study design before analyses were initiated. RESULTS: High job strain was associated with significantly lower odds of being born LGA...
Jia, Yunyan Andrea; Rowlinson, Steve; Ciccarelli, Marina
The study presented in this paper aims to identify prominent risks leading to heat illness in summer among construction workers that can be prioritised for developing effective interventions. Samples are 216 construction workers' cases at the individual level and 26 construction projects cases at the organisation level. A grounded theory is generated to define the climatic heat and psychosocial risks and the relationships between risks, timing and effectiveness of interventions. The theoretical framework is then used to guide content analysis of 36 individual onsite heat illness cases to identify prominent risks. The results suggest that heat stress risks on construction site are socially constructed and can be effectively managed through elimination at supply chain level, effective engineering control, proactive control of the risks through individual interventions and reactive control through mindful recognition and response to early symptoms. The role of management infrastructure as a base for effective interventions is discussed.
Pedro R. Gil-Monte
Full Text Available Los cambios que han ocurrido en las últimas décadas sobre los procesos laborales y el diseño del trabajo son de carácter sociodemográfico, económico, político, y tecnológico. Estos cambios han originado nuevos riesgos psicosociales en el trabajo que afectan a la salud y la calidad de vida laboral, pues incrementan los niveles de estrés de los trabajadores. El objetivo del estudio es presentar este tipo de riesgos, sus consecuencias, y algunas recomendaciones para promover la salud en el trabajo como estrategia para mejorar la salud pública de la población. El estudio se estructura en cinco puntos en los que: (1 se presenta el concepto de factores y riesgos psicosociales en el trabajo, (2 se describen los principales riesgos psicosociales laborales emergentes, (3 se ofrecen algunos datos sobre la prevalencia de los riesgos psicosociales en el trabajo en Europa y de sus consecuencias, (4 se presentan algunas recomendaciones sobre promoción de la salud en el lugar de trabajo, y (5 se describe el objetivo la Psicología de la Salud Ocupacional y se concluye con la recomendación de fomentar la salud psicosocial en el lugar de trabajo como estrategia para mejorar la salud pública de la población.The changes on work processes and job design in recent decades are focused in the demographic, economic, political, and technological aspects. These changes have created new psychosocial risks at work that affect the health and quality of workplace, increasing stress levels among workers. The aim of this study is to present such risks, their consequences, and some recommendations to promote health at the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population. The study is divided into five points in which: (1 introduces the concept of risk factors and psychosocial work, (2 describes the main emerging psychosocial risks labor, (3 provides some information on the prevalence of psychosocial risks at work in Europe and its consequences
Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai
Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.
Irma Y. Castillo Á
Full Text Available Objective: to determine the variables associated with psychosocial risk factors among the doctors of a stateowned social welfare enterprise providing health services in Cartagena. Methodology: a cross-sectional study on a population of 197 doctors from the enterprise’s outpatient and emergency services. The istas21 questionnaire, a Spanish adaptation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (copsoq, was used to assess psychosocial factors. Statistical analysis was performed using the program SPSS® version 17, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was applied to estimate the associations between variables. Results: 170 doctors participated in this study; 88.8% of which had favorable exposure to risk factors in the following dimensions: social support and quality of leadership and Double presence. 69.4% showed adverse exposure in the insecurity dimension. In the dimensions Insecurity and Double Presence, general practitioners were in worse conditions than specialists (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05. Additionally, doctors from the outpatient service showed more deterioration in the social support and quality of leadership dimensions than those from the emergency service (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05. As for the psychological demands dimension, doctors from higher socioeconomic strata showed higher unfavorable scores than those from lower strata (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05.
Mehta, Ranjana K; Parijat, Prakriti
The exponential growth of the information technology (IT) industry in India has been accompanied with a substantial increase in the reporting of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The purpose of the current study was to identify and assess the contributions of prevalent psychosocial factors on perceived WMSD outcomes among IT professionals from India. About 77 IT professionals from India completed a survey set consisting of 26 question items from the Job Content Questionnaire and 3 separate question items pertaining to WMSD outcomes (pain/discomfort and psychological stress scores). The findings suggest prevalence of existing pain (shoulder/neck and low back) in more than one-fourth of the respondents. Additionally two-thirds of the respondents had never had any ergonomics awareness training. Co-worker support and psychological work demands were found to be the strongest contributors of psychosocial risk factors towards pain/discomfort and psychological stress outcomes. Findings from this study highlight the influence of certain psychosocial traits of the Indian IT workplace on perceived WMSD outcomes. There is a need to develop and implement intervention strategies to address these factors that may help lower the risk of work-related musculoskeletal pain.
Abraham, N G; Brunner, E J; Eriksson, J W; Robertson, R P
This article summarizes some aspects of stress in the metabolic syndrome at the psychosocial, tissue, and cellular levels. The metabolic syndrome is a valuable research concept for studying population health and social-biological translation. The cluster of cardiovascular risk factors labeled the metabolic syndrome is linked with low socioeconomic status. Systematic differences in diet and physical activity contribute to social patterning of the syndrome. In addition, psychosocial factors including chronic work stress are linked with its development. Psychosocial factors could lead to metabolic perturbations and increase cardiovascular risk via activation of neuroendocrine responses, for example, in the autonomic nervous system and in several hormonal pathways. High glucocorticoid levels will promote lipid storage in visceral rather than subcutaneous adipose tissue. Adipocytes secrete several proinflammatory cytokines, which considered major contributors to increase in oxidants and cell injury. Upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and peroxidase in the early development of diabetes produces a decrease in oxidative-mediated injury. Increased HO activity is associated with a significant decrease in superoxide, endothelial cell shedding and blood pressure. Finally, it is proposed that overexpression of glutathione peroxidase in beta cells may protect beta cell deterioration from oxidative stress during development of diabetes and hyperglycemia and this may result in attenuation of beta cell failure. If this proves to be the case, then the scene will be set to develop glutathione peroxidase mimetics for use in preclinical and clinical trials.
Nishigaki, Kaori; Kanamori, Yutaka; Ikeda, Mari; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Minowa, Hideko; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko
This research was conducted to reveal Japanese mothers' changing perceptions towards their technology-dependent children in the home care setting. Fourteen Japanese mothers participated in semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. "Degree of preoccupation with the child" emerged as the category representing the mothers' perceptions towards their child. Three categories emerged that represented the progression of maternal perceptions over time: "accepting the child's conditions", "mastering the management of care in various conditions", and "considering social participation for the child". First, mothers gradually accepted the conditions of their child after his/her disease and disability were known. Second, others managed technology-required care and concurrently considered the social participation of their child through daily care at home. Third, the level of preoccupation with the child was affected by the mothers' management of care and their attitude towards the social participation of their child in home care. In this study, as is widely alleged in historical recognition of Japan, mothers provided daily care almost without help from other family members. Additionally, they thought it natural and good for their children. Above all, especially in Japan, professional support for mothers are necessary so that they can take breaks from care. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Fátima Díaz Bambula
Full Text Available The professional practice of occupational health psychology in Colombia has been legislated since 2 008. Originally, Colombian law had been focused on safety and health; currently the emphasis is the management of risk, phenomena that in our country must be treated only by occupational health psychologists licensed for this. That gives space to recognize the normative psychosocial phenomena such as stress and burnout syndrome. It is important that psychologists know and reflect on the laws governing the practice. This review seeks to do an approach to reflect the implications of these regulations at the level of security, risk, social order, and logic of production.
Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.; Hohimer, Ryan E.
In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee's behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. To test the model's agreement with human resources and management professionals, we conducted an experiment with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.
Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva
,670 participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark) were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, and sleep medication and were followed in nationwide registries until 2007, with less than 0.2% loss to follow-up. Almost one...... interval: 1.20, 3.10) and women (hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 3.65). Contrary to expectation, major life events, social network, and sleeping medication did not play an individual role for heart failure hospitalization. Because of the high prevalence of vital exhaustion......Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological data indicate elevated psychosocial health risks for physicians, e. g., burnout, depression, marital disturbances, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial health resources and risk factors in profession-related behaviour and experience patterns of medical students and physicians that may serve as a basis for appropriate health promoting interventions. Methods The questionnaire -Related Behaviour and Experience "Work administered in cross-sectional surveys to students in the first (n = 475 and in the fifth year of studies (n = 355 in required courses at three German universities and to physicians in early professional life in the vicinity of these universities (n = 381. Results Scores reflecting a healthy behaviour pattern were less likely in physicians (16.7% compared to 5th year (26.0% and 1st year students (35.1% while scores representing unambitious and resigned patterns were more common among physicians (43.4% vs. 24.4% vs. 41.0% and 27.3% vs. 17.2% vs. 23.3 respectively. Female and male responders differed in the domains professional commitment, resistance to stress and emotional well-being. Female physicians on average scored higher in the dimensions resignation tendencies, satisfaction with life and experience of social support, and lower in career ambition. Conclusion The results show distinct psychosocial stress patterns among medical students and physicians. Health promotion and prevention of psychosocial symptoms and impairments should be integrated as a required part of the medical curriculum and be considered an important issue during the further training of physicians.
Kaori Nishigaki, RN, PHN, PhD
Conclusions: First, mothers gradually accepted the conditions of their child after his/her disease and disability were known. Second, others managed technology-required care and concurrently considered the social participation of their child through daily care at home. Third, the level of preoccupation with the child was affected by the mothers' management of care and their attitude towards the social participation of their child in home care. In this study, as is widely alleged in historical recognition of Japan, mothers provided daily care almost without help from other family members. Additionally, they thought it natural and good for their children. Above all, especially in Japan, professional support for mothers are necessary so that they can take breaks from care.
Ansoleaga, Elisa; Urra, Marcelo
Although numerous studies have shown the harmful effects of exposure to psychosocial risk at work on the mental health of workers, there are particularly hazardous occupations product of their nature and the conditions under which the work is done. This article analyzes the associations between psychosocial risk at work and mental health in the Forensic Medical Service (SML) in Chile. The national and representative sample of 757 employees (46% men and 54% women) of SML, answered an online survey in 2013, to measure risk exposure to psychosocial risk and mental health outcomes. Data analysis considered descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that workers have a high psychosocial risk: high psychological demands (83%), low social support (53%), Jobstrain (15%), Isostrain (12%), effort- rewards imbalance (69%). Also, one in three reported depressive symptoms, distress and consumption of psychotropic drugs. The workers reported that the problems of work contribute to the symptoms or consumption. Finally, subjects exposed to psychosocial risk had a greater chance of experiencing mental health problems than those not exposed. Diligent preventive interventions are needed to address this high risk population.
Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Ferryman, Thomas A.
In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee’s behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. A complementary Personality Factor modeling approach was developed based on analysis to derive relevant personality characteristics from word use. Several implementations of the psychosocial model were evaluated by comparing their agreement with judgments of human resources and management professionals; the personality factor modeling approach was examined using email samples. If implemented in an operational setting, these models should be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.
Parker, G; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Mitchell, P; Hickie, I; Wilhelm, K; Brodaty, H; Boyce, P; Roy, K
We examined six systems or scales designed to distinguish melancholia from residual nonmelancholic depressive disorders in a sample of 305 patients. A count of the number of significant psychosocial risk factors showed that a clinical diagnosis was the most differentiating (19 significant risk factors), followed by the Newcastle index (13), DSM-III (10), and the CORE system (10)--the last essentially assessing psychomotor change; Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) (7) and an endogeneity symptom scale (2) were the least differentiating. A subsample of "composite melancholics" was derived, comprising 138 who met "melancholia" criteria for DSM-III, RDC, and CORE, and they were contrasted with residual depressives. The composite melancholics were older, had had a briefer depressive episode, and differed significantly on 12 risk factors, essentially being less likely to report deprivational experiences such as deficient parenting and dysfunctional marital relationships. We suggest that such a risk factor strategy is of potential use in refining the clinical definition of melancholia.
This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…
Muñoz, Maribel; Poo, Ana María; Baeza, Bernardita; Bustos, M Luis
Clinical evidence reveals the importance of mother-newborn bonding experience for health promoting and maintenance of human life. If the newborn lacks care and affection, she/he may develop an attachment disorder. A predictive scale regarding the risk of mothernewborn relationships is available, which makes possible an early intervention to prevent the development of relational disorders. The aim of this study is to apply the Kimelman measurement scale to determine the relational risk in mother-newborn pairs, as well as the prevalence and the associated biopsychosocial variables. A cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 333 mother-infant pairs in postpartum maternity at Temuco hospital. The Kimelman mother-newborn attachment assessment guide was used. Biopsychosocial variables were obtained from the mothers studied. The association of biopsychosocial variables with relational risk was analyzed using OR and confidence intervals of 95%. The prevalence of high relational risk was 43.8%. The associated biopsychosocial variables included, women with no steady partner, single parent, teenage mothers, unwanted and unplanned pregnancy. Almost half of the mothers were in the high risk group. Early identification of relational risk and its related variables could help in the intervention in this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Camerino, D; Molteni, G; Finotti, S; Capietti, M; Molinari, M; Cotroneo, L; Morselli, G
A high percentage of musculoskeletal disorders in nursing staff with the task of patient lifting is reported in the literature. These disorders are considered to be of multiple etiology and attempts have been made not only to assess the physical load but also to identify the direct or indirect influence of organisational and psychosocial factors so that preventive measures be more appropriate and effective (Law 626/94). In this context, in a recent publication NIOSH recalled that psychosocial factors can alter the relationship between exposure to physical loads and the development or the prognosis of these disorders, and stresses that understanding these relationships is the crucial factor in assessment of exposure that can be addressed with preventive and therapeutic measures. A study was carried out on the staff (113 subjects) of a large hospital in northern Italy with departments recognised by certified occupational physicians as at risk for the musculoskeletal apparatus. In order to quantify the working conditions and the disorders of the spine, a protocol proposed by the Ergonomics of Posture and Movement Research Unit of Milan University was further developed and validated. For assessment of psychosocial factors an Italian version of R. A. Karasek's "Job Content Questionnaire" was drawn up and validated by the Centre for Study and Research of Chronic Degenerative Diseases in Working Environments of Milan University. In addition, Borg's Scale was used for perception of physical load, Kurimori and Kakizaki's Scale for mental fatigue, Kjellberg and Iwanowski's Scale for states of stress, plus the Maslach burnout inventory. Nonparametric statistical analysis was applied to determine the influence of physical and organisational and psychosocial factors on disorders of the musculoskeletal apparatus. The results confirm a good agreement between the objective and subjective assessments of "manual patient handling" risk (Kendall p from 0.26 to 0.37, p > 0.001) and the
Full Text Available Introduction: With the implementation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT we observed dramatic decreases in rates of perinatal MTCT of HIV, 0.3% in France in women with plasma viral load (pVL <50 c/mL at delivery. We describe a case of MTCT which occurred despite virologic suppression of the mother at delivery, the first case in our centre since 2002. Description of the case: A 26-year-old black woman, Guinea-native, living in France since 2007, was diagnosed with HIV-1 CRF02 in 2008 and lost to follow-up since November 2012 after second delivery (2 female born in March 2009 and October 2012, uninfected. Third pregnancy began in July 2013 and baseline characteristics in September were as follows: week 13 of gestational age (GA, CDC stage A, CD4 317/mm3, pVL 4.89 log c/mL. cART with abacavir/lamivudine and atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg daily (qd was introduced. VL decreased to 2.4 log c/mL in 4 weeks and CD4 increased to 456/mm3. In December, at week 22 of GA, viral rebound at 4.14 log c/mL due to sub-optimal maternal adherence was observed. After counselling, pVL decreased to 1.69 log c/mL in March 2014, at week 35 of GA and 1.3 log c/mL at delivery. As pVL was <400 c/mL at week 36 of GA, vaginal delivery with IV zidovudine was decided. However, because of poor/uncertain maternal adherence to cART, the neonate was treated with a combination of 2 drugs (lamivudine-nevirapine with the 4-week zidovudine regimen, until the result of delivery pVL. This combination was stopped at day 2 when maternal delivery pVL (22 c/mL was received and standard oral zidovudine prophylaxis was continued. Infant was tested for HIV infection at baseline (day 3 and found to be HIV-infected (HIV-RNA 60 c/mL attesting in-utero HIV transmission. On day 15, zidovudine prophylaxis was discontinued and treatment for HIV infection initiated with standard cART according to the French Paediatric Antiretroviral
Clark, Alice Jessie; Ritz, B; Prescott, E;
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Experimental studies support a link between stress and development of parkinsonian symptoms, but prospective population studies are lacking. The aim of the current study is to determine the effects of several psychosocial factors on the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), as...... PD. Vital exhaustion may be useful for screening aimed at early detection and when considering disease-modifying therapies in people at high risk of clinical PD.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Experimental studies support a link between stress and development of parkinsonian symptoms, but prospective population studies are lacking. The aim of the current study is to determine the effects of several psychosocial factors on the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD......), as well as to identify potential pre-motor symptoms for PD in a large prospective cohort study. METHODS: In 1991-1993, a total of 9955 women and men free of PD from the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about major life events, economic hardship, social network, impaired sleep and vital exhaustion...
Finy, M Sima; Bresin, Konrad; Korol, Donna L; Verona, Edelyn
Although adolescence is characterized by hormonal changes and increased disinhibited behaviors, explanations for these developmental changes that include personality and environmental factors have not been fully elucidated. We examined the interactions between psychosocial stress and the traits of negative emotionality and constraint on impulsive and risk-taking behaviors as well as salivary cortisol reactivity in 88 adolescents. In terms of behavioral outcomes, analyses revealed that negative emotionality and constraint were protective of impulsivity and risk taking, respectively, for adolescents in the no-stress condition; personality did not relate to either behavior in the stress condition. Low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition engaged in less risk taking than low-constraint adolescents in the no-stress condition, whereas there was no effect of stress group for high-constraint adolescents. In terms of cortisol reactivity, analyses revealed that low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition exhibited greater cortisol reactivity compared to high-constraint adolescents, which suggests that low-constraint adolescents mobilize greater resources (e.g., increased cognitive control, heightened attention to threat) in stressful situations relative to nonstressful ones. These results demonstrate that two facets of disinhibition and cortisol reactivity are differentially affected by psychosocial stress and personality (and their interactions) in adolescents.
Carlos Alberto Coca Muñoz
Full Text Available This paper draws the attention of the academic community, businessmen, worker associations/unions, and public decision makers to the relation between preventing psychosocial risks for private security workers in El Salvador, and the respect for their worker rights as enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic, the Labor Code, and the General Law for the Prevention of Risk at the Workplace. It addresses the doctrine and legal framework of psychosocial risk, and government responsibility in terms of occupational security and health –specifically, the intervention of work inspections by the Ministry of Labor, and verifying psychosocial risks.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i1.1557
George, Valerie A; Erb, Allison F; Harris, Cristen L; Casazza, Krista
This study investigated differences in psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders among university females (n=406) of diverse Hispanic background (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American/Mexican, Dominican, Venezuelan) and among White non-Hispanic (n=102) female students. Risk factors were assessed using the Psychosocial Risk Factor Questionnaire (PRFQ) which includes four subscales: Social Pressure for Thinness, Media Pressure for Thinness, Concern for Physical Appearance, and Perception of Physical Appearance. There were significant differences among the groups in total PRFQ score, F(7,499)=2.76, Peating disorders in this population.
Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Cooklin, Amanda; Wade, Catherine
Parent involvement in play, learning, and everyday home activities is important for promoting children's cognitive and language development. The aims of the study were to (a) examine differences between mothers' and fathers' self-reported involvement with their children, (b) explore the relationship between child, parent and family factors, and…
Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.
Objective This study investigated the association of cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy life style. Methods The sample (N=745) was comprised of sexually-active female adolescent patients (12-19 years), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted Principal Component Analyses (PCA) for categorical data were used to derive multi-systemic psychosocial risk indices using nine indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high-school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any-type, high risk-types, vaccine-types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Subjects had a median of three psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any-type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2 ); with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine-types (aOR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Conclusion Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine-types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose. PMID:25985216
Peters, Sebastian; Grunwald, Nicole; Rümmele, Petra; Endlicher, Esther; Lechner, Anja; Neumann, Inga D; Obermeier, Florian; Reber, Stefan O
Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) than the general population. Furthermore, chronic psychosocial stress increases the likelihood of developing IBD and multiple types of malignant neoplasms, including CRC. Here, for the first time, we investigate the effects of chronic psychosocial stress in male mice on an artificially induced CRC, by employing the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing paradigm in combination with the reliable azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) CRC model. Colonoscopy revealed that CSC mice showed accelerated macroscopic suspect lesions. In addition, more CSC mice developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and/or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in the colonic tissue compared to the single-housed control mice (SHC). CSC mice showed an increased number of Ki67+ and a decreased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling epithelial cells in colonic tissue. Colonic liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), cyclooxygenase II (COXII), tumor necrosis factor, forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) mRNA as well as colonic ß-catenin, COXII, and LRH-1 protein expression were also increased in CSC compared with SHC mice. Although the number of CD4+ Th cells was increased, a tendency toward a decreased colonic interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression was observed. Furthermore, despite an increased percentage of CD3+ cells and CD3+/FoxP3+ double-positive cells within mesenteric lymph node cells of CSC mice, IFN-γ secretion from these cells was unaffected. Altogether, our results suggest that chronic psychosocial stress increases the risk for AOM/DSS-induced and, thus, inflammation-related CRC. Finally, assessment of additional time points may test whether the shift from tumor-protective Th1 cell to regulatory T-cell immunity represents a consequence of increased carcinogenesis or a causal factor involved in its development.
Wahesh, Edward; Lewis, Todd F.
The current study identified psychosocial variables associated with AUDIT-C hazardous drinking risk status for male and female college students. Logistic regression analysis revealed that AUDIT-C risk status was associated with alcohol-related negative consequences, injunctive norms, and descriptive norms for both male and female participants.…
Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van
Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and muscu
Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi; Patrícia da Rocha Pereira; Isis de Carvalho Stelmo; Ramiro Fernandez Unsain; Paula Andrea Martins; Priscila de Morais Sato
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body dissatisfaction, dieting and risk behaviors for eating disorders among a sample of mothers living in the city of Santos. METHODS: It was conducted a cross-sectional population-based study with 453 mothers of children aged until 10 years old. The mothers answered to the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Stunkard's Figure Scale and a question about being currently dieting. RESULTS: 29.9% presented a positive score for risk behaviors for eating disorders and 21.8% w...
Pan, K-Y; Xu, W; Mangialasche, F; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H-X
Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores. From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged ≥60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM. During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27-7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22-31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17-76.53). Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate similarities and differences between mothers and daughters regarding dietary and non-dietary risk factors for bone fractures and osteoporosis.Methods: The study was carried out in 2007-2010 on 712 mothers (29-59 years and daughters (12-21 years family pairs. In the sub-sample (170 family pairs bone mineral density (BMD was measured for the forearm by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The consumption of dairy products was determined with a semi-quantitative food fre-quency questionnaire (ADOS-Ca and calcium intake from the daily diet was calculated.Results: The presence of risk factors for bone fractures in mothers and daughters was significantly correlated. The Spearman rank coefficient for dietary factors of fracture risk was 0.87 (P<0.05 in whole sub-sample, 0.94 (P<0.05 in bottom tercile of BMD, 0.82 (P<0.05 in middle tercile of BMD, 0.54 (P>0.05 in upper tercile of BMD and for non-dietary factors of fracture risk was 0.83 (P<0.05 in whole sub-sample, 0.86 (P<0.05 in bottom tercile of BMD, 0.93 (P<0.05 in middle tercile of BMD, 0.65 (P<0.05 in upper tercile of BMD.Conclusions: Our results confirm the role of the family environment for bone health and document the stronger ef-fect of negative factors of the family environment as compared to other positive factors on bone fracture risk.
Schnohr, Peter; Marott, Jacob L; Kristensen, Tage S.
.001] and systolic blood pressure (≥160 mmHg or blood pressure medication vs. high vs. low; HR 2.07; 95% CI, 1......-statistics and net reclassification improvement. During the follow-up, 1731 non-fatal and fatal coronary events were registered. In men, the highest ranking risk factors for coronary heart disease were vital exhaustion [high vs. low; hazard ratio (HR) 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70-3.26; P ...AIMS: To rank psychosocial and traditional risk factors by importance for coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective cardiovascular population study randomly selected in 1976. The third examination was carried out from 1991 to 1994, and 8882 men...
Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH
AIMS: To assess the importance of physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). METHODS: Case-referent study of 267 new cases of tennis elbow and 388 referents from the background population enrolled from general practices in Ringkjoebing County, Denmark. RESULTS......: Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related...... to tennis elbow (OR 3.7, CI 1.7 to 8.3). Among men, work with precision demanding movements was related to tennis elbow (OR 5.2, CI 1.5 to 17.9). Among both males and females, the results for work with hand held vibrating tools were inconsistent, partly because of few exposed subjects. A physical strain...
child is around 15-25% for non-breast feeding mothers, and doubles to ... No clear cut differences in transmission has ... count and the progression of HIV disease —a low CD4 count and .... formula feed, short course zidovudine with or without.
Serbin, Lisa A; Karp, Jennifer
The recurrence of social, behavioral, and health problems in successive generations of families is a prevalent theme in both the scientific and popular literatures. This review discusses recent conceptual models and findings from longitudinal studies concerning the intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk, including intergenerational continuity, and the processes whereby a generation of parents may place their offspring at elevated risk for social, behavioral, and health problems. Key findings include the mediational effects of parenting and environmental factors in the transfer of risk. In both girls and boys, childhood aggression and antisocial behavior appear to predict long-term trajectories that place offspring at risk. Sequelae of childhood aggression that may threaten the well-being of offspring include school failure, adolescent risk-taking behavior, early and single parenthood, and family poverty. These childhood and adolescent behavioral styles also predict harsh, aggressive, neglectful, and unstimulating parenting behavior toward offspring. Buffering factors within at-risk families include maternal educational attainment and constructive parenting practices (e.g., emotional warmth, consistent disciplinary practices, and cognitive scaffolding). These findings highlight the potential application and relevance of intergenerational studies for social, educational, and health policy.
Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L
Retrospective reports of children's relationships with their parents have been associated with increased risk for depressive symptoms in adulthood. This study examined four dimensions of the current mother-child relationship (affection, criticism, over-involvement, conflict) in relation to depressive symptoms in a sample of 270 HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Depressive symptoms were positively associated with overt conflict or disagreement with mothers and perceived over-involvement by mothers, and inversely related to frequency of contact with mothers. These findings suggest that clinicians who treat HIV-positive methamphetamine-using MSM with depressive symptoms should evaluate issues in the mother-son relationship and consider family-based therapies as an adjunct to treatment.
Andersen, I; Burr, H; Kristensen, T S;
To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment.......To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment....
Black, Maureen M; Papas, Mia A; Hussey, Jon M; Hunter, Wanda; Dubowitz, Howard; Kotch, Jonathan B; English, Diana; Schneider, Mary
To investigate whether living in a 3-generation household (grandmother-mother-child) is associated with fewer behavior problems and better cognitive development among preschool children of mothers who gave birth during adolescence and whether it protects children from the behavior and developmental problems associated with maltreatment and maternal depression. Cohort study. Participants included low-income families recruited from 4 sites: East, Northwest, Midwest, and South, who are part of LONGSCAN, a longitudinal study of children's health, development, and maltreatment. One hundred ninety-four mothers who were adolescents (less than age 19) at delivery. Data were gathered when children were 4 to 5 years of age. Twenty-six percent of the children lived in 3-generation households, 39% had a history of maltreatment, and 32% of the mothers had depression scores in the clinical range. Child behavioral problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist, completed by the mother, and child developmental status was assessed with the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test, administered by research assistants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that children who had been reported for maltreatment and had mothers with depressive symptoms had more externalizing behavior problems, compared with children who experienced neither risk or only 1 risk. However, when residential status was considered, children with the greatest number of externalizing behavior problems were those who experienced both maltreatment and maternal depressive symptoms and lived in 3-generation households. Children who had been reported for maltreatment or had mothers with depressive symptoms were more likely to have internalizing problems, compared with children with neither risk. Residential status was not related to children's internalizing behavior problems or cognitive development. Living in a 3-generation household did not protect preschool children from the behavior problems
Kinikar, Aarti; Gupte, Nikhil; Bhat, Jayalakshmi; Bharadwaj, Renu; Kulkarni, Vandana; Bhosale, Ramesh; McIntire, Katherine N; Mave, Vidya; Suryavanshi, Nishi; Patil, Sandesh; Bollinger, Robert; Gupta, Amita
Syphilis is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus acquisition and sexual transmission; we examined impact on human immunodeficiency virus mother-to-child transmission among mother-infant pairs enrolled in the India Six-Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine study. Maternal syphilis, diagnosed serologically using Venereal Disease Research Laboratory titer plus Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay, was associated with 2.5-fold greater risk.
Berlin, Kate L; Andreotti, Charissa; Yull, Fiona; Grau, Ana M; Compas, Bruce E
Women with a personal or maternal history of breast cancer experience psychological stress in relation to breast cancer risk, and adolescent and young adult daughters are particularly at risk for experiencing stress related to their mothers' history of breast cancer. The current study examined interpersonal and biological stress responses during a laboratory-based communication task about breast cancer risk in 32 mother-daughter dyads and explores whether certain communication styles between mothers and daughters are associated with increased stress reactivity during the task. Five saliva samples were collected from each participant to determine cortisol baseline levels, reactivity to, and recovery from the task. Negative maternal communication was associated with higher cortisol levels in daughters. In addition, maternal sadness was correlated with lower levels of daughters' cortisol at all time points with the exception of baseline measures. Implications for understanding the psychobiology of stress in women at risk for breast cancer are highlighted.
Smith, Timothy W; Baucom, Brian R W
Being married or involved in a similar intimate relationship is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the quality of these relationships matters, as strain and disruption are associated with increased risk. These effects are typically studied separately from well-established psychosocial factors for CHD that are aspects of personality and emotional adjustment, even though discord and disruption in intimate relationships are related to these same individual characteristics. Thus, research to date tends to parse correlated risks, often taking a piecemeal approach by focusing on intimate relationships without considering aspects of personality and emotional adjustment that contribute to risk and protection, or focusing on individual-level risks while largely ignoring closely related health-relevant relationships. As an alternative, this article describes an integrative approach, first reviewing associations of the quality of intimate relationships with personality characteristics and aspects of emotional adjustment that confer CHD risk, and then discussing conceptual models of these associations and the biobehavioral mechanisms linking them with CHD. Current approaches to couple interventions are then discussed, including those that have a combined focus on intimate relationship difficulties and emotional adjustment. An integrative agenda for future research emphasizes aggregated risks, combining concepts and methods in current relationship science with those in biobehavioral research on CHD, and including parallel disparities in relationship functioning, emotional adjustment, and CHD risk. Such efforts could ultimately inform empirically based assessments and interventions for interrelated aspects of individuals and their intimate relationships that influence the development and course of CHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to create a valid and reliable instrument to measure psychosocial risk factorsat work in Mexican professors. A 66-item scale with 5 response choices was built. In order to validate thescale, it was administered to 500 public professors at Mexico city, aged between 21 an 76, 331 males and168 females, belonging to nine higher education schools. Statistical analyses were made to know the itemdiscriminant power, reliability, and factor structure. The scale rendered five factors: perceived inequity,difficult students, perceived insecurity, academic overload, and lack of resources at the workplace. Thescales had a Cronbach´s alpha between .75 and 92. As a conclusion, the scale fulfills the requirements ofreliability and validity in a population of professors.
Larsen, A D; Hannerz, H; Thulstrup, A M
(aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85-1.15). Supplementary analyses including restriction to first-borns and a stratified analysis with respect to manual and nonmanual work did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: Association between exposure to high job strain during pregnancy and elevated risk of circulatory......OBJECTIVE: To investigate if maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain at work (high demands and low control) measured by questionnaire early in pregnancy (median week 15) is associated with malformations in the offspring. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth...... strain with adjustment for maternal age, body mass index, parity, smoking, alcohol use, manual versus nonmanual work, maternal serious disease and gestational age at interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Circulatory malformation, musculoskeletal malformation or any malformation. RESULTS: Logistic regression...
Dijkstra, S. H.; van Beek, A.; Janssen, J. W.; de Vleeschouwer, L. H. M.; Huysman, W. A.; van den Akker, E. L. T.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of mothers at risk of vitamin D deficiency because of dark skin or the wearing of concealing clothes (such as a veil) compared with a group presumed not to be at risk. A second aim was to correlate these newborn infant
Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugees experience multiple health and social needs. This requires an integrated approach to care in the countries of resettlement, including Canada. Perhaps, interactive eHealth tools could build bridges between medical and social care in a timely manner. The authors developed and piloted a multi-risk Computer-assisted Psychosocial Risk Assessment (CaPRA tool for Afghan refugees visiting a community health center. The iPad based CaPRA survey was completed by the patients in their own language before seeing the medical practitioner. The computer then generated individualized feedback for the patient and provider with suggestions about available services. Methods A pilot randomized trial was conducted with adult Afghan refugees who could read Dari/Farsi or English language. Consenting patients were randomly assigned to the CaPRA (intervention or usual care (control group. All patients completed a paper-pencil exit survey. The primary outcome was patient intention to see a psychosocial counselor. The secondary outcomes were patient acceptance of the tool and visit satisfaction. Results Out of 199 approached patients, 64 were eligible and 50 consented and one withdrew (CaPRA = 25; usual care = 24. On average, participants were 37.6 years of age and had lived 3.4 years in Canada. Seventy-two percent of participants in CaPRA group had intention to visit a psychosocial counselor, compared to 46 % in usual care group [X2 (1=3.47, p = 0.06]. On a 5-point scale, CaPRA group participants agreed with the benefits of the tool (mean = 4 and were ‘unsure’ about possible barriers to interact with the clinicians (mean = 2.8 or to privacy of information (mean = 2.8 in CaPRA mediated visits. On a 5-point scale, the two groups were alike in patient satisfaction (mean = 4.3. Conclusion The studied eHealth tool offers a promising model to integrate medical and social care to address the health and settlement
Katrina D Hopkins
Full Text Available We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002, a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low and psychosocial functioning (good/poor. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.
de Looze, Margaretha; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Pickett, William; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
BACKGROUND: According to Jessor's Problem Behaviour Theory (PBT) and Moffitt's theory of adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour, adolescent risk behaviours cluster and can be predicted by various psychosocial factors including parent, peer and school attachment. This study tested the potential inf
Looze, M.E. de; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Pickett, W.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.
Background: According to Jessor's Problem Behaviour Theory (PBT) and Moffitt's theory of adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour, adolescent risk behaviours cluster and can be predicted by various psychosocial factors including parent, peer and school attachment. This study tested the potential inf
H. Morgenstern; A. Burdorf (Alex); J.P. Jansen (Jeroen)
textabstractAIMS: To assess dose-response relations between occupational exposures to physical and psychosocial factors and the risk of low back pain. METHODS: A cohort of 523 subjects, working in nursing homes and homes for the elderly, was followed prospectively for one year. Phy
Lang, Jason M.; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L.
Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16…
Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J.; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin
Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at 1) determining Potentially Traumatic Events (PTEs), labor migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviors among truck drivers in Zambia and 2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted fifteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population. PMID:27681145
This study discusses different types of food risks and different strategies of risk handling as conceived by mothers of kindergarten children in Russia. The research includes an analysis of Internet forum discussions and semi-structured interviews; it mainly used data from well-educated, middle-clas
Serra, Silvana Valeria; Buonanotte, Federico; Frankel, Lilian; Brizuela, Monica; Serra, Mariel; Soria, Elio Andres
Companies use non-native language (L2) as a service tool, and they may incur in occupational psychosocial risks. Interlanguage can be chronic under poor communicative situations, leading to fossilization. It could be an adverse effect because of its impact in productivity and occupational health. Thus, our aim was to establish factors of this psychosocial risk. 348 information and communication technologists (ICT) were analyzed. They were native Spanish speakers with normal hearing, and used English as a work tool. Age, gender, L2 stages and errors were recorded in relation to fossilization risk. Statistical methods were applied for categorical data (p<0.05). After gender and age adjustments, a significant inverse association was found between L2 stages and fossilization risk (p<0.0001), with higher risk being in the acquisition stage. Also, L2 errors showed a significant direct relation with fossilization risk (p=0.0005). Summing up, ICT in acquisition L2 had upper psychosocial risk to fossilization with mechanistic execution of it, under poorer communicative formats. This results have high sanitary impact given they involved a massively demanded professionals.
