WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychosocial resource loss

  1. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychosocial impact of perinatal loss among Muslim women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutan Rosnah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women of reproductive age are vulnerable to psychosocial problems, but these have remained largely unexplored in Muslim women in developing countries. The aim of this study was to explore and describe psychosocial impact and social support following perinatal loss among Muslim women. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in a specialist centre among Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss. Purposive sampling to achieve maximum variation among Muslims in relation to age, parity and previous perinatal death was used. Data was collected by focus group discussion and in-depth unstructured interview until the saturation point met. Sixteen mothers who had recent perinatal loss of wanted pregnancy, had received antenatal follow up from public or private health clinics, and had delivery in our centre participated for the study. All of them had experienced psychological difficulties including feelings of confusion, emptiness and anxiety over facing another pregnancy. Results Two out of sixteen showed anger and one felt guilt. They reported experiencing a lack of communication and privacy in the hospital during the period of grief. Family members and friends play an important role in providing support. The majority agreed that the decision makers were husbands and families instead of themselves. The respondents felt that repetitive reminder of whatever happened was a test from God improved their sense of self-worth. They appreciated this reminder especially when it came from husband, family or friends closed to them. Conclusion Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss showed some level of adverse psychosocial impact which affected their feelings. Husbands and family members were the main decision makers for Muslim women. Health care providers should provide psychosocial support during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. On-going support involving husband should be available where needed.

  3. Are Psychosocial Resources Associated With Perceived Facial Aging in Men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilou Noser MSc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Looking younger than actual age has been related to a variety of health outcomes. Optimism, self-esteem, and relationship satisfaction are important psychosocial resources for mental health. Little is known about their relation with a younger facial appearance. Objective: This study analyzed whether these psychosocial resources are associated with a younger facial appearance and if their effects were mediated through mental health. Method: A sample of N = 223 self-reporting healthy men aged 40 to 75 years filled in questionnaires to assess optimism (Life Orientation Test–Revised, self-esteem (Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale, relationship satisfaction (Relationship Assessment Scale, and mental health (Short-Form Health Survey. Five female raters estimated the visual age of each participant from a frontal face photograph. Results: Looking younger (compared with chronological age was correlated with optimism, relationship satisfaction, and mental health. Mediation analyses and structural equation modeling indicated that mental health mediated the association between each psychosocial resource and a younger appearance. Discussion: The results emphasize the importance of promoting psychosocial resources and mental health in men 40+ for the maintenance of good health and the deceleration of facial aging.

  4. Beyond emotional benefits: physical activity and sedentary behaviour affect psychosocial resources through emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Candice L; Catalino, Lahnna I; Mata, Jutta; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is known to improve emotional experiences, and positive emotions have been shown to lead to important life outcomes, including the development of psychosocial resources. In contrast, time spent sedentary may negatively impact emotional experiences and, consequently, erode psychosocial resources. Two studies tested whether activity independently influenced emotions and psychosocial resources, and whether activity indirectly influenced psychosocial resources through emotional experiences. Using cross-sectional (Study 1a) and longitudinal (Study 1b) methods, we found that time spent physically active independently predicted emotions and psychosocial resources. Mediation analyses suggested that emotions may account for the relation between activity and psychosocial resources. The improved emotional experiences associated with physical activity may help individuals build psychosocial resources known to improve mental health. Study 1a provided first indicators to suggest that, in contrast, sedentary behaviour may reduce positive emotions, which could in turn lead to decrements in psychosocial resources.

  5. Resource Loss and Naturalistic Reduction of PTSD among Inner-City Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Kristen H.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Halting the process of psychosocial and material resource loss has been theorized as being associated with the reduction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examines how the limiting of resource loss is related to alleviation of PTSD symptoms among 102 inner-city women, who originally met diagnostic criteria for PTSD after…

  6. The readability of psychosocial wellness patient resources: improving surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugar, Meredith A; Cohen, Adam C; Wooden, William; Tholpady, Sunil S; Chu, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    Patient education is increasingly accessed with online resources and is essential for patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. The average American adult reads at a seventh grade level, and the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA) recommend that information be written at a sixth-grade reading level. Health literacy plays an important role in the disease course and outcomes of all patients, including those with depression and likely other psychiatric disorders, although this is an area in need of further study. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze written, online mental health resources on the Veterans Health Administration (VA) website, and other websites, using readability assessment instruments. An internet search was performed to identify written patient education information regarding mental health from the VA (the VA Mental Health Website) and top-rated psychiatric hospitals. Seven mental health topics were included in the analysis: generalized anxiety disorder, bipolar, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse, and suicide. Readability analyses were performed using the Gunning Fog Index, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, the Coleman-Liau Index, the SMOG Readability Formula, and the Automated Readability Index. These scores were then combined into a Readability Consensus score. A two-tailed t-test was used to compare the mean values, and statistical significance was set at P readability consensus than six of the top psychiatric hospitals (P readability consensus for mental health information on all websites analyzed was 9.52. Online resources for mental health disorders are more complex than recommended by the NIH and AMA. Efforts to improve readability of mental health and psychosocial wellness resources could benefit patient understanding and outcomes, especially in patients with lower literacy. Surgical outcomes are correlated with patient mental

  7. The impact of resource loss on Holocaust survivors facing war and terrorism in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, R.; Hobfoll, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the distress level of 102 Holocaust survivors in Israel during a recent period of continuous exposure of the Israeli population to terror and the threat of missile attack. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of losses suffered during the Holocaust and of current loss of resources due to terror attacks on their distress level. Twenty one percent of the sample had probable PTSD and high psychological distress levels in general. Current loss of psychosocial resources contributed significantly to survivors’ current PTSD symptomatology and general psychological distress, above the contribution of the previous Holocaust-related loss. Our findings support COR theory, which states that traumatic events are associated with ongoing and often rapid loss of resources. Resource loss, in turn, is associated with higher distress levels. Moreover, current loss of resources compounds the impact of earlier resource losses incurred during the Holocaust. PMID:17453549

  8. Chronic medical conditions and mental health in older people : disability and psychosocial resources mediate specific mental health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J; Kempen, GIJM; Penninx, BWJH; Brilman, EI; Beekman, ATF; VanSonderen, E

    Background. This study describes the differences in psychological distress, disability and psychosocial resources between types of major medical conditions and sensory impairments (collectively denoted as CMCs); and tests whether disability and psychosocial resources mediate CMC-specific mental

  9. Sensory loss and its consequences for couples’ psychosocial and relational wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehane, Christine Marie; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup; Elsass, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research has shown that marital communication is key to couples' successful illness adjustment. However, little is known about couples' experiences of health conditions characterised by communication difficulties such as acquired hearing, vision, and dual-sensory loss. The aim...... of this review was to identify the effect of sensory loss, and associated communication difficulties, on couples' relational and psychosocial adjustment. Method: A systematic search was conducted to identify studies investigating the social, psychological, and relational impact of sensory loss on couples...

  10. Psychosocial Development of 5-year-old Children with Hearing Loss: Risks and protective factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cara L.; Ching, Teresa YC; Leigh, Greg; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this paper were to report on the global psychosocial functioning of 5-year-old DHH children and examine the risk and protective factors that predict outcomes. Design A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a prospective, population-based longitudinal study. Study Sample Parents/caregivers of 356 children completed questionnaires on psychosocial development (CDI, SDQ), functional communication (PEACH) and demographic information. Children completed standardised assessments of non-verbal cognitive ability (WNV) and language (PLS-4). Results On average, global psychosocial functioning was within the range of typically developing children; however, variability was high and 12% of children had scores that were more than 2 SDs below the norm. Non-verbal cognitive ability, presence of additional disabilities, language and functional communication significantly predicted outcomes. In contrast, type of hearing device, severity of hearing loss and age at intervention did not. Conclusion The global psychosocial functioning of this cohort of 5-year-old DHH children fell within the range of typically developing children. . The findings suggest that spoken language ability and functional communication skills are vital for healthy psychosocial development. PMID:27541363

  11. Coping strategies and resources as predictors of psychosocial adaptation among people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Martz, Erin

    2014-08-01

    The onset of a spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by a massive amount of stress, on which professionals in the medical field focus attention and care. The subsequent cascade of psychological stressors related to SCI often receives lesser attention. When individuals experience new forms of stress, they typically respond with attempts to cope, which may or may not be adaptive in reducing their stress levels. The twofold purpose of this study was to investigate whether SCI survivors' use of coping resources (i.e., hope, sense of coherence) and coping strategies (e.g., engagement coping, seeking social support) influences their psychosocial adaptation, and whether their use of coping strategies moderates the effect of coping resources, after controlling for the influence of depression and anxiety, on psychosocial adaptation. This cross-sectional study involved a self-report survey of survivors of SCI. Inclusion criteria included: (a) being 18 years of age or older, (b) having received inpatient rehabilitation services following the SCI, and (c) not having traumatic head injury at the time of the SCI onset. The sample consisted of 95 individuals with SCI who received outpatient rehabilitation services at a center in the midsouthern United States. Results indicated that coping resources and coping strategies were significantly associated with psychosocial adaptation. Furthermore, engagement coping explained a significant portion of the variance in psychosocial adaptation both individually and as an interactive variable with the 2 coping resources of sense of coherence and hope. Findings indicate that both coping resources and strategies (especially engagement coping) are reliably linked to adaptation to SCI. The findings further suggest that engagement coping positively influences psychosocial adaptation even when coping resources are mostly absent. Other implications for the field of rehabilitation are briefly outlined.

  12. Psychosocial safety climate moderates the job demand-resource interaction in predicting workgroup distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) arises from workplace policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety that are largely driven by management. Many work stress theories are based on the fundamental interaction hypothesis - that a high level of job demands (D) will lead to psychological distress and that this relationship will be offset when there are high job resources (R). However we proposed that this interaction really depends on the organizational context; in particular high levels of psychosocial safety climate will enable the safe utilization of resources to reduce demands. The study sample consisted of police constables from 23 police units (stations) with longitudinal survey responses at two time points separated by 14 months (Time 1, N=319, Time 2, N=139). We used hierarchical linear modeling to assess the effect of the proposed three-way interaction term (PSC×D×R) on change in workgroup distress variance over time. Specifically we confirmed the interaction between emotional demands and emotional resources (assessed at the individual level), in the context of unit psychosocial safety climate (aggregated individual data). As predicted, high emotional resources moderated the positive relationship between emotional demands and change in workgroup distress but only when there were high levels of unit psychosocial safety climate. Results were confirmed using a split-sample analysis. Results support psychosocial safety climate as a property of the organization and a target for higher order controls for reducing work stress. The 'right' climate enables resources to do their job. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychosocial resources and the relationship between transformational leadership and employees' psychological strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Burkhard; Loerbroks, Adrian; Herr, Raphael; Litaker, David; Wilson, Mark; Kastner, Michael; Fischer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Leadership behavior may both serve as a supportive resource or as a source of psychological distress in the workplace. Transformational leadership (TL), a behavior of superiors that fosters motivation, empowerment and a sense of teamness, has been associated with employee well-being, but the mechanisms that underlie these effects are unclear. We therefore explored the relationship between TL and stress by examining potential mediating roles for established organizational and personal resources. We used cross-sectional data on TL, psychosocial resources and employee strain from a company wide survey. Linear regression and structural equation modeling assessed potential mediation following the method outlined by Baron and Kenny. In a convenience sample consisting of mostly white-collar employees (n=320, 42.6% male), we observed a relationship between TL and employees' perceived work-related stress that was fully mediated by protective psychosocial resources (ß =-0.33, pTransformational leadership seems to be associated with lower stress among employees and a perception of more available psychosocial resources. These findings indicate that TL might serve as a valuable focus for tailored interventions to improve employee health.

  14. Surface Acting and Job-Related Affective Wellbeing: Preventing Resource Loss Spiral and Resource Loss Cycle for Sustainable Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongwook Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the synergistic negative effect of two kinds of job demand on job-related affective wellbeing (JAW and the accelerating effects of cynicism in the negative relationships between job demands and JAW using a sample of 299 employees in the Chinese banking industry. Job demands include quantitative role overload and surface acting to represent the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job demands. Cynicism is introduced as a state where one’s energy resource is lost. The results of this study show that surface acting has a negative relationship with JAW, but quantitative role overload has no relationship with JAW. High levels of quantitative role overload exacerbate the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW. Cynicism also exacerbates the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW but does not have any moderating effect in the relationship between quantitative role overload and JAW. These results are consistent with the relationships predicted by resource loss spiral and resource loss cycle. The resource loss spiral means that resource loss, caused by handling with a quantitative role overload, lessens the employee’s ability to cope with surface acting. The resource loss cycle represents a vicious circle that amplifies the resource loss caused by surface acting. Surface acting reduces the level of one’s resources. Furthermore, surface acting reduces JAW and resources more strongly when an individual has low levels of previous energy resources than it reduces JAW and resources when he or she has high levels of previous energy resources.

  15. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  16. Do resources buffer the prospective association of psychosocial work stress with depression? Longitudinal evidence from ageing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Wahrendorf, Morten; Müller, Andreas; Wright, Bradley; Dragano, Nico

    2018-03-01

    Objectives There is now convincing evidence that psychosocial work stressors are linked to depression. Few studies, however, have tested if individual resources can buffer the longitudinal effects of psychosocial work stressors on depressive symptoms. This study investigates how two types of resources (internal and external resources) affect the association between psychosocial work stressors and depressive symptoms. Methods Data were obtained from the US Health and Retirement Study, with baseline information on psychosocial work stressors [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and on internal ("high mastery" and "low constraints") and external resources ("private social support") among initially healthy workers. This information was linked to elevated depressive symptoms two years later. The sample includes 5473 observations and we report relative risks (RR) and effect modification on the additive and multiplicative scale. Results Psychosocial stressors and low resources (internal and external) were both independently related to depressive symptoms. Individuals with both, psychosocial stressors and low resources, had the highest risk of developing elevated depressive symptoms (eg, RR ERI-LowMastery 3.32, 95% CI 2.49-4.42; RR JobStrain-LowMastery 2.89, 95% CI 2.18-3.84). Yet, based on interaction analyses, only social support from friends buffered the association between work stressors and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Our findings have demonstrated that psychosocial stressors at work are related to mental health, and that in most cases this relationship holds true both for people with high and with low resources. Therefore, there is no clear indication that internal or external resources buffer the association between psychosocial work stressors and depressive symptoms.

  17. Psychological adjustment and psychosocial stress among Japanese couples with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender....... CONCLUSIONS Women were significantly more distressed than men. Poor quality of the marital relationship was significantly associated with impaired psychological adjustment among women, but not among men. These gender discrepancies may foster a mutual worsening of psychological adjustment and marital...... relationships in RPL couples. The need to seek help not only in women but also in a substantial portion of men suggests the importance of couple-based psychological care in the management of RPL....

  18. Predictors of weight loss in young adults who are over-weight or obese and have psychosocial problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is in a general practice trial setting to identify predictive factors for weight loss after 1 year among young adults who are over-weight or obese and who have several psychosocial problems. METHODS: Twenty-eight general practitioners recruited 495 patients aged 20...

  19. The moderating role of personal resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this research was to investigate the buffering effects of an individual’s physical, mental and social resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and (1) health symptoms, (2) mental strain and (3) the body mass index (BMI), respectively. Methods We performed moderated regression analysis to examine data from a large cross-sectional survey of an Austrian employee sample (n=9434). Results The results revealed a robust association between psychosocial job demands and health symptoms as well as mental strain, but only a weak relationship between psychosocial job demands and BMI. Although the personal resources showed a positive effect on health symptoms and mental strain, only weak evidence was found for the hypothesised interaction with psychosocial job demands. Solely the physical fitness of a person was found to mitigate the impact of psychosocial job demands on health symptoms. Conclusions In conclusion, personal resources substantially accounted for the prediction of health. However, the interactions between psychosocial job demands and personal resources only slightly contributed to explaining the variation in health. PMID:28851776

  20. The moderating role of personal resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2017-08-28

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the buffering effects of an individual's physical, mental and social resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and (1) health symptoms, (2) mental strain and (3) the body mass index (BMI), respectively. We performed moderated regression analysis to examine data from a large cross-sectional survey of an Austrian employee sample (n = 9434). The results revealed a robust association between psychosocial job demands and health symptoms as well as mental strain, but only a weak relationship between psychosocial job demands and BMI. Although the personal resources showed a positive effect on health symptoms and mental strain, only weak evidence was found for the hypothesised interaction with psychosocial job demands. Solely the physical fitness of a person was found to mitigate the impact of psychosocial job demands on health symptoms. In conclusion, personal resources substantially accounted for the prediction of health. However, the interactions between psychosocial job demands and personal resources only slightly contributed to explaining the variation in health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Mental health and psychosocial support for South Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda: a needs and resource assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Adaku, Alex; Okello, James; Lowry, Blakeley; Kane, Jeremy C.; Alderman, Stephen; Musisi, Seggane; Tol, Wietse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since December 2013, an armed conflict in South Sudan has resulted in the displacement of over 2.2 million people, more than 270,000 of whom are presently in refugee settlements located throughout Uganda. Existing literature suggests that refugees are at increased risk for a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. There is international consensus on the importance of needs and resource assessments to inform potential mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interven...

  2. Adolescent exergame play for weight loss and psychosocial improvement: a controlled physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Abraham, Anisha A; Calvert, Sandra L

    2013-03-01

    Overweight and obese youth, who face increased risk of medical complications including heart disease and type II diabetes, can benefit from sustainable physical activity interventions that result in weight loss. This study examined whether a 20-week exergame (i.e., videogame that requires gross motor activity) intervention can produce weight loss and improve psychosocial outcomes for 54 overweight and obese African-American adolescents. Participants were recruited from a public high school and randomly assigned to competitive exergame, cooperative exergame, or control conditions. All exergame participants were encouraged to play the Nintendo Wii Active game for 30-60 min per school day in a lunch-time or after-school program. Cooperative exergame participants worked with a peer to expend calories and earn points together, whereas competitive exergame participants competed against a peer. Control participants continued regular daily activities. Outcome measures included changes in weight, peer support, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, measured at baseline, and at ∼10 and 20 weeks. Growth curve analysis revealed that cooperative exergame players lost significantly more weight (mean = 1.65 kg; s.d. = 4.52) than the control group, which did not lose weight. The competitive exergame players did not differ significantly from the other conditions. Cooperative exergame players also significantly increased in self-efficacy compared to the control group, and both exergame conditions significantly increased in peer support more than the control group. Exergames, especially played cooperatively, can be an effective technological tool for weight loss among youth. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  3. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  4. PHENOMENON OF TAX LOSSES OF STATE BUDGETARY RESOURCES

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    Larysa Sidelnykova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is structuring categorical-conceptual apparatus of the of the tax losses phenomenon in the state budgetary resources, namely clarification of the concepts of “tax gap”, “tax expenditures”, “tax losses”, as well as the quantification of tax losses of the Consolidated budget of Ukraine. Methodology. Most modern scholars interpret the tax gaps as the amount of taxes that were not received with the budget as a result of shadow economy, tax evasion and the existence of tax debt. However, considerable asymmetry of the tax component of the state budgetary resources also arises due to budget losses of all levels as a result of providing tax exemptions. In modern economic literature such losses are considered as tax expenditures. We consider tax losses a generalizing concept including potential amounts of tax revenues that the state and local budgets have not received as a result of the existence of the phenomenon of “tax gaps” and “tax expenditures”, and the amount of losses of the state budgetary resources in terms of their tax component is equal to the sum total of tax exemptions provided, unsettled tax debt of economic agents and the loss of tax revenue due to the operation of shadow economy. The study is based on the analysis of tax losses of budgetary resources of Ukraine during the period of time from 2004 to 2014. The results of the study showed enormous losses of budgetary resources in Ukraine due to the imperfection of the tax system, spread of undisclosed operations, tax evasion, and inefficient fiscal policy implementation. The Consolidated budget loses the amounts of monetary funds, equal to an average of 53.30% of actual revenue over the period studied. Total tax losses of the state budgetary resources in 2014 are equivalent to the total actual expenditures of the Consolidated budget of Ukraine on social protection and social security, defense, public order, security and judicial authorities. Even

  5. Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire - A validation study using the Job Demand-Resources model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Berthelsen

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the nomological validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II by using an extension of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model with aspects of work ability as outcome.The study design is cross-sectional. All staff working at public dental organizations in four regions of Sweden were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire (75% response rate, n = 1345. The questionnaire was based on COPSOQ II scales, the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, and the one-item Work Ability Score in combination with a proprietary item. The data was analysed by Structural Equation Modelling.This study contributed to the literature by showing that: A The scale characteristics were satisfactory and the construct validity of COPSOQ instrument could be integrated in the JD-R framework; B Job resources arising from leadership may be a driver of the two processes included in the JD-R model; and C Both the health impairment and motivational processes were associated with WA, and the results suggested that leadership may impact WA, in particularly by securing task resources.In conclusion, the nomological validity of COPSOQ was supported as the JD-R model-can be operationalized by the instrument. This may be helpful for transferral of complex survey results and work life theories to practitioners in the field.

  6. Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire - A validation study using the Job Demand-Resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Hanne; Hakanen, Jari J; Westerlund, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the nomological validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) by using an extension of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model with aspects of work ability as outcome. The study design is cross-sectional. All staff working at public dental organizations in four regions of Sweden were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire (75% response rate, n = 1345). The questionnaire was based on COPSOQ II scales, the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, and the one-item Work Ability Score in combination with a proprietary item. The data was analysed by Structural Equation Modelling. This study contributed to the literature by showing that: A) The scale characteristics were satisfactory and the construct validity of COPSOQ instrument could be integrated in the JD-R framework; B) Job resources arising from leadership may be a driver of the two processes included in the JD-R model; and C) Both the health impairment and motivational processes were associated with WA, and the results suggested that leadership may impact WA, in particularly by securing task resources. In conclusion, the nomological validity of COPSOQ was supported as the JD-R model-can be operationalized by the instrument. This may be helpful for transferral of complex survey results and work life theories to practitioners in the field.

  7. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  8. Understanding the psychosocial experiences of adults with mild-moderate hearing loss: An application of Leventhal's self-regulatory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Eithne; Coulson, Neil S; Henshaw, Helen; Barry, Johanna G; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the psychosocial experiences of adults with hearing loss using the self-regulatory model as a theoretical framework. The primary components of the model, namely cognitive representations, emotional representations, and coping responses, were examined. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. The data were analysed using an established thematic analysis procedure. Twenty-five adults with mild-moderate hearing loss from the UK and nine hearing healthcare professionals from the UK, USA, and Canada were recruited via maximum variation sampling. Cognitive representations: Most participants described their hearing loss as having negative connotations and consequences, although they were not particularly concerned about the progression or controllability/curability of the condition. Opinions differed regarding the benefits of understanding the causes of one's hearing loss in detail. Emotional representations: negative emotions dominated, although some experienced positive emotions or muted emotions. Coping responses: engaged coping (e.g. hearing aids, communication tactics) and disengaged coping (e.g. withdrawal from situations, withdrawal within situations): both had perceived advantages and disadvantages. This novel application of the self-regulatory model demonstrates that it can be used to capture the key psychosocial experiences (i.e. perceptions, emotions, and coping responses) of adults with mild-moderate hearing loss within a single, unifying framework.

  9. Resource Loss and Depressive Symptoms Following Hurricane Katrina: A Principal Component Regression Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liang L; Hayashi K; Bennett P; Johnson T. J; Aten J. D

    2015-01-01

    To understand the relationship between the structure of resource loss and depression after disaster exposure, the components of resource loss and the impact of these resource loss components on depression was examined among college students (N=654) at two universities who were affected by Hurricane Katrina. The component of resource loss was analyzed by principal component analysis first. Gender, social relationship loss, and financial loss were then examined with the regression model on depr...

  10. Psychosocial Development in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Using Hearing Aids or Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cara L; Ching, Teresa Y C; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Leigh, Greg; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the psychosocial development and factors influencing outcomes of 5-year-old children with cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). It further examines differences between children with CIs and HAs with similar levels of hearing loss. Data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study-a prospective, population-based study. Parents/caregivers of children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ( n = 333), the Social Skills subscale from the Child Development Inventory ( n = 317), and questionnaires on functional auditory behavior (Parents' Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children), and demographics. Children completed assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability (Wechsler Non-verbal Scale of Ability) and language (Preschool Language Scale - fourth edition). On average, parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores on emotional or behavioral difficulties were within 1 SD of the normative mean; however, Child Development Inventory scores on social skills were more than 1 SD below the norm. Children with severe-to-profound hearing losses using HAs had significantly more behavioral problems than children with CIs. Regression analyses showed that non-verbal cognitive ability, language, and functional auditory behavior were significantly associated with psychosocial outcomes for children with HAs, whereas outcomes for children with CIs were associated with functional auditory behavior and the presence of additional disabilities. Age at hearing intervention, severity of hearing loss, and communication mode were not associated with outcomes. The results suggest that even children who develop good language ability with the help of a HA or CI may have psychosocial problems if they exhibit difficulties with listening and communicating in everyday environments. The findings have implications for developing interventions for young children with hearing

  11. Psychosocial predictors of emotional eating and their weight-loss treatment-induced changes in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Mareno, Nicole; McEwen, Kristin

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing whether psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and weight loss also predict emotional eating, and how differing weight-loss treatment methods affect those variables. Women with obesity (M = 47.8 ± 7.9 years; BMI = 35.4 ± 3.3 kg/m(2)) were randomized into groups of either phone-supported self-help (Self-Help; n = 50) or in-person contact (Personal Contact; n = 53) intended to increase exercise, improve eating behaviors, and reduce weight over 6 months. A multiple regression analysis indicated that at baseline mood, self-regulating eating, body satisfaction, and eating-related self-efficacy significantly predicted emotional eating (R (2) = 0.35), with mood and self-efficacy as independent predictors. Improvements over 6 months on each psychosocial measure were significantly greater in the Personal Contact group. Changes in mood, self-regulation, body satisfaction, and self-efficacy significantly predicted emotional eating change (R (2) = 0.38), with all variables except self-regulation change being an independent predictor. Decreased emotional eating was significantly associated with weight loss. Findings suggest that weight-loss interventions should target specific psychosocial factors to improve emotional eating. The administration of cognitive-behavioral methods through personal contact might be more beneficial for those improvements than self-help formats.

  12. Burnout among psychosocial oncologists in Israel: The direct and indirect effects of job demands and job resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Cohen, Miri; Rasmussen, Victoria; Turnell, Adrienne; Butow, Phyllis

    2017-12-19

    Psychosocial oncologists may be particularly vulnerable to burnout. This study aimed to assess burnout among Israeli psychosocial oncologists in relation to the Job Demands-Resources model and the coping strategies model. Participants included 85 of 128 listed psychosocial oncologists currently working with cancer patients. They completed a questionnaire assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, job demands, job resources, work engagement, overcommitment, and perceived value of work. The mean level of burnout was low, whereas 16.3% experienced high levels of emotional exhaustion and only 2.4% experienced high levels of depersonalization. According to mediation analysis, overcommitment, partially mediated job demands-burnout associations, and work engagement mediated the perceived value-burnout association. Job resources and burnout were not related, either directly or indirectly. Significance of results The study extended the Job Demands-Resources model to include perceived value as an additional resource, and work-engagement and overcommitment as coping strategies. Two distinct patterns of associations were found between work characteristics and burnout: the positive-protective pattern (perceived value and work engagement) and the negative pattern (job demands and overcommitment). These two patterns should be considered for further research and for implementing preventive interventions to reduce burnout in the workplace setting.

  13. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  14. Psychosocial safety climate as a lead indicator of workplace bullying and harassment, job resources, psychological health and employee engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rebecca; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is defined as shared perceptions of organizational policies, practices and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety, that stem largely from management practices. PSC theory extends the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework and proposes that organizational level PSC determines work conditions and subsequently, psychological health problems and work engagement. Our sample was derived from the Australian Workplace Barometer project and comprised 30 organizations, and 220 employees. As expected, hierarchical linear modeling showed that organizational PSC was negatively associated with workplace bullying and harassment (demands) and in turn psychological health problems (health impairment path). PSC was also positively associated with work rewards (resources) and in turn work engagement (motivational path). Accordingly, we found that PSC triggered both the health impairment and motivational pathways, thus justifying extending the JD-R model in a multilevel way. Further we found that PSC, as an organization-based resource, moderated the positive relationship between bullying/harassment and psychological health problems, and the negative relationship between bullying/harassment and engagement. The findings provide evidence for a multilevel model of PSC as a lead indicator of workplace psychosocial hazards (high demands, low resources), psychological health and employee engagement, and as a potential moderator of psychosocial hazard effects. PSC is therefore an efficient target for primary and secondary intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Choice of measure matters: A study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial resources in a middle-aged normal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Festin

    Full Text Available Psychosocial resources may serve as an important link to explain socioeconomic differences in health. Earlier studies have demonstrated that education, income and occupational status cannot be used interchangeably as indicators of a hypothetical latent social dimension. In the same manner, it is important to disentangle the effect of measuring different constructs of psychosocial resources. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse if associations between socioeconomic status (SES and psychosocial resources differ depending on the measures used. A cross-sectional population-based study of a random sample (n = 1007 of middle-aged individuals (45-69 years old, 50% women in Sweden was performed using questionnaire and register data. SES was measured as education, occupation, household income and self-rated economy. Psychosocial resources were measured as social integration, social support, mastery, self-esteem, sense of coherence (SOC and trust. Logistic regression models were applied to analyse the relationships controlling for the effects of possible confounders. The measures of SES were low or moderately correlated to each other as were the measures of psychosocial resources. After controlling for age, sex, country of birth and employment status, household income and self-rated economy were associated with all six psychosocial resources; occupation was associated with three (social integration, self-esteem and trust and education with two (social integration and self-esteem. Social integration and self-esteem showed a significant and graded relationship with all SES measures; trust was associated with all SES measures except education, whereas SOC and mastery were only associated with household income and self-rated economy. After controlling for other SES measures, no associations with psychosocial resources remained for education or occupation. In conclusion, associations between SES and psychosocial resources did differ depending on the

  16. Parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach's α = 0.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire developed by Mustillo et al. in 2005 (Quality of relationships between youth and community service providers: Reliability and validity of the trusting relationship questionnaire. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 577-590). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future. Group mean comparisons using analysis of variance suggested a significant association (p anxiety and depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family socioeconomic status, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables. The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for these children. Future study is needed to explore the possible reasons for the lack of association between a

  17. Behaving safely under pressure: The effects of job demands, resources, and safety climate on employee physical and psychosocial safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronkhorst, Babette

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has shown that employees who experience high job demands are more inclined to show unsafe behaviors in the workplace. In this paper, we examine why some employees behave safely when faced with these demands while others do not. We add to the literature by incorporating both physical and psychosocial safety climate in the job demands and resources (JD-R) model and extending it to include physical and psychosocial variants of safety behavior. Using a sample of 6230 health care employees nested within 52 organizations, we examined the relationship between job demands and (a) resources, (b) safety climate, and (c) safety behavior. We conducted multilevel analyses to test our hypotheses. Job demands (i.e., work pressure), job resources (i.e., job autonomy, supervisor support, and co-worker support) and safety climate (both physical and psychosocial safety climate) are directly associated with, respectively, lower and higher physical and psychosocial safety behavior. We also found some evidence that safety climate buffers the negative impact of job demands (i.e., work-family conflict and job insecurity) on safety behavior and strengthens the positive impact of job resources (i.e., co-worker support) on safety behavior. Regardless of whether the focus is physical or psychological safety, our results show that strengthening the safety climate within an organization can increase employees' safety behavior. Practical implication: An organization's safety climate is an optimal target of intervention to prevent and ameliorate negative physical and psychological health and safety outcomes, especially in times of uncertainty and change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  18. Initiation and Maintenance of Weight Loss after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding. The role of Outcome Expectation and Satisfaction with the Psychosocial Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; Larsen, J.K.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Ramshorst, B. van; Geenen, R.

    2009-01-01

    A premise of this study was that different psychological processes would predict the initiation and maintenance of weight loss after surgery for morbid obesity. Our aim was to examine whether more favorable preoperative expectations of psychosocial outcomes predict weight loss in the first year

  19. Competition for labor resources: losses of the Amur region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vasilyeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define labor losses of the Amur region because of the competition of regions. Each region, directly or indirectly, seeks to attract and keep in its territory highly skilled labor force. Shortage of labor force slows down development of the economy of the region. Thus, because of the depopulation, the demand for the produced and consumed goods and services in the region is decreasing. The decrease in demand influences tax reduction and non-tax revenues in budgets of various levels, reduction of employment of labor resources, increase in unemployment, increase in cost of products and rendered services, reduction of the gross regional product, growth of social tension in the society.Under conditions of the competition between regions for labor resources, other things being equal, the outflow of labor resources occurs from regions with a rather low level of compensation to regions with a rather high level of the salary. At the same time, the population leaves, as a rule, the provincial and less developed regions and concentrates in the largest metropolitan areas. In the competition for labor resources some regions win and get essential advantages in social and economic development, others sustain considerable losses. Statistical methods of analyzing social and economic phenomena and processes were used as tools for carrying out the research: indexes of dynamics, structure, and tabular and graphic methods of visualization of quantitative data.As a result of the conducted statistical research, it was found out that the population of the Amur region decreases annually, at the same time the decline in the population of the region is long-term and steady in nature. Over 25 years the Amur region lost population amounting to the population of the whole city. The present work shows that the tendency of demographic aging of the population characteristic of many regions of the country is observed in the Amur region. Decrease

  20. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation Among Low-SES African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally-specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical sociology, and the stress process, we explore the adverse impact of gendered racism experiences and potential moderating factors in a sample of 204 predominantly low-SES African American women. We find that African American women’s risk for suicidal ideation is linked to stressors occurring as a function of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. In addition, we find that gendered racism has no effect on suicidal ideation among women with moderate levels of well-being, self-esteem, and active coping, but has a strong adverse influence in those with high and low levels of psychosocial resources. PMID:23565018

  1. Children who face development risks due to maternal addiction during pregnancy require extra medical and psychosocial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangmar, Jenny; Lilja, Maria; Köhler, Marie; Reuter, Antonia

    2018-05-21

    This study examined medical and psychosocial risk factors in children born to women with addiction problems during pregnancy and the children's needs for extra medical and psychosocial resources. Swedish midwives routinely screen pregnant women for drugs and alcohol and refer women with addictions to the Maternity and Child Healthcare Resource Team. We investigated the medical records of 127 children (51% girls) whose mothers were referred to the Resource Team from 2009-2015. Additional data were obtained from local child healthcare services (CHS), which provide routine paediatric care. More than three-quarters (76%) of the children had prenatal exposure to alcohol and drugs and 17% were born with withdrawal symptoms. The mothers had a high rate of psychiatric diagnoses (38%) and were more likely to smoke after delivery and less likely to breastfeed than the general population. However, adherence to the CHS programme was generally high. Additional visits to the nurse, referrals to specialists, collaboration meetings and reports of concerns to social services decreased when the children began attending ordinary CHS centres. Children born to women with addictions during pregnancy faced a high risk of developmental problems and should be offered additional CHS resources to minimise negative long-term consequences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Long Yang

    Full Text Available Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and the associated psychosocial factors among bladder/kidney cancer patients.A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients with bladder/kidney cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 489 early-stage cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinical variables, depression, anxiety, PTSD, perceived social support and positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and resilience anonymously during October 2013 and August 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and psychological disorders, while controlling for possible covariates.The prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD was 77.5%, 69.3% and 25.2%, respectively, while 24.9% of patients had psychological co-morbidity. Psychosocial resources together explained more than one-third of the variance on psychological disorders. Under standardized estimate (β sequence, patient's perception of social support from family was significantly associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD (p < 0.01. Optimism and resilience showed integrated and independent effects on psychological disorders, and hope represented the significant association with PTSD only (p < 0.01.The high prevalence of psychological disorders in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage bladder/kidney cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings

  3. Human Resource Strategic Management in NPOs: An Explorative Study on Managers' Psychosocial Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevene, Paula; Cortini, Michela

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This explorative research aims at examining the social representation of psychosocial training in NPOs managers. Design/methodology/approach: An adopted multiple research approach was adopted to analyse a corpus of qualitative data. A detailed semi-structured interview was administered to 122 senior managers of as many Italian NPOs.…

  4. Theory-based psychosocial factors that discriminate between weight-loss success and failure over 6 months in women with morbid obesity receiving behavioral treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H

    2015-06-01

    To improve success rates of behavioral weight-loss treatments, a better understanding of psychosocial factors that discriminate between weight-loss success and failure is required. The inclusion of cognitive-behavioral methods and manageable amounts of exercise might induce greater improvements than traditional methods of education in healthy eating practices. Women with morbid obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m(2)] were recruited for a treatment of supported exercise paired with either a cognitive-behavioral or an educational approach to eating change over 6 months. They were classified as either successful with (i.e., at least 5 % loss; n = 40) or failed at (no loss, or weight gain; n = 43) weight loss. Discriminate function analysis incorporated theory-based models of 1 (self-efficacy), 5 (self-efficacy, self-regulation, mood, physical self-concept, body satisfaction), and 3 (self-efficacy, self-regulation, mood) psychosocial predictors at both month 6, and change from baseline-month 6. All three models significantly discriminated weight-loss success/failure (66, 88, and 87 % for success; and 81, 87, and 88 % for failure, respectively). Self-regulation had the strongest correlations within the multi-predictor models (0.90-0.96), and all variables entered were above the standard of 0.30 set for relevance. Participants in the cognitive-behavioral nutrition group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in all psychosocial variables and success with weight loss. Completing at least two sessions of exercise per week predicted success/failure with weight loss better than overall volume of exercise. New and relevant findings regarding treatment-induced psychosocial changes might be useful in the architecture of more successful behavioral weight-loss interventions.

  5. Discotheques and the risk of hearing loss among youth: Risky listening behavior and its psychosocial correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs 'consideration of

  6. Discotheques and the Risk of Hearing Loss among Youth: Risky Listening Behavior and Its Psychosocial Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit…

  7. An exploration of the prevalence and predictors of work-related well-being among psychosocial oncology professionals: An application of the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnell, Adrienne; Rasmussen, Victoria; Butow, Phyllis; Juraskova, Ilona; Kirsten, Laura; Wiener, Lori; Patenaude, Andrea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Grassi, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Burnout is reportedly high among oncology healthcare workers. Psychosocial oncologists may be particularly vulnerable to burnout. However, their work engagement may also be high, counteracting stress in the workplace. This study aimed to document the prevalence of both burnout and work engagement, and the predictors of both, utilizing the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, within a sample of psychosocial oncologists. Psychosocial-oncologist (N = 417) clinicians, recruited through 10 international and national psychosocial-oncology societies, completed an online questionnaire. Measures included demographic and work characteristics, burnout (the MBI-HSS Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) subscales), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and measures of job demands and resources. High EE and DP was reported by 20.2 and 6.6% of participants, respectively, while 95.3% reported average to high work engagement. Lower levels of job resources and higher levels of job demands predicted greater burnout, as predicted by the JD-R model, but the predicted interaction between these characteristics and burnout was not significant. Higher levels of job resources predicted higher levels of work engagement. Burnout was surprisingly low and work engagement high in this sample. Nonetheless, one in five psychosocial oncologists have high EE. Our results suggest that both the positive (resources) and negative (demands) aspects of this work environment have an on impact burnout and engagement, offering opportunities for intervention. Theories such as the JD-R model can be useful in guiding research in this area.

  8. Long-term impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality in adulthood and the mediating role of psychosocial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Ulla; Huurre, Taina; Kiviruusu, Olli; Haukkala, Ari; Aro, Hillevi

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this 16-year prospective follow-up study was to investigate the association between parental divorce in childhood and intimate relationship quality in adulthood. The mediating role of psychosocial resources (parent-child relationships at 16 years, self-esteem and social support at 32 years) in this association was also studied. All 16 year olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age (n = 1,471). Results showed that women and men from divorced families were more often divorced or separated at the age of 32 years than those from nondivorced families. However, parental divorce was associated with poorer intimate relationship quality only among women. Women from divorced families also had poorer relationships with their father and mother in adolescence, and they had lower self-esteem and satisfaction with social support in adulthood than women from intact families. No such associations were found among men. The impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality among women was partially mediated by mother-daughter relationship, self-esteem, and satisfaction with social support. The mediating role of mother-daughter relationship was not direct, however, but was mediated via self-esteem and satisfaction with social support. Our findings indicate that parental divorce affects daughters more than sons. In the context of parental divorce, the mother-daughter relationship in adolescence is important for the development of later psychosocial resources and, via them, for intimate relationship quality.

  9. [Identification of psychosocial problems in patients with Hansen's disease by analysis of computerized resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helene, L M; Rocha, M T

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify leprosy patients' psychosocial problems experienced after they were informed about their diagnosis. We focused attention upon concerns and behavioral changes related to their families, friends, jobs and to themselves. Data were obtained by a two opened questions interview and they were analysed with the aid of artificial intelligence techniques. These intelligence tools were used to discover the most frequent words, phrases and concepts existing in the interview reports. The results showed that after being informed about their diagnosis, the majority of the patients referred some concerns and behavioral changes related to their families, friends, jobs and to themselves. The main concerns of the population were related to the disease (transmission, the treatment extension, the possibility of hospitalization, the uncertainty about the cure). These facts induced some of the patients to avoid telling people about the disease they have.

  10. Coping with Racial Discrimination: Assessing the Vulnerability of African Americans and the Mediated Moderation of Psychosocial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Byron; Rote, Sunshine M.; Keith, Verna M.

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that the mental health of African Americans is negatively affected by discrimination, but few studies have investigated the effects of racial discrimination specifically and whether these effects vary by poverty and education levels. Using a sample of 3,372 African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), we find a positive relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms, with both lifetime and daily racial discrimination being more salient for depressive symptoms among impoverished African Americans than those living above 200% of the poverty line. Evaluating mediated moderation models, we also find that the conditional effects of socioeconomic status are mediated by poor African Americans’ having fewer psychosocial resources. Namely, lower levels of mastery are influential in accounting for poor African Americans’ greater vulnerability to both daily and lifetime discrimination. The findings highlight the importance of examining specific reasons for discrimination as well as mediated moderation in future research. PMID:25419483

  11. Effectiveness of a Participatory Physical and Psychosocial Intervention to Balance the Demands and Resources of Industrial Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Christian Dyrlund; Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory physical and psychosocial workplace intervention (known as PIPPI) on work ability and recovery among industrial workers. Methods: Eligible workers were cluster-randomized into intervention (N=193) and control (N....... Questionnaire-based data on work ability and recovery were collected at baseline and 8-, 10- and 12-month follow-up. Data on productivity, well-being, mental health, and physical demands and resources were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Results: The intervention was delivered and received....... On the contrary, tendencies were observed for poorer recovery and reduced work ability in the intervention compared to control group. Conclusion: The intervention did not improve the outcomes. This result can have several explanations, such as a regression-toward-the-mean effect or that the intervention might...