Full Text Available Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity. The World Health Organization defines an adolescent as a person between ages 10 and 19 years. A dramatic shift in thinking from concrete to abstract gives adolescents a whole new set of mental tools, to analyze situations logically in terms of cause and effect, appreciate hypothetical situations, evaluate alternatives, introspection, decision making and cognitive abilities. Adolescents experience intense physical, psychological changes as they make transition from childhood to adulthood. This period of transition is the most vulnerable time. Adolescents are at risk of developing behavioral problems like school failure and drop outs, substance abuse, delinquency and violence, sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies, domestic violence, stress and depression and risk-taking behaviour. It is the responsibility of the society to utilize this period constructively through education, counseling, mass media, awareness programmes and address the reproductive health needs of adolescents. The present study analyzes the psychosocial risk status and knowledge of reproductive health in adolescents in Raipur city. The study recommends implementation of provisions by government to provide continuous education and economic security for adolescents. Programmes like age-appropriate reproductive health curriculum should be introduced in schools and colleges with counseling facilities at school and primary health care levels.
LI Jing-hua; SHAO Zhong-jun; WANG Zong-ren; Ma Jing; LONG Yin; YAO Ju-feng
Objective:To search for risk factors that affect mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus(HBV). Methods:To obtain studies eligible for meta-analysis, China biological medicine discs and MEDLINE citations were surveyed. Mother HBV DNA or HBeAg positivity,neonate HBeAg positivity,mode of delivery, threatened abortion and threatened premature abor were processed with meta analysis.Criteria for selection of published studies for meta analysis were based on principle by Abdolmaleky HM.Odds ratio (OR) was calculated and summarized by fixed effect model or random-effects model using RevMan software. The heterogeneity of the group of Ors was assessed using an x2 test. The significance of he pooled OR was determined by the u-test. The strength of association was assessed using the OR.An OR＞1. 0 indicated a positive association between the risk factor and neonate HBV infection. Results:After meta analysis of factors concerned, a significant association was found between the positivity of HBeAg in mother and neonate, of HBV DNA in other peripheral serum, and HBV mother-to-infant transmission, with a pooled OR equal to 19.43 (95% CI=8.77-43.06), 36.5 (95% CI=19.85-67.11),and 36.5 (95 % CI= 19.85-67.11) respectively. Mode of delivery, threatened abortion and threatened premature labor proved not to be of risk factors on the mother-to-infant transmission of HBV. Conclusion:Mother HBV DNA or HBeAg positivity and neonate HBeAg positivity were proved to be of risk factors affecting the transmission of HBV from mother to fetal.
Busch, J; Werner, W; Huwer, A
To assess the risk of heavy metal contamination of homoeopathic mother tinctures, 9 plant species and 1 fungus used in the manufacture of homoeopathic medicaments were investigated. Mother tinctures were prepared according to the manufacturing procedures described in the European Pharmacopoeia. The original herbal drug and the material processed during production were analysed for their cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) content. The plant components were harvested from 2 sites contaminated by different heavy metal exposure pathways and compared with reference material from Deutsche Homöopathie-Union (DHU). It was confirmed that in all cases a significant depletion of all heavy metals studied occurred during manufacture of the mother tincture, regardless of the starting material used. In all cases, most of the heavy metal content was retained in the press cake; low levels only were detected in the mother tincture. None of the mother tinctures of plant origin exceeded the required limits, not even those of plant starting materials originating from highly contaminated sites. Substantial heavy metal concentrations could only be detected in the mother tincture of the fungus Amanita muscaria, calculated from the dry weight of the starting material. According to the results obtained, a risk-based approach to heavy metal assessment is suggested where permanent control is focused on the heavy metals accumulating in organisms such as fungi.
Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Siegrist, Johannes; Bültmann, Ute
Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms after 5-year follow-up and (ii) whether the effect of ERI was differential across occupational grades. A cohort of 2701 Danish employees filled in a questionnaire on work and health in 2000 and 2005. ERI was measured with four effort and seven reward items. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Participants scoring ≤ 52 points were defined as cases. We used logistic regression to investigate the association of ERI and occupational grade in 2000 with onset of severe depressive symptoms in 2005. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, health behaviours, survey method, self-rated health, sleep disturbances and non-severe depressive symptoms at baseline. High ERI predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms at follow-up, after adjustment for co-variates and occupational grade (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.12-4.25). Participants with high ERI and low occupational grade showed a considerably higher OR (2.43, 95% CI = 1.07-5.53) compared to participants with low/medium ERI and low grade (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.72-2.92), high ERI and high grade (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.59-2.70) and low/medium ERI and high grade (reference group). Adverse psychosocial working conditions predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms. The effect was stronger among employees of lower occupational grades compared to those of higher grades.
Meguid, Nagwa A; Dardir, Ahmed A; Khass, Mohamed; Hossieny, Lamia El; Ezzat, Afaf; El Awady, Mostafa K
Recent reports linking Down syndrome (DS) to maternal polymorphisms at the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene locus have generated great interest among investigators in the field. The present study aimed at evaluation of MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene as maternal risk factors for DS. Forty two mothers of proven DS outcomes and forty eight control mothers with normal offspring were included. Complete medical and nutritional histories for all mothers were taken with special emphasis on folate intake. Folic acid intake from food or vitamin supplements was significantly low (below the Recommended Daily Allowance) in the group of case mothers compared to control mothers. Frequencies of MTHFR 677T and MTHFR 1298C alleles were significantly higher among case mothers (32.1% and 57.1%, respectively) compared to control mothers (18.7% and 32.3%, respectively). Heterozygous and homozygous genotype frequencies of MTHFR at position 677 (CT and TT) were higher among case mothers than controls (40.5% versus 25% and 11.9% versus 6.2%, respectively) with an odds ratio of 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-5.89) and 2.75 (95% CI 0.95-12.77), respectively. Interestingly, the homozygous genotype frequency (CC) at position 1298 was significantly higher in case mothers than in controls (33.3% versus 2.1% respectively) with an odds ratio of 31.5 (95% CI 3.51 to 282.33) indicating that this polymorphism may have more genetic impact than 677 polymorphism. Heterozygous genotype (AC) did not show significant difference between the two groups. We here report on the first pilot study of the possible genetic association between DS and MTHFR 1298A/C genotypes among Egyptians. Further extended studies are recommended to confirm the present work.
Nagwa A. Meguid
Full Text Available Recent reports linking Down syndrome (DS to maternal polymorphisms at the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene locus have generated great interest among investigators in the field. The present study aimed at evaluation of MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene as maternal risk factors for DS. Forty two mothers of proven DS outcomes and forty eight control mothers with normal offspring were included. Complete medical and nutritional histories for all mothers were taken with special emphasis on folate intake. Folic acid intake from food or vitamin supplements was significantly low (below the Recommended Daily Allowance in the group of case mothers compared to control mothers. Frequencies of MTHFR 677T and MTHFR 1298C alleles were significantly higher among case mothers (32.1% and 57.1%, respectively compared to control mothers (18.7% and 32.3%, respectively. Heterozygous and homozygous genotype frequencies of MTHFR at position 677 (CT and TT were higher among case mothers than controls (40.5% versus 25% and 11.9% versus 6.2%, respectively with an odds ratio of 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–5.89 and 2.75 (95% CI 0.95–12.77, respectively. Interestingly, the homozygous genotype frequency (CC at position 1298 was significantly higher in case mothers than in controls (33.3% versus 2.1% respectively with an odds ratio of 31.5 (95% CI 3.51 to 282.33 indicating that this polymorphism may have more genetic impact than 677 polymorphism. Heterozygous genotype (AC did not show significant difference between the two groups. We here report on the first pilot study of the possible genetic association between DS and MTHFR 1298A/C genotypes among Egyptians. Further extended studies are recommended to confirm the present work.
Ghaddar, Ali; Ronda, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Álvares, Nahum; Mateo, Inmaculada
Research has lately increased its focus on work conditions as predictors of stress among prison workers but only few studies have focused on how the exposure of workers to psychosocial risks vary according to their occupational groups and their contact with inmates. Work psychosocial risks (demands, control and social support) were assessed using the Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire among 164 Spanish prison workers (43 per cent of those surveyed). Regression analysis was used to explore how psychosocial hazards and their combinations (outcome variables) vary according to occupational groups. Results suggest that psychosocial risks were highest among guards that have more contact with inmates. Implications of the findings for policy making and practice application are discussed.
Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun
This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. © 2012 APJPH.
Stenger, Eunice; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Sabino, Marcos Oliveira; Miquilin, Isabella de Oliveira Campos; Corrêa Filho, Heleno Rodrigues
This study focused on the method known as "lean production" as a work-related psychosocial risk factor in a Brazilian multinational auto parts company after its merger with other multinational companies. The authors conducted a qualitative analysis of two time points: the first using on-site observation and key interviews with managers and workers during implementation of lean production in 1996; the second, 16 years later, comparing data from a document search in labor inspection records from the Ministry of Labor and Employment and legal proceedings initiated by the Office of the Public Prosecutor for Labor Affairs. The merger led to layoffs, replacements, and an increase in the workday. A class action suit was filed on grounds of aggravated working conditions. The new production model led to psychosocial risks that increased the need for workers' health precautions when changes in the production process introduced new and increased risks of physical and mental illnesses.
Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise
Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.
Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M
We examined the associations of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010-2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women's self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.
Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have historically been sites of heated public controversy. However, with widespread use, the boundary-challenging risks surrounding ARTs have become less newsworthy. One exception includes their use by "older mothers," particularly postmenopausal mothers. In this paper, I review the social science literature related to the risks of ARTs and the conceptualizations of "older mothers". Next, I move to analyze the specific case of 60-year-old Ranjit Hayer, who gave birth to twins in Calgary, Canada, through the context of the Canadian media coverage the week following the birth, using concepts from cultural approaches to risk perception, constructivist studies of technology, and risk communication theory. I argue that risk discourses emerge when technologies and users expose and challenge the contingent stability of the sociotechnical discourses surrounding them. This leads to a public re-opening of a "closed" technology and user and a reconstruction of the risks associated with them. This case demonstrates how an apparently "settled" sociotechnical network becomes reframed in terms of risk, and how the negotiation of this risk reveals, constructs, and interweaves various boundary discourses.
Leeners, Brigitte; Bieli, Simone; Huang, Dorothy; Tschudin, Sibil
Abortion rates have declined in recent decades; however, the rate of repeat abortion remains high. In order to identify keys to making efficient interventions against repeat abortion, our objectives were: to assess the percentage of repeat abortions in women opting for termination of pregnancy over a period of 1 year; to identify the risk factors for repeat abortion; and to assess the characteristics of women who opted for a further pregnancy termination despite having received standard post-abortion care. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was carried out among 362 women who underwent pregnancy termination during a 1-year period. Women with and without repeat abortion were compared with regard to age, nationality, marital status, parity and use of contraception. In a subsample of 160 women who were available for follow-up over 4 years, those who underwent a further pregnancy termination during the observation period were also analysed qualitatively. The rate of repeat abortion was 30.1% in the survey population. Age and immigrant status were identified as risk factors. The use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) was significantly higher after repeat abortion than after a first termination of pregnancy. Among women with repeat abortion in the follow-up group, those with psychological problems tended to discontinue contraception and those with partnership conflicts were prone to using unreliable contraceptive methods. Aside from promoting LARC methods, strategies to reduce repeat abortion should consider the psychosocial risk factors and characteristics of women at risk identified in this study. An interdisciplinary approach including social care and counselling would be the most appropriate means to enable this.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study sought to determine if there were gender differences in the impact of five psychosocial risk and protective factors for adolescent alcohol use. The five factors considered by the study were family relationships, self-esteem, peer pressure, religious involvement and school performance. Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study which utilized a 96-item self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire captured key demographic and alcohol-related information. It also consisted of three standardized scales: the Cernkovich and Giordano’s Family Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the CAGE questionnaire. Data were collected from students 12−18 years old in three schools in the Kingston and St Andrew area in Jamaica. Results: There were 240 participants in the study, 121 males and 119 females. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between male and female adolescent alcohol use in the last 30 days. There was also no significant difference between male and female adolescent risk of substance abuse. Logistic regression analysis of risk factor for each gender revealed that for males, their family relationship, peer pressure and self-esteem were significant predictors for alcohol use, while for females, peer pressure and school performance were significant predictors for alcohol use. Religious involvement was not found to be a significant protective factor for either gender. Conclusion: Gender differences in risk and protective factors exist among Jamaican adolescents. Further research needs to be done to determine the extent of these differences which need to be considered in the development of prevention and intervention programmes.
Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D
Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.
McDonnell, Christina G; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K
Mother-child reminiscing, the process by which mothers and their children discuss past events and emotional experiences, has been robustly linked with child outcomes, including autobiographical memory. To advance previous work linking elaborative maternal reminiscing with child autobiographical memory specificity, the ability to generate and retrieve specific memories from one's past, it is essential to make distinctions among aspects of elaboration and to consider how maternal risk factors may influence the reminiscing context. The current study evaluated (a) an interaction between emotional and structural elaboration predicting child autobiographical memory specificity and (b) the potential moderating role of maternal adult attachment. Participants consisted of 95 preschool-aged children and their mothers. The sample was predominantly low income and racially diverse. Dyads completed a reminiscing task that was coded for emotional and structural elaboration. Mothers completed the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR-R) to assess attachment-related avoidance and anxiety, and children completed the Autobiographical Memory Test-Preschool Version (AMT-PV) to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that the association between structural reminiscing and child memory specificity was moderated by emotional elements of reminiscing. At high levels of emotional elaboration, mothers with high levels of structural elaboration had children with more specific memory than mothers with low levels of structural elaboration. Moreover, emotional elaboration (a) predicted less specific child memory without high structural support and (b) negatively predicted child specificity at high levels of maternal attachment avoidance and anxiety, a profile associated with fearful avoidance. Future directions and implications are discussed.
Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen
Objective: To examine the associations among mental health problems, maternal monitoring and permissiveness, mother-daughter communication and attachment, and sexual behaviors among African American girls receiving outpatient psychiatric care. Youths with mental health problems report higher rates of HIV-risk behavior than do their peers, and…
Pagani, Linda S.; Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel; Zoccolillo, Mark; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre
Contributing to the family violence and conflict literature, we examine prospective and concurrent risk factors associated with verbal and physical aggression toward mothers by 15/16 year-old adolescent sons and daughters. Data from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children is used to examine the influence of socioeconomic factors,…
Satterfield, Margaret J.; Yasumura, Kathleen
Two teaching strategies for helping mothers of high risk neonates acquire a method of encouraging infant head control were compared. Both guided learning groups (who received either demonstration only or demonstration and simulation) performed better than did the control group. (Author/DB)
Stauder, Adrienne; Nistor, Katalin; Zakor, Tünde; Szabó, Anita; Nistor, Anikó; Ádám, Szilvia; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna
To determine national reference values for the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) across occupational sectors and develop a composite score to estimate the cumulative effect of multiple work-related stressors, in order to facilitate the implementation of occupational health directives on psychosocial risk assessment. Cross-sectional data was collected via an online questionnaire. The sample included 13,104 individuals and was representative of the general Hungarian adult working population in terms of gender, age, education, and occupation. Mean scores were calculated for 18 scales on work environment and for 5 outcome scales of the COPSOQ II across 18 occupational sectors. We analyzed the association between a composite psychosocial risk score (CPRS), reflecting severity of exposure to multiple risk factors, and high stress, burnout, sleep troubles, and poor self-rated health. We found occupation-related differences in the mean scores on all COPSOQ II scales. Scores on the "Stress" scale ranged from 47.9 to 56.2, with the highest mean score in accommodation and food services sector. Variability was greatest with respect to emotional demands (range 40.3-67.6) and smallest with respect to role clarity (range 70.3-75.7). The prevalence of negative health outcomes increased with the CPRS. Five risk categories were formed, for which the odds ratio of negative outcomes ranged from 1.6 to 56.5. The sector-specific psychosocial risk profiles covering 18 work environmental factors can be used as a reference in organizational surveys and international comparisons. The CPRS proved to be a powerful predictor of self-reported negative health outcomes.
Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.
Lim, Robert H; Kobzik, Lester; Dahl, Morten
Many human epidemiologic studies demonstrate that maternal asthma confers greater risk of asthma to offspring than does paternal disease. However, a handful have shown the opposite. Given this disparity, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity and magnitude of the "maternal effect."...
Peltonen, Kirsi; Ellonen, Noora; Pösö, Tarja; Lucas, Steven
The universal aim of decreasing parental violence against children requires the detection of risk factors associated with violent behavior among parents. Although research has identified a number of such risk factors, these findings are scattered and a comprehensive picture is lacking. In the present study, 20 child-, parent- and family-related factors have been included in a combined analysis to assess which of these may pose as risk factors for mothers' severe violent behavior toward their children. The study is based on a representative sample of 2,716 Finnish mothers with 0-12-year-old children and was conducted as an anonymous survey. Analyses were carried out using logistic regression models. 6% of the mothers had committed severe violent acts, i.e. slapped, hit, punched (with a fist), kicked, bit, hit/try to hit the child with an object or shook (under 2 year old) child at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Corporal punishment experienced by the mother as a child (OR 2.45, CI 1.55-3.88) or used by the mother as a method of discipline (OR 11.14, CI 5.95-20.87), strongly increased the likelihood of severe violent acts. Additionally, work- or family-related stress (OR 1.83, CI 1.24-2.73) and lack of help in dealing with parenting problems (OR 2.55, CI 1.66-3.90) were detected as risk factors for severe violent acts toward one's own child. The findings suggest that prevention of corporal punishment may be an important hinder to the transmission of experiences of violence from one generation to another, and that contextual and situational factors may overlap the influence of individual-related risk factors.
Leslie B. Hammer
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based, followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety.
Full Text Available Background: Neuropathy is the mostly prevalent of complications and the major cause of amputation, pain and disability in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of individual, psycho-social, and disease-related risk factors in neuropathy of type 2 diabetes patients.Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 271 patients with type 2 diabetes were selected by convenience sampling in diabetic outpatient clinics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and the Iranian Diabetic Association. The data were collected by demographical and disease characteristics questionnaires and DASS-42, QOLS, DSMS, and DKS scales. Then, the data were analyzed by r binary logistic regression along with PASW software.Results: Socio-economic status, glycosylated hemoglobin, body mass index, diabetes self-management, depression, quality of life, diabetes knowledge, and diabetes duration were significantly able to differentiate diabetic patients with neuropathy from diabetic patients without neuropathy (p0.05. The total regression model explained that 95.2% of cases were classified correctly.Conclusion: Inappropriate socio-economic status, glycosylated hemoglobin over 9%, being overweight and obesity, poor diabetes self-management, clinical depression, low quality of life, poor diabetes knowledge, and longer diabetes duration contribute to the incidence of neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes and attention must be paid to them for neuropathy prevention.
Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos
Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided.
Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy
The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703
Smith, Timothy W; Traupman, Emily K; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A
Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of 3 risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension.
Vlachová, Zuzana; Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine;
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate metabolic risk factors, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared with offspring of non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: During 1993-1999, pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes in Denmark were...... with offspring metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes had a less favourable metabolic profile and higher frequency of prediabetes than the background population. Significant associations between these outcomes and maternal HbA1c levels in pregnancy...... The Danish Central Office of Civil Registration and matched with respect to date of birth, sex and postal code. Anthropometric measurements and blood sampling for metabolic characterisation, including an oral glucose tolerance test, were performed. RESULTS: We examined 278 index offspring (mean age 16...
Amin, Nur Azma; Nordin, Rusli; Fatt, Quek Kia; Noah, Rahim M; Oxley, Jennifer
This study examined the relationships between psychosocial work factors and risk of WRMSDs among public hospital nurses in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 660 public hospital nurses. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the occurrence of WRMSDs according to body regions, socio-demographic profiles, occupational information and psychosocial risk factors. 468 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 71%), and 376 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. Univariate analyses were applied to test for mean and categorical differences across the WRMSDs; multiple logistic regression was applied to predict WRMSDs based on the Job Strain Model's psychosocial risk factors. Over two thirds of the sample of nurses experienced discomfort or pain in at least one site of the musculoskeletal system within the last year. The neck was the most prevalent site (48.94%), followed by the feet (47.20%), the upper back (40.69%) and the lower back (35.28%). More than 50% of the nurses complained of having discomfort in region one (neck, shoulders and upperback) and region four (hips, knees, ankles, and feet). The results also revealed that psychological job demands, job strain and iso-strain ratio demonstrated statistically significant mean differences (p Malaysia.
Ansoleaga, Elisa; Díaz, Ximena; Mauro, Amalia
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of work-related stress in Chile and its association with exposure to workplace psychosocial risks and quality of employment, considering gender differences. The cross-sectional study included a representative probabilistic national sample of 3,010 salaried workers (1,486 women and 1,524 men). Eighteen percent reported work-related stress (23.8% of women and 14.8% of men). People exposed to psychosocial risks had a higher probability of experiencing stress, and women were more likely to suffer stress than men. Women and men in precarious work showed increased likelihood of distress, compared to workers with less precarious jobs. However, women in precarious jobs were more likely to suffer stress than men in the same situation. The study concluded that women had more precarious jobs, experienced greater exposure to psychosocial risks, and suffered more stress than men. This is evidence of double discrimination (social and gender-based) in the Chilean labor market.
Zeman, Janice; Dallaire, Danielle; Borowski, Sarah
Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9% boys, 61.7% Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6 - 12), their 118 mothers (64.1% Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 63.2% Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socialization strategies were assessed in their interaction with incarceration-specific risk experiences predicting children's adjustment. For sadness socialization, the results indicated that among children reporting maternal emotion-focused responses, incarceration-specific risk predicted increases in psychological problems, depressive symptoms, increased emotional lability, and poorer emotion regulation. For children who perceived a problem-focused response, incarceration-specific risk did not predict outcomes. There were no significant interactions with incarceration-specific risk and perceived maternal anger socialization strategies. These results indicate a critical need to examine how socialization processes may operate differently for children raised in atypical socializing contexts.
Spyridou, Andria; Schauer, Maggie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina
Prenatal assessment for psychosocial risk factors and prevention and intervention is scarce and, in most cases, nonexistent in obstetrical care. In this study we aimed to evaluate if the KINDEX, a short instrument developed in Germany, is a useful tool in the hands of non-trained medical staff, in order to identify and refer women in psychosocial risk to the adequate mental health and social services. We also examined the criterion-related concurrent validity of the tool through a validation interview carried out by an expert clinical psychologist. Our final objective was to achieve the cultural adaptation of the KINDEX Greek Version and to offer a valid tool for the psychosocial risk assessment to the obstetric care providers. Two obstetricians and five midwives carried out 93 KINDEX interviews (duration 20 minutes) with pregnant women to assess psychosocial risk factors present during pregnancy. Afterwards they referred women who they identified having two or more psychosocial risk factors to the mental health attention unit of the hospital. During the validation procedure an expert clinical psychologist carried out diagnostic interviews with a randomized subsample of 50 pregnant women based on established diagnostic instruments for stress and psychopathology, like the PSS-14, ESI, PDS, HSCL-25. Significant correlations between the results obtained through the assessment using the KINDEX and the risk areas of stress, psychopathology and trauma load assessed in the validation interview demonstrate the criterion-related concurrent validity of the KINDEX. The referral accuracy of the medical staff is confirmed through comparisons between pregnant women who have and have not been referred to the mental health attention unit. Prenatal screenings for psychosocial risks like the KINDEX are feasible in public health settings in Greece. In addition, validity was confirmed in high correlations between the KINDEX results and the results of the validation interviews. The
Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of psychosocial risk factors on population health and health inequalities has featured prominently in epidemiological research literature as well as public health policy strategies. We have conducted a meta-review (a review of reviews exploring how psychosocial factors may relate to population health in home and community settings. Methods Systematic review (QUORUM of literature reviews (published in any language or country on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised. Results Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations – and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health. Conclusion From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity. However, significant long-term morbidity also exists for the mother and offspring. Women with previous GDM have a very high risk of developing overt diabetes, primarily type 2...... diabetes, later in life. Moreover, the risk of the metabolic syndrome is increased 3-fold in these women. Their offspring have an 8-fold risk of diabetes/prediabetes at 19-27 years of age. Thus, GDM is part of a vicious circle which increases the development of diabetes in the coming generations....
Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Maas, A Janneke B M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A
Parents' representations of their infants consist of parents' subjective experiences of how they perceive their infants. They provide important information about the quality of the parent-infant relationship and are closely related to parenting behavior and infant attachment. Previous studies have shown that parents' representations emerge during pregnancy. However, little is known about prenatal (risk) factors that are related to parents' representations. In a prospective study, 308 mothers and 243 fathers were followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Prenatal risk factors were assessed with an adapted version of the Dunedin Family Services Indicator (T.G. Egan et al., ; R.C. Muir et al., ). At 26 weeks' gestation and 6 months' postpartum, parents' representations of their children were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, L. Hirshberg, M.L. Barton, & C. Regan). Results showed stability between pre- and postnatal representations, with fathers having more disengaged representations than did mothers. In addition, prenatal risk factors of parenting problems were associated with the quality of parents' prenatal (only in mothers) and postnatal representations. This study provides valuable information concerning parents at risk of developing nonbalanced representations of their children. In clinical practice, these families could be monitored more intensively and may be supported in developing a more optimal parent-infant relationship. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Kuznetsova, Anna V; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Musatov, Vladimir B; Pirogov, Dmitry G
Russia has seen one of the world's fastest-growing HIV epidemics. Transmission risk behavior, HAART-taking, and psychosocial distress of the growing population of Russian people living with HIV (PLH) in the HAART era are understudied. Participants of a systematically-recruited cross-sectional sample of 492 PLH in St. Petersburg completed measures of sexual and drug injection practices, adherence, perceived discrimination, and psychosocial distress. Since learning of their status, 58% of participants had partners of HIV-negative or unknown serostatus (mean = 5.8). About 52% reported unprotected intercourse with such partners, with 30% of acts unprotected. Greater perceived discrimination predicted lower condom use. A 47% of IDU PLH still shared needles, predicted by having no primary partner, lower education, and more frequently-encountered discrimination. Twenty-five percentage of PLH had been refused general health care, 11% refused employment, 7% fired, and 6% forced from family homes. Thirty-nine percentage of participants had probable clinical depression, 37% had anxiety levels comparable to psychiatric inpatients, and social support was low. Of the 54% of PLH who were offered HAART, 16% refused HAART regimens, and 5% of those on the therapy took less than 90% of their doses. Comprehensive community services for Russian PLH are needed to reduce AIDS-related psychosocial distress and continued HIV transmission risk behaviors. Social programs should reduce stigma and discrimination, and promote social integration of affected persons and their families.
Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S. Leonard
Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent “perceived social mobility.” Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories. PMID:25932460
Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C H; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S Leonard
Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent "perceived social mobility." Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.
Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub
Full Text Available Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent perceived social mobility. Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1 projected future social status and (2 current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥ 4 hours of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.
Montalvão-de-Azevedo, Rafaela; Vasconcelos, Gisele M; Vargas, Fernando R; Thuler, Luiz Claudio; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; de Camargo, Beatriz
Embryonic tumors are associated with an interruption during normal organ development; they may be related to disturbances in the folate pathway involved in DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Prenatal supplementation with folic acid is associated with a decreased risk of neuroblastoma, brain tumors, retinoblastoma, and nephroblastoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR rs1801133 (C677T) and RFC-1 rs1051266 (G80A) genotypes with the risk of developing nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma. Case-mother/control-mother dyad study. Samples from Brazilian children with nephroblastoma (n=80), neuroblastoma (n=66), healthy controls (n=453), and their mothers (case n=93; control n=75) were analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells and/or buccal cells and genotyped to identify MTHFR C677T and RFC-1 G80A polymorphisms. Differences in genotype distribution between patients and controls were tested by multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk for nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma was two- to fourfold increased among children with RFC-1 polymorphisms. An increased four- to eightfold risk for neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma was seen when the child and maternal genotypes were combined. Our results suggest that mother and child RFC-1 G80A genotypes play a role on the risk of neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma since this polymorphism may impair the intracellular levels of folate, through carrying fewer folate molecules to the cell interior, and thus, the intracellular concentration is not enough to maintain regular DNA synthesis and methylation pathways.
Chevalier, Anne; Dessery, Michel; Boursier, Marie-Françoise; Grizon, Marie Catherine; Jayet, Christian; Reymond, Catherine; Thiebot, Michelle; Zeme-Ramirez, Monique; Calvez, Thierry
Little is known about the real impact of working conditions on the health of call center employees. The aim of this article is to describe the working conditions of French electricity and gas company customer service teams, especially those spending more than 75% of their working time handling calls in order to determine their subjective experience of their work and identify situations at risk of psychosocial constraints. A cross-sectional study using a self-completion questionnaire was conducted on a representative sample of 2,000 employees working in customer service centers. The questions focused on the variety of tasks performed, the organization of working time, the physical environment of the workstation, violent situations and psychosocial factors (Job Content Questionnaire). Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the wish to leave the sector and with a high level of psychosocial constraints. Women made up 66% of the sample. Despite a high educational level, the average socio-professional level of the employees was relatively low. Although the vast majority of employees had chosen this career (74%), just over half would like to leave. The main factors associated with iso-strain were inadequate breaks (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0), low perceived quality of work (OR = 2.4), high proportion of working time spent handling calls (≥75% of working time: OR = 5.9, between 50 and customers (often or very often: OR = 1.8) and an unsatisfactory workplace (OR = 2.0). Employees who spend more than 75% of their working time on the phone cumulate every factor linked with a high level of constraints, but all employees of the EDF and Gaz de France customer service centers are concerned. These workers share many characteristics with other call centers: predominantly female workforce; high educational level; wish to leave this sector despite the initial choice; high level of psychosocial risk factors.
Koniak-Griffin, D; Brecht, M L
This survey examined the relationships of sexual risk taking to substance use and AIDS knowledge in pregnant adolescents (n = 58) and nonpregnant young mothers (n = 93). Subjects were from predominantly minority backgrounds, were single, and ranged in age from 12 to 20 years (M = 16.64). A number of high-risk behaviors were reported, including substance use during pregnancy and early parenthood, unprotected sexual relations, and multiple (lifetime) sex partners. Current pregnancy status, history of marijuana use, and ethnicity were strong predictors of having had multiple sex partners. Odds ratios suggested that Black adolescents were many times more likely than Whites to have had multiple sex partners. Pregnant adolescents were less likely than young mothers (nonpregnant) to have had multiple sex partners but more likely to have unprotected sex (i.e., without use of a condom). Conversely, young mothers were more likely to have multiple sex partners and less likely to have unprotected sex than were pregnant adolescents. Those with a history of marijuana use were more likely to have had multiple sex partners than were adolescents who had never used this drug. AIDS knowledge was not a significant predictor of high-risk sexual behavior.
van Vliet-Ruissen, Cora; McKinlay, Audrey; Taylor, Annabel
There is little information regarding the impact that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has on the functioning of mothers at risk of child abuse. This study evaluated adult functioning (e.g. child abuse, substance use, criminal convictions, and mental health problems) of mothers, at high risk for child abuse, who also had a history of TBI compared with those without TBI. It was hypothesised that mothers with a history of TBI would engage in higher rates of dysfunctional behaviour compared to those with no history of TBI. Participants were 206 women engaged in a child abuse prevention programme for mothers who are highly socially disadvantaged, and at high risk for child abuse. Using historical data collected as part of the referral, and self report intake process, this study compared child abuse, mental health problems (depression, anxiety, substance use) and rates of criminal offending for mothers with a history of TBI versus those with no history of TBI. Mothers with TBI were no more likely than those without TBI to have engaged in child abuse. However, mothers with a history of TBI were significantly more likely to have one or more mental health problems, engage in substance use and have a history of criminal offending. Parents with TBI who have been identified as high risk for engaging in child abuse have increased risk for mental health problems and criminal offending. These issues need to be considered when designing parenting programmes in order for intervention strategies to be effective.
Zimmermann, Peter; Vierhaus, Marc; Eickhorst, Andreas; Sann, Alexandra; Egger, Carine; Förthner, Judith; Gerlach, Jennifer; Iwanski, Alexandra; Liel, Christoph; Podewski, Fritz; Wyrwich, Sandra; Spangler, Gottfried
Family adversity comprises many risk factors for parents and children. The German early intervention approach Frühe Hilfen aims at providing enduring, effective, and scientifically validated prevention and intervention for effective child protection against those risks. The study on risk and protective mechanisms in the development of families with diverse psychosocial risks aims at identifying those mechanisms that cause and stabilize or moderate and diminish maltreatment and neglect, as well as cognitive, social, and emotional developmental deviations in risk families, specifically in the current German social and child protection system. The study examines the development of competence and early behavior problems in a sample of infants and toddlers and the interaction quality with their caregivers by applying a longitudinal sequential-cohort design. The assessments include developmental tests, systematic observations, and questionnaire data. First results suggest stable risk group membership and moderate stability of single risk factors.
Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.
In this chapter, we discuss both the appeal and psychosocial consequences of different types of Internet communication, such as instant messaging and social network sites. We identify five characteristics of Internet communication that may explain both the attraction of Internet communication for
Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.
In this chapter, we discuss both the appeal and psychosocial consequences of different types of Internet communication, such as instant messaging and social network sites. We identify five characteristics of Internet communication that may explain both the attraction of Internet communication for ad
Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.
In this chapter, we discuss both the appeal and psychosocial consequences of different types of Internet communication, such as instant messaging and social network sites. We identify five characteristics of Internet communication that may explain both the attraction of Internet communication for ad
Oeij, P.R.A.; Morvan, E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Vaas, F.; Wiezer, N.
From 24-26 November 2004, the 6h Annual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology ‘Healthy, Efficient & Productive Organisations’ was held in Oporto, Portugal. During this conference, the Workshop ‘Organisational interventions to combat psychosocial factors of stress’ was
24) found that for men, having preschool aged children negatively impacted health while having a preschool aged child had protective functions for...2 Psychosocial Factors in the Development of CAD and...177 billion in 2011 (1). Therefore, the study of the contributing factors involved in the development of CAD may ultimately lead to development of
Full Text Available Every person between 0-18 years old is respected as child according to Children Wellness Protocol. To be pregnant and to give birth are not less among children at these age group in the world. Children of underage mother are less healthy and with more risk of abuse and nourishment problem than other children. They live in low socioeconomical level and most of them may have criminal behaviour in future. In Turkey, data and statistical knowledge about teenage mother is not adequate. This artical gives attention to importance of legal arrangement which affects health of underage mother and her child. New legal arrangements about underage mother must be put into practice in order to protect underage mother and her child urgently and more studies are needed to determine situation of underage mothers in Turkey. Key words: Child, underage mothers, pregnancy
Li, Michael Jonathan; Distefano, Anthony; Mouttapa, Michele; Gill, Jasmeet K
The present study aimed to determine whether the experience of bias-motivated bullying was associated with behaviors known to increase the risk of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) aged 18-29, and to assess whether the psychosocial problems moderated this relationship. Using an Internet-based direct marketing approach in sampling, we recruited 545 YMSM residing in the USA to complete an online questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses tested three regression models where we controlled for sociodemographics. The first model indicated that bullying during high school was associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse within the past 12 months, while the second model indicated that bullying after high school was associated with engaging in anal intercourse while under the influence of drugs or alcohol in the past 12 months. In the final regression model, our composite measure of HIV risk behavior was found to be associated with lifetime verbal harassment. None of the psychosocial problems measured in this study - depression, low self-esteem, and internalized homonegativity - moderated any of the associations between bias-motivated bullying victimization and HIV risk behaviors in our regression models. Still, these findings provide novel evidence that bullying prevention programs in schools and communities should be included in comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention among YMSM.
Kumar, R; Aggarwal, A K; Kaur, M; Iyengar, S D
In a cross-sectional survey, 3746 children aged less than 6 years residing in 47 randomly selected villages of district Ambala (India), were studied to find out the environmental risk factors influencing psychosocial development. A culture appropriate test battery comprising 67 test items was administered, and psychosocial development score of each child was computed by scoring each test item passed as 1 and failed as 0. At each age level children having score in lower quartile were categorised as having slow psychosocial development and those in upper quartile were labelled as having accelerated development. Logistic regression revealed that per capita income, education of mother, nutritional status of the child, number of rooms and environmental hygiene in the house, presence of a high school within easy travel distance, availability of a caretaker when mother is busy, child attending a nursery (anganwadi), households having access to newspaper, child having toys or toy substitutes, TV, books, story telling by the mother were found to have a significant association with psychosocial development of preschool children. The risk factors identified in this survey can be used for screening families at risk in rural communities and for selection of interventions for promotion of psychosocial development of children.
Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of individual characteristics and physical and psychosocial workplace factors on neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy prevails about the importance of workplace...... factors versus individual factors in the etiology of pain in the neck and/or shoulders. METHODS: Study participants were 3123 workers from 19 plants. Physical risk factors were evaluated via video observations, and psychosocial risk factors were assessed with the job content questionnaire. Other...... force (2.3, 1.4-4.0). The strongest work-related psychosocial risk was high job demands (1.8, 1.2-2.7). Increased risk was also associated with neck/shoulder injury (2.6, 1.6-4.1), female gender (1.8, 1.2-2.8), and low pressure pain threshold (1.6, 1.1-2.3). Neck/shoulder pain was strongly associated...
Heraclides, A.; Chandola, T.; Witte, Daniel Rinse
OBJECTIVE - To investigate the effect of psychosocial stress at work on risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for conventional risk factors, among a sample of British, white-collar, middle-aged men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This was a prospective analysis (19912004) from the Whitehall...... phases. The job strain and iso-strain models were used to assess psychosocial work stress. RESULTS - iso-strain in the workplace was associated with a twofold higher risk of type 2 diabetes in age-adjusted analysis in women but not in men (hazard ratio 1.94 [95% CI 1.17-3.21]). This effect remained...... robust to adjustment for socioeconomic position and outside work stressors and was only attenuated by 20% after adjustment for health behaviors, obesity, and other type 2 diabetes risk factors. CONCLUSIONS - Psychosocial work stress was an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes among women after a 15...
McElroy, Erika M.; Rodriguez, Christina M.
Objective: Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model ([Milner, 1993] and [Milner, 2000]), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Methods: Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old…
Jacobs, Robin J; Kane, Michael N
Self-esteem is linked to high-risk behaviors in other populations but has not been examined in women aged 50 and older. This study explored how self-esteem is related to variables that can influence high-risk sexual behaviors in women over 50. A multiethnic community-based sample of 572 women aged 50 and older completed an anonymous questionnaire on sexual behaviors, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychosocial measures relevant to midlife and older women. Regression analysis showed sensation-seeking, HIV stigma, sexual assertiveness, and self-silencing predicted self-esteem in women over 50 (F = 43.632, p self-esteem and may be contributing to HIV risk in this group.
Ilić, Ivana M; Arandjelović, Mirjana Ž; Jovanović, Jovica M; Nešić, Milkica M
Psychosocial risks represent a great challenge for safety and health protection at work in Europe. The purpose of this study has been to determine the relationships of psychosocial risks arising from work, stress, personal characteristics and burnout among physicians and nurses in the Emergency Medical Service (EMS). We performed a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey which contained the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). A total of 88 physicians and 80 nurses completed the survey. Physicians demonstrated higher emotional (mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD) = 74.57±16.85) and cognitive (M±SD = 75.95±13.74) demands as compared to nurses. Both groups had high sensory demands and responsibilities at work, in spite of the low degree of their autonomy. The meaning of work, commitment to the workplace, and insecurity at work were high for both groups. Among all participants, stressful behavior and reactions were within the limits of low values ( 60). Personal and patient-related burnout was high for both groups, where physicians were significantly affected by work-related burnout. The influence at work, degree of freedom at work, social support, sense of coherence, mental health, and problem-focused coping are negatively related to work-related burnout. Based on personal factors and coping styles, emergency physicians and nurses are representing a self-selective professional group that meets high work demands, great responsibility, strong commitment and insecurity at work. Burnout of physicians and nurses in the EMS tends to be ignored, although it has severe consequences on their mental and general health. Med Pr 2017;68(2):178-178.
Pereira, Mariana; Negrão, Mariana; Soares, Isabel; Mesman, Judi
This study tested the effectiveness of the attachment-based program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD; F. Juffer, M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, & M.H. van IJzendoorn, 2008) in decreasing harsh discipline of 43 mothers and their 1- to 4-year-old-children from severely deprived families. Based on previous studies, parenting stress was tested as a potential moderator of intervention effects on harsh discipline. Using a randomized control design, maternal harsh discipline was observed during home visits at the pretest and posttest, and mothers filled in questionnaires at both assessments. The VIPP-SD proved to be effective in decreasing maternal harsh discipline, but only for mothers who experienced higher levels of parenting stress at intake. These findings provide support for the program's ability to improve parenting in families who are most at risk for harsh parenting and for potentially maltreating child-parent interactions. The results are discussed in terms of the VIPP-SD elements most relevant to decreasing harsh discipline, and the challenges of parenting interventions in severely deprived populations.
Aminian, Mohammad; Dianat, Iman; Miri, Anvar; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad
Background: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) is a widely used tool for evaluation of psychosocial risk factors at work. The aims of this study were to describe the short version of Farsi COPSOQ and to present its psychometric properties. Methods: A total of 427 administrative health care staff participated in this descriptive methodological study. Forward–backward procedure was adopted to translate the questionnaire from English into Farsi. Content validity was assessed by a panel of 10 experts. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC), respectively. The feasibility was assessed using ceiling and floor effect. Results: The short version of Farsi COPSOQ was configured with 16 dimensions (32 items).Content validity of the questionnaire was established. Factor analysis supported the conceptual multi-dimensionality (four factors), and therefore confirmed the construct validity of the Farsi COPSOQ. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α ranging between 0.75 and 0.89) and test retest reliability (ICC values ranged from 0.75 to 0.89) were both approved and the results showed no ceiling or floor effect. Conclusion: The results support the use of Farsi COPSOQ for evaluation of psychological risks and for research purposes in Iranian population. PMID:28058236
Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students and to identify any associated psychosocial risk factors. The present study was constructed using a cross-sectional design with 3,616 participants. Participants were surveyed during the middle of the spring and fall semesters and recruited from colleges around Taiwan using stratified and cluster random sampling methods. Associations between Internet addiction and psychosocial risk factors were examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of Internet addiction was found to be 15.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14.1 percent to 16.5 percent). More depressive symptoms, higher positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, higher Internet usage time, lower refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, higher impulsivity, lower satisfaction with academic performance, being male, and insecure attachment style were positively correlated with Internet addiction. The prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan was high, and the variables mentioned were independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. This study can be used as a reference for policy making regarding the design of Internet addiction prevention programs and can also aid in the development of strategies designed to help Internet-addicted college students.
Hannah L Pincham
Full Text Available Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32 or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32 passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images. Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change.
Marchi, J; Berg, M; Dencker, A; Olander, E K; Begley, C
Maternal obesity is linked with adverse outcomes for mothers and babies. To get an overview of risks related to obesity in pregnant women, a systematic review of reviews was conducted. For inclusion, reviews had to compare pregnant women of healthy weight with women with obesity, and measure a health outcome for mother and/or baby. Authors conducted full-text screening, quality assurance using the AMSTAR tool and data extraction steps in pairs. Narrative analysis of the 22 reviews included show gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, depression, instrumental and caesarean birth, and surgical site infection to be more likely to occur in pregnant women with obesity compared with women with a healthy weight. Maternal obesity is also linked to greater risk of preterm birth, large-for-gestational-age babies, foetal defects, congenital anomalies and perinatal death. Furthermore, breastfeeding initiation rates are lower and there is greater risk of early breastfeeding cessation in women with obesity compared with healthy weight women. These adverse outcomes may result in longer duration of hospital stay, with concomitant resource implications. It is crucial to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and foetal/child outcomes caused by maternal obesity. Women with obesity need support to lose weight before they conceive, and to minimize their weight gain in pregnancy.
Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters
position (SEP). To elucidate the mechanisms by which SEP is associated with inflammation, I studied how education, income and occupational prestige are associated with inflammation in postmenopausal women. Materials & Methods: This thesis is based on data from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank...... objective of the thesis was to explore socioeconomic, psychosocial and developmental risk factors in relation to inflammation and T2DM. In terms of developmental risk factors I addressed how body weight within and across generations is associated with inflammation in late middle aged men......, the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study. All three of the data sets included comprehensive life style, socioeconomic and health status measurements and a clinical examination. The two main statistical methods employed in this thesis are path analysis...
Postnatal depression - an examination of psychosocial factors. ... South African Medical Journal ... pregnancy, complications after birth, marital relations, relationship with their own mothers, social support and preparation for motherhood.
Greenwald, Jeffrey L; Cronin, Patrick R; Carballo, Victoria; Danaei, Goodarz; Choy, Garry
With the increasing focus on reducing hospital readmissions in the United States, numerous readmissions risk prediction models have been proposed, mostly developed through analyses of structured data fields in electronic medical records and administrative databases. Three areas that may have an impact on readmission but are poorly captured using structured data sources are patients' physical function, cognitive status, and psychosocial environment and support. The objective of the study was to build a discriminative model using information germane to these 3 areas to identify hospitalized patients' risk for 30-day all cause readmissions. We conducted clinician focus groups to identify language used in the clinical record regarding these 3 areas. We then created a dataset including 30,000 inpatients, 10,000 from each of 3 hospitals, and searched those records for the focus group-derived language using natural language processing. A 30-day readmission prediction model was developed on 75% of the dataset and validated on the other 25% and also on hospital specific subsets. Focus group language was aggregated into 35 variables. The final model had 16 variables, a validated C-statistic of 0.74, and was well calibrated. Subset validation of the model by hospital yielded C-statistics of 0.70-0.75. Deriving a 30-day readmission risk prediction model through identification of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial issues using natural language processing yielded a model that performs similarly to the better performing models previously published with the added advantage of being based on clinically relevant factors and also automated and scalable. Because of the clinical relevance of the variables in the model, future research may be able to test if targeting interventions to identified risks results in reductions in readmissions.
Furman, Lydia M; Banks, Elizabeth C; North, Angela B
This study identified barriers to breastfeeding among high-risk inner-city African-American mothers. We used audiotaped focus groups moderated by an experienced International Board Certified Lactation Consultant, with recruitment supported by the community partner MomsFirst™ (Cleveland Department of Public Health, Cleveland, OH). Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent were obtained. Notes-based analysis was conducted with use of a prior analytic structure called Factors Influencing Beliefs (FIBs), redefined with inclusion/exclusion criteria to address breastfeeding issues. Three focus groups included 20 high-risk inner-city expectant and delivered mothers. Relevant FIBs domains were as follows: Risk Appraisal, Self Perception, Relationship Issues/Social Support, and Structural/Environmental Factors. Risk Appraisal themes included awareness of benefits, fear of pain, misconceptions, and lack of information. Self Perception themes included low self-efficacy with fear of social isolation and limited expression of positive self-esteem. Relationship Issues/Social Support themes included formula as a cultural norm, worries about breastfeeding in public, and challenging family relationships. Structural/Environmental Factors themes included negative postpartum hospital experiences and lack of support after going home. Several findings have been previously reported, such as fear of pain with breastfeeding, but we identified new themes, including self-esteem and self-efficacy, and new concerns, for example, that large breasts would suffocate a breastfeeding infant. The FIBs analytic framework, as modified for breastfeeding issues, creates a context for future analysis and comparison of related studies and may be a useful tool to improve understanding of barriers to breastfeeding among high-risk inner-city women.
Keefe, Robert H; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Rouland Polmanteer, Rebecca S
This article identifies variables at the micro/individual, mezzo/partner/spouse and family, and macro/health care-system levels that inhibit mothers at risk for perinatal mood disorders from accessing health and mental health care services. Specific recommendations are made for conducting thorough biopsychosocial assessments that address the mothers' micro-, mezzo-, and macro-level contexts. Finally, the authors provide suggestions for how to intervene at the various levels to remove access barriers for mothers living with perinatal mood disorders as well as their families.
Gholami, Tahereh; Pahlavian, Ahmad Heidari; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Motamedzade, Majid; Moghaddam, Rashid Heidari
This study examined the hypothesis that burnout syndrome mediates effects of psychosocial risk factors and intensity of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among hospital nurses. The sample was composed of 415 nurses from various wards across five hospitals of Iran's Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected through three questionnaires: job content questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory and visual analogue scale. Results of structural equation modeling with a mediating effect showed that psychosocial risk factors were significantly related to changes in burnout, which in turn affects intensity of MSDs.
Workplace bullying has been shown to be a severe social stressor at work, resulting in high costs both for the individuals and organizations concerned. The aim of this study is to analyze risk factors in a large, nationally representative sample of Finnish employees (n = 4,392). The study makes three important contributions to the existing literature on workplace bullying: first, it demonstrates the role of the physical work environment alongside the psychosocial work environment - employees with a poor physical work environment are more likely than others to report having been subjected to or having observed bullying. Second, contrary to common assumptions, the results suggest that performance-based pay is associated with a lower, rather than higher risk of bullying. Third, the findings suggest that there are gender differences in risk factors, thereby constituting a call for more studies on the role of gender when identifying risk factors. Increased knowledge of risk factors is important as it enables us to take more effective measures to decrease the risk of workplace bullying.
Pham, Anh; Hardie, Thomas
To define the relationship between gender of the first-born child and mood in Asian American mothers. A secondary analysis was used to address the objectives of the study. The sample was obtained from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) of 40 states in the United States. The sample included 1,310 women of Asian origin who delivered their first children during the prior 2- to 4-month period. Based on data from the PRAMS survey mailed 2- to 4-months postpartum, participants were selected for inclusion in the study sample from those who had given birth to their first children and were of Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, or other Asian origin. Chi squared analyses and an independent sample t test were used to assess the relationship between the child's sex and the mother's response to three PRAM mood questions; a single score was generated by summing the responses to the three questions. There were no significant (p > .05) differences in rate of mood symptoms or the means of the aggregated score related to a child's gender. The study findings are similar to those reported in the United Kingdom and suggest that the cultural preference for a son is not a significant mood risk in Asian American women. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Beeber, Linda S; Schwartz, Todd A; Martinez, Maria I; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Bledsoe, Sarah E; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia S
Low-income mothers develop depressive symptoms at higher rates than the general population, adding to the existing risk that economic hardship places on their infants and toddlers. Emphasizing a few key intervention targets, an approach that is especially relevant to mothers when depressive symptoms compromise their energy and concentration, can improve interventions with populations facing adversity. The goal of this study was to identify contextual risk factors that significantly contributed to depressive symptoms and that, in combination with depressive symptoms, were associated with compromised parenting. Using baseline data from 251 ethnically diverse mothers from six Early Head Start programs in the Northeastern and Southeastern US, who were recruited for a clinical trial of an in-home intervention, Belsky's ecological framework of distal to proximal levels of influence was used to organize risk factors for depressive symptoms in hierarchical regression models. Under stress, mothers of toddlers reported more severe depressive symptoms than mothers of infants, supporting the need for depressive symptom screening and monitoring past the immediate postpartum period. Multivariate models revealed intervention targets that can focus depression prevention and intervention efforts, including helping mothers reduce chronic day-to-day stressors and conflicts with significant others, and to effectively handle challenging toddler behaviors, especially in the face of regional disciplinary norms. Presence of a live-in partner was linked to more effective parenting, regardless of participants' depressive symptom severity.
Rodriguez, Christina M; Smith, Tamika L; Silvia, Paul J
The Social Information Processing (SIP) model postulates that parents undergo a series of stages in implementing physical discipline that can escalate into physical child abuse. The current study utilized a multimethod approach to investigate whether SIP factors can predict risk of parent-child aggression (PCA) in a diverse sample of expectant mothers and fathers. SIP factors of PCA attitudes, negative child attributions, reactivity, and empathy were considered as potential predictors of PCA risk; additionally, analyses considered whether personal history of PCA predicted participants' own PCA risk through its influence on their attitudes and attributions. Findings indicate that, for both mothers and fathers, history influenced attitudes but not attributions in predicting PCA risk, and attitudes and attributions predicted PCA risk; empathy and reactivity predicted negative child attributions for expectant mothers, but only reactivity significantly predicted attributions for expectant fathers. Path models for expectant mothers and fathers were remarkably similar. Overall, the findings provide support for major aspects of the SIP model. Continued work is needed in studying the progression of these factors across time for both mothers and fathers as well as the inclusion of other relevant ecological factors to the SIP model.
Full Text Available As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended.
Nogueira, Helen Cristina; Diniz, Ana Carolina Parise; Barbieri, Dechristian França; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
During the recent decades Brazil has experienced an exponential growth in the aviation sector resulting in an increasing workforce. The aircraft maintenance industry stands out, where the workers have to handle different kind of objects. The aim of this study was to evaluate psychosocial indicators as well as musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders among aircraft maintenance workers. One hundred and one employees were evaluated (32.69 ± 8.25 yr, 79.8 ± 13.4 kg, and 1.75 ± 0.07 m). Musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders were assessed through the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and a standardized physical examination. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial indicators. Results of the NMQ indicate the lower back as the most affected body region. On the other hand, the physical examination has shown clinical diagnosis of shoulder disorders. Neck, upper back and ankle/foot were also reported as painful sites. Most of workers have active work-demand profile and high work engagement levels. We suggest that musculoskeletal symptoms may be related to high biomechanical demand of the tasks performed by workers, what must be further investigated.
Charles Bitamazire Businge
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.
Wilson, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter C; Michels, Karin B
Previous studies have established that higher birthweight is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We explored whether maternal pregnancy weight gain and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), which influence birthweight, are associated with risk of breast cancer in offspring. The Nurses' Mothers case-control study of breast cancer was nested in the Nurses' Health Study I and II cohorts. Mothers of 814 nurses with and 1,809 nurses without breast cancer completed questionnaires with information on pre-pregnancy height and weight, pregnancy weight gain, and other aspects of their pregnancies with the nurse daughters. We calculated odds ratios for breast cancer using conditional logistic regression. Mean pregnancy weight gain was 23 lb, and average pre-pregnancy BMI was 21 kg/m². Mothers' weight gain during pregnancy was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Compared to women whose mothers gained 20-29 lb, women whose mothers gained less than 10 lb had a relative risk of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-1.36), adjusting for the age of the nurses. Women whose mothers gained 40 or more pounds had a relative risk of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.55-1.23). Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Women whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of 30 or more had a relative risk of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.74) compared to those with BMI less than 20. Additional adjustment for prenatal factors or for nurses' characteristics later in life had no effect on the results. The association between birthweight and breast cancer risk is likely due to factors independent of mothers' weight gain during pregnancy or pre-pregnancy BMI. Because BMIs and pregnancy weight gains were lower in this population than today, we cannot rule out associations for very high pre-pregnancy BMIs or pregnancy weight gains.
Gausia, Kaniz; Thompson, Sandra C; Nagel, Tricia; Schierhout, Gill; Matthews, Veronica; Bailie, Ross
This study explored the risk of antenatal psychosocial distress (APD) and associated potential factors and examined management aspects of risk of APD in women attending Aboriginal primary health care services in Australia. Audits of medical records of 797 pregnant women from 36 primary health centres in five jurisdictions (NSW, QLD, SA, WA and NT) were undertaken as part of a quality improvement programme. Information collected included mental health assessed by a standard screening tools, enquiry regarding social and emotional well-being (SEWB), depression management (including antidepressant medications) and referral. Around 18% (n=141) of women were at risk of APD based on assessment using a standard screening tool or by SEWB enquiry. There was a significant association between risk of distress and women's life style behaviours (e.g., alcohol, illicit drug use) and health centre characteristics. Of the 141 women, 16% (n= 22) were prescribed antidepressant drugs during pregnancy. A range of nonpharmaceutical mental health interventions were also recorded, including brief intervention of 61% (n=86), counselling of 57% (n=80) and cognitive behaviour therapy of 5% (n=7). About 39% (n=55) of women with APD were referred to external services for consultations with a psychiatrist, psychologist or social worker or to a women's refuge centre. The higher risk of APD associated with women's life style behaviour indicates that the better understanding of mental health in its cultural context is essential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Govender, Samantha M.; Khan, Nasim Banu
The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62) believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients. PMID:28890772
Yim, Ilona S; Tanner Stapleton, Lynlee R; Guardino, Christine M; Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Dunkel Schetter, Christine
Postpartum depression (PPD) adversely affects the health and well being of many new mothers, their infants, and their families. A comprehensive understanding of biopsychosocial precursors to PPD is needed to solidify the current evidence base for best practices in translation. We conducted a systematic review of research published from 2000 through 2013 on biological and psychosocial factors associated with PPD and postpartum depressive symptoms. Two hundred fourteen publications based on 199 investigations of 151,651 women in the first postpartum year met inclusion criteria. The biological and psychosocial literatures are largely distinct, and few studies provide integrative analyses. The strongest PPD risk predictors among biological processes are hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysregulation, inflammatory processes, and genetic vulnerabilities. Among psychosocial factors, the strongest predictors are severe life events, some forms of chronic strain, relationship quality, and support from partner and mother. Fully integrated biopsychosocial investigations with large samples are needed to advance our knowledge of PPD etiology.
Wiegersma, P Auke; Stellinga-Boelen, Annette A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Children of asylum seekers are at risk for psychosocial problems because of their flight history and exceptional living circumstances. This study aims to assess the association of sociodemographic factors and asylum procedural factors with psychosocial problems of asylum seekers' children, and differences herein by informant (parents, teachers, and children). To this end, we obtained data on psychosocial problems among a random sample of 267 children aged 4 to 16, living in Dutch asylum seekers' centers, using the multi-informant Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results show that the prevalence rate of psychosocial problems among asylum seekers' children was high. The occurrence was not associated with asylum-procedural variables but only with child-contextual factors such as mental health of the mother and leaving behind a parent in the country of origin. The associations varied in strength by informant. Therefore, preventive and supportive measures to improve psychosocial health of young asylum-seekers should concentrate on these contextual issues.
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI. Materials and Methods: A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001. However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2, Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE over lifetime (P = 0.058 and subjective well-being (P = 0.987 were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001, dominant (P = 0.03, egoistic (P < 0.001 and introvert (P < 0.001 personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.
Lang, Jason M; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L
Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16 years old who were living in affordable housing communities participated in this randomized wait-list control study. Results showed considerable improvements in computer self-efficacy, decreases in internalizing behavior problems, and excellent attendance and consumer satisfaction. Self-esteem and school motivation results were mixed. Computer self-efficacy mediated the relationship between improved computer skills and self-esteem. Younger adolescents showed greater improvement than did older adolescents. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Although there are limitations to this study's sample size and scope, Computeen appears promising as a developmentally appropriate, strengths-based prevention program.
Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK
Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001). However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2), Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE) over lifetime (P = 0.058) and subjective well-being (P = 0.987) were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001), dominant (P = 0.03), egoistic (P < 0.001) and introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670
Whittaker, Kerry S.; Krantz, David S.; Rutledge, Thomas; Johnson, B. Delia; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J.; Bittner, Vera; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Eteiba, Wafia; Cornell, Carol E.; Pepine, Carl J.; Vido, Diane A.; Handberg, Eileen; Merz, C. Noel Bairey
Background There is overlap among psychosocial variables associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and utility of combining psychosocial variables as risk markers for understanding CVD is largely unknown. Methods Women (n=493) in the NHLBI Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study were evaluated. The predictive value for CVD events was determined for multivariate combination of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Social Network Index (SNI), and Cook-Medley hostility (Ho) scales. Principal components analysis of psychosocial scales revealed composite psychosocial risk markers, and their relationships to CVD events and risk factors were assessed. Results In a multivariate model, the block of SNI, Hostile Affect, STAI and BDI predicted CVD events (χ2=27.8, p<0.001). Scale-wise factor analysis revealed two factors: Negative Affectivity (NA) and Hostility(explained variance 45.6% and 17.1%, respectively). SNI didn't load on either factor. NA was associated with BMI (β [SE] = 0.18[0.09], p=0.04), Hostility with metabolic syndrome (Exp(β)= 0.60[0.28], p=0.04), both factors with blood pressure (BP). NA with SBP β=2.53[1.04], p=0.02, DBP β=1.66[0.60], p=0.02; Hostility with SBP β=2.72[1.13], p=0.02, DBP β =1.83[0.65], p=0.005). Neither factor predicted CVD events. In multivariable analyses, original scales were associated with CVD events (lower SNI HR=0.74, CI=0.57–0.96), low Hostile Affect (HR=0.80, CI=0.56–1.03), and higher BDI(HR=1.33, CI=1.08–1.74). Conclusion In women with suspected ischemia, there is shared variance among psychosocial variables. Multivariate combination of psychosocial risk markers predicts CVD events; derived psychosocial factors were associated with CVD risk factors but not events. Measuring common and unique variance among psychosocial variables may be useful for understanding and predicting CVD. PMID:22434916
Smith, Derek R; Muto, Takashi; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ishikawa, Yumiko; Sayama, Shizue; Yoshida, Atsushi; Townley-Jones, Maureen
To investigate the interactions between safety climate, psychosocial issues and Needlestick and Sharps Injuries (NSI), a cross-sectional study was undertaken among nurses at a university teaching hospital in Japan (89% response rate). NSI were correlated with various aspects of hospital safety climate including supporting one another at work, the protection of staff against blood-borne diseases being a high management priority, managers doing their part to protect staff from blood-borne disease, having unsafe work practices corrected by supervisors, having the opportunity to use safety equipment to protect against blood-borne disease exposures, having an uncluttered work area, and having minimal conflict within their department. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the importance of hospital safety climate in Japanese health care practice, particularly its relationship with NSI. Although the provision of safer devices remains critical in preventing injuries, ensuring a positive safety climate will also be essential in meeting these important challenges for nurses' occupational health.
This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented.
Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.
Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and upp
Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Knol, D.L.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der
Objectives: This study investigated the effectiveness of the Stay@Work participatory ergonomics programme to reduce workers9 exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors. Methods: 37 departments (n=3047 workers) from four Dutch companies participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial
Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S.; Costa, Frances M.
This article reports a cross-national study of developmental change in health-enhancing behavior--healthy eating and regular exercise--among adolescents in China and the United States. The application of a conceptual framework comprising psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors--both proximal and distal and at both the individual…
Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S.; Costa, Frances M.
This article reports a cross-national study of developmental change in health-enhancing behavior--healthy eating and regular exercise--among adolescents in China and the United States. The application of a conceptual framework comprising psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors--both proximal and distal and at both the individual…
Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.
Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. Methods A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Results Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted.
Tabibzadeh, Pantea; Mewes, Ricarda
The huge percentages of persons with obesity in many countries constitute a public health crisis. The severe consequences of obesity for physical health and emotional wellbeing already emerge in childhood. Therefore, the acknowledgment of early risk factors is essential to provide recommendations for prevention strategies. This review outlines the current state of research concerning early risk factors for obesity, that is, factors that even contribute to later obesity of the offspring during gestation. In this regard, this review specifically addresses the link between restricted eating behavior of the mother and obesity in her offspring. We systematically searched for articles in PsychINFO, PsychINDEX, MEDLINE, PubMed, MEDPILOT, and Web of Science, and we identified additional studies in bibliographies. Although some risk factors (e.g., short period of breastfeeding, gestational diabetes, and high maternal BMI) have a vast evidence base, others (e.g., restricted eating behavior and second-hand smoking) are insufficiently studied. Physical activity and diet programs in pregnancy can reduce not only the occurrence of gestational diabetes, but also the risk of inappropriate weight gain. As smoking during pregnancy and inappropriate eating behavior are associated with lower education, psychoeducation, for instance in sex education classes, could be easily conceivable.
Koniak-Griffin, D; Nyamathi, A; Vasquez, R; Russo, A A
Using a qualitative focus-group methodology, this study investigated risk-taking behaviors and AIDS knowledge among minority pregnant and parenting adolescents at risk for heterosexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. Seven focus groups were conducted with a total of 48 young women recruited from alternative schools and residential facilities for pregnant adolescents and young mothers in Southern California. Participants also completed a background questionnaire soliciting sociodemographic information and an AIDS knowledge test. The sample included 33 Latinas and 15 African-Americans, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. There were bipolar findings regarding risk-taking behaviors. At one end of the continuum were young women with a history of one of more of the following behaviors: multiple sex partners, drug and alcohol use, carrying weapons, and participating in gang-related activities. Contrasting with these, were those who had one or two sex partners and no history of alcohol or drug abuse. A majority of the participants were having unprotected sex. A variety of factors affected condom use, including gender inequality, embarrassment, and personal preferences and values. Risk-taking was also influenced by lack of security and safety in daily living, emotion-focused coping and peer pressure.
Janssens, Angélique; Pelzer, Ben
Prior research has suggested that the quality of maternal care given to infants and small children plays an important role in the strong clustering of children's deaths. In this article, we investigate the quality of maternal care provided by those women who most nineteenth-century social commentators declared would never make good housewives or mothers: the young girls and women working in textile mills. We carried out this examination using an analysis of children's mortality risks in two textile cities in The Netherlands between roughly 1900 and 1930. Our analysis suggests that these children's clustered mortality risks cannot have resulted from either their mothers' labor market experience or biological or genetic factors.
Bulterys, Philip L; Dalai, Sudeb C; Katzenstein, David A
Great progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis, treatment, and transmission of HIV and the factors influencing the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Many questions regarding the molecular evolution and genetic diversity of HIV in the context of MTCT remain unanswered. Further research to identify the selective factors governing which variants are transmitted, how the compartmentalization of HIV in different cells and tissues contributes to transmission, and the influence of host immunity, viral diversity, and recombination on MTCT may provide insight into new prevention strategies and the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grazuleviciene, Regina; Petraviciene, Inga; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute
An unfavorable psychosocial environment has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity among children. However, the available evidence on the association of low socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships with childhood obesity is scarce. The aim of our study was to conduct a simultaneous evaluation of the risks associated with pathological mother-child relationships, education level, and overweight/obesity among 4-6 year-old children. This cross-sectional study included 1489 mother-child pairs living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The Parenting Stress Index was measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children's overweight/obesity was defined as the body mass index ≥18kg/m(2). Logistic regression models as well as crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to indicate the strength of the associations between childhood overweight/obesity, maternal education level, and psychosocial stress. The percentage of children with overweight/obesity rose with an increasing Parenting Stress Index score. The percentage of children with overweight/obesity in the group of parents with better education and normal mother-child relations was 6.0%, while in the group of less educated parents and pathological mother-child relations, this percentage reached 13.9%. The stratified multivariable model showed that, with reference to the group of better educated parents and normal mother-child relations, lower education level and pathological mother-child relations were statistically significant risk factors for overweight/obesity in 4-6 year-old children, increasing the OR of overweight/obesity (aOR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.31-4.51). Pathological mother-child relations and maternal smoking mediated the effect of low maternal education level on children's BMI z-scores. Pathological mother-child relations, lower parental education levels, and smoking may be predictors of children's overweight/obesity. Measures
Schmied, Virginia; Langdon, Rachel; Matthey, Stephen; Kemp, Lynn; Austin, Marie-Paule; Johnson, Maree
Poor mental health in the perinatal period can impact negatively on women, their infants and families. Australian State and Territory governments are investing in routine psychosocial assessment and depression screening with referral to services and support, however, little is known about how well these services are used. The aim of this paper is to report on the health services used by women for their physical and mental health needs from pregnancy to 12 months after birth and to compare service use for women who have been identified in pregnancy as having moderate-high psychosocial risk with those with low psychosocial risk. One hundred and six women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study with five points of data collection (2-4 weeks after prenatal booking, 36 weeks gestation, 6 weeks postpartum, 6 months postpartum and 12 months postpartum) was undertaken. Data were collected via face-to-face and telephone interviews, relating to psychosocial risk factors, mental health and service use. The prenatal psychosocial risk status of women (data available for 83 of 106 women) was determined using the Antenatal Risk Questionnaire (ANRQ) and was used to compare socio-demographic characteristics and service use of women with 'low' and 'moderate to high' risk of perinatal mental health problems. The findings indicate high use of postnatal universal health services (child and family health nurses, general practitioners) by both groups of women, with limited use of specialist mental health services by women identified with moderate to high risk of mental health problems. While almost all respondents indicated that they would seek help for mental health concerns most had a preference to seek help from partners and family before accessing health professionals. These preliminary data support local and international studies that highlight the poor uptake of specialist services for mental health problems in postnatal women, where this may be required. Further
Full Text Available Background: The risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs from developed countries are not applicable to women from developing world. Objective: To analyze the behavioral practices and psychosocial aspects pertinent to women in our region and assess their association with acute first time or recurrent UTI. Materials and Methods: Sexually active premenopausal women with their first (145 and recurrent (77 cystitis with Escherichia coli as cases and women with no prior history of UTI as healthy controls (257 were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in India, between June 2011 and February 2013. Questionnaire-based data was collected from each participant through a structured face-to-face interview. Results: Using univariate and multivariate regression models, independent risk factors for the first episode of cystitis when compared with healthy controls were (presented in odds ratios [ORs] with its 95% confidence interval [CI]: Anal sex (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.59-8.52, time interval between last sexual intercourse and current episode of UTI was 250 ml of tea consumption per day (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.67-8.38, presence of vaginal infection (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.85-5.62 and wiping back to front (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45-4.38. Along with the latter three, history of UTI in a first-degree female relative (OR = 10.88, 95% CI = 2.41-49.07, constipation (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 1.97-11.92 and stress incontinence (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.18-5.06 were additional independent risk factors for recurrent cystitis in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for initial infection are potentially modifiable but sufficient to also pose risk for recurrence. Many of the findings reflect the cultural and ethnic practices in our country.
Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Arnow, Katherine D; Lock, James D
The connection between maternal eating disorders and feeding and eating problems among their children has been substantially demonstrated. This pilot study focused on the interactions between mothers with eating disorders and their toddlers in non-feeding situations. Twenty-eight dyads of mothers with prenatal eating disorders and their toddlers were compared to a case-matched control group with no eating disorder. Maternal current eating and co-occurring psychopathology, children's symptoms and mother-child interactions were measured. Mothers with eating disorders were less sensitive to their children, tried to control their children's behaviors more, and were less happy during mother-child interactions. The children in the maternal eating disorder group were rated as less responsive to their mothers and their mothers also reported more behavioral problems than those in the control group. Findings imply that maternal eating disorders may be linked with a wide range of adverse maternal and child behaviors beyond those associated with eating.
Guttentag, Cathy L.; Landry, Susan H.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Baggett, Kathleen M.; Noria, Christine W.; Borkowski, John G.; Swank, Paul R.; Farris, Jaelyn R.; Crawford, April; Lanzi, Robin G.; Carta, Judith J.; Warren, Steven F.; Ramey, Sharon L.