  12. Mental health and psychosocial support for South Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda: a needs and resource assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaku, Alex; Okello, James; Lowry, Blakeley; Kane, Jeremy C; Alderman, Stephen; Musisi, Seggane; Tol, Wietse A

    2016-01-01

    Since December 2013, an armed conflict in South Sudan has resulted in the displacement of over 2.2 million people, more than 270,000 of whom are presently in refugee settlements located throughout Uganda. Existing literature suggests that refugees are at increased risk for a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. There is international consensus on the importance of needs and resource assessments to inform potential mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions. We conducted a MHPSS needs and resource assessment in Rhino Camp refugee settlement in northern Uganda, between June and August 2014. We followed World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) guidelines for MHPSS needs assessments in humanitarian settings. The assessment used a range of methodologies including: 1) a desk (literature) review to understand the context for mental health service provision; 2) an analysis of data from existing health information systems (HIS); 3) an assessment of the current infrastructure for service provision using a shortened version of a Who does What Where until When (4Ws); and 4) semi-structured individual and group interviews (total n = 86) with key informants (n = 13) and general community members (individual interviews n = 28, four focus groups with n = 45). Data from the HIS indicated that visits to health centers in refugee settlements attributable to psychotic disorders, severe emotional disorders, and other psychological complaints increased following the refugee influx between 2013 and 2014, but overall help-seeking from health centers was low compared to estimates from epidemiological studies. In semi-structured interviews the three highest ranked mental health and psychosocial problems included "overthinking", ethnic conflict, and child abuse. Other concerns included family separation, drug abuse, poverty, and unaccompanied minors. The 4Ws assessment revealed that there were

  13. El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; de Alvarado, Ana Maria Glower; de Castro, Norma Blandon; Male, Robert Van; Zetino, A M; Vega, Raphael

    2006-12-01

    Four and seven weeks after powerful earthquakes in El Salvador, the authors examined the relationships among demographics, traumatic event exposure, social support, resource loss, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth. Participants were 253 college students (Study 1) and 83 people in the community (Study 2). In Study 1, female gender, traumatic event exposure, low social support, and loss of personal characteristic, condition, and energy resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. In Study 2, damage to home and loss of personal characteristic and object resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. Posttraumatic growth was not associated with ASD symptoms or depression. Findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1998). Resource loss spirals, excessive demands on coping, and exposure to multiple disasters are discussed.

  14. Psychosocial generalised resistance resources and clinical indicators of patients suffering from Osteoarthritis at the Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Tuszyńska-Bogucka

    2015-05-01

    Results of analysis showed that psychological factors within the meaning of psychosocial resources may be potential pathways for improving or disturbing the treatment effects in the course of hip and knee osteoarthritis treatment, and/or the patient’s condition.

  15. Understanding the psychosocial experiences of adults with mild-moderate hearing loss: An application of Leventhal’s self-regulatory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Eithne; Coulson, Neil S.; Henshaw, Helen; Barry, Johanna G.; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study explored the psychosocial experiences of adults with hearing loss using the self-regulatory model as a theoretical framework. The primary components of the model, namely cognitive representations, emotional representations, and coping responses, were examined. Design Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. The data were analysed using an established thematic analysis procedure. Study sample Twenty-five adults with mild-moderate hearing loss from the UK and nine hearing healthcare professionals from the UK, USA, and Canada were recruited via maximum variation sampling. Results Cognitive representations: Most participants described their hearing loss as having negative connotations and consequences, although they were not particularly concerned about the progression or controllability/curability of the condition. Opinions differed regarding the benefits of understanding the causes of one’s hearing loss in detail. Emotional representations: negative emotions dominated, although some experienced positive emotions or muted emotions. Coping responses: engaged coping (e.g. hearing aids, communication tactics) and disengaged coping (e.g. withdrawal from situations, withdrawal within situations): both had perceived advantages and disadvantages. Conclusions This novel application of the self-regulatory model demonstrates that it can be used to capture the key psychosocial experiences (i.e. perceptions, emotions, and coping responses) of adults with mild-moderate hearing loss within a single, unifying framework. PMID:26754550

  16. Predictors of PTSD and delayed PTSD after disaster: the impact of exposure and psychosocial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2006-07-01

    In the present study we sought to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) and examine changes in PTSD status over time. Our data come from a two-wave, prospective cohort study of New York City adults who were living in the city on September 11, 2001. We conducted a baseline survey 1 year after the attacks (year 1), followed by a survey 1 year later (year 2). Overall, 2368 individuals completed the year 1 survey, and 1681 were interviewed at year 2. Analyses for year 1 indicated that being younger, being female, experiencing more WTCD events, reporting more traumatic events other than the WTCD, experiencing more negative life events, having low social support, and having low self-esteem increased the likelihood of PTSD. For year 2, being middle-aged, being Latino, experiencing more negative life events and traumas since the WTCD, and having low self-esteem increased the likelihood of PTSD. Exposure to WTCD events was not related to year 2 PTSD once other factors were controlled. Following previous research, we divided study respondents into four categories: resilient cases (no PTSD years 1 or 2), remitted cases (PTSD year 1 but not year 2), delayed cases (no PTSD year 1 but PTSD year 2), and acute cases (PTSD both years 1 and 2). Factors predicting changes in PTSD between year 1 and year 2 suggested that delayed PTSD cases were more likely to have been Latino, to have experienced more negative life events, and to have had a decline in self-esteem. In contrast, remitted cases experienced fewer negative life events and had an increase in self-esteem. We discuss these findings in light of the psychosocial context associated with community disasters and traumatic stress exposures.

  17. Reciprocal effects of treatment-induced increases in exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates, in obese adults seeking weight loss: a field-based trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A better understanding of interrelations of exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates of self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation, may be useful for the architecture of improved weight loss treatments. Theory-based research within field settings, with samples possessing high probabilities of health risks, might enable rapid application of useful findings. Methods Adult volunteers with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] 35–50 kg/m2; age = 43.0 ± 9.5 y; 83% female) were randomly assigned to six monthly cognitive-behavioral exercise support sessions paired with either group-based nutrition education (n = 145) or cognitive behavioral methods applied to improved eating (n = 149). After specification of mediation models using a bias-corrected bootstrapping procedure, a series of reciprocal effects analyses assessed: a) the reciprocal effects of changes in exercise and fruit and vegetable intake, resulting from the treatments, b) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables tested (i.e. self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation) and fruit and vegetable change, resulting from change in exercise volume, and c) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables and exercise change, resulting from change in fruit and vegetable intake. Results Mediation analyses suggested a reciprocal effect between changes in exercise volume and fruit and vegetable intake. After inclusion of psychosocial variables, also found were reciprocal effects between change in fruit and vegetable intake and change in mood, self-efficacy for controlled eating, and self-regulation for eating; and change in exercise volume and change in mood and exercise-related self-regulation. Conclusion Findings had implications for behavioral weight-loss theory and treatment. Specifically, results suggested that treatments should focus upon, and leverage, the transfer effects from each of the primary weight-loss

  18. Exergy losses of resource recovery from a waste-to-energy plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Laner, D.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Metal resources recovered from waste incineration bottom ash (BA) are of lower quality as compared to primary resources, but to date no framework for expressing the quality losses exists. Exergy is a concept that may have the potential to evaluate the resource quality in waste management....... In this study, focusing on recovery from waste-to-energy plants with basic and advanced BA treatment, the goal is to give an indication about quality of selected recovered resources (Fe, Al, and Cu) by means of exergy analysis. Metal flows are modeled through both incineration scenarios, and then chemical....... The results indicate that exergy losses due to mixing are insignificant as compared to chemical exergies of metals in all flows. Total exergy losses for Fe, Al, and Cu recovery in the two WtE systems range from 38% to 90%....

  19. A Participatory Physical and Psychosocial Intervention for Balancing the Demands and Resources Among Industrial Workers (PIPPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Christian Dyrlund; Nøhr Henriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    the background, design and protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce need for recovery and improve work ability among industrial workers. Methods/Design: A two-year cluster randomized controlled design will be utilized, in which controls will also...... an intervention based on the abovementioned features which may improve the work environment, available resources and health of industrial workers, and hence their need for recovery and work ability.......Background: Need for recovery and work ability are strongly associated with high employee turnover, well-being and sickness absence. However, scientific knowledge on effective interventions to improve work ability and decrease need for recovery is scarce. Thus, the present study aims to describe...

  20. Violence and other stressful life events as triggers of depression and anxiety: what psychosocial resources protect African American mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Ronzio, Cynthia R

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the risk and protective factors related to maternal mental health problems is important for improving the well-being of mothers and children, particularly in African American populations which may be at greater risk for maternal depression and resulting child behavior problems. This study explored whether three psychosocial resources--emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity--serve as protective factors in the face of specific stressful events that may trigger African American mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms. Standard self-report measures of depression, anxiety, negative life events, community violence, abuse, emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity were administered to African American mothers (N=209) of 2-18 month-old children. Linear regression models revealed main effects of negative life events and abuse on increased depression and anxiety symptoms, while emotional resilience and social support predicted decreased symptoms. There was also a significant interaction revealing a protective-reactive effect of ethnic identity on the associations of witnessed community violence with depression and anxiety symptoms. It is important for primary care providers to screen African American mothers for negative life events and abuse to identify those at increased risk for maternal depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment programs should target emotional resilience, enhanced social support, and stronger ethnic group affiliation, which may be most effective at preventing mental health problems among mothers exposed to relative lower levels of community violence.

  1. Psychosocial resources and burnout risk factors in medical school: A cross-sectional study and analysis of needs for preventive curricular interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Aster-Schenck, IU; Schuler, M; Fischer, MR; Neuderth, S

    2010-01-01

    [english] Background: Epidemiologic health data show an increased incidence of psychosomatic disorders in medical doctors and undergraduate medical students as compared with the general public. There is little knowledge about students’ self-assessment of needs with respect to preventive health-promoting interventions.Objectives: Analysis of the psychosocial health resources and risk patterns of medical students at different times throughout their studies. Analysis of students’ self-assessment...

  2. Resource Loss and Gain, Life Satisfaction, and Health Among Retirees in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Gabriela; Jiménez, Irene; Valero, Encarna; Ovejero, Anastasio

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on retirement transition from the Conservation of Resources (COR) perspective to better understand how aged participants' perceptions of retirement losses and gains significantly explain retirement well-being. In this article, the mediation of social support in the losses-well-being relationship is explored. The study was conducted with a two-wave longitudinal design. Participants at T1 were aged Spanish workers (>64 years) and at T2 were retirees, with a final sample of 275, who had retired during the previous 6 months. Findings supported the assertion that losses better explain well-being than gains. In addition, specific losses revealed a higher explaining power of life satisfaction and health complaints depending on their content. Social support mediated between perceived losses and well-being. This study suggests that both perceived losses and gains associated with retirement and social support during retirement should be taken into account when addressing postretirement well-being.

  3. An examination of psychosocial variables moderating the relationship between life stress and injury time-loss among athletes of a high standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, I W; Eklund, R C; Gordon, S

    2000-05-01

    Based on Williams and Andersen's model of stress and athletic injury, six psychosocial variables were assessed as possible moderators of the relationship between life stress and injury among 121 athletes (65 males, 56 females) competing in a variety of sports at state, national or international level. No significant effects of the sex of the participants were evident. Correlational analyses revealed moderator effects of several variables. Specifically, dispositional optimism and hardiness were related to decreased injury time-loss in athletes when positive life change increased, and global self-esteem was associated with decreased injury time-loss when both negative life change and total life change increased. The results indicate that athletes with more optimism, hardiness or global self-esteem may cope more effectively with life change stress, resulting in reduced injury vulnerability and recovery rates.

  4. The Impact of Childhood Hearing Loss on the Family: Mothers' and Fathers' Stress and Coping Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Most, Tova; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Haddad-eid, Eliana; Brand, Devora

    2016-01-01

    Parenting children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) presents unique long-term challenges that can place the parents at a greater risk for elevated levels of parenting stress. Adaptation of families to the various challenges presented by childhood hearing loss is influenced by their personal and social coping resources available for managing…

  5. Assessment of differences in psychosocial resources and state of health of rural and urban residents – based on studies carried out on students during examination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zarzycka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Civilization changes of the environment shaping the psychosocial resources from rural to urban influence human health. [b]aim.[/b] The study aimed to identify the differences due to the place of residence (rural, urban as far as health resources are concerned (social support, sense of coherence, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration in plasma and health in examination stress situations. The study also determined the concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (health resource and cortisol (stress indicator. [b]material and methods.[/b] The psychosocial variables were assessed using the scales: ISEL-48v. Coll., SOC-29, SF-36v.2™ o and analogue scale (perception of examination stress. The study included, based on a stratified sampling (year of study and purposive sampling (written examination, major, 731 students representing the six universities in Lublin, south-east Poland. Among the respondents, 130 students were rural residents. [b]results.[/b] Health resources of students living in rural and urban areas generally differ statistically significantly in social support and the subscales of availability of tangible support, availability of appreciative support, the availability of cognitive-evaluative support and a sense of resourcefulness. The study recorded a sstatistically significantly larger network of family ties among students living in rural areas. The demonstrated diversity of resources did not substantially affect the perceived health, with the exception of pain sensation. Examination stress assessed by subjective opinion of the respondents and plasma cortisol levels vary relative to the place of residence. Students residing in rural areas showed significantly lower cortisol levels values, but subjectively perceived the situation of examation as more stressful. [b]conclusions[/b]. Differences in health resources and their mechanism of impact on health, to a limited extent, were conditioned by the place

  6. Overeating with and without loss of control: Associations with weight status, weight-related characteristics, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Pisetsky, Emily M; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    The relative importance of loss of control and overeating in the relationship between binge eating and eating-related and general psychopathology has been debated in the literature. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of overeating with and without loss of control within a diverse, population-based sample of adolescents. A highly diverse (81.1% non-White) sample of adolescents (n = 2,793) from EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) completed self-report questionnaires assessing eating-related psychopathology, substance use, nonsuicidal self-injury, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. Overeating without loss of control was reported by 6.9% of girls and 5.0% of boys, while 9.6% of girls and 6.3% of boys reported overeating with loss of control (binge eating). Overall, overeating (with or without loss of control) was positively associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, dieting, nonsuicidal self-injury, lower body satisfaction, and self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to no overeating. Among girls, binge eating was associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, lower self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to overeating without loss of control, while in boys, binge eating was associated with greater cigarette usage, lower body satisfaction, and greater depressive symptoms than overeating without loss of control (although cigarette usage was comparable in boys reporting binge eating and no overeating). Any overeating, with or without loss of control, was associated with multiple adverse correlates among adolescents. Loss of control was uniquely associated with multiple health indicators, further highlighting its importance as a marker of severity of overeating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation among Low Socioeconomic Status African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin L.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical…

  8. Emotional and psychosocial aspects of menstrual poverty in resource-poor settings: a qualitative study of the experiences of adolescent girls in an informal settlement in Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Joanna; Okal, Jerry; Kabiru, Caroline W; Zulu, Eliya Msiyaphazi

    2013-10-01

    We introduce the concept of "menstrual poverty" to categorize the multiple deprivations relating to menstruation in resource-poor settings across the Global South, and we examine how this affects the psychological well-being of adolescent girls in an urban informal settlement in Kenya. We use qualitative data collected through 34 in-depth interviews and 18 focus group discussions with girls, women, and key informants. Menstrual poverty involved practical and psychosocial challenges affecting girls at home and at school. Its emotional impacts included anxiety, embarrassment, fear of stigma, and low mood. Further research is needed on how menstrual poverty affects girls' psychological and educational outcomes.

  9. Resource loss as a predictor of posttrauma symptoms among college women following the mass shooting at Virginia Tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Axsom, Danny

    2009-01-01

    We examined risk factors for posttrauma symptomatology, 2 and 6 months following the April 2007 mass shooting at Virginia Tech. Using a conservation of resources framework and a Web-based survey methodology, we prospectively evaluated the relations among preshooting distress, social support, resource loss, and posttrauma symptomatology in a sample of 293 female students enrolled at the university at the time of the shootings. Structural equation modeling supported that preshooting social support and distress predicted resource loss postshooting. Resource loss predicted symptomatology 2 months and 6 months after the shooting. Implications of the results for research and intervention following mass trauma are discussed.

  10. Factorial structure of complicated grief: associations with loss-related traumatic events and psychosocial impacts of mass conflict amongst West Papuan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2016-03-01

    Definitions of complicated grief vary across diagnostic systems, being represented as persistent complex bereavement (PCB) in DSM-5 and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the proposed revision of the ICD system. A past study in a high-income country has identified a six-factor structure for complicated grief, but there are no data testing this or any other model across cultures. The present study reports findings from a survey amongst West Papuan refugees (n = 230, response rate = 92 %) residing in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. We applied culturally adapted measures of conflict-related traumatic event (TEs) (drawing specifically on domains of conflict and loss), symptoms of complicated grief adapted and modified to the culture, and a multidimensional psychosocial index of the broader effects of conflict and displacement. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single higher order construct of complicated grief comprising six factors of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal; behavioural change; estrangement from others/impairment; and a novel dimension of confusion/diminished identity. In contrast, our analysis failed to support DSM or ICD models of PCB or PGD. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model revealed that traumatic loss and the sense of injustice each were associated with the unitary construct of complicated grief and its subdomains of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal (exclusive to injustice); and estrangement from others/social impairment (exclusive to TE domain of conflict and loss). Conflict and loss associated with feelings of injustice may be especially pathogenic in generating the anger/negative appraisal component of complicated grief amongst refugees.

  11. Posttraumatic growth within the first three months after accidental injury in China: the role of self-disclosure, cognitive processing, and psychosocial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chaoqun; Gong, Shumei; Jiang, Liping; Deng, Guanghui; Liu, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    The primary goals of this study, were to identify the posttraumatic growth (PTG) level of accidentally injured Chinese patients shortly after an accident occurred and to determine whether cognitive processing, self-disclosure, and psychosocial resources predicted PTG. A total of 232 patients were recruited from two public hospitals in Shanghai within the first three months of an accidental injury. Patients completed self-report questionnaires to assess severity of injury, cognitive processing, self-disclosure, psychosocial resources, and PTG. Patients reported a mid-low level of PTG (M = 50.38, SD = 18.12) in the short length of time post-injury. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that subjective accident severity, deliberate rumination, perceived social support, and attitude towards disclosure were strong predictors of PTG. A moderating role of self-disclosure between intrusive rumination and PTG was identified. These findings support an interaction effect of rumination and self-disclosure on PTG and have implications for early intervention of accidentally injured patients.

  12. Psychosocial generalised resistance resources and clinical indicators of patients suffering from Osteoarthritis at the Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Tuszyńska-Bogucka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was investigation of the correlations between medical indicators of the course of illness and psychological factors, treated as generalised resistance resources, according to the Salutogenic Model by A.Antonovsky. The salutogenic orientation is one of the more viable paradigms for health promotion research and practice, and is offered as a useful theory for taking a salutogenic approach to health research. Materials and methods. Data was used of 67 patients at Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland, suffering from Osteoarthritis. Using psychological test methods: SOC-29, CISS, AIS, IZZ, KNS, GSES, BDI and The Index of Severity for Osteoarthritis of the Hip or the Knee and The Low Back Pain Rating Scale as medical indicators of the course of the illness. Results. Analysis showed significance correlations between some psychosocial (sense of coherence, stress coping strategies, acceptance of illness, health behaviour, hope for success, self-efficacy and depression and medical variables (intensity of the degenerative disease and low back spine. Conclusions. Results of analysis showed that psychological factors within the meaning of psychosocial resources may be potential pathways for improving or disturbing the treatment effects in the course of hip and knee osteoarthritis treatment, and/or the patient’s condition.

  13. Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; de Moel, H; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Varis, O; Ward, P J

    2012-11-01

    Reducing food losses and waste is considered to be one of the most promising measures to improve food security in the coming decades. Food losses also affect our use of resources, such as freshwater, cropland, and fertilisers. In this paper we estimate the global food supply losses due to lost and wasted food crops, and the resources used to produce them. We also quantify the potential food supply and resource savings that could be made by reducing food losses and waste. We used publically available global databases to conduct the study at the country level. We found that around one quarter of the produced food supply (614 kcal/cap/day) is lost within the food supply chain (FSC). The production of these lost and wasted food crops accounts for 24% of total freshwater resources used in food crop production (27 m(3)/cap/yr), 23% of total global cropland area (31 × 10(-3)ha/cap/yr), and 23% of total global fertiliser use (4.3 kg/cap/yr). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in North Africa & West-Central Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilisers). The smallest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (freshwater and fertilisers) and in Industrialised Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the smallest food supply and resource losses occur in South & Southeast Asia. If the lowest loss and waste percentages achieved in any region in each step of the FSC could be reached globally, food supply losses could be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for approximately one billion extra people. Reducing the food losses and waste would thus be an important step towards increased food security, and would also increase the efficiency of resource use in food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Resource Loss Moderates the Association Between Child Abuse and Current PTSD Symptoms Among Women in Primary-Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Guimarães, Sara; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça

    2016-09-01

    This study examined if abuse during childhood, rape in adulthood, and loss of resources predict a woman's probability of reporting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether resource loss moderates the association between reporting childhood abuse and PTSD symptoms. The sample included 767 women and was collected in publicly funded primary-care settings. Women who reported having been abused during childhood also reported more resource loss, more acute PTSD symptoms, and having suffered more adult rape than those who reported no childhood abuse. Hierarchical logistic regression yielded a two-variable additive model in which child abuse and adult rape predict the probability of reporting or not any PTSD symptoms, explaining 59.7% of the variance. Women abused as children were 1 to 2 times more likely to report PTSD symptoms, with sexual abuse during childhood contributing most strongly to this result. Similarly, women reporting adult rape were almost twice as likely to report symptoms of PTSD as those not reporting it. Resource loss was unexpectedly not among the predictors but a moderation analysis showed that such loss moderated the association between child abuse and current PTSD symptoms, with resource loss increasing the number and severity of PTSD symptoms in women who also reported childhood abuse. The findings highlight the importance of early assessment and intervention in providing mental health care to abused, neglected, and impoverished women to help them prevent and reverse resource loss and revictimization.

  15. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  16. Evaluation of Loss Resources during Sugarcane Production Process and Provide Solutions to Reduce Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zakidizaji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction No use of advanced mechanization and weakness in post harvesting technology are the main reasons of agricultural losses. Some of these wastes (agricultural losses are related to crop growing conditions in field and the remaining to processing of sugar in mill. The most useful priority setting methods for agricultural projects are the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. So, this study presents an introduction of application manner of the AHP as a mostly common method of setting agricultural projects priorities. The purpose of this work is studying the sugarcane loss during production process using AHP in Khuzestan province. Materials and Methods The resources of sugarcane waste have been defined based on expert’s opinions. A questionnaire and personal interviews have formed the basis of this research. The study was applied to a panel of qualified informants made up of thirty-two experts. Those interviewed were distributed in Sugarcane Development and By-products Company in 2015-2016. Then, with using the analytical hierarchy process, a questionnaire was designed for defining the weight and importance of parameters effecting on sugarcane waste. For this method of evaluation, three main criteria considered, were yield criteria, cost criteria and income criteria. Criteria and prioritizing of them was done by questionnaire and interview with sophisticated experts. This technique determined and ranked the importance of sugarcane waste resources based on attributing relative weights to factors with respect to comments provided in the questionnaires. Analytical Hierarchy Process was done by using of software (Expert choice and the inconsistency rate on expert judgments was investigated. Results and Discussion How to use agricultural implements and machinery during planting and harvesting of sugarcane, can increase or decrease the volume of waste. In planting period, the losses mainly consists of loss of setts during cutting them by machine

  17. Loss of coping resources and psychological distress in spouses of alcohol dependents following partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A study to assess the psychological distress of married women due to their spousal violence under alcohol dependence. This study is aimed at studying partner violence, various coping styles and psychological distress among spouses of men with alcohol dependence and to explore the association between partner violence and coping behaviour. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 wives of alcohol dependent individuals in the age range of 20-50 years, who were divided into two groups based on the duration of drinking of their husbands. They were assessed by GHQ-12, Measure of Wife Abuse, Coping with Drinking Questionnaire and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results: Partner alcohol use was associated with increased psychological distress in their spouses and they have used both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. Conclusion: Alcohol plays a role in partner violence and spousal mental distress resulting in loss of their coping resources.

  18. Effectiveness of a participatory physical and psychosocial intervention to balance the demands and resources of industrial workers: A cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Christian Dyrlund; Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen; Henriksen, Louise Nøhr; Nielsen, Karina; Holtermann, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory physical and psychosocial workplace intervention (known as PIPPI) on work ability and recovery among industrial workers. Methods Eligible workers were cluster-randomized into intervention (N=193) and control (N=222) groups. Intervention group members participated in three workshops where they mapped positive and negative aspects of their physical and psychosocial work environment and developed action plans addressing the highlighted issues, which were subsequently implemented by the participants. Questionnaire-based data on work ability and recovery were collected at baseline and 8-, 10- and 12-month follow-up. Data on productivity, well-being, mental health, and physical demands and resources were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Results The intervention was delivered and received as planned (100% planned workshops conducted, 69% [standard deviation (SD) 7%] participation in workshops) and with a response rate of 76% (SD 8%) to the questionnaires. No significant between-group improvements for any of the outcomes were found in intention-to-treat multi-level mixed models. On the contrary, tendencies were observed for poorer recovery and reduced work ability in the intervention compared to control group. Conclusion The intervention did not improve the outcomes. This result can have several explanations, such as a regression-toward-the-mean effect or that the intervention might have put an additional burden on the workers already facing high work demands. In addition, there may have been an insufficient match between the intervention components implemented and the predetermined outcomes, and implementation may have been unsuccessful. These potential explanations need to be investigated using process evaluation data.

  19. Resource loss, self-efficacy, and family support predict posttraumatic stress symptoms: a 3-year study of earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lisa Marie; Gutiérrez-Doña, Benicio; Villegas Angulo, Maricela; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Social support and self-efficacy are regarded as coping resources that may facilitate readjustment after traumatic events. The 2009 Cinchona earthquake in Costa Rica serves as an example for such an event to study resources to prevent subsequent severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms. At Time 1 (1-6 months after the earthquake in 2009), N=200 survivors were interviewed, assessing resource loss, received family support, and posttraumatic stress response. At Time 2 in 2012, severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms and general self-efficacy beliefs were assessed. Regression analyses estimated the severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms accounted for by all variables. Moderator and mediator models were examined to understand the interplay of received family support and self-efficacy with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Baseline posttraumatic stress symptoms and resource loss (T1) accounted for significant but small amounts of the variance in the severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms (T2). The main effects of self-efficacy (T2) and social support (T1) were negligible, but social support buffered resource loss, indicating that only less supported survivors were affected by resource loss. Self-efficacy at T2 moderated the support-stress relationship, indicating that low levels of self-efficacy could be compensated by higher levels of family support. Receiving family support at T1 enabled survivors to feel self-efficacious, underlining the enabling hypothesis. Receiving social support from relatives shortly after an earthquake was found to be an important coping resource, as it alleviated the association between resource loss and the severity of posttraumatic stress response, compensated for deficits of self-efficacy, and enabled self-efficacy, which was in turn associated with more adaptive adjustment 3 years after the earthquake.

  20. The Loss of Biodiversity as a Challenge for Sustainable Development: How Do Pupils in Chile and Germany Perceive Resource Dilemmas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Susanne; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2009-08-01

    The topic of biodiversity is of high value for education for sustainable development as it reflects the interaction of ecological, economic and social issues particularly well. Especially in so-called biodiversity hotspots, among them Chile, natural resources are often depleted for economic interest which, in many cases, is required income. Therefore, economic and social aspects must be considered in order to fully understand biodiversity loss. Being such an important issue, it is surprising that little is known thus far about learning prerequisites concerning biodiversity. This paper presents a qualitative interview study that investigated 16 to 18-year-old Chilean and German learners’ perception of biodiversity and its loss ( n = 24). Firstly, the pupils’ cognitive frameworks were analysed. Secondly, subjective theories about biodiversity loss due to resource dilemmas were explored. Three subjective theories that emerged from the data reflected the notion that most pupils focused on either ecological or economic aspects of biodiversity loss. Pupils who concentrated on ecological aspects often referred to incorrect ecological facts. Moreover, these pupils showed difficulties in developing empathy and solidarity with impoverished people, who depend economically on plants in a resource dilemma. A smaller group of pupils succeeded in integrating the ecological, economic, and social aspects. Regarding the two samples, Chilean pupils seemed to have greater difficulties in recognising the social aspects of biodiversity loss, while German pupils were largely unaware of biodiversity loss on a local level. Implications for biodiversity education and future research will be outlined and discussed.

  1. Work-family conflict and enrichment from the perspective of psychosocial resources: comparing Finnish healthcare workers by working schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Ruokolainen, Mervi; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2015-05-01

    We examined work-family conflict (WFC) and work-family enrichment (WFE) by comparing Finnish nurses, working dayshifts (non-shiftworkers, n = 874) and non-dayshifts. The non-dayshift employees worked either two different dayshifts (2-shiftworkers, n = 490) or three different shifts including nightshifts (3-shiftworkers, n = 270). Specifically, we investigated whether different resources, i.e. job control, managers' work-family support, co-workers' work-family support, control at home, personal coping strategies, and schedule satisfaction, predicted differently WFC and WFE in these three groups. Results showed that lower managers' work-family support predicted higher WFC only among 3-shiftworkers, whereas lower co-workers' support associated with increased WFC only in non-shiftworkers. In addition, shiftworkers reported higher WFC than non-shiftworkers. However, the level of WFE did not vary by schedule types. Moreover, the predictors of WFE varied only very little across schedule types. Shiftwork organizations should pay more attention to family-friendly management in order to reduce WFC among shiftworkers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees living in Jordan: systematic review of unpublished needs assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ruth; Steel, Zachary; Abo-Hilal, Mohammad; Hassan, Abdul Halim; Lawsin, Catalina

    2016-08-01

    Humanitarian organisations supporting Syrian refugees in Jordan have conducted needs assessments to direct resources appropriately. To present a model of psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees and a peer review of research practices. Academic and grey literature databases, the United Nations Syria Regional Response website, key humanitarian organisation websites and Google were searched for needs assessments with Syrian refugees in Jordan between February 2011 and June 2015. Information directly reporting the views of Syrian refugees regarding psychosocial needs was extracted and a qualitative synthesis was conducted. Respondents reported that psychological distress was exacerbated by both environmental (financial, housing, employment) and psychosocial outcomes (loss of role and social support, inactivity), which are themselves stressors. Need for improvement in research methodology, participatory engagement and ethical reporting was evident. Participatory engagement strategies might help to address identified psychosocial outcomes. More rigorous qualitative methods are required to ensure accuracy of findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  3. Indian Ocean tsunami: relationships among posttraumatic stress, posttraumatic growth, resource loss, and coping at 3 and 15 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Moller, Adam M; Kesavatana-Dohrs, Wiworn; Graham, James M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines variables associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and posttraumatic growth among 2 independent samples of survivors following the Indian Ocean tsunami in Khao Lak, Thailand. Participants were exposed to unprecedented horror and loss of life and property. At 3 months participants (N = 248) were living in temporary shelters, and at 15 months a second sample (N = 255) was living in homes built after the tsunami. Prior traumatic experiences, life threat, loss of personal characteristic resources and condition resources, somatic problems, and social support accounted for close to half of the variance in PTS in each sample. At 3 months, emotion-focused coping and concerns about government favoritism also contributed to PTS. At 15 months, lack of prior disaster experience and loss of energy resources also contributed to PTS. Distress was higher among participants surveyed at 3 months than among those surveyed at 15 months. Posttraumatic growth was positively associated with social support and problem-focused coping in both samples. The findings support conservation of resources stress theory ( Hobfoll, 2012 ) and underscore how systemic issues affect mental health. The implications of the findings are discussed, as is the educational International Tsunami Museum designed by the first author to address systemic stressors.

  4. [Psychosocial disintegration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S

    1994-08-01

    Among the patients referred for rehabilitation in the latter half of their working life, many are notable due to considerable discrepancies between their objectively ascertainable performance and its subjectively perceived decline. In these cases, the "substantial threat to earning capacity" cannot be explained by measurable organ deficiencies. Similarly, treatment efforts focussed solely at improved somatic functioning remain inefficient in terms of stabilization of earning capacity, because they do not bring about changes in the cause of subjective performance deterioration. The author in these circumstances assumes the presence of an independent syndrome, called "psychosocial disintegration". He describes the full picture of this disease entity, and suggests causal mechanisms as well as potential for remedial intervention. On account of the considerable social dimension of the disorder outlined, early identification of these gradually developing changes as well as qualified care of the insurants are indispensable. All those involved in treatment and care of the patients or working in some branch of the social security system should be familiar with this psychosocial disintegration syndrome in order to avoid the guidance and counselling mistakes that are frequently the case. As rehabilitation is impossible in case of inhibiting personal attitudes of an insurant, it is advisable to verify the individual's readiness for rehabilitation and/or to strengthen it by appropriate measures before engaging in costly in-patient service provision. If the needed motivation is to be achieved during participation in a rehabilitation measure, extended service provision will invariably be required.

  5. Barriers against psychosocial communication: oncologists' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlind, Hanna; Kettis, Åsa; Glimelius, Bengt; Ring, Lena

    2013-10-20

    To explore oncologists' psychosocial attitudes and beliefs and their perceptions regarding barriers against psychosocial communication. A questionnaire was distributed to oncologists in Sweden (n = 537). Questions covered demography, the Physician Psychosocial Beliefs Scale (PPBS), and barriers against psychosocial communication. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine what factors contribute the most to the PPBS score and the total number of barriers and barriers affecting clinical practice, respectively. Spearman rank-order correlation was used to determine correlation between PPBS score and number of barriers. Questionnaire response rate was 64%. Mean PPBS value was 85.5 (range, 49 to 123; SD, 13.0). Most oncologists (93%) perceived one or more barriers in communicating psychosocial aspects with patients. On average, five different communication barriers were perceived, of which most were perceived to affect clinical practice. These barriers included insufficient consultation time, lack of resources for taking care of problems discovered, and lack of methods to evaluate patients' psychosocial health in clinical practice. There was a positive correlation (rs = 0.490; P barriers (ie, less psychosocially oriented oncologists perceived more barriers). Oncologists with supplementary education with a psychosocial focus perceived fewer barriers/barriers affecting clinical practice (P barriers affecting psychosocial communication in clinical practice. Interventions aiming to improve psychosocial communication must therefore be multifaceted and individualized to clinics and individual oncologists. It is important to minimize barriers to facilitate optimal care and treatment of patients with cancer.

  6. The Influence of Maternal and Household Resources, and Parental Psychosocial Child Stimulation on Early Childhood Development: A Cross-Sectional Study of Children 36–59 Months in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Contreras, Mariela; Matanda, Dennis Juma

    2018-01-01

    Optimal early childhood development (ECD) is currently jeopardized for more than 250 million children under five in low- and middle-income countries. The Sustainable Development Goals has called for a renewed emphasis on children’s wellbeing, encompassing a holistic approach that ensures nurturing care to facilitate optimal child development. In vulnerable contexts, the extent of a family’s available resources can influence a child’s potential of reaching its optimal development. Few studies have examined these relationships in low- and middle-income countries using nationally representative samples. The present paper explored the relationships between maternal and paternal psychosocial stimulation of the child as well as maternal and household resources and ECD among 2729 children 36–59 months old in Honduras. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011–2012 was used. Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that maternal psychosocial stimulation was positively and significantly associated with ECD in the full, rural, and lowest wealth quintile samples. These findings underscore the importance of maternal engagement in facilitating ECD but also highlight the role of context when designing tailored interventions to improve ECD. PMID:29735895

  7. The Influence of Maternal and Household Resources, and Parental Psychosocial Child Stimulation on Early Childhood Development: A Cross-Sectional Study of Children 36⁻59 Months in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Contreras, Mariela; Matanda, Dennis Juma

    2018-05-07

    Optimal early childhood development (ECD) is currently jeopardized for more than 250 million children under five in low- and middle-income countries. The Sustainable Development Goals has called for a renewed emphasis on children’s wellbeing, encompassing a holistic approach that ensures nurturing care to facilitate optimal child development. In vulnerable contexts, the extent of a family’s available resources can influence a child’s potential of reaching its optimal development. Few studies have examined these relationships in low- and middle-income countries using nationally representative samples. The present paper explored the relationships between maternal and paternal psychosocial stimulation of the child as well as maternal and household resources and ECD among 2729 children 36⁻59 months old in Honduras. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011⁻2012 was used. Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that maternal psychosocial stimulation was positively and significantly associated with ECD in the full, rural, and lowest wealth quintile samples. These findings underscore the importance of maternal engagement in facilitating ECD but also highlight the role of context when designing tailored interventions to improve ECD.

  8. The Influence of Maternal and Household Resources, and Parental Psychosocial Child Stimulation on Early Childhood Development: A Cross-Sectional Study of Children 36–59 Months in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Bjørnøy Urke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimal early childhood development (ECD is currently jeopardized for more than 250 million children under five in low- and middle-income countries. The Sustainable Development Goals has called for a renewed emphasis on children’s wellbeing, encompassing a holistic approach that ensures nurturing care to facilitate optimal child development. In vulnerable contexts, the extent of a family’s available resources can influence a child’s potential of reaching its optimal development. Few studies have examined these relationships in low- and middle-income countries using nationally representative samples. The present paper explored the relationships between maternal and paternal psychosocial stimulation of the child as well as maternal and household resources and ECD among 2729 children 36–59 months old in Honduras. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011–2012 was used. Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that maternal psychosocial stimulation was positively and significantly associated with ECD in the full, rural, and lowest wealth quintile samples. These findings underscore the importance of maternal engagement in facilitating ECD but also highlight the role of context when designing tailored interventions to improve ECD.

  9. Loss of social resources predicts incident posttraumatic stress disorder during ongoing political violence within the Palestinian Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Murray, Sarah M; Galea, Sandro; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to ongoing political violence and stressful conditions increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low-resource contexts. However, much of our understanding of the determinants of PTSD in these contexts comes from cross-sectional data. Longitudinal studies that examine factors associated with incident PTSD may be useful to the development of effective prevention interventions and the identification of those who may be most at-risk for the disorder. A 3-stage cluster random stratified sampling methodology was used to obtain a representative sample of 1,196 Palestinian adults living in Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at two time points 6-months apart. Logistic regression analyses were conducted on a restricted sample of 643 people who did not have PTSD at baseline and who completed both interviews. The incidence of PTSD was 15.0 % over a 6-month period. Results of adjusted logistic regression models demonstrated that talking to friends and family about political circumstances (aOR = 0.78, p = 0.01) was protective, and female sex (aOR = 1.76, p = 0.025), threat perception of future violence (aOR = 1.50, p = 0.002), poor general health (aOR = 1.39, p = 0.005), exposure to media (aOR = 1.37, p = 0.002), and loss of social resources (aOR = 1.71, p = 0.006) were predictive of incident cases of PTSD. A high incidence of PTSD was documented during a 6-month follow-up period among Palestinian residents of Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. Interventions that promote health and increase and forestall loss to social resources could potentially reduce the onset of PTSD in communities affected by violence.

  10. Effect of self-efficacy on weight loss: a psychosocial analysis of a community-based adaptation of the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M; Finch, Emily A; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2014-11-01

    Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2), ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110-199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss.

  11. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2, ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110–199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss. PMID:25647049

  12. Focused psychosocial interventions for children in low-resource humanitarian settings: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Purgato, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Results from studies evaluating the effectiveness of focused psychosocial support interventions in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low-income and middle-income countries have been inconsistent, showing varying results by setting and subgroup (eg, age or gender. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of these interventions, and to explore which children are likely to benefit most. Methods: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD from 3143 children recruited to 11 randomised controlled trials of focused psychosocial support interventions versus waiting list. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycArticles, Web of Science, and the main local low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs databases according to the list of databases relevant to LMIC developed collaboratively by Cochrane and WHO Library, up to November, 2016. We included randomised controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of focused psychosocial support interventions in children exposed to traumatic events in LMICs, compared with waiting lists (eg, inactive controls. We excluded quasi-randomised trials, studies that did not focus on psychosocial support interventions, and studies that compared two active interventions without control conditions. We requested anonymised data from each trial for each of the prespecified variables for each child who was randomly assigned. The main outcomes considered were continuous scores in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms assessed with rating scales administered immediately (0–4 weeks after the intervention. We harmonised all individual items from rating scales using item response theory methods. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42013006960. Findings: We identified a beneficial effect of focused psychosocial support interventions on

  13. Compensatory vapor loss and biogeochemical attenuation along flowpaths mute the water resources impacts of insect-induced forest mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J. A.; Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Gochis, D. J.; Ewers, B. E.; Reed, D. E.; Gutmann, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    Forested montane catchments are critical to the amount and quality of downstream water resources. In western North America more than 60 million people rely on mountain precipitation, and water managers face uncertain response to an unprecedented forest die-off from mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation. Reduced snow interception and transpiration are expected to increase streamflow, while increased organic matter decay is expected to increase biogeochemical stream fluxes. Tree- to plot-scale observations have documented some of the expected changes, but there has been little significant change to streamflow or water quality at the larger scales relevant to water resources. A critical gap exists in our understanding of why tree-scale process changes have not led to the expected, large-scale increases in streamflow and biogeochemical fluxes. We address this knowledge gap with observations of water and biogeochemical fluxes at nested spatial scales including tree, hillslope, and catchments from 3 to 700 ha with more than 75% mortality. Catchment discharge showed reduced water yield consistent with co-located eddy covariance observations showing increased vapor losses following MPB. Stable water isotopes showed progressive kinetic fractionation (i.e. unsaturated transition layer above the evaporating surface) in snowpack, soil water and streams indicating greater abiotic evaporation from multiple water sources offsetting decreased interception and transpiration. In the 3rd to 5th years following MPB forest mortality, soil water DOC and DON were similar beneath killed and healthy trees, but concentrations were elevated 2-10 times in groundwater of MPB-impacted sites as compared to unimpacted. Stream water DOC and DON were about 3 times as large during snowmelt runoff in ephemeral zero-order channels of MPB-impacted sites compared to unimpacted. Processing in the headwater streams of MPB-impacted forests rapidly attenuated dissolved organic matter. From the MPB

  14. Socioeconomic and psychosocial correlates of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Mejía, Gloria C; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    It has been proposed that psychosocial variables are important determinants of oral health outcomes. In addition, the effect of socioeconomic factors in oral health has been argued to work through the shaping of psychosocial stressors and resources. This study therefore aimed to examine the role of psychosocial factors in oral health after controlling for selected socioeconomic and behavioural factors. Logistic and generalised linear regression analyses were conducted on self-rated oral health, untreated decayed teeth and number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) from dentate participants in a national survey of adult oral health (n = 5364) conducted in 2004-2006 in Australia. After controlling for all other variables, more frequent dental visiting and toothbrushing were associated with poorer self-rated oral health, more untreated decay and higher DMFT. Pervasive socioeconomic inequalities were demonstrated, with higher income, having a tertiary degree, higher self-perceived social standing and not being employed all significantly associated with oral health after controlling for the other variables. The only psychosocial variables related to self-rated oral health were the stressors perceived stress and perceived constraints. Psychosocial resources were not statistically associated with self-rated oral health and no psychosocial variables were significantly associated with either untreated decayed teeth or DMFT after controlling for the other variables. Although the role of behavioural and socioeconomic variables as determinants of oral health was supported, the role of psychosocial variables in oral health outcomes received mixed support. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  15. Targeting the psychosocial and functional fitness challenges of older adults with hearing loss: a participatory approach to adaptation of the walk and talk for your life program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Marc; Lambert, Justin; Hwang, Jiyoung; Wang, Lisa; Simon, Shane; Del Medico, Talia; Mick, Paul; Miller, Harry; Kurtz, Donna; Murphy, Mary-Ann; Jones, Charlotte Ann

    2018-03-20

    Explore the acceptability of a socialisation, health education and falls prevention programme (Walk and Talk for Your Life: WTL) as an adjunct to group auditory rehabilitation (GAR) and how it might be adapted for older adults with hearing loss (HL). Content theme analysis (CTA) of guided interviews explored the experience of HL, the acceptability of a WTL programme and suggestions on how to adapt the WTL programme to better suit the needs of older adults with HL. Twenty-eight (20 women, 8 men) adults (>55 years of age) with HL were interviewed. Seventeen had participated in past WTL programmes and eleven were sampled from the community. Interviewees reported difficulty socialising and a tendency to withdraw from social interactions. Addition of GAR to a WTL programme was found to be highly acceptable. Interviewees suggested that to best suit their needs, sessions should take place in a location with optimal acoustics; include small groups integrating hearing-impaired and hearing-intact participants; include appropriate speaking ground rules; and include an option for partner involvement. The adapted WTL programme provides a holistic and unique approach to the treatment of HL that has the potential to positively impact the hearing-impaired elderly.

  16. A randomized, comparative pilot trial of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy for reducing psychosocial symptoms, disordered-eating, and excess weight gain in at-risk preadolescents with loss-of-control-eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Matherne, Camden E; Mehari, Rim D; Olsen, Cara H; Marwitz, Shannon E; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Kelly, Nichole R; Schvey, Natasha A; Burke, Natasha L; Cassidy, Omni; Brady, Sheila M; Dietz, Laura J; Wilfley, Denise E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2017-09-01

    Preadolescent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) is a risk factor for excess weight gain and binge-eating-disorder. We evaluated feasibility and acceptability of a preventive family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) program. FB-IPT was compared to family-based health education (FB-HE) to evaluate changes in children's psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, and body mass. A randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted with 29 children, 8 to 13 years who had overweight/obesity and LOC-eating. Youth-parent dyads were randomized to 12-week FB-IPT (n = 15) or FB-HE (n = 14) and evaluated at post-treatment, six-months, and one-year. Changes in child psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, BMI, and adiposity by dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry were assessed. Missing follow-up data were multiply imputed. FB-IPT feasibility and acceptability were indicated by good attendance (83%) and perceived benefits to social interactions and eating. Follow-up assessments were completed by 73% FB-IPT and 86% FB-HE at post-treatment, 60% and 64% at six-months, and 47% and 57% at one-year. At post-treatment, children in FB-IPT reported greater decreases in depression (95% CI -7.23, -2.01, Cohen's d = 1.23) and anxiety (95% CI -6.08, -0.70, Cohen's d = .79) and less odds of LOC-eating (95% CI -3.93, -0.03, Cohen's d = .38) than FB-HE. At six-months, children in FB-IPT had greater reductions in disordered-eating attitudes (95% CI -0.72, -0.05, Cohen's d = .66) and at one-year, tended to have greater decreases in depressive symptoms (95% CI -8.82, 0.44, Cohen's d = .69) than FB-HE. There was no difference in BMI gain between the groups. Family-based approaches that address interpersonal and emotional underpinnings of LOC-eating in preadolescents with overweight/obesity show preliminary promise, particularly for reducing internalizing symptoms. Whether observed psychological benefits translate into sustained prevention of disordered-eating or excess

  17. A Randomized, Comparative Pilot Trial of Family-Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Reducing Psychosocial Symptoms, Disordered-eating, and Excess Weight Gain in At-Risk Preadolescents with Loss-of-control-eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Matherne, Camden E.; Mehari, Rim D.; Olsen, Cara H.; Marwitz, Shannon E.; Bakalar, Jennifer L.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Kelly, Nichole R.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Burke, Natasha L.; Cassidy, Omni; Brady, Sheila M.; Dietz, Laura J.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Preadolescent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) is a risk factor for excess weight gain and binge-eating-disorder. We evaluated feasibility and acceptability of a preventive family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) program. FB-IPT was compared to family-based health education (FB-HE) to evaluate changes in children’s psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, and body mass. Method A randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted with 29 children, 8 to 13 years who had overweight/obesity and LOC-eating. Youth-parent dyads were randomized to 12-week FB-IPT (n=15) or FB-HE (n=14) and evaluated at post-treatment, six-months, and one-year. Changes in child psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, BMI, and adiposity by dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry were assessed. Missing follow-up data were multiply imputed. Results FB-IPT feasibility and acceptability were indicated by good attendance (83%) and perceived benefits to social interactions and eating. Follow-up assessments were completed by 73% FB-IPT and 86% FB-HE at post-treatment, 60% and 64% at six-months, and 47% and 57% at one-year. At post-treatment, children in FB-IPT reported greater decreases in depression (95% CI −7.23, −2.01, Cohen’s d=1.23) and anxiety (95% CI −6.08, −0.70, Cohen’s d=.79) and less odds of LOC-eating (95% CI −3.93, −0.03, Cohen’s d=.38) than FB-HE. At six-months, children in FB-IPT had greater reductions in disordered-eating attitudes (95% CI −0.72, −0.05, Cohen’s d=.66) and at one-year, tended to have greater decreases in depressive symptoms (95% CI −8.82, 0.44, Cohen’s d=.69) than FB-HE. There was no difference in BMI gain between the groups. Discussion Family-based approaches that address interpersonal and emotional underpinnings of LOC-eating in preadolescents with overweight/obesity show preliminary promise, particularly for reducing internalizing symptoms. Whether observed psychological benefits translate into sustained prevention of

  18. Why Some Employees Adopt or Resist Reorganization of Work Practices in Health Care: Associations between Perceived Loss of Resources, Burnout, and Attitudes to Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Ardy Dubois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, successive work reorganization initiatives have been implemented in many healthcare settings. The failure of many of these change efforts has often been attributed in the prominent management discourse to change resistance. Few studies have paid attention to the temporal process of workers’ resource depletion/accumulation over time and its links with workers’ psychological states and reactions to change. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory, this study examines associations between workers’ perceptions of loss of resources, burnout, and attitudes to change. The study was conducted in five health and social service centres in Quebec, in units where a work reorganization project was initiated. A prospective longitudinal design was used to assess workers’ perceptions at two time points 12 months apart. Our findings are consistent with the conservation of resources theory. The analysis of latent differences scores between times 1 and 2 showed that the perceived loss of resources was associated with emotional exhaustion, which, in turn, was negatively correlated with commitment to change and positively correlated with cynicism. In confirming the temporal relationship between perceived loss of resources, occupational burnout, and attitude to change, this research offers a new perspective to explain negative and positive reactions to change implementation.

  19. Assessment of the regional economic impacts of catastrophic events: CGE analysis of resource loss and behavioral effects of an RDD attack scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesecke, J A; Burns, W J; Barrett, A; Bayrak, E; Rose, A; Slovic, P; Suher, M

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the regional economic consequences of a hypothetical catastrophic event-attack via radiological dispersal device (RDD)-centered on the downtown Los Angeles area. We distinguish two routes via which such an event might affect regional economic activity: (i) reduction in effective resource supply (the resource loss effect) and (ii) shifts in the perceptions of economic agents (the behavioral effect). The resource loss effect relates to the physical destructiveness of the event, while the behavioral effect relates to changes in fear and risk perception. Both affect the size of the regional economy. RDD detonation causes little capital damage and few casualties, but generates substantial short-run resource loss via business interruption. Changes in fear and risk perception increase the supply cost of resources to the affected region, while simultaneously reducing demand for goods produced in the region. We use results from a nationwide survey, tailored to our RDD scenario, to inform our model values for behavioral effects. Survey results, supplemented by findings from previous research on stigmatized asset values, suggest that in the region affected by the RDD, households may require higher wages, investors may require higher returns, and customers may require price discounts. We show that because behavioral effects may have lingering long-term deleterious impacts on both the supply-cost of resources to a region and willingness to pay for regional output, they can generate changes in regional gross domestic product (GDP) much greater than those generated by resource loss effects. Implications for policies that have the potential to mitigate these effects are discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-11-01

    This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

  1. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  2. Psychosocial changes following transition to an aged care home: qualitative findings from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Rahmani, Azad; Pakpour, Vahid; Chenoweth, Lynnette Lorraine; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2017-06-01

    The study explored the psychosocial effects of transitioning from home to an aged care home for older Iranian people. Moving from one's own home to a communal aged care home is challenging for older people and may give rise to numerous psychosocial responses. The extent and intensity of such changes have rarely been explored in Middle Eastern countries. Data were collected through purposive sampling by in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20 participants (17 people living in aged care homes and three formal caregivers). All the interviews were recorded and typed, and conventional qualitative content analysis was used, eliciting common themes. There were four common themes: communication isolation, resource change, monotone institutional life and negative emotional response. Participants lost their previous support systems when transitioning to an aged care home and were not able to establish new ones. Routine care was provided by formal caregivers with little attention to individual needs, and minimal support was given to help maintain the older person's independence. These losses gave rise to negative emotions in some of the participants, depending on their previous lifestyle and accommodation arrangements. The extent and intensity of psychosocial changes occurring in most of the participants following their transition to an aged care home indicates the need for a review of Iranian aged care services. To assist older Iranian people adapt more readily when making the transition to aged care home and to meet their unique psychosocial needs, a family-centred approach to service delivery is recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Where do the main losses of energy resources occur - at the point of consumption or at the point of production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, Alexander

    2010-09-15

    This is an opinion of an independent consultant about key sources of energy losses. It differentiates from the one commonly accepted. The main loser of energy is an energy sector - producers of energy and the distribution networks, responsible for transporting of energy, not the housing and the transportation sector. This opinion is based on the GCE Group's experience. The author proposes to focus the work to reduce energy losses on increasing the energy efficiency of energy sector, not on the end consumer. This will allow to reduce the cost of energy unit production and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Mitigating Litigating: An Examination of Psychosocial Impacts of Compensation Processes Associated with the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Liesel A; Gill, Duane A; Long, Michael A

    2018-01-31

    During the past four decades, a number of social science scholars have conceptualized technological disasters as a social problem. More specifically, research in this arena has identified individual and collective stress as a secondary trauma of processes intended to provide compensation and economic relief from disasters in general and, more specifically, technological disasters. Based on data from a 2013 household telephone survey of 1,216 residents of coastal Alabama, this article examines the relationship between psychosocial stress and compensation processes related to the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We examine involvement with claims, settlement, and litigation activities; vulnerability and exposure to the spill; ties to resources; resource loss and gain; perceptions of risk and recreancy; and intrusive stress and avoidance behaviors as measured by the impact of event scale. Regression analysis reveals that the strongest contributors to intrusive stress were being part of the compensation process, resource loss, concerns about air quality, and income. Although being involved with compensation processes was a significant predictor of avoidance behaviors, the strongest contributors to avoidance behaviors were resource loss, air quality concern, income, being male, minority status, and community attachment. Beliefs that the compensation process was as distressing as the oil spill also significantly contributed to intrusive stress and avoidance behaviors. This research represents a step toward filling a gap in empirical evidence regarding the extent to which protracted compensation processes exacerbate adverse psychosocial impacts of disasters and hinder community recovery. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Psychosocial Issues in Pediatric Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial oncology, a relatively new discipline, is a multidisciplinary application of the behavioral and social sciences, and pediatric psychosocial oncology is an emerging subspecialty within the domain of psychosocial oncology. This review presents a brief overview of some of the major clinical issues surrounding pediatric psychosocial oncology. PMID:23049457

  6. The Loss of Biodiversity as a Challenge for Sustainable Development: How Do Pupils in Chile and Germany Perceive Resource Dilemmas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Susanne; Bogeholz, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The topic of biodiversity is of high value for education for sustainable development as it reflects the interaction of ecological, economic and social issues particularly well. Especially in so-called biodiversity hotspots, among them Chile, natural resources are often depleted for economic interest which, in many cases, is required income.…

  7. Psychosocial cancer care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family members to cancer is an increasing interest in education, ... all stages of the cancer journey and is passionate about enabling more professionals in South Africa to provide psychosocial cancer .... therapeutic support together with more.

  8. Tailoring Psychosocial Risk Assessment in the Oil and Gas Industry by Exploring Specific and Common Psychosocial Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Iren Vestly Bergh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosocial risk management [Psychosocial Risk Management Approach (PRIMA] has, through the years, been applied in several organizations in various industries and countries globally. PRIMA principles have also been translated into international frameworks, such as PRIMA-EF (European framework and the World Health Organization Healthy Workplace Framework. Over the past 10 years, an oil and gas company has put efforts into adopting and implementing international frameworks and standards for psychosocial risk management. More specifically, the company uses a PRIMA. Methods: This study explores available quantitative and qualitative risk data collected through the PRIMA method over the past 8 years in order to explore specific and common psychosocial risks in the petroleum industry. Results: The analyses showed a significant correlation between job resources and symptoms of work-related stress, there was a significant correlation between job demands and symptoms of work-related stress, and there were differences in psychosocial risk factors and symptoms of work-related stress onshore and offshore. The study also offers recommendations on how the results can further be utilized in building a robust system for managing psychosocial risks in the industry. Conclusion: The results from the analyses have provided meaningful and important information about the company-specific psychosocial risk factors and their impact on health and well-being. Keywords: oil and gas industry, psychosocial risk factors, psychosocial risk management

  9. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  10. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cathyln Atukunda

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241. Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6% developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0% had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85% in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

  11. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  12. The Ontario Psychosocial Oncology Framework: a quality improvement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Madeline; Green, Esther

    2013-05-01

    To overview the newly developed Psychosocial Health Care for Cancer Patients and Their Families: A Framework to Guide Practice in Ontario and Guideline Recommendations in the context of Canadian psychosocial oncology care and propose strategies for guideline uptake and implementation. Recommendations from the 2008 Institute of Medicine standard Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs were adapted into the Ontario Psychosocial Oncology (PSO) Framework. Existing practice guidelines developed by the Canadian Partnership against Cancer and Cancer Care Ontario and standards developed by the Canadian Association of Psychosocial Oncology are supporting resources for adopting a quality improvement (QI) approach to the implementation of the framework in Ontario. The developed PSO Framework, including 31 specific actionable recommendations, is intended to improve the quality of comprehensive cancer care at both the provider and system levels. Important QI change management processes are described as Educate - raising awareness among medical teams of the significance of psychosocial needs of patients, Evidence - developing a research evidence base for patient care benefits from psychosocial interventions, and Electronics - using technology to collect patient reported outcomes of both physical and emotional symptoms. The Ontario PSO Framework is unique and valuable in providing actionable recommendations that can be implemented through QI processes. Overall, the result will be improved psychosocial health care for the cancer population. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A Qualitative Exploration of the Mental Health and Psychosocial Contexts of HIV-Positive Adolescents in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K Ramaiya

    Full Text Available Although 85% of HIV-positive adolescents reside in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the psychosocial and mental health factors affecting their daily well-being. Identifying these contextual variables is key to development of culturally appropriate and effective interventions for this understudied and high-risk population. The purpose of this study was to identify salient psychosocial and mental health challenges confronted by HIV-positive youth in a resource-poor Tanzanian setting. A total of 24 qualitative interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of adolescents aged 12-24 receiving outpatient HIV care at a medical center in Moshi, Tanzania. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic analysis. Psychosocial challenges identified included loss of one or more parents, chronic domestic abuse, financial stressors restricting access to medical care and education, and high levels of internalized and community stigma among peers and other social contacts. Over half of youth (56% reported difficulties coming to terms with their HIV diagnosis and espoused related feelings of self-blame. These findings highlight the urgent need to develop culturally proficient programs aimed at helping adolescents cope with these manifold challenges. Results from this study guided the development of Sauti ya Vijana (The Voice of Youth, a 10-session group mental health intervention designed to address the psychosocial and mental health needs of HIV-positive Tanzanian youth.

  14. The ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT): from 'what' to 'how' of psychosocial screening - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Timmerman, Lotte; Ismail, Sohal Y; Duerinckx, Nathalie; Lopes, Alice; Maple, Hannah; Mega, Inês; Papachristou, Christina; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2018-01-01

    Thorough psychosocial screening of donor candidates is required in order to minimize potential negative consequences and to strive for optimal safety within living donation programmes. We aimed to develop an evidence-based tool to standardize the psychosocial screening process. Key concepts of psychosocial screening were used to structure our tool: motivation and decision-making, personal resources, psychopathology, social resources, ethical and legal factors and information and risk processing. We (i) discussed how each item per concept could be measured, (ii) reviewed and rated available validated tools, (iii) where necessary developed new items, (iv) assessed content validity and (v) pilot-tested the new items. The resulting ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT) consists of a selection of validated questionnaires (28 items in total), a semi-structured interview (43 questions) and a Red Flag Checklist. We outline optimal procedures and conditions for implementing this tool. The EPAT and user manual are available from the authors. Use of this tool will standardize the psychosocial screening procedure ensuring that no psychosocial issues are overlooked and ensure that comparable selection criteria are used and facilitate generation of comparable psychosocial data on living donor candidates. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  15. [Prevention of psychosocial risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle, Édouard; Trichard-Salembier, Alexandra; Sobaszek, Annie

    2018-02-01

    The theme of psychosocial risks remains in the workplace. It is therefore essential that all members of a company are made aware of the terminology and specific prevention actions in this field. Distinguishing between the manifestations of these risks and their causes and consequences helps to improve prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychosocial impact on anophthalmic patients wearing ocular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, M C; dos Santos, D M; Bannwart, L C; Moreno, A; Pesqueira, A A; Haddad, M F; dos Santos, E G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the improvement in psychosocial awareness of anophthalmic patients wearing ocular prostheses and its relationship with demographic characteristics, factors of loss/treatment, social activity, and relationship between professional and patient. Surveys including a form for evaluation of psychosocial pattern were conducted with 40 anophthalmic patients rehabilitated with ocular prosthesis at the Center of Oral Oncology in the authors' dental school from January 1998 to November 2010. The improvement in psychosocial awareness was assessed by comparing the perception of some feelings reported in the period of eye loss and currently. Wilcoxon tests were applied for comparison of patients' perception between the periods. χ(2) tests were used to assess the relationship between the improvement in psychosocial awareness and the variables of the study. In addition, the logistic regression model measured this relationship with the measure of odds ratio. The feelings of shame, shyness, preoccupation with hiding it, sadness, insecurity and fear were significant for improvement in psychosocial awareness. It was concluded that the anophthalmic patients wearing an ocular prosthesis has significant improvement in psychosocial awareness after rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Psychosocial adjustment in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Aguilar, Salvador; Guerra-Cruz, Hilda Griselda; Cupil-Rodríguez, Aura Lizbet; Calderillo-Ruiz, Germán; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial adaptation is a measurement that represents the patient's adjustment to those changes involved in their illness. We undertook this study to search for individual characteristics and clinical aspects associated with successful psychosocial adjustment in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing (CT) chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Seventy-five patients with CRC treated with CT or CRT in a cancer center were included. Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale Self-Reporting (PAIS-SR) questionnaire was used as a measurement of psychosocial adjustment. Psychosocial adaptation was successful in 18 patients (24%) and unsuccessful in 57 patients (76%). Young patients, married patients and males showed lower psychosocial adaptation to disease. This is associated with the decrease in sexual relations, economic resources and psychological symptoms. Patients complained that they were unsatisfied due to the lack of disease and treatment information offered by the heath care team. In the process of adaptation, clinical features such as tumor location and treatment scheme are considered basic, as well as age, education, marital status. Areas such as sexuality, interpersonal and family relationships, economic status and emotional state of patients affected by the disease and treatments provide a deep complexity in the study of the psychosocial adaptation process in patients with CRC.

  18. Psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontigny, Francine; Girard, Marie-Eve; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane; Devault, Annie

    2013-08-15

    While maternal postpartum depression is a well-known phenomenon, paternal postnatal depression has been less studied. It is known that paternal postnatal depression impacts on children's and families' development, affects marital satisfaction and affects the economic health of industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to identify the psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression. A descriptive-correlational study was conducted with a sample of fathers of infants (average age: 11 months) who were breastfed exclusively or predominantly for at least 6 months, comparing psychosocial factors in fathers with (n: 17, 8.2%) and without a positive score for depression on the EPDS scale (n: 188). Psychosocial factors were assessed through questionnaires. Depression in fathers of breastfed infants is associated with the experience of perinatal loss in a previous pregnancy, parenting distress, infant temperament (difficult child), dysfunctional interactions with the child, decreased marital adjustment and perceived low parenting efficacy. Multivariate analysis suggests an independent effect of psychosocial factors such as parenting distress, quality of the marital relationship and perceived parenting efficacy on paternal depression. The sample focused on fathers of breastfed infant, since breastfeeding has become the feeding norm, and this should be taken into account when considering the generalization of findings. These findings emphasize the need to consider a set of psychosocial factors when examining fathers' mental health in the first year of a child's birth. Health professionals can enhance parenting efficacy and alleviate parenting distress by supporting fathers' unique experiences and addressing their needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  20. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  1. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychosocial predictors of coronary artery calcification progression in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Carissa A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been associated with psychosocial factors in some but not all cross-sectional analyses. The goal of this study was to determine whether positive and negative psychosocial factors prospectively predict CAC progression in postmenopausal women. Participants from the Healthy Women Study who also participated in the Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center protocol (n = 149) completed self-report psychosocial measures before two electron beam computed tomographic scans of CAC separated by an average of 3.3 years. Results of exploratory factor analysis were used to create aggregate psychosocial indices: psychological risk (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, cynicism, and anger-in) and psychosocial resources (optimism, purpose in life, mastery, self-esteem, and social support). The psychological risk index predicted significantly greater CAC progression over 3 years (β = 0.16, p = .035, ΔR(2) = 0.03), whereas the psychosocial resources index was not predictive of CAC progression (β = -0.08, p = .30, ΔR(2) = 0.01). On individual scales, higher scores on cynicism emerged as a significant predictor of CAC progression, along with a trend linking anger-in to atherosclerosis progression. A post hoc analysis showed a significant interaction between cynicism and anger-in (β = 0.20, p = .01, ΔR(2) = 0.03), such that women reporting high levels of both cynicism and anger suppression exhibited the most CAC progression. These findings highlight psychosocial risk factors that may accelerate the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in older women, suggest the potential importance of examining combinations of psychosocial risk factors, and identify potential targets for psychological interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  3. Productivity loss and resource utilization, and associated indirect and direct costs in individuals providing care for adults with schizophrenia in the EU5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2015-11-01

    ,667 vs €5,104. Discussion: Schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment, resource utilization, and costs than noncaregivers and other caregivers. Better support systems for schizophrenia caregivers may help reduce the burden on the health care system and caregivers. Keywords: schizophrenia, caregiver, direct cost, indirect cost, resource utilization, productivity loss, physician visits, burden, emergency room, hospitalization 

  4. Instrumentalization of eating improves weight loss maintenance in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bodil Just; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial determinants for maintaining weight loss. Methods: 42 obese individuals who achieved a 12% weight loss before entering a 52-week weight maintenance program were interviewed qualitatively. Psychosocial factors related to weight loss...... weight loss maintenance was associated with an interplay between behavioral, affective and contextual changes. ‘Instrumentalization of eating behavior' seems to be an important element in long-term weight maintenance....

  5. Psychosocial development in a Danish population of children with cochlear implants and deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing abilities, and psychosocial difficulties were given to 334 children with hearing loss. Results show that the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties was 3.7 times greater compared with a group of hearing children. In the group of children with additional disabilities, the prevalence was 3 times greater compared with children without additional disabilities. If sign language and/or oral language abilities are good, the children do not have a substantially higher level of psychosocial difficulties than do hearing children. This study documents the importance of communication-no matter the modality or degree of hearing loss-for the psychosocial well-being of hearing-impaired children.

  6. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    The article is based on a research project drawing upon survey data (N=628) and qualitative interviews (N=60) of youth and their parents belonging to the five largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark i.e. Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Pakistan, Lebanon and Somalia, along with the experiences of psy.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  7. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  8. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  9. 150 years of land degradation and development: loss of habitats, natural resources due to quarrying and industrialization followed by land reclamation in the heart of Budapest city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    The urban development and land degradation is an accelerated process in the 21st century; however several examples are known when this happened in the past. A historic case study is discussed in this research when clump of three former small towns (named: Buda, Pest and Óbuda) became a million population city more than hundred years ago invoking significant land degradation, drastic and surprising changes in land use. Budapest which is now the capital of Hungary has seen rapid land use changes in the past 150 years especially from 1850'ies to early 20th century. The population of the city rapidly grown from the end of 19th century to early 20th century; i.e. it is tripled from 1880 to 1920 and reached nearly 1 million in 40 years. This population boom induced significant land degradation, changes in land use and loss of habitats. The paper presents examples how the land use has changed in the past 105 years with historic maps and interpreted cases suggesting different pathways leading to land degradation. The first one focuses on vineyards and grape cultivation and explains how these areas were first converted to limestone quarries to provide construction material to the city and then transformed to urban habitat in the early 20th century again. The cellars - former quarry galleries - than were used for housing (urban habitat) and later were used as storage facilities and mushroom cultivation sites. At present these subsurface openings cause high risk of land development (collapse) and limit the land use of the given area. The current paper also outlines the development of the city via the perspective of natural resources, since drinking water and industrial water need modified the land development and urbanization. Another example is also given how the brewery industry exploited natural resources and the surface water use was shifted to exploitation of karstic waters causing land degradation and drop of water table. Additional example demonstrates how the former

  10. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on

  11. Cost Analysis of Early Psychosocial Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, R.; Sørensen, J.; Waldorff, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the impact of early psychosocial intervention aimed at patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers on resource use and costs from a societal perspective. METHODS: Dyads of patients and their primary caregiver were randomised to intervention (n = 163...

  12. THE ECONOMIC AND PSYCHO-SOCIAL EXPERIENCES AND COPING RESOURCES OF FAMILY MEMBERS CARING FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH AIDS IN THEIR HOMES IN BHAMBAYI, KWAZULU-NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raniga, Tanusha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is empirical evidence that families have responded with much resilience and compassion to caring for persons living with AIDS (PWAs in their homes (Engelbrecht & Kasiram, 2007; Sekokotla & Mturi, 2004; Simpson & Raniga, 2004. At the same time families in poverty-stricken communities are increasingly struggling and failing to provide optimally for the economic and psycho-social needs of PWAs who are in their care (Bartlett & Finkbeiner, 2006; Darling, Olmstead & Tiggleman, 2009. It is not surprising, however, at a time when the devastating effects of HIV and AIDS are all too evident, that international organisations, national governments and civil society organisations recognise the invaluable role played by extended family members as support caregivers in the care of those terminally ill with AIDS.

  13. Cancer Cachexia: Beyond Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Andrew R; Kamal, Arif H; LeBlanc, Thomas W; Ma, Joseph D; Baracos, Vickie E; Roeland, Eric J

    2016-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle loss leading to progressive functional impairment. Despite the ubiquity of cachexia in clinical practice, prevention, early identification, and intervention remain challenging. The impact of cancer cachexia on quality of life, treatment-related toxicity, physical function, and mortality are well established; however, establishing a clinically meaningful definition has proven challenging because of the focus on weight loss alone. Attempts to more comprehensively define cachexia through body composition, physical functioning, and molecular biomarkers, while promising, are yet to be routinely incorporated into clinical practice. Pharmacologic agents that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration but that are currently used in cancer cachexia (ie, megestrol, dronabinol) may improve weight but not outcomes of interest such as muscle mass, physical activity, or mortality. Their routine use is limited by adverse effects. For the practicing oncologist, early identification and management of cachexia is critical. Oncologists must recognize cachexia beyond weight loss alone, focusing instead on body composition and physical functioning. In fact, becoming emaciated is a late sign of cachexia that characterizes its refractory stage. Given that cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome, it requires early identification and polymodal intervention, including optimal cancer therapy, symptom management, nutrition, exercise, and psychosocial support. Consequently, oncologists have a role in ensuring that these resources are available to their patients. In addition, in light of the promising investigational agents, it remains imperative to refer patients with cachexia to clinical trials so that available options can be expanded to effectively treat this pervasive problem.

  14. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Muhammad Umair; Isha, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam; Sabir, Asrar Ahmed; Ghazali, Zulkipli; Nübling, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was de...

  15. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: a study amongst Malaysian workers

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Mohd A.; Dollard, Maureen F.; Winefield, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions. Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout) and ...

  16. Psychosocial investigation of individual and community responses to the experience of Ovine Johne's Disease in rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Bernadette; Seedsman, Terence

    2004-04-01

    This paper explores the psychosocial outcomes for individuals and communities in rural Victoria who experienced the outbreak of Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD). The study uses a qualitative methodology to analyse the minutes of evidence provided by the inquiry into the control of OJD to identify the psychosocial events, experiences and outcomes associated with the control of this outbreak. The inquiry was undertaken by the Environment and Natural Resources Committee of the Victorian State Government. Public hearings were undertaken by the committee across several rural Victorian communities and the state capital, Melbourne. The transcripts detail 136 submissions from 98 individuals and 23 organisations. The analysis aimed to provide insight into the impact of the disease on individuals and communities and also to explore the factors individuals perceived as associated with these outcomes. While the paper identifies that aspects of stock loss associated with the outbreak caused substantial emotional and economic distress, for farmers the most significant finding was the impact of the government control program on individuals, families and rural communities. The control program was perceived as having very limited scientific credibility and its implementation was described as heartless, inflexible and authoritarian. Involvement with the program resulted in farmers reporting emotions, such as, trauma, shame, guilt and stigma. Families became discordant and the sense of community within rural townships fragmented. Psychological outcomes of grief, depression and anxiety emerged as prevalent themes within families and communities. These data highlight the need for significant attention to the management of rural disasters, such as, the OJD program. There is an acknowledgement in the literature that rural disasters have a significant impact on the well-being of individuals, families and communities. The major focus of the previous research has, however, been on the impact of

  17. Transgender identity and health care: implications for psychosocial and physical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Christine Aramburu

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to educate nurse practitioners (NPs) regarding: (a) the definition and range of transgenderism, (b) social influences on transgender persons, and (c) health care for transgender persons. Data sources include review of the literature in the areas of gender, gender identity, marginalized populations, and gender transition. Personal communication was also utilized. Transgender persons remain marginalized and may remain closeted and at risk for negative psychosocial consequences. For those that do come out, other issues present, including the navigation of gender transition and psychosocial and physical changes that may be positive and/or negative. Examples of positive effects may include satisfaction of living authentically and decrease in depression. Negative effects may include social discrimination and loss of relationships. To provide holistic care, NPs need to be aware of transgender lives in social context and of their healthcare needs. Suggestions for cultivating a supportive healthcare environment include the usage of sensitive language and an appropriate health history and physical examination. Further, to help rectify the knowledge deficit regarding transgender care among healthcare providers, NP educators and preceptors may utilize this article as a resource in their work with students. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Childhood cancer in the cinema: how the celluloid mirror reflects psychosocial care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavisic, Jovana; Chilton, Julie; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa L; Martin, Andrés

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the childhood cancer experience in commercially produced, readily available films that include a character with childhood cancer, with a particular focus on psychosocial care. We reviewed 29 films, using quantitative and qualitative content analysis, to identify the medical and psychosocial characteristics of the cinematic childhood cancer experience. We rated psychosocial support on a 5-point scale (0 to 4) based on the availability and efficacy of support characters in the categories of nonprofessional internal (eg, parent), nonprofessional external (eg, friend), professional medical (eg, oncologist), and professional psychosocial (eg, social worker) supports. Film depicts an unrealistic, bleak picture of childhood cancer, with a 66% mortality rate among the 35 characters evaluated. Psychosocial supports portrayed in film are generally limited to resources already available to families before the cancer diagnosis: mean ratings across films were 2.4 for both nonprofessional, 1.6 for professional medical, and 0.3 for professional psychosocial supports (Kruskal-Wallis χ3=43.1051, Plandscape. Film generally depicts images of an isolated family courageously battling cancer alone with limited support from a treatment team solely dedicated to medical care. Commercially available films minimize the importance of the psychosocial dimension of care, which can perpetuate stigma around psychosocial needs and interventions. These films can be used to encourage discussion about how to optimize psychosocial care in pediatric oncology so that such care is not abandoned in actual practice as it is, for entertainment purposes, on the screen.

  19. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  20. Experiências espanholas e sua contribuição à rede de recursos psicossociais no Brasil Spanish experiences and their contribution to the network of psychosocial resources in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dimenstein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa apresentar algumas experiências e práticas no campo da atenção e reabilitação psicossocial voltadas ao portador de transtornos mentais desenvolvidos em três diferentes regiões da Espanha. Trata-se de um conjunto de ferramentas que vêm viabilizando mudanças consistentes na atenção em saúde mental, as quais se articulam em grandes eixos, pilares fundamentais do processo de reforma psiquiátrica tanto na Espanha quanto no Brasil: redefinição da gestão dos dispositivos institucionais; a perspectiva de continuidade de cuidados; atenção primária como porta de entrada e regulador do sistema; criação de unidades de retaguarda à crise e atenção às emergências e, principalmente, o investimento em programas de reabilitação e apoio comunitário contemplando alternativas de moradia e trabalho.This paper presents some experiences and practices in the field of psychosocial rehabilitation and attention directed to mental disorder developed in three different regions of Spain. This is a set of tools that make possible consistent changes in mental health care, which are linked into long lines, pillars of the psychiatric reform process both in Spain and in Brazil: redefining the management of institutional arrangements, the prospect continuity of care, primary care as the gateway and system regulator, the creation of units behind the crisis and attention to emergencies and, especially, investment in rehabilitation programs and community support contemplating alternative housing and work

  1. Psychosocial Development in a Danish Population of Children with Cochlear Implants and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing…

  2. Evaluation of a Classroom-Based Psychosocial Intervention in Conflict-Affected Nepal: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordans, Mark J. D.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Tol, Wietse A.; Kohrt, Brandon A.; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Macy, Robert D.; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In situations of ongoing violence, childhood psychosocial and mental health problems require care. However, resources and evidence for adequate interventions are scarce for children in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated a school-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected, rural Nepal. Methods: A cluster…

  3. Evaluation of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected Nepal: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordans, M.J.D.; Komproe, I.H.; Tol, W.A.; Kohrt, B.A.; Luitel, N.P.; Macy, R.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In situations of ongoing violence, childhood psychosocial and mental health problems require care. However, resources and evidence for adequate interventions are scarce for children in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated a school-based psychosocial intervention in

  4. Evaluation of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected Nepal: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordans, M.J.D.; Komproe, I.H.; Tol, W.A.; Kohrt, B.A.; Luitel, N.P.; Macy, R.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background:  In situations of ongoing violence, childhood psychosocial and mental health problems require care. However, resources and evidence for adequate interventions are scarce for children in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated a school-based psychosocial intervention in

  5. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  6. Electronic gaming and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2014-09-01

    The rise of electronic games has driven both concerns and hopes regarding their potential to influence young people. Existing research identifies a series of isolated positive and negative effects, yet no research to date has examined the balance of these potential effects in a representative sample of children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to explore how time spent playing electronic games accounts for significant variation in positive and negative psychosocial adjustment using a representative cohort of children aged 10 to 15 years. A large sample of children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment and reported typical daily hours spent playing electronic games. Relations between different levels of engagement and indicators of positive and negative psychosocial adjustment were examined, controlling for participant age and gender and weighted for population representativeness. Low levels (3 hours daily) of game engagement was linked to key indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Low engagement was associated with higher life satisfaction and prosocial behavior and lower externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas the opposite was found for high levels of play. No effects were observed for moderate play levels when compared with non-players. The links between different levels of electronic game engagement and psychosocial adjustment were small (Games consistently but not robustly associated with children's adjustment in both positive and negative ways, findings that inform policy-making as well as future avenues for research in the area. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Recurrency of Pregnancy Among Adolescents: Psychosocial Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sanchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that are associated with recurrence of pregnancy among adolescents, considering the possible emotional demands that could favor the occurrence of a subsequent pregnancy. With the participation of four teenage mothers who were chosen according to pre-established criteria such as lower age criterion with higher number of children and registered in the Surveillance System for HighRisk Newborn – SISVIG Health Department, Araraquara-SP. After the authorization of those responsible for health services and signing of the consent form by the responsible of teenage girls the application of the instruments began: a socio-demographic interview in order to collect social data of the participants; b psychosocial interview, obtaining data related to the gestational history and c significant stories, containing two stories, followed by guiding questions for support in order to assess the possible factors that led to the recurrence of new adolescent pregnancies. The research took place in a single meeting in the homes of participants. Results were measured within the criteria of the qualitative analysis of responses of the interviewed. It was concluded that there was identification with the representative stories. The feelings presented by the adolescents were evident: sadness, discouragement, accordance, passion, anger, fear, regret and indignation. We emphasize the relevance of psychology as an intervention resource covering this adolescent population, contributing to the minimization of the demands raised by the participant adolescents within this social problem.

  8. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  9. An ethnographic exploration of the delivery of psychosocial care to children with cancer in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brage, Eugenia; Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia

    2017-08-01

    The integration of psychosocial care in the routine care of cancer patients has been set as an international standard, but there are healthcare contexts where these services are lacking as psychosocial care providers are not incorporated in multidisciplinary teams and screening for psychological distress is not carried out routinely or systematically. In this article, we discuss the findings from an ethnographic study that focused on exploring the working experiences of psychosocial care providers from one children's hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The study is based on 10 in-depth interviews with hospital staff members and participant observation in selected hospital areas. The transcripts from the interviews and fieldnotes from the observations were analyzed using thematic analysis. We found that psychosocial care providers encounter difficulties while attempting to deliver services to children and their families, produced mainly by their lack of collaboration with other professional groups, insufficient human resources, and a growing patient population. As a result of this situation, psychosocial care providers often prioritize some patients over others, leaving a considerable number of patients and family members without psychosocial support. The study highlighted the barriers psychosocial care providers encounter while attempting to deliver services to children and their families. Further work needs to be carried out to fully integrate psychosocial care in national health policies and ensure this type of support is available for all patients and their families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating auditory perception and communication demands required to carry out work tasks and complimentary hearing resources and skills for older workers with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, M B; Shaw, L; Hodgins, H; Kuchar, D A; Bataghva, L Poost-Foroosh

    2010-01-01

    For older workers with acquired hearing loss, this loss as well as the changing nature of work and the workforce, may lead to difficulties and disadvantages in obtaining and maintaining employment. Currently there are very few instruments that can assist workplaces, employers and workers to prepare for older workers with hearing loss or with the evaluation of auditory perception demands of work, especially those relevant to communication, and safety sensitive workplaces that require high levels of communication. This paper introduces key theoretical considerations that informed the development of a new framework, The Audiologic Ergonomic (AE) Framework to guide audiologists, work rehabilitation professionals and workers in developing tools to support the identification and evaluation of auditory perception demands in the workplace, the challenges to communication and the subsequent productivity and safety in the performance of work duties by older workers with hearing loss. The theoretical concepts underpinning this framework are discussed along with next steps in developing tools such as the Canadian Hearing Demands Tool (C-HearD Tool) in advancing approaches to evaluate auditory perception and communication demands in the workplace.

  11. Psychosocial challenges facing physicians of today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, B B

    2001-01-01

    leadership and the physician team impact on the overall work atmosphere. Physicians unaware of the goals of the department as well as the hospital, that do not receive management performance feedback, and who do not get annual performance appraisals and career guidance, rate their psychosocial environment as more adverse than their colleagues. There is also a great need to offer personally targeted competence development plans. Heads of department and senior physicians rate their work environment as of higher quality than more junior and mid-career physicians. More specifically, less senior physicians perceive similar work demands as their senior colleagues but rate influence over work, skills utilization, and intellectual stimulation at work as significantly worse. In order to combat negative stressors in the physicians' work environment, enhancement initiatives should be considered both at the individual, group, and structural level. Successful resources used by physicians to manage the stress of everyday medicine should be identified. Physicians are a key group to ensure a well-functioning health care system. In order to be able to change and adapt to the ongoing evolution of the Western health care system, more focus needs to be put on the psychosocial aspects of physicians' work.