This study examined the efficacy of a multimodule parenting intervention, "My Baby & Me," that began prenatally and continued until children reached 2.5 years of age. The intervention targeted specific parenting skills designed to alter trajectories of maternal and child development. Of 361 high-risk mothers (193 adolescents, 168…
Grietens, H; Geeraert, L; Hellinckx, W
Objective: The aim was to construct and test the reliability (utility, internal consistency, interrater agreement) and the validity (internal validity, concurrent validity) of a scale for home visiting social nurses to identify risks of physical abuse and neglect in mothers with a newborn child. Met
Bernardo Moreno Jiménez
Full Text Available El trabajo ha sido históricamente un riesgo para la salud. Las condiciones laborales han supuesto habitualmente una amenaza a la salud que han ocasionado accidentes y enfermedades relacionadas con la salud de todo tipo. La imagen popular l asociada al trabajo ha sido claramente negativa. Los tiempos han cambiado de forma muy importante, pero las condiciones laborales siguen siendo preocupantes. La preocupación por los riesgos laborales se ha centrado históricamente en los riesgos físicos y ambientales, pero se ha producido una atención creciente en los riesgos psicosociales que exigen un mayor esfuerzo de definición en sus diferentes formas. En los tiempos actuales, debido a la expansión del mercado de servicios y a la globalización los riesgos psicosociales se han incrementado e intensificado. Los datos actuales muestran que sus efectos sobre la salud son amplios e importantes. Por ello, una atención integral a la salud laboral necesita cuidar de forma especial atención a los factores y riesgos psicosociales.Work has been historically a health risk. Working conditions have usually been a threat to health causing accidents and many kind of health-related diseases. The popular image associated with work has clearly been negative. Times have changed very significantly, but working conditions remain a concern. Concern about occupational risks has historically focused on environmental and physical risks, but there has been increasing attention on psychosocial risks which require a greater effort to be defined. In modern times, due to services market expansion and globalization, psychosocial risks have increased and intensified. Current data show that psychosocial risks cause important health effects. Therefore, it is important make special attention to psychosocial factors and risks.
Klein Hesselink, J.; Jain, A.
Prevention is the cornerstone of the European approach to managing occupational safety and health. Prevention means anticipating and analysing the various aspects of work to identify short and long term risks, and then taking action to eliminate or mitigate those risks; that is identifying and
Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes
When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes…
Klein Hesselink, J.; Jain, A.
Prevention is the cornerstone of the European approach to managing occupational safety and health. Prevention means anticipating and analysing the various aspects of work to identify short and long term risks, and then taking action to eliminate or mitigate those risks; that is identifying and addre
Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodriguez, Carlos F; Saldívar-González, Atenógenes H; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M; Córdova-Fernández, José A; Felizardo-Ávalos, Jorge; Sánchez-Márquez, Wilberto
Previous publications have suggested that living in a nonintact family household and socializing with girlfriends who smoke or who consume alcoholic beverages favor the development of health-risk habits and customs in adolescents. However, their relationship with unplanned pregnancy in adolescents has not been determined. We investigated the association between family structure, employed mother, and female friends with health-risk habits and behaviors with unplanned pregnancy in adolescents (n = 3,130). After adjusting for low maternal educational level and low family income, logistic regression analyses showed that having an employed mother and socializing with girlfriends who have health-risk habits or behaviors, rather than living in a nonintact family household, appear to be the most important health-risk factors for unplanned pregnancy in adolescents. It is important for health-care programs for adolescents to be revised and for their strategies be strengthened in order to reach the objectives for which they were created.
Full Text Available Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture.
Toukas, Dimitrios; Delichas, Miltiadis; Toufekoula, Chryssoula; Spyrouli, Anastasia
Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs) at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture.
Ell, Kathleen; Katon, Wayne; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Guterman, Jeffrey; Wu, Shinyi
Identify biopsychosocial factors associated with depression for patients with Type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental clinical trial of 1293 patients was predominantly Hispanic (91%) female (62%), mean age 53 and average diabetes duration 10 years; 373 (29%) patients were depressed and assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Demographic, baseline clinical and psychosocial variables were compared between depressed and nondepressed patients. Bivariate analyses found depression significantly associated (pidentified six key risk factors: greater disability, diabetes symptoms and regimen distress, female gender, less diabetes self-care and lack of A1C. In addition, after controlling for identified six factors, the number of psychosocial stressors significantly associated with increased risk of depression (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-1.58, pidentify a high-risk group of patients needing depression screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rath, W; Wolff, F
The average age of childbearing has risen markedly in Germany and other high-income countries during the past 2 decades. Women aged 35 years or older have an increase in pregnancy complications and in preexisting medical conditions including obesity, diabetes and hypertension as well as a significant increase in the gestational age-related rate of stillbirth compared to younger mothers. Additional individual risk factors for stillbirth are primiparity, body mass index>30 and smoking. After exclusion of risk factors the absolute risk of stillbirth in women aged≥40 years old is 2-fold higher (1 in 503 maternities) at 39/40 weeks of gestation compared to women agedinduction of labour at 39 weeks of gestation should be recommended in women of advanced maternal age has recently been discussed in a Scientific Impact Paper of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. In this context it should be taken into account that the rate of Caesarean sections in women aged 40 years or over is 40%, and, in particular, older nulliparous may request elective Caesaran section rather than elective induction of labour. Recent metaanalyses have shown that elective induction of labour before or after term is not associated with an increase of the Caesarean section rate compared to expectant management. Up to now no randomised controlled trials exist and consequently no -recommendations from current guidelines regarding induction of labour in women of advanced maternal age can be given. In any case, a careful consultation and an individual risk-benefit analysis regarding the obstetric management is mandatory, and the final decision should be made in agreement between the pregnant women and the obstetrician. Currently a randomised controlled trial in the U.K. comparing induction of labour at 39 weeks of gestation with expectant management in nulliparous women aged over 35 years is recruiting, with the aim to determine intrapartum complications and perinatal morbidity and
de Castro, Filipa; Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Rivera, Leonor; Frongillo, Edward A
This study examined the association between postnatal depressive symptoms and a set of demographic and psychosocial factors among 604 women attending a public hospital for postnatal care in Mexico City. Specific profiles of women that would indicate an increased probability for developing postnatal depression (PND) based on discrete combinations of risk and protective factors were generated. In a logistic model, followed by the estimation of predicted probabilities, we examined the association between depressive symptomatology and psychosocial factors: low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to moderate or severe intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Postnatal depressive symptomatology was reported by 10.6 % of the women, as measured by scores at 12 or above on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The cumulative probability of presenting PND in the simultaneous presence of the psychosocial factors was 67.0 %; however, this could be reduced to 5.5 % through preventive measures that work to eliminate low social support, unplanned pregnancy, and exposure to severe IPV during pregnancy. Early identification of psychosocial risk factors, specifically low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to violence during pregnancy, is recommended.
Full Text Available Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.
Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Di Tecco, Cristina
Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area. PMID:26557655
Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina
Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.
Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark
This study assessed the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors for low back symptoms (LBS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) in a developing country. A sample of 1294 Indonesian coal mining workers reported occupational exposures, LBS and its consequences using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were placed into one of four combination exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy); high physical and low psychosocial (HPhyLPsy); low physical and high psychosocial (LPhyHPsy), and; low physical and low psychosocial (LPhyLPsy). The attributable proportion due to interaction between physical and psychosocial factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report LBS (OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.30-8.89), reduced activities (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.09-7.74), and absenteeism (OR 4.96, 95% CI 3.05-8.06). Interactions between physical and psychosocial factors were present for LBS, reduced activities, and absenteeism; although for LBS and absenteeism the interactions were not significant. Current smokers were more likely to report LBS consequences. Permanent employment and night shift work increased the odds of LBS and its consequences. We conclude that interventions aimed at reducing LBS and its consequences should address both physical and psychosocial factors, with a focus on smokers, permanent employment and night shift work.
María Carolina Cebey
Full Text Available Este artículo se enmarca en el Plan: "Situaciones de acoso en los procesos de trabajo: aproximación a homogeneidades y diferencias en organizaciones públicas y privadas", beca doctoral CONICET de la Lic. Cebey, dirección: Dra. Ferrari. El objetivo general es explorar, identificar y analizar componentes y factores subjetivos, interaccionales y organizacionales comprometidos en la producción expresa o potencial de situaciones de acoso dentro de los procesos de trabajo. Constituye una línea de investigación dentro del Proyecto UBACyT P015: "Riesgos psicosociales de los trabajadores. Efectos subjetivos e intersubjetivos de la precarización laboral", dirigido por la Dra. Filippi. A nivel metodológico, para esta comunicación se exponen líneas de análisis y reflexión emergentes de un focusgroup implementado durante el año 2009. Composición: mujeres, 20-40 años; estudios universitarios en curso; 70%, sector privado. Se destacan funciones y expectativas del trabajo percibidas y su nexo con los denominados factores psicosociales de riesgo en el trabajo.This article is framed in the work plan: "Harassment situations in working processes: approach to homogeneities and differences in public and private organizations", CONICET doctoral scholarship granted to Lic. Cebey, direction: Dra. Ferrari. The general aim is to explore, identify and analyze subjective, interactional and organizational components and factors compromised in the express or potential production of harassment within working processes. It constitutes a line of investigation within UBACyT Project P015: "Workers' psycho-social risks. Subjective and intersubjective effects of labor precarization", directed by Dra. Filippi. At a methodological level, for this communication are exposed lines of analyses and reflection based on a focus-group implemented during year 2009. Group composition: women, 20-40 years; university studies in course; 70%, private sector. We highlight work
Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E
Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Case, Amy P; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Wilkinson, Anna V
We sought to determine whether selected periconceptional health behaviors that influence risk for birth defects differ between older and younger adolescents and whether pregnancy intention predicts more positive preconception health behaviors among teens. We analyzed interview responses from 954 adolescent control group participants from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study who delivered live infants during 1997-2007. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for factors of interest by age categories (13-15, 16-17, and 18 years, relative to 19 years). To construct a composite periconceptional behavior index, we summed the following healthy behaviors: nonsmoker, nondrinker, folic acid supplementation, and eating 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Analyses indicated that women in the youngest group (13-15 years of age) were more likely to be Hispanic (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.40-5.70) and less likely to engage in some unhealthy pregnancy-related behaviors compared with 19-year-olds, such as smoking (aOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.20-0.99) and being overweight or obese (aOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.61). However, they were also less likely to have taken periconceptional folic acid (aOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.90). About one-third of teen mothers indicated that their pregnancies had been intended. Among 18- and 19-year-olds, this predicted a higher mean value for the composite periconceptional behavior index (2.30 versus 1.94, P ≤ .01). Teen mothers are not a homogeneous group. Each age subgroup presents varied demographic and behavioral factors that put them at varying levels of risk for birth defects. Furthermore, caregivers should not assume that teens do not plan pregnancies or that they need not be informed of the importance of periconceptional health. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mantis, Irene; Stack, Dale M; Ng, Laura; Serbin, Lisa A; Schwartzman, Alex E
Contact behaviours such as touch, have been shown to be influential channels of nonverbal communication between mothers and infants. While existing research has examined the communicative roles of maternal or infant touch in isolation, mutual touch, whereby touching behaviours occur simultaneously between mothers and their infants, has yet to be examined. The present study was designed to investigate mutual touch during face-to-face interactions between mothers and their 5½-month-old fullterm (n=40), very low birth weight/preterm (VLBW/preterm; n=40) infants, and infants at psychosocial risk (n=41). Objectives were to examine: (1) how the quantitative and qualitative aspects of touch employed by mothers and their infants varied across the normal periods of the still-face (SF) procedure, and (2) how these were associated with risk status. Mutual touch was systematically coded using the mother-infant touch scale. Interactions were found to largely consist of mutual touch and one-sided touch plus movement, highlighting that active touching is pervasive during mother-infant interactions. Consistent with the literature, while the SF period did not negatively affect the amount of mutual touch engaged in for mothers and their fullterm infants and mothers and their infants at psychosocial risk, it did for mothers and their VLBW/preterm infants. Together, results illuminate how both mothers and infants participate in shaping and co-regulating their interactions through the use of touch and underscore the contribution of examining the influence of birth status on mutual touch.
Patrão, Ana Luísa; McIntyre, Teresa M
In Mozambique, women are the most affected by HIV/AIDS. Self-efficacy is one of the main predictors of effective use of a condom. Therefore, it is essential to identify the factors that influence condom-use negotiation self-efficacy in vulnerable women. The aim of this paper is to identify socio-demographic, marital, and psychosocial factors associated with condom-use negotiation self-efficacy among Mozambican women at risk for HIV infection. Participants were women (173) who were patients at the Gynecology Department of the Central Hospital of Beira, Mozambique, and at risk for HIV infection. Women completed measures of condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, HIV prevention knowledge, and perceived barriers against safer sex. The results showed that demographic and marital variables are associated with condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, namely, those having more than 9 years of education, who are younger and not living with a partner, and who talk about AIDS with partners report higher condom-use negotiation self-efficacy. Regarding psychosocial factors, higher HIV prevention knowledge and fewer perceived barriers to safer sex predict higher condom-use negotiation self-efficacy. These results can contribute to sexual health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention in Mozambican women because they identify at-risk groups and marital and psychosocial malleable factors that can be targeted in AIDS prevention among at-risk Mozambican women.
Hur, Sun; Cho, Byung-Jun; Kim, Seon-Rye
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to research the association of Type D personality with CVD risk factors and psychology through comparison of the association of exercise participation with CVD risk factors and psychological risk factors in women with Type D. [Subjects] This study included 416 middle-aged women. All participants completed the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14) to assess Type D personality. The DS14 consists of two subscales, NA and SI, both of which comprise 7 items. The research subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: Type D+Exercise (n=12), Type D+non-Exercise (n=12), non-Type D+Exercise (n=12), non-Type D+non-Exercise (n=10). The study consisted of 46 participants. [Methods] An aerobic exercise program and meditation were conducted in parallel for 10 months. Stretching was performed for 10 min as a warm-up, and then walking and running were performed on a treadmill at the HRmax 60-70% level for 40 min; this was done three times a week. Blood samples were processed according to standard laboratory procedures. The concentrations of TG and HDL-cholesterol were determined enzymatically on a clinical chemistry analyzer. Blood glucose was measured by the hexokinase method. [Results] Weight, percent fat, social support, and waist circumference showed a significant difference between times in the Exercise groups, and the values were significantly lower than those of the non-Exercise groups. Anxiety and depression showed a significant interaction effect between groups. The average number of CVD risk factors in subjects showed a significant difference between groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, there were significant differences between groups in terms of CVD risk factors and psychological risk factors in women with Type D personality.
Carter, Patricia; Price, Larry R.; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Nichols, Francine
Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N = 33), within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9) in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N = 33) reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n = 25) reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed. PMID:28191350
Full Text Available Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N=33, within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9 in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N=33 reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n=25 reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed.
Delgado, Melissa Y.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Drawing on Garcia Coll et al.'s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships between adolescents' perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246…
Full Text Available Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children’s psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children’s weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI, mother-child emotional availability (EA and maternal parenting stress are associated with children’s weight and psychosocial development (i.e. internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included 3 assessment points (approx. 11 months apart. The baseline sample consisted of N=194 mothers and their children aged 5 to 47 months (M=28.18, SD=8.44, 99 girls. At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother-child interactions, coding them with the Emotional Availability Scales (4th edition. We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI-SDS scores. Children’s externalizing and internalizing problems (t1-t3 and social competence (t3, N=118 were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL1, 5-5, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3-6: social-emotional competence. Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI-SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to
Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.
There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs 'consideration of fu
Von Korff, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Ormel, Johan; Angermeyer, Matthais; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fleiz, Clara; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Uda, Hidenori
Neural, endocrine, and immune stress mediators are hypothesized to increase risks of diverse chronic diseases, including arthritis. Retrospective data from the World Mental Health Surveys (N = 18,309) were employed to assess whether adult onset of arthritis was associated with childhood adversities
Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl
Objectives: While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and…
Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau
There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.
Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein
There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit strength" as…
Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl
Objectives: While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and…
This study is based on a statewide longitudinal sample of adopted foster youth and explores the relationship between early pre-adoption risk factors and subsequent elevated levels of psychopathology symptomatology. One central goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of preadoption stressors (prenatal drug/nicotine exposure, early…
Kiely, M; Gantz, MG; El‐Khorazaty, MN; El‐Mohandes, AAE
... to be state of the art in peri‐ and prenatal care. The exposure to risks considered in this study (depression, intimate partner violence [IPV], smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure [ETSE]) have all been causally associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. Depression during pregnancy is common, with rates ranging between 10 and 30%. D...
Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein
There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit…
Barthakur, M. [Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Science and Technology Management, Trondheim (Norway)
Catastrophes of various kinds occur worldwide inflicting major human suffering, more so in the less privileged regions of the world. Human beings react differently to different traumatic situations and to the threat of an event in spite of man common underlying factors. Psychological reactions to catastrophic natural events like flooding on the perception of risk of flooding across various communities thus becomes an interesting study. Economic situation, lack of knowledge and resources are assumed to give a totally different perspective to reactions and perception of risk and its interpretation specially in an underprivileged country like India, compared to other developed countries. For the proposed session, the results of a study carried out in India will be presented. This includes reactions and responses of individuals and general public affected by flooding and their perceptions of risk of flooding. The study also focuses on a comparison between the people affected and at risk of flooding. Socio-cultural values, religion and superstitions, common beliefs and expectations from authorities will be studied as underlying variables, to what extent they might have an impact on the behavioral pattern of an individual in a situation and the perception of oncoming risk. A sizeable number of the Indian population resides in areas, which are generally affected by flooding or highly prone to flooding. Could perceptions vary among individuals within the society or is it simply poverty and unaffordability that drive these people info such hazardous areas? Lack of consciousness may seem to be an important variable, but what really matters and needs to be looked into is how threatened they actually feel. (author)
Orçan, Maide; Çiçekler, Canan Yildiz; Ari, Ramazan
This study aims to define Roma mothers' views regarding their children's education and their tendency towards crime. The study is based on an illustrative case study method. The participants of this study are mothers of Roma children between the ages of 4 and 6 who live in Konya, Turkey--more specifically in the Yenimahalle neighborhood in the…
Page, Robin L; Padilla, Yolanda C; Hamilton, Erin R
Although research has documented factors associated with maternal smoking, we need a more in-depth understanding of the risk factors associated with changes in smoking behaviors during the postpartum period. We investigate smoking patterns during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum as a function of relevant psychosocial factors. We use data on 3,522 postpartum mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to analyze the predictors of smoking among mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy but smoked at 1 year postpartum, mothers who smoked both during pregnancy and postpartum, and mothers who did not smoke during either period. Our covariates are grouped into four categories of risk factors for smoking: socioeconomic status, health care, life course and health, and partner and social support. Postpartum mothers in our sample were more likely to smoke throughout or after their pregnancies if they had only a high school education or less, had a household income three or more times below the poverty line, had public or no health insurance, breastfed for less than 5 months, were not married to the infant's father, if the infant's father currently smoked, and if they attended religious services less than once a week. Mental health problems were consistently associated with an increased risk of constant and postpartum smoking relative to non-smoking. Psychosocial factors play a role in postpartum smoking, but they have a stronger effect in predicting smoking that persists throughout pregnancy and the first year postpartum.
Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Ystrom, Eivind; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S; Torgersen, Leila
Maternal risk drinking may be a risk factor for child behavior problems even if the mother has discontinued this behavior. Whether pre-pregnancy risk drinking is an independent predictor of child behavior problems, or whether a potential effect may be explained by maternal alcohol use during and after pregnancy or other adverse maternal characteristics, is not known. Employing data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), longitudinal associations between maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and behavior problems in toddlers aged 18 and 36 months were examined. Included in the study was mothers answering MoBa questionnaires when the child was 18 (N = 56,682) and 36 months (N = 46,756), and who had responded to questions regarding pre-pregnancy risk drinking at gestation week 17/18, using the screening instrument T-ACE. Toddler behavior problems were measured with items from Child Behavior Checklist. Associations were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use, as well as other relevant covariates. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking was associated with child behavior problems at 18 and 36 months, even after controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use. Maternal ADHD and anxiety and depression were the only covariates that had any substantial impact on the associations. When all covariates were included in the model, the associations were weak for internalizing behavior problems and non-significant for externalizing behavior problems. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking may predict early development of behavior problems in the offspring. This increased risk may be due to other adverse maternal characteristics associated with risk drinking, in particular co-occurring maternal psychopathology.
Qureshi, Katja; Mølbak, Kåre; Sandström, Anita
BACKGROUND: A protective effect of breastfeeding against cholera has been demonstrated in areas endemic of cholera. To assess the protection offered by breast milk from mothers living in an area that had been free from cholera for 7 years, we investigated mothers with cholera and their children...... during an epidemic with Vibrio cholerae El Tor in the capital of Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Eighty mothers with clinical cholera and their children were identified, and interviewed. Blood samples for vibriocidal and antitoxin antibodies were collected from mother-and-child pairs. Breast milk samples were...... collected from lactating mothers.Cholera was defined as acute watery diarrhea during the epidemic and a vibriocidal reciprocal titer of 20 or above. RESULTS: Three (7%) of 42 breastfed children had cholera as defined above compared with 9 (24%) of 38 nonbreastfed children (RR for breastfed children, 0...
LI Mei Ling; GUO Jian Ming; XU Dan Feng; THOMPSON Timothy C; CAO Guang Wen; ZHANG Hong Wei; LIN Ji; HOU Jian Guo; XU Lei; CUI Xin Gang; XU Xing Xing; YU Yong Wei; HAN Xue; WANG Guo Min
Objective To study the risk environmental and psycho-social factors associated to prostate cancer (PCa) in Chinese population. Methods 250 PCa patients and 500 controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Information was collected and logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95%confidence intervals (95% CI) for relationship between lifestyle, eating habits and psycho-social factors with PCa risk. Results Green vegetables and green tea were associated with a decreased risk of PCa (OR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.28-0.53; OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.87, respectively). Family history of PCa (OR=7.16, 95% CI:2.01-25.49), history of prostate diseases (OR=2.28, 95%CI:1.53-3.41), alcohol consumption (OR=1.97, 95%CI:1.33-2.90), red meat consumption (OR=1.74, 95%CI:1.20-2.52), barbecued (OR=2.29, 95%CI:1.11-4.73) or fried (OR=2.35, 95%CI:1.24-4.43) foods were related with increased PCa risk. Negative psycho-social factors including occupational setbacks (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.00-2.59), marital separation (OR=1.94, 95%CI:1.29-2.91), self-contained suffering (OR=2.37, 95%CI:1.58-3.55), and high sensitivity to the personal comments (OR=1.73, 95%CI:1.18-2.54) were related to PCa. Conclusion Regular consumption of green vegetables and green tea may suggest protective effects on PCa. Alcohol consumption, red meat consumption and barbecued or fried foods were associated with PCa. Negative psycho-social factors may also play a role in the incidence of PCa in Chinese population.
Greene, Geoffrey W; Schembre, Susan M; White, Adrienne A; Hoerr, Sharon L; Lohse, Barbara; Shoff, Suzanne; Horacek, Tanya; Riebe, Deborah; Patterson, Jill; Phillips, Beatrice W; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Blissmer, Bryan
Weight gain and an increase in overweight and obesity in college students raise serious health concerns. Weight management interventions for college-age men and women might be more effective if they were tailored to subgroups of students with similar behavioral and psychosocial characteristics associated with body weight status. The purpose of this study was to use cluster analysis to identify homogenous subgroups of college-aged men and women enrolled in a weight gain prevention study (Project WebHealth) using baseline data collected in 2008. Project WebHealth was a 15-month nutrition and physical activity intervention designed to decrease the rate of unwanted weight gain in 1,689 college students at eight geographically diverse universities in the United States. Outcome measures included anthropometrics, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and psychosocial variables associated with weight status in college students. Cluster analysis was performed separately by sex using a two-step clustering procedure using weight-related eating and exercise behaviors and psychosocial variables. Cluster groupings were validated against students' measured weight status and waist circumference as indicators of health risk. The study design was cross-sectional. Results showed that three similar clusters were identified for each sex. Validity of the cluster solution was supported by significant group differences in body mass index and waist circumference with the High Risk cluster at elevated health risk compared to the others. For men, variability in eating competence and cognitive restraint scores contributed most to the difference between clusters, whereas for women, emotional eating and uncontrolled eating scores did. These findings could be used to improve effectiveness of messages and interventions by tailoring them to subgroups of college students with similar behavioral and psychosocial characteristics associated with elevated health risk.
Allesøe, Karen; Hundrup, Yrsa Andersen; Thomsen, Jane Frølund
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of work pressure and job influence on the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in women. METHODS: The effect of work pressure and job influence on the 15-year incidence of IHD in women participating in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was prospectively...... biological and behavioural risk factors for IHD were collected at baseline. RESULTS: During follow-up, 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. In the fully adjusted model, nurses who reported work pressure to be much too high had a 1.4-fold increased risk of incident IHD (95% CI 1.04 to 1.81) compared...... with nurses who reported work pressure to be suitable. A tendency towards a dose-response effect was found. Age-stratified analysis showed that this effect was significant only among the younger nurses (
Maliszewska, Karolina; Świątkowska-Freund, Małgorzata; Bidzan, Mariola; Preis, Krzysztof
The purpose of the study was to identify factors increasing or decreasing the risk for postpartum blues. A total of 101 women in their first week postpartum were included in the study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, questions concerning their medical and social status, and psychological tests (the Personality Inventory NEO-FFI, The Mieczysław Plopa and Jan Rostowski Marriage Questionnaire, and the Berlin Social Support Scales) were used. The probability of postpartum blues was detected in 16.8% of the respondents. The risk decreased with higher satisfaction with intimacy (OR = 0.81), partner similarity (OR = 0.78), and the overall satisfaction with the relationship (OR = 0.94), while higher disappointment elevated that risk (OR = 1.12). As far as social support is concerned, further inde-pendent factors included perceived available social support (OR = 0.31), perceived instrumental social support (OR = 0.24), need for support (OR = 2.74), and protective buffering support (OR = 3.41). High level of neuroticism as well as fear of childbirth increased the risk for postpartum blues (OR = 2.17 and OR = 1.30, respectively). High level of extraversion and better quality of sleep constituted protective factors (OR = 0.74 and OR = 0.60, respectively). Maternal disappointment with marriage/relationship, neuroticism and introversion, poor quality of sleep, fear of childbirth, and seeking social support are among the factors signaling the need for careful observation for signs of possible postpartum mood disorders both, during hospitalization and the follow-up visits.
Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn;
night shift) had odds ratios for pelvic pain in pregnancy of 1.76 (95% confidence intervals 1.04 to 2.96) and 1.65 (1.22 to 2.24), respectively, compared with women with day work. Physically strenuous work was associated with an almost 50% increased risk of pelvic pain in pregnancy (1.47; 1.17 to 1...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore whether there are significant differences between those who have never engaged in sexting behavior and those who have for at least once in any number of variables: sexual risk behavior, anger, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and association with deviant peers. Also, the goal was to explore whether anger and unpleasant emotions of depression and anxiety are significant predictors of sexting and whether self-efficacy and association with deviant peers express moderator role in the relationship between enlisted predictors and sexting. Analyzed data were collected in 2012 from 311 students (149 boys, 162 girls, aged between fifteen and seventeen years. The results of series of independent t-tests showed significant differences between the two groups in sexual risk behavior and deviant peers association, whereby those who have engaged in sexting behavior at least once, compared to those who have never sexted, engaged more frequently in sexual risk behaviors and have more deviant friends. The results of hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis showed that sexting was not significantly predicted by anger, depression and anxiety and that self-efficacy and association with deviant peers do not change the relationship between anger and sexting, as well as the relationship between unpleasant emotions of depression or anxiety and sexting. The results are discussed in terms of findings of previous research and in the context of the relationship between the variables specified in the context of Agnew's (1992 general strain theory.
December 31 of2011 were included. The Cox regression with constant time was used to analyze the risks of anemia.Results: This study collected 4191 samples in two hospitals. Eligible samples for analysis were 1202while the remainings were excluded due to incomplete data records. The prevalence of anemia amongpregnant women in the third trimester was 33.7%. Compared to women in the 21-35 year age group,those with aged 16-20 years had 56% higher risk to be anemic [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.56; P= 0.014], however, those with aged 36-46 years had the same risk to be anemic (P = 0.350. In term ofparity, compared with nulliparous, multiparous women had 58% higher risk to be anemic (RRa = 1.58; P= 0.000, however, primiparous women had moderately higher risk to be anemic (RRa = 1.15; P = 0.201.Conclusion: Anemia in the third trimester of pregnancy were more common among young and multiparousmothers. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:7-11Keywords: young mothers, multiparous, anemia in pregnancy
may suffer from mental disorders following a PTE, but disagrees that the majority of people are resilient. Furthermore it argues that we should not see PTEs as one event, but as involving a number of stressors and having a variety of consequences. Drawing on fieldwork carried out in Rajni village......, Bihar following the 2008 Kosi River flooding, it documents, 18 months post flood, that flood onset gave rise to symptoms related to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (primarily re-experiencing). The villagers’ primary concern was livelihood loss which, together with their lack of hope for the future, led...... to symptoms of depression. It argues that mental health issues should be fully integrated into Disaster Risk Reduction plans and policies, which are likely to be included in the Post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. In addition to supporting mental health interventions, the paper suggests that deep socio...
Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH
: Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related.......3 to 4.6). CONCLUSION: Results indicate that being a new case of tennis elbow is associated with non-neutral postures of hands and arms, use of heavy hand held tools, and high physical strain measured as a combination of forceful work, non-neutral posture of hands and arms, and repetition. Furthermore......, tennis elbow among women was associated with low social support at work. The results for precision demanding movements and for vibration were less consistent...
Silberstein, Dalia; Feldman, Ruth; Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Kuint, Jacob; Geva, Ronny
Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral…
Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Zdzieborski, Daniel; Normand, Jackie
This study compared reactions of mothers and fathers to the risk taking behavior of sons and daughters. Mother-father pairs (N = 52) imagined their 2-year-old boy or girl behaving in risky ways in common home situations that could, and did, result in injury. Emotional and parenting reactions to the behaviors were assessed before and after injury.…
Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl
While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and experience of childhood abuse appears to be predictive of sexual and other risk behaviors in this population. Thus it remains critical to examine rates of childhood bullying and correlates of bullying in adult PLH. A sample of 171 HIV-positive men over 18 years of age were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. All participants reported experiencing symptoms of traumatic stress. The participants were recruited as part of a larger study assessing a group intervention for individuals with HIV and symptoms of trauma. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess participants' exposure to bullying in childhood and trauma symptoms in adulthood. Bullying was commonly reported by men in the current sample, with 91% of the sample endorsing having experienced some level of bullying before age 18. Having been bullied in childhood was significantly (pbullying in childhood predicted additional, unique variance in trauma symptoms in adulthood above and beyond the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma, resulting in a better-fitting model. The current study highlights the association between rate of childhood bullying and symptoms of trauma in adulthood, accounting for the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma. Given the impact of trauma symptoms on disease progression in PLH, exposure to bullying must be considered in any intervention aiming to reduce trauma symptoms or improve mental or physical health among HIV-positive populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lindström, Caisa; Åman, Jan; Norberg, Annika Lindahl; Forssberg, Maria; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
To explore how mothers experiencing burnout describe their mothering of a child with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), with a focus on their experienced need for control and self-esteem. This study used a qualitative, descriptive design and aimed to reveal the experience of mothering a child with diabetes when experiencing burnout. Twenty-one mothers of children with T1DM who were experiencing burnout participated in this study. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews, and content analysis was performed. The main results (latent content of the data) were interpreted in one theme, Mission impossible, an inner feeling derived from an extremely challenging experience of mothering, encompassing involuntary responsibility and constant evaluation. Two sub-themes emerged: Forced to provide extraordinary mothering and Constant evaluation of the mothering. In addition to monitoring the health of the child with T1DM, it is important for clinicians to pay attention to how mothers experience their daily life in order to support those who are at risk of developing burnout, as well as those who are experiencing burnout. The wellbeing of the mother could influence the wellbeing of the child, as well as the entire family. Further research on perceived parental responsibility, gender differences, psychosocial factors, and burnout is needed. Knowledge and understanding of how mothers suffering from burnout experience mothering a child with diabetes could help nurses, social workers, psychologists and counselors conducting pediatric diabetes care become more attentive to the mother's situation and have procedures for counseling interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maradiegue, Ann H; Lyon, Debra E; Meyers, Melanie F
In this study, depressive symptomatology in Central American immigrant mothers with adolescent daughters living in the USA was explored. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Short Scale, the Family History Scale, an Acculturation Scale, and the core section of the Youth Conduct Disorder scale from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 101 Central American mothers were analyzed to identify predictors of depressive symptoms. Over one-third of the participants had depressive symptoms. There were no significant findings for acculturation as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Predictors that related to depressive symptomatology were a positive family history of depression, marital status (divorced), and having a daughter engaged in health risk behaviors. Clinicians working with mothers from Central America should consider risk of depression, whether there is a family history of depression; and additional stresses, such as the health risk behaviors of adolescents. Unprecedented levels of immigration around the world underscore the importance of meeting the healthcare needs of culturally-diverse groups.
Full Text Available Randomised controlled trials evaluating perinatal home-visiting programs are frequently confronted with the problem of high attrition rates. The aim of the present study is to identify predictors of study attrition in a trial evaluating a perinatal home-visiting program in France.CAPEDP is a French randomized trial comparing a perinatal home-visiting program using psychologists versus usual care (N = 440. The first assessment was at inclusion into the trial at the 27th week of pregnancy and the final assessment when the child reached the age of two. Attrition rates were calculated at 3 and 24 months postpartum. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify predictors of early (between inclusion and 3 months postpartum and later (between 3 and 24 months postpartum attrition among social, psychological and parenting factors.Attrition rates were 17% and 63% at 3 and 24 months respectively. At 24 months, there was significantly more attrition in the control arm (70.6% compared to the intervention arm (55.2%. Five independent predictors of early attrition were identified: having already had an abortion; having greater attachment insecurity as measured with the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ; having lower global severity of psychiatric symptoms as assessed with the Symptom Check-List (SCL-90 at inclusion, being neither currently employed nor studying; and declaring no tobacco consumption during pregnancy. Being randomized into the control arm, having undergone early parental loss before age 11 and having lower global severity of psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90 at 3 months postpartum were the only variables associated with later attrition.This study provides key information for identifying mothers who may require specific support to avoid study attrition in trials evaluating a home-visiting program.
Foulon, Stéphanie; Greacen, Tim; Pasquet, Blandine; Dugravier, Romain; Saïas, Thomas; Guedeney, Nicole; Guedeney, Antoine; Tubach, Florence
Objective Randomised controlled trials evaluating perinatal home-visiting programs are frequently confronted with the problem of high attrition rates. The aim of the present study is to identify predictors of study attrition in a trial evaluating a perinatal home-visiting program in France. Materials and Methods CAPEDP is a French randomized trial comparing a perinatal home-visiting program using psychologists versus usual care (N = 440). The first assessment was at inclusion into the trial at the 27th week of pregnancy and the final assessment when the child reached the age of two. Attrition rates were calculated at 3 and 24 months postpartum. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify predictors of early (between inclusion and 3 months postpartum) and later (between 3 and 24 months postpartum) attrition among social, psychological and parenting factors. Results Attrition rates were 17% and 63% at 3 and 24 months respectively. At 24 months, there was significantly more attrition in the control arm (70.6%) compared to the intervention arm (55.2%). Five independent predictors of early attrition were identified: having already had an abortion; having greater attachment insecurity as measured with the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ); having lower global severity of psychiatric symptoms as assessed with the Symptom Check-List (SCL-90) at inclusion, being neither currently employed nor studying; and declaring no tobacco consumption during pregnancy. Being randomized into the control arm, having undergone early parental loss before age 11 and having lower global severity of psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90) at 3 months postpartum were the only variables associated with later attrition. Conclusion This study provides key information for identifying mothers who may require specific support to avoid study attrition in trials evaluating a home-visiting program. PMID:26554839
Post Sennehed, Charlotte; Gard, Gunvor; Holmberg, Sara; Stigmar, Kjerstin; Forsbrand, Malin; Grahn, Birgitta
Working conditions substantially influence health, work ability and sick leave. Useful instruments to help clinicians pay attention to working conditions are lacking in primary care (PC). The aim of this study was to test the validity of a short "Blue flags" questionnaire, which focuses on work-related psychosocial risk factors and any potential need for contacts and/or actions at the workplace. From the original"The General Nordic Questionnaire" (QPSNordic) the research group identified five content areas with a total of 51 items which were considered to be most relevant focusing on work-related psychosocial risk factors. Fourteen items were selected from the identified QPSNordic content areas and organised in a short questionnaire "Blue flags". These 14 items were validated towards the 51 QPSNordic items. Content validity was reviewed by a professional panel and a patient panel. Structural and concurrent validity were also tested within a randomised clinical trial. The two panels (n = 111) considered the 14 psychosocial items to be relevant. A four-factor model was extracted with an explained variance of 25.2%, 14.9%, 10.9% and 8.3% respectively. All 14 items showed satisfactory loadings on all factors. Concerning concurrent validity the overall correlation was very strong rs = 0.87 (p development of the "Blue flags" questionnaire. In summary, the overall validity is considered acceptable. Testing in clinical contexts and in other patient populations is recommended to ensure predictive validity and usefulness.