  12. Effects of patient-reported non-severe hypoglycemia on healthcare resource use, work-time loss, and wellbeing in insulin-treated patients with diabetes in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Weitgasser, Raimund; Lahtela, Jorma; Jensen, Marie Markert; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2013-12-01

    Hypoglycemia is a frequent side effect induced by insulin treatment of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Limited data exist on the associated healthcare resource use and patient impact of hypoglycemia, particularly at a country-specific level. This study investigated the effects of self-reported non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHE) on use of healthcare resources and patient wellbeing. Patients with T1DM or insulin-treated T2DM diabetes from seven European countries were invited to complete four weekly questionnaires. Data were collected on patient demographics, NSHE occurrence in the last 7 days, hypoglycemia-related resource use, and patient impact. NSHE were defined as events with hypoglycemia symptoms, with or without blood glucose measurement, or low blood glucose measurement without symptoms, which the patient could manage without third-party assistance. Three thousand, nine hundred and fifty-nine respondents completed at least one wave of the survey, with 57% completing all four questionnaires; 3827 respondents were used for data analyses. Overall, 2.3% and 8.9% of NSHE in patients with T1DM and T2DM, respectively, resulted in healthcare professional contact. Across countries, there was a mean increase in blood glucose test use of 3.0 tests in the week following a NSHE. Among respondents who were employed (48%), loss of work-time after the last hypoglycemic event was reported for 9.7% of NSHE. Overall, 10.2% (daytime) and 8.0% (nocturnal) NSHE led to work-time loss, with a mean loss of 84.3 (daytime) and 169.6 (nocturnal) minutes among patients reporting work-time loss. Additionally, patients reported feeling tired, irritable, and having negative feelings following hypoglycemia. Direct comparisons between studies must be interpreted with caution because of different definitions of hypoglycemia severity, duration of the studies, and methods of data collection. NSHE were associated with use of extra healthcare resources and work-time loss in all

  13. Psychosocial Treatments in Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Serkut Bulut

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its severe morbidity and mortality, studies regarding the psychosocial treatments of anorexia nervosa are limited in number. This paper aims to present the general outlines of various psychosocial interventions developed for the treatment of anorexia nervosa and to provide an up-to-date review of the randomized-controlled studies on the effectiveness of these approaches. Reviewed studies were classified by age spectrum of samples under two main headings: adolescents and mixed samples of adults and adolescents. Specific issues about other variables were then discussed separately. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 329-345

  14. We Left One War and Came to Another: Resource Loss, Acculturative Stress, and Caregiver-Child Relationships in Somali Refugee Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Abdi, Saida; Ito, Brandon; Lilienthal, Grace M.; Agalab, Naima; Ellis, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Background Refugee families often encounter a number of acculturative and resettlement stressors as they make lives for themselves in host countries. These difficulties may be compounded by past trauma and violence exposure posing increased risk for mental health problems. Greater knowledge is needed about protective processes contributing to positive development and adjustment in refugee families despite risk (e.g., resilience). The aims of this research were to identify and examine strengths and resources utilized by Somali refugee children and families in the Boston area to overcome resettlement and acculturative stressors. Methods We used maximum variation sampling to conduct a total of nine focus groups: five focus groups (total participants N=30) among Somali refugee adolescents and youth capturing gender and a range of ages (15-25 years) as well as four focus groups of Somali refugee mothers and fathers in groups (total participants N=32) stratified by gender. Results Drawing from Conservation of Resources Theory (COR), we identified five forms of resources comprising individual, family and collective/community strengths: religious faith; healthy family communication; support networks and peer support. “Community talk” was identified as a community dynamic having both negative and positive implications for family functioning. Conclusions Protective resources among Somali refugee children and families can help to offset acculturative and resettlement stressors. Many of these locally occurring protective resources have the potential to be leveraged by family and community-based interventions. These findings are being used to design preventative interventions that build on local strengths among Somali refugees in the Boston area. PMID:25090142

  15. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Nicolaas, S. M.; Schepers, S. A.; van den Bergh, E. M. M.; de Boer, Y.; Streng, I.; van Dijk-Lokkart, E. M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Verhaak, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare

  16. RELIGIOUS EXCLUSIVITY AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).

  17. Psychosocial risks and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate on explaining job performance from the perspective of psychosocial risks in the work environment. Many risks may hinder good job performance. The article does not concentrate on physical (such as, carrying heavy loads) or environmental risks (such as, extreme heat or

  18. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  20. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  1. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general

  2. The effect of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory: evidence from the UK biobank resource

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Hygge, Staffan; Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on > 500 000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138 098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three g...

  3. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  4. The effect of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory: evidence from the UK biobank resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Hygge, Staffan; Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on >500,000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138,098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task) and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task), with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task. Broader theoretical implications based on a memory systems approach will be discussed and compared to theoretical alternatives.

  5. The Effect of Functional Hearing Loss and Age on Long- and Short-term Visuospatial Memory: Evidence from the UK Biobank Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerker eRönnberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on > 500 000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138 098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task, with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task. Broader theoretical implications based on a memory systems approach will be discussed and compared to theoretical alternatives.

  6. The impact of disaster work on community volunteers: The role of peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness, sleep quality and resource loss, on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormar, Sigridur B; Gersons, Berthold P R; Juen, Barbara; Djakababa, Maria Nelden; Karlsson, Thorlakur; Olff, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    Disaster work has shown to cause PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in professional emergency personnel. However, very little is known about how disaster work affects community volunteers. This first time longitudinal study examined factors contributing to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) and subjective health complaints in volunteers working in an earthquake setting. At six and eighteen months post disaster, a sample of 506 Indonesian Red Cross volunteers were assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory. Factors analyzed in relation to the outcomes included: peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness by the disaster, sleep quality and loss of resources as a consequence of the disaster. At 18 months post-disaster the findings showed high levels of PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints. Quality of sleep was related to both outcomes but resource loss only to PTSD symptoms. Neither peri-traumatic distress nor level of affectedness by the disaster (external versus directly affected volunteers), were predictive of symptoms. This study indicates that characteristics of disaster work e.g. low quality of sleep, may be an important contributor to PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in volunteers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Judged seriousness of environmental losses: reliability and cause of loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Dawn Nannini; Robert B. Gorter; Paul A. Bell; George L. Peterson

    2002-01-01

    Public judgments of the seriousness of environmental losses were found to be internally consistent for most respondents, and largely unaffected by attempts to manipulate responses by altering the mix of losses being judged. Both findings enhance confidence in the feasibility of developing reliable rankings of the seriousness of environmental losses to aid resource...

  8. A qualitative exploration of psychosocial specialists' experiences of providing support in UK burn care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Ella; Griffiths, Catrin; Harcourt, Diana

    2018-01-01

    A burn can have a significant and long-lasting psychosocial impact on a patient and their family. The National Burn Care Standards (2013) recommend psychosocial support should be available in all UK burn services; however, little is known about how it is provided. The current study aimed to explore experiences of psychosocial specialists working in UK burn care, with a focus on the challenges they experience in their role. Semi-structured telephone interviews with eight psychosocial specialists (two psychotherapists and six clinical psychologists) who worked within UK burn care explored their experiences of providing support to patients and their families. Thematic analysis revealed two main themes: burn service-related experiences and challenges reflected health professionals having little time and resources to support all patients; reduced patient attendance due to them living large distances from service; psychosocial appointments being prioritised below wound-related treatments; and difficulties detecting patient needs with current outcome measures. Therapy-related experiences and challenges outlined the sociocultural and familial factors affecting engagement with support, difficulties treating patients with pre-existing mental health conditions within the burn service and individual differences in the stage at which patients are amenable to support. Findings provide an insight into the experiences of psychosocial specialists working in UK burn care and suggest a number of ways in which psychosocial provision in the NHS burn service could be developed.

  9. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. METHODS: This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age......, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight.......0001), independent of BMI SDS at entry. However, improvements in psychosocial well-being were also observed in those increasing their BMI SDS (n = 315). CONCLUSIONS: In a large group of children and youths, psychosocial well-being improved during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme...

  10. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guribye, Eugene

    2011-08-17

    Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin.

  11. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. Results The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. Conclusions The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin.

  12. Circumcision policy: A psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ronald

    2004-11-01

    The debate about the advisability of circumcision in English-speaking countries has typically focused on the potential health factors. The position statements of committees from national medical organizations are expected to be evidence-based; however, the contentiousness of the ongoing debate suggests that other factors are involved. Various potential factors related to psychology, sociology, religion and culture may also underlie policy decisions. These factors could affect the values and attitudes of medical committee members, the process of evaluating the medical literature and the medical literature itself. Although medical professionals highly value rationality, it can be difficult to conduct a rational and objective evaluation of an emotional and controversial topic such as circumcision. A negotiated compromise between polarized committee factions could introduce additional psychosocial factors. These possibilities are speculative, not conclusive. It is recommended that an open discussion of psychosocial factors take place and that the potential biases of committee members be recognized.

  13. Psychosocial implications of Thalassemia Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinok, Yesim; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagihan; Yilmaz, Deniz; Solak, Ufuk

    2005-02-01

    Many causes including the chronicity of disease, burden of treatment modalities, morbidities, and the expectation of early death resulting from the disease complications, may lead to psychosocial burden in Thalassemia Major (TM) patients. A total of 38 patients with TM and their mothers were recruited to evaluate the psychosocial burden as well as to disclose whether the psychological status of the patients contribute to the compliance with the therapy or to the contrary. Demographic and disease variables were obtained. Child Behavior Check-list (CBCL) was completed by the mothers of the patients. A detailed psychiatric interview based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria was performed for each patient. Symptom Distress Checklist 90 (SCL-90) scale was given to all mothers for evaluating their psychopathology. Although CBCL scores remained between the normal ranges, desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO)-compliant patients and the patients with lower ferritin values had significantly higher scores. A total of 24% of the patients had a psychiatric diagnosis including major depression, anxiety disorder, tic disorder, and enuresis nocturnal. The psychiatric diagnosis was significantly higher in the patients who were compliant with desferrioxamine compared with the non-compliant group (P = 0.007). The SCL-90 scores indicated that the mothers who had a child with good adherence to DFO had higher scale scores than the mothers with a poor adherent child. The increase risk of psychosocial and behavioral problems in thalassemics and their parents indicated the importance of a lifelong psychosocial support for the prevention of mental health issues. The patients and their parents, who were more conscious of the illness, were more worried but more compliant with the therapy and need stronger psychiatric support.

  14. Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Dollard, Maureen; Bakker, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety. Using the job demands-resources framework, we hypothesized that PSC as an upstream organizational resource influenced largely by senior management, would precede the work context (i.e., job demand...

  15. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scania Riendravi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Family have an important role as a basic of emotional and social development. Friendships also influence the psychosocial development of the children. Psychosocial development of children will be improved with changes in their knowledge and understanding of the needs and regulations. Understand the psychosocial development of the children will help the parents and teachers educate their childrens / students and optimize the process of development in a proper way. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  16. Leadership and the psychosocial work environment in old age care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Dan; Ernsth-Bravell, Marie; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2016-03-01

    To study leadership factors and their associations with psychosocial work environmental among nursing assistants who are engaged in old age care and to analyse (i) differences in the assessment of leadership factors and the assessment of psychosocial work environmental in nursing homes and home help services and (ii) the association between the psychosocial work environment and factors that are related to leadership in nursing homes and home help services. Leadership factors are an important element of the psychosocial work environment in old age care. The physical distance between leaders and nursing assistants is larger in home help services than in nursing homes. Therefore, it is important to study leadership separately in nursing homes and home help services. Assessments from 844 nursing assistants in nursing homes and 288 in home help services (45 nursing homes and 21 home help service units) were analysed. The data were analysed using linear regression. Age, gender, number of staff at the unit, number of years at the current working unit and educational level were controlled in Model 1. Summarised indexes that were based on all independent variables except the main independent variable were additionally controlled in Model 2. Psychosocial work environment was related to leadership factors, but stronger associations occurred more frequently in nursing homes than in home help services. Empowering leadership, support from superiors, the primacy of human resources and control over decisions were associated with higher assessments on all the variables that were related to the psychosocial work environment in both the nursing homes and home help services. Organisational differences in conducting leadership in old age care must be considered. Some leadership characteristics are better prerequisites for creating and maintaining a positive psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants in nursing homes and home help services. Due to the differences in

  17. Psychosocial Factors in the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Cardiometabolic Risk: the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Jessica L; Penedo, Frank; Roesch, Scott C; Isasi, Carmen R; Carnethon, Mercedes; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Schneiderman, Neil; Gonzalez, Patricia; Chirinos, Diana A; Camacho, Alvaro; Teng, Yanping; Gallo, Linda C

    2017-08-01

    U.S. Hispanics/Latinos display a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), a group of co-occurring cardiometabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure) associated with higher cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher risk for MetSyn in Hispanics/Latinos, and psychosocial factors may play a role in this relationship. This cross-sectional study examined psychosocial factors in the association of SES and MetSyn components in 4,996 Hispanic/Latino adults from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. MetSyn components were measured at the baseline examination. Participants completed interviews to determine psychosocial risks (e.g., depression) and resources (e.g., social support) within 9 months of baseline (psychosocial indicators, and three factors for MetSyn [blood pressure, lipids, metabolic factors]. SEMs showed that lower SES was related to MetSyn factors indirectly through higher psychosocial risk/lower resources (Y-Bχ 2 (df = 420) = 4412.90, p psychosocial risk/resource variables (Mackinnon's 95% asymmetric CI = -0.13 to -0.02). SES is related to metabolic variables indirectly through psychosocial factors in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos of diverse ancestries.

  18. Estimation of loss of genetic diversity in modern Japanese cultivars by comparison of diverse genetic resources in Asian pear (Pyrus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Sogo; Takada, Norio; Saito, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-14

    Pears (Pyrus spp.) are one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions. Japanese pear breeding has been carried out for over 100 years, working to release new cultivars that have good fruit quality and other desirable traits. Local cultivar 'Nijisseiki' and its relatives, which have excellent fruit texture, have been repeatedly used as parents in the breeding program. This strategy has led to inbreeding within recent cultivars and selections. To avoid inbreeding depression, we need to clarify the degree of inbreeding among crossbred cultivars and to introgress genetic resources that are genetically different from modern cultivars and selections. The objective of the present study was to clarify the genetic relatedness between modern Japanese pear cultivars and diverse Asian pear genetic resources. We genotyped 207 diverse accessions by using 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The heterozygosity and allelic richness of modern cultivars was obviously decreased compared with that of wild individuals, Chinese pear cultivars, and local cultivars. In analyses using Structure software, the 207 accessions were classified into four clusters (K = 4): one consisting primarily of wild individuals, one of Chinese pear cultivars, one of local cultivars from outside the Kanto region, and one containing both local cultivars from the Kanto region and crossbred cultivars. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) were similar to those from the Structure analysis. Wild individuals and Chinese pears appeared to be distinct from other groups, and crossbred cultivars became closer to 'Nijisseiki' as the year of release became more recent. Both Structure and PCoA results suggest that the modern Japanese pear cultivars are genetically close to local cultivars that originated in the Kanto region, and that the genotypes of the modern cultivars were markedly biased toward 'Nijisseiki'. Introgression of germplasm from Chinese pear and wild individuals that are

  19. Accumulating Data to Optimally Predict Obesity Treatment (ADOPT) Core Measures: Psychosocial Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Boutelle, Kerri; Czajkowski, Susan M; Epel, Elissa S; Green, Paige A; Hunter, Christine M; Rice, Elise L; Williams, David M; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Rothman, Alexander J

    2018-04-01

    Within the Accumulating Data to Optimally Predict obesity Treatment (ADOPT) Core Measures Project, the psychosocial domain addresses how psychosocial processes underlie the influence of obesity treatment strategies on weight loss and weight maintenance. The subgroup for the psychosocial domain identified an initial list of high-priority constructs and measures that ranged from relatively stable characteristics about the person (cognitive function, personality) to dynamic characteristics that may change over time (motivation, affect). This paper describes (a) how the psychosocial domain fits into the broader model of weight loss and weight maintenance as conceptualized by ADOPT; (b) the guiding principles used to select constructs and measures for recommendation; (c) the high-priority constructs recommended for inclusion; (d) domain-specific issues for advancing the science; and (e) recommendations for future research. The inclusion of similar measures across trials will help to better identify how psychosocial factors mediate and moderate the weight loss and weight maintenance process, facilitate research into dynamic interactions with factors in the other ADOPT domains, and ultimately improve the design and delivery of effective interventions. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  20. Psychosoziale Ressourcen und Risikomuster für Burnout bei Medizinstudenten: Querschnittstudie und Bedürfnisanalyse Präventiver Curricularer Angebote [Psychosocial resources and burnout risk factors in medical school: A cross-sectional study and analysis of needs for preventive curricular interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Martin R.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Epidemiologic health data show an increased incidence of psychosomatic disorders in medical doctors and undergraduate medical students as compared with the general public. There is little knowledge about students’ self-assessment of needs with respect to preventive health-promoting interventions.Objectives: Analysis of the psychosocial health resources and risk patterns of medical students at different times throughout their studies. Analysis of students’ self-assessment of psychosocial health-promoting interventional needs.Design: Cross-sectional study of three student cohorts at the beginning, middle, and end of their studies with a student-adapted “Pattern of work-related coping behavior” (AVEM questionnaire.Participants: Students at the beginning, middle, and near the end of their studies (corresponding mainly to the second, fifth, and tenth semester at Wurzburg Medical School (N = 360 in Germany.Results: In the beginning 39.1% of the medical school students show a healthy behavioral pattern. The rate decreases to 30.5% in the middle cohort, down to 18.3% at the end of medical school, while burnout patterns marked by lack of ambition and resignation rise from 44.0% at the beginning of studies, to 55.9% at the middle, and up to 65.2% at the end of medical school. There are significant gender differences: Male students rate higher in “career ambition” and “significance of work”, have less “tendency toward resignation”, and score higher in “balance and mental stability”. Female students experience significantly more “social support”.There is a high self-estimated need for supportive interventions: When asked “What preventive interventions should the university offer?”, 85% of the students requested stress management, 79% time management, 77% burnout preventive training, 75% coping techniques for exam nerves, and 63% relaxation techniques.Limitations: The response rate was 90.8%. Although the

  1. Illustrating the (in)visible: Understanding the impact of loss in adults living with secondary lymphedema after cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roanne; Hamilton, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Life with a disability is often riddled with paradoxes, one of which is being visibly marked, while personal experiences, losses, and challenges remain hidden. Our article draws attention to this paradox among people who live with secondary lymphedema after cancer (SLC). SLC is a relatively unfamiliar chronic condition within medical and lay discourses of cancer, which proves challenging for the many cancer survivors who are in search of information and understanding. Thirteen men and women with SLC were recruited from two research sites (Fredericton, NB, and Ottawa, ON, Canada) to participate in semi-structured interviews about the physical and psychosocial aspects of SLC. Using a methodology of interpretive description, our analysis of participant interviews reveals the complex ways in which men and women felt both visible and invisible within various contexts. We discuss three majors themes: (in)visibility and appearance related to material losses; (in)visibility and action connected to visible losses in function, as well as invisible struggles to care for oneself; and the loss of present and future well-being, as SLC renders some limitations visible while potentially obscuring a hopeful future indefinitely. Our research indicates that timely diagnosis of SLC would be an immediate first step in recognizing the physical and emotional dimensions of the condition. To accomplish this, increased awareness is needed. To enhance quality of life for those living with SLC, the development of new resources and psychosocial supports is also required. PMID:25148936

  2. Psychosocial impact of malocclusion in Spanish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bellot Arcís, Carlos; Montiel Company, José María; Almerich Silla, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychosocial impact of malocclusion, determine its relationship with the severity of malocclusion, and assess the influence of gender and social class on this relationship in adolescents. METHODS: A random sample of 627 Spanish adolescents aged 12 - 15 years underwent intraoral examinations by 3 calibrated examiners (intraexaminer and interexaminer kappa > 0.85) at their schools. Psychosocial impact was measured through a self-rated Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aes...

  3. Nursing leadership style and psychosocial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Terry; Penprase, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between leadership style and the psychosocial work environment of registered nurses. Research consistently supports the positive relationship between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction. There is less evidence, which identifies the relationship between leadership style and psychosocial work environment. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5× was used to identify the leadership style. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used to measure psychosocial work environment dimensions. Statistical analysis included Pearson's r correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment and anova to analyse group means. There is a significant correlation between leadership style and 22 out of the 37 dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. This correlation was significant ranging from r = 0.88, P leadership scores of the immediate supervisor report significant differences in their psychosocial work environment. This study supports the significant correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment for registered nurses. The results of this study suggest that there would be an improvement in the nursing psychosocial work environment by implementation of transformational and contingent reward leadership behaviours. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Javaid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP. Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.

  5. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Umair; Isha, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam; Sabir, Asrar Ahmed; Ghazali, Zulkipli; Nübling, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP). Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.

  6. The mediating effect of psychosocial factors on suicidal probability among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Ji-Won; Kim, Won-Joong; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2011-01-01

    Suicidal probability is an actual tendency including negative self-evaluation, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and hostility. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of psychosocial variances in the suicidal probability of adolescents, especially the role of mediating variance. This study investigated the mediating effects of psychosocial factors such as depression, anxiety, self-esteem, stress, and social support on the suicidal probability among 1,586 adolescents attending middle and high schools in the Kyunggi Province area of South Korea. The relationship between depression and anxiety/suicidal probability was mediated by both social resources and self-esteem. Furthermore, the influence of social resources was mediated by interpersonal and achievement stress as well as self-esteem. This study suggests that suicidal probability in adolescents has various relationships, including mediating relations, with several psychosocial factors. The interventions on suicidal probability in adolescents should focus on social factors as well as clinical symptoms.

  7. Psychosocial Issues in Geriatric Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo M

    2017-11-01

    Geriatric patients present multiple age-related challenges and needs that must be taken into account during the rehabilitation process to achieve expected goals. This article examines the importance of identifying and managing psychosocial issues commonly observed in older adults and presents strategies to optimize their rehabilitation process. Depression, anxiety, fear of falling, adjustment issues, neurocognitive disorders, and caregiver support are discussed as a selection of factors that are relevant for geriatric patients undergoing rehabilitation. An argument is made for the importance of comprehensive geriatric assessment in older adults to identify salient issues that may impact rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychosocial factors and financial literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John L

    2013-01-01

    This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to analyze the psychological and social variables associated with financial literacy. The HRS is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of individuals older than age 50 and their spouses. An ordinary least squares linear regression analysis explores the relationship between financial literacy and several economic and psychosocial variables. After controlling for earnings, level of education, and other socioeconomic variables in this exploratory study, I find that financial satisfaction and religiosity are correlated with financial literacy.

  9. Psychosocial Development in a Danish Population of Children With Cochlear Implants and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20 to 50 percent among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires...... disabilities, the prevalence was three times greater compared to children without additional disabilities. If sign-language and/or oral language abilities are good, the children do not have a substantially higher level of psychosocial difficulties than do hearing children. This study documents the importance...

  10. 0069 Psychosocial work factors, occupational noise exposure, common mental disorders, and the risk of tinnitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther Frederiksen, Thomas; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Stokholm, Zara A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Tinnitus is common, can be disabling, and may impair concentration, hearing and sleep. Noise induced hearing loss, other subtypes of hearing loss and ototoxic drugs are well-documented risk factors for tinnitus. Psychosocial work factors, depression and anxiety may exacerbate tinnitus...

  11. The Psychosocial Integration of Seropositive Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Raluca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We can assume without fail that the psychosocial implications in case of HIV/AIDS are as overwhelming as the medical aspects. For the positive person as well as for those who assist the seropositive people, the uncertainty frames the medical prognosis. All the effects that occur are entirely funded: the loss of self-trust as well as mistrusting others, stigmatization, isolation, getting abandoned by the family, friends, neighbors and school mates or coworkers. The current study aims to evaluate this aspect, the fact that the living environment of the seropositive person does not lead to significant differences as far as adjusting to HIV/AIDS diagnosis is concerned, but the adjusting differences are more related to the personality structure of the infected person, to the way this person identifies strategies of coping with the new situations he / she has to deal with (cognitive, emotional and behavioral strategies. In the applicative part of the study, we analyze the adjustment to the diagnosis, as well as the adherence to the treatment, by applying certain specific work instruments.

  12. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  13. [The system-oriented model of psychosocial rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iastrebov V S; Mitikhin, V G; Solokhina, T A; Mikhaĭlova, I I

    2008-01-01

    A model of psychosocial rehabilitation based on the system approach that allows taking into account both the patient-centered approach of the rehabilitation service, the development of its resource basis, the effectiveness of this care system in whole and its patterns as well has been worked out. In the framework of this model, the authors suggest to single out three basic stages of the psychosocial rehabilitation process: evaluation and planning, rehabilitation interventions per se, achievement of the result. In author's opinion, the most successful way for constructing a modern model of psychosocial rehabilitation is a method of hierarchic modeling which can reveal a complex chain of interactions between all participants of the rehabilitation process and factors involved in this process and at the same time specify the multi-level hierarchic character of these interactions and factors. An important advantage of this method is the possibility of obtaining as static as well dynamic evaluations of the rehabilitation service activity that may be used on the following levels: 1) patient; 2) his/her close environment; 3) macrosocial level. The obvious merits of the system-oriented model appear to be the possibility of application of its principles in the organization of specialized care for psychiatric patients on the local, regional and federal levels. The authors emphasize that hierarchic models have universal character and can be implemented in the elaboration of information-analytical systems aimed at solving the problems of monitoring and analysis of social-medical service activity in order to increase its effectiveness.

  14. [Psychosocial aspects of patients with sexual dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, E; Klaghofer, R; Buddeberg, C

    2006-02-15

    Sexual dysfunctions are common among the general population. An essential part of the assignments to specialized sexual medicine care units are from primary care physicians. In 2002 to 2004 for a period of 18 months questionnaires were given to all patients, who attended the special sexual medicine care unit at the University Hospital of Zurich for the first time. At the beginning of their treatment, the patients were questioned about different psychosocial characteristics and aspects of their sexuality. We studied 43 women (48.3%) and 46 men (51.7%). Women were with an average age of 33.8 years 10 years younger than men, 43.5 years. The most common sexual dysfunction in women was lack or loss of sexual desire (51.2%), followed by nonorganic vaginism (20.9%) and orgasm disorders (11.6%), in men erectile dysfunction (50.0%), followed by premature ejaculation (26.1%) and lack or loss of sexual desire (15.2%). The studied subjects showed distinctively lower values in their sense of coherence than men and women in the general population. The patients were much more anxious than people in the average population. The questioned men were also much more depressive than men in the general population and than the examined women. The examined men reported sexual wishes, needs and sexual activities significant more frequently than the examined women. As men and women with sexual dysfunctions are much more anxious than people from the general population, physicians should address sexual themes in the conversations with their patients carefully but actively.

  15. Hormonal therapy in female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brough

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss in women and one of the most common problems seen by dermatologists. This hair loss is a nonscarring alopecia in which loss occurs on the vertex scalp, generally sparing the frontal hairline. Hair loss can have significant psychosocial effects on patients, and treatment can be long and difficult. The influence of hormones on the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is not entirely known. The purpose of this paper is to review physiology and potential hormonal mechanisms for the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss. We also discuss the current hormonal and hormone-modifying therapies that are available to providers as they partner with patients to treat this frustrating issue.

  16. Correlational indicators of psychosocial adjustment among senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant joint contribution of the independent variables (sense of coherence, optimism and self-efficacy) to the prediction of psychosocial adjustment. This suggested that the three independent variables combined accounted for 30.4% (Adj.R2= .304) variation in the prediction of psychosocial adjustment.

  17. Explorations in Knowing: Thinking Psychosocially about Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Anne; Ernest, Paul; Ludhra, Geeta; Mendick, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at what engaging with psychoanalysis, through psychosocial accounts of subjectivity, has contributed to our struggles for legitimacy and security within our ways of knowing. The psychosocial, with its insistence on the unconscious and the irrational, features as both a source of security and of insecurity. We use three…

  18. Psychosocial causes and consequences of pathological gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological use of computer and video games has been associated with indicators of psychosocial well-being, such as loneliness, low self-esteem, low social competence, and low life satisfaction. However, few studies have decisively demonstrated whether these indicators of psychosocial well-being

  19. Habitus and the Psychosocial: Bourdieu with Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of habitus to provide a window on the psychosocial. The paper works with a notion of psychosocial study as inquiry into the mutual constitution of the individual and the social relations within which they are enmeshed. At the same time it attempts to deepen and enrich notions of habitus. Although the strong focus…

  20. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  1. Psychosocial Resolution and Counsellor Trainee Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Joshua M.

    1992-01-01

    Entry-level counseling students (n=74) were surveyed to investigate the relationship between resolution of Erikson's psychosocial stage of intimacy/isolation and counselor trainee empathy. Results revealed a significant positive relationship between measures of psychosocial stage resolution and counselor empathy and a significant main effect for…

  2. Women with Chronic Physical Disabilities: Correlates of Their Long-Term Psychosocial Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangoor, Nira; Florian, Victor

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effects of demographic factors, disability status, and individual internal resources to the long-term psychosocial adjustment of 88 married women with orthopedic, neurological, and internal chronic diseases. Results suggest that sense of coherence and socioeconomic status, rather than disability status variables, accounted…

  3. Psychosocial mechanisms linking the social environment to mental health in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African Amer...

  4. Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.

  5. Individual and group-level job resources and their relationships with individual work engagement

    OpenAIRE

    F?llemann, D?sir?e; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J.; Bauer, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study adds a multilevel perspective to the well-researched individual-level relationship between job resources and work engagement. In addition, we explored whether individual job resources cluster within work groups because of a shared psychosocial environment and investigated whether a resource-rich psychosocial work group environment is beneficial for employee engagement over and above the beneficial effect of individual job resources and independent of their variability w...

  6. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  7. Psychosocial Pain Management Moderation: The Limit, Activate, and Enhance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Melissa A; Ehde, Dawn M; Jensen, Mark P

    2015-10-01

    There is a growing emphasis in the pain literature on understanding the following second-order research questions: Why do psychosocial pain treatments work? For whom do various treatments work? This critical review summarizes research that addresses the latter question and proposes a moderation model to help guide future research. A theoretical moderation framework for matching individuals to specific psychosocial pain interventions has been lacking. However, several such frameworks have been proposed in the broad psychotherapy and implementation science literature. Drawing on these theories and adapting them specifically for psychosocial pain treatment, here we propose a Limit, Activate, and Enhance model of pain treatment moderation. This model is unique in that it includes algorithms not only for matching treatments on the basis of patient weaknesses but also for directing patients to interventions that build on their strengths. Critically, this model provides a basis for specific a priori hypothesis generation, and a selection of the possible hypotheses drawn from the model are proposed and discussed. Future research considerations are presented that could refine and expand the model based on theoretically driven empirical evidence. The Limit, Activate, and Enhance model presented here is a theoretically derived framework that provides an a priori basis for hypothesis generation regarding psychosocial pain treatment moderators. The model will advance moderation research via its unique focus on matching patients to specific treatments that (1) limit maladaptive responses, (2) activate adaptive responses, and (3) enhance treatment outcomes based on patient strengths and resources. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between psychosocial disorders and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that mind and body share an intimate relationship. There are many ways in which mental and physical health impact each other. Psychosocial factors play a part in the pathogenesis of physical health, and oral health is no exception. Chronic and painful oral symptoms lead to psychosocial disorder and at the same time, some patients with psychosocial disorders experience painful oral and facial symptoms. Several investigators have concluded that psychosocial factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of an array of oral problems, ranging from poor oral hygiene to chronic pain disorders, such as temporomandibular joint disorders, burning mouth syndrome, and atypical pain. This review aims at the in-depth analysis of the correlation between psychosocial disorders and various oral symptoms.

  9. Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma Intensions: The intension of this project is to link new knowledge with the nurses experience based knowledge within the psychosocial care to patients, who have been diagnosed with Malignant Melanoma (MM), thereby improving the care...... to elaborate the care to these patients. Method: In 2007 the nurses from our ward gained experience from the psychosocial care to these patients. These experiences are a starting point to the study of literature the group has made. A group of five nurses have from this literature study, substantiated...... the psychosocial perspective. Results: After the literature review, the psychosocial aspects have been divided into five main areas: 1. Diagnosis, hospitalisation, and treatment 2. The body with cancer 3. Psychological 4. Social 5. Existential/spiritual Primary results show that patients with MM in general respond...

  10. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  11. Psychosocial Challenges Associated with Caregiving in the Context of Pediatric HIV in Rural Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. Lentoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhile survival among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected children has increased due to combination antiretroviral therapy, many children remain vulnerable to the adverse effects of poverty and family disruptions as a result of the loss of one or both biological parents to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The aim of this qualitative study was to develop an understanding of the psychosocial challenges experienced by caregivers caring for a child with perinatally acquired HIV.MethodA series of interviews were conducted with 44 HIV-positive and -negative primary caregivers of HIV+ children. Data were analyzed through interpretative phenomenological analysis using NVivo8 software.FindingsThe findings suggest that caregiving is compromised by inadequate, financial resources and single-headed households where mainly grandparents assume the role of primary caregivers of HIV+ children. HIV remains a stigmatized illness that weakens support networks, as well as timeous and free accessibility to healthcare. This has a negative impact on the mental health of caregivers, with the majority of women in the study displaying symptoms of depression.ConclusionThe findings highlight the contextual challenges of caregiving in the presence of HIV, which impacts negatively on social ecology of the families. The need for interventions to enhance resilience and coping in families confronted with HIV is indicated.

  12. Medical Loss Ratio Data and System Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act requires health insurance issuers to submit data on the proportion of premium revenues spent on clinical services and quality improvement,...

  13. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  14. Psychosocial aspects in cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogosova, Nana; Saner, Hugo; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2015-01-01

    A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health-related quality....... Stress, anxiety and depression affect the cardiovascular system through immune, neuroendocrine and behavioural pathways. In turn, CHD and its associated treatments may lead to distress in patients, including anxiety and depression. In clinical practice, PSRFs can be assessed with single-item screening...... of life (HRQoL) and prognosis in patients with established CHD. PSRFs may also act as barriers to lifestyle changes and treatment adherence and may moderate the effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Furthermore, there appears to be a bidirectional interaction between PSRFs and the cardiovascular system...

  15. Psychosocial aspects in cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogosova, N. V.; Saner, H.; Pedersen, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    A large body of empirical research shows that psychosocial risk factors (PSRFs) such as low socio-economic status, social isolation, stress, type-D personality, depression and anxiety increase the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and also contribute to poorer health- related quality....... Stress, anxiety and depression affect the cardiovascular system through immune, neuroendocrine and behavioural pathways. In turn, CHD and its associated treatments may lead to distress in patients, including anxiety and depression. In clinical practice, PSRFs can be assessed with single-item screening...... of life (HRQoL) and prognosis in patients with establishedCHD. PSRFs may also act as barriers to lifestyle changes and treatment adherence and may moderate the effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Furthermore, there appears to be a bidirectional interaction between PSRFs and the cardiovascular system...

  16. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  17. Psychosocial approach to endocrine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonino, Nicoletta; Tomba, Elena; Fava, Giovanni A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the psychosocial aspects of endocrine disease, such as the role of life stress in the pathogenesis of some conditions, their association with affective disorders, and the presence of residual symptoms after adequate treatment. In clinical endocrinology, exploration of psychosocial antecedents may elucidate the temporal relationships between life events and symptom onset, as it has been shown to be relevant for pituitary (Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia) or thyroid (Graves' disease) conditions, as well as the role of allostatic load, linked to chronic stress, in uncovering a person's vulnerability. After endocrine abnormalities are established, they are frequently associated with a wide range of psychological symptoms: at times, such symptoms reach the level of psychiatric illness (mainly mood and anxiety disorders); at other times, however, they can only be identified by the subclinical forms of assessment provided by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR). Indeed, in a population study, the majority of patients suffered from at least one of the three DCPR syndromes considered: irritable mood, demoralization, persistent somatization. In particular, irritable mood was found to occur in 46% of 146 patients successfully treated for endocrine conditions, a rate similar to that found in cardiology and higher than in oncology and gastroenterology. Long-standing endocrine disorders may imply a degree of irreversibility of the pathological process and induce highly individualized affective responses. In patients who showed persistence or even worsening of psychological distress upon proper endocrine treatment, the value of appropriate psychiatric interventions was underscored. As it happened in other fields of clinical medicine, a conceptual shift from a merely biomedical care to a psychosomatic consideration of the person and his/her quality of life appears to be necessary for improving

  18. Coping with losses, grief, and mourning in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent disease with a high likelihood of survival. If treated, survivors live with significant and lasting treatment-related side effects. Surgical treatment is associated with urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, and radiation leads to urinary and bowel irritability as well as erectile dysfunction. Patients who undergo hormonal treatment cope with sexual dysfunction, bone density loss, hot flashes, mood symptoms, and cardiac and metabolic disorders. Functional losses have a significant impact on patients and their partners' quality of life and are associated with distress and psychosocial morbidity. Psychosocial treatment is largely unavailable in usual care, but has been shown to reduce distress, to increase positive reappraisal of the illness, and to contribute to the recovery of sexual intimacy. Treatment for grief and mourning, typical reactions to loss, has not been introduced into psychosocial interventions but is increasingly recognized as a path toward a 'new normal' after prostate cancer treatment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Psychosocial factors associated with dieting behaviors among female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesa, J

    1999-05-01

    This study determined whether female adolescents who were attempting weight loss (dieters) differ from those who were not (nondieters) with respect to a set of psychosocial factors. The sample consisted of 2,536 normal-weight and underweight female adolescents who participated in the National Longitudinal Adolescent Health Survey. Psychosocial factors examined included depression (four measures), self-esteem, trouble in school, school connectedness, family connectedness, sense of community (two measures), grades, autonomy, and protective factors. MANCOVA revealed significant differences between dieters and nondieters. Self-esteem was the strongest contributing factor differentiating dieters and nondieters. These results have implications for health education and health promotion with regard to both primary and secondary prevention. Self-esteem building should be incorporated within the parameters of a comprehensive school health program and certainly should be a component in any nutrition education program aimed at preventing unhealthy dieting behaviors. By understanding the factors associated with these behaviors, it may be easier to identify individuals attempting weight loss despite being of normal or low body weight.

  20. Efficacy of a Weight Loss Intervention for African American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolley, Melinda; Sheean, Patricia; Gerber, Ben; Arroyo, Claudia; Schiffer, Linda; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Visotcky, Alexis; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Strahan, Desmona; Matthews, Lauren; Dakers, Roxanne; Carridine-Andrews, Cynthia; Seligman, Katya; Springfield, Sparkle; Odoms-Young, Angela; Hong, Susan; Hoskins, Kent; Kaklamani, Virginia; Sharp, Lisa

    2017-08-20

    Purpose African American women with breast cancer have higher cancer-specific and overall mortality rates. Obesity is common among African American women and contributes to breast cancer progression and numerous chronic conditions. Weight loss interventions among breast cancer survivors positively affect weight, behavior, biomarkers, and psychosocial outcomes, yet few target African Americans. This article examines the effects of Moving Forward, a weight loss intervention for African American breast cancer survivors (AABCS) on weight, body composition, and behavior. Patients and Methods Early-stage (I-III) AABCS were randomly assigned to a 6-month interventionist-guided (n = 125) or self-guided (n = 121) weight loss program supporting behavioral changes to promote a 5% weight loss. Anthropometric, body composition, and behavioral data were collected at baseline, postintervention (6 months), and follow-up (12 months). Descriptive statistics and mixed models analyses assessed differences between groups over time. Results Mean (± standard deviation) age, and body mass index were 57.5 (± 10.1) years and 36.1 (± 6.2) kg/m 2 , respectively, and 82% had stage I or II breast cancer. Both groups lost weight. Mean and percentage of weight loss were greater in the guided versus self-guided group (at 6 months: 3.5 kg v 1.3kg; P 3% at 6 months is associated with improved health outcomes. Affordable, accessible health promotion programs represent a critical resource for AABCS.

  1. Psychosocial working conditions and cognitive complaints among Swedish employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia U D Stenfors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751 and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. CROSS/SECTIONAL RESULTS: High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT demands, under qualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and over qualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. PROSPECTIVE RESULTS: Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and under qualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively

  2. Workplace bullying erodes job and personal resources: between- and within-person perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Neall, Annabelle M

    2014-10-01

    Workplace bullying is a serious psychosocial occupational hazard. Despite a wealth of empirical study, research has rarely examined the mechanisms through which bullying has its negative effects. Accordingly, using both between- and within-person approaches, we investigated the erosion of job (Study 1) and personal (Study 2) resources following workplace bullying, mediated by the depletion of emotional energy. In Study 1, self-report survey data were collected from 221 retail workers at 2 time-points spaced 6 months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that over time bullying depletes coworker support, partially mediated by emotional exhaustion. In Study 2, a 6-week diary was completed by a separate sample of 45 workers employed in various occupations. Within-person weekly variability in bullying exposure was 34%. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that weekly emotional exhaustion partially mediated the negative effects of weekly workplace bullying on both optimism and self-efficacy. The consistent pattern across both studies supports the idea of a resource loss process whereby exposure to bullying at work erodes job and personal resources by depleting energy. Future research should clarify the role of exhaustion in utilizing resources to respond to bullying, focus on predictors of within-person variability in bullying exposure, and more explicitly model the resource loss spiral following workplace bullying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  4. Psychosocial rehabilitation and democratic development in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter; Sassene, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Today, centres and programmes for the rehabilitation of torture victims are found all over the world. In Nepal, one of the world's poorest countries, the Centre for Victims of Torture (CVICT) has since 1990 provided advanced psychosocial rehabilitation programmes. These and similar psychosocial i....... On both a discursive and a technical-practical level, the psychosocial therapy offered by the CVICT is trying to make torture victims align their personal desires and freedom with the political objectives of turning Nepal into a liberal democracy....

  5. Psychosocial adaptation status and health-related quality of life among older Chinese adults with visual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2009-09-01

    To examine the association of psychosocial adaptation status with vision-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the role of psychosocial adaptation in the linkage between visual impairment and vision-specific HRQOL outcomes among older adults with visual disorders. In this cross-sectional study, older urban adults with visual problems (N = 167) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess their self-reported visual function, general health, psychosocial adaptation status, and vision-specific HRQOL. Performance-based measure of visual function marked by distance visual acuity was clinically conducted by ophthalmologists. It was found in the study that psychosocial adaptation status was significantly associated with vision-specific HRQOL, including the domains of mental health symptoms due to vision and dependency on others due to vision. The results also showed that psychosocial adaptation status could buffer the effect of visual impairment on vision-specific HRQOL, including the domains of social function, mental health, and dependency. Psychosocial adaptation status is significantly associated with multiple domains of vision-specific HRQOL. The findings have significant implications for health education and psychosocial intervention for older adults with age-related vision loss.

  6. Psychology and psychosocial practices: narratives and conceptions of psychologists from the psychosocial care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Thomé Seni da Silva e Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The psychosocial care, current care model in mental health in Brazil, emphasizes interdisciplinary, inter-sectoral and territorial actions. This paper aims to present conceptions of psychologists from the Centers for Psychosocial Care of a city on Parana state, about the psychosocial practices developed in their daily actions. Semi-structured individual interviews and group meetings were conducted, using the technique of Operating Group of Pichón-Rivière. The interviews and groups were recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed. Results point the dichotomy between clinical and psychosocial practices in psychology and the professional identity of the participants tied to traditional clinical psychology model. Some psychosocial practices are gradually being recognized by professionals as legitimate practice of psychology, and could be considered amplified clinic in psychology. It is concluded that for the effectiveness of psychosocial practices, it is essential to improve graduation courses and permanent education strategies for mental health professionals.

  7. Psychosocial aspects of head and neck cancer--a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruyn, J F; de Jong, P C; Bosman, L J; van Poppel, J W; van Den Borne, H W; Ryckman, R M; de Meij, K

    1986-12-01

    This study is a systematic analysis of the literature on psychosocial aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients with head and neck cancer experience a variety of physical as well as psychosocial problems. Physical problems include swallowing or chewing, speech and physical appearance. Psychosocial problems include anxiety, depression, loss of self-esteem and uncertainty about the future. Because of these problems, isolation from friends typically occurs, re-employment is difficult, and there are social and sexual tensions within families. Information and support by professionals, partners and/or fellow patients are related to positive rehabilitation outcomes such as the acquisition of speech, increases in constructive social functioning and decreases in depression.

  8. Promoting a combination approach to paediatric HIV psychosocial support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzel, Anouk; Toska, Elona; Lovich, Ronnie; Widyono, Monique; Patel, Tejal; Foti, Carrie; Dziuban, Eric J; Phelps, B Ryan; Sugandhi, Nandita; Mark, Daniella; Altschuler, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    is still limited evidence demonstrating which interventions have positive effects on the well being of HIV-infected children. Interventions that improve the psychosocial well being of children living with HIV must be replicable in resource-limited settings, avoiding dependence on specialized staff for implementation.This paper advocates for combination approaches that strengthen the capacity of service providers, expand the availability of age appropriate and family-centred support and equip schools to be more protective and supportive of children living with HIV. The coordination of care with other community-based interventions is also needed to foster more supportive and less stigmatizing environments. To ensure effective, feasible, and scalable interventions, improving the evidence base to document improved outcomes and longer term impact as well as implementation of operational studies to document delivery approaches are needed.