Muzik, Maria; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Alfafara, Emily A; Schuster, Melisa M; Miller, Nicole M; Waddell, Rachel M; Stanton Kohler, Emily
Maternal psychopathology and traumatic life experiences may adversely impact family functioning, the quality of the parent-child relationship and the attachment bond, placing the child's early social-emotional development at risk. Attachment-based parenting interventions may be particularly useful in decreasing negative outcomes for children exposed to risk contexts, yet high risk families frequently do not engage in programs to address mental health and/or parenting needs. This study evaluated the effects of Mom Power (MP), a 13-session parenting and self-care skills group program for high-risk mothers and their young children (age parenting competence, and engagement in treatment. Mothers were referred from community health providers for a phase 1 trial to assess feasibility, acceptability, and pilot outcomes. At baseline, many reported several identified risk factors, including trauma exposure, psychopathology, poverty, and single parenthood. Ninety-nine mother-child pairs were initially recruited into the MP program with 68 women completing and providing pre- and post-self-report measures assessing demographics and trauma history (pre-assessment only), maternal mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)), parenting, and intervention satisfaction. Results indicate that MP participation was associated with reduction in depression, PTSD, and caregiving helplessness. A dose response relationship was evident in that, despite baseline equivalence, women who attended ≥70 % of the 10 groups (completers; N = 68) improved on parenting and mental health outcomes, in contrast to non-completers (N = 12). Effects were most pronounced for women with a mental health diagnosis at baseline. The intervention was perceived as helpful and user-friendly. Results indicate that MP is feasible, acceptable, and holds promise for improving maternal mental health and parenting competence among high-risk dyads. Further research is warranted to evaluate
Mengesha, Hayelom Gebrekirstos; Wuneh, Alem Desta; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Selvakumar, Divya L
Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a cohort of 1152 neonates delivered in Tigray Region at randomly selected hospitals between April and July 2014. We used the birth weight category described previously as an outcome variable. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by midwives. We entered and analyzed data using STATA™ Version 11.0. Data were described using a frequency, percentage, relative risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia. In this study, we found a 10.5% and 6.68% incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia, respectively. Seventy (57.8%) of all low birth weight neonates were term births. The predictors for low birth weight were: early marriage (macrosomia were: female gender (RRR: 0.58, CI: 0.35-0.9); high body mass index (RRR: 5.0, CI: 1.56-16); post-maturity (RRR: 2.23, CI: 1.06-4.6); and no maternal complication (RRR: 0.46, CI: 0.27-0.8). In this study, we found gestational age and gender of the neonate to be common risk factors for both low birth weight and macrosomia. Strengthening antenatal follow up, prevention of pre and post maturity, controlling body mass index, and improving socioeconomic status of mothers are recommendations to prevent the double burden (low birth weight
Watson, Hunna J.; Von Holle, Ann; Knoph, Cecilie; Hamer, Robert M.; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Magnus, Per; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective The aim of this paper was to internally validate previously reported relations (1) between psychosocial factors and bulimia nervosa (BN) outcomes during pregnancy. Method This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Participants were women enrolled during pregnancy (N = 69,030). Internal validity was evaluated by way of bootstrapped parameter estimates using the overall sample and a split sample calibration approach. Results Bootstrap bias estimates were below the problematic threshold, and extend earlier findings(1) by providing support for the validity of the models at the population level of all pregnant women in Norway. Bootstrap risk ratios indicated that prevalence, incidence, and remission of BN during pregnancy were significantly associated with psychosocial factors. The split sample procedure showed that the models developed on the training sample did not predict risks in the validation sample. Discussion This study characterizes associations between psychosocial exposures and BN outcomes among pregnant women in Norway. Women with lifetime and current self-reported psychosocial adversities were at a much higher risk for BN during pregnancy. Psychosocial factors were associated with BN remission during pregnancy, inviting the prospect of enhancing therapeutic interventions. We consider the findings in the context of reproducibility in science. PMID:25346291
Berg, Carla J; Lowe, Kincaid; Stratton, Erin; Goodwin, Sherell Brown; Grimsley, Linda; Rodd, Jan; Williams, Catherine; Mattox, Cheri; Foster, Bruce
We examined correlates of 1) being a virgin; 2) drug or alcohol use prior to the last intercourse; and 3) condom use during the last intercourse in a sample of college students. We recruited 24,055 students at six colleges in the Southeast to complete an online survey, yielding 4840 responses (20.1% response rate), with complete data from 4514. Logistic regression indicated that correlates of virginity included being younger (p attending a four-vs. two-year school (p attendance (p attending a four-year college (p attending a two-year school (p = 0.04), being single/never married (p = 0.005), being homosexual or bisexual (p = 0.04), and a more frequent drinking (p = 0.001). Four-year college attendees were more likely to be a virgin but, if sexually active, reported higher sexual risk behaviors. These nuances regarding sexual risk may provide targets for sexual health promotion programs and interventions.
Wickström, Maria; Höglund, Berit; Larsson, Margareta; Lundgren, Maria
Several studies have demonstrated that mothers with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher prevalence of mental health illness, lower socio-economic status, and a higher risk of alcohol and drug use compared to mothers without ID. The children of mothers with ID are over-represented in child protection and legal proceedings but are generally a less studied group than the mothers. The aim of this study was to investigate if children born to mothers with ID had an increased risk of being diagnosed with mental illness, injuries, and violence compared with children of mothers without ID. The study comprised a population-based cohort of children born in Sweden between 1999 and 2005. Data were collected from the Medical Birth Register and linked with two other national registers; ICD-10 codes were used for medical diagnoses, including ID. The children were followed from birth to seven years of age. In total, 478,577 children were included, of whom 2749 were born to mothers with ID. Children of mothers with ID were at a greater risk of having mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.74-2.35) and ID (OR=4.14; CI=2.95-5.82) in early childhood. They had an increased risk for injuries due to falls (OR=1.15; Cl 1.04-1.27). The largest risk related to trauma was violence and child abuse (OR=3.11; CI=1.89-5.12). In conclusion, children of mothers with ID had an increased risk for injuries, violence, and child abuse. We therefore suggest that parents with ID should receive evidence based support so that their children receive the best care and protection. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
King, Thomas F J; Bergin, David A; Kent, Etaoin M; Manning, Fiona; Reeves, Emer P; Dicker, Patrick; McElvaney, Noel G; Sreenan, Seamus; Malone, Fergal D; McDermott, John H
Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk. Our objective was to ascertain whether EPC number or function was reduced in mothers of low-birthweight infants. This was a prospective cohort study in a general antenatal department of a university maternity hospital. Twenty-three mothers of small for gestational age (SGA) infants (birthweight mothers of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (birthweight ≥ 10th centile) were recruited. Maternal EPC number and function, conventional cardiovascular risk markers, and cord blood adiponectin were measured. Median EPC count was lower (294 vs. 367, P = 0.005) and EPC migration was reduced (0.91 vs. 1.59, P < 0.001) in SGA compared with AGA infants, with no difference in EPC adhesion (0.221 vs. 0.284 fluorescence units, P = 0.257). Maternal triglyceride levels were higher in SGA than AGA infants (0.98 vs. 0.78 mmol/liter, P = 0.006), but there was no difference in cholesterol, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, adiponectin, or blood pressure. There was a moderate monotone (increasing) relationship between birthweight and umbilical cord blood adiponectin (r = 0.475, P = 0.005). Giving birth to an SGA infant was associated with lower maternal EPC number and reduced migratory function. Cord blood adiponectin was significantly correlated with birthweight.
Kent, Peter; Kjær, Per
Background: There is considerable interest in whether best practice management of nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) should include the targeting of treatment to subgroups of people with identifiable clinical characteristics. However, there are no published systematic reviews of the efficacy...... were randomised controlled trials of targeted psychosocial interventions that used trial designs capable of providing robust information on the efficacy of targeted treatment (treatment effect modification) for the outcomes of pain, activity limitation and psychosocial factors (fear avoidance...... limitation at 12 months, when targeted to people with higher movement-related pain. Few studies have investigated targeted psychosocial interventions in NSLBP, using trial designs suitable for measuring treatment effect modification, and they do not provide consistent evidence supporting such targeting...
Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Ramirez, Marizen; Ashida, Sato; Peek-Asa, Corinne
For new mothers returning to work, the role of the workplace psychosocial environment on maternal mental health has not been fully described. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between psychosocial employment characteristics and mothers' postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Ninety-seven women answered survey questions regarding employment, job demand, control, and support, and postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms soon after live birth and 6 months later. Working and nonworking mothers reported similar mental health symptoms. Psychological characteristics of employment were not associated with increased odds of mental health symptoms. Increased social support provided by coworkers, supervisors, and the organization was associated with reduced odds of anxiety symptoms. Our findings identified lack of workplace social support as a modifiable risk factor for postpartum anxiety. Future evaluations of workplace social support interventions may be explored to improve postpartum mental health symptoms. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:109-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bongers, P M; Ijmker, S; van den Heuvel, S; Blatter, B M
Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and upper limb symptoms focused on work-related physical exposure. Nowadays, psychosocial work characteristics are recognized as important risk factors. Various models have been developed to offer frameworks for possible pathways, but their empirical support is still not conclusive. In part I of this paper an overview is presented of the results of recent epidemiological studies on work related psychosocial and personal risk factors for neck and upper limb symptoms. In addition, the interplay between these factors and the possible intermediate role of an individuals work style in this process is explored. In contrast to previous reviews, it is now possible to base the conclusions on the effect of work related psychosocial factors on neck and upper limb symptoms on quite a few longitudinal studies. These studies show that high work demands or little control at work are often related to these symptoms. However, this relationship is neither very strong nor very specific. Perceived stress is studied in not as many studies but more consistently related to neck and upper limb symptoms. This also applies to general distress or other pain (co-morbidity). Job dissatisfaction does not contribute to neck and upper limb symptoms. Too little research on personal characteristics is available to draw any conclusions. It is plausible that behavioural aspects, such as work style, are of importance in the etiology of work related upper limb symptoms. However, studies concerning these factors are promising but too scarce to draw conclusions. Future studies should address these behavioural aspects. In part II, the recent studies on the effectiveness of preventive measures for work related neck and
Hurlbut, N L; Culp, A M; Jambunathan, S; Butler, P
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the adolescent mother's self-esteem and her knowledge of parenting skills. Erikson's psychosocial theory provided the basis for the general hypothesis that the adolescent mother's global self-esteem will correlate with her parenting skills knowledge. The findings reported here support the conclusion that self-esteem is a good indicator of the adolescent mother's parenting. There were significant correlations between the mother's baseline self-esteem and her knowledge about role reversal, empathy, developmental expectations, and corporal punishment. The data also supported the hypothesis that adolescent self-esteem is developmentally continuous. Using Erikson's theory, it was argued that the adolescent mother's parenting is at risk if she has not had the opportunity to achieve her role identity, which is a prerequisite for the parenting stage of generativity.
Berg, Carla J.; Lowe, Kincaid; Stratton, Erin; Goodwin, Sherell Brown; Grimsley, Linda; Rodd, Jan; Williams, Catherine; Mattox, Cheri; Foster, Bruce
Objectives We examined correlates of 1) being a virgin; 2) drug or alcohol use prior to the last intercourse; and 3) condom use during the last intercourse in a sample of college students. Methods We recruited 24,055 students at six colleges in the Southeast to complete an online survey, yielding 4840 responses (20.1% response rate), with complete data from 4514. Results Logistic regression indicated that correlates of virginity included being younger (p < 0.001), male (p = 0.01), being White or other ethnicity (p < 0.001), attending a four-vs. two-year school (p < 0.001), being single/never married (p < 0.001), lower sensation seeking (p < 0.001), more regular religious service attendance (p < 0.001), lower likelihood of smoking (p < 0.001) and marijuana use (p = 0.002), and less frequentdrinking (p < 0.001). Correlates of alcohol or drug use prior to most recent intercourse including being older (p = 0.03), being White (p < 0.01), attending a four-year college (p < 0.001), being homosexual (p = 0.041) or bisexual (p = 0.011), having more lifetime sexual partners (p = 0.005), lower satisfaction with life (p = 0.004), greater likelihood of smoking (p < 0.001) and marijuana use (p < 0.001), and more frequent drinking (p < 0.001). Correlates of condom use during the last sexual intercourse including being older (p = 0.003), being female (p < 0.001), being White (p < 0.001), attending a two-year school (p = 0.04), being single/never married (p = 0.005), being homosexual or bisexual (p = 0.04), and a more frequent drinking (p = 0.001). Conclusions Four-year college attendees were more likely to be a virgin but, if sexually active, reported higher sexual risk behaviors. These nuances regarding sexual risk may provide targets for sexual health promotion programs and interventions. PMID:25068080
Willumsen, J F; Filteau, S M; Coutsoudis, A; Uebel, K E; Newell, M L; Tomkins, A M
Subclinical mastitis, as diagnosed by an elevated sodium/potassium ratio in milk accompanied by an increased milk concentration of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL8), was found to be common among breast feeding women in Bangladesh and Tanzania. Subclinical mastitis results in leakage of plasma constituents into milk, active recruitment of leukocytes into milk, and possible infant gut damage from inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we wished to investigate whether subclinical mastitis was related to known risk factors for postnatal mother-to-child HIV transmission, that is, high milk viral load or increased infant gut permeability. HIV-infected South African women were recruited at the antenatal clinic of McCord's Hospital, Durban. Risks and benefits of different feeding strategies were explained to them and, if they chose to breast feed, they were encouraged to do so exclusively. Women and infants returned to the clinic at 1, 6 and 14 weeks postpartum for an interview about infant health and current feeding pattern, a lactulose/mannitol test of infant gut permeability, and milk sample collection from each breast separately for analysis of Na/K ratio, IL8 concentration and viral load in the cell-free aqueous phase. Only preliminary cross-sectional analyses from an incomplete database are available at this point. Moderately (0.6-1.0) or greatly (>1.0) raised Na/K ratio was common and was often unilateral, although as a group right and left breasts did not differ. Considering both breasts together, normal, moderately raised or greatly raised Na/K was found, respectively, in 51%, 28%, 21% of milk samples at 1 week (n=190); 69%, 20%, 11% at 6 weeks (n=167); and 72%, 16%, 12% at 14 weeks (n=122). IL8 concentration significantly correlated with both Na/K and viral load at all times. Na/K correlated with viral load at 1 and 14, but not 6 weeks. At 1 and 14 weeks, geometric mean viral loads in samples with Na/K > 1.0 were approximately 4 times those in samples
Suzuki, Yoshio; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Shinjo, Tokiko; Maruyama-Nagao, Asako; Nakaniida, Atsuko; Kadoya, Haruka; Shibata, Marika; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Kazuhito
Physical activity helps to prevent the development of chronic non-communicable diseases. However, childbearing generally reduces parents' level of physical activity, particularly in mothers. Therefore, mothers with young children generally have lower levels of physical activity and have a higher risk of developing non-communicable diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine this risk in Japanese working mothers with young children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four nursery schools in Nagano city, Japan. All mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding abnormal findings at their proximate annual medical examination, and were asked to record their normal physical activity. A total of 182 mothers completed the questionnaires, and 36 reported having abnormal findings (ABN group). Mothers in the ABN group were significantly older than those without abnormal findings (NOR; P=0.043). No significant differences in physical activity were observed between the two groups; however, mothers in the ABN group spent a significantly longer time sitting than those in the NOR group (P=0.028). Regarding socioeconomic characteristics, mothers in the ABN group had a significantly higher educational background (P=0.040) and a higher annual family income (Pchildren developing non-communicable diseases.
Geerlings, R.P.J.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Gottmer-Welschen, L.M.C.; With, P.H.N. de; Zinger, S.; Staa, A.L. van; Louw, A.J.A. de
Introduction: Childhood-onset epilepsy during the years of transition to adulthood may affect normal social, physical, and mental development, frequently leading to psychosocial and health-related problems in the long term. Objective: This study aimed to describe the main characteristics of patients
Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine; Doumen, Sarah
Based on attachment theory, two aims were addressed. Firstly, we tested whether close teacher-child relationships may buffer children who are less securely attached to their mothers against negative outcomes, such as aggressive behavior. Secondly, our study evaluated whether teacher sensitivity may protect less securely attached children against…
Raffaelli, Marcela; Tran, Steve P.; Wiley, Angela R.; Galarza-Heras, Maria; Lazarevic, Vanja
Immigrants from Latin America are increasingly settling in rural U.S. communities that welcome them as workers but are often unprepared to address their needs and promote their well-being. Building on recent descriptive studies, we examined factors associated with individual and family well-being in a sample of 112 immigrant Latina mothers (mean…
A communication framework was developed to examine the influence of maternal use of self-disclosure on adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and to engage in sexual intercourse. Data were collected from 516 Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent dyads. Statistical analyses were conducted in AMOS using structural equation modeling.…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM are marginalized, hidden, underserved and at high risk for HIV in Nepal. We examined the association between MSM sub-populations, psychosocial health problems and support, access to prevention and non-use of condoms. METHODS: Between September-November of 2010, a cross-sectional survey on HIV-related risk behavior was performed across Nepal through snowball sampling facilitated by non-governmental organizations, recruiting 339 MSM, age 15 or older. The primary outcomes were: (a non-use of condoms at least once in last three anal sex encounters with men and (b non-use of condoms with women in the last encounter. The secondary outcome was participation in HIV prevention interventions in the past year. RESULTS: Among the 339 MSM interviewed, 78% did not use condoms at their last anal sex with another man, 35% did not use condoms in their last sex with a woman, 70% had experienced violence in the last 12 months, 61% were experiencing depression and 47% had thought of committing suicide. After adjustment for age, religion, marital status, and MSM subpopulations (bisexual, ta, meti, gay, non-use of condoms at last anal sex with a man was significantly associated with non-participation in HIV interventions, experience of physical and sexual violence, depression, repeated suicidal thoughts, small social support network and being dissatisfied with social support. Depression was marginally associated with non-use of condoms with women. The findings suggest that among MSM who reported non-use of condoms at last anal sex, the ta subgroup and those lacking family acceptance were the least likely to have participated in any preventive interventions. CONCLUSIONS: MSM in Nepal have a prevalence of psychosocial health problems in turn associated with high risk behavior for HIV. Future HIV prevention efforts targeting MSM in Nepal should cover all MSM subpopulations and prioritize psychosocial health interventions.
Tian, Shen; Lin, Xian-Hua; Xiong, Yi-Meng; Liu, Miao-E; Yu, Tian-Tian; Lv, Min; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Gu-Feng; Ding, Guo-Lian; Xu, Chen-Ming; Jin, Min; Feng, Chun; Wu, Yan-Ting; Tan, Ya-Jing; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Li, Cheng; Ren, Jun; Jin, Lu-Yang; Chen, Bin; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Chen, Song-Chang; Liu, Xin-Mei; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Wang, Li; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Jin, Li; Chen, Xi; Meng, Yi-Cong; Wu, Dan-Dan; Lin, Hui; Yang, Qian; Zhou, Cheng-Liang; Li, Xin-Zhu; Wang, Yi-Yu; Xiang, Yu-Qian; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Gao, Ling; Chen, Lu-Ting; Pan, Hong-Jie; Li, Rong; Zhang, Fang-Hong; Xing, Lan-Feng; Zhu, Yi-Min; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K; Li, Ju-Xue; Sun, Fei; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng
Excessive androgen exposure during pregnancy has been suggested to induce diabetic phenotypes in offspring in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pregestational maternal hyperandrogenism in human influenced the glucose metabolism in offspring via epigenetic memory from mother's oocyte to child's somatic cells. Of 1782 reproductive-aged women detected pregestational serum androgen, 1406 were pregnant between 2005 and 2010. Of 1198 women who delivered, 1116 eligible mothers (147 with hyperandrogenism and 969 normal) were recruited. 1216 children (156 children born to mothers with hyperandrogenism and 1060 born to normal mother) were followed up their glycometabolism in mean age of 5years. Imprinting genes of oocyte from mothers and lymphocytes from children were examined. A pregestational hyperandrogenism rat model was also established. Children born to women with hyperandrogenism showed increased serum fasting glucose and insulin levels, and were more prone to prediabetes (adjusted RR: 3.98 (95%CI 1.16-13.58)). Oocytes from women with hyperandrogenism showed increased insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) expression. Lymphocytes from their children also showed increased IGF2 expression and decreased IGF2 methylation. Treatment of human oocytes with dihydrotestosterone upregulated IGF2 and downregulated DNMT3a levels. In rat, pregestational hyperandrogenism induced diabetic phenotypes and impaired insulin secretion in offspring. In consistent with the findings in human, hyperandrogenism also increased Igf2 expression and decreased DNMT3a in rat oocytes. Importantly, the same altered methylation signatures of Igf2 were identified in the offspring pancreatic islets. Pregestational hyperandrogenism may predispose offspring to glucose metabolism disorder via epigenetic oocyte inheritance. Clinical trial registry no.: ChiCTR-OCC-14004537; www.chictr.org. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Javier Pérez Padilla
Full Text Available In this study parenting stress and coping strategies in a sample of 109 mothers from at-risk families were analyzed. Results obtained show over half of these women experienced clinical levels of parenting stress, and problem focused coping strategies were the most commonly used. Moreover, the main characteristics of these families and their trajectories in Child and Family Protection Services were correlated with parenting stress and coping strategies. The global valuation of family risk informed by professionals was significantly related to parenting stress.
Full Text Available Yukiko Miyazaki,1 Kunihiko Hayashi,2 Setsuko Imazeki1 1Faculty of Health Care, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Takasaki, 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan Background: Smoking during pregnancy causes obstetric and fetal complications, and smoking cessation may have great benefits for the mother and the child. However, some pregnant women continue smoking even in pregnancy.Objective: To review the literature addressing the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, explore psychosocial factors associated with smoking, and review the evidence of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation during pregnancy in recent years.Literature review: Computerized Internet search results in PubMed for the years spanning from 2004 to 2014, as well as references cited in articles, were reviewed. A search for the keywords “smoking cessation pregnancy” and “intervention” and “clinical trials” yielded 52 citations. Thirty-five citations were identified as useful to this review for the evidence of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation during pregnancy.Results: The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy differs by country, reflecting the countries’ social, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds. Women who had socioeconomic disadvantages, problems in their interpersonal relationships, higher stress, depression, less social support, and who engaged in health-risk behaviors were more prone to smoking during pregnancy. Psychosocial interventions, such as counseling, are effective methods for increasing smoking cessation.Conclusion: Smokers may have various psychosocial problems in addition to health problems. It is important to understand each individual’s social situation or psychosocial characteristics, and a psychosocial intervention focused on the characteristics of the individual is required. Keywords: women’s health, smoking cessation, pregnancy, psychosocial intervention
Barrett, Katherine J.; Thompson, Amanda L.; Bentley, Margaret E.
Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children’s later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors—specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms—influence mothers’ infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. PMID:27174251
Runeson-Broberg, Roma; Norbäck, Dan
This study examined the association between work-related psychosocial stress and asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections. 532 randomly selected occupationally active people (272 men, 260 women; M age = 41 yr., SD = 13) in Sweden participated. Information on history of asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections was collected by a postal self-report questionnaire. Work stress was assessed based on the demands-control-support model. Current asthma and respiratory infections were associated with work-related psychosocial stress. When stratified for sex, these associations were only found in men. Associations between low control, low support, and current asthma were found among young participants ( 40 years) low supervisor support was associated with frequent respiratory infections.
Rodríguez Garcés, Carlos; Centro de Investigación CIDCIE de la Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán
Through the scale “Perception Teaching for Families Experiencing Psychosocial Risk” applied to 175 teachers in training, conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The AFE, with an explained variance of 43.9%, reveals the existence of four factors or dimensions: Implications Parental Education, features personological Attributive, Parental Participation and Attribution Genealogical. The subsequent descriptive analysis reports that there is a tarnished image by teachers of vulnerable chil...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of
Alkadhi, Karim A; Tran, Trinh T
The CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus are physically and functionally closely related but they react differently to insults. This study examined the effect of chronic psychosocial stress on the dentate gyrus of an at-risk (preclinical) rat model of Alzheimer's disease (subAβ rats). Chronic psychosocial stress was produced using a rat intruder model. The at-risk rat model of Alzheimer's disease was created by osmotic pump infusion of sub-pathological dose of Aβ (160 pmol Aβ1-42/day i.c.v) for 14 days. Electrophysiological methods were used to evoke and record early and late phase LTP in the dentate gyrus of anesthetized rats, and immunoblotting was used to measure levels of memory-related signaling molecules in the same region. Electrophysiological and molecular tests in the dentate gyrus showed that subAβ rats or stressed rats were not different from control rats. However, when the subAβ rats were chronically stressed, the combined treatments severely suppressed early phase LTP without affecting the late phase LTP of dentate gyrus. Additionally, in the chronically stressed subAβ rats the expected elevation of levels of phosphorylated CaMKII did not materialize after expression of early phase LTP suggesting impaired phosphorylation, which may explain the severely blocked early phase LTP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Backonja, Uba; Robledo, Candace A.; Wallace, Maeve E.; Flores, Katrina F.; Kiely, Michele
Background Washington, D.C. has among the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy in the United States. Increasing women’s reproductive health knowledge may help address these reproductive health issues. This analysis assessed whether high-risk pregnant African American women in Washington, D.C. who participated in an intervention to reduce behavioral and psychosocial risks had greater reproductive health knowledge than women receiving usual care. Methods Project DC-HOPE was a randomized controlled trial that included pregnant African American women in Washington, D.C., recruited during prenatal care. Women in the intervention group were provided reproductive health education and received tailored counseling sessions to address their psychosocial and behavioral risk(s) (cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression, and intimate partner violence). Women in the control group received usual prenatal care. Participants completed a 10-item reproductive knowledge assessment at baseline (n=1,044) and postpartum (n=830). Differences in total reproductive health knowledge scores at baseline and postpartum between groups were examined via chi-squared tests. Differences in postpartum mean total score by group were assessed via multiple linear regression. Results Women in both groups and at both time points scored approximately 50% on the knowledge assessments. At postpartum, women in the intervention group had higher total scores compared to women receiving usual care (mean 5.40 [SD 1.60] vs. 5.03 [SD 1.53] out of 10, respectively; p<0.001). Conclusions While intervention participants increased reproductive health knowledge, overall scores remained low. Development of interventions designed to impart accurate, individually tailored information to women may promote reproductive health knowledge among high-risk pregnant African American women residing in Washington, D.C. PMID:27094910
Backonja, Uba; Robledo, Candace A; Wallace, Maeve E; Flores, Katrina F; Kiely, Michele
Washington, DC, has among the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy in the United States. Increasing women's reproductive health knowledge may help to address these reproductive health issues. This analysis assessed whether high-risk pregnant African American women in Washington, DC, who participated in an intervention to reduce behavioral and psychosocial risks had greater reproductive health knowledge than women receiving usual care. Project DC-HOPE was a randomized, controlled trial that included pregnant African American women in Washington, DC, recruited during prenatal care (PNC). Women in the intervention group were provided reproductive health education and received tailored counseling sessions to address their psychosocial and behavioral risk(s) (cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression, and intimate partner violence). Women in the control group received usual PNC. Participants completed a 10-item reproductive knowledge assessment at baseline (n = 1,044) and postpartum (n = 830). Differences in total reproductive health knowledge scores at baseline and postpartum between groups were examined via χ(2) tests. Differences in postpartum mean total score by group were assessed via multiple linear regression. Women in both groups and at both time points scored approximately 50% on the knowledge assessments. At postpartum, women in the intervention group had higher total scores compared with women receiving usual care (mean 5.40 [SD 1.60] vs. 5.03 [SD 1.53] out of 10, respectively; p < .001). Although intervention participants increased reproductive health knowledge, overall scores remained low. Development of interventions designed to impart accurate, individually tailored information to women may promote reproductive health knowledge among high-risk pregnant African American women residing in Washington, DC. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kawaguchi, Mika; Matsudaira, Ko; Sawada, Takayuki; Koga, Tadashi; Ishizuka, Akiko; Isomura, Tatsuya; Coggon, David
Most studies of risk factors for new low back pain (LBP) have been conducted in Western populations, but because of cultural and environmental differences, the impact of causal factors may not be the same in other countries. We used longitudinal data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study to assess risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP among Japanese workers. Data came from a 1-year prospective follow-up of nurses, office workers, sales/marketing personnel, and transportation workers, initially aged 20-59 years, who were employed in or near Tokyo. A baseline questionnaire included items on past history of LBP, personal characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related psychosocial factors. Further information about LBP was collected at follow-up. Analysis was restricted to participants who had been free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess baseline risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP (i.e. LBP that had interfered with work) during the 12 months of follow-up. Among 955 participants free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline, 58 (6.1%) reported a new episode of disabling LBP during the 12-month follow-up period. After mutual adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, which included the four factors that showed associations individually (p 3.0). When past history of LBP was excluded from the model, ORs for the remaining risk factors were virtually unchanged. Our findings suggest that among Japanese workers, as elsewhere, past history of LBP is a major risk factor for the development of new episodes of disabling back pain. They give limited support to the association with occupational lifting that has been observed in earlier research, both in Japan and in Western countries. In addition, they suggest a possible role of long working hours, which merits further investigation.
Full Text Available Management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH from embryonic stage to adulthood is a critical challenge. We would like to comment on some of the practical difficulties in offering prenatal treatment for CAH-affected fetuses in Indian population. For initiating the prenatal dexamethasone (DEX treatment, all members of the family need to be informed about the risks and benefits of the treatment to the mother and the fetus as well as about the available invasive diagnostic tests to determine the gender and genotype of the fetus. Prenatal sex disclosure is not routinely practiced in India due to high female feticide rate. The treatment has to be given to both unaffected and affected female fetuses until the determination of prenatal sex. Moreover, most of our populations reside in rural areas where the antenatal care is not adequate. Prenatal DEX treatment in India outruns the risks rather than the benefits, as evident from the literature on the safety of pregnant mothers and fetuses.
Parnas, Josef; Cannon, T D; Jacobsen, B;
OBJECTIVES: To perform a long-term prospective follow-up of children at high risk for schizophrenia to identify risk factors for the development of this disorder. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up population study of children of schizophrenic mothers and their matched controls from age 15 years to ag...
张新凯; 张明园; 何燕玲; 李春波
Objective To explore the relationship between psychosocial factors and risk of vascular dementia. Methods A cohort study of people 55 years old and over were followed up 10 years after a baseline screening. 5055 older subjects in Shanghai were stratified and cluster sampled from community. Information about psychosocial factors was collected during the baseline screening with an interview in 1987. The clinical diagnosis of dementia and vascular dementia (VD) were made according to DSM-Ⅲ-R and Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS). In 1997,the elders who were not having dementia in 1987 were surveyed; Clinical diagnosis terms of that was made in above mentioned criteria. Then we analyzed the relationship between the psychosocial factors and VD in community elderly population by means of Logistic regression and estimated the incidence of VD.Results 1203 subjects were re-surveyed in 1997 and among them 124 new cases of dementia including 36 cases of VD were identified. By calculating the relative risk (RR) of psychosocial factors to the VD, we found that several psychosocial factors were correlated with the VD including not taking group activities, unsatisfying life, negative life events and depression (RR＞1). ADL total score are also good predictive points for VD.Conclusions Psychosocial factor may play an important role in the vascular dementia developed.%目的探索血管性痴呆(VD)可能的心理社会危险因素。方法在城市社区中分层整群抽样，10年间完成两次二阶段法调查的55岁及以上人群共5 055人。工具为“上海市老年研究访问卷”中有关内容。1987年第一次调查非痴呆4 896名老人多方面的心理社会因素资料，以及进行MMSE和ADL量表评定。10后复访，按DSM-Ⅲ-R和Hachinski缺血指数作出痴呆和VD的临床诊断，计算VD年发病率，以Logistic回归法分析VD老人10年前那些心理社会因素对10年后VD疾病发生产生可能的影响。结果 10年后访到1
Regina Helena Vitale Torkomian Joaquim
Full Text Available Introduction: This study approaches the process of teaching-learning of a group of occupational therapy students to act in the care of mothers of babies at risk in the hospital context. It is linked to a community project, supported by the ‘Programa de Extensao Universitaria’. Objective: It aimed to qualify the students for understanding the risk rising, the initial mother-baby bond in the hospital environment, the monitoring of the child development and troubleshooting, as well as to see themselves as subjects of their own training. Method: Participants were six students, three teachers, 26 mothers and their 28 babies. The procedures had been developed in three articulated axles: practice, theoretical basis and invitation to reflection, each axle guided by one of three teachers. There were 65 meetings; 27 of the group of mothers, 11 of the group for theoretical overviews and 27 of the reflection group. Six students have completed their participation in the study, having achieved qualification for the care of occupational therapy to mothers of babies at risk during hospitalization and at home after discharge, as well as the co-responsibility with people and served family. All 26 mothers received care in the nursery; 25 of them in addition to the nursery, were treated at mothers group and 6 in addition to the nursery and the group, were visited at home. Conclusion: This study made it possible to contemplate two subjects with the same priority: the mother and her baby, as subjects of the attention and care of an occupational therapist and the student, as the subject of the attention and care of the teacher of occupational therapy.
Bergmann, Sarah; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Wendt, Verena; Grube, Matthias; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Gausche, Ruth; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M.
Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children's psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children's weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI), mother–child emotional availability (EA), and maternal parenting stress are associated with children's weight and psychosocial development (i.e., internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence) and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included three assessment points (~11 months apart). The baseline sample consisted of N = 194 mothers and their children aged 5–47 months (M = 28.18, SD = 8.44, 99 girls). At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother–child interactions, coding them with the EA Scales (fourth edition). We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI–SDS scores. Children's externalizing and internalizing problems (t1–t3) and social competence (t3, N = 118) were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1.5–5), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior), and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3–6: social-emotional competence). Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM) and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI–SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence) in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to serve as
Full Text Available Abstract Background Problematic internet use (PIU is associated with a plethora of psychosocial adversities. The study objectives were to assess the determinants and psychosocial implications associated with potential PIU and PIU among adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design was applied among a random sample (n = 866 of Greek adolescents (mean age: 14.7 years. Self-completed questionnaires, including internet use characteristics, Young Internet Addiction Test, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, were utilized to examine the study objectives. Results Among the study population, the prevalence rates of potential PIU and PIU were 19.4% and 1.5%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that male gender (Odds Ratio, OR: 2.01; 95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI: 1.35-3.00, as well as utilizing the internet for retrieving sexual information (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.53-4.12, interactive game playing (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.21-2.82, and socialization, including chat-room use (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.36-2.86 and email (OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05-2.24, were independently associated with potential PIU and PIU. Adolescents with potential PIU had an increased likelihood of concomitantly presenting with hyperactivity (OR: 4.39; 95% CI: 2.03-9.52 and conduct (OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.46-4.50 problems. Moreover, adolescent PIU was significantly associated with hyperactivity (OR: 9.96; 95% CI: 1.76-56.20 and conduct (OR: 8.39; 95% CI: 2.04-34.56 problems, as well as comprehensive psychosocial maladjustment (OR: 8.08; 95% CI: 1.44-45.34. Conclusions The determinants of potential PIU and PIU include accessing the internet for the purposes of retrieving sexual information, game playing, and socialization. Furthermore, both potential PIU and PIU are adversely associated with notable behavioral and social maladjustment among adolescents.
Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia
Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Methods: Based…
Osler, Merete; Jorgensen, Torben; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik;
of the study area. At the same time type A behaviours increased in both men and women, while there were no changes in reported personal problems. The proportion of women living alone increased, while the proportion of emotionally distressed decreased. In men there were no changes in cohabitation status...... or emotional distress. The changes in the psychosocial factors were the same in different educational groups. CONCLUSION: The socioeconomic position of the population improved at the individual and the community level during the study period. This was concurrent with the declining incidence of myocardial...
Winther Frederiksen, Thomas; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Stokholm, Zara A
-2010. The study database contained information on individual short-term and long-term noise exposure levels, hearing levels and questionnaire information on common mental disorders and psychosocial work factors. Associations between noise exposure levels, hearing levels, depression, anxiety, burn-out symptoms...... the participants, 17% reported tinnitus, 16% had a hearing handicap (WHO-definition), 3% anxiety disorder, 14% burn-out symptoms, 4% depression, and 8% reported work-related stress. CONCLUSIONS: Tinnitus is expected to represent a heterogeneous group of underlying disorders. We aim at contributing to a better...
Cadenas-Benitez, N M; Yanes-Sosa, F; Gonzalez-Meneses, A; Cerrillos, L; Acosta, D; Praena-Fernandez, J M; Neth, O; Gomez de Terreros, I; Ybot-González, P
Abnormalities in maternal folate and carbohydrate metabolism have both been shown to induce neural tube defects (NTD) in humans and animal models. However, the relationship between these two factors in the development of NTDs remains unclear. Data from mothers of children with spina bifida seen at the Unidad de Espina Bífida del Hospital Infantil Virgen del Rocío (case group) were compared to mothers of healthy children with no NTD (control group) who were randomly selected from patients seen at the outpatient ward in the same hospital. There were 25 individuals in the case group and 41 in the control group. Analysis of genotypes for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677CT polymorphism in women with or without risk factors for abnormal carbohydrate metabolism revealed that mothers who were homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism were more likely to have offspring with spina bifida and high levels of homocysteine, compared to the control group. The increased incidence of NTDs in mothers homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism stresses the need for careful metabolic screening in pregnant women, and, if necessary, determination of the MTHFR 677CT genotype in those mothers at risk of developing abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.
Chambers, Earle C; Duarte, Cristiane S; Yang, Frances M
Fragile Families and Wellbeing Study (FFS) data were analyzed to examine the relationships between obesity, household instability, and area poverty in urban mothers and their children (N=1,449). The FFS was conducted in 20 U.S. cities between 2001 and 2004. Household instability was defined as a tenuous home environment where certain psychosocial and economic constraints are present. Area poverty was determined according to the 2000 U.S. Census. Relative weight increased with level of household instability in mothers but not in children. Mothers with the highest level of household instability within areas of low poverty (i.e., relatively little poverty) were more likely than others to be obese (Odds Ratio=1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6). Household instability was not associated with overweight in children. These results suggest that home stability should be considered as a possible risk factor for obesity in mothers with infant children, particularly those residing in low poverty areas.
Lin, Ashleigh; Di Prinzio, Patsy; Young, Deidra; Jacoby, Peter; Whitehouse, Andrew; Waters, Flavie; Jablensky, Assen; Morgan, Vera A
We examined the academic performance at age 12 years of children of mothers diagnosed with schizophrenia or other severe mental illness using a large whole-population birth cohort born in Western Australia. We investigated the association between academic performance and the subsequent development of psychotic illness. The sample comprised 3169 children of mothers with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar major depression, delusional disorder or other psychoses; ICD-9 codes 295-298), and 88 353 children of comparison mothers without known psychiatric morbidity. Academic performance of children was indexed on a mandatory state-wide test of reading, spelling, writing and numeracy. A larger proportion of children (43.1%) of mothers with severe mental illness performed below the acceptable standard than the reference group (30.3%; children of mothers with no known severe mental illness). After adjusting for covariates, children of mothers with any severe mental illness were more likely than the reference group to perform below-benchmark on all domains except reading. For all children, poor spelling was associated with the later development of psychosis, but particularly for those at familial risk for severe mental illness (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.81; 95% CI for HR = 1.21, 2.72). Children of mothers with a severe mental illness are at increased risk for sub-standard academic achievement at age 12 years, placing these children at disadvantage for the transition to secondary school. For children with familial risk for severe mental illness, very poor spelling skills at age 12 years may be an indicator of risk for later psychotic disorder. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mass media play a central role in providing environmental health information to the public. Despite several decades of environmental and health communication research, the nature of environmental health information available to one of the most vulnerable populations--new and expecting mothers--has received limited attention. To address this gap, this study poses two questions: (1) How prevalent is information related to prenatal and pediatric environmental health (PPEH) in the media, and (2) how much coverage do the most concerning chemical threats to PPEH receive? A content analysis of 2,543 texts in popular media sources (i.e., the Associated Press [AP], parenting magazines, and parenting websites) from September 2012 to February 2013 revealed that roughly three pieces of PPEH information were made available to mothers daily. Prior research has shown that media coverage of environmental health issues has decreased over the years; however, these results suggest that at-risk populations are likely to encounter this type of information in the media. Also, while certain chemicals received ample coverage (i.e., pesticides, cigarette smoke, mercury), other issues deemed concerning by federal agencies did not (i.e., lead, phthalates). This study also introduces a novel method for harvesting online content encountered incidentally. Implications of these findings for communication research and practice are discussed.
Cristóbal Torres González
Full Text Available Backgroud: Diabetes represents one of the medical conditions complicating pregnancy more frequently, and has the major repercussion not only on mother and foetus but also in the new born child. Objectives: To determine the maternal conditions that associate with the apparition of macrosomia on descendants. Methods: Analytical study that included 159 cases with gestational diabetes treated in the obstetric service of the Universitary Provincial Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ de Cienfuegos, in the years 2003-2004. there were evaluated the maternal age, the parity, hypertension, gestational diabetes and macro foetus antecedents, nutritional values before pregnancy, skin colour, gestational time to diagnosis, PTG values at two hours, gestational time at delivery. A multivariate analysis was done through a logistic regression. Results and Conclusions: Obesity and gestational diabetes diagnosis over 23 weeks were the variable group that most associated with the apparition of macrosomia.
Schwebel, David C; Brezausek, Carl M
Parental influences are among the strongest behavioral correlates to unintentional injury outcome in early childhood, but are less well understood as children develop. We implemented a prospective research design to study how parenting style, parent-child relationships, and parental mental health influence injury during middle childhood. We also considered the roles of parent and child gender. Parental influences were assessed from a sample of 584 first graders, plus their mothers and fathers. Injuries requiring medical treatment were assessed regularly over the subsequent 5 years. Logistic regression models examined how maternal and paternal parenting factors predicted injury among all children, just boys, and just girls. Fathers who reported more positive relationships with their children had children protected from injury. This was particularly true of father-son relationships. No maternal traits predicted injury. A positive father-child, and especially a positive father-son relationship, may protect children from injury during middle childhood.
Bailey, Tessa S; Dollard, Maureen F; Richards, Penny A M
Despite decades of research from around the world now permeating occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation and guidelines, there remains a lack of tools to guide practice. Our main goal was to establish benchmark levels of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) that would signify risk of job strain (jobs with high demands and low control) and depression in organizations. First, to justify our focus on PSC, using interview data from Australian employees matched at 2 time points 12 months apart (n = 1081), we verified PSC as a significant leading predictor of job strain and in turn depression. Next, using 2 additional data sets (n = 2097 and n = 1043) we determined benchmarks of organizational PSC (range 12-60) for low-risk (PSC at 41 or above) and high-risk (PSC at 37 or below) of employee job strain and depressive symptoms. Finally, using the newly created benchmarks we estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) and found that improving PSC in organizations to above 37 could reduce 14% of job strain and 16% of depressive symptoms in the working population. The results provide national standards that organizations and regulatory agencies can utilize to promote safer working environments and lower the risk of harm to employee mental health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%; 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were fully completed (where all required risk content was covered. Ninety-three percent of the subsample of intervention women had a positive view of their
Meade, Christina S; Ickovics, Jeannette R
Behaviors that lead to teen pregnancy also place young women at risk for STDs and repeat pregnancy. Compared to the broad literature on adolescent sexual risk behavior, our understanding of sexual risk in pregnant/mothering teens lags far behind. Primary objectives of this systematic review (1981-2003) of pregnant/mothering teens were to: (1) document rates of STD, repeat pregnancy, condom use, and contraception; (2) identify correlates of these biological and behavioral outcomes; (3) review sexual risk reduction interventions; and (4) discuss directions for future research and implications for clinical care. Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Rates of STD and repeat pregnancy were high, with the majority of teens engaging in unprotected sex during and after pregnancy. An Ecological Model of Sexual Risk, based on Bronfenbrenner's (1989) Ecological Systems Theory, was proposed to organize findings on correlates of sexual risk. Improvements in research, including integration of outcomes and risk factors, stronger methodologies, and standardized assessments, are essential. Results suggest that teen pregnancy is a marker for future sexual risk behavior and adverse outcomes, and that pregnant/mothering teens need hybrid interventions promoting dual use of condoms and hormonal contraception. Pregnancy may provide a critical "window of opportunity" for sexual risk reduction.
Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Tavel, Peter; Gajdosova, Beata; Orosova, Oega; Zezula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Study explores the influence of selected socioeconomic (education and unemployment of father/mother) and psychosocial factors (perceived social support from father, mother, friends, atmosphere and study conditions at school) on sense of coherence (13-item Antonovsky scale) among adolescents (n=1992,
Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Tavel, Peter; Gajdosova, Beata; Orosova, Oega; Zezula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Study explores the influence of selected socioeconomic (education and unemployment of father/mother) and psychosocial factors (perceived social support from father, mother, friends, atmosphere and study conditions at school) on sense of coherence (13-item Antonovsky scale) among adolescents (n=1992,
Flick, Louise H.; McSweeney, Maryellen
Adolescent mothers display less frequent, accepting, and involved interaction with their children than do older mothers. Yet the role of the young mothers' psychosocial immaturity in these phenomena remains unexplained. This project explores the validity of Newberger's model of Parental Awareness (PA) which outlines hierarchical stages in the…
van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf
Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043).…
Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.
Andover, Margaret S; Morris, Blair W; Wren, Abigail; Bruzzese, Margaux E
Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.
Andover Margaret S
Full Text Available Abstract Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.
Parnas, Josef; Cannon, T D; Jacobsen, B
.2%) and other nonaffective, nonorganic psychosis (4.6%), and Cluster A personality disorders (21.3%) occurred among the offspring of schizophrenic mothers compared with the controls (1.9%, 0.9%, and 5%, respectively). No evidence of increased aggregation of (psychotic and nonpsychotic) affective disorders......OBJECTIVES: To perform a long-term prospective follow-up of children at high risk for schizophrenia to identify risk factors for the development of this disorder. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up population study of children of schizophrenic mothers and their matched controls from age 15 years to age...... 42 years, with multiple diagnostic assessments performed by senior clinicians using structured interviews blindly with respect to the group membership of the subject. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred seven offspring of schizophrenic mothers and 104 control children without schizophrenic parents matched...
Machado, Gustavo C; Ferreira, Paulo H; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Steffens, Daniel; Koes, Bart W; Li, Qiang; Ferreira, Manuela L
A previous study has shown that transient physical and psychosocial activities increased the risk of developing low back pain. However, the link between these factors in triggering nonpersistent or persistent episodes remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of transient exposures to physical and psychosocial activities with the development of nonpersistent or persistent low back pain. This was a case-crossover study with 12 months follow-up. We included 999 consecutive participants seeking care for a sudden onset of low back pain. Development of low back pain was the outcome measure. At baseline, participants reported transient exposures to 12 predefined activities over the 4 days preceding pain onset. After 12 months, participants were asked whether they had recovered and the date of recovery. Exposures in the 2-hour period preceding pain onset (case window) were compared with the 2-hour period, 24 hours before pain onset (control window) in a case-crossover design for all participants. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and interaction analyses were used to compare estimates of nonpersistent (i.e., back pain (back pain, with ORs ranging from 2.9 to 11.7. Overall, the risk of developing a persistent or a nonpersistent episode of low back pain associated with the included physical factors did not differ significantly. Our results revealed that previously identified triggers contribute equally to the development of both nonpersistent and persistent low back pain. Future prevention strategies should focus on controlling exposure to these triggers as they have the potential to decrease the burden associated with both acute and chronic low back pain. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frankel, Karen A; Croy, Calvin D; Kubicek, Lorraine F; Emde, Robert N; Mitchell, Christina M; Spicer, Paul
M.C. Sarche, C.D. Croy, C. Big Crow, C. Mitchell, and P. Spicer (2009) provided first-ever information relating the socioemotional development of American Indian toddlers to the immediate context of their mothers' lives. The current study sought to replicate and build on their earlier work by examining the impact of additional maternal risk factors, identified in previous research with non-American Indian populations, on the development of American Indian toddlers: maternal depression, negative social influences, and mother's feelings of isolation. At 27 months, American Indian mothers (N = 110) completed the Parent Demographic Questionnaire, which measured maternal psychosocial characteristics (e.g., depressed affect, social support, drug and alcohol use, isolation) and demographics. Mothers also completed the Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (A.S. Carter & M.J. Briggs-Gowan, 2006) and the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale of the Parenting Stress Index (R.R. Abidin, 1995, 1997). Some results replicated the original study, but others did not. Reports of a dysfunctional mother-child relationship related to externalizing and internalizing problems, replicating the earlier study. This study also found associations between a dysfunctional mother-child relationship and socioemotional competence as well as dysregulation. The previous finding of a relationship between American Indian identity and socioemotional competence was supported. Adding the effects of maternal depressed affect and isolation significantly increased prediction of toddler behavior problems. © 2013 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Chanakira, E; Goyder, E C; Freeman, J V; O'Cathain, A; Kinghorn, G; Jakubovic, M
In the UK there are limited data about university students' risky sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional web-survey was conducted to investigate factors associated with high-risk sex among students at two UK universities. High-risk sex was reported by 25% of 1108. High personal sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk perception and permissive attitudes towards casual sex were associated with high-risk sex for both men (odds ratio [OR]: 12.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.10-35.81; OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.11-5.56, respectively) and women (OR: 22.31; 95% CI: 9.34-53.26; OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.82-5.01, respectively). For men, drinking alcohol (OR: 17.67; 95% CI: 1.90-164.23) and for women age and frequent drinking (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.05-3.89; OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.08-3.31, respectively) were associated with high-risk sex. However, perceiving an average student as more likely to contract STIs (men, OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16-0.75) or HIV (men, OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.96; women, OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28-0.63) and finding it difficult to discuss sexual matters (women, OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.39-0.91) were negatively associated with high-risk sex. Most of the factors found were similar to other populations, but some psychosocial factors showed complex patterns of association that require further investigation.
Full Text Available This essay advocates for a paradigm shift in psychology toward the activity and ethics of accompaniment. Accompaniment requires a reorientation of the subjectivity, interpersonal practices, and critical understanding of the accompanier so that (she can stand alongside others who desire listening, witnessing, advocacy, space to develop critical inquiry and research, and joint imagination and action to address desired and needed changes. The idea of “accompaniment” emerged in liberation theology in Latin America, and migrated into liberatory forms of psychology as “psychosocial accompaniment.” This essay explores accompaniment and its ethics from a phenomenological perspective, highlighting differences from mainstream stances in psychology. Attention is also given to the effects of accompaniment on the accompanier. Efforts to decolonize psychology require careful attention to the psychic decolonization of its practitioners and to the cultivation of decolonizing interpersonal practices that provide a relational and ethical foundation for joint research, restorative healing, and transformative action. Such practices endeavor through dialogue to build mutual respect and understanding, promote effective solidarity, and contribute to the empowerment of those marginalized. The decolonization of psychology should enable practitioners to be more effective in working for increased social, economic, and environmental justice; peace building and reconciliation; and local and global ecological sustainability.
Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J
Implications for practice and research: Peanut or tree nut avoidance during pregnancy is not recommended for non-allergic mothers. Maternal nut consumption does not appear to increase the risk of nut allergy in offspring and may even be protective. Further research is required to clarify the role of maternal nut consumption during pregnancy and lactation; research should consider potential differential effects of the genetic risk of peanut allergy in children.
Sheridan, Andrew; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J.; Evangeli, Michael; Byram, Victoria; Halligan, Sarah L
Objectives\\ud To investigate whether sleep disturbances previously found to characterise high risk infants: (a) persist into childhood; (b) are influenced by early maternal settling strategies and (c) predict cognitive and emotional/behavioural functioning.\\ud Methods\\ud Mothers experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity (risk) were recruited antenatally and longitudinally assessed with their children. Mothers completed measures of settling strategies and infant sleep postnata...
Boyle, R J; Umasunthar, T; Smith, J G; Hanna, H; Procktor, A; Phillips, K; Pinto, C; Gore, C; Cox, H E; Warner, J O; Vickers, B; Hodes, M
Mothers of children with food allergy have increased anxiety, which may be influenced by healthcare professionals' communication of risk. To evaluate a brief psychological intervention for reducing anxiety in mothers of children with food allergy. Two hundred mothers of children with food allergy were recruited from allergy clinics. A computer-generated randomization list was used to allocate participants to a single-session cognitive behavioural therapy intervention including a risk communication module, or standard care. Anxiety and risk perception were assessed at 6 weeks and 1 year. Primary outcome was state anxiety at 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes included state anxiety at 1 year, risk perception at 6 weeks and 1 year, and salivary cortisol response to a simulated anaphylaxis scenario at 1 year. We found no significant difference in the primary outcome state anxiety at 6 weeks, with mean 31.9 (SD 10.2) intervention, 34.0 (10.2) control; mean difference 2.1 (95% CI -0.9, 5.0; P=.17). There was significantly reduced state anxiety at 6 weeks in the intervention group, in the subgroup of participants with moderate/high anxiety at enrolment (103/200, 52%), with mean 33.0 (SD 9.3) intervention, 37.8 (SD 10.0) control; mean difference 4.8 (95% CI 0.9, 8.7; P=.016; Cohen's d effect size 0.50). The psychological intervention also reduced risk perception and salivary cortisol response (P=.032; effect size 0.36). We found evidence that a brief psychological intervention which incorporates accurate risk information may impact on anxiety, risk perception and physiological stress response in mothers of children with food allergy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Social attitudes towards epilepsy cause more distress to the patient and his/her near and dear ones, than the disease itself. The major psychosocial issues related to epilepsy are: Quality of medical management, overprotection, education, employment, marriage and pregnancy. Inadequate treatment is the major reason involved in psychosocial issues. Constant overprotection and pampering leads to behavioural pattern which makes epileptic patient dependent for ever. Education is hampered in epileptic persons. Teachers and students should have proper information regarding seizures. If seizures are well controlled, job opportunities increase. Employers and employees need to be educated about epilepsy. Self-employment is the best in epileptic patients. Regarding marriage, each patient is to be judged on individual merits and type of epilepsy. Society needs to be educated about the facts and consequences of epilepsy. Risk of anti-epileptic drug's usage is very insignificant compared to risk of seizures in pregnancy. So girls are advised to seek medical advice before pregnancy and during follow-up. With more and more support from the society, persons with epilepsy will have the courage and confidence to speak about themselves and their illness. It is only then that we will realise that persons with epilepsy are 'normal' or 'near-normal' and this will break the vicious cycle of stigma.
Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn
We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.
Myer, L; Phillips, T K; McIntyre, J A; Hsiao, N-Y; Petro, G; Zerbe, A; Ramjith, J; Bekker, L-G; Abrams, E J
Maternal HIV viral load (VL) drives mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk but there are few data from sub-Saharan Africa, where most MTCT occurs. We investigated VL changes during pregnancy and MTCT following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in Cape Town, South Africa. We conducted a prospective study of HIV-infected women initiating ART within routine antenatal services in a primary care setting. VL measurements were taken before ART initiation and up to three more times within 7 days postpartum. Analyses examined VL changes over time, viral suppression (VS) at delivery, and early MTCT based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing up to 8 weeks of age. A total of 620 ART-eligible HIV-infected pregnant women initiated ART, with 2425 VL measurements by delivery (median gestation at initiation, 20 weeks; median pre-ART VL, 4.0 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; median time on ART before delivery, 118 days). At delivery, 91% and 73% of women had VL ≤ 1000 and ≤ 50 copies/mL, respectively. VS was strongly predicted by time on therapy and pre-ART VL. The risk of early MTCT was strongly associated with delivery VL, with risks of 0.25, 2.0 and 8.5% among women with VL 1000 copies/mL at delivery, respectively (P < 0.001). High rates of VS at delivery and low rates of MTCT can be achieved in a routine care setting in sub-Saharan Africa, indicating the effectiveness of currently recommended ART regimens. Women initiating ART late in pregnancy and with high VL appear substantially less likely to achieve VS and require targeted research and programmatic attention. © 2016 British HIV Association.
Darvishi, Ebrahim; Khotanlou, Hassan; Khoubi, Jamshid; Giahi, Omid; Mahdavi, Neda
This study aimed to provide an empirical model of predicting low back pain (LBP) by considering the occupational, personal, and psychological risk factor interactions in workers population employed in industrial units using an artificial neural networks approach. A total of 92 workers with LBP as the case group and 68 healthy workers as a control group were selected in various industrial units with similar occupational conditions. The demographic information and personal, occupational, and psychosocial factors of the participants were collected via interview, related questionnaires, consultation with occupational medicine, and also the Rapid Entire Body Assessment worksheet and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index software. Then, 16 risk factors for LBP were used as input variables to develop the prediction model. Networks with various multilayered structures were developed using MATLAB. The developed neural networks with 1 hidden layer and 26 neurons had the least error of classification in both training and testing phases. The mean of classification accuracy of the developed neural networks for the testing and training phase data were about 88% and 96%, respectively. In addition, the mean of classification accuracy of both training and testing data was 92%, indicating much better results compared with other methods. It appears that the prediction model using the neural network approach is more accurate compared with other applied methods. Because occupational LBP is usually untreatable, the results of prediction may be suitable for developing preventive strategies and corrective interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Holtrop, Kendal; McNeil, Sharde'; McWey, Lenore M
Families experiencing homelessness face a number of risks to their psychosocial health and well-being, yet few studies have examined the topic of parenting among homeless families. The purpose of this multimethod, descriptive study was to acquire a better understanding of the psychosocial status and life experiences of homeless parents residing in transitional housing. Quantitative data were collected from 69 parents and primary caregivers living in a transitional housing community, with a cohort of 24 participants also contributing qualitative data. The quantitative results suggest risk associated with depression, parenting stress, and negative parenting practices. The qualitative findings highlight five themes that convey both the challenges faced by homeless parents as well as the resilience they display in spite of such adversity. These results extend current scholarship on homeless families with children and can better inform how couple and family therapists work with this at-risk population.
Full Text Available Objective: Childhood obesity is high on the global public health agenda. Although risk factors are well known, the influence of social risk on the therapeutic outcome of lifestyle intervention is poorly examined. This study aims to investigate the influence of migration background, low education, and parental unemployment. Methods: 62,147 patients participated in multidimensional lifestyle intervention programs in 179 pediatric obesity centers. Data were collected using standardized software for longitudinal multicenter documentation. 12,305 (19.8% attended care for 6-24 months, undergoing an intensive therapy period and subsequent follow-ups for up to 3 years. A cumulative social risk score was calculated based on different risk indicators. Results: Migration background, low education, and parental employment significantly influenced the outcome of lifestyle intervention. The observed BMI-SDS reduction was significantly higher in the subgroup with low social risks factors (Δ BMI-SDS -0.19 compared to those presenting moderate (Δ BMI-SDS -0.14 and high social risk (Δ BMI-SDS -0.11. Conclusion: Our data underline the effect of children's social setting on the outcome of multidimensional lifestyle intervention. The presence of a high social risk burden is a negative predictor for successful weight loss. Specific therapeutic programs need to be developed for disadvantaged children and adolescents.
Veld, Diana Huis In 't; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Skaal, Linda; Peltzer, Karl
Alcohol use may have a negative impact on the course of HIV disease and the effectiveness of its treatment. We studied patients with HIV who use alcohol and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors. Outcomes from this study may help in selecting patients from clinical practice with high-risk alcohol use and who are likely to benefit most from alcohol reduction interventions. In a cross sectional study in three primary health care clinics in Pretoria, South Africa, from January 2012 to June 2012, patients with HIV infection were interviewed and patients' medical files were reviewed to obtain data on levels of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), patients' socio-demographic characteristics, HIV-related information, health related quality of life (WHOQoL-HIVBref), internalized AIDS stigma, symptoms of depression and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 2230 patients (1483 [66.5%] female) were included. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range 31-43), 99.5% were black Africans, 1975 (88.6%) had started ART and the median time on ART was 22 months (interquartile range 9-40). No alcohol was used by 64% of patients, 8.9% were low risk drinkers, 25.1% of patients were hazardous or harmful drinkers and 2.0% had possible alcohol dependence. In multivariate analysis high-risk drinking was positively associated with male gender, never being married, tobacco use, a higher score for the 'level of independence'-domain measured with the WHOQoL-HIVBref questionnaire, and with more depressive symptoms compared to low-risk drinking. This study shows a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful drinking in patients with HIV infection (especially men) attending primary health care clinics in South Africa. Routine screening for alcohol use should be introduced in these clinics and harm reduction interventions should be evaluated, taking
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la distribución de las puntuaciones de los factores de riesgo psicosocial de origen laboral en cuatro empresas según características personales y laborales de los trabajadores. Métodos: Estudio transversal con una muestra de 890 trabajadores que participaron voluntariamente en cuatro empresas, con una tasa de respuesta conjunta del 34,5%. Los factores de riesgo psicosocial se midieron mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que valoró la presencia de demanda, control y apoyo social, según la percepción del trabajador. El análisis estadístico se basó en el cálculo de la mediana y medidas de la dispersión de los factores de riesgo psicosocial para cada una de las empresas por separado, además de la descripción de su distribución según variables personales y laborales. Resultados: La puntuación mediana para el apoyo social fue prácticamente igual a 5 en todas las empresas observándose una mayor variabilidad en la demanda psicológica (entre 13 y 16 y en el control (entre 20 y 26. Al comparar respecto a variables sociolaborales, observamos valores similares en el caso del apoyo social, pero no respecto al control y la demanda, que mostraron una mayor variación por sexo (varones, edad (menores de 40 años y ocupación (administrativos. Conclusión: Aunque la baja tasa de respuesta puede limitar la validez de estos resultados, éste es el primer estudio que valora la distribución de las puntuaciones de los factores de riesgo psicosocial en cuatro empresas diferentes en España, evidenciando la variabilidad entre las empresas para diferentes grupos de trabajadores. Este trabajo puede ser útil para realizar futuros estudios que exploren la factibilidad de definir valores de referencia útiles para la acción preventiva.Objective: To describe the distribution of work-related psychosocial risk factor scores in four companies according to the personal and occupational characteristics of the workers. Methods
Bruey, N; Beucher, G; Pestour, D; Creveuil, C; Dreyfus, M
Caesarean section is associated with increased maternal morbidity compared to a vaginal delivery, especially if it occurs during labour. Little data on caesarean section performed at full dilatation is available. This was a retrospective study done in University Hospital of type 3 over a period of ten years, including future primiparous patients who had a caesarean section performed at full dilatation, compared to a control group of patients whose caesarean section was conducted in first part of the labour. We collected different maternal data per- and postoperative and neonatal. In total, 824 patients were enrolled including 412 in each group. For caesarean section at full dilatation, foetal extraction required more manoeuvres (RR=3.05; 95% CI: 2.1; 4.39; Psection at full dilatation. A caesarean section at full dilatation has an excess intraoperative risk and requires great caution. Nevertheless, no significant increase of postoperative and neonatal complications can be proved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Samp, Jennifer A.; Abbott, Leslie
Individuals sometimes remain in dysfunctional, and even violent, relationships due to a perceived dependence on a partner. We examined the influence of dependence power judgments (defined by a combined assessment of mother commitment, perceived father commitment, and perceived father alternatives) in a community sample of mothers potentially bound…
Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Lerman, Maya; Har-Even, Dov; Hod, Moshe
Explored relation of biological and psychosocial risk factors to infant development among pregnant women who had pregestational diabetes, gestational diabetes, or were nondiabetic. Found that infants of diabetic mothers scored lower on the Bayley Scales at 1 year and revealed fewer positive and more negative behaviors than infants of nondiabetic…
Barroso, Nicole E; Hungerford, Gabriela M; Garcia, Dainelys; Graziano, Paulo A; Bagner, Daniel M
The goal of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the English and Spanish versions of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) with mothers of 12- to 15-month-old infants with elevated levels of behavior problems and from predominately Hispanic, low-income backgrounds. Mothers of 58 infants were assessed as part of a larger study examining a brief home-based intervention for infants with elevated behavior problems. Internal consistency was good for all 3 subscales (i.e., Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, and Difficult Child) and the Total Stress scale. Convergent validity of subscales was supported by correlations with measures of theoretically related constructs, including maternal depressive symptoms, maternal parenting practices, and infant behavior. Furthermore, examination of the optimal clinical cutoff by examining sensitivity and specificity suggested that for this high-risk sample lower percentile scores (73rd-77th), relative to the published 85th percentile cutoff, were sufficient for identifying mothers with clinically elevated depressive symptoms and infants with clinically elevated behavioral and emotional difficulties. The current results provide psychometric support for the PSI-SF as an effective and appropriate measure for use with high-risk families that have been underrepresented in previous research, including mothers of very young children with behavior problems, Hispanic and Spanish-speaking populations, and low-income families. (PsycINFO Database Record
Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe therepercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical profile of women at high risk of suicide during pregnancy.Methods: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Search terms were: “pregnancy”,(antenatal “depression”, “suicide”. Searches were last updated on 28 September 2010. Forty-six articles assessing the suicidal risk during pregnancy and obstetrical outcome of pregnancies complicated by suicide attempts were analyzed, without methodological limitations.Results: Worldwide, frequency of suicidal attempts and the rate of death by suicidal acts are low. Although this clinical event is rare, the consequences of a suicidal attempt are medically andpsychologically devastating for the mother-infant pair. We also found that common behaviors exist in women at high risk for suicide during pregnancy. Review data indeed suggest that a characteristicprofile can prenatally identify those at highest risk for gestational suicide attempts.Conclusions: Social and health organizations should make all possible efforts to identify women at high suicidal risk, in order to establish specific programs to prevent this tragic event. The available data informs health policy makers with a typical profile to screen women at high risk ofsuicide during pregnancy. Those women who have a current or past history of psychiatric disorders,are young, unmarried, unemployed, have incurred an unplanned pregnancy (eventually terminated with an
Ahrens, Kym R; McCarty, Cari; Simoni, Jane; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E
To test the fit of a theoretically driven conceptual model of pathways to sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. The model included (1) historical abuse and foster care experiences; (2) mental health and attachment style in late adolescence; and (3) STI risk in young adulthood. We used path analysis to analyze data from a longitudinal study of 732 youth transitioning out of foster care. Covariates included gender, race, and an inverse probability weight. We also performed moderation analyses comparing models constrained and unconstrained by gender. Thirty percent reported they or a partner had been diagnosed with an STI. Probability of other measured STI risk behaviors ranged from 9% (having sex for money) to 79% (inconsistent condom use). Overall model fit was good (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual of .026). Increased risk of oppositional/delinquent behaviors mediated an association between abuse history and STI risk, via increased inconsistent condom use. There was also a borderline association with having greater than five partners. Having a very close relationship with a caregiver and remaining in foster care beyond age 18 years decreased STI risk. Moderation analysis revealed better model fit when coefficients were allowed to vary by gender versus a constrained model, but few significant differences in individual path coefficients were found between male and female-only models. Interventions/policies that (1) address externalizing trauma sequelae; (2) promote close, stable substitute caregiver relationships; and (3) extend care to age 21 years have the potential to decrease STI risk in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Tinsley, Jake P; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A
Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n=19) and internet escorts (n=13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD=42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the "lucrativeness" of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, "why not?" attitude, and because
Full Text Available Abstract Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children’s habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent’s own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. Objective To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers’ diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. Methods The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn’s first 18 months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers’ diet (food frequency questionnaire, physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (−0.42;-0.02 and −0.25 (−0.50;-0.01, respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. “Fruits and vegetables” and “Cereals and sweet foods”. Conclusions These findings suggest that
Full Text Available Pregnancy causes large physiologic changes in most body systems and these changes may lead to ease or harden examining some events. The purpose of this study is to define the rate of risk in pregnant women and the results in mother and fetus and also to define the risk rate of pregnancy in pregnant women and its effect on parameters after birth in patients of Educational and Medical center of Gorgan, Dezyani. This case - control study was performed in Educational and Medical Center Dezyany, of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in 1390. In this study, 1266 pregnant women were enrolled of which 804 cases (63.5% according to the criteria for scoring in the questionnaire with a score greater than or equal to 7 were considered as high risk pregnancies (case group, 462 patients (36.5% were considered as low-risk pregnancies (control group. Parameters after the birth and pregnancy results such as delivery type, infant difficulties, mother health after labor were compared and analyzed by T-test and ANOVA in both groups. About the history of infertility almost 80% of the people who had a 2-year history of infertility were in high-risk group and the difference was significant. (P = 0.02 About the history of abortion also almost 90% of the people who had a 2-year history of abortion were in high-risk group and the difference was significant. (P<0.05 Post-term infant was found in 77 cases that were entirely in high-risk group. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. According to results and comparing them to other studies we can conclude that pregnant mothers who have pregnancy difficulties history such as history of abortion or infertility, visits during pregnancy should be paid attention and warn them about the risk of not being visited and timely pursuits.
Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann L
There is increasing interest in leveraging social media to prevent childhood obesity, however, the evidence base for how social media currently influences related behaviors and how interventions could be developed for these platforms is lacking. This commentary calls for research on the extent to which mothers use social media to learn about child feeding practices and the mechanisms through which social media influences their child feeding practices. Such formative research could be applied to the development and dissemination of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention programs that utilize social media. Mothers are identified as a uniquely important target audience for social media-based interventions because of their proximal influence on children's eating behavior and their high engagement with social media platforms. Understanding mothers' current behaviors, interests, and needs as they relate to their social media use and child feeding practices is an integral first step in the development of interventions that aim to engage mothers for obesity prevention. This commentary highlights the importance of mothers for childhood obesity prevention; discusses theoretical and analytic frameworks that can inform research on social media and mothers' child feeding practices; provides evidence that social media is an emerging context for social influences on mothers' attitudes and behaviors in which food is a salient topic; and suggests directions for future research.
Carmita Helena Najjar Abdo
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Sexual dysfunctions can have origins in physical, psychological and psychosocial factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED and female inhibition of sexual desire (ISD in a Brazilian sample, and to estimate the risks of these dysfunctions. TYPE OF STUDY: Non-random survey. SETTING: Ten Brazilian cities. METHODS: 2,835 subjects (53% women aged over 18 years answered a questionnaire about their general health and sex life. The chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression were used. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: The women's average age was 36.6 years (± 13.3 and the men's was 39.5 (± 13.3. 14.7% of men presented moderate/complete ED and 34.6% of women presented ISD. Depression was mentioned by 16.8% of men and 29.7% of women. The chances of having ED and ISD were higher for subjects who had had lower school attainment. Lack of a job and depression gave rise to 1.5 times (95% CI: 1.0 - 2.3 and 1.9 times (95% CI: 1.2 - 3.0 greater chances of ED respectively. Compared with men aged up to 25 years, those aged 41-60 had 1.9 times (95% CI: 1.0 - 3.4 and those aged 61 and over had 5.4 times (95% CI: 2.3 - 12.6 greater risk of ED. For women, lack of a job gave rise to 1.5 times (95% CI: 1.1 - 1.9 greater chance of ISD; depression was not associated with higher risk. Compared with women aged up to 25 years, those aged 41-60 and 61 or over had, respectively, 2.9 times (95% CI: 2.0 - 4.1 and 7.5 times (95% CI: 3.0 -18.6 greater risk of ISD. DISCUSSION: Increasing unemployment has affected the whole population, but especially those with lower levels of school attainment. Such levels are positively linked with presence of sexual dysfunctions. CONCLUSION: Lack of jobs, age and low school attainment are risks for the sexual dysfunctions studied. Depression increased the risk of ED but not female ISD.
Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.
This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…
Ungar, Michael; Liebenberg, Linda; Dudding, Peter; Armstrong, Mary; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
Background: Very little research has examined the relationship between resilience, risk, and the service use patterns of adolescents with complex needs who use multiple formal and mandated services such as child welfare, mental health, juvenile justice, and special educational supports. This article reports on a study of 497 adolescents in…
Bernstein, Henry H; Spino, Cathie; Finch, Stacia; Wasserman, Richard; Slora, Eric; Lalama, Christina; Touloukian, Carol Litten; Lilienfeld, Harris; McCormick, Marie C
Postpartum discharge of mothers and infants who are not medically or psychosocially ready may place the family at risk. Most studies of postpartum length of stay, however, do not reflect the necessary complexity of decision-making. With this study we aimed to characterize decision-making on the day of postpartum discharge from the perspective of multiple key informants and identify correlates of maternal and newborn unreadiness for discharge. This was a prospective observational cohort study of healthy term infants with mothers, pediatric providers, and obstetricians as key informants to assess the decision-making process regarding mother-infant dyad unreadiness for discharge. A mother-infant dyad was defined as unready for postpartum hospital discharge if > or = 1 of 3 informants perceived that either the mother or infant should stay longer at time of nursery discharge. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on the day of discharge. Of 4300 mother-infant dyads, unreadiness was identified in 17% as determined by the mother (11%), pediatrician (5%), obstetrician (1%), and > or = 2 informants (hospital neonatal problems, receiving a limited number of in-hospital classes, and intent to breastfeed. Mothers, pediatricians, and obstetricians must make decisions about postpartum discharge jointly, because perceptions of unreadiness often differ. Sensitivity toward specific maternal vulnerabilities and an emphasis on perinatal education to insure individualized discharge plans may increase readiness and determine optimal timing for discharge and follow-up care.
Silberstein, C H; McKegney, F P; O'Dowd, M A; Selwyn, P A; Schoenbaum, E; Drucker, E; Feiner, C; Cox, C P; Friedland, G
To test the hypothesis that cognitive impairment may be present early in the course of HTLV-III/LAV infection, intravenous drug abusers (IDVAs) without overt symptoms of AIDS related illness were tested with standard neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. This study is the baseline for a prospective longitudinal study of the natural history of HTLV-III/LAV infection in this high risk population. Of 211 subjects initially evaluated, 70 (33%) were HTLV-III/LAV seropositive and 141 (67%) were seronegative. At the baseline, by univariate analysis, the seropositive IVDAs were significantly (p less than .05) more impaired than seronegatives on 4 of 8 measures: Finger Tapping--dominant, hand, Digit Span Forward, Trail making A and WAIS-Similarities. However, by multivariate analysis the seropositives were significantly more impaired only on the WAIS-Similarities and Wechsler--Associative Learning tests. Multiple factors such as drug use and psychological stress may have influenced test performance. These preliminary results, however, suggest that seropositive IVDAs may show evidence of impaired neuropsychological function even in the absence of AIDS related symptoms and are consistent with the hypothesis of the early neurotropism of HTLV-III/LAV.
Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Øverby, Nina C; Engel, Stephanie M.; Harmon, Quaker E.; Haugen, Margaretha; Bere, Elling
Preeclampsia and preterm delivery are serious complications of pregnancy and leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Dietary factors might be associated with these adverse outcomes. We investigated whether adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND) was associated with preeclampsia and preterm delivery risks in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants were recruited from all over Norway during the period 1999–2008. A previously...
Czeizel, Andrew E; Vereczkey, Attila; Bánhidy, Ferenc
Previously an unexpected association of maternal angina pectoris (MAP) during pregnancy with a higher risk of orofacial clefts in their children was found. There were three objectives of this study: (i) to evaluate the validity of MAP-diagnoses in the previous study and the recent history of mothers with MAP in a follow-up study; (ii) to estimate the prevalence of other congenital abnormalities in the offspring of mothers with MAP; and (iii) to analyze the possible effect of confounders for the risk of orofacial clefts. The large dataset of population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996 was evaluated including 22 843 cases with congenital abnormalities and 38 151 controls without any defect. Twenty-two cases (0.10%) and 12 controls (0.03%) were born to mothers with medically recorded MAP (odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 1.8-7.3). Of 22 cases, six had isolated cleft lip ± palate (OR with 95% CI: 13.3, 4.9-35.9) and two were affected with isolated cleft palate (OR with 95% CI: 10.5, 2.3-47.6). The diagnosis of MAP was confirmed in seven women visited at home in 2009-2010, two had recent myocardial infarction and five were smokers. There was no higher risk for other congenital abnormalities. In conclusion the higher risk of orofacial clefts was confirmed in the children of mothers with MAP and smoking may trigger the genetic predisposition of both MAP and orofacial clefts. However, the number of cases was limited and therefore further studies are needed to confirm or reject this theoretically and practically important observation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers of preterm infants are considered at higher risk for depressive symptoms, higher than for mothers of healthy term infants. Predictors of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants are not yet well established. Immigrant mothers of term infants have higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than Canadian born mothers but the relative prevalence for immigrant mothers of preterm infants is unknown. This study had two aims: (i to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in immigrant as compared to Canadian born mothers of preterm infants, and (ii to determine what factors are associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants. Methods This is a multi-site, cross sectional study of mothers whose preterm infants required hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Consecutive eligible mothers (N = 291 were recruited during the week prior to their infant’s NICU discharge. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire booklet of validated psychosocial/cultural measures including the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Parental Stressor Scale:NICU, General Functioning Subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, Social Support Index, and Vancouver Index of Acculturation; and demographic characteristics questions. Infant characteristics included gestational age, birth weight, sex, singleton/multiple birth, and Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II. Results Immigrant mothers (N = 107, when compared to Canadian born mothers (N = 184, reported more depressive symptoms, poorer family functioning, less social support, and less mainstream acculturation. Hierarchical regression for a subsample of 271 mothers indicated that single parent status, high stress, poorer family functioning, and less social support were associated with increased depressive symptoms and accounted for 39% of the variance on the CES-D. Immigrant status did not contribute
Kunoee, Asja; Nielsen, Jens; Cowan, Susan
In Denmark, universal screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B has been in place since November 2005, with the first two years as a trial period with enhanced surveillance. It is unknown what the change to universal screening without enhanced surveillance has meant for vaccination coverage among children born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers and what risk factors exist for incomplete vaccination. This retrospective cohort study included 699 children of mothers positive for HBsAg. Information on vaccination and risk factors was collected from central registers. In total, 93% (651/699) of the children were vaccinated within 48 hours of birth, with considerable variation between birthplaces. Only 64% (306/475) of the children had received all four vaccinations through their general practitioner (GP) at the age of two years, and 10% (47/475) of the children had received no hepatitis B vaccinations at all. Enhanced surveillance was correlated positively with coverage of birth vaccination but not with coverage at the GP. No or few prenatal examinations were a risk factor for incomplete vaccination at the GP. Maternity wards and GPs are encouraged to revise their vaccination procedures and routines for pregnant women, mothers with chronic HBV infection and their children.
Full Text Available 10% of all individuals in Germany develop persistent symptoms due to nonspecific back pain (NSBP causing up to 90% of direct and indirect expenses for health care systems. Evidence indicates a strong relationship between chronic nonspecific back pain and psychosocial risk factors. The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ and the German Heidelberger Kurzfragebogen Rückenschmerz (HKF-R 10 are deemed valid in prediction of persistent pain, functional loss or amount of sick leave. This study provides and discusses validity criteria for these questionnaires using ROC-curve analyses. Quality measurements included sensitivity and specificity, likelihood-ratio related test-efficiencies and clinical utility in regard to predictive values.265 patients recruited from primary and secondary care units completed both questionnaires during the same timeframe. From the total, 133 patients returned a 6-month follow-up questionnaire to assess the validity criteria for outcomes of pain, function and sick leave.Based on heterogeneous cut-offs for the ÖMPSQ, sensitivity and specificity were moderate for outcome of pain (72%/75%. Very high sensitivity was observed for function (97%/57% and high specificity for sick leave (63%/85%. The latter also applied to the HKF-R 10 (pain 50%/84%. Proportions between sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced except for the ÖMPSQ outcome of pain. Likelihood-ratios and positive predictive values ranged from low to moderate.Although the ÖMPSQ may be considered useful in identification of long-term functional loss or pain, over- and underestimation of patients at risk of chronic noncspecific back pain led to limited test-efficiencies and clinical utility for both questionnaires. Further studies are required to quantify the predictive validity of both questionnaires in Germany.
Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15
Sapsirisavat, Vorapot; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Keadpudsa, Siriwan; Egan, James E; Pussadee, Kanitta; Klaytong, Preeyarach; Reuel Friedman, M; van Griensven, Frits; Stall, Ron
HIV prevalence remains high in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok. Even though resources for HIV testing and treatment are available for all, a large proportion of MSM still do not get HIV tested. We studied high risk MSM who are unaware of their HIV status to help maximize effectiveness of our resources. Convenience sampling was conducted among MSM who came for HIV testing at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic and two popular drop-in centers in Bangkok. Inclusion criteria were MSM aged >18 years, have not been tested positive for HIV, who reported ≥1 of the following in the previous 6 months: condomless sex with a male, being a sex worker, or having a sexual transmitted infection diagnosis. Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interview was used to assess psychosocial profile, sexual risks, and HIV testing patterns prior to being informed of their HIV positive status. Among 499 high-risk MSM enrolled, the median age was 24.8 years and 112 (22 %) tested HIV-positive. Among the HIV-positive participants, 92 % self-identified as gay (versus bisexual), 39 % attained a bachelors degree or higher, 65 % had monthly income 10,000-29,999 baht ($280-830 USD), 10 % had vaginal or anal sex with a woman in the past 12 months, 39 % had condomless receptive sex with men and 21 % went to Lat Phrao to find a sexual partner. Compared to HIV negative MSM, HIV-positive MSM had less HIV testing: 31 % had ever been tested for HIV, 12 % had been tested in the past 6 months; but were more likely to guess correctly their positive status (31 %). Regarding psychosocial variables among HIV-positive MSM, 7 % had regular methamphetamine use in the past 3 months, 10 % had >2 sources of discrimination, and 8 % had >2 sources of discrimination due to being MSM. In multivariable model, age2 sources of discrimination because of being MSM, did not get HIV test in past 6 months, and guess of positive HIV were significantly associated with HIV positive status. Young MSM with
李丹丹; 胡付兰; 朱琳; 王彝白娜; 刘宇鹏; 陈王洋; 崔滨滨; 赵亚双
目的 探讨个性行为特征、情绪状态和生活事件等心理社会因素与大肠癌发生的相关性,为更有效的防治大肠癌提供科学依据.方法 采用以医院为基础的病例-对照研究,病例组256人和对照组488人采用团体用心理社会应激调查表对其生活事件、情绪反应及应对方式三方面进行测评.结果 多因素Logistic回归结果显示人际关系不协调(OR=32.245)、子女前途问题(OR=3.773)、个人健康状况变化(OR=1.655)、着急(OR=1.894)、遇事压到心底(OR=3.300)和苦恼时喜欢一个人独处(OR=1.928)是大肠癌的危险因素.而心情愉快(OR=0.310)和遇事换个环境排解(OR=0.194)为大肠癌的保护性因素.结论 某些负性生活事件、消极的情绪及应对方式均与大肠癌的发病有关,而常保持心情愉快与遇事乐观态度会降低大肠癌的发病几率.%Objective To investigate the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and colorectal cancer. Methods A hospital based case - control study of colorectal cancer was conducted. Cases were pathologically confirmed as primary cancers of the colon and rectum. Both 256 cases and 488 controls were tested by the PSSG scale. Results Mnltivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that interpersonal disharmony (OR =32.245),children's future(OR =3.773),changes in individual health statns(OR = 1.655),anxious e-motionC OR = 1. 894)and like being alone; when distressed(OR = 1. 928) might increase the; risk of colorectal cancer;pleasing emotion(OR =0. 310)and resolving problems for the environment OR =0. 194)can protect for colorectal cancer. Conclusion Psychosocial stressful factors(such as stressful life events, introversive psychological reactions and negative coping styles)are one of the important risk factors in the onset of colorectal cancer.
Shafer, M A; Boyer, C B
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multiple psychosocial and knowledge-related antecedent factors that may predict sexual and alcohol and drug use behaviors that are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection. Five hundred forty-four ninth-grade urban high school students were surveyed regarding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that higher levels of STD and AIDS knowledge were associated with lower levels of STD and AIDS anxiety (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), fewer negative attitudes toward people with AIDS (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), stronger perceptions of self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.03; p less than 0.01), and stronger peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.05). Negative attitudes toward people with AIDS were inversely related to knowledge (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001), social support (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.01), and perceived self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.01; p less than 0.05). Predictors of alcohol and drug use included perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001) and strong peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.001). The best predictor of sexual risk behavior was alcohol and drug use (R2 delta = 0.07; p less than 0.001). Lower levels of knowledge (R2 delta = 0.14; p less than 0.01) and perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.05) predicted nonuse of condoms. Our results indicate that several factors relate to adolescent risk for STDs: the connection between peer influence and adolescent risk behaviors, the link between alcohol and drug use and sexual risk behavior, and the role of knowledge in determining nonuse of condoms.
Tollånes, Mette C.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Eichelberger, Kacey Y.
BACKGROUND: Postnatal administration of caffeine may reduce the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in vulnerable low-birth-weight neonates. The effect of antenatal caffeine exposure remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of intake of caffeine by pregnant women and risk of CP...... in their children. METHODS: The study was based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising >100,000 live-born children, of whom 222 were subsequently diagnosed with CP. Mothers reported their caffeine consumption in questionnaires completed around pregnancy week 17 (102,986 mother-child pairs), week...... 22 (87,987 mother-child pairs), and week 30 (94,372 mother-child pairs). At week 17, participants were asked about present and prepregnancy consumption. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations between exposure [daily servings (1 serving = 125 mL) of caffeinated coffee, tea, and soft...
Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona
Taking a developmental psychopathology perspective, our objective was to identify ways in which psychosocial treatment of depression during pregnancy may be enhanced. We first consider the state of evidence on psychosocial interventions for antenatal depression, next define key developmental psychopathology concepts that are relevant to antenatal depression, and finally discuss implications for clinical practice and research. We found a limited, but promising, evidence base for effective psychosocial interventions for depression during pregnancy. Examining antenatal depression from a developmental psychopathology perspective revealed suggestions for improving treatment. A developmental psychopathology perspective suggests that treatment of depression during pregnancy may be improved by attention to the continuum of depression, from subclinical to severe major depressive disorder; personalized care based on individual women's pattern of risk and resilience factors and correlated risks; consideration of the potential benefits of treating the couple's relationship, the mother's qualities of parenting, and infants' and children's mental health needs; and, including a detailed understanding of the developmental pathways to antenatal depression for each patient in treatment planning.
Jones, Karyn Ogata; Denham, Bryan E; Springston, Jeffrey K
Research has demonstrated that women tend to overestimate the percentage of all breast cancers that result from genetic predispositions, and this article examines the knowledge of college students, as well as their mothers, on this subject, applying uncertainty management (Brashers, 2001) as the theoretical framework. The authors build on the literature by studying (a) the types of media outlets college students and their mothers use for securing information, and (b) the types of articles and programs within those outlets that may affect risk perceptions. The authors also address associations between these mass communication measures and interpersonal sources of information in the context of risk estimation. Respondents exposed to media reports about the role of genetics in breast cancer, in addition to study participants who had discussed this role within the family, tended to overestimate measures of genetic risk. Conversely, those who had attended to media reports about screening practices tended to offer lower risk estimates, indicating that such reports may have positioned genetics as just one factor in the overall equation of breast cancer risk. The authors discuss the implications of these and other findings for communication scholars and health practitioners.
Camila Garcia de Grandi
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychoactive substance abuse problems in the family have an impact on the development of children and adolescents. This risk conditions can harm mental health and hinder healthy development in psychosocial areas. Objectives: This study investigated the psychosocial profile of children and adolescents assisted in a prevention service center for children of substance abusers in a deprived community located in the outskirts of Sao Paulo. Methods: Exploratory and descriptive study, based on cross-sectional methodology and a convenience sample of 791 children and adolescents assisted at the Intervention and Support Center for Children of Substance Abusers - CUIDA between January 2001 and December 2008. The sample was divided into groups according to discharge status: Active, Therapeutic Discharge (TD, Abandonment, Without Information about the Reason for Leaving and With Information about the Length of Treatment (WIRL, Without Information (WI, and Other Reasons for Leaving (OR. Results: In the Active group, 26% of mothers had completed high-school and 11% belonged to the A/B socioeconomic classes. The TD group showed the highest percentages of wage earning parents (52% living together (64%. In the WIRL group, 17% of the mothers were illiterate or had not completed primary education, and 23% of the fathers were unemployed. In the WI group, 22% lived in houses that had been lent to them. Conclusions: Results indicate the impact of addiction and underprivileged conditions (such as housing status, fathers’ level of education, and socioeconomic status on retention in the service and the importance of health prevention and promotion strategies aimed at this population.
Full Text Available Background: Since its recognition two decades ago, HIV/AIDS remains a major global challenge. Infants contract the infection from their mother in the womb, during birth and breast feeding. In Ethiopia, limited information is available in relation to mother to child transmission (MCT. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among infants born from HIV seropositive mothers and identify associated risk factors. Method: Hospital based retrospective record review was employed on 159 infants born from HIV seropositive mothers. Data was collected from the pediatric HIV log book using a structured questionnaire. Data was entered in to excel sheet, cleaned and then exported to STATA and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Result: The study revealed that 32.1% (51/159 of the infants born from HIV seropositive mothers were found to be HIV positive. Majority of the infants were born in health institutions and their birth was attended by health professionals. The rate of HIV transmission was about 3 times higher in those born at home and assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBA than those born at health institutions and assisted by health professionals (58.5% versus 22,9%; P 0.004. The data also revealed a significant association between HIV infection and feeding practice (p 0.004 which was 45.4% (25/55 in those who practice mixed feeding, 34% (18/53 in those practicing exclusive breast feeding and 15.7% (8/51 among those with replacement feeding. Conclusion: The vertical transmission rate of 32.1% observed in the present study is quite high and is within the estimated range for Sub saharan African countries.
C. Biasini Rebaioli
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of Congenital Heart Block (CHB in newborns from anti Ro/SS-A antibodies positive mothers affected by connective tissue diseases (CTD and to evaluate the prevalence of other manifestations of Neonatal Lupus (NL and the electrocardiographic abnormalities. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 100 anti Ro/SS-A positive mothers that were followed before and during their 118 pregnancies (4 twin pregnancies and 18 second pregnancies. Counterimmunoelectroforesis (CIE and immunoblot (IB were used to test antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA. Results: Only 2 cases of CHB (1.8% were found among the 112 living newborns. In one case the mother with primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (pSS was anti Ro 60 and 52kD positive while in the other case the mother affected by undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD was anti Ro 60kD and anti La positive. No fetal death was due to CHB. There were no cutaneous rashes at birth while mild hepatic enzyme alterations were observed in 21 (68% of the 31 tested newborns. In 22 healthy newborns an ECG have been registered and in 4 cases (18.2% sinus bradycardia was found. During the follow up 7 suckling showed Cutaneous Neonatal Lupus. Moreover a six month girl developed Kawasaki Syndrome. Conclusions: The risk of delivering a child with CHB is 1.8% in anti Ro/SS-A positive mothers with CTD. This finding is extremely important in the preconceptional counseling of anti-Ro/SS-A positive women. Furthermore mild electrocardiographic abnormalities may be found in their healthy newborns.
Ruby Angeline Pricilla
Full Text Available Background:India contributes to 19% of the global maternal deaths. Good quality antenatal care can prevent maternal deaths by early detection of complications and maintaining maternal health. There are few studies documenting quality of antenatal care in India. This study aimed to document the antenatal services provided by nurse midwives to low-risk pregnant mothers from an urban population. Aims: The primary objective was to describe the quality of the antenatal care provided by nurse midwives of an urban health centre with regard to low-risk mothers. The secondary objective was to document the maternal and early neonatal outcomes of the enrolled mothers during the period of study. Methods: This prospective cohort study was done on 200 pregnant women who had antenatal care by nurse midwives between April 2014 and November 2014. The quality of care was assessed by a checklist adapted from World Health Organization (WHO. Results: We report that the quality of antenatal care for all domains was above 90% except for the health education domain, which was poor with regard to breastfeeding and family planning in the enrolled 200 pregnant women. Conclusion: Our study concluded that trained nurse midwives when regularly monitored, audited and linked with reliable referral facilities can deliver good quality antenatal care.
Landon, Lauren Blackwell; Vessey, William B.; Barrett, Jamie D.
A team is defined as: "two or more individuals who interact socially and adaptively, have shared or common goals, and hold meaningful task interdependences; it is hierarchically structured and has a limited life span; in it expertise and roles are distributed; and it is embedded within an organization/environmental context that influences and is influenced by ongoing processes and performance outcomes" (Salas, Stagl, Burke, & Goodwin, 2007, p. 189). From the NASA perspective, a team is commonly understood to be a collection of individuals that is assigned to support and achieve a particular mission. Thus, depending on context, this definition can encompass both the spaceflight crew and the individuals and teams in the larger multi-team system who are assigned to support that crew during a mission. The Team Risk outcomes of interest are predominantly performance related, with a secondary emphasis on long-term health; this is somewhat unique in the NASA HRP in that most Risk areas are medically related and primarily focused on long-term health consequences. In many operational environments (e.g., aviation), performance is assessed as the avoidance of errors. However, the research on performance errors is ambiguous. It implies that actions may be dichotomized into "correct" or "incorrect" responses, where incorrect responses or errors are always undesirable. Researchers have argued that this dichotomy is a harmful oversimplification, and it would be more productive to focus on the variability of human performance and how organizations can manage that variability (Hollnagel, Woods, & Leveson, 2006) (Category III1). Two problems occur when focusing on performance errors: 1) the errors are infrequent and, therefore, difficult to observe and record; and 2) the errors do not directly correspond to failure. Research reveals that humans are fairly adept at correcting or compensating for performance errors before such errors result in recognizable or recordable failures
Full Text Available Abstract With improved accessibility to life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy, the treatment and care requirements of people living with HIV and AIDS resembles that of more established chronic diseases. As an increasing number of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kenya have access to ART, the primary caregivers of poor resource settings, often children, face the challenge of meeting the requirements of rigid ART adherence schedules and frequent relapses. This, and the long-term duty of care, has an impact on the primary caregiver's experience of this highly stigmatised illness – an impact that is often described in relation to psychological deprivation. Reflecting the meanings attached to caregiving by 48 children in Western Kenya, articulated in writing, through photography and drawing, individual and group interviews, this paper presents three case studies of young caregiving. Although all the children involved in the study coped with their circumstances, some better than others, we found that the meanings they attach to their circumstances impact on how well they cope. Our findings suggest that only a minority of young caregivers attach either positive or negative meanings to their circumstances, whilst the majority attaches a mix of positive and negative meanings depending on the context they are referring to. Through a continuum of psychosocial coping, we conclude that to provide appropriate care for young carers, health professionals must align their understanding and responses to the psychosocial cost of chronic care, to a more nuanced and contextual understanding of children's social agency and the social and symbolic resources evident in many African communities.
MOTHER had finely-chiseled features. She liked to read and loved flowers, trees and insects. She had wide interests and knowledge and could recite many ancient poems. Mother was never dressed gorgeously or adorned with jewelry like earrings and finger rings. Especially during her middle age, our big family was poverty
Emilsson, Louise; Magnus, Maria Christine; Størdal, Ketil
There have been inconsistent reports of prenatal and perinatal factors that affect risk for development of celiac disease. We assessed the association of fetal growth, birth weight, and mode of delivery with development of celiac disease within the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort Study. The MoBa cohort contains pregnancy information on 95,200 women and data on their 114,500 children, which were collected in Norway from 1999 through 2008; it is linked to the Medical Birth Registry. Women and children with celiac disease were identified from the National Patient Registry and from women's responses to MoBa questionnaires. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for celiac disease by using a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for maternal celiac disease, sex of children, and children's age (model 1); in a second model, we adjusted for age of gluten introduction and duration of breastfeeding (model 2). We identified 650 children with celiac disease and 107,828 controls in the MoBa database. We found no association between birth weight or height with celiac disease (born small for gestational age was not associated). Celiac disease was not associated with mode of delivery (cesarean section, model 1: OR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-1.09, and model 2: OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.63-1.09). Maternal celiac disease, adjusted for age and sex of the children (OR, 12.45; 95% CI, 8.29-18.71) and type 1 diabetes (model 1: OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.19-5.53, and model 2: OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.14-5.98) were associated with development of celiac disease in children, whereas maternal type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes were not. On the basis of analysis of the Norwegian MoBa cohort, development of celiac disease in children is significantly associated with sex of the child, maternal celiac disease, and type 1 diabetes but not with intrauterine growth. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Insetta, Emily R; Akers, Aletha Y; Miller, Elizabeth; Yonas, Michael A; Burke, Jessica G; Hintz, Lindsay; Chang, Judy C
Children whose mothers are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk of adverse health and psychosocial consequences, including becoming victims or perpetrators of violence in their own relationships. This study aimed to understand the role mothers may play in preventing the perpetuation of violence in their children's lives. We performed semistructured interviews with 18 IPV victims who are mothers and were living at the Women's Center & Shelter of Greater Pittsburgh from July through November 2011. We sought to understand how they communicate with their children about IPV and relationships. These mothers described a desire to explain their IPV experience and offer advice about avoiding violence in relationships. As foundations for these discussions, they emphasized the importance of close relationships and open communication with their children. Although mothers are interested in talking about IPV and relationships and identify communication strategies for doing so, many have never discussed these topics with their children. These mothers need and want an intervention to help them learn how to communicate with their children to promote healthy relationships. Development of a program to facilitate communication between IPV victims and their children could create an important tool to empower mothers to break the cross-generational cycle of domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Olivares, M.; Albrecht, S.; Palma, de G.; Desamparados Ferrer, M.; Castillejo, G.; Schols, H.A.; Sanz, Y.
Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12) wer
Reflexão social, controle percebido e motivações à adoção: características psicossociais das mães adotivas Social reflection, perceived control, and motivation to adopt a child: psychosocial characteristics of adoptive mothers
Caroline Tozzi Reppold
Full Text Available A literatura mostra que a adoção é associada no imaginário social ao altruísmo e ao hedonismo dos adotantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar algumas características psicossociais de mães adotivas, como as motivações à adoção, o nível de julgamento moral, as crenças de locus de controle e a percepção de apoio social. A amostra foi composta por 20 mães adotivas e 20 mães biológicas. Os dados foram coletados utilizando um questionário com itens psicossociais, o Sociomoral Reflection Objective Measure e a Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Controle de Levenson. Os resultados revelaram que 60% das participantes relacionaram a adoção a problemas de fertilidade, mas as análises não indicaram diferenças significativas entre o tipo de maternidade e as variáveis investigadas, à exceção do apoio social percebido. Os resultados sugerem novas direções às pesquisas sobre os fatores moderadores da adaptação psicológica das famílias adotivas.The literature points out that the social imaginary of adoption is associated with altruism and hedonism of adopters. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate some psychosocial characteristics of adoptive mothers, such as the motivation to adopt, moral judgment, locus of control, and perceived social support. The participants were 20 adoptive and 20 biological mothers. Data were collected using a questionnaire of psychosocial items, the Sociomoral Reflection Objective Measure, and Levenson's Multidimensional Locus of Control Scale. The results indicated that 60% of participants related adoption to fertility problems. However except for perceived social support, there were no significant differences between the type of maternity and the variables investigated. The results suggest new directions for studies about the moderator factors of psychological adaptation of adoptive families.
Rifai, Rami Al
Background: Cesarean delivery conducted without medical indication places mothers and infants at risk for adverse outcomes. This study assessed changes in trends of, and factors associated with, cesarean deliveries in Jordan, from 2002 to 2012. Methods: Data for ever-married women ages 15–49 years from the 2002, 2007, and 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys were used. Analyses were restricted to mothers who responded to a question regarding the hospital-based mode of delivery for their last birth occurring within the 5 years preceding each survey (2002, N = 3,450; 2007, N = 6,307; 2012, N = 6,365). Normal birth weight infants and singleton births were used as markers for births that were potentially low risk for cesarean delivery, because low/high birth weight and multiple births are among the main obstetric variables that have been documented to increase risk of cesareans. Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted using 4 logistic regression models: (1) among all mothers; and among mothers stratified (2) by place of delivery; (3) by birth weight of infants; and (4) by singleton vs. multiple births. Results: The cesarean delivery rate increased significantly over time, from 18.2% in 2002, to 20.1% in 2007, to 30.3% in 2012. Place of delivery, birth weight, and birth multiplicity were significantly associated with cesarean delivery after adjusting for confounding factors. Between 2002 and 2012, the rate increased by 99% in public hospitals vs. 70% in private hospitals; by 93% among normal birth weight infants vs. 73% among low/high birth weight infants; and by 92% among singleton births vs. 29% among multiple births. The changes were significant across all categories except among multiple births. Further stratification revealed that the cesarean delivery rate was 2.29 times higher in university teaching hospitals (UTHs) than in private hospitals (Pcesarean delivery rate among births that may have been at low risk for
Paris, Ruth; Bronson, Marybeth
This article describes how the Visiting Moms Program in Chelsea, Massachusetts, has taken the paraprofessional model one step further to respond to the needs of refugee and immigrant new mothers, by employing paraprofessional home visitors who are also immigrants or refugees themselves from countries in Central America, South America, and…
Prevalencia de riesgos psicosociales en personal de la administración de justicia de la comunidad valenciana (España / Prevalence of psychosocial risks in the justice administration staff of the Valencian community (Spain
Pedro R. Gil-Monte
Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar los factores psicosociales en el trabajo del personal de justicia de la Comunidad Valencia (España para identificar la prevalencia de riesgos psicosociales. Participaron 402 trabajadores (28.11 % hombres incluyendo gestores, tramitadores y auxiliares sociales. Se evaluó con la Batería UNIPSICO (incluye factores de demanda, factores de recursos y consecuencias de los riesgos psicosociales. Los principales riesgos fueron la sobrecarga de trabajo (46.02 % de participantes en situación de alto riesgo dentro de las demandas, la falta de recursos para realizar el trabajo (76.37 % en situación de alto riesgo y la falta de autonomía (67.41 % en situación de alto riesgo. Para las consecuencias, el 61.44 % de participantes expresó insatisfacción laboral y un 27.11 % tuvo que consumir con frecuencia medicamentos en el último año por problemas de salud derivados del trabajo. Se concluye recomendando estrategias de intervención psicosocial para mejorar las condiciones de trabajo. ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to evaluate the psychosocial factors in the work of the justice personnel of Valencia (Spain to identify the prevalence of psychosocial risks. The participants were 402 workers (28.11 % men including managers, processors, and social assistants. We assessed using the UNIPSICO questionnaire (includes demand factors, resource factors, and consequences of psychosocial risks. The main risks were work overload (46.02 % of participants in a high risk situation within the demands; the lack of resources to carry out the work (76.37 % in a high risk situation; and the lack of autonomy (67.41 % in a high risk situation. For the consequences, 61.44 % of participants expressed labor dissatisfaction, and 27.11 % had to frequently consume drugs in the last year because of health problems arising from work. We conclude by recommending psychosocial intervention strategies to improve working conditions.
Benros, Michael; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg
Maternal immune responses and brain-reactive antibodies have been proposed as possible causal mechanisms for schizophrenia and some child psychiatric disorders. According to this hypothesis maternal antibodies may cross the placenta and interact with the developing CNS of the fetus causing future...... neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, we investigated if children of mothers with cancer might be at higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders, with particular focus on small-cell lung cancer, which is known to induce production of antibodies binding to CNS elements....
Africa, Charlene W J; Bayingana, Claude; Yasin-Harnekar, Soraya
Increased levels of oestrogen and progesterone during pregnancy may lead to periodontal disease. The anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria classified as the "red complex" (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola) are frequently associated with periodontal disease. Periodontopathogens produce toxins and enzymes that can enter the bloodstream and cross the placenta to harm the foetus. The response of the mother's immune system to infection by these periodontopathogens brings about the release of inflammatory mediators which may trigger preterm labour or result in low birth-weight infants. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of Perioscan as a potential screening test for mothers at risk for pre-term delivery of low birth weight infants due to periodontal disease. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained from pregnant women between the ages of 17 to 45 years attending an ante-natal clinic in the Western Cape in South Africa. Plaque samples were analyzed by the enzymatic Perioscan test for detection of the red complex in 372 sites from 66 women. Results were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the three species of the red complex. Seventeen (25.75%) of the population group tested positive with Perioscan but only 27 (7.25%) of the 372 sites were positive. Of the 66 mothers examined, we managed to retrieve 29 records post-delivery. In all the mothers examined, Perioscan results showed an association with the indices used to diagnose periodontal disease, and could also be associated with preterm delivery of low birth-weight infants in two of the 29 maternal records recovered.
@@ My mother is a farmer. She is thirty-five years old. She is verytall. She has big eyes and long hair.She is very hard-working and kind.As my father works a place far away from us, she does all the housework every day. She loves me and loves my grandparents. My grandparents are both over seventy years old. She always looks after them very carefully. My grandmother is often ill, so my mother always buys some meat, fish and eggs for her. My mother gets on well with them. She makes our family become very harmonious.My grandmother often says my mother is better than her own daughter.
Bongers, P.M.; Kremer, A.M.; Laak, J. ter
Background: In 1993, an extensive review on the role of psychosocial factors in the development of musculoskeletal problems was published by Bongers et al (1993). Since then, additional reviews on this topic have been published; however, none of these focussed on upper limb problems. Methods: In thi
Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of individual characteristics and physical and psychosocial workplace factors on neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy prevails about the importance of workplace f...
Full Text Available Non-specific low back pain (LBP affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients’ or HCPs’ overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical and occupational may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for
My mother is beautiful.She is about forty years old.She is a nurse.She loves her job and works hard.My family all like her.I love my mother,because she does most of the housework at home and she does everything for me.Every day she spends some time with me on my study.Sometimes she helps me with Maths and Chinese.She is
Vestly Bergh, L.I.; Hinna, S.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.
The objective of this paper is to present and discuss a pilot study for conducting internal psychosocial risk auditing in the oil and gas industry, focusing on offshore units. Psychosocial risk auditing is a proactive method for monitoring the status of psychosocial factors influencing the risk of s
Chatzi, Leda; Garcia, Raquel; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basterrechea, Mikel; Begiristain, Haizea; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesus; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sunyer, Jordi
Maternal diet during pregnancy might influence the development of childhood allergic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during pregnancy on wheeze and eczema in the first year of life in two population-based mother-child cohorts in Spain and Greece. We studied 1771 mother-newborn pairs from the Spanish multi-centre 'INMA' (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) study (Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia) and 745 pairs from the 'RHEA' study in Crete, Greece. The symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by FFQ and MD adherence was evaluated through an a priori score. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to adjust for several confounders in each cohort and summary estimates were obtained by a meta-analysis. MD adherence was not associated with the risk of wheeze and eczema in any cohort, and similar results were identified in the meta-analysis approach. High meat intake (relative risk (RR) 1·22, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·49) and 'processed' meat intake (RR 1·18, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·37) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with a decreased risk of infantile wheeze (RR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·96). The results of the present study show that high meat intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products may decrease it.