  9. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  10. Production loss among employees perceiving work environment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Hagberg, Jan; Bergström, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    The overall aim of this explorative study was to investigate the relationship between factors in the psychosocial work environment and work environment-related production loss. Employees at a Swedish university were invited to answer a workplace questionnaire and were selected for this study if they reported having experienced work environment-related problems in the past 7 days (n = 302). A stepwise logistic regression and a modified Poisson regression were used to identify psychosocial work factors associated with work environment-related production loss as well as to identify at what level those factors are associated with production loss. Employees who reported having experienced work environment problems but also fair leadership, good social climate, role clarity and control of decision had significantly lower levels of production loss, whereas employees who reported inequality and high decision demands reported significantly higher levels of production loss. Never or seldom experiencing fair leadership, role clarity, equality, decision demands and good social climate increase the risk of production loss due to work environment problems, compared to those who experience these circumstances frequently, always or most of the time. Several psychosocial work factors are identified as factors associated with a reduced risk of production losses among employees despite the nature of the work environment problem. Knowledge of these factors may be important not only to reduce employee ill-health and the corresponding health-related production loss, but also reduce immediate production loss due to work environment-related problems.

  11. Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial stressors ... were present for 98.1% of patients and 36.9% had multiple anxiety disorders. ... and the comorbidity of anxiety and personality disorders should receive further attention.

  12. Psychosocial coping strategies in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprah, L.; Sostaric, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The aim of this review is to present common psychosocial problems in cancer patients and their possible coping strategies. Cancer patients are occupied with many psychosocial problems, which are only partially related to their health state and medical treatments. They are faced with a high social pressure, based on prejudices and stereotypes of this illness. The review presents the process of confrontation with the cancer diagnosis and of managing the psychological consequences of cancer. The effects of specific coping styles, psychosocial interventions and a social support on initiation, progression and recurrence of cancer are also described. Conclusions. Although some recent meta-analysis could not provide scientific evidence for the association between coping strategies and the cancer initiation, the progression or the recurrence (neither have studies rejected the thesis of association), the therapeutic window for the psychosocial intervention is still wide and shows an important effect on the quality of lives of many cancer patients. (author)

  13. Psychosocial and Mental Health Problems of Older People in Postearthquake Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh P; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Paudel, Sasmita; Pokhrel, Ruja; Bhandari, Nagendra; Cole, Laura; Koirala, Suraj

    2017-03-01

    To identify community perceptions on psychosocial and mental health problems of older people in postearthquake situation in Nepal. A qualitative methodology was adopted to explore the experience and opinions of older people, social workers, school teachers, health workers, and nongovernmental organization workers on the psychosocial and mental health problems of older people in Nepal, using key informant interviews. Major local vocabulary for older peoples' psychosocial and mental health problems were "bichalan" (variation in mood and feeling), "ekohoro" (becoming single minded), "athmabiswasko kami" (low self-esteem), and "bina karan rune" (crying without any reason). The major causes attributed to older people's problems were physical injury, disability, family conflict, and economic problems. Forgetfulness, tiredness, loss of concentration, restlessness, and isolation were observed in older people since the 2015 earthquake. The findings suggest that earthquake had negative impact on older people's psychosocial well-being; however, little support or treatment options have been made available to these individuals. The tailor-made community-based psychosocial and mental health programs for older people are needed.

  14. Meet the psychosocial needs of stoma patiens

    OpenAIRE

    GREGOROVÁ, Jana

    2012-01-01

    For a person stoma means change both in the health as well as psychosocial area. It is necessary to perceive the person as a bio-psycho-socially-spiritual being requiring satisfaction of all his/her needs. Shortage of satisfaction of psychosocial needs can have very serious impacts on the overall health condition of the client. Stoma nurses and stoma clubs significantly contribute to satisfaction of needs. Stoma nurses deal not only with a preoperative, postoperative care for stoma suffering ...

  15. The psychosocial burden of psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husni, M Elaine; Merola, Joseph F; Davin, Sara

    2017-12-01

    To assess the psychosocial impact of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), describe how health-related quality of life (QoL) is affected in patients with PsA, discuss measures used to evaluate the psychosocial impact of PsA, and review studies examining the effect of therapy on QoL. A targeted review on the impact of PsA on QoL and the role of tailored psychosocial management in reducing the psychosocial burden of the disease was performed. PubMed literature searches were conducted using the terms PsA, psychosocial burden, QoL, and mood/behavioral changes. Articles were deemed relevant if they presented information regarding the psychosocial impact of PsA, methods used to evaluate these impacts, or ways to manage/improve management of PsA and its resulting comorbidities. The findings of this literature search are descriptively reviewed and the authors׳ expert opinion on their interpretation is provided. The psychosocial burden of PsA negatively affects QoL. Patients suffer from sleep disorders, fatigue, low-level stress, depression and mood/behavioral changes, poor body image, and reduced work productivity. Additionally, each patient responds to pain differently, depending on a variety of psychological factors including personality structure, cognition, and attention to pain. Strategies for evaluating the burdens associated with PsA and the results of properly managing patients with PsA are described. PsA is associated with a considerable psychosocial burden and new assessment tools, specific to PsA, have been developed to help quantify this burden in patients. Future management algorithms of PsA should incorporate appropriate assessment and management of psychological and physical concerns of patients. Furthermore, patients with PsA should be managed by a multidisciplinary team that works in coordination with the patient and their family or caregivers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychosocial work environment and retirement age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Jensen, Per H.; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retention of senior employees is a challenge for most developed countries. We aimed to identify psychosocial work environment factors of importance for the retention of older employees by evaluating the association between the psychosocial work environment and voluntary early retirement i...... at the labor market. However, we found no evidence that low demands or good relations between colleagues could influence older employees’ decision on early retirement....

  17. Domains of psychosocial disability and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eunyoe; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna

    2018-06-07

    This study examined relations between comprehensive domains of psychosocial disability and mental disorders to determine (1) whether differential patterns of associations exist between psychosocial disability dimensions and commonly diagnosed mental disorders and (2) whether these relations differ between self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial disability domains. Self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial functioning measures and an interviewer-rated diagnostic assessment tool were administered to 181 psychiatric outpatients. Internalizing disorders showed the strongest and most pervasive associations with psychosocial impairment across both self-reported and interviewer-rated measures, followed by thought disorder; externalizing showed the weakest associations. More specifically, logistic regression analyses indicated that lower well-being factor score significantly increased the odds of distress-disorder diagnoses, and poor basic functioning increased the odds of PTSD. Results clearly showed differences in the magnitude of associations between three dimensions of psychosocial-disability and commonly diagnosed disorders, and that these differences were similar regardless of rater type. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Assessment of psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Munizeh; Fida, Mubassar

    2008-09-01

    To assess the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics using the 'Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire' (PIDAQ) and self-rated Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Cross-sectional study. Dental Section, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from August to September 2006. Adults with no prior orthodontic treatment were asked to complete a modified version of the 'Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire' (PIDAQ). A total of four variables including 'Dental Self-confidence', 'Social impact', 'Psychological impact' and 'Perceived orthodontic treatment need' were assessed by a series of statements, whereas dental aesthetics were assessed by the respondents using the IOTN Aesthetic Component (self-rated IOTN-AC). Kruskal-Walli's test was applied to determine significance. The respondents were 120 adults (70 females and 50 males; mean age 25.8 years), all four of the above-mentioned variables measuring psychosocial impact showed positive and significant correlations with the perceived severity of malocclusion as depicted by the Aesthetic Component (AC) of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), with p-value of less than 0.01 for all variables. The results indicate the strong psychosocial impact of altered dental aesthetics on the emotional state of an individual. The association between self-rated IOTN-AC grading with psychosocial well-being stands established, indicating that the perceived aesthetics of malocclusion may be as significant a factor in determining treatment need as the degree of malocclusion.

  19. Psychosocial interactions during ISS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2007-02-01

    Based on anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies of space analog environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station, a number of psychosocial issues have been identified that can lead to problems during long-duration space expeditions. Several of these issues were studied during a series of missions to the International Space Station. Using a mood and group climate questionnaire that was completed weekly by crewmembers in space and personnel in mission control, we found no evidence to support the presence of predicted decrements in well-being during the second half or in any specific quarter of the missions. The results did support the predicted displacement of negative feelings to outside supervisors among both crew and ground subjects. There were several significant differences in mood and group perceptions between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Crewmembers related cohesion to the support role of their leader, and mission control personnel related cohesion to both the task and support roles of their leader. These findings are discussed with reference to future space missions.

  20. Psychosocial aspects of surrogate motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Olga B A

    2007-01-01

    This review addresses the psychosocial research carried out on surrogacy triads (surrogate mothers, commissioning mothers and offspring) and shows that research has focused on a number of specific issues: attachment and disclosure to surrogate offspring; experiences, characteristics and motivations of surrogate mothers; and changes in profiles of the commissioning/intended mothers. Virtually all studies have used highly selected samples making generalizations difficult. There have been a notable lack of theory, no interventions and only a handful of longitudinal studies or studies comparing different populations. Few studies have specifically questioned the meaning of and need for a family or the influence and impact that professionals, treatment availability and financial factors have on the choices made for surrogate and intended mothers. Societal attitudes have changed somewhat; however, according to public opinion, women giving up babies still fall outside the acceptable remit. Surrogate and intended mothers appear to reconcile their unusual choice through a process of cognitive restructuring, and the success or failure of this cognitive appraisal affects people's willingness to be open and honest about their choices. Normal population surveys, on the contrary, are less accepting of third party reproduction; they have no personal need to reconsider and hence maintain their original normative cognitively consonant state.

  1. Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemyre, L.; Johnson, C.; Corneil, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, food-borne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, health care and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. (authors)

  2. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  3. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherezade K Mama

    Full Text Available Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467 completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination, and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001 and U.S. (p < .001 and low social support (p < .001 were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  4. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eBuruck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  5. How Interdisciplinary Teamwork Contributes to Psychosocial Cancer Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daem, Michiel; Verbrugghe, Mathieu; Schrauwen, Wim; Leroux, Silvian; Van Hecke, Ann; Grypdonck, Maria

    2018-03-30

    The organization of psychosocial care is rather complex, and its provision diverse. Access is affected by the acceptance and attitude of patients and professional caregivers toward psychosocial care. The aims of this study were to examine when patients with cancer experience quality psychosocial care and to identify circumstances in collaboration that contribute to patient-perceived positive psychosocial care. This study used a qualitative design in which semistructured interviews were conducted with patients, hospital workers, and primary health professionals. Psychosocial care is often requested but also refused by patients with cancer. Based on this discrepancy, a distinction is made between psychosocial support and psychosocial interventions. Psychosocial support aims to reduce the chaos in patients' lives caused by cancer and is not shunned by patients. Psychosocial interventions comprise the formal care offered in response to psychosocial problems. Numerous patients are reluctant to use psychosocial interventions, which are often provided by psychologists. Psychosocial care aims to assist patients in bearing the difficulties of cancer and its treatment. Patients prefer informal support, given often in conjunction with physical care. This study confirms the important role of nurses in promoting psychosocial care. Patients perceive much support from nurses, although nurses are not considered to be professional psychosocial caregivers. Being perceived as approachable and trustworthy offers nurses a significant opportunity to bring more intense psychosocial interventions within reach of cancer patients.

  6. The psychosocial experiences of women with breast cancer across the lifespan: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Enns, Heather; Woodgate, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    What are the psychosocial experiences of women with breast cancer across the lifespan, including similarities and differences in the psychosocial experiences of younger, middle-aged and older women with breast cancer? The experience of a life threatening illness, such as cancer, requires a person to consider an array of emotional, medical, social and existential demands. Specific to breast cancer, research shows that the experience of diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer may result in considerable distress.It is also known that a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer propels women into a time of uncertainty, that brings fear and emotional work. This disease oftentimes challenges a woman's identity, self-esteem, body image and relationships. However, even with these commonly felt distresses, most women adjust well to a breast cancer diagnosis and the treatments experienced, particularly if they do not experience a recurrence of cancer. Protective factors for distress include supportive care networks, such as family and support groups and professional resources provided by clinical staff, such as timely referrals to specialized services.Although most women adjust well to breast cancer, understanding distressing experiences among this population is crucial because, when experienced, the negative psychosocial impacts can be significant. Women who do experience distress due to breast cancer are at a risk of distress accompanying them through the breast cancer journey and impacting their long-term quality of life.Although literature suggests that the psychosocial experience of a breast cancer diagnosis may be different across the lifespan, less is known about the similarities and differences in the psychosocial experience between younger and older women with breast cancer. However, this studyexamines the experience of one age group and no comparisons between different age groups in this or other studies have been found at this time. Among what is known, younger women

  7. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  8. Occupational hearing loss in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-12-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed.

  9. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  10. Psychosocial crisis management: the unexplored intersection of crisis leadership and psychosocial support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.L.A.; Yzermans, C.J.; Jong, W.; Boin, A.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological research has documented the serious health issues that can affect the victims of disasters and major crises. Yet, the psychosocial dimension of crisis has received little attention in crisis management literature. This paper integrates psychosocial principles with a model of

  11. Psychosocial determinants of outcomes in knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Landon, Glenn C; Siff, Sherwin J; Edelstein, David; Pak, Chong; Kallen, Michael A; Stanley, Melinda; Zhang, Hong; Robinson, Kausha C; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2011-10-01

    To identify potential psychosocial and educational barriers to clinical success following knee replacement. The authors evaluated 241 patients undergoing total knee replacement, preoperatively and 6 months after surgery. Outcomes included the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) scale and the Knee Society rating system (KSRS). Independent variables included: the medical outcome study-social support scale; depression, anxiety and stress scale; brief COPE inventory; health locus of control; arthritis self-efficacy scale and the life orientation test-revised. Multiple regression models evaluated associations of baseline demographic and psychosocial variables with outcomes at 6 months, controlling for body mass index, comorbidities and baseline outcome scores. Patients' mean age was 65 ± 9 years; 65% were women. Most patients improved outcomes after surgery. Several psychosocial variables were associated with outcomes. Regression analyses indicated lower education, less tangible support, depression, less problem-solving coping, more dysfunctional coping, lower internal locus of control were associated with worse WOMAC scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables for pain 0.07; for function, 0.14). Older age, lower education, depression and less problem-solving coping were associated with poorer total KSRS scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables to total KSRS model 0.09). Psychosocial variables as a set contributed from 25% to 74% of total explained variance across the models tested. Patients' level of education, tangible support, depression, problem-solving coping, dysfunctional coping and internal locus of control were associated with pain and functional outcomes after knee replacement. The findings suggest that, in addition to medical management, perioperative psychosocial evaluation and intervention are crucial in enhancing knee replacement outcomes.

  12. The psychosocial implications of pre-emptive transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, B R

    1991-01-01

    Pre-emptive (primary) renal transplantation is occurring with greater frequency as pediatric transplant centers attempt to initiate renal replacement therapy at a time best designed to optimize growth and development in children. Psychosocial benefits of performing pre-emptive transplant are highlighted by an intervention before the child has symptoms of uremia and, thus, develops a self-image as a "sick patient with end-stage renal disease", avoidance of dependence on machine technology, avoidance of a change in parenting that may occur with fears about dialysis, and maintenance of an orientation toward future goals. In addition, the child will likely have less loss of school time and less disturbance in previously established social patterns. Difficulties that may be enhanced in pre-emptive transplantation arise from potentially decreased involvement of the child and family in the medical (transplant) care system prior to transplantation. The two major issues of concern are: (1) optimal education regarding patient (family) responsibility toward quality care of the graft recipient; (2) the accurate assessment of coping skills coupled with the development of optimum psychosocial support from the health care workers and community support services. The provision of a good educational and supportive program is time consuming and financially draining. We must develop creative approaches to these areas in order to enhance each child's opportunity for family and community interaction, as well as physical well-being.

  13. Burnout among pilots: psychosocial factors related to happiness and performance at simulator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Veldhuis, Wouter; Coombes, Claire; Hunter, Rob

    2018-06-18

    In this study among airline pilots, we aim to uncover the work characteristics (job demands and resources) and the outcomes (job crafting, happiness and simulator training performance) that are related to burnout for this occupational group. Using a large sample of airline pilots, we showed that 40% of the participating pilots experience high burnout. In line with Job Demands-Resources theory, job demands were detrimental for simulator training performance because they made pilots more exhausted and less able to craft their job, whereas job resources had a favourable effect because they reduced feelings of disengagement and increased job crafting. Moreover, burnout was negatively related to pilots' happiness with life. These findings highlight the importance of psychosocial factors and health for valuable outcomes for both pilots and airlines. Practitioner Summary: Using an online survey among the members of a European pilots' professional association, we examined the relationship between psychosocial factors (work characteristics, burnout) and outcomes (simulator training performance, happiness). Forty per cent of the participating pilots experience high burnout. Job demands were detrimental, whereas job resources were favourable for simulator training performance/happiness. Twitter text: 40% of airline pilots experience burnout and psychosocial work factors and burnout relate to performance at pilots' simulator training.

  14. Psychosocial impact of onychomycosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Anna; Franca, Katlein; Fernandez, Alexandra; Nouri, Keyvan

    2013-11-01

    Onychomycosis (tinea unguium) is the most common nail disorder. Nonetheless, it requires lengthy, often ineffective treatments, and recurrence is frequent. Predominantly a disease of the elderly, onychomycosis is becoming more and more common. Besides interfering with normal nail function, fungal nail infections are relatively painful, unsightly in appearance, disrupt daily activities, and have a negative psychosocial connotation. Commonly reported psychosocial factors are embarrassment, low self-esteem, and social withdrawal. Yet advances in therapy have been achieved since these reports were made, and many of these treatment options have proven to be more effective. Thus, the impact of these advances on psychosocial well-being of patients with onychomycosis is worth analyzing. The objective of this paper is to review studies that investigated the psychosocial impact of onychomycosis on a variety of patient populations. An alternative, total patient approach that dermatologists and general practitioners alike could use to incorporate patients' psychosocial well-being into the holistic management of onychomycosis will also be discussed. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Management of Psychosocial Distress by Oncologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, Anna C.; Hwang, Vivian S.; Kornblith, Alice; Greer, Joseph; Greenberg, Donna B.; Temel, Jennifer; Schapira, Lidia; Pirl, William

    2010-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the nature of psychosocial care delivered by oncologists. The goal of this study was to survey oncologists about their management of psychosocial distress, referencing the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Methods A random sample of 1,000 oncologists were sent an e-mail requesting their participation in an online survey; nonrespondents were sent the survey through postal mail. Regression analyses were conducted to identify independent predictors of care. Results Forty-six percent (448 of 965) of oncologists responded. Practice locations included: community (63%), cancer center (25%), and hospital (7%). Respondents estimated that over one-third of their patients (mean± SD=38%±22%) experience psychosocial distress warranting intervention, although only 225 of 447 (50%) indicated having mental health services affiliated with their practice. Nearly half (212 of 447, 47%) reported only initiating a referral for psychosocial services, and 214 of 447 (48%) reported both making a referral and starting psychiatric medications, mainly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and benzodiazepines. Conclusions Most oncologists delivered some level of psychosocial care, although only half had affiliated mental health services. PMID:19648204

  16. Objectivity in psychosocial measurement: what, why, how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W P

    2000-01-01

    This article raises and tries to answer questions concerning what objectivity in psychosocial measurement is, why it is important, and how it can be achieved. Following in the tradition of the Socratic art of maiuetics, objectivity is characterized by the separation of meaning from the geometric, metaphoric, or numeric figure carrying it, allowing an ideal and abstract entity to take on a life of its own. Examples of objective entities start from anything teachable and learnable, but for the purposes of measurement, the meter, gram, volt, and liter are paradigmatic because of their generalizability across observers, instruments, laboratories, samples, applications, etc. Objectivity is important because it is only through it that distinct conceptual entities are meaningfully distinguished. Seen from another angle, objectivity is important because it defines the conditions of the possibility of shared meaning and community. Full objectivity in psychosocial measurement can be achieved only by attending to both its methodological and its social aspects. The methodological aspect has recently achieved some notice in psychosocial measurement, especially in the form of Rasch's probabilistic conjoint models. Objectivity's social aspect has only recently been noticed by historians of science, and has not yet been systematically incorporated in any psychosocial science. An approach to achieving full objectivity in psychosocial measurement is adapted from the ASTM Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method (ASTM Committee E-11 on Statistical Methods, 1992).

  17. [Psychosocial approach to Diogenes syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtos, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal hoarding of random items in the home associated with severe self-neglect and neglect of one's environment, Diogenes syndrome is transnosographic. It can affect all social classes, people without any diagnosed mental health condition or patients with psychosis or dementia, over 60s and young people. It is conveyed by self-exclusion at home, a "poor precarity" which leads to a loss of the ability to trust others and ask for help.

  18. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    of physical activity on academic achievement and other factors beyond physical health; barriers of not having enough time and having too many assignments perceived to hinder frequent physical activity; and parental approval. More rigorous research on psychosocial determinants with close-ended items developed from these open-ended data and with larger sample sizes of students is necessary. Research with parents and school staff will be needed to understand the perceptions of these stakeholder groups key to creating the students' social environment.

  19. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-19

    factors beyond physical health; barriers of not having enough time and having too many assignments perceived to hinder frequent physical activity; and parental approval. More rigorous research on psychosocial determinants with close-ended items developed from these open-ended data and with larger sample sizes of students is necessary. Research with parents and school staff will be needed to understand the perceptions of these stakeholder groups key to creating the students' social environment.

  20. A review on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of psychosocial care in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Jansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several psychosocial care interventions have been found effective in improving psychosocial outcomes in cancer patients. At present, there is increasingly being asked for information on the value for money of this type of intervention. This review therefore evaluates current evidence from studies investigating cost-effectiveness or cost-utility of psychosocial care in cancer patients. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science yielding 539 unique records, of which 11 studies were included in the study. Studies were mainly performed in breast cancer populations or mixed cancer populations. Studied interventions included collaborative care (four studies, group interventions (four studies, individual psychological support (two studies, and individual psycho-education (one study. Seven studies assessed the cost-utility of psychosocial care (based on quality-adjusted-life-years while three studies investigated its cost-effectiveness (based on profile of mood states [mood], Revised Impact of Events Scale [distress], 12-Item Health Survey [mental health], or Fear of Progression Questionnaire [fear of cancer progression]. One study did both. Costs included were intervention costs (three studies, intervention and direct medical costs (five studies, or intervention, direct medical, and direct nonmedical costs (three studies. In general, results indicated that psychosocial care is likely to be cost-effective at different, potentially acceptable, willingness-to-pay thresholds. Further research should be performed to provide more clear information as to which psychosocial care interventions are most cost-effective and for whom. In addition, more research should be performed encompassing potential important cost drivers from a societal perspective, such as productivity losses or informal care costs, in the analyses.

  1. Psychosocial Adaptation to Visual Impairment and Its Relationship to Depressive Affect in Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Jennifer; Hill, Robert D.; Kleinschmidt, Julia J.; Gregg, Charles H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examined psychosocial adaptation to vision loss and its relationship to depressive symptomatology in legally blind older adults with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Design and Methods: The 144 study participants were outpatients of a large regional vision clinic that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of…

  2. Effectiveness of a psychosocial weight management program for individuals with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Niv, N; Cohen, AN; Hamilton, A; Reist, C; Young, AS

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a weight loss program for individuals with schizophrenia in usual care. The study included 146 adults with schizophrenia from two mental health clinics of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The 109 individuals who were overweight or obese were offered a 16-week, psychosocial, weight management program. Weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were assessed at baseline, 1 year later, and at each treatment session. Only 51% of those who w...

  3. Implementation and Effectiveness of a Psychosocial Weight Management Program for Individuals with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Niv, Noosha; Cohen, Amy N.; Hamilton, Alison; Reist, Christopher; Young, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a weight loss program for individuals with schizophrenia in usual care. The study included 146 adults with schizophrenia from two mental health clinics of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The 109 individuals who were overweight or obese were offered a 16-week, psychosocial, weight management program. Weight and BMI were assessed at baseline, 1 year later and at each treatment session. Only 51% of those who were overweight or o...

  4. Psoriasis: characteristics, psychosocial effects and treatment options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Sheila

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic non-infectious inflammatory skin disease with a variety of different presentations. The classic presentation is of well-defined red plaques with silver scale. The characteristic scale makes the disorder highly visible and intrusive on the patient\\'s lifestyle. The visible nature of the disease ensures that psoriasis has both physical and psychosocial effects. In normal skin, epidermal cell reproduction and proliferation takes 28 days. In psoriasis this process is considerably accelerated to approximately 4 days, resulting in the deposit of immature cells on the skin. While the exact cause of this process is unknown, certain environmental and genetic factors are known to be triggers. Disease management depends on disease severity, psychosocial effects and the patient\\'s lifestyle. To effectively treat this disease the nurse must be skilled in psoriasis management, and in patient education and motivation. This article reviews the characteristics, aetiology, psychosocial effects and treatment strategies of psoriasis.

  5. Suicide behavior and associated psychosocial factors among adolescents in Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Forteza, Catalina; Juárez-López, Carlos E; Jiménez, Alberto; Montejo-León, Liliana; Rodríguez-Santisbón, Ulises R; Wagner, Fernando A

    2017-12-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem that requires a preventive approach. The present study aimed at assessing suicidal behaviors and their relations with other psychosocial factors in Campeche, Mexico, in order to inform the design of potential preventive interventions. A multistage probability sample of 2386 students representative of all middle schools of the state of Campeche, Mexico, took a standardized, paper-and-pencil survey covering selected psychosocial constructs including suicide behavior, depression, drug use, familial relationships, locus of control, impulsivity, and self-esteem, among others. Latent classes were identified and multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze associations between class membership and psychosocial covariates. An estimated 8% of the middle school population in Campeche had three or more psychosocial problems in the past month including drug use, major depression episode symptoms, as well as suicidal problems like attempts and self-inflicted injuries. Four latent classes were identified, one with lowest risk and three with varying characteristics in terms of binge alcohol and other drug use, depression, and suicide behaviors. Associations between psychosocial covariates and latent class were observed, as predicted based on a multi-dimensional theoretical framework. Heterogeneity across "High-Risk" groups and their potential determinants highlight the need for differentiated, specialized efforts ranging from universal to indicated interventions. Given the high level of risk factors in this population, universal preventive interventions should aim at building resiliency among youth by helping them develop an array of coping resources, as well as by creating a more nurturing psychosocial environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths' psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status.We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12-17 years, n = 677 drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001 and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04 than Less Resilient youth.The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies.

  7. [The Need for Psychosocial Support of Parents of Children in Neonatal Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Nicole; Karutz, Harald; Schenk, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    Background Advances in neonatal care have reduced mortality but increased morbidity in babies born pre-maturely or after high-risk pregnancies. However, this often increases the burden on the family and the parents in particular. A systematic review of the literature was conducted that demonstrated the importance of psychosocial support for parents of children in neonatal care. Methods A systematic search of Pubmed, Psyndex, CINAHI and medpilot was conducted. Reference lists of the included articles were also searched for relevant publications. A free-text search found further publications. Together, 78 publications (from 1975-2015) were included in our review. Results A shift from a biomedical model and child-centred treatment to family-centred care has already taken place in neonatal care. However, there is still a considerable gap between theory and practice. Although there is awareness of the need for psychosocial support of parents, the focus of day-to-day care is still on medical interventions and life-supporting treatment for the child. In particular, while the importance of an assessment of needs as a basis for family-centred psychosocial support appears to be well-known, validated screening instruments are rarely used. In addition, the demand for psychosocial support of parents is not just solely determined by the child's medical risk. Conclusions The results highlight the challenges of delivering individualised psychosocial support to families within a healthcare system of limited resources, with practitioners having to take into account the developing parent-child relationship as well as health economics. In future, psychosocial support should be based on evidence rather than intuition. Attachment theory and research, and health psychology can contribute to this development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Psychosocial group rehabilitation for lonely older people: favourable processes and mediating factors of the intervention leading to alleviated loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savikko, Niina; Routasalo, Pirkko; Tilvis, Reijo; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2010-03-01

    Loneliness among community-dwelling older people is a common problem, with serious health consequences. The favourable processes and mediating factors of a psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention in alleviating older people's loneliness were evaluated. Altogether, 117 lonely, home-dwelling individuals (aged ≥75 years) participated in a psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention. The content comprised (i) art and inspiring activities, (ii) group exercise and discussions or (iii) therapeutic writing and group therapy. The psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention was evaluated from the group leaders' diaries and by observing the groups. Experiences of loneliness and social participation were collected by postintervention questionnaires from the participants. Data were analysed using methodological triangulation. Doing things together and sharing experiences with their peers inspired lively discussions, created a feeling of togetherness and led to participants' empowerment and increased self-esteem. The intervention socially activated the participants, and their feelings of loneliness had been alleviated during the intervention. Several common favourable processes and mediating factors were identified in the psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention that led to alleviation of loneliness among older people. Relevance to clinical practice.  The psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention gives nurses an effective tool to support older people's psychosocial resources by activating them and alleviating their loneliness. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  10. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  11. Psychosocial Predictors of Change in Depressive Symptoms Following Gastric Banding Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Kymberlie; Clarke, David; O'Brien, Paul; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl; Hindle, Annemarie; Brennan, Leah

    2018-02-08

    The aim of this study is to identify psychosocial variables associated with the relationship between weight loss and change in depressive symptoms following gastric banding surgery. Ninety-nine adults completed self-report questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and other psychosocial variables (self-esteem, body image dissatisfaction, perceived physical health, and perceived weight-based stigmatisation) prior to gastric-band surgery and monthly for 6-month post-surgery. Weight, depressive symptoms, and other psychosocial variables improved significantly 1-month post-surgery and remained lower to 6 months. Weight loss from baseline to 1- and 6-months post-surgery significantly correlated with change in depressive symptoms. Body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem accounted for some of the variance in change in depressive symptoms from baseline to 1-month and baseline to 6-months post-surgery. Depressive symptoms improved significantly and rapidly after bariatric surgery, and body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem predicted change in depressive symptoms. Interventions targeting body image and self-esteem may improve depressive symptoms for those undergoing weight loss interventions.

  12. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B

    2014-01-01

    in five Danish districts. PARTICIPANTS: 330 community-dwelling patients and their primary caregivers. INTERVENTION: Psychosocial counselling and support lasting 8-12 months after diagnosis and follow-up at 3, 6, 12 and 36 months in the intervention group or follow-up only in the control group. MAIN...... and the caregiver before aggregation for the main analysis. RESULTS: None of the observed cost and QALY measures were significantly different between the intervention and control groups, although a tendency was noted for psychosocial care leading to cost increases with informal care that was not outweighed...

  13. Psychosocial therapies for children and adolescents: overview and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D J

    1995-02-01

    The assessment and psychosocial treatment of children must consider developmental phase and stage, developmental tasks, the nature of the disorder (does it affect a narrow sector or one developmental line or is there a broad disruption of development?) and biological contributions (including constitution, maturational rate, and factors such as the onset of puberty). Treatments can be distinguished along dimensions, including theoretical emphases, degrees of definition of the treatment, scope, the "patient" (child, family), duration, frequency of contacts, combination with other modalities, etc. Similarly, choice of treatment is based on many factors, including the clinician's expertise, availability of resources, wishes of parents, cost, etc. Future research should be grounded in a theory of child development as well as a theory of therapeutic action. Treatments should be well defined and currently practiced, provided by experts, and arise from realistic situations. The study of therapies bridges basic and applied research and provides data of profound relevance for theories of child development.

  14. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Psychosocial Problems in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Michels, Nathalie; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of socioeconomic inequalities on children’s mental health remains unclear. This study aims to explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between social vulnerabilities and psychosocial problems, and the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities and psychosocial...

  15. Psychosocial and psychosexual aspects of disorders of sex development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2010-01-01

    Psychosocial aspects of the treatment of disorders of sex development (DSDs) concern gender assignment, information management and communication, timing of medical interventions, consequences of surgery, and sexuality. Although outcome is often satisfactory, a variety of medical and psychosocial

  16. Chinese American adolescents: perceived parenting styles and adolescents' psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwen, W; Chen, A C C

    2013-06-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the USA, and Chinese constitute the largest group. Evidence suggests that Asian American adolescents experience higher levels of depressive symptoms than their same-gender white counterparts. Quantitative findings suggest associations between parenting factors and Chinese American adolescents' mental health. A qualitative understanding regarding Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and its relationship with adolescents' psychosocial health is warranted. To gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and how parenting styles might influence adolescents' psychosocial health. In this qualitative study, we recruited 15 Chinese American adolescents aged 12-17 years in a southwest metropolitan area. We conducted two focus group interviews. Participants also filled out a brief questionnaire that included their socio-demographic information, immigration history and level of acculturation. Participants reported perceiving that parents had high expectations about academic performance and moral values. They also perceived stricter family rules regarding choices of friends compared with their non-Asian peers. Parents tended to be more protective of girls than of boys. Both Chinese American boys and girls reported poor or ineffective communication with their parents, which contributed to increased conflict between parents and adolescents and emotional distress of the adolescents. The findings provide evidence for nurses to develop linguistically and culturally tailored resources (e.g. parent support groups, programs aimed to improving parent-child communication) or connect these families with existing resources to enhance parenting skills and consequently reduce emotional distress of their adolescent children. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  17. Psychosocial influences on safety climate: evidence from community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Denham L; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2011-12-01

    To examine the relationship between psychosocial job characteristics and safety climate. Cross-sectional survey. Community pharmacies in Great Britain. Participants A random sample of community pharmacists registered in Great Britain (n = 860). Survey instruments Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) indicator and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Main outcome measures Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire (PSCQ). The profile of scores from the ERI indicated a relatively high risk of adverse psychological effects. The profile of scores from the JCQ indicated both high demand on pharmacists and a high level of psychological and social resources to meet these demands. Path analysis confirmed a model in which the ERI and JCQ measures, as well as the type of pharmacy and pharmacist role, predicted responses to the PSCQ (χ(2)(36) = 111.38, p demand) accounted for the effect of job characteristics on safety climate ratings; each had differential effects on the PSCQ scales. The safety climate in community pharmacies is influenced by perceptions of job characteristics, such as the level of job demands and the resources available to meet these demands. Hence, any efforts to improve safety should take into consideration the effect of the psychosocial work environment on safety climate. In addition, there is a need to address the presence of work-related stressors, which have the potential to cause direct or indirect harm to staff and service users. The findings of the current study provide a basis for future research to improve the safety climate and well-being, both in the pharmacy profession and in other healthcare settings.

  18. Psychosocial factors at work and perceived health among agricultural meat industry workers in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohidon, Christine; Morisseau, Patrick; Derriennic, Francis; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived health status of the meat industry employees--i.e., working in the slaughtering, cutting, and boning of large animals and poultry--and its relation to their organisational and psychosocial constraints at work. This postal survey included all 3,000 employees of the meat industry (beef, pork and poultry) in four districts in Brittany, France, whose companies were affiliated with the agricultural branch of the national health insurance fund. The questionnaire asked for social and demographic data and information describing their job and the organisation of their work. The psychosocial factors at work were described according to Karasek's questionnaire (demand, latitude and social support at work). Perceived health was measured with the Nottingham Health Profile perceived health indicator. This study shows the high prevalence of poor health reported by the workers in this industry. This poor perceived health was worse in women and increased regularly with age. Among the psychosocial factors studied, high quantitative and qualitative demand at work, inadequate resources for good work and to a lesser extent, inadequate prospects for promotion appear especially associated with poor perceived health. Other factors often associated with poor perceived health included young age at the first job and work hours that disrupt sleep rhythms (especially for women). Our results show that this population of workers is especially vulnerable from the point of view of perceived physical and psychological health and is exposed to strong physical, organisational and psychosocial constraints at work. They also demonstrate that poor perceived health is associated with some psychosocial (such as high psychological demand and insufficient resources) and organisational factors at work. These results, in conjunction with those from other disciplines involved in studying this industry, may help the companies to develop preventive

  19. Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Giles

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT. These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA, and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.

  20. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  1. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  2. Psychosocial working conditions and well-being among immigrant and German low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Annekatrin

    2011-04-01

    Despite a steady increase of immigrant workers in Germany in the past decades, occupational health research has only peripherally addressed psychosocial working conditions and immigrant worker well-being. This study has two aims: (1) to investigate differences in psychosocial stressors and resources between immigrant and German low-wage workers, and (2) to examine group differences in their association with well-being using a structural equation modeling multiple group analysis approach. Eighty-nine immigrant and 146 German postmen of a German mail service company were surveyed. Results reveal more stressors in the social work environment for the immigrant workers than for their German coworkers but similar levels of task-related stressors in both groups. Stressors are more strongly associated with psychological distress among the German workers. In terms of resources, job control serves as a resource only among German workers, whereas supervisor and coworker support are more important for immigrant workers. These differences suggest that cultural factors, previous work experiences, and expectations influence the worker's experience of psychosocial working conditions and have a direct impact on worker health.

  3. Building Psychosocial Programming in Geriatrics Fellowships: A Consortium Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Ronald D.; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E.; Ehrlich, Amy R.; Greene, Michele G.; Greenberg, Debra F.; Raik, Barrie L.; Raymond, Joshua J.; Clabby, John F.; Fields, Suzanne D.; Breznay, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area…

  4. Empowering public service workers to face bystander conflict : Enhancing resources through a training intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, K.J.P.M.; Gevers, J.M.P.; Rispens, S.; Demerouti, E.

    2018-01-01

    Public service employees work in occupations that are accompanied with high psychosocial risks. Police, firefighters, and paramedics are increasingly being confronted with argumentative, conflicting bystanders that frustrate them in executing their task. We developed a resource-enhancement

  5. Pediatric Chronic Abdominal Pain and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Review and Psychosocial Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Grace Zee; Lucchetti, Amanda R; Drossos, Tina; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Accurso, Erin C; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Newman, Erika A; Skelly, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) occurs in children and adolescents with a reported prevalence of 4% to 41% with significant direct and indirect costs to the child, family, and society. Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a vascular compression syndrome of the celiac artery that may cause symptoms of epigastric pain and weight loss and is a frequently overlooked cause of CAP in the pediatric population. We have observed that the psychosocial presentation of patients with MALS is notable for various psychiatric comorbidities. In this article, we review MALS as well as our study results of the psychosocial profile of 30 MALS patients. Our data suggest that children and adolescents with MALS have similar psychosocial profiles to children with other gastrointestinal disorders resulting in CAP. The overlap of physical and psychosocial symptoms of patients who have MALS with other CAP disorders leads us to recommend that patients with CAP should be evaluated for MALS. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e257-e264.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. The Adolescents' Psychosocial Functioning Inventory (APFI): Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0 while all three factors/subscales: Optimism and Coping Strategy (OCS), Behaviour and Relationship Problems (BRP), and General Psychosocial Dysfunctions (GPD) had moderate to high reliability (α = 0.59 for OCS, α = 0.57 for BRP and α = 90. 0 for GPD). The CGF yielded X2/df <3 =1.58 while all other fit indices were in ...

  7. Psychosocial factors associated with smoking behavior among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial factors associated with smoking behavior among secondary school adolescents in Ibadan Metropolis. AO Taiwo, PO Olapegba, GA Adejuwon. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol. 8(2) 2005: 264-279. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  8. Psychosocial adaptation to stoma surgery: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Knippenberg, F.C.E. van; Borne, H.W. van den; Poen, H.; Bergsma, J.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van

    1995-01-01

    During the last decade strong improvements have been made in the medical care of patients with a digestive tract stoma, particularly with regard to nursing skills and to the quality of collecting material for faecal products. Scientific investigation into the psychosocial adjustment of patients

  9. Psychosocial Correlates of Academic Performance among Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a correlational design study that explored the relationship between pupils' psychosocial variables such as self-esteem, hearing status, attitude towards teachers and school; and between these and academic performance. A total of 194 pupils, 110 hearing normally and 84 hearing impaired were compared in ...

  10. Psychosocial Dysfunction among Adolescents Who Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... ... study was carried out among adolescents selected from five secondary schools in Abakaliki. ... and four students were abusers of one or more substances. ... Psychosocial dysfunction was however not related to age, gender, or social classes in the study population but was related to the abuse of multiple.

  11. Psychosocial work environment and building related symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roda, C.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Mandin, C.; Fossati, S.; Carrer, P.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Mihucz, V.G.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the psychosocial work environment may affect health (Marmot et al. 2006). Nevertheless, these factors are still not commonly taken into account in the studies examining the relations between indoor environmental quality and employee’s health and wellbeing. Several

  12. Psychosocial components in prevention of MAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizouerne, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Recent research and intervention have shown that early childhood is a critical time for integrating health, nutrition and child stimulation. This presentation will highlight the importance of psychosocial component and in particular maternal mental health in the prevention of MAM. Examples from the field will be proposed for sharing difficulties and lessons learnt. (author)

  13. Determinants of Psychosocial Health in Psoriatic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Karolina; Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C.

    2017-01-01

    There are limited data on the differences in the impact of psoriasis between various countries with respect to quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to explore the psychosocial health of patients with psoriasis in different European countries. A total of 682 patients were recruited in 13...

  14. The psychosocial needs of gynaecological cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette Linnet; Hansson, Helena; Ottesen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop and pilot test an intervention targeting the women's psychosocial needs during the follow-up period after surgical treatment for gynaecological cancer. METHODS: The project consisted of four phases. Phase 1 involved development of an intervention on the basis of meetings...

  15. Psychosocial consequences of adolescents’ online communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, M.

    2016-01-01

    As a crucial part of psychosocial development, adolescents need to acquire adequate levels of self-esteem and social competence. Both are largely shaped in adolescents’ social interactions with peers, of which a substantial part takes place through online communication. The overarching aim of this

  16. Family Structure and Children's Psychosocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…

  17. Coping responses as predictors of psychosocial functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory and the Coping Responses Inventory – Adult Form. The prevalence of the use of Avoidance and Approach Coping, and the relationship between these responses and psychosocial functioning (Pain Severity, Interference, Support, Life Control, and Affective Distress) were ...

  18. Psychosocial counselling in donor sperm treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    2018-01-01

    For decades, donor sperm treatment is offered to men and women to build a family. In daily life, parents, children and donors have to deal with the consequences of this treatment. The studies of this thesis show that there are gaps in knowledge about specialist psychosocial counselling and guidance

  19. Older People of Tomorrow: A Psychosocial Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Attempts to narrow the scope of present uncertainties about the older population by sketching a psychosocial profile of the older people of tomorrow based on what is known today. Focuses on the baby boom generation and the interplay between personal attributes they could bring to late life and the social and physical environment in which they…

  20. Psychosocial Adjustment Needs of Menopausal Women | Dimkpa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial adjustment needs of menopausal women. The population of the study consisted of 623 menopausal women who were out-patients in Federal Medical Centre and a private hospital in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State of. Nigeria. The sample ...

  1. Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory: A Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mary McPhail; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The 72-item Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) was factor analyzed for a group of 534 university freshmen and sophomore students. Seven factors emerged, which were labeled Initiative, Industry, Identity, Friendship, Dating, Goal Clarity, and Self-Confidence. Item's representing Erikson's factors, Trust and Autonomy, were dispersed across…

  2. Androgyny, Ego Development and Psychosocial Crisis Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Karen J.; Bailey, John M.

    The present study examined the relationship of psychological androgyny with ego development in the context of Loevinger's theory, and with psychosocial crisis resolution from the perspective of Erikson's theory. A sample of 30 male and 30 female adults completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and the…

  3. The wicked character of psychosocial risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo Jespersen, Anne; Hasle, Peter; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft

    2016-01-01

    regulation, and particularly the enforcement in the form of inspection and audits of certified occupational health and safety management systems, face challenges in assessing psychosocial risks and the strategies used by regulators to overcome these challenges. While regulation has become more effective...

  4. Psychosocial Risks: Is Risk Management Strategic Enough in Business and Policy Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhan, Melissa K.; Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Background In times of continuous change and volatile markets, organizations are increasingly characterized by downsizing, work intensification, and resource rationalization. This has resulted in diversification, and the emergence of new risks within the field of occupational health and safety, with an important impact. This paper focuses on one such type of risk in the modern workplace—psychosocial risks. The current study aimed to explore stakeholder perspectives, regarding the extent to which psychosocial risks are incorporated into strategic risk management practices, at both the business and policy level. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 professionals, representing employer, expert, policy maker, and trade union stakeholder perspectives. Results It was found that the majority of organizations do not sufficiently, if at all, understand and incorporate psychosocial risks into strategic decision making, whereby the key barrier related to practical difficulties of not knowing how to manage psychosocial risks adequately. Conclusion The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes) and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance. PMID:23961331

  5. Psychosocial rehabilitation and mental health (24th European Congress of Psychiatry materials review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Frankova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental illness - is a heavy burden of modern society and may be underestimated. There are several reasons: the high prevalence of this category of disorders, high level of stigmatization, treatment gap between those who are mentally ill and those will be treated. The economic crisis and the lack of resources, make psychosocial rehabilitation of mental disorders even more complicated. Methods: This review is based on materials of the 24th Congress of the European Psychiatric Association (April 2016, Madrid, the participants of the "Eastern European Academy of the World Psychiatric Association and "Servier" company specifically for psychiatric journals of WPA Zone 10 (East European Educational WPA-Servier Academy - «EEE WPA-Servier Academy». The review will present materials from several symposiums: "Psychosocial rehabilitation and mental health", "Overcoming the stigma of mental disorders: recent advances and initiatives," "Fight stigma: a global challenge", and state-of-the-art report, "Psychosocial interventions in schizophrenia ». Results: As result, we anticipate that this review will distribute and promote knowledge about high quality standards and evidence-based research and treatment methods among the modern community of mental health experts. Conclusion: Current approach in psychosocial rehabilitation of severe mental disorders has changed significantly due to the data of evidence-based medicine, the use of effective, superior methods suggests a good outcome for a larger number of patients.

  6. Psychosocial risks: is risk management strategic enough in business and policy making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhan, Melissa K; Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya

    2013-06-01

    In times of continuous change and volatile markets, organizations are increasingly characterized by downsizing, work intensification, and resource rationalization. This has resulted in diversification, and the emergence of new risks within the field of occupational health and safety, with an important impact. This paper focuses on one such type of risk in the modern workplace-psychosocial risks. The current study aimed to explore stakeholder perspectives, regarding the extent to which psychosocial risks are incorporated into strategic risk management practices, at both the business and policy level. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 professionals, representing employer, expert, policy maker, and trade union stakeholder perspectives. It was found that the majority of organizations do not sufficiently, if at all, understand and incorporate psychosocial risks into strategic decision making, whereby the key barrier related to practical difficulties of not knowing how to manage psychosocial risks adequately. The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes) and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance.

  7. Managing the unmet psychosocial and information needs of patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Abrahamson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Abrahamson1, Morgan Durham1, Rebekah Fox21Department of Public Health, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA; 2Department of Communication, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USAAbstract: In this article, we synthesize current literature regarding the unmet needs of cancer patients, with a specific focus on interventions that address psychosocial distress, social support, and information deficits. Research indicates many patients diagnosed with cancer express unmet needs in terms of emotional distress, decision-making support, and practical concerns such as childcare, transportation, and financial assistance. Four types of system-level barriers to the meeting of patient psychosocial and information-based needs emerge from the literature: underidentification of needs due to inadequate assessment, time constraints on cancer care providers, lack of adequate reimbursement for psychosocial and information services, and barriers related to communication of disease-related information. There is also evidence that unmet need, especially unmet information need, is related to the level of patient health literacy. Patient empowerment through the resolution of unmet needs increases patient participation in care, and is especially crucial in regards to understanding risks and benefits of treatment. There is evidence that some interventions are effective for some patients, and that even relatively simple interventions can reduce psychosocial and information-based needs. The challenge is therefore to discover which intervention will be effective for each individual patient, and to attain the skills and resources necessary to intervene appropriately.Keywords: cancer, unmet need, health literacy, intervention

  8. Investigating the relationship between employees’ career anchors and their psychosocial employability attributes in a financial company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf M. Oosthuizen

    2014-10-01

    Research purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between employees’ career anchors and their psychosocial employability attributes as important career meta-capacities in contemporary career development. The study also investigated whether individuals from different age and race groups differed significantly regarding these career meta-capacities. Motivation for the study: Career management has become essential in the contemporary workplace for employees to sustain their employability. Research points to the importance of psychosocial career meta-capacities in helping employees to manage their career development and employability. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey using primary data was conducted on a non-probability purposive sample (N = 108 of full-time employees (67% women; 78% 26–45 years old; 78% black employees at a South African financial company. Correlations and Scheffé’s post-hoc test were performed to achieve the research objectives. Main findings: Significant positive relationships were observed between the participants’ career anchors and their psychosocial employability attributes. Age and race groups differed significantly only in terms of their career anchors. Practical/managerial implications: Career management practices in the organisation should accommodate the differences in career orientations and how these relate to the psychosocial employability attributes of their employees. Contribution: The findings add potentially important insights that may inform human resource practices aimed at enhancing the career development and employability of employees and addressing the career needs of different age and race groups.

  9. Cyber addictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2015-04-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina 2012; Nadeau et al., 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant 2011). The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013; Coulombe 2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al., 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5 (Block, 2008), others question the operational and practical bases for the diagnostic criteria. Some see cyberaddiction as a problem linked more to time management, to brain deficits, to an impulse-control disorder or to psychosocial conditions while others consider it to be a pre-existing comorbidity. Considering that most addiction problems are generally understood more as individual and pathological problems rather than the result of psychosocial conditions (poverty, unemployment, weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, etc), the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for this emerging trend in cyberaddictions. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. A demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early post-operative psychosocial and weight predictors of later outcome in bariatric surgery: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, A; de la Piedad Garcia, X; Brennan, L

    2017-03-01

    This is the first systematic review to synthesize the evidence concerning early post-operative variables predictive of later weight and psychosocial outcomes in bariatric surgery. Eight electronic databases for empirical studies were searched (1954 to 2016). Most of the 39 included studies reported solely on weight outcomes; eating and psychosocial outcomes were less common. A better early weight loss trajectory was the most consistent predictor of more successful medium-term weight outcome (≤24 months); however, its relationship to longer term weight loss maintenance is less certain. Early eating adaptation may be associated with later weight loss, but further research is needed. Evidence is lacking for associations between early adherence or early psychosocial variables and later outcome. In particular, the relationship between early post-operative depression and later weight remains unclear. Little research has considered early prediction of later eating or psychosocial outcomes. Consideration of mediating or moderating relationships is lacking. The body of evidence is limited, and synthesis is hampered by heterogeneity in the type and time at which predictors and outcomes are measured and quality of statistical reporting. Further research on prospective prediction of bariatric surgery outcome is needed to guide early post-operative intervention for those at greatest risk of poor outcomes. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  11. Unequal Burdens of Loss: Examining the Frequency and Timing of Homicide Deaths Experienced by Young Black Men Across the Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I examined the frequency and developmental timing of traumatic loss resulting from the health disparity of homicide among young Black men in Baltimore, Maryland. Methods. Using a modified grounded theory approach, I conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 40 Black men (aged 18–24 years) from January 2012 to June 2013. I also constructed adapted life history calendar tools using chronologies of loss, and (1) provided a comprehensive history of loss, (2) determined a specific frequency of homicide deaths, (3) indicated participants’ relationship to the decedents, and (4) identified the developmental timing of deaths. Results. On average, participants knew 3 homicide victims who were overwhelmingly peers. Participant experiences of homicide death started in early childhood, peaked in adolescence, and persisted into emerging adulthood. The traumatic loss of peer homicide was a significant developmental turning point and disrupted participants’ social networks. Conclusions. The traumatic loss of peer homicide was a prevalent life course experience for young Black men and identified the need for trauma- and grief-informed interventions. Future research is needed to examine the physical and psychosocial consequences, coping resources and strategies, and developmental implications of traumatic loss for young Black men in urban contexts. PMID:25905836

  12. Psychosocial study about the consequences of work in hospital nurses as human resource management Estudio psicosocial de las consecuencias del trabajo de los enfermeros hospitalarios como gestión de recursos humanos Estudo psicossocial das consequências do trabalho dos enfermeiros hospitalares como gestão de recursos humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª José López-Montesinos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relation between psychosocial and sociodemographic variables in nursing professionals. To discover the levels of job satisfaction, psychosomatic symptoms and psychological well-being in nurses. METHOD: The research was conducted in a sample of 476 nurses / as from nine hospitals in the region of Murcia (Spain. An occupational health protocol was distributed among the sample participants for completion, which contained tools for measuring and describing psychosocial and sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Although there is no high risk for psychological problems among the sample participants, psychosomatic symptoms, job dissatisfaction, and low psychological wellbeing are present. CONCLUSIONS: The results contribute to research on the subject by identifying the presence of psychosocial disorders in nursing professionals, associated with job conditions and certain psychosocial and sociodemographic variables.OBJETIVOS: Analizar la relación entre las variables psicosociales y las variables demográficas y sociolaborales en los profesionales de enfermería. Conocer los niveles de satisfacción laboral, síntomas psicosomáticos y bienestar psicológico en enfermeros. METODOLOGÍA: La investigación se realizó con una muestra de 476 enfermeros/as, procedentes de 9 centros hospitalarios de la región de Murcia (España. Se distribuye entre los participantes de la muestra un protocolo de salud laboral para su cumplimentación, que contenía herramientas de medición de variables psicosociales y descripción de variables demográficas y sociolaborales. RESULTADOS: Aunque no existe alto riesgo de problemas psicológicos en los componentes de la muestra, se presentan síntomas psicosomáticos, insatisfacción laboral, y bajo bienestar psicológico. CONCLUSIONES: Se aportan resultados a investigaciones desarrolladas sobre el tema, al identificar la presencia de alteraciones psicosociales en profesionales enfermeros, asociado a

  13. Instrumentalization of Eating Improves Weight Loss Maintenance in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Just Christensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial determinants for maintaining weight loss. Methods: 42 obese individuals who achieved a 12% weight loss before entering a 52-week weight maintenance program were interviewed qualitatively. Psychosocial factors related to weight loss maintenance were identified in two contrasting groups: weight reducers and weight regainers. Groups were defined by health-relevant weight maintenance (additional weight loss > 3% at week 52, n = 9 versus weight gain > 3%, at week 52, n = 20. Results: Weight reducers reported structured meal patterns (p = 0.008, no comfort eating (p = 0.016 and less psychosocial stress (p = 0.04 compared to weight regainers. The ability to instrumentalize eating behavior emerged as an important factor (p = 0.007. Nutritional knowledge, motivation or exercise level did not differ between groups (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Successful weight loss maintenance was associated with an interplay between behavioral, affective and contextual changes. ‘Instrumentalization of eating behavior' seems to be an important element in long-term weight maintenance.

  14. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change: a prospective study among Danish health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang; Aust, Birgit; Borg, Vilhelm; Bjorner, Jakob B

    2013-01-17

    Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses examined change in BMI (more than +/- 2 kg/m(2)) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands, type of work position and seniority). Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models.

  15. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms in urban Chinese women during midlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen K M Wong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in women with much research focusing on hormonal changes and menopausal symptoms but with little exploration of psychosocial problems in midlife. This study investigates the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women and its association with psychosocial factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based household survey of women aged 45 to 64 years of age was conducted in Hong Kong from September 2010 to March 2011. The structured questionnaire included demographic data, educational status, marital status and household income, as well as perceived current stressful events and significant life events in the past 12 months. Information on clinically relevant depressive symptoms was measured by the validated chinese Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. RESULTS: A total of 402 participants were recruited in the study period. Of the 393 women who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score≧10 was 11.0%. In multiple regression analysis, being single/divorced/separated/widowed, having an educational level of primary school level or below, having multiple chronic diseases, loss of hobby or loss of close social support in the past 12 months in midlife were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Correlates of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women can be used to identify those at increased risk and potentiate further studies to explore early psychosocial and community interventions.

  16. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms in urban Chinese women during midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen K M; Liang, Jun; Chan, Man L; Chan, Yin H; Chan, Laam; Wan, Kwong Y; Ng, Ming S; Chan, Dicken C C; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Martin C S

    2014-01-01

    Depression is common in women with much research focusing on hormonal changes and menopausal symptoms but with little exploration of psychosocial problems in midlife. This study investigates the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women and its association with psychosocial factors. A cross-sectional, community-based household survey of women aged 45 to 64 years of age was conducted in Hong Kong from September 2010 to March 2011. The structured questionnaire included demographic data, educational status, marital status and household income, as well as perceived current stressful events and significant life events in the past 12 months. Information on clinically relevant depressive symptoms was measured by the validated chinese Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A total of 402 participants were recruited in the study period. Of the 393 women who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score≧10) was 11.0%. In multiple regression analysis, being single/divorced/separated/widowed, having an educational level of primary school level or below, having multiple chronic diseases, loss of hobby or loss of close social support in the past 12 months in midlife were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Correlates of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women can be used to identify those at increased risk and potentiate further studies to explore early psychosocial and community interventions.

  17. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sint Nicolaas, S M; Schepers, S A; van den Bergh, E M M; de Boer, Y; Streng, I; van Dijk-Lokkart, E M; Grootenhuis, M A; Verhaak, C M

    2017-12-01

    The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare professionals blind to outcome of PAT assessment, and (ii) the match between PAT risk score and team risk estimation. Eighty-three families of children with cancer from four pediatric oncology centers in the Netherlands participated (59% response rate). The PAT and team risk estimation was assessed at diagnosis (M = 40.2 days, SD = 14.1 days), and the content of provided psychosocial care in the 5-month period thereafter resulting in basic or specialized care. According to the PAT, 65% of families were defined as having low (universal), 30% medium (targeted), and 5% high (clinical) risk for developing psychosocial problems. Thirty percent of patients from universal group got basic psychosocial care, 63% got specialized care, and 7% did not get any care. Fourteen percent of the families at risk got basic care, 86% got specialized care. Team risk estimations and PAT risk scores matched with 58% of the families. This study showed that families at risk, based on standardized risk assessment with the PAT, received more specialized care than families without risk. However, still 14% of the families with high risks only received basic care, and 63% of the families with standard risk got specialized care. Standardized risk assessment can be used as part of comprehensive care delivery, complementing the team. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Presenteeism, Absenteeism and psychosocial stress at work among German clinicians in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J

    2013-10-01

    Presenteeism is determined as turning up at work despite ill health. In the last decade this phenomenon became much more relevant and will be a central topic for future research in workplace health, health promotion and productivity loss. Compared to absenteeism research data about presenteeism are comparatively rare. Especially employees in health care are at high risk for presenteeism. The present study examines the degree of presenteeism and absenteeism among German hospital clinicians in surgery focussing on associations with psychosocial stress at work. The stratified randomised sample consisted of 1 311 German clinicians in surgery from 489 hospitals. The frequencies of presenteeism and absenteeism were respectively assessed by one item. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model. About 90% of the respondents indicate that they were working despite illness at least once a year, 65% actually answered sometimes or often. Nearly two thirds were absent due to illness for a minimum of once a year. Multivariate logistic regression analyses show that organisational and work-related factors are clearly associated with presenteeism. Compared to absenteeism, presenteeism shows stronger associations with psychosocial workload. Significant associations with different components of psychosocial stress reveal elevated odds ratios between 1.4 and 2.8. High efforts and demands, low rewards and increased overcommitment were notably emerging factors. Clinicians in surgery are affected by presenteesim to a high degree whereas rates of absenteeism are less striking. As potential causes for elevated presenteeism different aspects of psychosocial stress at work were identified. Workplace health promotion on different levels can reduce presenteeism to improve the health status and job performance among this occupational group that bears heavy responsibility. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. The experience of cancer survivors in community-based psycho-social support activities in Shanghai, China: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Tian-Rui; Shen, Qian; Yang, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Cong; Chen, Si-Jia; Li, Jiang; Luo, Zheng-Nian; Yuan, Zheng-Ping; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Cancer survivors are often embroiled in various physical and psycho-social issues as a consequence of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Psycho-social support activities in the phase of rehabilitation were provided to enhance their quality of life. This study seeks to explore and understand their experience of engagement in Shanghai Cancer Rehabilitation Club (SCRC). Sixty-eight participants attended eight semi-structured focus group interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis framework was adopted for data analysis. The participants reported benefits such as psychological support, informational provision and tangible support in the activities. Public services were reported to have restored their dignity and enabled them to rediscover their own meaning of life. Participants also pointed out challenges on functioning and opportunity for development of SCRC. The psycho-social support activities of SCRC had influenced cancer survivor's life. Public health resources and supportive policies should be in place to support local self-help cancer rehabilitation groups.

  20. [The NETWASS prevention model for early identification and assessment of adolescents in psychosocial crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Friederike; Fiedler, Nora; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research-based NETWASS prevention model aims to enable school staff to identify students experiencing a psychosocial crisis that could lead to severe targeted school violence and to initiate appropriate support measures. A detailed analysis of the adolescent psychosocial crisis is conducted at an early stage by evaluating possible warning behaviors, crisis symptoms, a student’s individual and social background, and resources. The model was implemented in 98 schools. During the project duration of seven months staff from 59 schools reported 99 cases of a student’s psychosocial crisis. Three experts conducted a content analysis of the reported qualitative data focusing on crisis symptoms of the students as well as the initiated measures. Results show a broad spectrum of risk factors, whereas aggressive behavior of students was reported most frequently. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, the reported cases were divided into three distinct risk groups. A total of eight high-risk cases were observed and reported by the school staff. The school staff mostly reacted to the student crisis by initiating resource-orientated measures, the expertise of child and youth therapists was mostly requested for the high risk cases. By describing the impact of cases and choice of measures undertaken, the study aims to give an overview of incidents schools as well as clinical psychologists and therapists are confronted with.

  1. Interactions between lean management and the psychosocial work environment in a hospital setting - a multi-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhassan, Waqar; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Thor, Johan; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-10-22

    As health care struggles to meet increasing demands with limited resources, Lean has become a popular management approach. It has mainly been studied in relation to health care performance. The empirical evidence as to how Lean affects the psychosocial work environment has been contradictory. This study aims to study the interaction between Lean and the psychosocial work environment using a comprehensive model that takes Lean implementation information, as well as Lean theory and the particular context into consideration. The psychosocial work environment was measured twice with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) employee survey during Lean implementations on May-June 2010 (T1) (n = 129) and November-December 2011 (T2) (n = 131) at three units (an Emergency Department (ED), Ward-I and Ward-II). Information based on qualitative data analysis of the Lean implementations and context from a previous paper was used to predict expected change patterns in the psychosocial work environment from T1 to T2 and subsequently compared with COPSOQ-data through linear regression analysis. Between T1 and T2, qualitative information showed a well-organized and steady Lean implementation on Ward-I with active employee participation, a partial Lean implementation on Ward-II with employees not seeing a clear need for such an intervention, and deterioration in already implemented Lean activities at ED, due to the declining interest of top management. Quantitative data analysis showed a significant relation between the expected and actual results regarding changes in the psychosocial work environment. Ward-I showed major improvements especially related to job control and social support, ED showed a major decline with some exceptions while Ward-II also showed improvements similar to Ward-I. The results suggest that Lean may have a positive impact on the psychosocial work environment given that it is properly implemented. Also, the psychosocial work environment may even

  2. A new DAWN: Improving the psychosocial management of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. G. Holt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN-2 study assessed psychosocial issues and health-care provision of people with diabetes, their family members and health-care professionals. Materials and Methods: Participants completed an online, telephone or in-person survey designed to assess health-related quality-of-life, self-management, attitudes/beliefs, social support and priorities for improving diabetes care as well as health-care provision and the impact of diabetes on family life. Results: A total of 8596 adults with diabetes, 2057 family members of people with diabetes and 4785 health-care professionals across 17 countries completed the survey. There were significant between country differences, but no one country′s outcomes were consistently better or worse than others. A high proportion of people with diabetes reported likely depression (13.8% and poor quality-of-life (12.2%. Diabetes had a negative impact on many aspects of life, including relationships with family/friends and physical health. A third of family members did not know how to help the person with diabetes, but wanted to be more involved in their care. Many health-care professionals indicated that major improvements were needed across a range of areas including health-care organization, resources for diabetes prevention, earlier diagnosis and treatment and psychological support. Conclusions: DAWN-2 is a multinational, multidisciplinary systematic study that compared unmet needs of people with diabetes and those who care for them in 17 countries across four continents. Its findings should facilitate innovative efforts to improve self-management and psychosocial support in diabetes, with the aim of reducing the burden of disease. The implications for India are discussed.

  3. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    ,670 participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark) were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, and sleep medication and were followed in nationwide registries until 2007, with less than 0.2% loss to follow-up. Almost one......Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8...... interval: 1.20, 3.10) and women (hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 3.65). Contrary to expectation, major life events, social network, and sleeping medication did not play an individual role for heart failure hospitalization. Because of the high prevalence of vital exhaustion...

  4. Symptoms predicting psychosocial impairment in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Staniford, Jessica; Luck, Amy

    2017-05-12

    The current study aimed to determine which particular eating disorder (ED) symptoms and related features, such as BMI and psychological distress, uniquely predict impairment in bulimia nervosa (BN). Two hundred and twenty-two adults with BN completed questionnaires assessing ED symptoms, general psychological distress, and psychosocial impairment. Regression analyses were used to determine predictors which account for variance in impairment. Four variables emerged as significant predictors of psychosocial impairment: concerns with eating; concerns with weight and shape; dietary restraint; and general psychological distress. Findings support previous work highlighting the importance of weight and shape concerns in determining ED-related impairment. Other ED symptoms, notably dietary restraint and concerns with eating, were also significant predictors as was psychological distress. Results suggest that cognitive aspects of EDs, in addition to psychological distress, may be more important determinants of impairment than behavioural symptoms, such as binge eating or purging.

  5. Psychosocial function and health in veteran families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mai Tødsø; Karmsteen, Kirstine; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    to the veteran or the mental health of the partner while relatively few publications deal with the veteran family as a whole or its members social relations outside the primary family. Furthermore, there are relatively few publications focusing on relatives to veterans deployed other places than Iraq...... the research field of psychosocial functioning and health among relatives living with a veteran, including potential gaps within this research field. We have found 103 publications. Most of them are American, 7 are from Europe and none from Scandinavia. Most publications focus on the partner’s relationship...... and Afghanistan, publications focusing on relatives of veterans with physical injuries and few publications dealing with relatives to female veterans. The overall conclusion is that there is a potential need for addressing psychosocial functioning and health among these groups of relatives in research to provide...

  6. Psychosocial effects of radiotherapy after mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughson, A.V.M.; Cooper, A.F.; Smith, D.C.; McArdle, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychosocial morbidity was measured in 47 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy and in 38 who received no further treatment after mastectomy. Roughly one third of all patients experienced depression or anxiety. One month after operation, before radiotherapy, there were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the measures of psychosocial morbidity. Knowledge of impending treatment did not seem to influence morbidity. At three months patients who had completed radiotherapy had significantly more somatic symptoms and social dysfunction than those not so treated. At six months the radiotherapy group continued to show more somatic symptoms, but a year after operation there were no significant differences between the groups. Although several patients who received radiotherapy were upset by their treatment, the study failed to confirm that depression and anxiety were commoner among those given radiotherapy than among patients given no further treatment. (author)

  7. Psychosocial distress and periodontitis in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Valeria; Marró, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease associated with predominantly gram negative biofilms and characterized by the progressive destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Some studies conducted among adults have found a significant association between periodontitis and dimensions...... of psychosocial distress and it is unclear whether this association can be found among younger subjects in which destruction of periodontal tissues as a result of periodontitis are less severe. Purpose: The main aim of this study was to assess whether adolescents with periodontitis presented with higher scores...... for non-psychotic psychosocial disorders than control subjects without periodontitis. Materials and Methods: We used a case control study (n=160) nested in a well-defined adolescent population (n=9,163) and the 28-item Spanish version of the General Health Questionnaire. The inclusion criterion for being...

  8. Social Entrepreneurship from a Psychosocial look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bargsted A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of social entrepreneurship, defined as any business initiative, with or nonprofit, whose primary objective is to generate social value. This is a recent and attractive field of research which progressively makes information gathering, although little of it is empirical. The aim of this review is to identify, relevant research questions from social psychology about social entrepreneurship. From the study of various investigations, possible psychosocial variables are identified, which are required for this type of entrepreneurship,such as individual characteristics, social reasons and a specific work identity. In addition, some looks on society, on the goals of organizations and on psychosocial aspects of organizational behavior are incorporated.

  9. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... in the population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure....

  10. Psychosocial considerations about children and radiological events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemyre, L.; Corneil, W.; Johnson, C.; Boutette, P.

    2010-01-01

    Children are identified as a vulnerable population in the case of radiological events because of their increased physical sensitivity to radiation and its impact on critical development stages. Using a comprehensive integrated risk framework, psychosocial risk protective factors are discussed in a social ecology paradigm. Children have been shown to be both vulnerable and resilient; they are both easily impressionable and also quick to adapt and learn. Psychosocial interventions during, after and most efficiently before an event can improve outcome, especially if they involve parents and schools, media and work organisations. Public education through children should be encouraged to increase knowledge of radiation and strategies to minimise exposure and irradiation. Children can become vectors of prevention, preparedness and mitigation through information and behavioural rehearsal. Special consideration must therefore be given to education, school programmes, practice rehearsal and media exposure. (authors)

  11. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  12. Psychosocial consequences of skin cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Markham Risica

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Screening for melanoma may save lives, but may also cause patient distress. One key reason that preventative visual skin examinations for skin cancer are not currently recommended is the inadequate available evidence to assess potential harm to psychosocial wellbeing. We investigated potential psychological harms and benefits of skin examinations by conducting telephone surveys in 2015 of 187 screened participants; all were ≥35 years old. Participants had their skin examined by practitioners who had completed INFORMED, a validated web-based training for detection of skin cancers, particularly melanoma. Participants underwent the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Psychological Consequences of Screening (PCQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale, and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Of the entire study sample, 40% were thoroughly screened as determined by patient-reported level of undress and skin areas examined. Participants who were thoroughly screened: did not differ on negative psychosocial measures; scored higher on measures of positive psychosocial wellbeing (PCQ; and were more motivated to conduct monthly self-examinations and seek annual clinician skin examinations, compared to other participants (p < 0.05. Importantly, thoroughly screened patients were more likely to report skin prevention practices (skin self-examinations to identify a concerning lesion, practitioner provided skin exam, recommend skin examinations to peers, and feel satisfied with their skin cancer education than less thoroughly screened individuals (p < 0.01. Our results suggest that visual screening for skin cancer does not worsen patient psychosocial wellbeing and may be associated with improved skin cancer-related practices and attitudes. Keywords: Cancer, Melanoma, Cancer prevention, Screening

  13. Psychosocial issues during an expedition to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Much is known about psychological and interpersonal issues affecting astronauts participating in manned space missions near the Earth. But in a future long-distance, long-duration expedition to Mars, additional stressors will occur that will result in psychological, psychiatric, and interpersonal effects on the crew, both negative and positive. This paper will review what is known about important psychosocial issues in space and will extrapolate them to the scenario of a future manned space mission to Mars.

  14. Psychosocial consequences of skin cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Markham Risica; Natalie H. Matthews; Laura Dionne; Jennifer Mello; Laura K. Ferris; Melissa Saul; Alan C. Geller; Francis Solano; John M. Kirkwood; Martin A. Weinstock

    2018-01-01

    Screening for melanoma may save lives, but may also cause patient distress. One key reason that preventative visual skin examinations for skin cancer are not currently recommended is the inadequate available evidence to assess potential harm to psychosocial wellbeing. We investigated potential psychological harms and benefits of skin examinations by conducting telephone surveys in 2015 of 187 screened participants; all were ≥35 years old. Participants had their skin examined by practitioners ...

  15. Network losses with photovoltaic and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, D.T.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent development of dispersed generation technologies employing sustainable energy resources has encouraged the entry of power generation at distribution level. The close distance between load and generation reduces the network losses. However, DG system with electronic devices gives harmonic

  16. Psychosocial interventions and the demoralization of humanitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupavac, Vanessa

    2004-07-01

    This paper critically analyses from a political sociology standpoint the international conceptualization of war-affected populations as traumatized and in need of therapeutic interventions. It argues for the importance of looking beyond the epidemiological literature to understand trauma responses globally. The paper explores how the imperative for international psychosocial programmes lies in developments within donor countries and debates in their humanitarian sectors over the efficacy of traditional aid responses. The aim of the paper is threefold. First, it discusses the emotional norms of donor states, highlighting the psychologizing of social issues and the cultural expectations of individual vulnerability. Second it examines the demoralization of humanitarianism in the 1990s and how this facilitated the rise of international psychosocial work and the psychologizing of war. Third, it draws attention to the limitations of a mental health model in Croatia, a country which has been receptive to international psychosocial programmes. Finally it concludes that the prevalent trauma approaches may inhibit recovery and argues for the need to re-moralize resilience.

  17. [Psychosocial problems and needs among cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Zachariae, Bobby

    2007-04-30

    Cancer can have a serious impact on patient well-being and quality of life. The international literature reports a higher prevalence of psychosocial problems among cancer patients; primarily problems associated with difficulties in the family, duties in the household, work and leisure, sexuality and finances. The prevalence of these problems among Danish cancer patients is still unknown. A questionnaire assessing psychosocial problems and needs was mailed out to all patients who had been at the Department of Oncology, Aarhus Hospital in week 35, 2004. A total of 71%, i.e. 515 patients (34% men and 66% women) in active treatment and control returned the questionnaire. High levels of emotional distress were reported by 39% of the patients. High levels of distress were primarily related to problems with worries about their spouses, household duties, financial problems and experiences of insufficient collaboration between health care and social services. Between 19% and 25% of the patients required further help to handle emotional problems, legal and financial problems and practical problems in the home. A considerable proportion of oncology patients experience significant levels of distress. This group of distressed patients also report unmet needs for psychosocial support.

  18. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  19. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... of visual aids. Some options include: Magnifiers High power reading glasses Devices that make it easier to ...

  20. [A comparison of maternal psychosocial adaptation among pregnant women with different gravidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Ting; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine women's psychosocial adaptation during different trimesters of pregnancy and to compare maternal psychosocial adaptation between primigravida and multigravida. A cross-sectional and comparative research design was conducted. A convenience sample consisting of 717 pregnant women who made a prenatal clinical visit in southern Taiwan were recruited for this study. The sample included 369 primigravida and 348 multigravida. A Demographic Inventory and the Chinese version of the Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire (PSEQ) were used to collect data. Results found that (1) the subscale "relationship with husband" for multigravida showed statistically significant differences between the three trimesters, with scores for the third trimester higher than those for the first. Also, multigravida had poorer adaptation on "relationship with husband" in the third trimester than in the first; (2) Analysis of covariance was used to adjust for age, marital status and planned pregnancy, as the distribution of such variables was significantly different between primigravida and multigravida. Results showed significant differences between the two sample groups in terms of PSEQ total scores and scores for "concern for well-being of self and baby," "preparation for labor," and "fear of helplessness, and loss of control in labor." This indicates that primigravida had poorer maternal psychosocial adaptation than multigravida and worried more about "concern for well-being of self and baby," "preparation for labor," and "fear of helplessness, and loss of control in labor." The findings of this study provide evidence-based data to help nursing professionals provide more suitable nursing care to pregnant women. Nurses should assess pregnant women's psychosocial adaptation during their prenatal visiting and then assist them to better understand the process of childbirth and enhance their level of control during labor. In addition, nurses should appraise

  1. Mental health and psychosocial support in crisis and conflict: report of the Mental Health Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allden, K; Jones, L; Weissbecker, I; Wessells, M; Bolton, P; Betancourt, T S; Hijazi, Z; Galappatti, A; Yamout, R; Patel, P; Sumathipala, A

    2009-01-01

    The Working Group on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support was convened as part of the 2009 Harvard Humanitarian Action Summit. The Working Group chose to focus on ethical issues in mental health and psychosocial research and programming in humanitarian settings. The Working Group built on previous work and recommendations, such as the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. The objective of this working group was to address one of the factors contributing to the deficiency of research and the need to develop the evidence base on mental health and psychosocial support interventions during complex emergencies by proposing ethical research guidelines. Outcomes research is vital for effective program development in emergency settings, but to date, no comprehensive ethical guidelines exist for guiding such research efforts. Working Group members conducted literature reviews which included peer-reviewed publications, agency reports, and relevant guidelines on the following topics: general ethical principles in research, cross-cultural issues, research in resource-poor countries, and specific populations such as trauma and torture survivors, refugees, minorities, children and youth, and the mentally ill. Working Group members also shared key points regarding ethical issues encountered in their own research and fieldwork. The group adapted a broad definition of the term "research", which encompasses needs assessments and data gathering, as well as monitoring and evaluation. The guidelines are conceptualized as applying to formal and informal processes of assessment and evaluation in which researchers as well as most service providers engage. The group reached consensus that it would be unethical not to conduct research and evaluate outcomes of mental health and psychosocial interventions in emergency settings, given that there currently is very little good evidence base for such interventions

  2. Monitoring psychosocial stress at work: development of the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerszal-Bazyl, M; Cieślak, R

    2000-01-01

    Many studies on the impact of psychosocial working conditions on health prove that psychosocial stress at work is an important risk factor endangering workers' health. Thus it should be constantly monitored like other work hazards. The paper presents a newly developed instrument for stress monitoring called the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC). Its structure is based on Robert Karasek's model of job stress (Karasek, 1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990). It consists of 3 main scales Job Demands, Job Control, Social Support and 2 additional scales adapted from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (Elo, Leppanen, Lindstrom, & Ropponen, 1992), Well-Being and Desired Changes. The study of 8 occupational groups (bank and insurance specialists, middle medical personnel, construction workers, shop assistants, government and self-government administration officers, computer scientists, public transport drivers, teachers, N = 3,669) indicates that PWC has satisfactory psychometrics parameters. Norms for the 8 groups were developed.

  3. Effects of patient-reported non-severe hypoglycemia on healthcare resource use, work-time loss, and wellbeing in insulin-treated patients with diabetes in seven European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Weitgasser, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    the effects of self-reported non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHE) on use of healthcare resources and patient wellbeing. Methods: Patients with T1DM or insulin-treated T2DM diabetes from seven European countries were invited to complete four weekly questionnaires. Data were collected on patient demographics...

  4. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  5. Post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe: The TENTS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witteveen, A. B.; Bisson, J. I.; Ajdukovic, D.

    2012-01-01

    At present post-disaster activities and plans seem to vary widely. An adequate estimation of the availability of post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe is needed in order to compare them with recently developed evidence-informed psychosocial care guidelines. Here we report on the results...... of a cross-sectional web-based survey completed in 2008 by two hundred and eighty-six representatives of organizations involved in psychosocial responses to trauma and disaster from thirty-three different countries across Europe. The survey addressed planning and delivery of psychosocial care after disaster......, methods of screening and diagnosis, types of interventions used, and other aspects of psychosocial care after trauma. The findings showed that planning and delivery of psychosocial care was inconsistent across Europe. Countries in East Europe seemed to have less central coordination of the post...

  6. Psychosocial situation of parents of children with congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lawoko, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Background: Current knowledge of the psychosocial situation of parents of congenital heart disease children (PCCHD) should be interpreted with caution. Most studies may not be representative of the population in question, and tend to concentrate mainly on describing PCCHD's distress experiences. Little is known about determinants of PCCHD's psychosocial situation in general. Aims: The general aim of this thesis was to study the psychosocial situation of PCCHD relative to...

  7. Video gaming and children's psychosocial wellbeing: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Stone, L.L.; Burk, W.J.; Granic, I.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of video games on children?s psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27?11.43 years old; male?=?98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b) competitively; likewise, parents reported their children?s psychosocial health. Gaming at time one was associated with increases in emotion problems. Violent gaming was not associated with psychosocial ...

  8. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  9. Psychosocial factors and theory in physical activity studies in minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; McNeill, Lorna H; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Diamond, Pamela M; Adamus-Leach, Heather J; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the effectiveness of interventions targeting psychosocial factors to increase physical activity (PA) among ethnic minority adults and explore theory use in PA interventions. Studies (N = 11) were identified through a systematic review and targeted African American/Hispanic adults, specific psychosocial factors, and PA. Data were extracted using a standard code sheet and the Theory Coding Scheme. Social support was the most common psychosocial factor reported, followed by motivational readiness, and self-efficacy, as being associated with increased PA. Only 7 studies explicitly reported using a theoretical framework. Future efforts should explore theory use in PA interventions and how integration of theoretical constructs, including psychosocial factors, increases PA.

  10. Psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousino, Melissa K; Schumacher, Kurt R; Rea, Kelly E; Eder, Sally; Zamberlan, Mary; Jordan, Jessica; Fredericks, Emily M

    2018-03-01

    Across pediatric organ transplant populations, patient and family psychosocial functioning is associated with important health-related outcomes. Research has suggested that pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families are at increased risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes; however, recent investigation of psychosocial functioning in this population is lacking. This study aimed to provide a contemporary characterization of psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families. Associations between psychosocial function, demographic variables, and transplant-related variables were investigated. Fifty-six parents/guardians of pediatric heart transplant recipients completed a comprehensive psychosocial screening measure during transplant follow-up clinic visits. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and independent samples t tests were performed. Forty percent of pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families endorsed clinically meaningful levels of total psychosocial risk. One-third of patients presented with clinically significant psychological problems per parent report. Psychosocial risk was unassociated with demographic or transplant-related factors. Despite notable improvements in the survival of pediatric heart transplant recipients over the past decade, patients and families present with sustained psychosocial risks well beyond the immediate post-transplant period, necessitating mental health intervention to mitigate adverse impact on health-related outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Psychosocial profile of pediatric brain tumor survivors with neurocognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marieke Anna; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yvonne Narda; van Vuurden, Dannis Gilbert; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Gidding, Corrie; Beek, Laura Rachel; Granzen, Bernd; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Grootenhuis, Martha Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    With more children surviving a brain tumor, neurocognitive consequences of the tumor and its treatment become apparent, which could affect psychosocial functioning. The present study therefore aimed to assess psychosocial functioning of pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) in detail. Psychosocial functioning of PBTS (8-18 years) with parent-reported neurocognitive complaints was compared to normative data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), self-esteem, psychosocial adjustment, and executive functioning (one-sample t tests) and to a sibling control group on fatigue (independent-samples t test). Self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires were included, where appropriate, providing complementary information. Eighty-two PBTS (mean age 13.4 years, SD 3.2, 49 % males) and 43 healthy siblings (mean age 14.3, SD 2.4, 40 % males) were included. As compared to the normative population, PBTS themselves reported decreased physical, psychological, and generic HRQOL (d = 0.39-0.62, p psychosocial adjustment seemed not to be affected. Parents of PBTS reported more psychosocial (d = 0.81, p psychosocial adjustment problems for female PBTS aged 8-11 years than for the female normative population (d = 0.69, p psychosocial problems, as reported by PBTS, parents, and teachers. Systematic screening of psychosocial functioning is necessary so that tailored support from professionals can be offered to PBTS with neurocognitive complaints.

  12. Effect of Psychosocial Intervention in Women Following Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moynihan, Jan

    1997-01-01

    .... The central technical objective of this proposal is to determine whether a multimodal psychosocial intervention provided during the presurgery interval affects immune and psychological function...

  13. Turning research on the psychosocial working environment into regulatory practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft; Starheim, Liv

    The psychosocial working environment is an expanding field of research. Within the last decades a lot of knowledge has been developed in the field. The question however remains how this knowledge can be, and is being, utilized in the regulation of the psychosocial working environment. This question...... we understand this process as a translation of knowledge into policies, tools and actors dealing with the psychosocial working environment. Drawing on this understanding we develop a model that illustrates the utility of different types of research on the psychosocial working environment...

  14. Psychosocial impairment in DSM-5 intermittent explosive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynar, Lauren; Coccaro, Emil F

    2018-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to document the functional severity of DSM-5 IED in a clinical research sample. IED and control groups were compared on psychosocial functioning, life satisfaction, and on a variety of cognitive and behavioral issues. IED study participants reported significantly worse psychosocial function, quality of life, and higher job dysfunction than both psychiatric and healthy control study participants. The presence of DSM-5 IED is associated with significant psychosocial and functional impairment. Early intervention may aid in minimizing the consequences of impulsive aggressive behavior, and improving psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How Older Persons Perceive the Loss of Independence: The Need of a Holistic Approach to Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escourrou, E; Cesari, M; Chicoulaa, B; Fougère, B; Vellas, B; Andrieu, S; Oustric, S

    2017-01-01

    Since 2004, the definition of the frailty syndrome has shifted from purely physical criteria to a more comprehensive consideration of the individual, including their psychosocial criteria. In this study, qualitative research methods were used as a complementary approach in order to enrich the existing quantitative results in this area. To understand the views of older persons on the risk of loss of independence. The study population comprised people over 75 years of age who were living at home in the south-west of France and were considered to be at risk of losing their independence. Data were collected using individual semi-structured in-depth interviews, accompanied by observations. Inductive analysis was carried out according to grounded theory methods. Fifteen individual interviews were conducted to achieve theoretical data saturation. Analysis of the content of the interviews revealed seven risk factors for the loss of independence: poor mental health, poor physical health, social isolation, no longer leaving the home, an unsuitable environment, unsuitable living conditions, and few resources. These results complement the purely physical approach to screening for the frailty syndrome and lead us to reconsider our screening approach to include a more holistic view of the older person and their circumstances.