Bifulco, A; Moran, P M; Ball, C; Jacobs, C; Baines, R; Bunn, A; Cavagin, J
An investigation of intergenerational factors associated with psychiatric disorder in late adolescence/early adulthood was undertaken to differentiate influences from maternal disorder, maternal poor psychosocial functioning and poor parenting, on offspring. The sample comprised an intensively studied series of 276 mother-offspring pairs in a relatively deprived inner-city London area with high rates of lone parenthood and socio-economic disadvantage. The paired sample was collected over two time periods: first a consecutively screened series of mothers and offspring in 1985-90 (n = 172 pairs) and second a 'vulnerable' series of mothers and offspring in 1995-99 (n = 104 pairs). The vulnerable mothers were selected for poor interpersonal functioning and/or low self-esteem and the consecutive series were used for comparison. Rates of childhood adversity and disorder in the offspring were examined in the two groups. Maternal characteristics including psychosocial vulnerability and depression were then examined in relation to risk transmission. Offspring of vulnerable mothers had a fourfold higher rate of yearly disorder than those in the comparison series (43% vs. 11%, p childhood adversity comprising either severe neglect, physical or sexual abuse before age 17. Physical abuse, in particular, perpetrated either by mother or father/surrogate father was significantly raised in the vulnerable group. Analysis of the combined series showed that maternal vulnerability and neglect/abuse of offspring provided the best model for offspring disorder. Maternal history of depression had no direct effect on offspring disorder; its effects were entirely mediated by offspring neglect/abuse. Maternal childhood adversity also had no direct effect. Results are discussed in relation to psychosocial models of risk transmission for disorder. Maternal poor psychosocial functioning needs to be identified as a factor requiring intervention in order to stem escalation of risk across
Hansen, Vibeke Brogaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
OBJECTIVES: In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). DESIGN: A one-year follow-up study. SETTING: A CR programme (Go......%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention.......01), self-care management (p
Pogosova, N. V.; Saner, H.; Pedersen, S. S.
A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health- related quality ......, the success of CR may critically depend on the interdependence of the body and mind and this interaction needs to be reflected through the assessment and management of PSRFs in line with robust scientific evidence, by trained staff, integrated within the core CR team.......A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health- related quality...... questions, standardised questionnaires, or structured clinical interviews. Psychotherapy and medication can be considered to alleviate any PSRF-related symptoms and to enhance HRQoL, but the evidence for a definite beneficial effect on cardiac endpoints is inconclusive. A multimodal behavioural intervention...
Pogosova, Nana; Saner, Hugo; Pedersen, Susanne S.
A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health-related quality o......, the success of CR may critically depend on the interdependence of the body and mind and this interaction needs to be reflected through the assessment and management of PSRFs in line with robust scientific evidence, by trained staff, integrated within the core CR team.......A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health-related quality...... questions, standardised questionnaires, or structured clinical interviews. Psychotherapy and medication can be considered to alleviate any PSRF-related symptoms and to enhance HRQoL, but the evidence for a definite beneficial effect on cardiac endpoints is inconclusive. A multimodal behavioural intervention...
Baker, Jennifer L; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Lissner, Lauren
For some women, pregnancy may increase the risk of future obesity with consequences for health and well-being. Psychosocial factors may be partly responsible for this. The aim of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial factors during pregnancy and postpartum weight retention...
Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg
Despite the declining rate of teen pregnancies in the United States, academic and public health experts have expressed concern over the still relatively high rate of rapid repeat pregnancies among adolescents, particularly among minority youth. Using a sample of over 300 African American female adolescents, the current study used insights from the prototype/willingness model of adolescent risk behavior to explore this risk. More specifically, it assessed the relationship between entry into unwed motherhood during mid-to-late adolescence and changes in prototypes of unmarried pregnant teens. Further, it explored the extent to which these changing prototypes accounted for young mothers' later contraceptive expectations. We tested the possibility that social images were affected not only by personal experience (the birth of a child) but also by the family and community context in which this experience took place. The findings show that the early entrance into teen motherhood was associated with a shift toward more favorable prototypes of unwed pregnant teens, but that this was only the case for young mothers in disadvantaged contexts. Given this, prototype changes helped to explain the link between teen motherhood and contraceptive expectations only for those in disadvantaged contexts. We discuss these findings in terms of their practical and theoretical implications.
Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Stein, Judith A; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
Many women with HIV are primary caregivers for their children. Social factors, including family dynamics, play a major role in women's depression. We hypothesized an impact of HIV seropositivity on greater depression mediated through poorer family functioning and social support. Participants include 332 Mothers Living with HIV (MLH) and 200 Neighborhood Control Mothers (NCM) recruited in Los Angeles County. The NCM were matched by neighborhood. All had children ages 6 through 20. Analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated HIV seropositivity was positively correlated with depression and negatively correlated with positive social support and effective family functioning. In a predictive path model, the relationship between having HIV and depressed mood was mediated by social support and family functioning. Findings offer explanation for increased depression resulting from HIV and social and family dynamics, and suggest innovative interventions to abate psychosocial health problems and lower risk for depression among women with HIV.
Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a chronic disease that it leads to psychological and social problems for parents. Mothers are at markedly increased risk of suffering from psychological distress and depression because they usually take on a considerable part of extra care that their children need.This study was designed to determine prevalence and intensity of depression in mothers with a thalassemic child. Material and Methods: In this cross – sectional study, 65 mothers of children with thalassemia major (case group and 65 mothers of children without thalassemia major (control group were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Data were analyzed by using SPSS (v 16.0 for windows. Results: Prevalence of depression was significantly higher in case group than that in control group (84.6%vs. 56.9%, p <0.05. Moderate depression had a highest prevalence in the both groups (33.4% in case group and 30.8% in control group. Prevalence of severe depression in case group was markedly higher than that in control group (29.2% vs. 3.1% p<0.05. There was a significant difference between intensity of depression in mothers of case group that had another child with beta-thalassemia major (p<0.05. Conclusion: Mothers of children with thalassemia major are vulnerable to depression. They need psychosocial support to promote their health.
Del Campo, C
shows a generally comparable outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and puerperium between women who were denied abortion and controls; no evidence that a continued unwanted pregnancy will endanger the mother's mental health; good acceptance of the infant by the mother, especially if she has the father's support; and minimal to moderate psychosocial disadvantages for the child. Physicians must take a more scientific approach to unwanted pregnancies and realize that abortion is not the answer to social ills. The children of women who have been denied an abortion are at risk of certain disadvantages, but such problems could be alleviated by better adoption and social programs.
From its beginning, psychoanalysis has always been a 'personal' affair. This paper presents an autobiographical account of engagement with psychoanalysis as an academic discipline, exploring particularly how it has become central to my concerns in psychosocial studies.
... evidence of a risk in later trimesters). B Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to ... there are no AWC studies in humans. C Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the ...
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a perplexing and pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social difficulties, communicative deficits, and repetitive behavior. The increased rate of ASD diagnosis has raised questions concerning the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of this disorder; meanwhile, the cause of ASD remains unknown. This study surveyed mothers of ASD and non-ASD children to determine possible effects of labor and delivery (L&D drugs on the development of ASD. The survey was administered to mothers; however, the results were analyzed by child, as the study focused on the development of autism. Furthermore, an independent ASD dataset from the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center was analyzed and compared. Indeed, L&D drugs are associated with ASD (p = .039. Moreover, the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center dataset shows that the labor induction drug, Pitocin, is significantly associated with ASD (p = .004. We also observed a synergistic effect between administrations of L&D drugs and experiencing a birth complication, in which both obstetrics factors occurring together increased the likelihood of the fetus developing ASD later in life (p = .0003. The present study shows the possible effects of L&D drugs, such as Pitocin labor-inducing and analgesic drugs, on children and ASD.
Smallwood, Melissa; Sareen, Ashley; Baker, Emma; Hannusch, Rachel; Kwessi, Eddy; Williams, Tyisha
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a perplexing and pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social difficulties, communicative deficits, and repetitive behavior. The increased rate of ASD diagnosis has raised questions concerning the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of this disorder; meanwhile, the cause of ASD remains unknown. This study surveyed mothers of ASD and non-ASD children to determine possible effects of labor and delivery (L&D) drugs on the development of ASD. The survey was administered to mothers; however, the results were analyzed by child, as the study focused on the development of autism. Furthermore, an independent ASD dataset from the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center was analyzed and compared. Indeed, L&D drugs are associated with ASD (p = .039). Moreover, the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center dataset shows that the labor induction drug, Pitocin, is significantly associated with ASD (p = .004). We also observed a synergistic effect between administrations of L&D drugs and experiencing a birth complication, in which both obstetrics factors occurring together increased the likelihood of the fetus developing ASD later in life (p = .0003). The present study shows the possible effects of L&D drugs, such as Pitocin labor-inducing and analgesic drugs, on children and ASD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Management Training Programme, an intervention study among couples(n=74 participants) in fertility treatment at The Fertility Clinic, The Juliane Marie Centre, Rigshospitalet, 2001-2003. Included is also a literature review of population-based infertility studies from industrialised countries. Data from (iii) and (iv) are studies from The Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) Research Programme (www.compipro.dk). Epidemiological and demographic studies investigating the prevalences of infertility differed in how they defined the numerator (the infertile participants) and the denominator (the population at risk). It was important to calculate reliable estimates of the infertility prevalence by including only women who had tried to have at least one child in the population at risk, as a notable proportion of women in the fertile ages had not (yet) attempted to become a mother. The lifetime prevalence of infertility in the representative population-based study was 26.4%. In the age group 35 to 44 years 5.8% were primarily involuntarily in fecund (involuntarily childless). Even in a country with access to fertility treatment in a public health-care system without self-payment lower education was a predictor of lower treatment seeking. In the cohort study (2000-2002)of couples starting a new period of assisted reproduction treatment 62.6% reported a treatment-related pregnancy at the one-year follow-up. In total 32.4% reported a treatment-related delivery. In total 24.2% reported a current continuing pregnancy and spontaneous pregnancies accounted for 2.7% of these. We developed measures of fertility problem stress, marital benefit(that infertility has brought the partners closer together and strengthened their marriage), partner communication, infertility related communication, coping strategies, attitudes to fertility treatment and evaluation of care. The medical sociological analyses showed that the variables of psychosocial consequences of infertility and
Zhang, Tao; Wang, Peng; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Li, Weiqin; Leng, Junhong; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shuang; Qi, Lu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang
We investigated the association of physical activity, TV watching time, sleeping time with the risks of obesity and hyperglycemia among 1263 offspring aged 1–5 years of mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) in a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models were used to obtain the odd ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of childhood obesity and hyperglycemia associated with different levels of indoor activity, outdoor activity, TV watching, and sleeping time. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of obesity based on different levels of TV watching time (0, <1.0, and ≥1.0 hour/day) were 1.00, 1.21 (95% CI 0.72–2.05), and 2.20 (95% CI 1.33–3.63) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia based on different levels of indoor activity (<5.0, 5.0–6.9, and ≥7.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.74 (95% CI 0.45–1.21), and 0.49 (95% CI 0.28–0.84) (Ptrend = 0.034), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia associated with different levels of sleeping time (<11.0, 11.0–11.9, and ≥12.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.67 (95% CI 0.42–1.05), and 0.39 (95% CI 0.23–0.67) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The present study indicated a positive association of TV watching with the risk of obesity, and an inverse association of either indoor activity or sleeping time with the risk of hyperglycemia among offspring born to GDM mothers in Tianjin, China.
Zhang, Tao; Wang, Peng; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Li, Weiqin; Leng, Junhong; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shuang; Qi, Lu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang
We investigated the association of physical activity, TV watching time, sleeping time with the risks of obesity and hyperglycemia among 1263 offspring aged 1–5 years of mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) in a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models were used to obtain the odd ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of childhood obesity and hyperglycemia associated with different levels of indoor activity, outdoor activity, TV watching, and sleeping time. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of obesity based on different levels of TV watching time (0, <1.0, and ≥1.0 hour/day) were 1.00, 1.21 (95% CI 0.72–2.05), and 2.20 (95% CI 1.33–3.63) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia based on different levels of indoor activity (<5.0, 5.0–6.9, and ≥7.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.74 (95% CI 0.45–1.21), and 0.49 (95% CI 0.28–0.84) (Ptrend = 0.034), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia associated with different levels of sleeping time (<11.0, 11.0–11.9, and ≥12.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.67 (95% CI 0.42–1.05), and 0.39 (95% CI 0.23–0.67) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The present study indicated a positive association of TV watching with the risk of obesity, and an inverse association of either indoor activity or sleeping time with the risk of hyperglycemia among offspring born to GDM mothers in Tianjin, China. PMID:28120866
Priscila Diniz de Carvalho
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar a associação entre condutas de risco à saúde (tabagismo, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e uso de drogas e indicadores de estresse psicossocial em adolescentes estudantes do ensino médio. A pesquisa foi realizada com amostra constituída por 4.210 adolescentes estudantes de escolas públicas do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. O Global School-based Student Health Survey foi usado para coletar dados pessoais (demográficos e socioeconômicos e comportamentais, e para obter medidas dos indicadores de estresse psicossocial (variáveis desfecho. Foram observadas prevalências de tristeza, sentimento de solidão, pensamento de suicídio, dificuldade para dormir devido à preocupação e planos de suicídio. Tabagismo, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e uso de drogas foi relatado, respectivamente, por 7,7%, 30,3% e 6,9%. As prevalências de indicadores de estresse psicossocial foram maiores entre as moças, e as prevalências de exposição a condutas de risco à saúde foram maiores entre os rapazes. Concluiu-se com o estudo que o uso de drogas está diretamente associado ao pensamento e plano de suicídio e, entre as moças, o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas foi um fator associado ao estresse psicossocial.The purpose of this article was to examine the association between health risk behaviors (tobacco, alcohol, and drug use and psychosocial distress indicators among high school students. The sample consisted of 4,210 adolescent students from public schools in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to collect personal (demographic and socioeconomic and behavioral data and to obtain measures of psychosocial distress indicators (outcome variables. Prevalence rates were observed for sadness, loneliness, suicidal ideation, sleeplessness due to worries, and suicidal planning. Self-reported prevalence rates for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use were 7.7%, 30.3%, and 6
Schieve, Laura A.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Li, Ruowei; Lind, Jennifer N.
BACKGROUND: Both obesity and developmental disabilities have increased in recent decades. Limited studies suggest associations between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child neurodevelopment. METHODS: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a US nationally distributed longitudinal study of maternal health and infant health and feeding practices, was conducted from 2005 to 2007. In 2012, mothers were recontacted for information on their children’s health and development. We examined associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child psychosocial development in 1311 mother–child pairs included in this follow-up study. Children’s development was assessed by maternal report of child psychosocial difficulties from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, past developmental diagnoses, and receipt of special needs services. RESULTS: Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, children of obese class II/III mothers (BMI >35.0) had increased odds of emotional symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–3.98), peer problems (aOR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.26–3.40), total psychosocial difficulties (aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24–3.77), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis (aOR 4.55; 95% CI, 1.80–11.46), autism or developmental delay diagnosis (aOR 3.13; 95% CI, 1.10–8.94), receipt of speech language therapy (aOR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.18–3.15), receipt of psychological services (aOR 2.27; 95% CI, 1.09–4.73), and receipt of any special needs service (aOR 1.99; 95% CI, 1.33–2.97) compared with children of normal weight mothers (BMI 18.5–24.9). Adjustment for potential causal pathway factors including pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, postpartum depression, and child’s birth weight did not substantially affect most estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Children whose mothers were severely obese before pregnancy had increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes. PMID:25917989
Factores psicosociales asociados a un alto, medio y bajo riesgo de síntomas depresivos en el posparto inmediato Psychosocial factors associated to low, medium and high risk of depressive symptoms in the immediate postpartum period
Cynthia Inés Paolini
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: evaluar factores psicosociales asociados a síntomas depresivos en el posparto inmediato. MÉTODOS: 45 mujeres puérperas de un hospital público de Buenos Aires, Argentina, fueron entrevistadas entre el 1er y el 3er día posparto, de marzo-diciembre 2010. La Escala de Depresión Posnatal de Edimburgo (EPDS fue administrada para evaluar síntomas depresivos. La entrevista psicológica perinatal (EPP fue administrada para detectar variables psicosociales. A partir de los resultados obtenidos en la EPDS, se separó la muestra en tres grupos con diferentes grados de riesgo de sintomatología depresiva: "negativas o de bajo riesgo", "positivas de riesgo medio" y "positivas de alto riesgo". Los puntajes de corte utilizados fueron 9 y 19. RESULTADOS: se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tres grupos con violencia familiar, migración, historia previa de depresión, presencia de síntomas depresivos durante el embarazo y mayor cantidad de estresores. CONCLUSIONES: el establecimiento de los dos puntajes de corte en la EPDS permite una detección temprana de las mujeres que presentan síntomas depresivos. Se sugiere la utilidad del puntaje de corte de 19 para la detección temprana de mujeres con mayor riesgo de desarrollar depresión posparto.OBJECTIVES: evaluate psychosocial factors associated to depressive symptoms during the immediate postpartum period. METHODS: a total of 45 argentine puerperal women hospitalized in a public maternal hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina, were interviewed on the 1st and 3rd day postpartum from March to December 2010. Aiming to assess the presence of depressive symptoms, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS was administrated. The Perinatal Psychological Interview was administrated to explore psychosocial variables. Based on the scores obtained in the EPDS, the sample was separated in three different groups with increasing risk of depressive symptomatology: "negative or low risk
My mother is a teacher She works in a middle school.She teaches music.She can sing very well She teaches four classes every day.She works very hard.She likes her work very much and she loves to work for children.too.
Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M
Approximately 14 % of women experience depressive symptoms in the first postnatal year. Few studies have examined the persistence of symptoms beyond this time. This study aims to (a) assess the course of women's depressive symptoms from the first postnatal year to when their children were aged 6-7 years, (b) identify distinct groups of women defined by their symptom trajectories over time, and (c) identify antenatal and early postnatal risk factors associated with persistent symptoms. Data from 4,879 women participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed using latent growth modelling and logistic regression to identify risk factors associated with class membership. For the overall sample, depressive symptoms were highest during the first postnatal year and then gradually decreased over 6-7 years. Two distinct classes were identified with the majority of women (84 %) reporting minimal symptoms over time, and 16 % experiencing persistently high symptoms. Risk factors were younger maternal age, being from a non-English speaking background, not completing high school, having a past history of depression, antidepressant use during pregnancy, child development problems, lower parenting self-efficacy, poor relationship quality, and stressful life events. This research identifies risk factors that may predispose mothers to enduring depressive symptoms, offering opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention.
Lee, Susanne S; August, Gerald J; Gewirtz, Abigail H; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Bloomquist, Michael L; Realmuto, George M
This study reports psychosocial characteristics of a sample of 111 children (K to 2nd grade) and their mothers who were living in urban supportive housings. The aim of this study was to document the various types and degree of risk endemic to this population. First, we describe the psychosocial characteristics of this homeless sample. Second, we compared this homeless sample with a grade-matched, high-risk, school-based sample of children (n = 146) who were identified as showing early symptoms of disruptive behaviors. Third, we compared the parents in both samples on mental health, parenting practices, and service utilization. Results showed that children living in supportive housing were in the at-risk range and had comparable levels of externalizing problems, internalizing problems, school problems and emotional strengths with the school-based risk sample receiving prevention services at a family support community agency. Mothers in supportive housing reported significantly higher psychological distress, less optimal parenting practices and greater service utilization. These findings are among the first to provide empirical support for the need to deliver prevention interventions in community sectors of care.
Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age? Evidence from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3).
Edelman, Natalie; Cassell, Jackie A; de Visser, Richard; Prah, Philip; Mercer, Catherine H
Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience) may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population. We undertook complex survey analysis of data from 4911 hetero-sexually active women aged 16-44 years, who participated in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a national probability sample survey undertaken 2010-2012. We used multivariable regression to examine associations between the available psychosocial and socio-demographic variables in Natsal-3 and reports of three key sexual behaviours: a) 2+ partners in the last year (2PP); b) non-use of condoms with 2+ partners in the last year (2PPNC); c) non-use of condoms at first sex with most recent sexual partner (FSNC). We adjusted for key socio-demographic factors: age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (measured by housing tenure). Weekly binge drinking (6+ units on one occasion), and first sex before age 16 were each positively associated with all three sexual behaviours after adjustment. Current relationship status, reporting drug use (ever), younger age and living in rented accommodation were also associated with 2+ partners and 2 + partners without condoms after adjustment. Currently being a smoker, older age and respondent ethnicity were associated with FSNC after adjustment for all other variables. Current smoking status, treatment for depression (last year), and living at home with both parents until the age of 14 were each associated with
Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Øverby, Nina C; Engel, Stephanie M; Klungsøyr, Kari; Harmon, Quaker E; Haugen, Margaretha; Bere, Elling
Preeclampsia and preterm delivery are serious complications of pregnancy and leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Dietary factors might be associated with these adverse outcomes. We investigated whether adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND) was associated with preeclampsia and preterm delivery risks in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants were recruited from all over Norway during the period 1999-2008. A previously constructed diet score assessing meal frequency, and the consumption of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water, was used to assess NND adherence. Associations between NND adherence and the outcomes were estimated in adjusted multivariate logistic regression models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 72,072 women was included in the study. High versus low NND adherence was associated with lower risk of total preeclampsia (OR 0.86; 95 % CI 0.78-0.95) and early preeclampsia (OR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.52-0.96). High compared with low NND adherence was associated with a lower risk of spontaneous preterm delivery among nulliparous women (OR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), whereas multiparous women with high NND adherence had a marginally significant higher risk of preterm delivery (OR 1.24; 95 % CI 1.00-1.53). High NND adherence was associated with a lower relative risk of preeclampsia and of spontaneous preterm delivery among nulliparous women; however, among multiparous women there was a higher relative risk of preterm delivery.
Thompson, James A; Carozza, Susan E; Bissett, Wesley T; Zhu, Li
Cancer is the most common fatal disease among US children. The fetus has reduced resistance to toxic injury and is especially prone to mutagenic injury because of the high rate of cell division. A fetus can be exposed to environmental toxins through maternal consumption of contaminated water. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence risk for childhood cancers within each watershed in Texas. The approach modeled risk for 19 cancer histotypes incorporating correlations among the cancer types and spatial correlation. Several watersheds in a very large area known as the Central Great Plains of North Texas were associated with increased risk for astrocytoma. Two watersheds near Houston, Buffalo-San Jacinto and West Galveston Bay, had increased risk for renal cancer and acute lymphoid leukemia, respectively. A watershed in South Texas, the South Laguna Madre, had increased risk for atypical leukemias. The possibility that waterborne toxins cause these childhood cancers should be investigated further.
Lipman, Ellen L; Waymouth, Marjorie; Gammon, Tara; Carter, Patricia; Secord, Margaret; Leung, Olivia; Mills, Brenda; Hicks, Frances
Single mothers are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and physical and mental health difficulties. The authors present (1) the results of group cohesion assessments completed by mothers participating in a trial of community-based support/education groups, and (2) assessments of the association between group cohesion ratings and intervention outcomes of maternal self-evaluations of well-being (mood, self-esteem, and social support) and parenting. Mothers participating in groups completed the Group Atmosphere Scale, a measure of group cohesion, post-group. Overall, most participants provided strong ratings of group cohesion. Significant associations were found between group cohesion and specific positive outcomes. This suggests a positive association between group cohesion and mood, self-esteem, social support, and parenting, in this trial.
Noble-Carr, Debbie; Bell, Catherine
This qualitative study, conducted by volunteers from the Australian Capital Territory/Southern New South Wales (ACT/SNSW) Branch of the Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA), explored the breastfeeding experiences of younger mothers (under the age of 26 years) in the ACT by conducting three focus groups. The study aimed to gain an understanding of how, when and where younger mothers want and need to receive breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers provided important insights into their breastfeeding experiences, which were often characterised by judgement from health professionals and the wider public. A number of key issues were identified including: breastfeeding is far from a cultural norm in our society and as such the risks of artificial baby milk are not clearly understood by many younger mothers; younger mothers are strongly influenced by their partners, mothers and peers and they rely upon them for breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers indicated that a number of improvements could be made to the way that breastfeeding information and support is currently provided within the ACT. The findings indicated that younger mothers (and their significant others) would benefit from receiving clear, concise and consistent breastfeeding information early on in their pregnancy, that is positive in tone, not necessarily 'young mum' specific and consistent with a 'less is more' approach. Younger mothers indicated that after the birth of their baby this breastfeeding information needs to be complemented by readily accessible, seamless, respectful support for as long as they need to establish breastfeeding and overcome any breastfeeding challenges. The focus group findings were largely consistent with the existing literature available on younger mothers and breastfeeding and provide valuable insights to all stakeholders responsible for providing breastfeeding information and support to younger mothers.
Chen, Xi-Kuan; Wen, Shi Wu; Yang, Qiuying; Walker, Mark C
Previous studies have found that inadequate prenatal care was associated with increased neonatal mortality in the general pregnant women. To examine the association between adequacy of prenatal care and neonatal mortality in the presence and absence of antenatal high-risk conditions. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants based on 1995-2000 vital statistics data in the USA. The relative risk for neonatal death associated with adequacy of prenatal care was estimated by multivariate logistic regressions with adjustment of confounding factors. Inadequate prenatal care was associated with increased neonatal mortality when pregnancies were complicated by anaemia, cardiac disease, lung disease, chronic hypertension, diabetes, renal disease, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and previous preterm/small-for-gestational-age birth. The observed association also existed in the absence of these antenatal high-risk conditions. Overutilisation of prenatal care was associated with increased risk of neonatal deaths in both the presence and the absence of antenatal high-risk conditions. When gestational age at delivery and birthweight were further adjusted, the observed association between inadequate prenatal care and neonatal mortality was not significant in pregnancies with various high-risk conditions. Inadequate prenatal care is associated with increased neonatal death in both the presence and the absence of antenatal high-risk conditions. The observed association between inadequate prenatal care and neonatal mortality may be mediated by increased risk of preterm delivery and low birthweight in these pregnancies. Overutilisation of prenatal care is associated with potential risks for fetal and neonatal development, leading to increased neonatal mortality.
Palmer, Jane E; Renner, Lynette M; Goodman, Lisa A; Dutton, Mary Ann
We examined whether risks to children of intimate partner violence survivors affected the type of legal assistance accessed. We hypothesized that the level and type of perceived child risk would be associated with whether women sought a protection order in civil court or filed charges against a current or former intimate partner in criminal court. Using data from a sample of predominantly African American women (N=293), we found that some forms of child risk were positively associated with seeking a civil order of protection but negatively associated with pressing criminal charges. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are presented.
Thomas, Jody R; Clark, Alexander M
To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF) self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995-2010) indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. After screening of 537 citations, six qualitative studies identified that differences existed in perceptions of symptoms with women having less family involvement and psychosocial support around self-care. Moreover, women had considerably more negative views of the future, themselves and their ability to fulfill social self-care roles. Women with HF represent a highly vulnerable population and need more support for psychosocial wellbeing and self-care.
Jody R. Thomas
Full Text Available To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995–2010 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. After screening of 537 citations, six qualitative studies identified that differences existed in perceptions of symptoms with women having less family involvement and psychosocial support around self-care. Moreover, women had considerably more negative views of the future, themselves and their ability to fulfill social self-care roles. Women with HF represent a highly vulnerable population and need more support for psychosocial wellbeing and self-care.
Closing the loop: an interactive action-research conference format for delivering updated medical information while eliciting Latina patient/family experiences and psychosocial needs post-genetic cancer risk assessment.
Macdonald, Deborah J; Deri, Julia; Ricker, Charité; Perez, Martin A; Ogaz, Raquel; Feldman, Nancy; Viveros, Lori A; Paz, Benjamin; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Blazer, Kathleen R
A patient/family-centered conference was conducted at an underserved community hospital to address Latinas' post-genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) medical information and psychosocial support needs, and determine the utility of the action research format. Latinas seen for GCRA were recruited to a half-day conference conducted in Spanish. Content was partly determined from follow-up survey feedback. Written surveys, interactive discussions, and Audience Response System (ARS) queries facilitated the participant-healthcare professional action research process. Analyses included descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The 71 attendees (41 patients and 27 relatives/friends) were primarily non-US born Spanish-speaking females, mean age 43 years. Among patients, 73 % had a breast cancer history; 85 % had BRCA testing (49 % BRCA+). Nearly all (96 %) attendees completed the conference surveys and ARS queries; ≥48 % participated in interactive discussions. Most (95 %) agreed that the format met their personal interests and expectations and provided useful information and resources. Gaps/challenges identified in the GCRA process included pre-consult anxiety, uncertainty about reason for referral and expected outcomes, and psychosocial needs post-GCRA, such as absorbing and disseminating risk information to relatives and concurrently coping with a recent cancer diagnosis. The combined action research and educational conference format was innovative and effective for responding to continued patient information needs and addressing an important data gap about support needs of Latina patients and family members following genetic cancer risk assessment. Findings informed GCRA process improvements and provide a basis for theory-driven cancer control research.
King, Thomas F J
Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk.
Marcio M. Vasconcelos
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a contribuição dos fatores psicossociais para a ocorrência do transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH. MÉTODO: Este é um estudo retrospectivo de casos-controles que analisou 403 alunos de uma escola pública primária. Preencheram-se o questionário de sintomas do DSM-IV e um questionário psicossocial específico e realizaram-se anamnese e exames físico e neurológico completos. RESULTADOS: O fator psicossocial estatisticamente significativo foi "brigas conjugais no passado" (odds ratio = 11,66, p = 0,044. Observaram-se assassinatos de 29 parentes próximos das crianças, e esta variável foi estatisticamente relevante. CONCLUSÃO: As crianças expostas a "brigas conjugais no passado" entre os pais correram risco 11,66 vezes mais alto de ter o diagnóstico de TDAH. Os autores propõem que a exposição à violência comunitária seja acrescentada aos indicadores de adversidade de Rutter, os quais predispõem à ocorrência de TDAH e outros transtornos neuropsiquiátricos na infância.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the contribution of psychosocial risk factors for the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. METHOD: This is a retrospective, case-control study that analyzed 403 pupils from a public elementary school. DSM-IV symptom questionnaire and a specific psychosocial questionnaire were filled out, and a history and complete physical and neurological examinations were performed. RESULTS: The most statistically significant psychosocial risk factor was "marital discord in the past" (odds ratio = 11.66, p = 0.044. A total of 29 murders of subjects' close relatives were observed, and this variable was statistically relevant. CONCLUSION: Children that were exposed to marital discord in the past between parents underwent a 11.66-fold increase in the risk of ADHD diagnosis. Authors suggest that exposure to community violence be included among Rutters's indicators of adversity, which predispose
Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Nilsen, Roy M; Magnus, Per; Alexander, Jan; Haugen, Margareta
There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life.
Alison L Drake
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women may have persistent risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum. Estimating risk of HIV during these periods is important to inform optimal prevention approaches. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate maternal HIV incidence during pregnancy/postpartum and to compare mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT risk among women with incident versus chronic infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and AIDS-related conference abstracts between January 1, 1980, and October 31, 2013, for articles and abstracts describing HIV acquisition during pregnancy/postpartum. The inclusion criterion was studies with data on recent HIV during pregnancy/postpartum. Random effects models were constructed to pool HIV incidence rates, cumulative HIV incidence, hazard ratios (HRs, or odds ratios (ORs summarizing the association between pregnancy/postpartum status and HIV incidence, and MTCT risk and rates. Overall, 1,176 studies met the search criteria, of which 78 met the inclusion criterion, and 47 contributed data. Using data from 19 cohorts representing 22,803 total person-years, the pooled HIV incidence rate during pregnancy/postpartum was 3.8/100 person-years (95% CI 3.0-4.6: 4.7/100 person-years during pregnancy and 2.9/100 person-years postpartum (p = 0.18. Pooled cumulative HIV incidence was significantly higher in African than non-African countries (3.6% versus 0.3%, respectively; p<0.001. Risk of HIV was not significantly higher among pregnant (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.5-2.1 or postpartum women (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-1.6 than among non-pregnant/non-postpartum women in five studies with available data. In African cohorts, MTCT risk was significantly higher among women with incident versus chronic HIV infection in the postpartum period (OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.2-3.9 or in pregnancy/postpartum periods combined (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.4. However, the small number of studies limited power to detect
High school outcomes were assessed for 123 young adults, originally toddlers in the home-based, low-intensity Mother-Child Home Program (MCHP) and at risk for dropping out of high school because of their parents' low income and education. Participants were recruited for the Pittsfield, MA, replication of the MCHP and randomly selected into program…
Kolopaking, Risatianti; Bardosono, Saptawati; Fahmida, Umi
Objective: To explore the factors that encompass maternal self-efficacy in providing food for the home. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 mothers of nutritionally at risk children in an urban area of East Jakarta, Indonesia. This study was based on Social Cognitive Theory, Family Stress Models, and Ecological Frameworks. Data…
Brown, Jennifer L.; Young, April M.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve S.; Wingood, Gina M.
This study examined if relationship power, sex refusal self-efficacy, and/or fear of condom negotiation mediated the relationship between abuse history and consistent condom use (CCU) among African-American female adolescents (n=593). Participants with an abuse history (58%) were less likely to report CCU (p=.003). Women with an abuse history reported less relationship power (p=.006) and self-efficacy for refusing sex (p<.001), and more fear of condom negotiation (p=.003), none of which independently or jointly mediated the association between abuse and CCU. Notably, history of abuse was associated with CCU across mediator models (p=.037 to p=.067), despite inclusion of psychosocial mediators. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding adolescents’ condom use behaviors within the context of their life experiences, especially past abuse history. PMID:25505369
Wielandt, Hanne; Schønemann-Rigel, Helena; Blunck, Charlotte H.;
intensive care unit. Conclusion: The present study supports the notion of high-risk pregnancy among GDM patients. Compared with nulliparous in general, the offspring were more likely to be delivered by emergency CS. Despite the prophylactic procedures, one in six had neonatal hypoglycaemia....
O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John
Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398.
da Mota Silveira, Suzana Maria; Gonçalves de Mello, Maria Júlia; de Arruda Vidal, Suely; de Frias, Paulo Germano; Cattaneo, Adriano
The objective of this study was to determine the mortality risk related to hypothermia at the moment of admission and other factors such as clinical and geographical related to the transportation of the newborns admitted to the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco IMIP from 8 March to 11 June 2000. A prospective study involving 320 newborns arriving from home or health centres was carried out. Babies that were dead on arrival or subsequently transferred to other units were excluded. The risk of death was determined according to exposure to hypothermia and other types of exposure, using logistical regression. The risk of death was higher (RR = 3.09; CI = 2.15-4.43) in the group exposed to moderate hypothermia (temperature between 32.5 degrees C and 35.99 degrees C) than in the non-exposed group (temperature equal to or greater than 36.00 degrees C). The relative risk of death was also higher for newborns with a weight of less than 2500 g, that were less than 1 day old, respiratory distress syndrome, premature babies or with congenital malformations, that had used oxygen and/or intravenous infusion during transit, that came from the interior and that had travelled more than 150 km. In the final result of the multivariate analysis, sepsis ('adjusted' RO = 6.23; 95% CI = 5.66-6.80), respiratory distress syndrome ('adjusted' RO = 5.28; 95% CI = 5.03-5.59), moderate hypothermia ('adjusted' RO = 3.49, 95% CI = 3.18-3.81), and distance undertaken greater than 50 km ('adjusted' RO = 2.39; 95% CI = 2.14-2.63) remained. Hypothermia on admission showed itself to be an important and independent risk factor for neonatal death.
Full Text Available Background. There is a paucity of research in Australia on the characteristics of women in treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and the health outcomes of their neonates. Aims. To determine the clinical features and outcomes of high-risk, marginalized women seeking treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and their neonates. Methods. 139 women with a history of substance abuse/dependence engaged with a perinatal drug health service in Sydney, Australia. Maternal (demographic, drug use, psychological, physical, obstetric, and antenatal care and neonatal characteristics (delivery, early health outcomes were examined. Results. Compared to national figures, pregnant women attending a specialist perinatal and family drug health service were mor