  16. Psychosocial responses of children to cardiac pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, D; Uzark, K; Dick, M

    1989-03-01

    To examine the psychosocial responses of children and adolescents with a cardiac pacemaker and compare their responses to those of their peers, we evaluated 30 pediatric pacemaker patients, aged 7 to 19 years, and two age- and sex-matched comparison groups, including 30 patients with similar heart disease but without pacemakers and 30 physically healthy children, using standardized psychometric tests and a specific interview format. We postulated that children with pacemakers would experience greater stress in psychosocial adaptation. No significant differences on standardized measures of trait anxiety, self-competence, or self-esteem were found between the pacemaker group and the comparison groups. In contrast, pacemaker subjects were significantly (p less than 0.05) more external in their locus-of-control orientation than were healthy subjects, suggesting a diminished sense of personal control and less autonomy. Pacemaker subjects, particularly the older ones, had significantly (p less than 0.05) greater knowledge of pacemaker systems than did subjects in the other two groups, facilitating the use of intellectualization as a coping mechanism. The pacemaker patients were likely to be as fearful of social rejection as of potential pacemaker failure. All three groups identified potential negative peer reactions toward an individual with a pacemaker. The patients with cardiac disease but without pacemakers and the healthy subjects perceived significant (p less than 0.05) social and emotional differences between patients with pacemakers and their peers, but the pacemaker patients did not view themselves as different from their peers. This study demonstrates healthy psychosocial adaptation of children with cardiac pacemakers. Although these children appear to cope effectively with the stress of their life situation through the use of denial and intellectualization, they may experience problems both in the development of autonomy and in social isolation and rejection.

  17. Psychosocial aspects of cardiac rehabilitation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, S

    1992-11-01

    While the present objectives of cardiac rehabilitation include recovery or restoration of everyday behaviour and secondary prevention, the effects of the traditional exercise-based, cardiac rehabilitation programmes are quite modest. It is argued that psychological interventions may affect these targets more easily, since there is evidence from controlled studies that psychological interventions may have beneficial effects on psychosocial recovery, compliance with medical advice and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As a consequence one may expect that psychologists would be at least part-time members of most cardiac rehabilitation teams in European countries. In order to get an impression of the position of psychologists and the share of psychosocial care in cardiac rehabilitation in Europe, a questionnaire was sent out to two or three individuals in each European country. Health care professionals from 16 European countries returned their completed questionnaires on time. Among other things, the results show that in general social workers and psychologists, who may be considered the main potential agents for psychosocial care, are largely underrepresented in cardiac rehabilitation teams. As far as psychologists are concerned, the number involved in cardiac rehabilitation varies significantly from country to country. Three groups of countries could be distinguished: a group consisting of The Netherlands, Austria, and Italy, where psychologists are fairly well represented; a second one consisting of Norway, Finland and Belgium, where small numbers of psychologists are involved in cardiac rehabilitation; and a third group (the largest) consisting of Switzerland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden, the UK, Greece, Portugal and Turkey, where the number of psychologists is negligible.

  18. Effects of delayed psychosocial interventions versus early psychosocial interventions for women with early stage breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Petra J.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Garssen, Bert; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial counselling after a diagnosis of cancer has been acknowledged and many intervention studies have been carried out, with the aim to find out which types of intervention are most effective in enhancing quality of life in cancer patients. A factor which could be part of

  19. [Psychosocial intervention in hospitalization due to alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, J; Solano, S

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents a descriptive-type research on the findings of a 1-year follow-up experiment on a 72-inpatient at the Instituto sobre Alcoholismo y Fármacodependencia of the city of San José, Costa Rica. Information wa obtained from a 59-question instrument aimed at exploring: Sociodemographic aspects, alcohol ingestion-abstention patterns; interpersonal, family and labor relationships, autodiagnosis, and evaluation of the treatment program. During the 3-week inpatient treatment, a psychosocial treatment was administered to all subjects. Owing to the substantial changes patients evidenced in the above mentioned areas, findings suggest that the objectives were fulfilled satisfactorily enough.

  20. Psychosocial and financial aspects of lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, T L; Aguiar, L J

    1996-09-01

    This article summarizes the many psychosocial phases a patient will encounter during his or her transplantation experience and the ways the social worker can assist during this time. These include supportive services such as facilitating support groups and orientation programs, counseling, and crisis intervention. Also of importance is the financing of lung transplantation and its many associated costs, such as immunosuppressive medications and temporary housing. With the rise in managed care, the role of the transplant financial coordinator is of increasing importance from both a fiscal perspective and customer service standpoint for both the patient and the institution.

  1. Psychosocial and Environmental Factors Associated with Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth; McDonough, Megan H; Edwards, Nancy E; Lyle, RM; Troped, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Dog walking is associated with higher levels of physical activity (PA). However, not all dog owners walk their dog(s) at a level sufficient for health benefits. Therefore, identifying correlates of dog walking may help to inform the design of more effective interventions to promote this specific form of PA. The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial and environmental correlates of dog walking and relationships of dog walking with overall PA. In 2010, 391 dog owners (Mage= 43.6±12.3...

  2. Audit of psychosocial risk management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Anne Helbo; Hasle, Peter; Hohnen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    organizations on how to manage risks. Internal and external audits of compliance with the standard are key elements. Auditors should be competent to carry out the task and be familiar with risks of the areas they are auditing. The competences and practice of internal auditors have been studied...... in two Danish municipalities. The results show that auditors have a varied background and a limited knowledge about psychosocial risks. They have difficulties in carrying out audits and the results are mainly influenced by personal preferences....

  3. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  4. Randomised trial comparing hysterectomy with endometrial ablation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding: psychiatric and psychosocial aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D. A.; Naji, A. A.; Pinion, S. B.; Mollison, J.; Kitchener, H. C.; Parkin, D. E.; Abramovich, D. R.; Russell, I. T.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare in psychiatric and psychosocial terms the outcome of hysterectomy and endometrial ablation for the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled trial. SETTING--Obstetrics and gynaecology department of a large teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 204 women with dysfunctional bleeding for whom hysterectomy would have been the preferred treatment were recruited over 24 months and randomly allocated to hysterectomy (99 women) or to hysteroscopic surgery (transcervical resection (52 women) or laser ablation (53 women). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mental state, martial relationship, psychosocial and sexual adjustment in assessments conducted before the operation and one month, six months, and 12 months later. RESULTS: Both treatments significantly reduced the anxiety and depression present before the operation, and there were no differences in mental health between the groups at 12 months. Hysterectomy did not lead to postoperative psychiatric illness. Sexual interest after the operation did not vary with treatment. Overall, 46 out of 185 (25%) women reported a loss sexual interest and 50 out of 185 (27%) reported increased sexual interest. Marital relationships were unaffected by surgery. Personality and duration of dysfunctional uterine bleeding played no significant part in determining outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Hysteroscopic surgery and hysterectomy have a similar effect on psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes. There is no evidence that hysterectomy leads to postoperative psychiatric illness. PMID:8611783

  5. Behavioral and Psychosocial Characteristics Among Head Start Childcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was twofold: (a) describe behavioral and psychosocial characteristics of Head Start childcare providers including technology use, physical activity, nutrition, depression, and quality of life and (b) examine associations among these characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design, a nonrandom sample of 80 Head Start childcare providers completed an online survey via SurveyMonkey. About 80.1% were overweight or obese. Nearly all had a computer or smartphone. About 55% met the national physical activity recommendation of 150 min/week. Approximately 56.2% did not know the recommended daily servings of fruits and vegetables, and 26.3% had ≥3 servings of vegetables per day. About 38.8% had major depression or dysthymia, and 31.3% had depressive symptoms. The top two perceived health needs were weight loss and stress management. Providing a health promotion and stress management program to childcare providers may benefit both providers and children, considering the strong influence of teachers on children.

  6. Theory, training and timing: psychosocial interventions in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, William

    2006-06-01

    The Asian tsunami of December 2004 galvanised mental health and emergency agencies in a way that no other recent disaster has done. The loss of life and forced migration focused national and international agencies on the need to provide appropriate psychosocial care from the very beginning. The prior academic arguments surrounding early intervention paled into insignificance against the urgent need to reduce distress and prevent chronic mental health problems. This chapter notes that there was a major, planned and early intervention following the earthquake in Bam, exactly one year earlier. The lessons from that are only now beginning to filter through and help shape better responses to disasters. It is argued that too many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and even IGOs are following theoretical positions that have little empirical justification. There is an urgent need for training for mental health and NGO personnel alike to deliver evidence-based psychological first aid. There is no justification for mental health responses to be delayed until weeks after a disaster happens.

  7. Internet Addiction in adolescence: Neurobiological, psychosocial and clinical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, L; Zoratto, F; Cimino, S; Laviola, G; Ammaniti, M; Adriani, W

    2017-05-01

    Despite it has not been formally included in DSM-5 as a disorder, 'Internet addiction (IA)' has become a worldwide issue. It can be broadly defined as a non-chemical, behavioral addiction, which involves human-machine interaction. We pinpoint it as an "instrumental" form of social interaction (i.e. mediated by machines), a notion that appears useful for the sake of possible preclinical modeling. The features of Internet use reveals as addictive when this comes at the expense of genuine real-life sociability, with an overlap towards the hikikomori phenomenon (i.e., extreme retreat to one's own room). Due to the specific neuro-developmental plasticity in adolescence, IA poses risks to youths' mental health, and may likely produce negative consequences in everyday life. The thwarted development of adolescents' identity, self-image and adaptive social relationships is discussed: the IA adolescents often suffer loss of control, feelings of anger, symptoms of distress, social withdrawal, and familial conflicts. Further, more severe clinical conditions are also associated to IA, such as dysthymic, bipolar, affective, social-anxiety disorders, as well as major depression. This paper overviews the literature on IA, from neuro-biological, psycho-social and clinical standpoints, taking into account recent debates on diagnostic criteria, nosographic label and assessment tools. Neuroimaging data and neurochemical regulations are illustrated with links to pathogenetic hypotheses, which are amenable to validation through innovative preclinical modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clients’ psychosocial communication and midwives’ verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study focuses on facilitation of clients’ psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives’ psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling

  9. Psychosocial Modeling of Insider Threat Risk Based on Behavioral and Word Use Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2013-10-01

    In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee’s behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. A complementary Personality Factor modeling approach was developed based on analysis to derive relevant personality characteristics from word use. Several implementations of the psychosocial model were evaluated by comparing their agreement with judgments of human resources and management professionals; the personality factor modeling approach was examined using email samples. If implemented in an operational setting, these models should be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

  10. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J.C. Mc Carthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet.

  11. Relative importance and interrelations between psychosocial factors and individualized quality of life of hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, David; Gidron, Yori; Jean, Tzipora; Granovsky, Ricardo; Schnieder, Alla

    2003-09-01

    Since quality of life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients is low and frequently difficult to improve by medical therapy, it is important to identify psychosocial correlates and life-domains important for HD patients' QOL. Our hypothesis was that psychosocial factors reflecting appraisal, external and internal resources/impediments correlate with QOL and compensate for adverse effects of disease-related variables on QOL. Forty-eight chronic HD-patients identified and rank-ordered life-domains important for QOL and rated their level of satisfaction with those domains. This was performed using a slightly modified version of the Self-Evaluated Individualized QOL (SEiQOL) Scale. Psychosocial factors included perceived-control (PC), social-support and hostility. Demographic and disease-related factors included age, gender, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hematocrit, albumin and C-reactive protein. QOL was significantly correlated with PC (r = 0.65) and social-support (r = 0.38), and inversely correlated with hostility (r = -0.31), diabetes and hypoalbuminemia (all at least p < 0.05). PC mediated effects of certain variables (e.g., albumin, gender, hostility) and moderated effects of little social-support and hypoalbuminemia on QOL. Patients' most important QOL domains were health, with which satisfaction was lowest, followed by family, with which satisfaction was highest. Pending replication with larger samples, assessment and enhancement of PC may improve HD patients' QOL.

  12. Interaction between the RGS6 gene and psychosocial stress on obesity-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2017-03-31

    Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and arises from the interactions between environmental factors and multiple genes. Psychosocial stress may affect the risk for obesity, modifying food intake and choice. A recent study suggested regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a novel candidate gene for obesity in terms of reward-related feeding under stress. In this study, we tried to verify the unidentified connection between RGS6 and human obesity with psychosocial stress in a Korean population. A total of 1,462 adult subjects, who participated in the Korean Association Resource cohort project, were included for this analysis. Obesity-related traits including waist circumference, body mass index, and visceral adipose tissue were recorded. A total of 4 intronic SNPs for the RGS6 gene were used for this study. We found that interactions between SNP rs2239219 and psychosocial stress are significantly associated with abdominal obesity (p = 0.007). As risk allele of this SNP increased, prevalence of abdominal obesity under high-stress conditions gradually increased (p = 0.013). However, we found no SNPs-by-stress interaction effect on other adiposity phenotypes. This study suggests that RGS6 is closely linked to stress-induced abdominal obesity in Korean adults.

  13. Favored subjects and psychosocial needs in music therapy in terminally ill cancer patients: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Pia; Kordovan, Sarah; Ullrich, Anneke; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin

    2016-05-12

    Research has shown positive effects of music therapy on the physical and mental well-being of terminally ill patients. This study aimed to identify favored subjects and psychosocial needs of terminally ill cancer patients during music therapy and associated factors. Forty-one Patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care prospectively performed a music therapy intervention consisting of at least two sessions (total number of sessions: 166; per patient average: 4, range, 2-10). Applied music therapy methods and content were not pre-determined. Therapeutic subjects and psychosocial needs addressed in music therapy sessions were identified from prospective semi-structured "field notes" using qualitative content analysis. Patient- and treatment-related characteristics as well as factors related to music and music therapy were assessed by questionnaire or retrieved from medical records. Seven main categories of subjects were identified: "condition, treatment, further care", "coping with palliative situation", "emotions and feelings", "music and music therapy", "biography", "social environment", and "death, dying, and spiritual topics". Patients addressed an average of 4.7 different subjects (range, 1-7). Some subjects were associated with gender (p = .022) and prior impact of music in patients' life (p = .012). The number of subjects per session was lower when receptive music therapy methods were used (p = .040). Psychosocial needs were categorized into nine main dimensions: "relaxing and finding comfort", "communication and dialogue", "coping and activation of internal resources", "activity and vitality", "finding expression", "sense of self and reflection", "finding emotional response", "defocusing and diversion", and "structure and hold". Patients expressed an average of 4.9 psychosocial needs (range, 1-8). Needs were associated with age, parallel art therapy (p = .010), role of music in patient's life (p = .021), and the applied music

  14. 2015 President's Plenary International Psycho-oncology Society: psychosocial care as a human rights issue-challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travado, Luzia; Breitbart, William; Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Patenaude, Andrea; Baider, Lea; Connor, Stephen; Fingeret, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) Human Rights Task Force has been working since 2008 to raise awareness and support, for the relevance of psychosocial cancer care as a human rights issue. In 2014 the "Lisbon Declaration: Psychosocial Cancer Care as a Universal Human Right" was fully endorsed by IPOS. Subsequently, the IPOS Standard on Quality Cancer Care, endorsed by 75 cancer organizations worldwide, has been updated and now includes 3 core principles: Psychosocial cancer care should be recognised as a universal human right; Quality cancer care must integrate the psychosocial domain into routine care; Distress should be measured as the 6th vital sign. The President's plenary held at the 2015 World Congress of Psycho-Oncology in Washington DC was devoted to discussing psychosocial care as a human rights issue. Many challenges and opportunities are illustrated in different continents and contexts: from Africa where resources for basic cancer treatment are scarce and children and their parents face significant difficulties with hospital detention practices; to Europe where for many countries psychosocial care is still seen as a luxury; and the Middle East where Muslim women face stigma and a culture of silence over cancer. We further discuss how to move the Lisbon Declaration forward towards its implementation into clinical practice globally, using the successful example of the World Health Assembly resolution supporting palliative care as a human right which has achieved widespread approval, and identifying the vital role the IPOS Federation of National Psychoncology Societies plays worldwide to move this agenda forward. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. 2015 President's Plenary International Psycho-oncology Society: psychosocial care as a human rights issue–challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travado, Luzia; Breitbart, William; Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Patenaude, Andrea; Baider, Lea; Connor, Stephen; Fingeret, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) Human Rights Task Force has been working since 2008 to raise awareness and support, for the relevance of psychosocial cancer care as a human rights issue. In 2014 the “Lisbon Declaration: Psychosocial Cancer Care as a Universal Human Right” was fully endorsed by IPOS. Subsequently, the IPOS Standard on Quality Cancer Care, endorsed by 75 cancer organizations worldwide, has been updated and now includes 3 core principles: Psychosocial cancer care should be recognised as a universal human right; Quality cancer care must integrate the psychosocial domain into routine care; Distress should be measured as the 6th vital sign. The President's plenary held at the 2015 World Congress of Psycho-Oncology in Washington DC was devoted to discussing psychosocial care as a human rights issue. Many challenges and opportunities are illustrated in different continents and contexts: from Africa where resources for basic cancer treatment are scarce and children and their parents face significant difficulties with hospital detention practices; to Europe where for many countries psychosocial care is still seen as a luxury; and the Middle East where Muslim women face stigma and a culture of silence over cancer. We further discuss how to move the Lisbon Declaration forward towards its implementation into clinical practice globally, using the successful example of the World Health Assembly resolution supporting palliative care as a human right which has achieved widespread approval, and identifying the vital role the IPOS Federation of National Psychoncology Societies plays worldwide to move this agenda forward. PMID:27530206

  16. Psychosocial safety climate buffers effects of job demands on depression and positive organizational behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Garry B; Dollard, Maureen F; Winefield, Anthony H; Dormann, Christian; Bakker, Arnold B

    2013-01-01

    In a general population sample of 2343 Australian workers from a wide ranging employment demographic, we extended research testing the buffering role of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a macro-level resource within the health impairment process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Moderated structural equation modeling was used to test PSC as a moderator between emotional and psychological job demands and worker depression compared with control and social support as alternative moderators. We also tested PSC as a moderator between depression and positive organizational behaviors (POB; engagement and job satisfaction) compared with control and social support as moderators. As expected we found PSC moderated the effects of job demands on depression and further moderated the effects of depression on POB with fit to the data that was as good as control and social support as moderators. This study has shown that PSC is a macro-level resource and safety signal for workers acting to reduce demand-induced depression. We conclude that organizations need to focus on the development of a robust PSC that will operate to buffer the effects of workplace psychosocial hazards and to build environments conducive to worker psychological health and positive organizational behaviors.

  17. [Psychosocial dwarfism, a reality: Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, A; Chalies, S; Jeandel, C; Rodière, M

    2010-05-01

    Psychosocial dwarfism is a rare condition, but can still be observed. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl seen in our clinic for severe growth retardation that had been evolving for several years. A growth arrest was observed beginning at the age of 3.5years. Initial clinical examination and biological investigations were negative. As the child was hospitalized, serious disturbances in mother-child relations were observed. A significant modification of the child's behavior was observed when the mother was absent. Following questioning, the mother admitted social problems; the pregnancy had not been desired and this contributed to a lack of attachment between the mother and the child. Psychosocial dwarfism seems to originate from serious disturbances in the mother-child relationship. It seems to be caused by a partial growth hormone deficiency and a frequent context of malnutrition due to food behavior disorders. Family problems need to be taken into account and intensive medical and psychological follow-up is required. Prognosis is good if an early diagnosis is made and followed with a close and prolonged follow-up. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Patient's Self-Assessment of Social-Approval After Mandibulectomy with Disarticulation: the Necessity for Jaw Reconstruction Following Loss of Facial Symmetry in a Resource-Poor African Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko-Olokun, Bayo; Olaitan, Ademola A

    2017-12-01

    Mandibulectomy with disarticulation is usually carried out without reconstruction in Low-Income-Countries. Lower standards of living are usually acceptable and adapted to, in poor societies. This study compares patient's self-assessment of social approval among reconstructed and non-reconstructed cases of mandibulectomy with disarticulation in a resource-poor African setting. This questionnaire-based study documented patient's self-assessment of social approval of themselves following mandibulectomy with disarticulation. 12 derived queries were administered on each patient, to test what they perceived of social acceptability of their facial features following mandibulectomy. All 10 patients who underwent mandibular reconstruction reported that they felt confident engaging in all forms of social activity, while all 10 who had resection without reconstruction did not. The low social approval perceived by patients who have undergone mandibulectomy with disarticulation without reconstruction necessitates that surgeons must strive to reconstruct this anatomical region even under circumstances of severe resource-constraint. The culture in the third-world is not supportive of patients who have not undergone reconstruction following resection, in spite of being victims of all-pervading poverty. Level IV, investigative study.

  19. Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adolescent Care: Psychosocial and Medical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female or elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression are not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. Recent findings The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one’s birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Summary Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents. PMID:26087416

  20. Transgender and gender nonconforming adolescent care: psychosocial and medical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L

    2015-08-01

    Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female, or being elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression is not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one's birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents.

  1. Identificação de alguns problemas psicossociais em portadores de hanseníase utilizando para a análise os recursos da informática Identification of some psychosocial aspects in patients with leprosy using computerized analyses resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Frazão Helene

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar nos pacientes com hanseníase alguns problemas psicossociais, como preocupações e mudanças ocorridas em relação à família, aos amigos, ao emprego e a si próprio, após terem sido informados do diagnóstico da doença. Na metodologia foram utilizados alguns recursos da informática, como o programa KARDS , gerenciador da base de dados, e o software JARGÃO, que possibilitou a tarefa de analisar em linguagem natural os depoimentos dos pacientes, obtidos por meio de entrevista composta por duas perguntas abertas. Os resultados encontrados evidenciaram que após o diagnóstico da doença a maioria dos pacientes estudados apresentava preocupações e manifestava algum tipo de mudança em relação à família, aos amigos, ao emprego e a si próprios. As preocupações estavam relacionadas principalmente à possibilidade de transmitir a doença, especialmente para os familiares, e à incerteza da cura. As mudanças diziam respeito especialmente ao aparecimento de sintomas que, segundo os pacientes, poderiam provocar reações discriminatórias por parte de outras pessoas. Esses fatos levavam os pacientes a não contar aos amigos sobre sua doença.The purpose of this study was to identify leprosy patients' psychosocial problems experienced after they were informed about their diagnosis. We foccused attention upon concerns and behavioral changes related to their families, friends, jobs and to themselves. Data were obtained by a two opened questions interview and they were analysed with the aid of artificial intelligence techniques. These inteligence tools were used to discover the most frequent words, phrases and concepts existing in the interview reports. The results showed that after being informed about their diagnosis, the majority of the patients referred some concerns and behavioral changes related to their families, friends, jobs and to themselves. The main concerns of the population were

  2. Loss of productivity due to neck/shoulder symptoms and hand/arm symptoms: Results from the PROMO-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S.G. van den; IJmker, S.; Blatter, B.M.; Korte, E.M. de

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of the present study is to describe the extent of productivity loss among computer workers with neck/shoulder symptoms and hand/arm symptoms, and to examine associations between pain intensity, various physical and psychosocial factors and productivity loss in computer

  3. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  4. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic psychosocial stress and serum uric acid (SUA) level have been implicated in the etiology and cardiovascular events risk factors in hypertension. Studies have reported significant benefit of exercise in the overall management of hypertension. However, studies on the effect of exercise on psychosocial ...

  5. Role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To summarize literature data about the role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism. METHODS: A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Database was performed to identify all peer-reviewed papers in the English literature dealing with the bruxism-psychosocial

  6. Unhealthy behaviors in adolescents: multibehavioral associations with psychosocial problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Johannes Robertus Josephus

    2014-06-01

    Several unhealthy behaviors are associated with psychosocial health in adolescents. Previous studies have shown that different adolescent health behaviors cluster, and, in order to understand these associations, it is important to investigate the relations between individual behaviors and psychosocial problems. This study addressed the research question "Are adolescent health behaviors associated with psychosocial problems, and to what extent do certain health behaviors confound the relations between other health behaviors and psychosocial problems in adolescents?" Self-reported questionnaire data on a broad range of health behaviors and demographics were collected from 2,690 high school students in the Netherlands in September 2012. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, nearly all unhealthy behaviors were found to be significantly associated with psychosocial problems. However, after correction for confounding by other behaviors, psychosocial problems were associated with fewer behaviors, namely compulsive internet use and videogame playing, smoking, cannabis use, and being bullied. These associations differed in boys and girls. In multibehavioral analyses adjusted for behavioral clustering, which can cause considerable interbehavioral confounding, several behaviors were associated with psychosocial problems in adolescents. This approach to behavior analysis provides a better insight into behaviors and psychosocial health, and the specific associations identified can be utilized when designing effective prevention programs, such as health-promoting school interventions.

  7. Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Sluiter, J. K.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were

  8. Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the fundamental components inherent in the process of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability. It is proposed that psychosocial outcomes correspond to specific or global indicators of quality of life and may be categorized according to their functional domains, content areas, technologies or methods of assessment, and…

  9. Psychosocial Assessment as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazak, Anne E.; Abrams, Annah N.; Banks, Jaime; Christofferson, Jennifer; DiDonato, Stephen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Kabour, Marianne; Madan-Swain, Avi; Patel, Sunita K.; Zadeh, Sima; Kupst, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the evidence for a standard of care for psychosocial assessment in pediatric cancer. An interdisciplinary group of investigators utilized EBSCO, PubMed, PsycINFO, Ovid, and Google Scholar search databases, focusing on five areas: youth/family psychosocial adjustment, family

  10. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers.......To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers....

  11. Prevalence and detection of psychosocial problems in cancer genetic counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijzenga, W.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Hahn, D.E.E.; van der Kolk, L.E.; Sidharta, G.N.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Only a minority of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling experience heightened levels of psychological distress, but many more experience a range of cancer genetic-specific psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such psychosocial problems, and to

  12. Psychosocial stress among patients with type 2 diabetes: habitual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial stress is a disabling condition and is common among people with diabetes mellitus in view of the complexity of the disorder. It is however not clear if the psychosocial stress has any link with habitual physical activity, which is an important component in the care of people with diabetes. This study was ...

  13. Longitudinal Psychosocial Adjustment of Women to Human Papillomavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Yun; Wang, Wei-Ming; Fetzer, Susan Jane; Cheng, Ya-Min; Hsu, Keng-Fu

    2018-05-29

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial adjustment trajectory, focusing on psychological distress, sexual relationships and health care information, as well as factors which have an impact on adjustment on receiving a positive diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection. Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection in females. To date, knowledge of the longitudinal psychosocial response to the diagnosis of human papillomavirus is limited. A prospective longitudinal design was conducted with a convenience sample. Women aged 20-65 years old were followed at one, 6 and 12 months after a diagnosis of HPV. Participants completed measures of initial emotional distress and followed-up psychosocial adjustment. A mixed-effects model was applied to analyze the longitudinal changes in psychosocial adjustment. Seventy human papillomavirus positive women participated in the study with nearly 20% of the women reporting emotional distress during their first visit. Mixed-effects model analyses showed that a trajectory of psychosocial adjustment in health care orientation, sexual relationship and psychosocial distress occur from one to 6 months after HPV diagnosis. However, a declining trend from 6-12 months was significant in health care orientation. Initial emotional distress was associated with changes in psychological adjustment. Psychosocial adjustment to human papillomavirus was worse at one month compared with 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Healthcare providers should offer health information and psychosocial support to women according to their disease progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychosocial development and the development of problem behaviour during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in

  15. Long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Trond H; Emblem, Ragnhild

    2017-10-01

    Surgical congenital malformations often represent years of treatment, large number of hospital stays, treatment procedures, and long-term functional sequels affecting patients' psychosocial functioning. Both functional defects and psychosocial difficulties that occur commonly in childhood may pass through adolescence on to adulthood. This overview presents reports published over the past 3 decades to elucidate the long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations. Literature searches conducted on PubMed database revealed that less than 1% of all the records of surgical congenital malformations described long-term psychosocial consequences, but with diverse findings. This inconsistency may be due to methodological differences or deficiencies; especially in study design, patient sampling, and methods. Most of the studies revealed that the functional deficits may have great impact on patients' mental health, psychosocial functioning, and QoL; both short- and long-term negative consequences. Factors other than functional problems, e.g., repeated anesthesia, multiple hospitalization, traumatic treatment procedures, and parental dysfunctioning, may also predict long-term mental health and psychosocial functioning. Through multidisciplinary approach, pediatric surgeons should also be aware of deficits in emotional and psychosocial functioning. To achieve overall optimal psychosocial functioning, the challenge is to find a compromise between physically optimal treatment procedures and procedures that are not psychologically detrimental. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Psychosocial explanations of complaints in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, A; Mazeland, H; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    BACKGROUND: Dutch GPs are frequently consulted by patients presenting physical complaints which have a psychosocial cause. Until now, this type of complaint has often been the subject of study, but the way in which psychosocial explanations for complaints are broached and discussed has not yet been

  17. Examining Psychosocial Identity Development Theories: A Guideline for Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Erikson's psychosocial identity development theory, identifies prominent theorists who extended his work, examines the limitations of the theory and explains how this theory can be applied to student affairs practices. Furthermore, two different studies that clarify the relationship between psychosocial factors…

  18. Psychosocial Benefits of Cooking Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Nicole; Touchton-Leonard, Katherine; Ross, Alyson

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Cooking interventions are used in therapeutic and rehabilitative settings; however, little is known about the influence of these interventions on psychosocial outcomes. This systematic review examines the research evidence regarding the influence of cooking interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Methods: A systematic review of the…

  19. Psychosocial impairments among adults with epilepsy in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed for psychosocial impairments and associated psychopathology in patients with epilepsy, with the hope that findings will help initiate formal psychosocial care for patients attending the neurology clinic. Methods: Consecutive patients with epilepsy seen at the neurology clinic that met the inclusion criteria and ...

  20. Influence of psychosocial factors on postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Baker, Jennifer L; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2011-01-01

    For some women, pregnancy may increase the risk of future obesity with consequences for health and well-being. Psychosocial factors may be partly responsible for this. The aim of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial factors during pregnancy and postpartum weight retention...

  1. Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same so...

  2. Psychosocial Stress Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Habitual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    A total of 193 adults with type 2 diabetes took part in this study. Psychosocial stress was ... KEY WORDS: Type 2 diabetes, psychosocial stress, habitual physical activity. INTRODUCTION ..... to address them: A qualitative study. PLoS ONE 9(9):.

  3. Bilateral giant inguinoscrotal Hernia: psychosocial issues and a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bilateral giant inguinoscrotal hernias pose challenging psychosocial problems to the patient. The engulfed phallus and hernia size are socially embarrassing and may make penetration during coitus increasingly difficult and uncomfortable. This paper presents a classification and the psychosocial aspects of ...

  4. Psychosocial risks evaluation factors: study with higher education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lopes Borges

    2018-02-01

    Method: The study consisted of the administration of two instruments, one for the characterization of the sample and the other for assessing psychosocial risk factors — the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire — consisting of 76 items (5-point Likert scale, distributed in five dimensions, which measure indicators of exposure to psychosocial risks and their effects. Results: The study included 59 teachers, mostly men (50.8%, aged between 41 - 50 years (45.8%, with master's degree (59%, assistant professors (47.5%; with a stable employment relationship (68%, years of service between 14-17 years (18.7% and teaching between 11 - 17 hours a week (64.4%. The analysis of the various subscales revealed a psychosocial risk, showing that teachers are in a situation of vulnerability. There were significant differences between the risks experienced in public higher education and those experienced in private higher education. Gender, age, academic background, and professional category influenced the type of psychosocial risk. Conclusions: The study confirms the importance of the evaluation of psychosocial risk factors in the exercise of the teaching profession in higher education. It is recognized that it is necessary to assess and manage psychosocial risks in order to promote healthy working conditions, ensure respect and fair treatment, and encourage the promotion of work / family life balance, in order to minimize psychosocial risks and situations of vulnerability in higher education teachers.

  5. Psychosocial screening and assessment in oncology and palliative care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eGrassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric and psychosocial disorders among cancer patients have been reported as a major consequence of the disease and treatment. The problems in applying a pure psychiatric approach have determined the need for structuring more defined methods, including screening for distress and emotional symptoms and a more specific psychosocial assessment, to warrant proper care to cancer patients with psychosocial problems. This review examines some of the most significant issues related to these two steps, screening and assessment of psychosocial morbidity in cancer and palliative care. With regard to this , the many different variables, such as the factors affecting individual vulnerability (e.g. life events, chronic stress and allostatic load, well-being, and health attitudes and the psychosocial correlates of medical disease (e.g. psychiatric disturbances, psychological symptoms, illness behavior, and quality of life which are possibly implicated not only in classical psychiatric disorders but more broadly in psychosocial suffering. Multidimensional tools (e.g. and specific psychosocially oriented interview (e.g. the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research - DCPR represent a way to screen for and assess emotional distress, anxiety and depression, maladaptive coping, dysfunctional attachment, as well as other significant psychosocial dimensions secondary to cancer, such as demoralization and health anxiety. Cross-cultural issues, such as language, ethnicity, race, and religion, are also discussed as possible factors influencing the patients and families perception of illness, coping mechanisms, psychological response to a cancer diagnosis.

  6. Gifted Children and Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2001-01-01

    After presenting an overview of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the theory is applied to the development of gifted children. The psychosocial crisis experienced by children when they are infants, toddlers, preschoolers, elementary-aged, and during adolescence are examined, along with ways parents and teachers can help at each…

  7. Achievement Motivation Training's Effects on Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Larry G.

    1983-01-01

    A study identified the psychosocial needs of low-literate adults by using an instrument based on Erikson's ego-stage development model. It also tested the effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training in counterbalancing the negative impact of school experiences on students' psychosocial development. (Author/SK)

  8. Psychosocial Factors in Children and Adolescents with Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed…

  9. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  10. High Suicidal Ideation and Psychosocial Variables in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Teruel, David; Garcia-Leon, Ana; Muela-Martinez, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The college students have high rates of suicidal ideation often associated with psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether some of these psychosocial variables are related to the high prevalence of suicidal ideation in a College Spanish. Method: Participants (n = 40), aged between 21 and 34 years, Mean =…

  11. Wireless communications resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B; Seo, H

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies continue to evolve to address the insatiable demand for faster response times, larger bandwidth, and reliable transmission. Yet as the industry moves toward the development of post 3G systems, engineers have consumed all the affordable physical layer technologies discovered to date. This has necessitated more intelligent and optimized utilization of available wireless resources. Wireless Communications Resource Managem ent, Lee, Park, and Seo cover all aspects of this critical topic, from the preliminary concepts and mathematical tools to detailed descriptions of all the resource management techniques. Readers will be able to more effectively leverage limited spectrum and maximize device battery power, as well as address channel loss, shadowing, and multipath fading phenomena.

  12. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  13. Psychosocial problems and barriers to improved diabetes management: results of the Cross-National Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyrot, M.; Rubin, R.R.; Lauritzen, T.; Snoek, F.J.; Matthews, D.R.; Skovlund, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine patient- and provider-reported psychosocial problems and barriers to effective self-care and resources for dealing with those barriers. Methods: Cross-sectional study using face-to-face or telephone interviews with diabetic patients and health-care providers in 13 countries in Asia,

  14. The influence of psychosocial variables on adolescent suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ancel; van den Berg, Henriette S

    2012-07-01

    Increased rates of suicide among adolescents aged 15-24 years have led to suicides becoming the third leading cause of death in the Unites States. South African statistics show an equally worrying trend as suicide constitutes 11.5% of the total deaths for the age group 11-20 years (Stark et al. 2010). A national youth risk behaviour survey done in South Africa has re-emphasised the need for concern, as adolescent suicidal behaviour increased between 2002 and 2008 (Reddy et al. 2010). The objective was to investigate the influence of risk and protective factors (psychosocial and individual factors) on suicidal ideation. The Integrated Stress and Coping Process model was used as guiding theory for the inclusion of personal and contextual stressors and resources including coping strategies as potential risk and protective factors, in their relationship to suicidal ideation. A purposive, stratified sampling technique was used to study 381 adolescents in the Northern Cape Province. The instruments used were a suicidal ideation questionnaire; a biographical questionnaire; a self-esteem scale; and a survey examining stressors and resources relevant to adolescents. Suicidal ideation was significantly higher in the South African sample than in an American sample. Avoidant coping strategies (denial, emotional venting and restraint coping), negative life events and stressful romantic relationships contributed to higher levels of suicidal ideation while self-esteem and adaptive coping (acceptance and seeking social support for instrumental reasons) reduced these levels. A lack of self-esteem, ineffective coping and particular stressors contributed significantly to the vulnerability of adolescents. Future studies should explore a wider range of dispositional factors that influence effective coping and adjustment in addressing adolescent suicidal ideation.

  15. Psychosocial risks in university education teachers: Diagnosis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matilde García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the psychosocial risks of university teachers and identify enhancement areas for a healthy organization in a sample of 621 teachers from the University of A Coruña, Spain. To achieve this aim, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (CoPsoQ adapted to the Spanish population (ISTAS21 Method was applied. The results showed an unfavorable situation for psychosocial health in five dimensions: high psychological demands, low esteem, high double presence, low social support, and high job insecurity. In contrast, a favorable situation for health is the dimension active work and development opportunities. It was also found that there is not a single profile of university teacher in psychosocial risk. To conclude, a diagnosis of psychosocial risks of university teachers is made and, in that scenario, some risk prevention strategies at university level are proposed.

  16. Understanding Grief and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the process of adapting to life after a loss. It is influenced by each person’s society, culture, and religion. Bereavement is the state of having experienced a loss. Common grief reactions Reactions to loss are called ...

  17. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  18. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  19. For a Psychosocial Approach to Decent Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyaud, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The notion of decent work was developed by the International Labour Organization 20 years ago. The notion is now well known by lawyers, economists, and sociologists, and even if it appears difficult to define it clearly, it constitutes a useful general framework with which to think of the relationships between policy practices, work market globalization, and human rights principles. The fields of career guidance and counseling psychology are highly concerned by questions of social justice and human rights that people experience through work. Career choices being made in a liquid and unstable society, incompatibility between individualist values and collective work issues, increasing psychological health problems at work, work-family balance in precarious job situations, the growing necessity of mobility, adaptability or flexibility… all of these questions are at the heart of current career counseling practices, and concern the decent work debate. Nevertheless, the notion of decent work is not well developed in the field of vocational psychology. Despite its relevance, it is difficult to operationalize the policy and human rights principles during career counseling sessions. The article aims to explore the usefulness of the concept for career counselors, and to propose a psychosocial framework that incorporates decent work in career counseling practices. The first part of this article presents the theoretical bases of the notion of decent work and their possible use in the field of psychology. It deals with the necessity of a multilevel and psychosocial perspective, that takes into account both objective and subjective dimensions of decent work. The second part focuses on a case study illustrating how the notion of decent work emerges during counseling sessions. Four levels of the work experience linked with subjective and objective dimensions of decent work are explored; the personal level, the activity level, the collective level, and the social level. Finally

  20. For a psychosocial approach to decent work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques ePOUYAUD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion of decent work was developed by the International Labour Organization twenty years ago. The notion is now well known by lawyers, economists, and sociologists, and even if it appears difficult to define it clearly, it constitutes a useful general framework with which to think of the relationships between policy practices, work market globalization, and human rights principles. The fields of career guidance and counseling psychology are highly concerned by questions of social justice and human rights that people experience through work. Career choices being made in a liquid and unstable society, incompatibility between individualist values and collective work issues, increasing psychological health problems at work, work-family balance in precarious job situations, the growing necessity of mobility, adaptability or flexibility… all of these questions are at the heart of current career counseling practices, and concern the decent work debate. Nevertheless, the notion of decent work is not well developed in the field of vocational psychology. Despite its relevance, it is difficult to operationalize the policy and human rights principles during career counseling sessions. The article aims to explore the usefulness of the concept for career counselors, and to propose a psychosocial framework that incorporates decent work in career counseling practices. The first part of this article presents the theoretical bases of the notion of decent work and their possible use in the field of psychology. It deals with the necessity of a multilevel and psychosocial perspective, that takes into account both objective and subjective dimensions of decent work. The second part focuses on a case study illustrating how the notion of decent work emerges during counseling sessions. Four levels of the work experience linked with subjective and objective dimensions of decent work are explored; the personal level, the activity level, the collective level, and the

  1. Psychosocial determinants of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Amin, M.K.; Ahmad, I.; Amer, H.; Shoaib, H.; Ibrahim, H.; Tayyab, M.; Hassan, M.; Javaid, M.A.; Rehman, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 2 , formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes, is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency1. The development of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is associated with multiple risk factors, co-morbid medical conditions as well as psychosocial determinants. These psychosocial factors, which differ from population to population, can be identified and controlled to reduce the incidence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Objective: To identify various psychosocial factors associated with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration: Diabetic clinic and Medical Units Mayo Hospital Lahore . July to December, 2012. Subjects and Methods: A population based case-control study with 1:1 case to control ratio was conducted. A total of 100 subjects (50 cases and 50 controls) having age above 35 years were recruited in the study. Selection was made on laid down criteria from patients coming to Mayo Hospital Lahore after taking consent. Interviews were conducted through a pretested questionnaire. Data was collected, compiled and analyzed through IBM SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 100 study subjects 67% were males and 33% were females. Among cases of Diabetes mellitus type 2, 64% were males, 70% in the age group 35-50 years, 96% were married, 36% were illiterates. Mean age was found 49.24, standard deviation 10.915. In bivariate analysis, Diabetes Mellitus type II was found significantly associated with Anxiety(OR: 5.348, 95% CI: 2.151-13.298) Depression(OR: 5.063, 95% CI: 1.703-15.050), High fat diet, (OR: 2.471, 95% CI: 1.100-5.547) Sedentary Lifestyle(OR: 4.529, 95% CI: 1.952-10.508) and Psychological Stress(OR:4.529, 95% CI: 1.952-10.508). However, in multivariate analysis while controlling all other risk factors, Anxiety(OR: 6.066, 95% CI: 1.918-19.191), High fat diet(OR: 3.648, 95% CI: 1

  2. Which method of posttraumatic stress disorder classification best predicts psychosocial function in children with traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Greg; Le Brocque, Robyne; Kenardy, Justin; Anderson, Vicki; McKinlay, Lynne

    2010-10-01

    Controversy surrounds the classification of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In these populations, it is difficult to differentiate TBI-related organic memory loss from dissociative amnesia. Several alternative PTSD classification algorithms have been proposed for use with children. This paper investigates DSM-IV-TR and alternative PTSD classification algorithms, including and excluding the dissociative amnesia item, in terms of their ability to predict psychosocial function following pediatric TBI. A sample of 184 children aged 6-14 years were recruited following emergency department presentation and/or hospital admission for TBI. PTSD was assessed via semi-structured clinical interview (CAPS-CA) with the child at 3 months post-injury. Psychosocial function was assessed using the parent report CHQ-PF50. Two alternative classification algorithms, the PTSD-AA and 2 of 3 algorithms, reached statistical significance. While the inclusion of the dissociative amnesia item increased prevalence rates across algorithms, it generally resulted in weaker associations with psychosocial function. The PTSD-AA algorithm appears to have the strongest association with psychosocial function following TBI in children and adolescents. Removing the dissociative amnesia item from the diagnostic algorithm generally results in improved validity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The weight-loss experience: a qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rogerson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight management consists of weight-loss, weight-loss maintenance, and weight-gain stages. Qualitative insights into weight management are now appearing in the literature however research appears to be biased towards explorations of weight-loss maintenance. The qualitative understanding of weight loss, which begets weight-loss maintenance and might establish the experiences and behaviours necessary for successful long-term weight management, is comparatively under-investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight-loss experiences of a sample of participants not aligned to clinical intervention research, in order to understand the weight-loss experiences of a naturalistic sample. Methods Participants (n = 8 with weight-loss (n = 4 and weight-maintenance experiences (n = 4 were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to understand the weight-loss experience. Interview data was analysed thematically using Framework Analysis and was underpinned by realist meta-theory. Results Weight loss was experienced as an enduring challenge, where factors that assisted weight loss were developed and experienced dichotomously to factors that hindered it. Participants described barriers to (dichotomous thinking, environments, social pressures and weight centeredness and facilitators of (mindfulness, knowledge, exercise, readiness to change, structure, self-monitoring and social support their weight-loss goals in rich detail, highlighting that weight loss was a complex experience. Conclusions Weight loss was a difficult task, with physical, social, behavioural and environmental elements that appeared to assist and inhibit weight-loss efforts concurrently. Health professionals might need to better understand the day-to-day challenges of dieters in order to provide more effective, tailored treatments. Future research should look to investigate the psycho-social consequences of weight-loss dieting, in

  4. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  5. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  6. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  7. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  8. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  9. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  10. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  11. Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson

    Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer Sigrid Brisson Nielsen & John Brodersen Introduction In Denmark there are approximately 4400 men diagnosed with prostate cancer each year and nearly 1200 men dies of this disease yearly. The incidence of prostate cancer has increased...... for the past twenty years and make up 24 % of all cancer incidents in men. However, the mortality of prostate cancer has not changed in line with this increase. Empirical evidence shows that the increase in incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark without an increase in the mortality is mostly caused...... by opportunistic PSA screening in General Practice. It is recommended that men ≥ 60 year old diagnosed with prostate cancer and a Gleason score ≤ 6 are monitored with active surveillance. This is due to the probability of this type of cancer metastasizing is very small as approximately 90 % of them is assumed...

  12. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun H. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  13. Violence against radiologists. II: Psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Fileni, A

    2012-09-01

    Violence against radiologists is a growing problem. This study evaluated the psychosocial factors associated with this phenomenon. A questionnaire was administered to 992 Italian radiologists. Physical violence experienced in the previous 12-month period was associated with the radiologist's poor mental health [odds ratio (OR) 1.11] and overcommitment to work (OR 1.06), whereas radiologists in good physical health (OR 0.64), with job satisfaction (OR 0.96) and with overall happiness (OR 0.67) were less exposed. Nonphysical abuse was equally associated with the radiologist's poor mental health (OR 1.10) and overcommitment (OR 1.14) and negatively associated with physical health (OR 0.54), job satisfaction (OR 0.96), happiness (OR 0.81), organisational justice (OR 0.94) and social support (OR 0.80). Preventive intervention against violence in the workplace should improve workplace organisation and relationships between workers.

  14. Brief report: Teen sexting and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A; Temple, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Brief Report: Teen Sexting and Psychosocial Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R.; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A.; Temple, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. PMID:24331302

  16. Psychosocial Consequences of Infertility on Infertile Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Rahman, D; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N; Mughi, C R

    2015-10-01

    This study explores to find out the qualitative and quantitative psychosocial consequences of infertility in women coming for infertility treatment in tertiary infertility center. A total of 400 infertile couples who agreed to participate in the study were asked to fill up the questionnaires and later interviewed to access the psychosocial consequences of infertility on their personal life in a tertiary infertility clinic in Dhaka at Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARe Hospital), Dhaka from June 2011 to December 2011 and agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. The data was analyzed and the quantitative and qualitative psychosocial factors were evaluated. Four hundred infertile couple who filled the questionnaires was included in the study. Sixty three percent of the women belonged to age group >20 30 years at the time of interview. Regarding age at marriage 43.8% of the women were married by 20 years, 51.3% were married between 20 30 years. Mean±SD duration of present married life was 7.20±4.45 (range 1 to 28) years and 74.4% of the women were living with their husbands. Of them 75.5% women were housewife. When asked whether they knew what was the reason of infertility in the couple, 32.5% knew the cause was in the female partner, 14.5%, knew the cause was in the male partner, 10.3% knew the cause was in both partners, 21.5% knew cause of infertility was not in any of the partners, and 21.3% had no idea about the cause of infertility. The male partner's response about the issue of prognosis and outcome of couple's infertility revealed 37.3% believed their wives will conceive someday, 31.3% had no intention for a second marriage, 13% were indifferent, 11.3% blamed their wives for infertility and 4.8% threatened for a second marriage. Only 2.5% of the male partners were suggested on consulting and continuing treatment by specialist. The family pressure by in-laws and relatives towards their infertility was that 57.3% insisted on consulting

  17. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and....../or dysfunctional social networks is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women, and stress reactions such as vital exhaustion and intake of sleep medications may play a more important role in the development of metabolic syndrome men....

  18. [The psychosocial background of sterile patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, H H; Urdl, W; Walcher, W

    1989-01-01

    The psychosocial background of 300 childless couples from the Infertility Clinic of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Graz, was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and statistical analysis of data from their files. Points of special interest were problems such as interactions of the couple, motivations for the desire of children, psychosomatics, andrological investigation within the gynecological department, sexual habits and motivation and compliance concerning investigations and treatment. 72% of the questionnaires were returned. 50% of the sterile couples preferred to attend the infertility clinic together. 26% felt restrictions in their sexual behaviour due to the unrealized desire of children, 48% expected improvements in their partnership if they could have children. Compliance of male partners concerning the regular intake of prescribed medicaments was 83%, 63% accepted to stop smoking in cases of pathospermia.

  19. [Psychosocial factors of chronic hand eczema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Panpan; Li, Ji; Xie, Hongfu; Kuang, Yehong; Li, Jie; Su, Juan; Zhu, Wu

    2017-02-28

    To study the psychosocial factors in patient with chronic hand eczema (CHE).
 Methods: Personality traits, emotional state, and quality of life of 240 patients with CHE and 221 normal control (NC) subjects were assessed by General Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-Rating Anxiety (SAS), and Eczema Quality of Life Scale (EQOLS).
 Results: In comparison, EPQ scores, scores of extraversion (E) factor in patients with CHE were significantly lower than those in NC subjects (P0.05). Patients with CHE had significantly higher scores in SDS and SAS compared with the NC subjects (Pemotional instability of introverts.Patients with CHE have a higher level of depression and anxiety, and exert a negative effect on their quality of life, which is related to severity of disease.

  20. The Effects of Socioeconomic Vulnerability, Psychosocial Services, and Social Service Spending on Family Reunification: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Tonino; Delaye, Ashleigh; Chabot, Martin; Trocmé, Nico; Rothwell, David; Hélie, Sonia; Robichaud, Marie-Joelle

    2017-09-09

    Socio-environmental factors such as poverty, psychosocial services, and social services spending all could influence the challenges faced by vulnerable families. This paper examines the extent to which socioeconomic vulnerability, psychosocial service consultations, and preventative social services spending impacts the reunification for children placed in out-of-home care. This study uses a multilevel longitudinal research design that draws data from three sources: (1) longitudinal administrative data from Quebec's child protection agencies; (2) 2006 and 2011 Canadian Census data; and, (3) intra-province health and social services data. The final data set included all children ( N = 39,882) placed in out-of-home care for the first time between 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2013, and followed from their initial out-of-home placement. Multilevel hazard results indicate that socioeconomic vulnerability, controlling for psychosocial services and social services spending, contributes to the decreased likelihood of reunification. Specifically, socioeconomic vulnerability, psychosocial services, and social services spending account for 24.0% of the variation in jurisdictional reunification for younger children less than 5 years of age, 12.5% for children age 5 to 11 years and 21.4% for older children age 12 to 17 years. These findings have implications for decision makers, funding agencies, and child protection agencies to improve jurisdictional resources to reduce the socioeconomic vulnerabilities of reunifying families.

  1. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Giancarlo A; Khoshnevis, Matin; Gale, Jesse; Frousiakis, Starleen E; Hwang, Tiffany J; Poincenot, Lissa; Karanjia, Rustum; Baron, David; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support. A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13-65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR) on a 21-point psychometric scale from -10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR. Subjects were additionally asked about the use of low vision aids and sources of emotional support. A total of 103 participants (mean age =26.4±11.2 years at LHON diagnosis; mean ± standard deviation) completed the questionnaire. Nearly half (49.5%) met the depression criteria after vision loss. Negative impacts on interpersonal interactions (median IR = -5) and career goals (median IR = -6) were observed; both ratings were worse ( P negative interpersonal IR and career IR. Sixty-eight percent of subjects used electronic vision aids; controlling for age, social well-being index was higher among these individuals than for those who did not use electronic aids ( P =0.03). Over half of the participants (52.4%) asserted that they derived emotional support from their ophthalmologist. Profound vision loss in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults is associated with significant negative psychological and psychosocial effects, which are influenced by

  2. The Psychosocial Impact of Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Neirita; Archana, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Females (56%), 15–20 year olds (61%), facial lesions (60%), and Grade II acne (70%) were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10) interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27688440

  3. The Psychosocial Impact of Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Neirita; Archana, M

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Females (56%), 15-20 year olds (61%), facial lesions (60%), and Grade II acne (70%) were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6-10) interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment.

  4. The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neirita Hazarika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI questionnaire. Results: Females (56%, 15–20 year olds (61%, facial lesions (60%, and Grade II acne (70% were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10 interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05 found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment.

  5. Psychosocial state of the adult evacuees and risk factors of negative change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzunov, V O; Loganovsky, K M; Krasnikova, L I; Bomko, M O; Belyayev, Yu M; Yaroshenko, Zh S; Domashevska, T E

    2017-12-01

    Numerous scientific studies have been carried out since the ChNPP accident indicating that the last one has caused a severe psychosocial stress in survivors. Population of radioactively contaminated territories, people migrated from the areas of strict radiation control, and accident consequences clean up participants in 1986 1987 were covered by the conducted research projects. Nature of the stress herewith is polygenic and includes factors directly related to the Chernobyl catastrophe, and factors being a result of social and economic circumstances. This report is devot ed to the results of research on psychosocial state of population evacuated from the 30 km zone of the ChNPP. Study and evaluation of psychosocial state of population evacuated from the 30 km ChNPP zone at the age of 18 years and older; identification of potential psychosocial risk factors for the health loss. The sampling epidemiological study of psychosocial state of population aged 18-50 years evacuated from the 30 km zone of ChNPP was conducted at the NRCRM Radiation Registry Outpatient Clinic and Radiation Psychoneurology Department. The study subjects (n=258) were mostly (98%) females. Study was con ducted from October 2013 till May 2015. All the sample members were registered since 1992 in the system of life long health monitoring, i.e. the NRCRM Clinical and Epidemiological Registry. Study subjects were interviewed through the method using an original «Questioning Inventory». Mathematical processing of study results was held using the Epi Info 7 software package. According to the study results, a nuclear accident at the Chornobyl NPP has become a powerful psychoso cial stress for evacuated people. Psychosocial state of the evacuees, formed during the post accident period, with full reason can be defined as a state of stable, chronic psychosocial stress. Nature of factors that caused the stress development is polygenic. Block of stressors directly related to the accident was determined

  6. PSYCHOSOCIAL MORBIDITY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING MASTECTOMY FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Konnakkaparambil Ramakrishnan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast Cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide and carries significant psychosocial morbidity. The diagnosis of the disease and the treatment modalities like surgery and chemotherapy contribute to the morbidity. The recognition of the psychosocial morbidity associated with mastectomy can help us formulate effective counselling strategies. The objectives of this study were- to assess the psychosocial morbidity in patients undergoing mastectomy for carcinoma breast, to identify the preoperative variables that predict the morbidity and to find out the correlation between degree of neuroticism of the individual and morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS 35 female patients who had mastectomy for breast cancer were evaluated at three time-points, preoperatively, immediately after surgery and 2 months after surgery. Anxiety and depression was assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, psychological distress was measured using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and neuroticism was assessed by Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism subscale (EPI-N. RESULTS There was a high level of anxiety, depression and GHQ scores preoperatively with a further worsening of these over the three interviews. Age, marital status and menopausal status were factors which had an influence on psychosocial morbidity. Preoperative EPI-N scores positively correlated with psychosocial morbidity. CONCLUSION There is a high level of psychosocial morbidity in patients undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer and mastectomy seems to worsen it in the first two months after surgery. Our study shows that psychosocial morbidity is affected by age, marital status, menopausal status and level of neuroticism.

  7. Neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael W; Bowie, Christopher R; Naiberg, Melanie R; Newton, Dwight F; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2017-01-01

    Adults with bipolar disorder demonstrate significantly poorer psychosocial functioning and neurocognition compared to controls. In adult bipolar disorder neurocognition predicts a substantial portion of variance in functioning. Adolescents with bipolar disorder have reducedpsychosocial functioning, but less is known about neurocognitive impairments, and no studies have examined the relationship between neurocognition and functioning in an adolescent sample. 38 adolescents with bipolar disorder and 49 healthy controls under 20 years of age completed assessments of psychosocial functioning, neurocognitive ability, and psychiatric symptoms. Adolescents with bipolar disorder had significantly poorer psychosocial functioning in domains of daily activities, social functioning, and satisfaction with functioning, psadolescent sample with bipolar disorder experiences significantly poorer neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning compared to controls; however, psychosocial functioning appears to be more strongly related to mood symptoms than to neurocognition. Future work is needed to delineate the time course of neurocognitive functioning and its relation to psychosocial functioning across the course of illness. Adolescence may provide an ideal time for cognitive enhancement and intensive psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and detection of psychosocial problems in cancer genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, W; Bleiker, E M A; Hahn, D E E; Van der Kolk, L E; Sidharta, G N; Aaronson, N K

    2015-12-01

    Only a minority of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling experience heightened levels of psychological distress, but many more experience a range of cancer genetic-specific psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such psychosocial problems, and to identify possible demographic and clinical variables associated significantly with them. Consenting individuals scheduled to undergo cancer genetic counseling completed the Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Distress Thermometer (DT) prior to or immediately following their counseling session. More than half of the 137 participants reported problems on three or more domains of the PAHC, most often in the domains 'living with cancer' (84%), 'family issues' (46%), 'hereditary predisposition' (45%), and 'child-related issues' (42%). Correlations between the PAHC, the HADS and the DT were low. Previous contact with a psychosocial worker, and having a personal history of cancer were associated significantly with HADS scores, but explained little variance (9%). No background variables were associated significantly with the DT. Previous contact with a psychosocial worker, and having children were significantly associated with several PAHC domains, again explaining only a small percentage of the variance (2-14%). The majority of counselees experience specific cancer genetic counseling-related psychosocial problems. Only a few background variables are associated significantly with distress or psychosocial problems. Thus we recommend using the PAHC or a similar problem-oriented questionnaire routinely in cancer genetic counseling to identify individuals with such problems.

  9. Role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2009-01-01

    To summarize literature data about the role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism. A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Database was performed to identify all peer-reviewed papers in the English literature dealing with the bruxism-psychosocial factors relationship. All studies assessing the psychosocial traits of bruxers (by using questionnaires, interviews, and instrumental and laboratory exams) and reviews discussing the contribution of those factors to the etiology of bruxism were included in this review. A total of 45 relevant papers (including eight reviews) were retrieved with a search strategy combining the term "bruxism" with the words stress, anxiety, depression, psychosocial and psychological factors. The majority of data about the association between psychosocial disorders and bruxism came from studies adopting a clinical and/or self-report diagnosis of bruxism. These studies showed some association of bruxism with anxiety, stress sensitivity, depression and other personological characteristics, apparently in contrast with sleep laboratory investigations. A plausible hypothesis is that clinical studies are more suitable to detect awake bruxism (clenching type), while polysomnographic studies focused only on sleep bruxism (grinding type). Wake clenching seems to be associated with psychosocial factors and a number of psychopathological symptoms, while there is no evidence to relate sleep bruxism with psychosocial disorders. Future research should be directed toward the achievement of a better distinction between the two forms of bruxism in order to facilitate the design of experimental studies on this topic.

  10. Implementation and Effectiveness of a Psychosocial Weight Management Program for Individuals with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niv, Noosha; Cohen, Amy N.; Hamilton, Alison; Reist, Christopher; Young, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a weight loss program for individuals with schizophrenia in usual care. The study included 146 adults with schizophrenia from two mental health clinics of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The 109 individuals who were overweight or obese were offered a 16-week, psychosocial, weight management program. Weight and BMI were assessed at baseline, 1 year later and at each treatment session. Only 51% of those who were overweight or obese chose to enroll in the weight management program. Participants attended an average of 6.7 treatment sessions, lost an average of 2.4 pounds and had an average BMI decrease of 0.3. There was no significant change in weight or BMI compared to the control group. Intervention strategies that both improve utilization and yield greater weight loss need to be developed. PMID:22430566

  11. Effectiveness of a psychosocial weight management program for individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niv, Noosha; Cohen, Amy N; Hamilton, Alison; Reist, Christopher; Young, Alexander S

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a weight loss program for individuals with schizophrenia in usual care. The study included 146 adults with schizophrenia from two mental health clinics of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The 109 individuals who were overweight or obese were offered a 16-week, psychosocial, weight management program. Weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were assessed at baseline, 1 year later, and at each treatment session. Only 51% of those who were overweight or obese chose to enroll in the weight management program. Participants attended an average of 6.7 treatment sessions, lost an average of 2.4 pounds, and had an average BMI decrease of 0.3. There was no significant change in weight or BMI compared to the control group. Intervention strategies that both improve utilization and yield greater weight loss need to be developed.

  12. Postharvest Losses in Africa: Analytical Review and Synthesis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Across Africa, postharvest losses along the food chain from farm to fork jeopardize the food security of resource-poor farmers. Reducing postharvest losses can help increase food availability and improve access to food, nutritional quality, food safety, and farmers' incomes. Data on postharvest losses is in short supply.

  13. Individual and group-level job resources and their relationships with individual work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllemann, Désirée; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Bauer, Georg F

    2016-06-16

    This study adds a multilevel perspective to the well-researched individual-level relationship between job resources and work engagement. In addition, we explored whether individual job resources cluster within work groups because of a shared psychosocial environment and investigated whether a resource-rich psychosocial work group environment is beneficial for employee engagement over and above the beneficial effect of individual job resources and independent of their variability within groups. Data of 1,219 employees nested in 103 work groups were obtained from a baseline employee survey of a large stress management intervention project implemented in six medium and large-sized organizations in diverse sectors. A variety of important job resources were assessed and grouped to an overall job resource factor with three subfactors (manager behavior, peer behavior, and task-related resources). Data were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling. The results indicated that job resources cluster within work groups and can be aggregated to a group-level job resources construct. However, a resource-rich environment, indicated by high group-level job resources, did not additionally benefit employee work engagement but on the contrary, was negatively related to it. On the basis of this unexpected result, replication studies are encouraged and suggestions for future studies on possible underlying within-group processes are discussed. The study supports the presumed value of integrating work group as a relevant psychosocial environment into the motivational process and indicates a need to further investigate emergent processes involved in aggregation procedures across levels.

  14. Psychosocial dysfunction associated with skin picking disorder and trichotillomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E.; Redden, Sarah A.; Leppink, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    Skin picking disorder (SPD) and trichotillomania (TTM) are common and oftentimes disabling disorders. 125 Participants with SPD and 152 with TTM undertook clinical and neurocognitive evaluation, and were grouped according to mild, moderate, or severe levels of psychosocial dysfunction. Relationsh......Skin picking disorder (SPD) and trichotillomania (TTM) are common and oftentimes disabling disorders. 125 Participants with SPD and 152 with TTM undertook clinical and neurocognitive evaluation, and were grouped according to mild, moderate, or severe levels of psychosocial dysfunction...... that levels of self-reported psychosocial dysfunction have a strong association with specific clinical aspects of SPD and TTM....

  15. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  16. Sexual self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in military veterans after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Maggie L; Delaney, Eileen; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Gosian, Jeffrey; Moye, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the sexual well-being of male Veteran cancer survivors, or the relationship of sexual concerns to psychosocial adaptation postcancer. This study examined the association between sexual self-esteem and psychosocial concerns in male Veteran cancer survivors. Forty-one male survivors were recruited from a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital to participate in a pilot study addressing cancer survivorship care for Veterans. Sixty- to 90-minute interviews were conducted, assessing sociodemographic, medical, stress/burden (cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression), and resource (social support, post-traumatic growth) variables. Twenty-one (51.2%) Veteran cancer survivors reported lowered sexual self-esteem as a result of cancer, which corresponded to significantly higher levels of depression and cancer-related PTSD. The lowered sexual self-esteem group also indicated significantly lower social support. Veteran cancer survivors with lowered sexual self-esteem tend to have higher levels of stress and lower levels of resources, putting them at risk for lowered quality of life. This increased risk highlights the importance of addressing sexual well-being in the survivorship care of Veterans.

  17. Should Psychosocial Safety Climate Theory Be Extended to Include Climate Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharian, Ali; Zadow, Amy; Dollard, Maureen F; Dormann, Christian; Ziaian, Tahereh

    2017-08-31

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC; climate for psychological health) is an organizational antecedent to work conditions articulated in the job demands-resources model. We responded to calls for broader consideration of organizational climate in terms of both climate level and strength. We tested PSC level and strength as main and interactive predictors of work conditions, psychological health, and engagement. Using multilevel analysis and cross-sectional data, the effects of unit-level PSC constructs were investigated in 21 hospital work units (n = 249 employees) in Australia. The correlation between PSC levels (measured at the unit mean) and PSC strength (measured as unit -1 × SD) was moderate and positive, suggesting that ceiling effects of PSC scores were not problematic. PSC level was a better predictor than PSC strength or their interactions for job demands (psychological and emotional demands), job resources (e.g., skill discretion and organizational support), and health (emotional exhaustion). For engagement, the interaction was significant-improving engagement, therefore, benefits from high levels of PSC and PSC strength within the work units. So, in answer to the research question regarding PSC theory extension, "it depends on the outcome." Research limitations are acknowledged, and the potential of the PSC model to guide the reduction of workplace psychosocial risk factors and the negative consequences is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Diet in the management of weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Strychar, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for numerous chronic diseases, and successful treatment will have an important impact on medical resources utilization, health care costs, and patient quality of life. With over 60% of our population being overweight, physicians face a major challenge in assisting patients in the process of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Low-calorie diets can lower total body weight by an average of 8% in the short term. These diets are well-tolerated and charac...

  19. PREGNANCY LOSS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibary A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy loss is an important aspect of equine practice due to the economic and emotional loss that it engenders. Pregnancy loss is often divided in two categories: early pregnancy loss (EPL or embryonic death (ED (first 42 days and fetal losses (after 42 days. Diagnosis of the causes of pregnancy loss is often very challenging. Many of the causes of EPL remain poorly documented but studies on embryo development and embryo-uterine interaction have been able to shed some light on predisposing factors. Fetal losses or abortions are dominated by infectious causes and particularly bacterial placentitis. Detailed reviews of pregnancy loss were recently published by the authors (Tibary et al., 2012; Tibary and Pearson, 2012; Tibary et al., 2014. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and prevention of pregnancy loss in the mare.

  20. Psychosocial impact of infertility among women attending Yusuf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial impact of infertility among women attending Yusuf Dantsoho Memorial ... support, along with a General Health Questionnaire and a family APGAR as ... inability to enjoy day to day activities (11.2%), lack of concentration at work ...

  1. Psychosocial support for orphans and vulnerable children in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    group and society influences the complexity of an individual's ... and the psychosocial crisis of 'industry versus inferiority'. ... able to recognise cultural and individual differences. Therefore ... counselling and encouragement to enhance their.

  2. Psychosocial reconstruction inventory : a postdictal instrument in aircraft accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A new approach to the investigation of aviation accidents has recently been initiated, utilizing a follow-on to the psychological autopsy. This approach, the psychosocial reconstruction inventory, enables the development of a dynamic, retrospective p...

  3. The effect of psychosocial factors and patients' perception of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of psychosocial factors and patients' perception of tuberculosis treatment ... psychological distress, alcohol use, tobacco smoking and six HBM domains. ... with health promotion intervention to enhance TB treatment adherence.

  4. Burnout in the working population: relations to psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Karin M; Linton, Steven J; Fedeli, Cecilia; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated levels of burnout in the general population irrespective of occupation and relations between burnout and psychosocial work factors. A cross-sectional survey featuring sleep problems, psychological distress, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey), and psychosocial factors at work, was mailed to a random sample of 3,000 participants, aged 20-60. Response rate was 61%. A high level (18%), a low level (19%), and an intermediate group (63%) for burnout were constructed. The high level group was associated with those who were > 50 years old, women, those experiencing psychological distress, and those with a poor psychosocial work climate. The analyses on variables significant in previous analyses showed that the high level group was strongly related to high demands, low control, lack of social support, and disagreeing about values at the workplace even when accounting for age, gender, and psychological distress. We conclude that psychosocial work factors are important in association to burnout regardless of occupation.

  5. Psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation in rural South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Bos, Arjan E R; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a prevalent problem among young people in Southern Africa, but prevention programs are largely absent. This survey aimed to identify the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Limpopo. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to establish a representative sample of 591 adolescents. Bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Findings show that suicidal ideation is prevalent among adolescents. The psychosocial factors perceived social support and negative feelings about the family and the behavioral factors forced sexual intercourse and physical violence by the partner were found to increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Depression mediated the relationship between these psychosocial and behavioral risk factors and suicidal ideation. This study increased our understanding of the psychosocial and behavioral predictors of adolescent suicidal ideation. The findings provide target points for future intervention programs and call for supportive structures to assist adolescents with suicidal ideation.

  6. Psycho-social attributes of elite African women volleyball players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psycho-social attributes of elite African women volleyball players. ... 78% of them were influenced by family members to play volleyball, 81% continued to play the game due to success, and 64% envisaged that ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Psychosocial Impacts of Mentally Retarded Children on Parents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial Impacts of Mentally Retarded Children on Parents in Sudan. ... the age, number of handicapped children in the family as well as the degree of mental ... Results and discussion: The parents reported different psychological effects ...

  8. AYAs Are Not Alone: Confronting Psychosocial Challenges of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescents and young adults with cancer have unique and specific psychosocial needs. Getting support to meet those needs is critical for enabling AYAs to adapt and cope as they navigate the course of their illness and beyond.

  9. The relationship between psychosocial variables and measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was found to be the most important psychosocial variable in the present study, correlating with several .... It includes eight activities of daily living on which patients have to ..... Effects of aerobic exercise versus stress management treatment in.

  10. Diet quality and psychosocial mediators in rural African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURPOSE: Obesity and its comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes, are largely preventable or modifiable through behavioral factors, such as dietary intake. We examined associations among diet quality, dietary intake, and psychosocial mediators of behavioral chan...

  11. Psychosocial Correlates as Predictors of Voting Behaviour in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... The study examines the influence of some psychosocial factors (age, gender, perceived benefit, self-esteem, personality, and personal attributes of the candidate, religious and ethnic affiliation) on the voting behaviour of Nigerians.

  12. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pattern and predictors of psychosocial disorders among overweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial disorders negatively impact on children. Objectives. This study aims to ..... personality development in which they develop self-identity. This ..... esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior and delinquency. Psychol Sci.

  14. Psychosocial aspects of breast cancer treatement in Accra, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate psychosocial influences and effects of breast cancer treatment. Design: Cohort questionnaire survey. Setting: Surgical Outpatient Department, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Accra, Ghana. Subjects: Women previously treated for breast cancer, including those still on hormonal therapy.

  15. The psychosocial effects of organized violence and torture: A pilot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psychosocial effects of organized violence and torture: A pilot study ... their neighbours was carried out in one previously war-affected area of Zimbabwe. The findings indicated that survivors were more economically and socially deprived ...

  16. Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that distinguish ... players' perceived ability to be psychologically well prepared for competitions. ... reference to practical implications for future sport psychological skills training

  17. Children with sickle cell disease who are experiencing psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with sickle cell disease who are experiencing psychosocial problems concurrently with their mothers: a Nigerian study. ... you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader.

  18. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Munch-Hansen, T.; Wieclaw, J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription...... alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription...... of antidepressant medication. METHODS: Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002-2005. Individual self...

  19. Psycho-social Issues among Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    social functioning of the adolescent but its magnitude is poorly documented. Objective: To describe the psychosocial issues observed among Nigerian adolescent diabetics attending the Paediatric outpatient clinics of two Nigerian hospitals.

  20. Psychosocial antecedents and consequences of workplace aggression for hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Defne; Rodwell, John

    2012-12-01

    To test a full model of the antecedents to and consequences of various forms of workplace aggression, considering psychosocial factors, for hospital nursing staff. Cross-sectional survey design. Two hundred and seven nurses and midwives working across wards within a medium to large Australian hospital completed the survey. The survey response rate was 26.9%. High frequencies of nurses reported exposure to workplace bullying and internal and external emotional abuse violence types. In terms of antecedents, bullying was linked to high negative affectivity (NA), as well as low supervisor support and coworker support. Internal emotional abuse was associated with low levels of these support variables, as well as high outside work support and low job control. External threat of assault was related to high job demands and NA. In terms of consequences, bullying and verbal sexual harassment were linked to increased psychological distress levels. Bullying and internal emotional abuse were related to lowered organizational commitment. Changes in job satisfaction were not found for any of the workplace aggression types. NA was a significant covariate for all analyses examining consequences of aggression. Different combinations of work conditions (job demands-resources) and individual levels of NA predicted certain types of aggression. Further, nurse perceptions of psychological distress and organizational commitment were affected by exposure to several types of aggression, even after controlling for NA as a potential perceptual bias. This study therefore extends previous research on workplace bullying as a stressor to other types of workplace aggression for nurses. The findings highlight factors that are important in considering effective prevention and intervention of workplace aggression among nursing staff, particularly those working in hospital settings. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. [Detection of psychosocial dysfunction in ob-gyn patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Forteza, C F; Morales Carmona, F; Gutiérrez Calderon, E

    1993-01-01

    The human behavior and its social determinants are critical variables for understanding the etiology, treatment, and prevention of many disorders previously attributed to biological substrates. Among the many categories of human behavior to receive special attention from health researchers and practitioners are life events, coping responses and emotional state. The relation between these categories constituted a particular field of investigation. This relationship rather than forcing to focus on disease, distress, disability, and other failures in human functioning, permits to address health, abilities, resources, and other positive aspects of human functioning. On the other hand, the re-organization of health services considers interdisciplinary work as an objective, as it is necessary to care for the patient in an integral manner, with the consequent benefit of a more efficient service. In addition it is known that patients with psychosocial dysfunctions who use general practice care facilities overutilize these services in an unnecessary manner. With this in mind it is clear that is necessary to balance the service's cost-benefit for a more efficient clinical attention. In this paper we present the results of the categories mentioned above: life events, coping responses and its relationship with emotional state in a representative sample of 399 female patients who in 1986 received services at the National Institute of Perinatology-INPer-. Of these patients, 297 were obstetrical patients -OBS- and 102 gynaecological ones -GINE-. All patients answered these instruments: General Health Questionnaire -GHQ-7 of 30 items, a subscale of Health and Daily Living for Coping Responses and Life Events Scale.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  4. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  5. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  6. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  7. [COMETE: a tool to develop psychosocial competences in patient education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugeron, Benoit; Sonnier, Pierre; Marchais, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a detailed description of the development and use of the COMETE tool. The COMETE tool is designed to help medical teams identify, develop or evaluate psychosocial skills in patient education and counselling. This tool, designed in the form of a briefcase, proposes methodological activities and cards that assess psychosocial skills during a shared educational assessment, group meetings or during an individual evaluation. This tool is part of a support approach for medical teams caring for patients with chronic diseases.

  8. The Influence of Maternal Psychosocial Characteristics on Infant Feeding Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Katherine J.; Thompson, Amanda L.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children’s later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors—specifically self-esteem, parenting ...

  9. Psychosocial Care Needs of Melanoma Survivors: Are They Being Met?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fischbeck

    Full Text Available Patients who have survived malignant melanoma for more than five years may lack the opportunity to talk about their burden. As a consequence their psychosocial care needs remain undetected and available supportive interventions may not be utilised. Therefore, the psychosocial burden of this patient group needs to be assessed using specific screening instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial burden of long-term melanoma survivors, their psychosocial care needs and the determinants of these needs. We wanted to find out if the use of professional support corresponds to the care needs defined by experts. Using the cancer registry of Rhineland-Palatinate, melanoma patients diagnosed at least 5 years before the survey were contacted by physicians. N = 689 former patients completed the Hornheide Questionnaire (short form HQ-S to identify psychosocial support need (scale cut off ≥ 16 or item-based cut-off score and the potential psychosocial determinants of these needs. Additionally, they were asked about their utilisation of the professional support system. More than one third (36% of them was in need for professional psychosocial support. The highest burden scores concerned worry about tumour progression. Younger age (< 50, higher general fatigue, higher symptom burden, lower general health, negative social interactions and unfulfilled information needs were significant predictors of the need for psychosocial intervention. Related to the percentage of survivors identified as 'in need', the professional support system was underused. Further studies should investigate whether using the HQ-S to routinely identify burdened melanoma patients could lead to better fulfilment of their intervention needs, ultimately enhancing health-related quality of life.

  10. Determinants and implications of cancer patients' psychosocial needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstmann, N; Neumann, M; Ommen, O; Galushko, M; Wirtz, M; Voltz, R; Hallek, M; Pfaff, H

    2009-11-01

    Cancer patients often experience distress. However, the majority of newly diagnosed patients gradually adapt to the crisis. When symptoms of distress and anxiety persist over months, patients require psychosocial support. The aim of the present study was to determine the proportion of cancer patients who indicate the need for psychosocial support and to identify sociodemographic, psychological and illness-related factors predicting the need for psychosocial support in a German sample. The cross-sectional retrospective study was administered to 710 cancer patients who had been inpatients at the University Hospital of Cologne. The response rate was 49.5%. Patients suffering from bronchial, oesophageal, colorectal, breast, prostate and skin cancer participated in the study. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the German version of the Major Depression Inventory. The level of anxiety was assessed with the state subscale of the German version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. To measure the functional aspects of health-related quality of life, the scales "physical functioning", "role functioning", "emotional functioning", "cognitive functioning" and "role functioning" of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were used. Of the cancer patients, 18.9% indicate an unmet need for psychosocial support and 9.5% are actually using psychosocial services. In a multiple logistic regression, significant indicators of the need for psychosocial support are gender [p = 0.014; standardised effect coefficient (sc) = 1.615] and emotional functioning (p Emotional functioning is a central predictor of the requirement for psychosocial support. Women are emotionally more affected than men and need more psychosocial support. The prognostic validity of the severity of depression and anxiety is limited.

  11. Sustainability issues for resource managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Bottom; Gordon H. Reeves; Martha H. Brookes

    1996-01-01

    Throughout their history, conservation science and sustainable-yield management have failed to maintain the productivity of living resources. Repeated overexploitation of economic species, loss of biological diversity, and degradation of regional environments now call into question the economic ideas and values that have formed the foundation of scientific management...

  12. Indigenous chicken genetic resources in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A comparison of genetic diversity between South African conserved and field ... economic loss for human populations, especially in developing countries. .... for Development of National Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources.

  13. PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCE OF HEARING IMPAIRMENT ON THE INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR OF YOUTHS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osisanya AYO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with hearing impairment are confronted with a lot of problems due to the condition of their disability. This has a negative impact on their social and psychological well-being with multiplying effect on their interpersonal relationship. Therefore, this study investigated the psycho-social influence of hearing impairment on interpersonal behavior of youths with hearing loss.MethodologyThe study adopted a survey research design. A sample consisting of 211 participants with hearing loss were purposively selected from the Federal College of Education (Special Oyo, Nigeria. A questionnaire, part of Psycho-social Competence Scale (PCS, was used for data collection with reliability coefficient of 0.72.ResultsThe findings revealed that hearing impairement affects social interaction of youths with hearing impairment, hearing loss affects emotional well-being of youths with hearing impairment and youths with hearing impairment feel inferior in company of persons without hearing impairment. Based on this, it was recommended that a friendly home environment should be made and youths with hearing impairment should be advised to accept their loss and take it as a challenge that can be used to achieve a better end and the society should have right attitude and beliefs toward youths with hearing impairment.

  14. Exposure to psychosocial work factors in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, I; Sultan-Taïeb, H; Chastang, J-F; Vermeylen, G; Parent-Thirion, A

    2012-04-01

    Although psychosocial work factors are recognized as major occupational risk factors, little information is available regarding the prevalence of exposure to these factors and the differences in exposure between countries. To explore the differences in various psychosocial work exposures between 31 European countries. The study was based on a sample of 14,881 male and 14,799 female workers from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey. Eighteen psychosocial work factors were studied: low decision latitude (skill discretion and decision authority), high psychological demands, job strain, low social support, iso-strain, physical violence, sexual harassment, bullying, discrimination, work-family imbalance, long working hours, high effort, job insecurity, low job promotion, low reward and effort-reward imbalance. Covariates were age, number of workers in household, occupation, economic activity, self-employed/employee, public/private sector and part/full time work. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Significant differences in all psychosocial work factors were observed between countries. The rank of the countries varied according to the exposure considered. However, some countries, especially Denmark, Netherlands and Norway, displayed a significantly lower prevalence of exposure to four factors or more, while some Southern and Eastern countries, especially Czech Republic, Greece, Lithuania and Turkey, had a higher prevalence. Differences in psychosocial work exposures were found between countries. This study is the first to compare a large set of psychosocial work exposures between 31 European countries. These findings may be useful to guide prevention policies at European level.

  15. Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.

  16. The Wicked Character of Psychosocial Risks: Implications for Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Helbo Jespersen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial risks constitute a significant problem in most workplaces, and they are generally considered more difficult to regulate than many other occupational health and safety risks. This article investigates the challenges of regulating psychosocial risks in the workplace. The difficulties lie in the particular nature of psychosocial risks: their complexity, uncertainty, value, and power divergences. Psychosocial risks therefore resemble ‘wicked problems’, typically characterized by unclear cause-effect relationships and uncertain solutions. We use the ‘wicked problems’ concept to show how workplace regulation, and particularly the enforcement in the form of inspection and audits of certified occupational health and safety management systems, face challenges in assessing psychosocial risks and the strategies used by regulators to overcome these challenges. While regulation has become more effective in several countries, a better understanding of the nature of the challenges is still needed. It is necessary to accept the uncertain nature of psychosocial risks in the search for more efficient regulation. Achieving more effective regulation should involve stakeholders in the workplace who deal with the prerogatives of management, and should help develop the competencies of the inspectors and auditors in the field.

  17. Psychosocial Implications of DSD Treatment for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the review Historically, studies of caregivers of children with DSD have been limited. Recent findings Recent data reveal that parents of young children with DSD report increased stress, anxiety, depression and decreased quality of life (QoL) in ways that are similar to parents of children with other types of chronic illnesses. Also similar to other chronic illnesses of childhood, parents of children with DSD exhibit overprotective parenting and perceive their child as being vulnerable. These emotions and behaviors exhibited by parents are concerning as they may limit an affected child’s emotional and social development over time. Perhaps more unique to the situation of DSD is the perceived, or real, child-focused stigma experienced by parents of children with DSD. Summary Interventions to improve parents’ psychosocial adaptation to their child’s medical condition, including coaching in how to discuss their child’s condition in a manner that makes them feel safe and supported, are needed to optimize outcomes for families. PMID:27584026

  18. Suicidal Ideation among Adolescents: A Psychosocial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sánchez-Sosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study tested a model of suicidal ideation in adolescents through a transverse type explanatory study. A stratified random sample of 1285 Mexican students from middle and high school was used. The questionnaires had an acceptable reliability index. The model is contrasted using the structural equations technique and the statistical package EQS 6.1, which explained the 33.10 of variance. The results showed satisfactory levels of absolute goodness of fit (RMSEA =. 41, GFI =. 953, AGFI =. 939 and comparative goodness of fit (CFI =. 951, IFI =. 958; NFI =. 925, NNFI =. 943. Finally, the Psychosocial Suicide Ideation Model (MEPIS, in Spanish conforms well to the data and was compatible with the theoretical model proposed, in that it integrates a contextual structure showing a significant indirect relationship of family functioning and problems of school integration with the dependent variable. In addition, it was also observed that there was a direct and significant relation between school victimization, depressive symptoms, eating risk behavior and suicidal ideation.

  19. Psychosocial implications of pediatric surgical hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerwick, Julie L

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of childhood surgical illness and injury requiring hospitalization suggests the need for implementation of an applied intervention to decrease levels of anxiety in these patients. When psychological concerns are not addressed in the present moment, potential for long-term negative psychological effects occur. To respond to the psychosocial needs of pediatric surgical patients it is important to understand foundational stages of development. Age is not always directly correlated with developmental stage and attunement to this subtle differentiation is essential. Some medical facilities offer services to pediatric surgical patients that include education about upcoming procedures as well as medical play which offers the opportunity to express emotions correlated with the hospitalization experience. This approach is directive in nature and controls the process of making sense of the medical environment. An alternative is Child Centered Play Therapy (CCPT) which creates an outlet for any emotions the children choose to express. CCPT offers comprehensive mental health care through a developmentally-appropriate, undirected intervention carried out by a mental health therapist and has been shown to reduce perceived and actual psychological trauma, anxiety, and behavioral issues in children preparing for surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Psychosocial aspects regarding pregnant university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñán-Aponte, María R; Rodríguez-Barreto, Lucía

    2009-12-01

    Determining the subjective construction of psychosocial factors affecting pregnancy in adolescents in a sample of students. 68 students who had become pregnant during their adolescence were selected after reviewing their files and sampling by logical criteria. The implications of pregnancy on personal, family and academic conditions were analysed by means of life stories and in-depth interviews. Crises and adjustments appeared in family and affective structure during the first trimester of pregnancy which culminated in them accepting motherhood as part of their life project, thereby reproducing the single-mother stereotype. Accompaniment of the pair occurred mainly during the first months, followed by abandonment. Although prejudiced, the university community's support had a bearing on interest in personal and academic development and in the baby. Specialised referents were consulted which scared the girls due to their pathological emphasis, thereby leading to them consulting family sources. The pregnant girls' mothers provided ongoing support for their daughters; this was not true of the fathers with whom constant conflict was presented. The services offered by the university were little used even though their importance was recognised. Forming integral students require programmes preparing students to be responsible for motherhood and fatherhood. Prevention was conveyed as promoting healthy affective links and strengthening family and social communication.